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Vine's Savoury Pastry

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TITLE: Savoury Pastry: Savoury Dish and Raised Pies, Pork Pies, Patties, Vol-Au-Vents, Mincemeats, and Pies, and Miscellaneous Savoury Pastries.
AUTHOR:Frederick T Vine
PUBLISHER:The 'Baker and Confectioner'
DATE:1900
THIS VERSION: This transcript is based on the online version at archive.org, digitized by Google from the collections of the Schlesinger Library at Radcliffe College and uploaded to the Internet Archive by user "tpb". This is an Optical Character Recognition scan, it has been partly edited, but still contains very significant errors.



Savoury pastry
Frederick T. Vine "Compton Dene".

Author of '' Practical Pastry'' "Ices," ''Biscuits for Bakers,'' "Cakes,'' "Practical Bread- making'', "Saleable Shop Goods,"

London: Office of the "BAKER AND CONFECTIONER,"
6 1 & 62, Chancery Lane, W.C.

CONTENTS. Introduction

Chapter I.- Materials and Utensils . II.- Pastry and its Accessories III.- Pastry Stand d la Unique IV.- Pork Pies, by Hand and Machine 42 v.- Patties, Cases, and Fillings . VI.- Raised Pies and Timbales VII.- savoury Dish Pies . VIII.- Vol- au-Vents and Their Fillings IX. - Mincemeat and Pies . X.- Miscellaneous Savoury Pastry General Index IT is with a considerable amount of pleasure that I present another volume of recipes to the trade, have every hope and confidence that it may prove alike interesting and useful. I make no excuse for its B appearance, for ever since my P book on Practical Pastry " i has been before the trade I have from time to time received enquiries for another treating of the meat, or " Savoury " part of pastry. To supply this want the present volume is published, and I have no doubt will be as generally appreciated as my previous works.

In order to make this work complete in itself the first two chapters have been almost exactly retained as they appear in " Practical Pastry," with the difference that several recipes in the second chapter referring solely to sweet pastry have been deleted and their places supplied with recipes necessary for the " Savoury " section of the book. In this way I think I have served the best interests of my readers, as it will enable those who require the " Savoury " only, to dispense with the sweets, while those who possess the two books will have no need to study those chapters except so far as the "Savoury " preparations are concerned. In all other respects the books are quite distinct, and together form a complete guide to the pastrycooks' art.

In these pages will be found over 200 recipes for all kinds of Savoury dishes " - Raised and Pork Pies, Patties of every description, and ' Vol-au- vents"; while, for the convenience of my readers, several recipes for Mincemeat and Pies have been included. I have profusely illustrated the text with over 100 drawings of tools, processes, and the finished articles, which illustrations will no doubt prove a useful guide as to the general appearance of the goods described.

The recipes are written from the pastrycook's standpoint, and all can be carried out in any ordinary appointed bakehouse by the pastrycook, without recourse to the kitchen or chef. It will thus be seen that I have striven to give the information so that many of my readers who do not conduct a catering business, and have no kitchen and no chef will be able to take orders for goods that they have hitherto had to refuse. Of course, I do not say that if you have a kitchen you will find nothing useful in the book; but I have studied to give information to those whom I believe to be most in need of it, and whether I have succeeded in so doing my readers must judge for themselves.

1 am quite aware that many of the processes mentioned would be carried out in a different way in the kitchen; but ray principal aim has been to obtain the same result by a slightly different method in the bakehouse. The whole of the recipes have, without exception, been made up by me at some time or other in my business career, and therefore I have every confidence in recommending them as the outcome of practical experience. They are not founded upon theory and surmise, gathered from other people, and sent forth as my own.

In conclusion, I may say that this is the seventh volume that I have had the honour to submit to the favourable consideration of the trade in which my lifetime has been spent; and I can only hope that the same success that has attended my previous efforts will be achieved by " Savoury Pastry."

Tendering my best thanks for the support so freely accorded me,

I remain.

Yours fraternally,

FREl)' T. VINE.

2 2, Adklaide Road,

Brocklev, S.E.

Chatter I.

MATERIALS AND UTENSILS.

THE materials employed in the production of pastry consist of such a very wide and varied assortment, that I only propose in this chapter to say a few words upon those most extensively used, and, of course, first for consideration will come

Butters and Fats.

Butters suitable for puff paste are at all times to be purchased from the dealers, and each dealer has his own registered brand which he will recommend; but, for my part, when using pure butter for puff paste, I prefer the best I can get, which usually is " Kiel," and, for all practical purposes, it is hard to beat. It is tough and waxy Fig. I. - Large Rolling-pin.

to the feel and free from salt, of excellent flavour, and really a very ideal butter for pastry all the year round. Coming next are " Irish Firkins " and " Normandy," while during the winter you will be able to use ' Danish Estates," "Jersey" and several brands of "Brittany." "Canadian Creamery" is not amiss, though sometimes it has to be avoided on account of its high and uncertain flavour, although of late years " Canadian," and even

Savoury Pastry. "Australian " - or, as it is more generally termed, " Colonials " - reach this country in much better condition than formerly.

No matter what brand or kind of butter you may select, the principal thing is to choose that which is sweet to the taste, and firm, tough, and waxy in the handling, avoiding all those butters which are short, crumbly, and rotten in the handling, as being useless for the purpose of puff paste. Other kinds, which have a soft, oily feel. Fig. 2. - Scotch Scraper.

without any degree of toughness when moulded in cold water, should upon no account be selected, as they are generally poor in quality, and consequently weak and worthless for the purpose. In the summer, when the temperature is high, the softness of any brand of butter is no certain criterion as to its suitability or otherwise for puff paste; but, as a general rule, it would be safe to reject it. Fig. 3. - Paste Knife.

To the observant reader, I have no doubt that the selection of the butter will have been his first care, and I have no doubt that he will have succeeded in selecting a brand suitable for his own special trade. After all, the first thing to study is how much one can afford to pay for the material, and then to look sharp and procure the best that can be got for the money.

A very great advance has of late years been made in Materials and Utensils. the production of margarine for the pastrycook, and many brands upon the market are better than inferior butter by a long way; and where your trade is not exactly first class, I would strongly advise you to use it in the place of indifferent butter. At any rate, you would be able to produce a much better piece of paste, and I am not so sure Fig. 4.- Wired Wash Brush.

that it would please your customers any the less. For there is so much margarine used nowadays that many of the best shops do not scruple to turn out their pastry with it. They are not to be blamed for this, and although I prefer to use butter when I can afford it, I do not think it right to advise you to do so when you

If you deal with a reputable firm, I am sure they will be able to supply you with a brand of either margarine, or mixture of margarine and butter, that will prove very satisfactory for pastry. Of course, I do not refer to that cheap and nasty mixture that would ruin a man's trade, and drive him into his grave in despair or the bankruptcy court in disgust; but to a really high-class mixture of the finest Danish butter, tempered with a sufficiency of oleo Fig. 5.- Egg Brush.

to enable it to stand the extra heat of our summer months. Neither would I recommend you to handle that hard, flinty mixture that with a few days' frost or cold weather requires a sledge hammer and iron chisel to remove it from the tub; but to a smooth, tough, waxy mixture that will roll in smooth with the paste, and not break through Savoury Pastry. like small pieces of flint. If you use this, your paste will certainly be a very long way from perfection.

The principal desideratum, therefore, in any fat used in the manufacture of pufF paste, is that it should be tough and waxy, without any suspicion of brittleness, and, what is of the first importance, exceedingly sweet in flavour. Given these, it is the easiest thing in the world, by following the instructions presently given, to produce Fig. 6.- Palette Knife.

pastry that is at once the pride of the pastrycook and satisfactory to his numerous patrons.

But, remember, these high-class mixtures are not to be bought cheap, although as a rule there would be a saving of thirty per cent, off" the price of pure butter, that would turn out the same class of goods. And, after all, the saving in price is not the only consideration, for you save much in time and temper. It is true there are other qualities of margarine, but, as I said before, you must Fig. 7.- Box of Crinkled Cutters.

procure that which is best for your class of trade, and generally speaking the margarine and mixtures purchased specially for pastry are of very little use in any other branch of your business, as a little experience will very soon prove.

During the hot, sultry weather, it is sometimes necessary, in order to make puff" paste, to cool or harden the butter in some way, to enable you to roll it without its running to oil, and this is much more necessary with pure Materials and Utensils. butters than with the substitutes, which will usually stand the hottest weather. Undoubtedly the simplest and easiest means would be ice used in the following manner: Into a pail of cold water throw five or six pounds of rough ice, broken small, and a few handfuls of rough salt; stir it up well with a stick to dissolve the salt, and then break the butter up into small pieces and put it into the pail; let it stand for about twenty minutes, and you will find that your butter is quite firm; gather it into a lump, and mould it on your slab to express any surplus moisFig. 8.- Box of Plain Cutters.

ture, and then, when a compact mass, lay again in the water until required for use. Ice, however, is not at all times procurable, and therefore other expedients become necessary. The following mixture can then be advantageously employed as a

Freezing Mixture.

2 ozs. crystallised muriate of ammonia. 2 ozs. nitrate of potash. 4 ozs. sulphate of soda.

Pound each ingredient separately in a mortar, and then throw them into half a pail of cold water; then put in the butter, and treat it in exactly the same way as if ice were used; but when using these chemicals, although they are perfectly harmless, your butter will require to be well rinsed in another pail of clean cold water. However, it is a good freezing mixture, and if you put it into about a quart of water, and stand another vessel containing water in it, ice will be formed, although it is the hottest day of the summer.

Another plan is to dissolve the chemicals in a tub Savoury Pastry. overnight, and stand a pail of cold water in it; then put the butter into the pail of water, and cover the whole over with a clean thick sack or cloth. In the morning your butter, as a rule, will be ready for use. If you keep the freezing mixture well covered in a cool cellar it will answer for several days by adding only half the quantity of chemicals, but fresh chemicals must be added to produce the cold. Equal parts of saltpetre and muriate of ammonia will serve the same purpose, used in exactly the same way.

Should you at any time be driven into a corner by the heat, and have neither ice or freezing mixture, it may serve you a good turn to know that the temperature of water can be lowered considerably by two or three handsful of salt or saltpetre being dissolved in it. Fig. 9.- Box of Fancy Cutters.

Of course, in short and boiled crusts, it is not necessary to use the firmest of butter, and although I do not counsel you to use inferior substitutes, there are many of excellent quality upon the market that will answer equally as well as the finest butters. But again, let me caution you whatever you use let it be sweet and unobjectionable to the taste, for after all there is nothing that will get a shop a bad name quicker than bad butter or foul smelling and tasting fats that may be used as substitutes.

Flours. V iig g

Now, although you have procured good or suitable fat, you will certainly not be able to turn out the best of paste unless you use good flour; and undoubtedly the best flour for the purpose is Vienna, although there may be many who are prepared to controvert this statement. Materials and Utensils. However that may be, let the reader try a batch of paste made with American patents, and exactly under the same conditions one from Vienna, and I am prepared to hear that he will not try the patents again. In the first place, flour for paste should be of good colour and finely ground, not too soft or harsh. It should have a good percentage of gluten, but that gluten must not be so strong that it will pull the rounds into ovals and the ovals into rounds; it must be strong to a certain degree, but not so strong as to require the biscuit rollers to flatten it out, with the consequence that you roll out all the butter and fail to get puff paste at all.

In nine shops out of ten Vienna flour is used for pastry, and if it was not the best for the purpose I do not think it would be so generally used. But the characFiG. 10.- Plain Paste Wheel. teristics of Vienna flour are so well known to the majority of pastrycooks and bakers that I have no need to describe them here. Suffice then to say that it makes its presence known to a very remarkable degree in the finished articles. They look whiter, brighter, and eat infinitely better than when made from any other kind of flour.

Failing Vienna, I would recommend you to try a good country milled flour that has colour and some strength to recommend it. I do not mean a flour that is bought for cheapness - that would be useless for the purpose; or you might do worse than use some good English patents. These, as a rule, are not so harsh as the American, but are quite as good in colour and plenty strong enough for puff paste, and will give much better results than American. Although I have used some few brands of American flour for pastry, the great majority of the Savoury Pastry. flours sent to this country are ground only with the idea that they will be turned into bread, for which they are alone suitable, and would consequently spoil any amount of pastry you were curious enough to put it in.

Sometimes, however, you may have no Viennaand your country or town flour is useless alone for the purpose; then by judicious blending the flours you may be able to obtain creditable results. But then you will Fig. II. - Paste Jigger.

not be able to produce so many pieces of paste to the pound as you are in the habit of doing with Vienna flour. For one thing, they must be cut larger, and more care exercised in the manipulation to turn out even a decent sized penny piece of paste; so there remains very little profit in employing the cheaper flour. And, after you have said and done all, although Vienna is the highest priced flour, it is, to my mind, for certain purposes and pastry, one of the best. Fig. 12. - Paste Nippers.

It is true that what I have said about the flours only applies to puff" paste, and for my own use I prefer a good colour country patent for short or boiled crusts, in place of Vienna, and being so much cheaper, is more profitable to use; for in short or boiled crusts colour is only of secondary importance, and you are better able to work it, as should it prove too " creepy," it will only be necessary to lay awhile for the gluten to soften and become mellow, which it very seldom will in puff paste. Materials and Utensils. The materials having been judiciously selected, you are prepared to start work, but you will not be able to do so until you have got your tools and utensils together. Their shape, size, and variety will of course be governed by the extent of your business; which, if small, will not require such an assortment as one doing a larger trade. However that may be, you certainly will need to have a Fig. 13.- Crinkled Paste Wheel.

couple of rolling-pins - one large, made from boxwood or lignum vitae, at least 30 ins. long, and about 2j ins. in diameter; and this being made from a heavy wood will aid you in rolling out the large pieces of paste you are presently going to handle. The small " pin " is necessary for thinning out the many kinds of goods presently described.

Then cutters. These are of various shapes, ranging from a plain round half-inch cutter to the more elaborate Fig. 14.- Plain and Crinkled Dariole Moulds.

Vandyke used for the large vol-au-vent cases, besides the thousand-and-one shapes found necessary in the course of your business. When you buy cutters, I would advise that you do not buy the cheapest, as these are only made from very thin tin, and soldered together in a slovenly way, and they very soon come to pieces, proving an endless expense and vexation. Procure them made from double block tin, strengthened where necessary with an extra band of the same metal, and finished oflf in Savoury Pastry. a workmanlike manner. They will not be for ever falling to .pieces.

Patty pans, round and oval, plain and crinkled, long and short, deep and shallow, large and small, will all be required at some time or other in the course of your business, and must therefore be held in reserve for every emergency.

Dariole moulds are another kind of patty pan, but considerably deeper, and of many shapes - plain, round, crinkled, square, oblong, oval, boat, and then again made of copper, like miniature jelly moulds. They are very useful for a variety of purposes, that will afterwards suggest themselves to you.

Knives of different sizes, besides a good strong pliable palette-knife, board-brush wash, and egg brushes, are, of course, a necessity. Fig. 15.- Paste or Shop Wire Tray.

Then will come the larger size fianc tins, pie dishes, and raised pie moulds of every variety, forming an array little dreamed of by the outsider, but well known to the pastrycook.

Another useful article, and one that is often in request, is the salamander (illustrated further on in this work). It is used to glaze over goods that have already been baked, or to brown the top of anything that will not stand, or does not require, the heat of the oven. The salamander is a solid flat, round, or oval piece of iron, with a long handle; it is made red-hot in the furnace, and, being held over the articles, browns them as required. In many bakehouses the furnace shovel takes the place of the salamander, but the worst of this is that it is very soon burned out. Materials and Utensils. Sieves, scrapers, dredgers, pestle and mortar, and pots, pans, tins, and jars ad libitum for the hundred different uses to which the pastrycook will find it necessary to put them, besides store jars for the many fillings; also an assortment of copper and enamelled ware stewpans, both of large and small capacities.

Scales and weights are a necessity that will have to be provided, if you consider accurate work desirable, and it certainly is, for the pastrycook has to turn out goods all the year round of a uniform quality and size, which, of course, he certainly would not be able to without some means of measuring and weighing the ingredients correctly. Fig. 16. - Draining or Bakehouse Wire Tray.

A wall-rack, too, is a considerable help to the pastrycook, especially when we remember the small amount of space usually allotted to the pastrycook in the ordinary way of business. Fixed to the wall, and close to the bench, table, or slab, with accommodation for twenty to thirty tins, the pastrycook is able to work off his paste at the time most convenient to him, and get it on the tins, placing them upon the rack ready for the oven; and if situated in a cool place the goods are improved somewhat for standing a short time before being baked.

Now a few words as to the oven. Remember, it is of very great importance, and governs more than anything else the final results of your success; for what matters it if you have bestowed great care in the process of manuSavoury Pastry. NO'I'ES. facture, and used up a large amount of time and patience in your endeavour, if, after all, you are going to spoil it in the baking?

You must, under every circumstance, understand the vagaries of your oven in every particular, and nothing but constant practice will enable you to do so; therefore, the experience can only be gained by constant attention, noting carefully the effect of different heats upon every piece or tin of pastry you bake, and thus you will be able to accommodate your work to the heat of the oven. Fig. 17.- Wall Rack.

Where pastry is merely an adjunct to the regular business, it is not probable that an oven will be kept specially for pastry baking; therefore you must study the appearance of your goods and the convenience of your other work, more especially if you have to turn it out of one oven only.

As to the kind of oven suitable for pastry, very little can be said, as pastry can certainly be baked in most, if not all of them, no matter how they may be heated, whether with wood, coal, coke, or gas.

It is quite true that some do the work better than others, but it is a very bad excuse to lay every fault to Materials and Utensils. the oven; and if you study your oven you will be able to accommodate your work to it with satisfaction to yourself and customers. I have known the general work of fairly large businesses turned out of a single oven, and usually there is much less stuff spoilt with a single oven than where more are employed, as the constant attention required, and quantity of goods to be turned out, precludes, to some extent, any fear of burning or overbaking. True, it all depends upon the management, whether you have one oven or forty, and good management is truly said to be the soul of good business.

Savoury Pastry. Chapter II. PASTRY AND ITS ACCESSORIES.

IN all large establishments it is customary to have a department kept specially for puff paste, fitted up with marble slabs or boards, conveniently arranged for its manufacture; but where this is not practicable, a position should be selected in the coolest part of the premises, away from all fires, and where the cool early morning breeze can easily find its way without proving detrimental to the other work in progress. Usually this resolves itself into some out-of-the-way corner, which is alike dark and unhealthy to the workman. But the exigencies of trade usually force upon the manufacturer measures which (although slow to adopt) tend to the better performance of the work.

In any case, I would advise that you have a slab, either of slate or marble, at least 3 feet by 4, and fixed in some convenient place upon a large board, and a rack in which you can place the tins as they are filled with the finished articles ready for the oven.

No. 1.- Best Puff Paste.

3 lbs. Vienna flour. 3 lbs. butter. 3 eggs. Cold water.

Mode. - Weigh and sieve the flour upon the slab or board, prepare the butter as previously directed; rub into the flour about a quarter of a pound of the butter; make a " bay " or " sprint " in the centre of the flour and break in the eggs. Add sufficient cold water to make a paste about the same consistency or "size" as the butter. It is impossible to give you the exact quantity of water necessary, as the hardness of the butter naturally varies Pastry and its Accessories. with the time and season; besides, there may be a material difference in the flour, one kind requiring perhaps half a pint more " liquor " (water) than another. This makes it absolutely impossible (as some have previously done) to give any definite quantity of water to wet up the paste, and I think it much the best to leave it to your own individual judgment as to the quantity.

After having " wet up " the paste into a clear smooth dough to your satisfaction, let it lie at least ten minutes before you commence to roll it. The reason you are advised to let it lie, is because if you do not do so you will have a very great bother to roll it out, as your paste will be what is termed " creepy " - that is to say, it will Fig. 18. - The Paste rolled out and the Butter spotted on.

creep back after you have rolled it out. One trial will easily show you this. Not that I wish to say that it is impossible to roll it out at once, but rather that it is best not to do so. We will assume that it has now lain long enough. Take your rolling-pin, and roll out the paste into a square or oblong sheet about a quarter of an inch thick; break up the remainder of the butter into pieces about the size of walnuts, and spot them all over the previously rolled out sheet of paste. (See Fig. 18.) Now dust a good handful of flour over the butter, and prevent its tendency to break through the paste, as it is apt to do. Now take the two corners of the sheet that are nearest to you between your thumbs and fingers, one hand to each corner, and fold it over away from you (keeping the Savoury Pastry. butter in the centre), to about three parts of the length of the sheet (Fig. 19), just so far that when you fold the Fig. 19.- Showing the Paste partly folded.

end over towards you it will make a nice square of paste, the butter being all inside (Fig. 20).

Now examine it, and you will find three layers of paste and two of butter; take the sheet in your hand, and turn it round lengthwise, so that it is now folded from left to right; roll it out with your rolling-pin to the thickness of iJIT.... """-""'"'"" Fig. 20. - The Paste folded ready to roll out again.

the previous sheet, and fold it again in the same way as before (Fig. 21), but this time you have not the butter to enclose, but simply the paste, and the butter should now be entirely out of sight. Keep it as square as possible in the folding, or your paste will not look well, for reasons hereafter stated. Press out a little with your rolling-pin, Pastry and its Accessories. and you have completed what in kitchen parlance is termed " one turn." Now let it lie on the slab, covered with a clean damp cloth, for at least half an hour.

I add a word for the special benefit of those of my readers who are compelled to undertake the whole operation in the bakehouse, and have only a small area or passage in which to rest their paste. I would tell them that the best way would be to have an ordinary flat baking-plate, and put the paste upon that, cover with a damp cloth, and set it aside in the coldest place you have. There are many expedients that you can adopt to cool your paste, such as described to harden the butter, and pouring a pail of cold water over the ground or stone flags. In the summer, if the weather be very hot, it will be necessary for you to pack the paste away upon ice, in Fig. 21. - Ready to roll out for the second half turn.

order to prevent the butter from melting and becoming soft. The following is a very good arrangement for the purpose: - Take a tin tray, about two feet square, and having an edge at least two inches high, and water-tight, so that it will fit into anything you have convenient. A wooden box, made expressly for the purpose, about four inches larger than the tin, with a couple of handles to facilitate moving it about, or a good sized tin baking-dish is not amiss, fittmg into a shallow tub.

Having arranged it all to your satisfaction, it is put into use as follows: - Pound up rather small as much rough ice as you require, and put it into the box or tub; take a " stodge " bat, and ram it in tight; this will break Savoury Pastry. the ice into smaller pieces, and it will freeze into a solid mass again. Sprinkle over a few handfuls of salt, then set the tin containing the paste upon the ice, and cover with a damp cloth, and then lay a couple of flour sacks over the whole, when your paste will become quite hard - in fact, ".frozen." Now we will suppose that it has lain the necessary time, and we give it another " roll " or " turn " in the same manner as before, rolling it out and folding it to and from you, turning the paste round, and repeating the process, taking care to keep it square. Then lay away again for another half hour, before you give it the third or final " turn," previously to being worked off into goods for shop sale.

In order that this " turn " may be thoroughly understood - and it is imperative that it should be - I give a very simple though complete illustration (Fig. 22), in the shape of a square with dotted lines, each fold being lettered Fig. 22. and numbered, showing you at a glance exactly what is required and necessary, and I will explain, as simply as possible, how the turn is made. Of course, you must allow for the use of the pin in flattening out the paste, and also bear in mind that it is rolled out Pastry and' its Accessories. to its original size before giving the second half turn. The method is as follows:

Take the two nearest corners, i and 2, in your hands between your thumb and fingers, and turn them over at A to B, and then fold the farthest side (3 and 4) at B to A; you will now see but one-third of the original size. Roll it out, turning it round when you have the left hand side in front of you, of which A and B are the outside corners. Now take A and B in your hands as you did i and 2, and fold at C to D, and then at D to C, press over with the rolling-pin, and the " turn " or roll " is complete.

All pufF paste requires three turns, exactly like that just described; and it is impossible to make good puff paste without giving it this number, while for some goods another turn is an absolute necessity. Having, I think, thoroughly described the method of making puff paste, a few words as to baking will not come amiss here.

Of course, the heat of the oven must be regulated according to the articles intended to be baked; or, rather, those goods should be made or worked off" first which will suit the heat of the oven.

Light paste - and that is what we all desire - requires a moderately " quick " oven. If the oven is too hot the paste will be coloured before it is properly baked, and if it is then taken out of the oven it will fall and become flat, and per contra a cold oven will not cause it to rise sufficiently. It will remain half heavy, soggy, and have a kind of beggarly sun-dried look about it altogether undesirable.

Puff paste baked in an oven with anything that will cause steam will not be so light as it otherwise would be. If the oven is too hot the door should be left open, or the goods may burn before they are baked through.

Small articles require to be baked in a hotter oven than large ones, and all pastry requires to be baked on clean tins or patty pans without being buttered or greased in any way. There will be plenty of surplus fat run out of your pastry to prevent it sticking to the pans or, tins. Of course an overflow of gravy will cause it to 1 adhere to the tins, but so it would if you were to grease Savoury Pastry. them, and, as a rule, they are very easily removed with a palette knife gently applied.

Pastry when baked sufficiently will easily slide about the tin or pan while hot, and small pies may be lifted from the tin without breaking by putting your fingers and thumb down the edges and lifting bodily up from out of the pans. In this way you will be able to tell whether your goods are sufficiently cooked, but your superior judgment must at all times be exercised, and with practice and experience the perfection of puff paste will be your reward.

No. 2.- Three-quarter Paste.

2 lbs. Vienna flour. I i lbs. butter.

Mode, - Follow the same method as previously directed for best puff paste No. i, to which I must refer my readers to avoid repetition. This paste is usually used for all kinds of cheap pastry, or where you do not require so much richness as there is in best pufF paste.

No. 3.- American Puff Paste.

This paste is used by most of the large " pie makers " over the ' herring pond," but is not known to many in this country. If properly made it will rise all right in the oven, and eats very well. There is much to recommend it for adoption more generally in this country, and I would advise the more advanced amongst my readers to try it.

3 lbs. flour- " country " and "patent." I lb. good waxy margarine. I lb. Irm leaf lard.

Mode, - Weigh down all the ingredients on to the slab or board, and break up all the fat amongst the flour into pieces about the size of walnuts. Mix it well together without rubbing; make a " bay," add a little salt, and wet into dough with cold water, taking care not to work it too tough. Now gently mould it into a compact mass with both hands, and, if carefully done, you will be able to nearly form a thin skin or shell of paste on the outside; dust well with flour, and roll out with your rollingPastry and its Accessories. pin in a sheet about half-an-inch thick. Fold the front away from you to half-way down the paste, and then the top end over to the front; this will give you half a turn, as previously directed in No. i (which please see). Dust over and thin out the same as at first, turning the paste round length- ways; brush off all superfluous flour, and go over the sheet with a wash brush and cold water, and then fold again. Repeat the process six times, taking care not to roll the fat through the paste, using plenty of " dust," and washing over with water at every " turn." Having given it the six " turns," wash over and fold in half; thin out to the required thickness, and use as presently directed.

No. 4.- Short Paste Pie Orust. 2 lbs. Vienna flour.

1 lb. best butter.

Mode. - Weigh down the butter and flour upon the board or pastry slab, and rub well together with your hands; make a " bay," and wet up with water into a free, pliable dough. Let it lie on the slab, covered with a damp cloth, till ready for use. It is used for pie bottoms, and where the paste is required to stand up somewhat and retain the notching or impressions made upon it. An egg is sometimes added for special purposes, but for general work this addition is quite unnecessary.

No. 5.- Ordinary Boiled or Hot Water Paste.

2 lbs. flour. Yz lb. lard.

2 ozs. butter.

%, pint milk or water.

Mode, - Put the flour into a clean pan or mixingbowl; and the lard, butter, and liquor into a quart stewpan. Set it on to the stove, and bring it to the boil, taking care that it does not come over. Pour the boiling fat into the flour and mix together with a wooden spoon. Afterwards work it clear on the slab or board with your hands. Return to the basin or into a stewpan, cover with a damp cloth, and set in a warm place ready for use. Savoury Pastry. No. 6.- Pork Pie Paste.

4 lbs. flour.

i suet, free from skins.

% lb margarine.

I pint water.

1 teaspoonful salt.

Mode, - Chop up the suet and free it from skin, put it into the stewpan with the water, and give it a boil up; then add the margarine, and when it again comes to the boil, pour it into the centre of the flour, previously weighed into a basin, and mix it into a clear dough with a large wooden spoon, and work it smooth, as previously directed.

No. 7.- A Richer Boiled Crust.

2 lbs. flour.

lb. butter and lard. ( pint water or milk. Little salt.

Mode. - Proceed the same as previously directed, and in boiling the fat take care that it does not boil over when cooking the fat with the water.

No. 8.- Another Orust for Eaised Pies (with Cold Water).

2 lbs. flour. lb. butter. Little salt.

Mode. - Weigh down and wet up exactly the same as directed for Short Crust, No. 4, but much stiffer, and lay aside in a cool place till required for use.

No. 9.- Pork Pie Crust for Large Makers.

12 lbs. flour. ii lbs, lard. % lb. margarine. I oz. salt. 3 pints water.

Mode, - Boil up the lard, margarine, and water, and wet it into a firm paste, as hot as you can; let it lie a short time and then work off. Some makers use only half the quantity of fat given in this mixture, but if you Pastry and its Accessories. are making only for your own private trade I would not advise you to make a poorer crust than the one

No. 10.- Al Pork Pie Seasoning.

5 lbs. salt

2 lbs. pepper.

8 ozs. dried sage.

2 ozs. nutmeg.

4 ozs. mace.

4 ozs. Jamaica ginger.

Mode. - Rub the whole of these ingredients together dry in fine powder on the board, taking special care that your sage is very fine and the salt dry, and run through a sieve. When well mixed, put it into canisters with tight-fitting lids, or well-stoppered bottles, and store in a cool dry place, ready for use. From oz. to oz. of this seasoning will answer for i lb. of pie meat; but, of course, you must study the palate of your customers before you inflict the larger quantity upon them.

No. 11.- Aromatic Herb Mixture. I

I oz. whole cloves. j I oz. white peppercorns.

y oz. marjoram.

y oz. sweet basil. i

oz. thyme. I

y oz. mace. I y oz. nutmeg. i oz. dry bay leaves.

Mode. - See that all the above ingredients are thoroughly dry, then rub them together in a mortar, and sieve them through a very fine sieve on to a sheet of paper; and when you have got it all through the sieve, mix it well together, and bottle for use. You will find this mixture very useful as an addition to almost all kind of game patties and vol-au-vents, and, used in small quan- 1 titles, will be found a charming addition to all kinds of i savoury puddings or pies. Keep stored in a cool dry place in well-stoppered bottles.

No. 12.- Aspic Jelly.

There is undoubtedly aspic and aspic - the first and premier belonging to the kitchen; the other, or Savoury Pastry. secondary, being a rash creation of the pastrycook. As they may both prove equally useful at times, I give them in small quantities.

Best Aspic Jelly.

1 calPsfoot.

2 lbs. knuckle of veal.

6 ozs. nice flavoured ham. 2 qts. water. 2 eggs.

Mode, - Procure the calfs foot, already scalded, from the butcher's, and cut it up into small pieces; cut up the knuckle of veal and the ham, laying them aside on a plate or dish as you do so. Take a good-sized stewpan and rub over the bottom with about a quarter of a pound of good sweet butter; put in the whole of the meat, the bones broken up small, and half-a-pint of cold water; put on the lid and set it over the fire. As soon as you get a thick white-looking glaze in the bottom of the stewpan remove from the fire, add the remainder of the water, one onion, two small carrots, half a turnip, a few cloves, blade of mace, teaspoonful of white peppercorns, a bunch of parsley, a sprig of thyme, bayleaf, and a few tops of celery; set it over the fire and simmer gently for three or four hours, or until reduced one-half; then strain it through a hair sieve and stand aside to set. Turn the whole of the meat back into the stewpan, add two quarts of water, and stew down to a glaze; strairf and set aside for use. Now, if your basin of jelly has set firm, carefully remove all fat from the top, using a sheet or two of paper to remove every particle. Note if firm enough, then return to a clean stewpan and melt it over the fire; beat up a couple of eggs (whites, yolks, and shells) with a wire egg-whisk in a small basin, and beat it well into the jelly; boil for fifteen or twenty minutes, taking care that it does not come over the top, and when the eggs have congealed pour through a jelly bag (Fig. 23) till clear. Should you desire the aspic flavoured with chicken, add in the remains of any cold fowl you happen to have by you when you add the water and other ingredients. The same with any kind of game. If the aspic Pastry and its Accessories. is to be used with fish, a few anchovies and a tablespoonful of Tarragon vinegar will be found an improvement, and then clear as previously directed. The glaze can be cleared at your leisure in the same way as the aspic, but remember, get no fish flavour into that, or you may ruin something to which it is applied. When cleared, fill it into gallipots, which, when set, can be turned upside Fig. 23. - Jelly Box and Bag- the Aspic running through into a Pan.

down upon your shelf in a cool place; this will prevent the dust from getting into your glaze and making it dull and cloudy.

No. 13.- Pastrycooks' Aspic.

Take an ounce packet of gelatine and soak it in a pint of cold water; put a pint of water into a stewpan with a few peppercorns, cloves, a blade of mace, salt to Savoury Pastry. taste, some stock-pot vegetables, and a piece of glaze the size of a walnut (if you have no glaze, a small jar of Liebig's extract of beef can be substituted); put on the lid and boil up for a few minutes to extract the flavour from the spices, turn in the soaked gelatine, and stir till dissolved; remove from the fire, setting the stewpan into a pail of cold water or on ice to cool; run through a fine hair sieve to take out the bones, spices, etc., then return to the stewpan. Beat up a couple of eggs (whites, yolks, and shells) with an egg whisk, and beat it well into your jelly, set it on the fire, bring to the boil, and pour through a jelly bag to clear; run on to plates, or as required, and use. Should you desire a fishy flavour, obtain the fresh bones from a large filleted place or turbot - your fishmonger will give them to you for nothing, being glad enough to get rid of them; add a little essence of anchovies and Tarragon vinegar before clearing. If a chicken or game flavour is required, any bones or game or poultry trimmings will answer first-rate, stewed in with the herbs, and strained away before you put in the gelatine. Pastry Stand a la Unique. Chapter III

PASTRY STAND A LA UNIQUE.

EFORE commencing upon the general class of savoury pastry, I think I will give first an ornamental pastry stand surmounted with a pheasant A few years back this class of thing was to be found in nearly every pastrycook's window of any importance, but of late years they have not been so much in evidence. The reason I am not going to discuss, but when we remember the cheapness of the material and the possibilities of boiled or pork pie crust, I do not think there is any reason why it should not be again revived.

The Cookery and Food Association schedule, with invariable regularity, contains a class for stands made from pastry and other materials. The other materials are generally in evidence, but not so the piste. For I never yet remember to have seen any entries for this class of goods. I am in hopes that this article will alter this, and bring out some of the pastrycook's art.

No. 14.- Pastry Stand k la Unique.

First of all, you must make a basis of some material on which to form the paste. For that purpose, take a bar of salt, and if it is not large enough take two, and carve each half separately, and then place them together to form the bottom plinth of the illustration, or if you happen to have a large old metal meat-cover it will answer the purpose admirably, providing, of course, you flatten in the top; besides being much lighter, it would not be so liable to be thrown down and smashed. Of course, if you do not possess the old meat-cover, and do not want to have such a heavy affair as a few bars of salt would be, the best thing to do is as follows: - Carve out Savoury Pastry. the shape in salt as at first directed, and stand it upon a board that can easily be turned round as required. Now paste small pieces of newspaper all over the salt block, pressing it firmly together till you have a very firm and compact thickness of paper all over the block as thick as ordinary cardboard. To obtain this it will be necessary to paste the paper on in very small pieces, or you will not be able to obtain the desired shape. When you have the desired shape and thickness paste all over the outside, and dust pretty liberally over with ' cones." This will give to the block a rough surface for the pie paste to adhere to, and keep it in position when presently applied.

The bottom plinth, indicated by the letter A on the diagram Fig. 24, having been made or provided in either of the ways enumerated, you must now make the second section which forms the top (B B) of the stand on which the pie will be placed when complete. In any event, this will have to be carved from a block of salt to the shape shown, of course taking particular care to have it in proportion to the bottom. It will be seen that the top and bottom of this section are larger than the centre. This will necessitate your dividing up the lump of salt into small sections, so that they can be easily removed from the interior when you have completed the stand. Being smallest in the centre it will be necessary for you to cut the blocks in halves, or you will not be able to remove them when all is dry and firm.

After you have carved out the block and cut it up into sections with a saw, proceed to cover it with paper, in exactly the same way as you did the bottom plinth, and finish by dusting well over with " cones." Be very careful to press the paper as you stick it on to the shape of the salt block, and keep it as firm and substantial as possible. They can be, when completed, dried under the prover, but must be perfectly dry and solid before you attempt to put on the paste. When quite dry, remove the salt lumps, and you should have a very firm and substantial cardboard shape.

The paste directed to be used with the paper to form Pastry Stand a la Unique. the cases is the same as that employed by the " billstickers," and is made by wetting up a little flour with cold water, and then pouring on boiling water until it forms a gelatinous mass. It must be well stirred during the time you are pouring the boiling water upon it, and, in some cases, it would be advisable to stir it over the gas ring or fire until it thickens.

Now, having made the two parts which is to form the basis of the stand, it will be necessary to make a stand from wood to support the pie. If you refer to Fig. 24, Fig. 24.

you will see a section of the stand illustrated. The bottom piece (E E) should be large enough to nearly go over the bottom, with a hole bored through the centre to take the upright©and the top (D D), just large enough to go through the centre of the case, and right to the top, as shown. The stand can be glued together, or secured with a few nails or screws.

All being dry and firm, it will now be necessary to make up the paste, and that given as No. 9 will be best for the purpose. Make it up as there directed, and put Savoury Pastry. it into a large " stock-pot " or stewpan; place on the lid, and stand it on the ovenstock or other moderately warm place to keep it mellow, and prevent it getting hard, and, consequently, unworkable.

Take first the bottom plinth, and stand it on a board or tin, of course larger than the stand. Now take a lump of the prepared paste, mould it up round, and then roll out into a thin sheet, large enough to cover the whole bottom section; damp the case slightly; lay over the sheet of paste, pressing it to shape with your hands, and going very carefully over it to make it smooth. Having covered it, and trimmed off all superfluous paste, stand it aside, and cover the other section in the same way; and be careful to cover them smooth and even, so that your work will look nice when finished. Fig. 25. - Plain Round Cutter.

Both blocks being covered with paste, it now remains for you to decorate them, like the Frontispiece, with fruit, flowers and leaves. Roll down a piece of the paste very thin with the rolling-pin upon the board, or a smooth marble slab if you have one, and then from the sheet stamp out with a plain round cutter (Fig. 25) sufficient pieces to form all the "cornflowers" or "wild convolvuli" required for the two wreaths upon the bottom plinth, and as you cut them out form them into the shape of a bell by pressing them with your finger into the hollow made in your hand at the thumb end by doubling up your fist; or you can cut a small indentation in a piece of wood for the purpose if you like, or a small cone-shaped piece would answer the purpose. Press each round piece of paste cut out into either of Pastry Stand a la Unique. these to form them up into the shape of the flowers, and as. you do them pinch them up firmly at the strig end, and stand aside upon a clean tin covered with a cloth to prevent them becoming too dry. The number required will, of course, depend upon the size of the " pie stand." Having cut out and shaped up the flowers, take a small heart-shaped cutter from a box of " brilliant cutters," and having rolled down a sheet of paste very thin, cut out a quantity of pieces with this cutter for leaves. When you have cut out sufficient, proceed to mark the veins of the leaves upon each one separately with the back of a knife, and place them one on the top of the other ready for use. The reason they are piled up is because laying together prevent the face from becoming dry.

The flowers and leaves being ready, take a piece of the paste and roll it out under your hand about a third smaller than a lead pencil, and long enough to twine around the plinth; egg over the case slightly, and lay round the pieces to form the branch (see Frontispiece); fix firmly by pressing to the plinth into position, and then put on the leaves and flowers into as natural a wreath as you possibly can. Do not aim to put them on in too formal a fashion, or it certainly will not look natural.

Have another sheet of paste rolled out very thin, and cut out with a knife or cutter made on purpose pieces of paste to the shape of wheat blades or leaves, and arrange them round upon the plinth between the two rows or wreaths of flowers. Now if you happen to have a block with a " wheatear " impression, you can easily block out as many " ears " as you require. If not, you may perhaps have a gingerbread block that has some near approach to a wheatear, or you can make them by rolling out pieces of paste to about half the size of a lead pencil, and then form the grains with a fork or pair of scissors, and place them around amongst the leaves in an artistic manner. Stand the whole aside to dry.

Now to decorate the second or upper part of the stand. Roll down a sheet of paste; take a small oval or lemon cutter (Fig. 26) and cut out sufficient pieces to go all round the top and bottom; mark on the veins with the back ol Savoury Pastry. a knife, and lay aside as before directed; when you have cut out and marked a sufficient quantity, slightly egg the case all over and put on the borders of leaves, the top first, and then, reversing the bottom, place on the others; press together firmly, and have the leaves slightly overlapping each other; now procure a set of vine leaf cutters, and cut out sufficient to go round the centre of the stand, and vein them as before. Make up a lot of little pellets like small marbles and fix them together in clusters to form bunches of "grapes"; arrange about twelve bunches (more or less, according to size) artistically; wash over with egg, and then fix on the leaves; let it stand for at least three days covered up to prevent it from taking on too much dust, and when it has got firm and hard give it Fig. 26.- Plain Leaf Cutter.

just a few minutes in a very hot oven to just give it a colour, without in any way warming it through. Be careful not to give it too much colour and avoid burning the tips of the leaves and flowers. Unless you exercise very great care it will do so, and spoil the appearance of what should be a very handsome pie-stand.

Having cooked sufficient colour on to the stand, take a large silver dish, place the fiat piece of board (E E) in the centre, and fix it firmly to the dish with a little glue or glaze; then place the bottom plinth into position and set the other part of the stand into its place, taking the precaution to go round the top edge with the glazepot; put in the upright (C), first dipping it into the glaze, and then place on the top, taking care to fix the whole firmly together. On top of the stand place an oval white lace paper, and on top of that place the pheasant pie, surmounted with a plume, as shown in the FrontisPastry Stand a la Unique. Should you elect to make the pheasant pie also a dummy, proceed in exactly the same way as directed, for the top section of the stand, but take care to have it at least two inches smaller in diameter; place a row of leaves, overlapping each other, round the top and bottom edges, and then make four large roses, by cutting out the leaves with a round cutter (Fig. 2 5,) and building the flowers up one leaf at a time; place four large bunches of the leaves on four sides, overlapping each other, as shown in the Frontispiece, and fix a rose in the centre of each cluster of leaves; a few pieces of wire will be necessary to keep the roses in position, as they are somewhat heavy, and be very careful to fix everything together by slightly damping it with egg; bake in the same manner advised for the stand, and then place a bright pheasant plumage on the top, and set it on top of the stand; lay around the pie some nice red berries and bright green parsley. This can be renewed just as often as desired, and will not go off like a garnishing of aspic jelly would do if you were to use it for the purpose. Savoury Pastry. ehafter IV. PORK PIES, BY HAND AND MACHINE.

THE trade in pork pies has been very successfully cultivated by several large wholesale houses, who have succeeded, comparatively speaking, in driving the retail maker out of the field, and principally because they are able, buying meat in large quantities, to obtain it at much cheaper rates, and, as a consequence, can and do give more meat in their pies than the small maker can afford to. I do not depreciate the wholesale maker; he is a necessity of the times, and should certainly be commended for his enterprise in supplying a really toothsome and cheap article.

My principal endeavours, however, will be to point out to the retailer how he can successfully combat the wholesaler and cultivate a trade in these delicacies in his own immediate neighbourhood, and likewise earn a very respectable margin of profit, which, after all, is the principal item to be studied.

No. 15.- Shilling Pork Pies.

The rule generally followed in the old day was lo ozs. of crust (No. 5 to No. 9) and 6 ozs. of meat, but the requirements of the times have somewhat modified these quantities until the shilling pork pie of to-day weighs nearly i lbs., the addition being made up with extra meat. That being so it, becomes necessary to search round till you find how you can give the extra meat at the price.

Good, sweet pork, suitable for pie-making, is not obtainable for much under 6d. per lb. from the wholesale dealers, this being usually the price charged and paid, although it may be possible to obtain it at d. or id. Pork Pies, by Hand and Machine. per lb. less occasionally. The most profitable joints for the pie-maker are good large lean legs and shoulders, with an occasional lump of fat from the back. When you have obtained your supply of meat, the next thing to do is to prepare it for the pies. Trim all the meat carefully from the bones, and cut it up into neat little dice about half an inch square, using a very sharp knife, or run it through a machine (Fig. 2 7) if you have one. When cut up, with a sufficiency of fat cut up in the same way, keep it together in a lump, and season it with pepper, salt, and sage, or use the Ai pork pie seasoning No. to; but in Fig. 27.- Enterprise Meat Cutter.

this matter of seasoning you will have to study the palate of your neighbourhood, so only very general directions as to the seasoning can be given.

Collect together all the trimmings, break up the bones very small with the chopper, and put them, together with all rinds and sinews, into the stock-pot or a large copper pan; add some sage, onions, peppercorns, or a handful of the aromatic mixture (No. 11), and to every 10 lbs. of trimmings allow one gallon of water. Set it over a slow fire, and simmer gently till reduced to three quarts; Savoury Pastry. taste, and if all right in that direction, strain off into large pans and stand aside. Add another gallon of water into the stock-pot, and reduce it gently down to two quarts; strain this, and mix it all together. There will be very little goodness left in the remainder, but, if you like, it can be stewed in with a fresh lot of scraps.

It may happen that you have not sufficient scraps for your stock-pot. In that case you must resort to the butcher, who in all probability would be very glad to dispose of the scraps at a very low price, and in this way you will always be able to replenish your stock-pot and have an abundance of gravy. The meat and gravy being ready, we will now get along with the pie-making. Having selected and made the paste, as instructed, scale it off into 9-0Z. pieces; mould up round under your hands, and place them upon the board in rows, covered with a damp cloth; or put them into a basin and cover over to prevent the pieces of paste caking over and looking rough when finished. Fig. 28.- Pork Pie Blocks. d) Female. Take one of the 9-oz. pieces and a shilling pork pie block (Fig. 28). After you have set the block up on your board, lay the piece of paste on top (a Fig. 29); now with your right hand press the paste out flat upon the block (d Fig. 29) and then proceed to work down the sides (Fig 30). When you have worked the sides deep enough on the block, take a sharp knife and trim round evenly before you remove it. A very good plan is to run an Pork Pies, by Hand and Machine. indention all round the block at the desired height with a saw, and by this means you ensure them all being of the same size. Now slip the case off the block and fill up with 8 ozs. of the previously prepared pie meat, and as you fill them stand aside close together on the board. When you have blocked and filled the whole of them, Fig. 29. - (a) The Paste on Top. b) Pressing Down.

take a piece of the paste and roll down to about a quarter of an inch thick; take a suitable size cutter, just a trifle larger than your pie case, and cut out a sufficient number of rounds for the tops; lay them in a heap as you cut them out, and then take out the centres with a very small Fig. 30. - Showing how the Pie Cases are worked up.

round cutter. Now splash your pies with a wash-brush, using a little warm water; wash over the lids; turn them over upon the meat, and pinch round the edges with the paste nipper (Fig. 12), or use your fingers if preferred, and stand aside. When all are covered, roll down another sheet of paste very thin, and cut out the leaves, allowing Savoury Pastry. four for each pie (Fig. 31); keep them in piles; roll down another thin sheet and cut out ribbons; take one of the ribbons, press it to the board with the fingers of the left hand, while you cut along one side with a sharp knife, as Fig. 31. - How the Leaves are cut out.

shown in the illustration (Fig. 32). When all have been cut thus, take about a 4-in. length a Fig. 33) and roll it up (d Fig. 33); then press the uncut part together firmly in Fig. 32. - Notching the Ribbons for the Flowers.

your thumb and fingers (c Fig. 33); blow it out, and trim off the bottom; this is the rose or flower for the centre; make as many as you have pies. Now take some of the Pork Pies, by Hand and Machine. prepared gravy and fill into the pies through the holes left in the top, taking care not to fill too full or run it over the cases. When you have gravied them all, wash over with egg, place four leaves on the top and the rose in the Fig. 33.- (a) The notched Ribbon, (d) How rolled up. c) Pressing in the fingers to shape up.

centre. It is now ready for the oven (Fig. 34). Place them on to a clean flat tin, and bake in a moderate oven. They will take about forty-five minutes to bake. When done, take from the oven, loosen all the roses with the point of a sharp knife, and let out the steam. Now take some of the previously-made gravy, and if it has jellied Fig. 34. - a) is. Pork ready for the Oven. d) 8d. Pork ready for the Oven.

nicely, warm up sufficient to fill into the pies, running it in with a spouted can, which should be kept expressly for the purpose.

If the gravy does not set firm enough in the pans when you warm it up to fill into the cooked pies, add a few Savoury Pastry. sheets of gelatine to make it do so, and be careful to make sure that it does set firm, or when your pies are cut they will not prove satisfactory. When you have gravied the pies replace the roses, and stand aside to get cold.

Pies baked in this manner will take on shapes like Fig. 35, but sometimes it is necessary to place a hoop round each pie, which will, of course, prevent them from flowing out so much as they would without, but if you have no hoops it is not a very great fault if you have to bake them without.

In the summer it is advisable to use a trilie more seasoning, especially salt, or you will have complaints of sour pies. Fig. 35. - a) The is. Pork when"cooked, (d) 8d. Pork when cooked.

The ordinary baking plate will hold twelve, or if with hoops, fifteen pies, and in baking be very careful not to give them too much colour.

I would advise that you cut one of the pies in half and display the same in your window surmounted by a large label - "Home Made Pork Pies, is. each," and I have no doubt a large local sale will be the result. However, in many localities the is. pork pie is perhaps a thing of the past, being superseded by the 8d., 4d., and 2d., all of which constitute very good value, and are, moreover, satisfying and very substantial fare to the purchaser, which is (after the profit) the principal thing to be studied.

That these smaller pies should be popular wherever introduced is hardly to be wondered at, when we remember what a succulent dainty they are.

There are towns in this country that have become famous and justly renowned, simply because the pork Pork Pies, by Hand and Machine. pie industry has sprung up and been fostered in their midst; and if only care and pains are bestowed upon your individual productions, there is no saying when their popularity will end.

No. 16.- Bightpenny Pork Pie.

Take the meat and trim it free from bone and skin, and cut it up into small even pieces with a sharp knife, or run it through a machine if you have one; season with pepper, salt, and dried sage; when cut up and seasoned, pile up on the cutting board and stand aside. Now prepare the "stock," "gravy," " jelly," or whatever you choose to call it; strain and colour with a little " blackjack " (burnt sugar) to a rich golden brown colour, but not too dark, and stand away in a pan ready for use.

Make the paste No. 9. Break it up and weigh off into 6J-oz. pieces; mould up round, and set on the board covered with a damp cloth or into a deep pan; take each piece separately and work it up on the block as directed in the previous recipe, or use a machine if you have one; work up all the cases first, and set them in rows on the board; then weigh 6 ozs. of the prepared meat into each case; roll down a sheet of paste with the rolling-pin and " chop " out the tops with a round cutter, as previously directed; wash them over, pinch them into position, wash over with egg; decorate with three or four leaves, cut out of paste; wash again with egg; plate on to clean tins, and bake in a solid oven for about twenty minutes or half an hour. When done, gravy them in the same way as the shilling pies, and they are ready for sale when No. 17.- Eightpenny Veal and Ham Pies. It may not be very generally known to my readers that a very excellent veal and ham pie can be made without any veal at all, and I am going to tell you how it is done. First of all procure a large leg of pork, not too small, and as lean as possible; cut up and trim away all bone and rind; weigh it, and to every 4 lbs. of pork add i lb. of Canadian ham. Cut the whole up, the pork into J in. cubes, Savoury Pastry. and the ham somewhat smaller; mix it all together on the board, and season with pepper, salt, and ji oz. of the aromatic mixture to 4 lbs. of the meat, and well mix; add the trimmings of the ham to the stockpot, which for this purpose must be kept pale. When you have got the meat and gravy ready, proceed to work up your cases, in the same way and size as for No. 16; fill in the meat; place on the leaves, and a rose in the centre; plate on to clean tins, and bake in a moderately hot oven for about half an hour, and when done gravy them with the ham flavoured stock, and when cold they are ready for sale. Should you have any doubt about these pies, just try them yourself, and I am sure you will be very agreeably surprised. I have often during the summer, when it has been too hot for pork, made them as I have directed you to do, and have ticketed them veal and ham, and they have given every satisfaction. A few hard-boiled eggs, chopped fine, will be found a very great improvement to these pies. I may say, that I have never had one of them returned to me, so I am justified in my little deception to turn an honest penny? I would advise that you make the gravy pretty stiff, and don't forget a few sheets of gelatine. If you turn out both pork and veal and ham, it would be advisable to decorate both kinds with a different kind of leaf, or rose, or you might probably get into some confusion.

No. 18.- Fourpenny Pork Pies.

This is the most popular size made, and is on sale in all parts of the country. It is an especial favourite at railway and other luncheon bars, and has this advantage, that it can be cut in half for 2d. Usually they are made a little larger than half the size of the eightpenny and in most cases made in tins or moulds by machinery, washed with egg, and gravied after they are baked.

No. 19.- Fourpenny Veal and Ham. Having been successful with your eightpenny veal and ham, your consciences will not require very much stretching to enable you to turn them out at this price also. By Pork Pies, by Hand and Machine. the way, being only half the size, you will only require half the conscience. They are made exactly the same size as the fourpenny porks, but I would advise you to have different leaves for both pies, or you may be selling pork for veal one day, and 7nce versd the next, which must, of course, be guarded against. The weight would be 3j ozs. crust and 3 ozs. meat; when finished, baked and gravied they will weigh about J4 lb. Fig. 36.- Hand Vertical Meat Cutter.

No. 20.- Twopenny Pork Pies. These are good value for the money, but, of course, are not turned out by hand. Generally speaking, they are filled with all the trimmings that have been left ovei from the larger sized goods, and they are sometimes not altogether innocent of other and less tasty meats; but, as I anticipate the majority of my readers will desire to turn out a passable article, if the meat is sweet and clean I cannot see where the harm comes in. A leg of New Zealand mutton is a favourite substitute, using it up with some back fat or belly, and with plenty of sage makes a very respectable pork pie. I would advise you to trim all the fat from the mutton; it can be used better in the crust, as that is not very nice in pork pies. Savoury Pastry. Providing you exercise care in their production so far as seasoning is concerned, and run the meat through a machine, there will be very little cause of complaint. Fig. 37.- "Simplex" Meat Cutter for power.

Thousands of these pies are sold all the year round, but the demand for them is certainly more brisk during the winter months. They are consequently made in large Pork Pies, by Hand and Machine. quantities, and it is therefore necessary for you to look to the seasoning, giving an extra dose of salt, and a little preservative in the hot weather may be necessary; this is, as you all know, a very harmless kind of powder or liquid, to prevent your goods going sour or putrid, and unsaleable.

No. 21.- Twopenny Veal and Ham Pies.

I would counsel the reader to bear in mind all that has previously been said concerning this class of goods, and I have no doubt that if you study the trade satisfactory results will be obtained. Above all, look to your seasoning, and have a care not to add too much fat, or your customers may suspect, if they do not complain of the origin of the meat that the cases are filled with; but, after all, what does it amount to? There is not half the sophistication that is practised by certain sausage manufacturers, and it has this advantage, that it does not introduce any deleterious ingredient into the system, merely calls a very interesting animal by another name, and as the animal does not object, well ! who else should?

Of course, it would always be advisable to have some distinctive mark to recognise these pies; and I would recommend you to keep the pork pies round, and have the veal and ham pies oval. If you do so, they will be easily distinguished. They can be shaped oval by hand, or a set of stamps and moulds would be supplied with the machine, at a very small advance beyond the original outlay, and they are interchangeable. Where these pies are made in quantities they are made by machine, which are of various shapes, sizes, and makes. The small sized pies are raised in tins. I illustrate a ' Caterer " (Fig. 38) and lever (Fig. 39) pie machine, and as the principle is nearly the same in them all, a description of these must suffice.

In the first place, both machines are bolted to the table, and connected with an indiarubber tube with the gas, and when you are ready to use; light up the burner which will be found inside the blocking die; let it get warm: lay out your tins upon the board, and, having your meat and paste all ready, place a suitable size piece Savoury Pastry. of paste into the "pans," "moulds," or "tins"; set the tin under the blocking die and pull the lever down hard; the result will be a perfectly raised case. As you block them out, stand them on to a tray, and your assistant should have filled them with with meat, and replaced them on the tray. Now he will roll and chop out the lids, washing over and laying them into position on each Fig. 38.- The "Caterer" Pie Machine.

pie. The tray is now moved on to your left hand, and you proceed to place them under the lidding portion of the machine; pull the lever, and the pie is complete and trimmed even all round, and nicely pinched, or rather crimped. They would now be washed over with a mixture of egg and milk, placed on to baking-plates, and baked in a warm oven. When done take out of the moulds Pork Pies, by Hand and Machine. while hot; stack on to wires and sell. In some shops a few leaves are laid on the top and they are gravied; but this is not very usual for twopenny pies. With the lever machine (Fig. 39), the difference in the operation is that both the stamping and lidding levers are pulled down into the same place without shifting the pie; so that you first place the crust into the tin and raise it up, then place in the quantity of meat, damp the lids, lay them on and pull down the lidding lever upon it, and your pie is ready to wash over for the oven. Fig. 39. - Lever Pie-Making Machine.

The only difference in the larger size of pie is that instead of being raised in tins they are moulded, the mould being removed so soon as the blocking and lidding process has been accomplished; but you will have to exercise care in removing the mould not to spoil the shape; but in most cases the crust will be pretty well cooked by the Savoury Pastry. heat of the gas, reducing the fear of spoiling them to a minimum.

With these machines the quantity of pies turned out will amount to from ten to thirty pies per minute, according to the skill of the operator, and size of the goods being turned out.

Besides the meat pies, they are also useful for a certain class of fruit pies dear to the Midlands and North of England, and custards are turned out as well. Of course, if you have a machine, the quantity and variety of goods you turn out are quite within your own discretion, and so far as savoury pies are concerned, there is nothing to prevent you making beef or mutton in the same shape, and at the same prices, but as a rule they are not very generally inquired after; unless, of course, you set in to create a demand by some special goods of this class. The machines are to be purchased from the bakery engineers at various prices, from less than 50s. to, I believe,;2 5 - latitude enough, in all conscience. Patties, Cases and Fillings. Chapter V. PATTIES, CASES AND FILLINGS.

PATTIES, as known to the pastrycook, consist of two varieties; first, those which are made daily, and are baked in patty pans, and consist generally of beef or veal and ham; then there is a very large variety of high-class goods that are in evidence at ball suppers, routs, weddings, and soirdes. First we will take those with which we are most familiar, or rather should be, and afterwards the better variety will come under consideraNo. 22.Twopenny Meat Pies. Hot Meat Pies.

These first are a survival of a past age, and are not very generally met with at the present time. However, there are even now many shops in London that do a large trade with them, and I see no reason why it should not be extended to others.

At a not very remote period we dwellers in London were treated nightly with the cry of the itinerant pieman, with his loud, " Hot pies ! all hot ! hot ! hot ! " But, alas ! of late years he has disappeared, and in his place reigns the " Hot Potato Man." The reason of his disappearance is, perhaps, not far to seek, for it was no doubt owing to the suspicious character of the " meat " he was unprincipled enough to use. A visit to your local butcher will enable you to purchase good sweet meat at a reasonable price, even if it is not of the choicest quality; and I would advise you to always secure sweet meat, and as fresh as possible, for there is nothing that will do your trade so much damage as tainted meat. Remember, no amount of seasoning or sophistication will entirely remove the taint, and it soon gets worse; so if once put in and Savoury Pastry. mixed with sweet meat it will make the whole lot unpleasant to the palate, and your customers don't forget being trifled with in this way. Another point: don't buy bone; it cannot be used, and is therefore unprofitable, and a decided loss.

Having procured your meat, which we will take to consist of various sorts, cut each sort lip separately, taking out the bone, skin, gristle, etc., or run it through a machine, and then put each kind separately into a pan or bowl, well season with salt and plenty of pepper, and add % oz. of the aromatic mixture No. 1 1 (or, if pork, the same quantity of Ai pork pie seasoning No. lo), to every 2 lbs. of meat, a good handful of flour, and damp it with water; do not make it too wet or leave it too dry. If Fig. 40. - A Dish of Twopenny Meat Pies.

too wet it will boil over, and if too dry they will not eat moist. Now take the American puff paste No. 3, roll down in a sheet to about a quarter of an inch in thickness, and chop out with a plain, round cutter, measuring 4 ins. in diameter; and, as you cut out the desired number of tops, place them aside upon the board or tray.

Now collect together all the scraps or trimmings and roll out to a very thin sheet, and chop out with a plain round cutter slightly larger than the one used for the tops. When you have cut out sufficient bottoms, lay out some suitable size patty pans on to a baking plate, and then sheet them with the thin pieces of paste; fill into them about I y2 oz. of the prepared meat; splash with water; place on the tops; press down slightly; wash over with milk and egg, and bake in a sharp oven. When done. Patties, Cases and Fillings. take out of the patty pans on to wires to cool, and then pack away for sale. In order to distinguish the different varieties of meat used, it will be advisable to notch the sides of the pie with a sharp knife - say plain for the beef, one notch for the veal and ham, two for pork, and three for the mutton.

Use a little sage, and, if your customers like it, onions with the pork, and a few rashers of bacon in the veal.

It is needless for me to remind my readers as to the advisability of using pork for veal, as I gave them very explicit directions concerning it in the previous chapter. Fig. 41. - Cutting out Ribbons of Paste for Leaves.

No. 23.Twopenny Meat Patties (Superior). Cut up and prepare the meat exactly as directed in No. 22, but select all the prime pieces for these. Roll down a sheet of short paste No. 4, very thin, and cut out rounds with a plain round cutter about 3 ins. in diameter; lay them into shallow patty pans; fill in the prepared meat; splash with water, and then place on the tops, cut from a sheet of best puff paste No. i, wash over with g; then roll down very thin a sheet of trimmings and cut out into long ribbons (Fig. 41); lay them one on the Savoury Pastry. other, and then with a very sharp knife cut up into diamond-shaped pieces (see Fig. 31); lay three pieces upon the top of each patty, and bake in a moderate oven. When done, take from the patty pans on to wires and set them in a dish (Fig. 42), and add a few sprigs of fresh parsley and sell.

Should you make more than one kind each day, you had better use a different leaf for each kind, or notch the edges as directed in the previous recipe. Fig. 42. - Dish of best Beef Patties.

No. 24.- Patty Cases.

I think it will be advisable for me to give my readers instructions for the making of the patty cases, and then follow on with their fillings and special tops where required. Take the best puff paste No. i, give it another half turn, and roll down in a sheet about a quarter of an inch in thickness; let it stand for a half hour, and roll down another sheet rather thinner; when it has lain the time, take a round, crinkled cutter, the third or fourth from the largest according to the locality, and stamp up the number required, with one or two over in case of accidents. From each thickness splash a tin with water and set the thin pieces (a Fig. 43) across the tin nearly close together; wash over with egg. Take the thick pieces, and with a small, plain, round cutter, chop out the centres (b Fig. 43) and place them on top of the thin pieces on the tin; wash over with egg, taking care not to let it run down the sides, and bake in a moderate oven. Patties, Cases and Fillings. When cooked, their shape will be somewhat like c Fig. 43. By this method you will be able to turn out the perfection of cases, and although there is some slight extra trouble it is so slight and their appearance so much better, that you cannot very well excuse yourself from making them this way in the end. The cases, with very few exceptions, are made in the same way, necessitating a distinctive mark to enable you to identify each kind, and so I have adopted a variety of different tops, which I will illustrate as we go along. Patty cases are sometimes ordered empty, in which case they are simply supplied with a plain top, and their price is anything from IS. 6d. to 2S. 6d. per dozen, according to size and quantity required.

Fig. 43. -How to make the Patty Cases, (a) The bottom, b) Top, cut from best paste, with centre cut out. c) The Patty Case baked and filled. No. 25.- Oyster Patties (" Pat6s d'Hultres ").

For these you will require one and a half dozen cases, made as directed in No. 24. First of all roll down a sheet of puff paste trimmings, and with a crinkled cutter a size smaller than you used for the cases, cut out eighteen or twenty; and as you cut them out set them on to a clean tin slightly splashed with water and close together; wash over with egg, and then cut out from the same sheet of trimmings with the smallest size crinkled or daisy cutter 100 pieces. Set four of these upon each top, wash over with egg, and then set one in the centre of Savoury Pastry. the four as shown in the illustration a Fig. 44); press it down in the centre with the handle of the wash-brush, wash over with egg, and when you have done them all, bake to a nice colour in a moderate oven. When done, take a sharp knife and trim off part of the underneath Fig. 44. - Oyster Patty top. (a) Before baking. () After baking, ready to use.

crust, and when you have filled the patty cases, place them on top. For the filling take:

1 small (5 oz.) tin of oysters.

2 ozs. fresh butter. 2 ozs. fine flour.

Little cream, milk, or water. Cayenne pepper. Tarragon vinegar. And essence of anchovies.

Mode. - Open the tin of oysters, smell them, and, if sweet, drain the liquor into a small stewpan; make up to half a pint with either cream, milk, or water as you prefer, and set it on the stove to boil. Rub the flour and butter together on the board with a palette knife, add this to the boiling liquor, and stir well over the fire with a wooden spoon. As the butter and flour dissolves in the hot liquor so will it thicken to the consistency of stiff melted butter. When thick and smooth, add one tablespoonful of essence of anchovies, and two tablespoonsful of Tarragon vinegar, a dust of white pepper, and about as much cayenne as will lay on a threepenny piece; stir well together and set on one side. Empty the oysters on to a plate and cut them up fine with a Patties, Cases and Fillings. sharp knife; then mix them into the sauce, and fill into the patty cases; place on the lids, and they are ready to

These are, as a rule, supplied by the pastrycook when oyster patties are ordered by a confiding British public, who, no doubt, fondly imagine that the handsome cases contain nothing short of " natives " - " Whitstable" or otherwise I have made hundreds of dozens according to the above recipe, and have heard no murmur of complaint from any of the very numerous customers who have ordered, and, I expect, partaken of them. But there are some who are in the know, and insist upon having their cases filled with fresh oysters, if not exactly with natives, and should you have any of these customers the following recipe will satisfy them:

No. 26.- Oyster Patty Filling with Fresh Oysters.

1 doz. oysters.

2 ozs. butter. 2 ozs. flour. Cayenne. Vinegar. Anchovy essence.

Little cream, milk, or water.

Mode, - Carefully open the oysters, taking care to save all the liquor possible, and cut them out of the shell into a clean stewpan with their Hquor; set it over the fire and bring to a boil; let it stand for two minutes only and then strain out the oysters. Put them on a plate, and make the liquor up to half a pint with cream, milk, or water; mix, and add the butter and flour, and proceed exactly as directed in the previous recipe; then add the oysters cut up, mix well, and fill into the prepared cases.

You will observe very little difference in the two recipes, either in the ingredients or method of preparing them.

A Few Points Worth Remembering.

A tin of oysters will make 18 patties, costing 5jd. or 6d., whereas you require at least one oyster to each patty if fresh or native oysters are used, costing a very great deal more. Savoury Pastry. If preferred, a little minced mushroom may be added, and is an undoubted improvement, providing, of course, you do not overdo it.

A few rubs of nutmeg upon a grater is another excellent addition, and some, prefer to use lemon juice in place of vinegar, which is handiest.

You will particularly notice that in the second recipe the oysters are scalded by being boiled in their own liquor for a few minutes, and in the first recipe the tinned oysters are not even warmed. The reason for this is that cooking oysters makes them tough, so that the less you cook them the better will be your, patties.

The tinned oysters are considerably overcooked when preserved, making any further cooking not only unnecessary but injurious to your patty filling. Be careful with the essence of anchovies, lest a too jubilant spirit in an evil hour prompts you to convert your oyster patty filling into a very indifferent resemblance of anchovy sauce, with small pieces of oyster distributed through it.

Always remember that the flavour of the oyster should predominate, and the other flavours should only serve to make the oyster flavour more pronounced.

Do not bum the filling when boiling, or you will ruin the lot; and should you be so unfortunate to do so, it would be best to throw the whole of it away, and start in to make some fresh, for it is necessary for you to retain the delicate flavour of the oysters in their entirety.

Some add in a tablespoonful of white wine, but I do not approve of it, especially from a commercial point of They are served either hot or cold, as desired, piled high on a folded napkin, or lace paper garnished with parsley.

They are sold as a rule at 4d. each, or 3s. 6d. per dozen, and should they be required hot, put them into the oven for ten to twenty minutes, which will warm them through thoroughly before being sent to table.

The patties next in order are in some localities more popular than the oyster, which, after all, is the general favourite. Patties, Cases and Fillings. No. 27.- Lobster Patties (P&ts d'Homard).

The cases are made in exactly the same way as directed for the oyster patties, the tops only differing to make a proper distinction between each kind and prevent confusion.

The tops for lobster patties are made as follows: Roll down the trimmings of puff paste to the thickness of a penny; let it lie a short time and chop out, with a crinkled cutter, sufficient pieces for tops, with one or two over in case of accidents; splash a tin with water and set the cut-out pieces in order upon it, and wash the pieces over with egg.

Now, with a small, plain cutlet-cutter, the second from the smallest in the box, stamp out from the same sheet six pieces for each top, and also one piece with the smallest crinkled cutter; arrange the leaves, slightly overlapping each other, as shown in the illustration (a Fig. 45); Fig. 45.- Lobster Patty top. a) Before baking, d) After baking, ready for use.

wash slightly with egg; then place the daisy in the centre; press in with the handle of the wash-brush; wash over and bake to a nice colour in a moderate oven.

I am assuming that my readers will have the different boxes of cutters I refer to; if not, they can be procured from the many firms who supply tools and utensils to the the trade. The prices range from is. 6d. to 4s. 6d. per box, in which the different sized cutters will be found. Savoury Pastry. No. 28.- Lobster Patty Filling.

I tin preserved lobster. 6 ozs. fresh butter. Cayenne pepper. Tarragon vinegar. Anchovy essence.

Mode. - Open a tin of lobster, of good brand, and carefully pick out all the large, firm, white pieces of meat, and lay aside on a clean plate; put the remainder into a marble mortar and whatever moisture the tin contains; add the butter and beat to a smooth paste; add a little " carmine " or Boll Armenia" to obtain a nice salmon colour; add cayenne, vinegar and anchovy essence to taste, and when to your palate, mix in the previously selected meat, minced fine, and fill into cases; put on the tops and they are ready for sale. This quantity will fill eighteen patties. Sell at 4d. each or 3s. 6d. per dozen. Two or three tablespoons ful of cream are a very great improvement to the filling, but they very seldom get it.

For my own use, I prefer the lobster of the Crown Canning Company, put up in flat tins. These patties are equal to any you can make from fresh lobster, and infinitely more profitable. But, should any of my readers desire to make the filling from fresh lobsters, I give them a recipe for doing so.

No. 29.- Lobster Patty Filling from Fresh Lobsters.

Take a fresh-cooked " hen " lobster; take off the spawn, and, after washing it, put it into a mortar with about a lb. of butter and 2 ozs. fine flour, and pound it to a smooth paste. Pick out all the white meat from the lobster and mince it up into neat little dice, and lay on one side ready for use. Now take a J pint of good fish stock - or water will do - and put into a clean stewpan; add the prepared paste from the mortar; set it over the fire or gas-ring and cook till thick, stirring all the time with a wooden spoon; add Tarragon vinegar, essence of anchovies, and cayenne pepper to flavour; stir in the minced-up lobster meat, and fill into the cases. It will fill about two dozen cases at 4d. each. Patties, Cases and Fillings. Be very careful with the seasoning not to overdo it, or complaints will be your reward.

No. 30.- CMcken Fatties (Pts de Poulet).

As the cases are the same, or nearly so, in every case, I shall only give instructions for the tops, except where there is a difference, but then they will be made in the same way, although the shapes will in some measure differ.

The top for these patties is not so elaborate as those previously given, but still it requires as much care, and neatness should be your aim.

Fig. 46. - Chicken Patty top. (a) Betore baking, cooking, ready for sale. (d) After Roll down the trimmings of puff paste the same as before, and " chop " out the number required; " plate " them on a clean tin splashed with water, and wash over I with egg. Now with a crinkled cutlet cutter, the second from the smallest, cut out two pieces for each top, and lay them on the centre reverse ways, slightly overlapping, as shown in the illustration (a Fig. 46); egg over, and bake in a moderate oven. With one or two trials you will be able to make the tops take on the appearance of a nicely-trussed fowl, and I have often been asked where the mould could be procured they were turned out of.

No. 31.- Chicken Patty Fillings. Take a nice young fat fowl, and put it into a stewpan, with a pinch of mace and cinnamon, a few peppercorns, Savoury Pastry. J lb. of good flavoured ham, a slice of lemon, and a quart of water, or stock, if you have it handy; set it over the gas-ring or fire, and cook gently; it will take about three-quarters of an hour. When done, take it up, and trim off all the white meat from the breasts, &c., and mince it up into little dice with the ham; put all the remaining meat, picked free from bones, into the mortar, with 2 ozs. of flour and 3 ozs. of fat ham or bacon, and pound it to a smooth paste; put all the bones again into the stewpan, and reduce to a pint, and strain the liquor into a clean stewpan; add the paste from the mortar, and stir it over the fire until it thickens; add pepper and salt to flavour, with a pinch of cayenne; then mix in the minced-up fowl and ham, with the yolks of two hard boiled eggs, broken up fine, and fill in the cases; place on the lids, and serve.

This quantity will fill from two to three dozen cases. Sold at 4d. each, or 3s. 6d. per dozen.

The remains of any cold roast or boiled fowl can be used for the purposes of this filling, if you have them by you, stewing the carcases in water, or stock for preference, to obtain a more decided chicken flavour, and reduce it in the usual way till you have the required quantity.

Be very particular to thoroughly cook the flour in the paste, or your patties will not eat so nice as they should.

No. 32.- Shrimp Fatties (Pts aux Grevettes). Shrimp patties make their appearance at high-class festivals when in season, and are considered a rare delicacy. For the tops roll down a sheet of puff paste trimmings very thin, and chop out with the usual size crinkled cutter; splash a tin with water and arrange the desired number of pieces upon it; wash over with egg. Now roll down another sheet of paste very thin, and, with a sharp knife, cut out slips about J in. wide, guiding the knife against the side of the rolling pin (see Fig. 41), laid across the sheet of paste; this will enable you to cut the slips or ribbons out to one equal size; now place the Patties, Cases and Fillings. Fig. 47. - Showing how the Leaves are scored.

slips in piles and cut slantwise across them, thus forming diamonds; you require four for each top: take each small diamond and score the top with the back of a knife (Fig. 47) to make it look more leaf-like; lay four upon each top as shown in the illustration (a Fig. 48), and from another sheet of paste stamp out a daisy with the small Fig. 48. - Shrimp Patty top. a) Before baking, ready for use. (d) Baked crinkled cutter; place it in the centre; wash over with egg and bake in a moderately hot oven.

No. 33.- Shrimp Patty Filling.

Take i pint of fine large fresh boiled shrimps and pick them very carefully; after you have picked them, proceed to shred the shrimps in two lengthwise, making two of each, and lay them aside on a clean plate. 1

Take a little more than J pint of good strong fish I stock and set it over the fire in a small stewpan; now Savoury Pastry. place on the board i J ozs. of fine flour and 2 ozs. good sweet butter; take a palette knife in your right hand and rub the butter and flour well together to form a paste so (Fig. 49); add the paste with a little pepper, salt, Fig. 49. - Showing how to mix the Flour and Butter for thickening the Sauce.

a rub or two of nutmeg, a pinch of cayenne, and two tablespoonsful of essence of anchovies into the stewpan and stir it over the fire till it thickens; then mix in the prepared shrimps and fill into the cases; place on the tops and serve.

This quantity will fill about two dozen cases, and are sold at 4d. each, or 3s. 6d. per dozen.

No. 34.- Prawn Patties (Pts aux Crevettes). For instructions how to make the case, see No. 24. No special tops are required. For the filling proceed exactly the same as directed in No. 33, substituting picked prawns for the shrimps, add a spot of carmine, and fill the cases. Now rub a piece of stale bread through a sieve on to the board; have a pot of hot fat on the stove; place the crumbs in a fine strainer, and immerse them in the hot fat; when of a bright golden colour drain and turn them out upon a sheet of paper, moving them about to free them from all surplus grease. Then sprinkle a small portion of the fried breadcrumbs over the top of each patty. Then set up the heads of two prawns upon the top, as shown in the illustration (Fig. 50), and strew Patties, Cases and Fillings. round some green parsley and a little bright lobster

These patties are very seldom served hot. Pile up on a folded napkin, and garnish round with bright green parsley. Sold at 4d. each, or 3s. 6d. per dozen. I have seen those pink Yarmouth shrimps as they are called, used for these patties. But the flavour is not so good, and to Fig. 50. - Prawn Patty, garnished with the heads and green parsley.

a connoisseur they would be very disagreeable, for after all they are really not shrimps or prawns, but what are locally called " hucklebacks," and are procured from streams and ponds near the coasts. No. 35.- Crab Patties (P&ts de Cancre).

For the tops roll down a thin sheet of paste trimmings, and cut out the number of tops required with a star cutter large enough to cover the meat; set them on the tin splashed with water, and wash over with egg; then from the same sheet cut out three rings for each top, and arrange them slightly overlapping each other, as shown in the illustration (a Fig. 51); wash over without disarranging them, and bake to a nice colour. Savoury Pastry. No. 36.- Filling for Crab Fatties.

I fresh-boiled crab.

% lb. rice. Pepper.

Butter.

Cayenne.

Anchovy. Tarragon vinegar.

Mode. - Carefully pick out all the white meat from the claws, &c., of a fine large crab, and lay it aside on a clean plate. Now take the shell or " carapace," and clean out all the meat into a mortar, having first removed all those brown tongue-like pieces locally called dead men," and Fig. 51. - Crab Patty top. (a) Before baking, (b) After baking, ready for use.

pound down very smooth; boil the rice in a little milk or weak stock, with a little nutmeg, pepper, salt, and a small piece of butter. When done, rub it through a fine wire sieve, and mix with the pounded crab; add a little cayenne, tarragon vinegar, and essence of anchovy to taste; mix in the selected white meat, minced fine, and fill into the cases; a few tablespoonsful of cream will be found a great improvement; place on the tops, and they are ready to be served. Price 4d. each, or 3s. 6d. per dozen. Patties, Cases and Fillings. No. 37- Marrow Patties (Petits Pats aux Moelle).

A very pretty and characteristic top is made for these patties to resemble a pile of marrow-bones as follows: Fig. 52. - Forming Marrow Bones out of Paste. a) The pieces of Paste, d Showing how shaped up.

Roll down a sheet of paste trimmings and cut out pieces with a plain round cutter; splash a tin; lay out the pieces, and wash over with egg; now roll down another piece about i in. thick, and cut into pieces about ij ins. long, and a little wider than they are thick (a, Fig. 52); shape them with your fingers, taking care not to handle too much; then with the point of a knife cut in each end (d) to form the knuckle as shown in the illustration (Fig. 52), and when you have made sufficient, arrange them upon the rounds on the tin, placing four at the bottom, then three across, and lastly half of one slantwise across the three (see a Fig. 53); splash them slightly with water. Fig. 53. -Marrow Patty top. (a) How the tops are arranged. d) Baked ready for use. Savoury Pastry. and bake in a moderate oven. Usually the cases are cut out with a plain cutter, but that is not of the first importance, but they must be smaller than the other patties.

No. 38.- Marrow Patty Filling. Take a good large marrow bone; saw it into convenient lengths; stop up the ends with flour and water paste, and cook it in salt and water. It will take from one and ahalf to two hours to cook. When done and cold, crack up the bones and carefully remove the marrow; then cut up into neat dice and put into a stewpan; add a handful of breadcrumbs, some finely chopped parsley, a couple of finely minced olives, the juice of a lemon, and a grate of nutmeg and cayenne. Now add sufficient thick brown sauce to well moisten, and stand over the fire to heat through about ten minutes, and fill into the cases; place on the lids and serve. Price, 4d. each. But if you make these the same size as the other patties 6d. must be charged. If you make them in a private kitchen, a glass of Madeira wine is an improvement.

No. 39.- Salmon Fatties (Pts de Sanmon). This is another pretty top, and nearly as much trouble to make as those used on the marrow patties. Roll down a sheet of pufF-paste trimmings rather thin and cut out some pieces 3 ins. square, and lay them on the board; roll down another sheet a trifle thinner, and cut four square leaves and a daisy for each square; splash the squares with water, and arrange the leaves and daisy as shown in the illustration a (Fig. 54). Now fold over the four points nearly to the centre; then go lightly over with the rollingpin; set them on to a clean tin; wash over with egg, and bake in a moderate oven to a nice colour. In the process of baking the corners will open out, and when cooked will appear like b (Fig. 54).

No. 40.- Salmon Fatty Filling. Take a fresh canister of salmon, open it, and turn the contents into a small stewpan; add half a pint of water Patties, Cases and Fillings. or good fish stock, if you have it, a small piece of onion or shalot, bay leaf, and mace; simmer over the fire for a few minutes; strain; return the liquor to the stewpan; pick out the best half of the salmon, and mince it up neatly; lay aside on a plate; put the remainder of the salmon into the mortar with a piece of mixed butter, as directed in No. 33; add pepper, salt, vinegar, cayenne to taste, a tablespoonful of anchovy essence, and pound it to a smooth paste; when quite smooth, put it into the stewpan with the liquor, set it over the fire, and stir with a wooden spoon till smooth; then mix in the previously minced salmon, and fill into the cases. Sell at 4d. each, Fig. 54. - Top for Salmon, (a) Showing how arranged. d) Baked ready for use.

or 3s. 6d. per dozen. These patties can be made from any remaining cold salmon; a little cream is considered an improvement. If the colour is not quite dark enough, use a little piece of lobster, butter, or carmine.

No. 41.- Sweetbread Patties (Pit6a aux Ris de Veau).

These are really high-class patties, and only make their appearance at banquets and recherche ball suppers. The cases are cut out with plain round cutters, but you must make them in exactly the same way as directed in No. 24, but only half the size. For the tops roll down a sheet of pufF-paste trimmings, and cut out sufficient pieces for the top with a plain round cutter, one size smaller than you used for the patty cases; splash a tin with water, and set the rounds upon it, and wash over with egg; Savoury Pastry. roll down another sheet of trimmings, and with a small plain cutlet cutter, cut out six or eight leaves for each patty top, lay them upon the round, slightly overlapping each other as shown in the illustration a (Fig. 55), wash over with egg. Now make some small rosettes a) b)

Fig. 55. - Sweetbread Patty top. a) Showing how arranged. b) Baked ready for use.

the same way as directed in No. 15, and set one in the centre; blow out, and bake in a moderate oven to a nice rich colour; stand aside to get cold. If carefully made, they will appear like b (Fig. 55), a very handsome top.

No. 42.- Sweetbread Patty Filling, No. 1 (White).

Take a fine fresh heart or throat sweetbread and soak it in lukewarm water for a couple of hours, changing the water three or four times; then put it into boiling water in a stewpan, and simmer gently for five or ten minutes according to size, and when done take up and lay in a basin of cold water. When cold and firm, cut it into neat J-in. dice and stand aside on a plate. Now take about a pint of good white stock, put it into a stewpan, add a small piece of onion, carrot, a small piece of ham, two whole allspice, and about a dozen button mushrooms; simmer gently about a quarter of an hour; then strain into a basin; put the liquor again into the stewpan; set it over the fire; add salt and cayenne to taste; now have ij ozs. butter and 2 ozs. cornflour rubbed together as directed in No. 33, and stir it into the sauce over the fire till it thickens; then mix in the minced sweetbreads and fill the cases. Patties, Cases and Fillings. I do not think there is any other patty excepting the " Fki6 de foies gris " presently following, that can take so high a place in the culinary temple. They are very properly esteemed the best that can be made, and I think they should be oftener introduced to customers than they Though they often appear upon the tables of the Sife, they are usually made at home in their own kitchens, and not ordered from the pastrycooks as they no doubt ought to be, and probably would were they made a speciality, and introduced when something particularly recherche was inquired for. This should tend to make them popular with your middle-class customers, although it would be impossible to fill the cases with this filling for less than 6d. each, or 5s. 6d. per dozen.

However, the following filling can be made at the more popular price of 4d. each, or 3s. 6d. dozen.

No. 43.- Sweetbread Patty Filling, No. 2.

Take the sweetbread and prepare in the same way as directed in No. 42, and cut up very fine; mix it with about the same weight of finely sifted white breadcrumbs; season with salt, cayenne, and grated nutmeg; put it altogether into a stewpan; add nearly a pint of milk and stir it briskly over the fire for about ten minutes; then mix in a tablespoonful of ketchup and the grated rind of a lemon and fill into the cases.

As some of your customers may prefer a dark to the light or white filling, I give a mixture for that.

No. 44. -Sweetbread Patty Filling, No. 3 (Dark).

Blanch, cool, and cut up the sweetbreads as directed in No. 42; dry them in a clean kitchen cloth and flour them thoroughly; then fry in butter until they are of a nice golden brown, taking care not to burn them in the process Now slice up in the pan you have used for frying the sweetbreads a small onion, carrot, and a dozen button mushrooms, and shake them over the fire till tender and nice and brown. Now take about a pint of good brown stock; put it into frying-pan with the vegeSavoury Pastry. tables together with a little cornflour; wet with a little water and stir over the fire till it thickens; simmer for ten minutes; strain into a stewpan; stir in the sweetbreads; season with salt and cayenne; give it a boil up and fill into the cases.

Mushroom ketchup can be used in the place of the fresh mushrooms, and the whole of the vegetables can be rubbed through a fine sieve, and the pure added to the mixture to your advantage.

For the cheaper kind proceed the same as No. 43, first frying the sweetbreads and breadcrumbs and adding about a tablespoonful of browning, or use brown stock in the place of the milk.

No. 45.- Petits Pd.t6s de Foies Gras.

These are patties par excellence', they stand unrivalled at the head of the list.

Make the cases as previously described, but with as little crust as possible and considerably smaller, using a plain round or oval cutter for the purpose. No tops are necessary for these patties. Take a tin of " foies gras," and turn its contents on to a plate; also a small tin of "champignons," or button mushrooms, and a small quarter-bottle of truffles. Now take about J lb. of calves liver, and the same quantity of very fat ham, cut up small; put into a frying-pan with a clove of garlic and half a teaspoonful of the aromatic herb mixture No. 11 (see page 31), together with the mushrooms, set it over the fire, and cook till tender. When done, rub through a wire sieve on to a plate, and stand by for use. Now shred up the fat, livers, and two large truffles, according to judgment; now add to the purde, previously put away on the plate, the yellow fat from the fat livers, and enough good well-seasoned and flavoured brown stock to moisten it to about the thickness of good thick cream; gently mix the fat livers and truffles into the pure, warm over the fire, and fill into the cases; now pour over the top just enough white Bechamel sauce to cover the filling; then decorate with thin slices of trufflles cut into the shape of diamonds, Patties, Cases and Fillings. rounds, and crescents, to form a neat design, and serve. You cannot sell these patties, although made small, fbr less than 6s. per dozen, neither will it pay you to make a smaller quantity than a dozen.

Bechamel sauce for these is just simply a good, clear, white stock, mixed with an equal quantity of boiling

No. 46.- Mock Filling for Pat de Foies Gras.

This is sometimes used where profit is the yfrj consideration; but, if you have any respect for your name, do not use it to fill patties that are ordered by people who are acquainted with the flavour of the real article. Take J lb. of calves' liver, and the same quantity of fat bacon or ham; fry, and then pound down in a mortar and rub through a wire sieve, with two tablespoonsful of mushroom ketchup, and enough aromatic herb mixture No. II (see page 31) to well flavour. Now take a nice piece of calves' or lambs' liver, and soak it for an hour or two in some fresh milk to take out the colour; then cook by boiling in a little more milk till tender. When done, shred it up with a truffle, and mix it into the pure and fill the cases; top with a little white sauce or melted butter, and decorate the top with some thinly-cut pickled walnuts, soaked for a few hours in cold water to take out the vinegar, instead of using truffles, which are pretty expensive. These can be sold at 4d. each or 3s. 6d per

No. 47.- Kidney Pattias (Pts auz Bognons).

Make the cases as bdfore directed, and for the tops roll down a sheet of trimmings, and cut out pieces with a small size round cutter, and arrange three pieces upon the tin, slightly overlapping each other, as shown in the illustration a (Fig. 56); wash over with egg, and bake in a moderate oven to a nice colour. When done, they will plump up nicely, and look very rich.

No. 48 -Kidney Patty Filling. Take sufficient fresh kidneys for your purpose, and soak them in salt and water, and partially cdok over the fire; Savoury Pastry. take them up on to the board and chop up fine with the knife; also cut up fine a couple of mushrooms, half of the white of a leek, and mix them with the kidneys. Take 2 ozs. of fat ham; cut it in slices; now put about 3 ozs. of fresh butter into a saut pan, and stand it over the fire; when hot, put in the fat ham, kidneys, leek, and mushrooms, with half a handful of fine breadcrumbs, Fig. 56.- Kidney Patty top. (a) Showing how arranged. d) Baked ready for use.

and toss them over fire, dredging in 2 ozs. of fine flour till nicely brown; put about the third of a pint of brown stock into a clean stewpan, and turn the contents of the saut pan into the stewpan, and stir it over the fire till it thickens, and fill into the cases, place on the lids, and serve. Price 4d. each, or 3s. 6d. dozen.

Kidneys can be purchased at all prices, but I would caution you not to buy them if they are not perfectly sweet.

No. 49.- Game Fatties (Petits Fts de Gibier). Cut out these cases with an oval cutter, following out the directions given in No. 24 (see page 60). For the tops roll down the trimmings, and then with three small size oval cutters cut out three pieces for each top; place them on top of each other as shown in the illustration a Fig. 57); wash over with egg, and bake in a moderate oven.

No. 50.- Filling for Game Fatties. Take the carcases of any kind of game to the amount of I lb., bruise up the bones and put them into a stewpan; Patties, Cases and Fillings. add one pint of brown stock, a few sweet herbs, some peppercorns, and one small onion stuck with three or four cloves; put on the lid and simmer at the side of the stove very gently for twenty minutes; strain into another stewpan; add a liitle cayenne and some of the aromatic mixture No. ii (see page 31) to taste, and a) (-5)

Fig. 57. - Top for Game Patties, (a) Showing how arranged. d) Baked ready for use.

thicken with a little cornflour, rubbed with an equal quantity of butter, as previously explained in No. 33. Then mix in any sort of finely minced game you may have by you, and fill into cases. Sell at 4d. each, or 3s. 6d. per dozen.

No. 51.- Venison Patties (Petits Pits de Venaison).

The method I have found to give the best results is as follows: Take a piece of neck of venison (for cheapness) and cut it up into small pieces; put it into a 7-lb. jam jar; cover with water; add a tablespoonful of the aromatic mixture No. 11 (see page 31); about lb. of butter and a sliced onion; cover up the jar securely by tying over with paper, and stand it in the oven for three or four hours, being careful that your oven is not too hot. The last thing in the afternoon would do very well, and it would be ready for use the next day, or when required.

When done take out on to a plate, strain the liquor into a stewpan, and then trim off all the meat from the bones; reserve about two-thirds of the meat, and put the remainder into a mortar and pound it down to a smooth Savoury Pastry. Take the stewpan with the "jupper" or gravy in it; season it to taste; add a glass of port wine, and thicken with a little cornflour and butter rubbed together; or use brown "roux," stirring it over the fire. Now mix in the pounded portion of the meat; mince the remainder up very fine with a little mutton fat or suet; if there is not sufficient on the meat, mix all together, and fill into previously prepared cases; thin a little red currant jelly down with water, and place a spoonful neatly on the top of the patty filHng. Sell at 4d. each, or 3s. 6d. per

No. 52.- Fish Patties (Pits au Poisson).

For these, use round crinkled patty cases, and then for the tops roll down trimmings of puff paste and cut out round pieces with a crinkled cuiter, one size smaller than you used for the patty cases; set them on a tin, and then 58. - Top for Fish Patty, a) How arranged, ready for use. b) Baked roll down another sheet of trimmings; cut up into ribbons, and then into squares; notch a small piece out of each corner in the shape of a letter V; this will make a miniature St. George's Cross; wash the rounds over with egg, after setting them on to a clean flat tin, and lay one of the crosses on to each, as shown in the illustration a (Fig. 58) and bake in a moderate oven to a nice colour.

No. 53.- Fish Patty Filling. Boil about i lb. of cod or any other kind of fish desired. Cold fish left over will answer equally as well. Patties, Cases and Fillings. Mince it up fine; season with pepper, salt, and a little grated nutmeg. Now make a little sauce or melted butter 'as follows: - Take half a pint of good fish or other white stock, and put it into a small stewpan; set it over the fire and thicken with 3 ozs. of good sweet butter, and 2 ozs. of fine flour rubbed to a smooth paste on the board; then add a little Tarragon vinegar and a few spots of essence of anchovies, and if you have it, two tablespoonsful of cream; then mix in the fish minced fine, and a little cayenne, and fill into the cases and place on the lids. Sell at 4d. each, or 3s. 6d. per doz.

No. 51- Veal and Ham Patties (Petits Pits aux Veau et Jambon).

There are patties and patties, and these now under consideration are of a superior quality, and do not belong to those described in the first part of this chapter, which are usually offered for sale from a pastr) cook's counter.

Take about a pound of cold roast or boiled veal, and half a pound of nicely-flavoured cooked ham; cut it up very fine with a sharp knife on the board, with two hard boiled eggs and a little parsley; put about half a pint of plain stock or water into a stewpan; add a pinch of aromatic mixture No. 11 (see page 31); a little white pepper and salt to taste; thicken this with a little flour and butter rubbed together as before directed; mix in the minced veal and ham, and fill into patty cases. The tops are made with a smaller size crinkled cutter and three leaves set on top, cut out with a small size cutlet cutter, as used for sweetbread patties (Fig. 55), but having no flower in the centre. Sell at 4d. each, or 3s. 6d. per

No. 55.- Savory Beef Patties (Pits de Bceuf).

These, though somewhat plain in comparison to many previously given, are, nevertheless, excellent and withal relishable patties, and are preferred by many to the richer ones.

The cases are cut out with a plain round cutter, following out the method given in No. 24 (see see page 60). Savoury Pastry. The tops are cut out with a smaller size round cutter, and only one square leaf is placed on the centre, washed over with egg and baked in a moderate oven.

For the filling, shred up about i lb. cooked beef (underdone for preference), lean and fat in seasonable proportions; season with pepper and salt, a little chopped onion or shalot, one hard-boiled egg, and enough aromatic mixture No. ii (see page 31) to flavour, and mix well together. Put the whole into a deep saut pan; add a little butter and stir it over the fire, dredging in about 2 ozs. of fine flour; then mix in about half-a-pint of rich, brown gravy, and stir over the fire till it thickens; then fill into the cases; place on the lids and sell at 4d. each or 3s. 6d. per dozen.

Australian beef can be substituted in this recipe, if more profit is desired.

No. 56.- Mutton Patties (Pits de Mouton).

These are very seldom required, but when wanted are best made from a tin of Australian mutton. Open a small tin; warm it and pour off" all the surplus fat; turn out on to a plate and pick out all the best pieces of meat and mince it up fine with a sharp knife; take the remainder of the meat, being careful to pick out all bones, and pound it down to a smooth paste in a mortar, adding a piece of fresh butter and a tablespoonful of cornflour; put J pint of stock or water into a stewpan; bring it to the boil and stir in the meat paste from the mortar; season with salt and pepper and a little ketchup to taste, stirring over the fire till it thickens; add in the minced up mutton and fill into the cases. The cases are cut with a plain round cutter; the tops consist mainly of a thin round with a triangle of paste set on top. Sold at 4d. each, or 3s. 6d. per dozen. Cold mutton from the joint can be used if desired, but, of course, that will take some of your profit.

No. 57.- Rabbit Patties (Petits Pits de Lapin). Cut out the patty cases with a small round Vandyke cutter and make them in the same way as directed in Patties, Cases and Fillings. No. 24. For the tops cut out pieces from a thin sheet of trimmings with a "Vandyke" cutter, one size smaller than used for the patty cases; splash a tin with water; lay on the tops; wash over with egg; then from another thin sheet with a small plain cutlet cutter, cut out six pieces or leaves for each top and a small daisy; arrange the leaves, slightly overlapping each other, as shown in the illustration a (Fig. 59), placing the daisy in the centre; wash over with egg and bake in a moderate oven. a) b)

Fig. 59. - Top for Rabbit Patties, (a) Showing how arranged. b) Baked ready for use.

No. 58. -Rabbit Patty Filling (White). Take the white meat from a boiled rabbit using only the whitest and choicest of the meat; mince it up fine with a small portion of fat bacon (no lean) and put aside in a plate. Break up the bones with any of the remaining meat and put it into a stewpan with half pint of water or white stock; add pepper, salt, a grate of nutmeg and a small piece of lemon rind, and simmer at the side of the stove for about half an hour; strain into another stewpan, and thicken with a little flour and butter as before directed; add a tablespoonful of good thick cream; mix in the minced up meat and fill the cases; place on the tops, and sell at 4d. each; or 3s. 6d. per dozen.

No. 59.- Rabbit Patty Filling (Dark). Take a fat young rabbit, cut up and put into a stewpan with i lb. of good cooking butter, half an onion, Savoury Pastry. a few cloves, peppercorns, a bay leaf, a small handful of button mushrooms, and fry altogether till nicely cooked, and a rich brown. When done, take up the rabbit and trim all the best of the meat from the bones on to a plate, and mince it up very small. Put the remains back again into the stewpan and add half a pine of stock and simmer at the side of the stove for about twenty minutes; strain into another stewpan and season with a small spoonful of the aromatic mixture No. 1 1 (see page 31). Thicken with cornflour to about the consistency of thick cream; then mix in the minced up rabbit and fill into the cases. Sell at 46, each, or 3s. 6d. per dozen.

Tinned rabbit can be used in these patties, working by either the processes given in Nos. 58 or 59, but of course they will not require so much cooking as the fresh rabbits.

No. 60.- Hare Patties (Petits Pl,t6s de Livre).

The cases for these should be smaller than for rabbit patties, and the filling made exactly the same as directed in No. 59, but using an extra portion of aromatic mixture No. II (see page 31), and some very fat bacon minced up small. Fill into the cases, and place a spoonful of red currant jelly on top of each patty, and sell at 46. each, or 3s. 6d. per dozen.

The remains of previously dressed hare can be used for patty filling, and ofttimes rabbit, as No. 59, is substituted for hare.

No. 61.- Chicken and Tongue Patties (Petits Pits aux Poulet et Langue). Make the cases and tops the same as for No. 30, and bake. For the filling, if you have no cold ox-tongue in cut, take a small tin of lunch tongue, and use this minced up very fine and stirred into the previous prepared filling given as No. 31, using half as much tongue as you do chicken - say i lb. of chicken and J4 lb. tongue. Fill into the cases, and sell at 4d. each, or 3s. 6d. per Patties, Cases and Fillings. No. 62.- Chicken and Ham Patties (Petits Pits auz Poulet et Jambon).

The same filling as recipe No. 31, mixing in some finely-minced ham with the chicken.

For another variety you can mix in equal proportions ham, tongue and chicken, thus giving you a variety of chicken patties. Of course, all these varieties can be made from the one filling (No. 31), first taking out the plan, then mixing in the ham or tongue, or both, as desired.

No. 63.- Petits Pits au Pontife. Roll down a sheet of puff paste, to which you have given an extra turn, to about a % in. in thickness, and, with a 2-in. round cutter, cut out as many pieces as you require patties; then, with a smaller cutter, take out the centres, making every piece a ring. Now roll Fig. 60.- Petits Pates au Pontife.

down the trimmings and cut out squares just a little larger than the rings; place the square upon a tin; wash over with egg, and place a ring upon the centre of each square, as shewn in the illustration (Fig. 60); wash over with egg, and bake to a nice colour. When cooked, fill with the fining No. 64, and upon the top of each patty place a nice spray of green parsley or endive; pile on to a folded napkin and serve. Price, 4d. to 6d. each.

No. 64.- Filling for Pontife Patties. Take a lb. of the white meat from the breast of a roast or boiled fowl; trim away all skin and gristle; put it into a mortar with a small piece of butter, a little of the Savoury Pastry. aromatic mixture No. ii (see page 31), and pound up to a smooth paste; put aside on a plate in a cool place, or, if required quick, on ice. Now take about the same quantity of veal, and pound that in exactly the same way, and stand aside. Take a smalt piece of boiled tongue, and cut up into very neat dice, about the size of large peas; mince up I large truffle, and cut up a small portion of sweetbread into neat little strips; mix the tongue, truffle, and sweetbread together; now form the chicken and veal farce separately int ) little quenelles, about the size of peas, and mix them vvith the other ingredients. Now make the following sauce: - Take a small stewpan, and put in a ladleful of best stock; add to that a little ketchup and a glass of good wine, bring to the boil, and stir in about half a ladle of "Sauce au Pontife" (No. 65); thicken with a little arrowroot in the usual way, and then after mixing in the prepared meats, fill into the cases and serve.

No. 65.- Sauce au Pontife.

Cut up small equal quantities of veal and ham, about i lbs. altogether; take a clean stewpan, and slice in very fine, 2 small carrots, i parsnip, 2 good-size onions, and J a head of celery; add about 2 ozs. of butter, and put the cut-up meat upon the top of the vegetables, and set it over the fire for about twenty minutes. Take care that it does not burn, but cook nicely; then add a glass of Madeira wine, and J a pint of stock, i clove of garlic, and 3 or 4 shalots, i clove, a little corriander seed, and 2 quarters of lemon, without the rind; simmer at the side of the stove for about twenty minutes, with the lid firmly on; now mix in a tablespoonful of glaze; boil up and strain through a tammy; remove all fat, and use as directed. When cold bottle for future use. It will keep if stored in a cool dry place for a considerable time.

No. 66.- Petits Pits de Boeuf k la Frampton.

Sheet 2 dozen oval patty pans with pufif paste trimmings; lay in a large spoonful of the following mixture: - Take J lb. of prime roast beef, and pound it up quite smooth in a mortar; season with salt, pepper, and some Pattiks, Cases and Fillings. of the aromatic mixture No. 11 (see page 31). Now chop up fine 3 hard-boiled eggs and lb. of uncooked fat bacon, and mix altogether on a plate, and fill into the prepared patty pans; splash with water, and then roll down a sheet of best puff paste; cut out oval pieces with a suitable-size cutter; place them on top of the meat, and wash over with egg. Now take a sharp-pointed knife, and cut right down the centre, as shown in the Fig. 61. - Cutting the top of Frampton Patties. l

illustration (Fig. 61); set them on to a baking-plate, and bake to a nice colour in a warm oven. When done, remove from the patty pans on to wires, and dish on to lace paper, and lay some sprigs of green parsley down the '

centre of each. Sell at 2d. each. No. 67.- Torchester Patties. Pound up some cooked meat, beef, mutton, or veal in a mortar with seasoning, and a small portion of fat bacon, and when well beaten up, add the cooked whites of four or five eggs cut up small, according to quantity. Line some deep round patty pans with short crust No. 4 ! (see page 29), and lay in a spoonful of the mixture; splash with water; then roll down a sheet of puflf paste to i in. thick, and cut out tops with a suitable size round crinkled cutter; set them on top; wash over with 1

Savoury Pastry. egg, and decorate with nicely cut-out leaves; set on a flat tin, and bake in a warm oven. When done, sell a 2d. each.

No. 68.- Ooperton Patties.

Make some very small cases, as directed for No. 24 (see page 60), using a plain round cutter to cut them out, and bake in a moderate oven to a nice colour. Now take 6 ozs. of nicely cooked cold beef and mince it up fine, put it into a stewpan with a piece of butter, and brown it nicely over the fire; season with salt, pepper, and a small portion of the aromatic mixture No. 1 1 (see page 31); dredge in some flour, and when all is nicely browned moisten with stock or water, and give it a boil up to form a good thick gravy; then fill into the cases; lay some very green chopped parsley over the tops and serve. Price 3d. each, or 2s. 6d. per dozen.

Any and every kind of meat can be used in the various patty cases that have been described in this chapter, or a mixture of several kinds is permissible; but take care that your mixtures are seasonable, savoury, and not too fat, or you will regret that you attempted the mixture. Raised Pies and Timbales. Chapter VI. RAISED PIES AND TIMBALES.

IN this chapter I propose to treat of various savoury pies in raised crust, which are usually baked in French pie moulds; also of timbales, which in this connection are simply raised pie-crusts, first baked and afterwards filled and served. Fig. 62.- French or Raised Pie-Moulds.

No. 69.- Pheasant Pie (PLt6 de Faisan).

Game pies, as a rule, are made in raised crusts, which are baked in French pie-moulds made expressly for the purpose, and illustrated as Fig. 62; and as these piemoulds, whether they are round, square, or oval, are made in the same manner, the instructions here following will apply equally to them all. If you refer to the illustration (Fig. 62), you will see that the moulds are very substantially made, and are also hinged together at Savoury Pastry. both ends, to enable the pies to be taken out without breaking, which the shape of the moulds would otherwise prevent you from doing, for they are usually larger at the top and bottom than they are in the centre.

A suitable mould having been selected, make up any one of the boiled or pork pie pastes (Nos. 5 to 9; see pages 29 and 30), and then proceed to line it in the following manner: Take out the pins from both ends of your mould; open it (Fig. 63), and nicely grease both halves and the flat oval piece (A) forming the bottom. I would, however, caution you not to be too liberal with the grease, or you will spoil the appearance of your pie when baked. Now take a piece of the paste . Fig. 63. - Showing the manner of opening a raised Pie-Mould

to sheet or line it. and roll it down in a sheet about J in. thick, and cut out a piece the size of the bottom of the pie-mould; now cut off two slips long enough and wide enough to cover each side of the mould; lay one of the slips into half of the mould, and with a piece of the same I paste proceed to press the sheet of paste into the imi pressions of the mould. This must be well and carefully done, or the design of the mould will not come out sharp and bold.

I Having finished one half of the mould, line the other in; just the same way, and when both are done, trim the ! bottoms and edge neatly, but not cutting too close, and j damp the edges with water; draw the edges slightly away Raised Pies and Timbales. from the mould at the ends and the bottom into the centre of your mould - not too much, only just at the edges. Now take half of the mould with the paste in it and put in the bottom metal plate; now place the second half into position, carefully pinch the ends together, trimming off any surplus paste, and press it firmly into the mould; now lay in the bottom piece of paste, and just as carefully join it together. This is important, for if you by any chance have a crack in your pie the gravy will run out, and both the appearance and quality of your pie will suffer for it. Be careful to press the paste into the impressions of the mould after you have joined it together, so that it will appear as one piece when baked; trim the paste off even all round the top, and then wash over the inside of the pie-case with white of egg; stand it aside to get firm, and proceed to prepare the filling as follows: - Take a brace of birds, and bone them (the poulterer will do this for you) by cutting them exactly m halves down the centre of the breast and back, and then very carefully remove the bones from each half with your small knife; lay the birds aside as you do them, with the cut meat upwards, upon your board, and reserve the bones for use as presently directed.

Take i y lbs. of prime steak, without fat or sinew, and pound it up in the mortar very fine; then beat up the same quantity of fine-flavoured ham or bacon, and when both are well pounded mix them together, adding pepper, salt, and a good seasoning of the aromatic mixture No. II (see page 31); when well mixed and seasoned to " your liking, take the livers from the birds, together with i four times their weight in truffles and fat bacon, and mince, it all up together, taking care not to chop too fine; season with pepper, salt, and aromatic mixture, and mix it into; the previously pounded-up meats, using three or four raw; yolks to moisten it. It is now ready for use, and in kitchen parlance is called "farce." Take each half of the birds, lay on a portion of the "farce," and carefully and neatly make up into good-looking pieces or "fillets," and tie them j up with pieces of wide tape, and lay them aside as you do so. Now break up all the bones with your chopper, Savoury Pastry. and put them into a stewpan with a quart of stock; add cloves, peppercorns, a piece of cinnamon and mace; stand over the fire and bring to the boil; let them simmer gently for half an hour; then put in the halves of birds, and cook for a quarter of an hour; take them up on to a plate, and take off the tape; strain off the stock into a Fig 64. - Pheasant Pie, garnished with the Plumage.

clean pan, and skim oflf the fat. Now take the birds, choose the best-looking part of each of them, and lay in six or seven " lardoons " with a small larding needle; set them on to a baking-dish; put a good size piece of fresh butter upon each, and give them ten minutes in a very hot oven, and when they are nicely browned take them out, and when cold cut up into smaller neat fillets and lay them aside.

Now take the remaining " farce," and spread it evenly Raised Pies and Timbales. over the inside of your previously prepared pie case to about y in. in thickness, sides and bottom; carefully fill up the centre with the prepared birds right to the top, pour in the gravy, and then put on a lid, which you can elaborately decorate with leaves and flowers; and bake in a moderate oven for two or three hours, according to size of the pie. When baked, loosen the pie from the mould, then take off the top, and fill up the pie with some gravy, if you have any remaining, if not use good stock. To serve, lay a lace paper or folded Qapkin upon a dish, and set the pie upon it; garnish round with parsley and neatly-carved flowers from vegetables, or aspic jelly, as preferred. They are also decorated with the plumage of the bird, as shown in the illustration (Fig. 64), and I would advise those of my readers who intend 10 go in for this class of work to obtain two or three sets of plumage dressed by a taxidermist, which will look much better, and retain their beauty longer than those you prepare yourself. They are fixed into position with small skewers.

It may be as well to state that the crusts of these pies are seldom eaten; but, at the same time, it is just as welto make them properly.

No. 70.- Partridge Pie (Pl,t6 de Perdrix).

The case is made exactly the same as previously directed; then prepare the "farce." The birds being smaller than the pheasants, a different method is usually followed for making them into a raised pie. Truss the birds with their legs inwards, about four or six (birds), according to the size of the pie; put a small portion of the " farce " into each of them and flatten the breast bone; now put about I lbs. of butter into a stewpan; put in the birds; put on the lid and set it on the stove and stew over the fire for half-an hour; when done, take them up and drain away the butter, leaving all the sediment at the bottom of the stewpan; add i pint of stock into the stewpan and bring to the boil; strain through a sieve; take off all grease and stand aside for use presently. If the birds are large, you can cut them up, or leave them whole as you

Savoury Pastry. please; for my part I prefer to cut them up. Then proceed to fill the case, first giving the case a coating of the " farce," and pack the portions of bird alternately with the ' farce" till you have filled the case; then put on the top and bake in a moderate oven for about two hours; when done, take off the lid and fill up the pie with the gravy or sauce just now prepared, taking care to add in a sheet or two of gelatine to ensure it setting firm; dish on to a lace paper or folded napkin, and serve. These pies are sold at from 7s. 6d. upwards, according to If you do not wish to make the farce " for this pie you can make a little with the livers, for stuffing them, and fill up your pie-case with neatly cut fillets of veal, ham, and a small portion of dressed tongue.

No. 71.- Venison Pie (Pftt de Venaison).

Make a case in a French pie-mould (Fig. 62) having impressions on the sides of agroup of stags grazing under trees. But if you do not happen to have this particular mould, any other will answer equally as well. Take the haunch or neck of buck or doe, and "lard" and "daub" it with plenty of bacon cut up into rather large "lardoons"; season very highly with the aromatic mixture No. 1 1 (seepage 31). When you have "larded" thevenison and removed all bones, prepare a moderately large-sized stewpan with plenty of turnips and carrots cut up fine, a couple of onions, plenty of sweet herbs and spices; add about I lb. of butter, and a few rashers of very fine flavoured bacon; now put in the meat, place on the lid, and braise in the usual manner. When done, take up the venison, strain the liquor from the braise into a clean stewpan, skim off the fat, add about a pint of good stock, and give it a boil up; cut up the meat, and arrange in the case; pour in the gravy, put on the lid, and bake. When done, take off the top, and fill up with gravy dish on a lace paper or folded napkin, garnish round, and serve.

Venison must be very highly spiced if to be served hot, and more so if to be served cold; but your own judgment and taste must regulate the seasoning. Red currant Raised Pies and Timbaies. 97

jelly is usually served with all venison in a separate bout Notes. or bowl. I No. 72.- Perigord Pie Pit6 de Prigueux).

For this take a round pie-mould, slanting towards the bottom, and line with paste as previously directed, taking care that it does not leak. Now make a ' farce " with, partridges' livers, the livers of poultry, plenty of truffles, sweet herbs, and fat bacon, using seasoning in modera- ' tion; truss three partridges, with their feet inside, and lay a small portion of the "farce" inside of each; singe the breast well, and lard it with some nice evenly-, cut "lardoons" rolled in the aromatic mixture No. 11; flatten down the breast bone a little, and lay them in the; pie upon some of the "farce," with plenty of whole truffles and the " farce " packed in very close, and quite ' fill up to the top; add a little seasoning, fill up with stock, put on the top, and cook for at least three hours; when done, dish and Sferve as before directed.

No. 73. -Chicken Pie k la Fiandoise (Pat dePoularde k ' la Fiandoise). I

Make a raised pie case in a French pie mould as previously directed, and prepare the following: lyi lbs. of forcemeat or farce No. 74, 2 prime fat pullets, ' a couple of sweetbreads, a small bottle of mushrooms, a small bottle of truffles, and the hard boiled yolks of 6 ' eggs. Blanch the sweetbreads by laying them in lukewarm water for three or four hours; free them from skin and all discoloured parts and cut them up into square dice; draw, singe, and cut up the pullets into neat fillets, removing the bones; cut up the egg yolks (which should have been poached separately without the whiles) into quarters; cut up the truffles and mushrooms and lay all aside separately on to clean plates. Now proceed to fill the case; put a layer of forcemeat on the bottom and round the sides; then lay in portions of the chicken, sweetbreads, truffles, and mushrooms, till you have filled up the case to the top; put on the lid; ornament; and bake in a moderate oven for two or three hours. When Savoury Pastry. done, remove the top and fill up with some of the gravy No. 75, and serve either hot or cold dished on a folded napkin or lace paper. This pie is usually sold at from 7S. 6d. to 2 IS. according to size.

No. 74.- Forcemeat or Farce.

I lb. veal cutlet ( free from fat, sinew, and bone). % lb. cooked ham. ) lb. breadcrumbs.

Mode. - Cook the veal by boiling in a little water or stock; then pound it up in a mortar with the ham till quite smooth; season with salt and pepper, one shalot, some parsley and truffles chopped fine, and just a suspicion of cinnamon and mace; soak the breadcrumbs in milk, and squeeze them out dry, and mix into the meat paste; bind the whole together with three or four whole eggs, and use as required and directed. Some prefer a small portion of ox-tongue chopped up into dice and mixed in, and instead of ham a portion of beef suet can be used.

To make forcemeat balls for raised pies or other purposes, you can work them up to the required sizes in your hands, leaving the more antiquated, though perhaps I cleaner, method of using two spoons to those folks who i have more time than the average pastry-cook ever has at, his disposal.

I Take care not to work in too much flour, or they will I swell out and burst when you poach them, which is done as follows: - Have a stewpan full of boiling hot water (or stock can be used) on the stove, and your "quenelles," or forcemeat balls, all ready upon a plate; drop them gently into the boiling water, and cook carefully. When done, take out with a wire spoon, and place them on a clean cloth to drain dry, and when you use them be careful not to break them. If they are properly poached, they will dry; immediately upon being taken from the water; whereas, if they remain wet, they are not cooked sufficiently.

No. 75.- Gravy for Raised Pies.

Take a 6-quart stewpan and spread J lb. of butter upon the bottom; slice in a couple of small Raised Pies and Timbales. 99

carrots, half a turnip, half an onion stuck with six cloves,

half-a-dozen peppercorns, a piece of mace and cinnamon,

and a few pieces of celery. Now put in about i y lbs. I

of shin of beef or knuckle of veal; cut up into small I

pieces; put on the lid and stand it over a moderate fire

for about an hour to cook very gently; now add the

small shank-bone of a ham with 3 quarts of water (or

stock, if you have any, but I will presume that

you have not), and set it over the fire to stew '

gently, till reduced to 2 quarts. Have ready, soaked

in y2 pint of clean water, an ounce packet of gelatine,

and add it into the stewpan. When dissolved, strain

into a clean basin and stand aside to get cold; taste,

and if to your palate, proceed to take off all the fat you

can with a spoon, and then clear it with two or three

eggs as follows: - Break the eggs, with their shells, into

a basin, and beat up to a froth with a wire egg-whisk,

and, having run the gravy down to liquid, mix in the

eggs by well beating them together; place off the stove

in a large stewpan, and when the egg coagulates run it

through the jelly-bag (see Fig. 23). Once through will

usually leave it clear enough for pie; but if you desire

it brilliantly clear you may have to repeat the process - '

of course whipping in another lot of eggs.

No. 76.- Pigeon Fie k la Vigne (P&t de Pigeon k la ' Vigne).

Take a large oval French pie mould having a wreath ! of vine running round the centre, and make a pie case ' in the same manner as previously directed. Prepare ! the " farce' given as No. 74, adding the livers from the pigeons. Bone six fat pigeons, cutting them in halves; lay a portion of the " farce " upon the inside of each, half, and fold them up into neat fillets with the skin on j the outside; this, of course, gives you twelve nice-look- 1 ing fillets. Fold them up separately into cloths, tying with tape; put them into a stewpan with a quart or so of good stock, and cook for about ten minutes or a quarter of an hour. When done, take them up and lay them on your board in the cloths; place another piece of board Savoury Pastry. on top with a weight sufficient to press the fillets flat; when cold, take off the cloths, and trim them neatly to shape. Make two " quenelles " for each piece of pigeon from the forcemeat No. 74, and poach them as directed in water, and when cold brown them over with a red-hot salamander (Fig. 65). Open a large bottle of truffles A.AAA..A.. Fig. 65. - Salamander on a Trivet.

and another of champignons, saving the liquor in which they are preserved; cut up the truffles into fine shreds; pick out all the smallest champignons and lay them aside; cut up the remainder to match the shred-up truffles, and mix together. Carefully poach without breaking the yolks of a dozen eggs, and then proceed to fill the pie case as follows: - Place a thin layer of the forcemeat Fig. 66. - Pigeon Pie a la Vigne.

all round the interior of the pie case, then lay in the shred up mushrooms and truffles; on them place the fillets of pigeon, upright in the centre, and fill up the case with the poached eggs, quenelles, mushrooms, and truffles. Take care to season it thoroughly with pepper, Raised Pies and Timbales. salt, and some of the aromatic mixture No. ii (see page 31). After you have filled the meats dry into the case, pour in a wineglass of port wine and one of Irish whisky; fill up with gravy; place on the lid, decorating the top with a large bunch of grapes, as shown in the illustration (Fig. 66), and bake in a moderate oven for three hours. When done, remove the lid carefully, and fill up the pie with good strong gravy, to which has been added the liquor from the champignons; place the lid on again; dish on to a lace paper or folded napkin, and serve very hot.

No. 77.- Amiens Pie (FSit6 d' Amiens).

Make a round pie case in the same way as previously directed. Truss a pair of ducks; place their breasts before the fire for a few minutes to make the flesh pliable, and then lard the breasts, rolling the lardoons into pepper, salt, powdered thyme, basil, a little nutmeg, cloves, cinnamon, and coriander; put the ducks into the pie case, and surround them with plenty of butter and fat bacon; put on the top; decorate, and set it on a tin; put it into a moderately hot oven, and bake for three hours. See that it does not take on too much colour. Pour into the pie, when about half-cooked, through a hole left in the centre, about pint of best brandy, and when quite done fill up the pie with some good strong gravy (No. 75) that will set firm when cold.

JVote, - It is the correct thing to " braise " the ducks before putting them into the pie-case, which process will be found in No. 70 for Venison pie, but probably the better way will be to give it here.

No. 78.- How to Braise.

Slice up some turnips, carrots, celery, a couple of onions, and plenty of fine herbs, with some cloves, peppercorns, and spices. Spread a pound of salt butter upon the bottom of a large stewpan, or an iron digester will answer admirably for the purpose. Put the prepared spice and vegetables upon the butter over the bottom; ' and then on top of the vegetables place the ducks, with ( Savoury Pastry. their breasts upvards, or any other kind of meat you require to braise which cover with slices of fat bacon; raise plenty of vegetables up all round the sides; place on the Hd, and with some flour and water paste stop up all the crevices and stand it inside a hot oven for one hour, when the ducks will be sufficiently cooked. Take up your ducks on to a dish; pour about a pint of i water into the stewpan, and give it a good boil up over the stove. Strain away the liquor into a small stewpan; skim off all fat; add gelatine sufficient to thicken, and fill into your pie for gravy.

All kinds of meat, poultry, and game can be braised in the same way. The usual method employed in the kitchen is to use a braising-pot which has a deep-rimmed top, allowing a fire to be placed above as well as below; but I have always obtained good results by using the oven, as described - it is quite as effectual, and, what is more to the point, much more economical.

No. 79. -Pie k la Choisi (P.t6 k la Choisi). Make a large oval pie-case as before directed and let it get firm by standing; bone four partridges and stew the bones with some good stock. Take four fat livers from a terrine oifoie gras and lard them with truffles and soaked anchovies: pound up the bones of the anchovies and strain away the liquor, which mix with the partridge, livers, chopped truffles, fat bacon (scraped), and pepper. Stuff the partridges with this mixture, putting one of the fat livers into each with a few fine truffles, some butter, and somfe evenly cut slices of fat bacon; braise for one hour as directed in No. 78. When done, put the birds into the pie-case; fill up with gravy and cook; when half done, pour in pint of brandy; finish baking; and when done, fill up the case with some good strong gravy that will jelly and set firm when cold. Serve dished on a lace paper or folded napkin when cold.

No. 80.- Pie k la Fanette. Make a square pie-case about 6 ins. wide, 10 ins. long, and 6 ins. deep; if you have not got a tin or mould of Raised Pies and Timbales. suitable size, make a frame with some smooth thin pieces of wood. Having made the case, stand aside. Now take a piece of the thick of a leg of veal, weighing about 4 lbs.; take out the bone and sinew if there is any and bind it up tightly in a cloth; have a stewpan boiling on the stove in which you havea handful of sweet herbs, apiece of turnip, carrot, and celery, a few cloves and peppercorns, a piece of cinnamon and mace, and just before you put in the meat add a tablespoonful of French vinegar or the juice of a lemon, and cook the meat for about two Fig. 67. - Pie a la Fanette.

hours. When done press the meat in the liquor by placing a board and heavy weight upon it till cold. When cold, take off the cloth, and trim away any portion of the meat that is at all discoloured: slice it up into very thin slices with a very sharp knife. Now cover the bottom with a layer of fineflavoured ham, cut thin; on that place a layer of the prepared veal, and on the veal a layer of hard-boiled eggs cut in thin slices, seasoning with pepper, salt, and some of the aromatic mixture No. 11 (see page 31). Continue a layer of ham, then veal, and then eggs, till you have filled the case. Now fit on an edge of boiled crust about i in. wide, and over-lapping all round the frame; fill up the case with gravy or stock; then roll down a sheet of puff paste No. i, about i in thick; Vandyke round the four sides with a sharp knife, allowI04 Savoury Pastry. Notes. jg paste a trifle larger than the other crust; place it on top; wash over with egg, and lay some nicelycut square leaves down the centre; wash over, and bake

I in a moderate oven to a nice colour. Serve either hot

! or cold dished on a lace paper or folded napkin on a

silver dish, as shown in the illustration (Fig. 67). No. 81.- Capon Pie (PSLt6 de Chapon auz Truffes). Line a very large French pie mould in the usual

, manner, or, if you have no moulds, the cases may be made in the same way as directed for Pork Pies. Chapter IV., but, of course, making it considerably larger, and oval in shape instead of round, allowing plenty of paste. Work up the sides on a round block,

1 and then lengthen it out at the ends to give it an oval shape; let it stand till cold and set firm, and then decorate round the sides with leaves and flowers in an artistic manner (see Chapter III.); wash over with egg, and stand aside to get dry and firm. Now bone a capon; spread it over the table, and well season the inside with aromatic mixture No. 11 (see page 31) and a little salt; spread a layer of the forcemeat No. 74 over, and cover the forcemeat with tongue (cooked), fat bacon, and truffles, then another layer of forcemeat, and then more tongue (cooked), fat bacon, and truffles cut

, in neat " fillets "; fold up the bird tight and lay aside.

Then take about i4 lbs. of fillet of veal and the same quantity of cooked ham. Now line the sides and bottom of the case with forcemeat No. 74, and then put in some of the veal and ham previously cut into neat pieces, and well season with the aromatic mixture No. 1 1; then place in the capon, lay a few small or large minced truffles

I round, and then put in the remainder of the veal and ham, and over the whole a layer of forcemeat No. 74; fill in a little gravy, place on a lid, and decorate in the usual manner; place in a moderate oven, and cook for about four hours. When done, fill up the pie with gravy No. 75, to which has been added the bones from the capon and plenty of seasoning, and serve on a lace paper or folded napkin. Raised Pies and Timbales. If you have built or moulded up your pie case, decorated it and washed it over with egg by letting it stand till the egg dries, you are able to place a paper band round, two or three thicknesses thick, fastening it together with paste to keep the pie into position. If you let the egg dry it will not .stick to the paper, and when the crust has set firm it can be removed, and the crust will then take on the rich colour usual to raised pies.

No. 82.- Devonshire Squab Pie.

This is a real Devonshire delicacy, and takes precedence of the well-known cream; but the pie like the cream, is not liked by all. However, there are no doubt many readers who are partial to them, and so it appears here. Take the richest boiled crust (No. 7), and line an oblong or oval tin about 3 ins. deep, and stand aside. Now cut up about 2 lbs. of griskin of pork into slices; season with pepper, sage, thyme, and a little chopped onion; now cut up also in slices i lb. of cooked streaky bacon, and put with the pork; now peel, core, and cut up into slices about 2 lbs. of good cooking apples; now place a layer of bacon in the pie case; on that a layer of apples, then pork, then more apples, then bacon; and continue thus till you have filled the case; put on a lid, and decorate with leaves made from the same paste; egg over, place in the oven, and cook for two hours, and serve hot.

No. 83.- Pigeon Pie k la Bdacteur.

For this procure a mould having wreath of acorns and oak leaves running round; and if you have no such mould, build up the case as before directed and decorate with oak leaves and acorns, made from some of the same paste; then make four horns of plenty, or cornucopia, from the paste having acorns and leaves falling out at the bell; put this on a piece of bread, cut to dome shape, laying a sheet of crust over to form the lid, which carefully bake to a good colour. Procure a fine pigeon's plumage and have it set up with extended wings, and a long wire in the breast to hold it into position on the Savoury Pastry. pie as shown in the illustration (Fig. 68). Having prepared the case and top, prepare the filling as follows: Take six fine young pigeons, bone them and cut into two; take the forcemeat No. 74 and mix in the livers from the pigeons, and three large truffles minced fine. Lay a portion of the forcemeat on each half pigeon and roll up into neat fillets; roll up into cloths and cook in some rich stock. When done, let the fillets get cold in the Fig. 68.- Pate de Pigeons a la Rdacteur.

cloths; trim off any rough pieces, keeping the fillets as round as possible. Now make up one dozen quenelles nearly as large as walnuts, egg them over and fry to a nice golden colour in hot lard, and drain them on a sheet of paper; set them aside; now egg and breadcrumb the fillets of pigeons, and fry them in hot lard; cut up a piece of dressed tongue into small dice and the same weight of Raised Pies and Timbales. truffles and champignons, also cut into dice; mix with the forcemeat and moisten with some brown stock; line the pie case with the prepared forcemeat; then place in the fillets of pigeon and the quenelles, and fill up the case with more forcemeat, place on the lid and bake for one and a half hours in a moderate oven. Lift off the lid and fill up with some very rich brown gravy to which you have added a glass of port wine, and serve very hot, dished on a lace paper or folded napkin.

No. 84.- Babbit Pie k la Royal.

Make a pie-case, as previously directed, decorating round the sides with leaves, &c. Then procure a couple of young wild rabbits, skin and dress them, and then lay for a couple of hours in a pan of warm water (not hot) with two or three handsful of salt; while the rabbits are bleaching, parboil a piece of streaky pickled pork; take it up and cut into thin rashers; dust one side over with the aromatic mixture No. 11 (see page 31), and lay them separately on a dish. Now take the rabbits, cut ofif the legs and shoulders, and take out the bones; then insert the point of your knife on each side of the backbone, and take off the whole of the meat; chop up the bones and put into a large stewpan with an onion, some cloves, cinnamon, and mace, with a little butter, and fry over the fire; when nicely browned, add i quart of stock, place on the lid, and set it at the side of the stove to simmer gently for two hours. Now cut up the rabbit meat into equal size pieces, and wrap them up in a rasher of the pickled pork, fixing them together with small skewers; strain off the gravy from the bones into another stewpan, and place in the rabbit and pickled pork; cook gently for half an hour. Now open a small bottle or tin of mushrooms, drain the liquor into the gravy, and chop the mushrooms up into dice; dry them over with a little flour; make some butter hot in the saucepan, put in the mushrooms, season with salt, pepper, and some Aromatic Mixture No. 11, and cook till brown. Now proceed to fill up your pie-case; place some of the mushrooms in the bottom, and then Savoury Pastry. arrange the fillets of rabbit into the case, sprinkling the mushrooms amongst it; when the case is full, add some of the gravy, place on the lid, and decorate with leaves and a nice rose, as shown in the illustration (Fig. 69); mix the juice from the mushrooms into the gravy, and thicken it up over the fire, and when the pie is cooked take off the lid and fill with the gravy; set it on a lace paper or folded napkin on a silver dish, garnish round with parsley, and serve very hot. Fig. 69. - Raised Rabbit Pie a la Royal.

No. 85.- Telen Regis Pie.

Take a rather large deep round cake fin; rub it out clean, and proceed to line it with one of the boiled crusts, No. 5 to No. 9, keeping the crust about in. thick on the sides and bottom, and raise the crust at least 2 ins. above the top of the tin all round, and stand aside. Now prepare the following filling: - Take the breast or neck of venison; take out all bones, and cut up into pieces about i in. square; dust well with flour, and the aromatic mixture No. 11 (see page 31), using pepper and salt at your discretion. Put about I lb. of butter into a large stewpan; add in the cutup venison, and shake it over the fire for about twenty minutes. While the venison is cooking prepare lb. of the fat from a loin of mutton (previously cooked) to every I lb. of venison, by cutting the fat up into dice about half the size of the pieces of venison, and add it into the stewpan when about to take it off the fire. Now add in a Raised Pies and Timbales. pint of stock, and give it a boil up; take out the meat, and fill it into the prepared case with six or eight hardboiled eggs, chopped up fine; when you have filled the case add a couple of glasses of port wine and some of the gravy; cover the top with paste; lay plenty of leaves round, and place a large rose in the centre made from the same paste; wash over with egg, and bake for about two hours in a moderately hot oven, covering well to prevent it taking on too much colour. When the pie is cooked remove the rose from the centre, and fill up with some of the gravy. Take care not to run it over the ornamentation, or it will spoil its appearance. When the pie is cold, turn out of the tin; dish on a lace paper or folded napkin, and serve with a napkin or pie frill round. Price, according to size, at the rate of is. 46. per lb.

No. 86.- Derby Raised Pie.

Take a large round cake hoop, 3 ins. high and 18 ins. in diameter; rub it clean, grease slightly, and set it on to a clean, greased flat tin. Take one of the boiled crusts given in Chapter II. and proceed to work up a case in the cake hoop, keeping thecrust about in. thick all round, and work it up about an inch higher than the hoop and trim off even. For the filling take 2 lbs. of veal cutlet, 4 lb. fine flavoured dressed ham, 8 hardboiled eggs, 6 OZ.C. of dressed tongue, and any remains of cold roast or boiled chicken to i lb. in weight. Cut the eggs in halves, and then each half into quarters, giving eight equal size pieces from each egg. Lay pieces of egg all round the inside bottom of the pie case; then some of the tongue cut very thin; then into the centre some of the chicken in neat pieces; season with salt, pepper, and a wee sprinkle of the aromatic mixture No. II (see page 31). Set a stewpan over the fire; put in about 6 ozs. of sweet butter, and having cut up the veal into neat scallops about i in. square; proceed to fry them to a nice rich colour. When done, lay in the centre of the pie with the ham cut into thin neat pieces and some portion of the cut-up eggs. Finish the pie with the remainder of the chicken, tongue. Savoury Pastry. and eggs. Now take the stewpan in which you fried the veal; add in about 2 pints of rich brown, thick stock, and let it simmer for about twenty minutes at the side of the stove. Take off the fat and stand aside; cover the pie with crust; place on some leaves and flowers cut out from some of the paste and decorate the top with it; put in some of the gravy through a hole in the centre, and cook for two hours in a moderate oven. When done, add in the remainder of the gravy and stand aside to get cold; when cold, wrap up in wax paper ready for packing. Price 12s. 6d. This pie is, as its name implies, suitable for Derby luncheons, or pic-nic parties, where substantial fare would be appreciated.

No. 87.- Timbale of Lark k la Ottoman (Mauviettes k la Ottoman en Timbale).

Take a medium size raised pie mould and line it with paste; finish off the top edge neatly with some small marbles, or other ornamentation, made from the paste; fill with flour, and cook in a moderate oven. When the crust has set firm, take out of the oven; remove all the flour, brushing it out clean; now take off the mould; and wash over the case inside and out with egg; return the case to the oven and continue baking till quite dry, firm, and of good colour on the outside. This, then, is the timbale in contrariness to raised pies, and ahhousjh the shapes, sizes, and appearance may differ otherwise, they are all alike, and as the crust is not intended to be eaten, the commoner sorts can be used; by common in this connection, I mean so far as richness is concerned. Of course, all materials used must be of the very best quality procurable. The case being ready, we will proceed to make the filling. Take 3 dozen larks, remove the gizzards and cut off the necks and feet; season the birds with salt and pepper, and cook them in a saut pan with a little butter over the stove. When done, drain the larks. Make the forcemeat No. 74, add to it some chopped and cooked mushrooms, a few truffles, and any remains of game or poultry you may have. Make up into quenelles, about the size of walnuts, and poach them in Raised Pies and Timbales. hot water; then brown them in boiling lard. Take 4 eggs; put them into a basin; add a little vinegar, some chopped truffles, salt and pepper, and beat well together. Have on your stove a pan of water with a handful of salt in it; then take up a portion of the prepared eggs, and when the water is boiling, drop in the egg and poach it. If carefully done, it will result in nicely shaped pieces about Fig. 70. - Mauviette a la Ottoman en Timbale.

the size of your quenelles. Now cut a piece of bread that will nearly fill the timbale and fry it in hot lard. Arrange the larks, quenelles, and poached eggs upon this, covering above the paste with a row of larks round the top with their breasts outwards. Pour over some rich brown gravy; set up three attelettes and send to table as shown in the illustration (Fig. 70). Savoury Pastry. No. 88.- Timbale of Quails.

Make the case in the same way as directed in the previous recipe. Pick and singe eight fine quails; take out the backbone, and cut off their necks and feet; then truss them with their legs inwards, and wipe them clean with a cloth; put them into a stewpan with a little butter, 3 ozs. or 4 ozs. of grated bacon, a spoonful of chopped parsley, three or four champignons, and a shallot chopped fine; season with a little salt and grated nutmeg; set it over the fire and simmer gently for about a quarter of an hour, turning them several times during the process. Take up the quails on to a dish, and glaze their breasts. Make the forcemeat No. 74; add in a good seasoning of aromatic mixture No. 11 (see page 31) and two or three spoonsful of sweets herbs (chopped fine); mix well and make up into quenelles; poach and lay aside. When done, arrange them into the case, keeping the birds for the top, and make hot in the oven. When about to serve, pour over some thick brown gravy and then place on some fine dressed white mushrooms.

No. 89.- Timbale of Snipe.

These are prepared in exactly the same way as either of those previously given.

All kinds of game or poultry can be served in the same way, the principal thing to remember is that it must be thoroughly cooked before being put into the timbale. Savoury Dish Pies. Chapter VII. SAVOURY DISH PIES.

UNDER this heading will be found all kinds of savoury dish pies, together with some few fish pies, which, although not so popular as they were a few years back, may still find customers who have a weakness for them.

No. 90 -Rump Steak PieDishes can be procured suitable for these goods from nearly every china merchant in plain white china or earthenware, but where a high-class catering business is done and many dish pies are sent out, it would be advisable to have your name burnt in the bottom of every dish, as shown in Fig. 71. Of course, you will require them of Fig. 71.- Pattern of Dish.

various sizes, but the fruit-pie dishes (see "Practical Pastry," page 172) in which you make your is. tarts, would be 3s. 6d. if filled with meat; the is. 6d. dish will hold 4s. 6d. meat, and the 2s. fruit dish a ss. 6d. meat pie, and so on, in proportion. Procure a very tender rump steak, and beat it with a steak bat or rolling-pin; then cut up into suitable size pieces; season with pepper and salt; dust with flour; cook half-a-dozen eggs hard, and slice them up; then proceed to fill the dish up level to the top of the rim, slightly higher in the Savoury Pastry. centre. Take a sheet of puff paste No. i, and roll it down to Yz in. in thickness; let it rest for half-an-hour; then cut off strips for the rim about i J ins. wide; wet the rim of the pie dish with water or egg, and lay round the strips of paste, pressing them nicely into position; fill up the dish with water or gravy; damp round the edges and place on the top. Press round and trim off (see Fig. 72) all surplus paste with a very sharp knife. Fig. 72. - Showing how the Paste is trimmed from the Pie.

slanting the blade outwards at the top, so that the crust will slant outwards from the dish to nearly J in. over the sides of the dish; make a hole in the centre with the point of a sharp knife to let out the air, and work up the edge carefully with your hands; notch round coarsely with your knife, and wash over the top with beaten up Now roll down some puff paste trimmings very thin, and cut into square leaves with a knife, afterwards scoreing the leaves in the same manner as directed on Savoury Dish Pies. page 69, but, of course, cutting them larger. You will require seven leaves for this pie, and when you have got them all ready, arrange them on the top of the pie as shown in Fig. 73, as follows: Fig. 73.- Beef Steak Pie.

Lay on the two end leaves; wash with egg; then put on the two at the sides, then two more at the ends; then cut one leaf rather larger, and put the two points of the leaf into the vent, and lay it down into position; wash the whole over with egg, and bake in a solid oven. When done, fold a napkin and pin it round the dish, or use a paper grill made expressly for the purpose. They can be served either hot or cold as your customers may desire.

Some people have a natural aversion to both shalots and onions, so I have purposely omitted them. If desired, chop them up very fine before adding them to the meat. Again, some folks object to eggs, so they can be omitted, if desired.

No. 91.- Steak and Kidney Pie.

Beat the steak as before directed; skin the kidneys and cut up into convenient pieces in the proportion of i lb. steak to 6 ozs. of kidney (either ox or sheep's can be used, as you can procure them, but the ox are to be preferred); season with pepper and dust with flour; fill into the dish; add in some water or stock; cover with best paste No. i, as directed in the previous recipe; decorate with leaves; wash over with egg and bake in a solid oven. j

Hard-boiled eggs can be added, and some prefer Savoury Pastry. a little finely-minced mushroom, which is considered a very great improvement.

No. 92.- Steak and Mushroom Pie.

Proceed exactly the same as directed for steak and kidney, first cleansing the mushrooms by peeling and wiping in a clean cloth. Chop up the mushrooms rather fine; put in a layer of meat seasoned with pepper and salt and dusted with flour; lay on plenty of the chopped mushrooms with a few pieces of butter; then more meat, and continue till your dish is full; fill with water or stock; lay the rim round; place on the lid; notch round; decorate with leaves; wash over with egg, and bake in a moderate oven to a nice colour.

No. 93.- Steak and Oyster Pie.

This is invariably appreciated whenever introduced, and I consider it the premier dish pie. The best meat for this purpose is the undercut of the sirloin or fillet. Procure a nice cut with the fat upon it, and cut it up into neat pieces, and to every pound of beef eight oysters of medium size are necessary. Open the oysters, turning them into a basin with their juices; put them into a stewpan, and just bring to the boil - no more; take them out, trim, and lay them aside; take the meat, season with salt and pepper and a little finely-chopped mushrooms, and place a layer of the seasoned meat at the bottom of the dish; on that lay half the oysters, then more meat, now the remainder of the oysters, finish with meat; pour in the liquor from the oysters, and, if not enough to fill the dish, add some water or stock; lay round the rim; put on the lid, notch, egg over, decorate the top with leaves, and bake in a moderate oven. When done serve very hot. This is really the prince of pies, fit to grace the table of the grandest banquet. The price of this pie must, of course, be a little in advance of the plainer ones, but not so dear as to prove prohibitive.

Canned oysters can be used if economy is an object, but I would not advise you to use them if you can avoid it, as the canned oysters eating very tough and leathery, Savoury Dish Pies. betray their origin, and you will see the oysters picked out and returned to the kitchen on the side of the plate. That is, of course, if the people know what they are eating, but, fortunately, the majority of them don't.

No. 94. -Veal Pie.

Veal alone for pies will make but very indifferent fare, but it can nevertheless be converted into a very tasty dish. Take about i lbs. of a nice veal cutlet, 3 hardboiled eggs, and 6 ozs. of mild pickled pork, which should be laid in water all night to extract the salt; cut up the veal into neat pieces; season with pepper and salt; put it into a frying-pan with a piece of butter; set it over the stove and slightly brown the outsides, but do not cook thoroughly. Take the meat from the pan; put in a little water or stock and thicken it over the fire, making about pint of good thick gravy; put a layer of the pickled pork, cut very thin, in the bottom of the dish; then a layer of the cooked veal; and then the eggs sliced; then more pork; then veal; then eggs; then pork; and finish with veal; pour in the gravy; put round the rim; lay on the lid; notch; decorate with leaves; wash over with egg and bake in a moderate oven.

No. 95.- Veal and Ham Pie.

This is a pie Jar excellence. Take a nice cut of the fillet; of veal and cut it up into neat pieces; to every I J lbs. of veal take lb. of dressed ham in thin slices and 3 hard-boiled eggs; cut the ham into suitable size pieces, not too large: put a layer of veal into the dish; then some ham; and then some hard-boiled eggs sliced very thin. Continue this till you have filled the dish; then cover as before directed and bake. A little mixed dried herbs can be added if liked, and by some is considered an improvement.

No. 96- Veal, Ham, and Tongue Pie.

This is a regular composition pie, but withal very tasty and nice, and by some people preferred to the veal and ham just given. The best proportions are i lb. fillet of Savoury Pastry. veal; lb. cooked ham, cut thin; lb. cooked tongue, also cut thin; and 2 hard-boiled eggs. Put into the dish a layer of veal, nicely seasoned, then a layer of ham, tongue, and hard-boiled eggs, shred very thin, and continue thus till you have filled the dish; add water or stock for gravy; lay round the rim, place on the lid, notch, decorate with leaves, egg over, and bake in a moderate oven. A few chopped mushrooms can be added, if liked, and some dried herbs would improve.

No. 97.- Mutton Pie.

At one time mutton pie was a regular institution in this country, but of late years they have fallen somewhat to the rear. However, 'as some of my readers may be called upon to make them for their customers, 1 give it here. Trim off the whole of the meat from a loin or neck of mutton, and cut it up into neat callops; season with salt and pepper, add a dust of flour, and fill it into the dish; lay a rim round the edge, place on the lid, notch round, decorate with leaves, wash over with egg, and bake in a moderate oven.

Particularly note that you do not use too much fat in these pies, or they will not eat at all nice. Legs of frozen mutton are the most profitable joints to use for these pies - that is, of course, if you are making more than one and can use up the whole joint into pies.

No. 98.- Pork Pie.

For this pie choose nice young lean meat; cut it into neat pieces; season with salt, pepper, and some dried sage, rubbed fine; fill it' into a dish; cover with puff paste, notch round, and decorate with leaves; egg over, and bake in a moderate oven. This makes a very rich-eating pie; but the raised pies (Chapter IV.) are preferred by the majority of our customers.

No. 99.- Venison Pasty.

Take a neck or breast of venison, or both, which are usually to be procured at small cost, and cut it up into neat, square pieces; season with salt, pepper, and a Savoury Dish Pies. few spoonsful of the aromatic mixture No. 11 (see page 31). Put the whole of it into a large jar, the bones of the venison at the bottom, and place on top a few good slices of a fat breast of mutton; pour in a glass of red wine and a little water; cover the mouth of the jar up with paper or a flour and water crust, and stand it at the mouth of the oven for a couple of hours. When done, arrange the pieces into a pie dish; fill up with the gravy; cover with a crust; decorate with leaves; wash over with egg; bake in a moderate oven, and serve, either hot or cold, with red-currant jelly. Fig. 74. - Pigeon Pie baked ready for Table.

No. 100.- Pigeon Pie.

These pies are made somewhat different for shop sale, than those usually supplied from the well-appointed kitchens of the wealthy. As a rule, orders for pigeon pies usually come in when pigeons are very high in price, leaving the maker a very small margin of profit, and compelling him to fill the dish with other meat, and make the birds go as far as possible. Select the dish, and have a nice tender beef steak; cut it up into nice collops; season with salt, pepper, and dust a handful of flour over; mix well together; draw the birds; wash out and cut them in halves down the centre of the breast, and then each half into halves again, having a wing on one quarter and a leg on the other; cut off the feet and the tips of the wings; scald -the feet, and lay them on one side; put the cut-up beef into the bottom of the dish, arrange the pigeons on top; then add a couple of hard-boiled eggs, cut into thin slices, and finish with a few thin rashers of very fine fat bacon or ready-cooked ham; fill up with Savoury Pastry. water or stock; then cover with best puff paste No. i; notch round the edge; decorate with leaves, as previously directed; place a flower in the centre, made as directed in No. 15, chapter IV., page 47; stick the pigeon's feet and pinions round the rose, as shown in the engraving (Fig. 74), and bake in a moderate oven to a nice colour.

No. 101 -Chicken Pie.

Parboil or partially cook a plump young pullet; then cut it up into neat pieces, not too large; take some ready-dressed ham cut into very thin slices, some hardboiled eggs an4 sufficient veal cutlet to conveniently fill the dish. The following will show you the correct proportions at a glance:

1 fat young chicken. 1 lb. veal cutlet. lb. dressed ham.

2 hard-boiled eggs.

Cut the veal up into neat square pieces, and cook in the water you parboiled the fowl in just now; season with a small piece of stick cinnamon, mace, a few cloves, peppercorns, and a very small bouquet of sweet herbs; cook for fifteen minutes, simmering very gently; take out the meat on to a clean plate, and strain the liquor into a clean pan for use presently. Put all the veal into the bottom of the dish, then a few slices of ham, and one of the eggs, thinly sliced; arrange the pieces of fowl, ham, and egg on top; season lightly with salt and pepper; pour on the prepared gravy; put on the crust, notch round, decorate with leaves, wash over with egg, and bake in a moderate oven.

No. 102.-aiblet Pie. A very excellent pie can be made from giblets, which are to be procured at almost every poulterer's at a very reasonable price; or, if you draw your own poultry, you may have them by you. Wash and cleanse them in warm water; then put them into a stewpan with a pint of water, seasoning it with salt, and pepper, and a spoonful of the aromatic mixture No. 11 (see Savoury Dish Pies. page 31); set it over the fire and simmer gently for twenty minutes; strain the gravy back into the stewpan, and slightly thicken with a little flour rubbed with a small piece of butter (see No. 33, Chapter V.); arrange the giblets into a convenient size dish, with pieces of ham, bacon, or pickled pork; pour in the gravy, put on the lid, notch round, decorate with leaves, wash over egg, and bake in a moderate oven.

No. 103.-Rabbit Pi.

Cut up the rabbit (wild, for preference) into neat pieces, and put it into a stewpan with a 'pint of water; add seasoning as directed in No. 102, and simmer gently for twenty minutes; then arrange the rabbit in the dish with some thin pieces of mild pickled pork; pour in the gravy, put on the lid, notch round, decorate with leaves, wash over with egg, and bake in a moderate oven.

No. 104.- Duck Pie.

Follow out the instructions given for Chicken Pie (No. loi), substituting beef steak for veal. No. 105.- Hare Pie.

Cut up, wash, and put into a stewpan, with half a pint of water a gill of port wine and a tablespoonful of the aromatic mixture No. 11 (see page 31), and simmer gently for twenty minutes; strain and thicken the gravy as directed in No. 102; lay the best pieces of hare into the dish with some forcemeat balls (No. 74), to which has been added the liver and a good flavouring of aromatic mixture No. 11, and a small portion of fat ham; pour in the prepared gravy with another glass of port and the juice of half a lemon; put on the lid; decorate, wash over with egg, and bake in a moderate 106.- Game Pies.

All kinds of game and wildfowl can be used for dish pies, following out any of the previously given recipes. Savoury Pastry. No. 107.- Beef Pie k la Yanderbilt (Pt de Boeuf k la Vanderbilt).

Take about 4 lbs. of fillet of beef from the sirloin and lard it thickly all over with lardoons of fat bacon; prepare a braising pot (see No. 78) with the usual vegetables; put in the fillet of beef; place on the lid and cook. When done and quite tender cut up into neat square pieces, and proceed to fill it into a deep round pie dish alternately, with 6 dozen oysters and i dozen hard-boiled new laid eggs; season with pepper, salt, and the aromatic mixture No. 11 (see page 31). When you Fig. 75.- Beef Pie a la Vanderbilt.

have filled the dish take the juices from the braising pot, add some seasoning, and a gill of best pale French brandy and half a ladle of good thick stock or glaze. Taste, and, if to your liking, strain into the dish; put on a lid of best puff paste No. i; notch round the edge, and elaborately decorate the top with very thin puff paste trimming; cut out into leaves and flowers. After the pie is baked, add in any remaining gravy, and serve either hot or cold as required. It will be unnecessary for me to remind my readers that this is rather an expensive dish and can only be made to order upon the occasion of some special festival. A few large mushrooms chopped fine can be added, if they are liked - and are some little improvement. VjOOQIC Savoury Dish Pies. No. 108.- Veal Pie k la Furieuses.

Take a large size oval pie dish and line it with one of the boiled pastes, No. 5 to No. 9 (see pages 29-30); fill the dish with bran and bake. When done, brush out the inside, lift from the dish, and wash over inside and out with well beaten up egg; set it on a baking-plate, and return to the oven to well colour and dry. The result should be a nice rich brown case exactly the same shape as the pie dish. Now roll down a sheet of puff paste No i, and cut out a piece shaped exactly as the dish, allowing it to be slightly larger to allow for shrinking, and large enough to form a lid as if it had been baked on the top of the case. When finished, notch round the edge with the point of a sharp knife; place it on a sheet of paper on a baking-sheet, and decorate the top with leaves; let it stand a short time, then bake to a nice colour in a moderate oven. Now take in proportion i j4 lbs. of fillet of veal, lb. of cooked ham, and 4 eggs; free the veal from all bone, skin, or sinews, and plunge it into boiling water placed in a stewpan over the fire, and let it cook for about twenty minutes or longer, according to size. When done, take it up and press it between two dishes with a weight on top. When quite cold, loosen it from the dishes with a palette knife and wipe it dry with a clean cloth. Put the ham into a mortar with 2 hard boiled eggs and a piece of butter and pound it down to a smooth paste; season well with cayenne and a few pinches of the aromatic mixture No. 11 (see page 31), and when you have pounded up a sufficient quantity of ham, take theveal and spread both sides with the ham; afterwards, cut up into i-in. square pieces; beat up the remaining eggs and cook them over the fire the same as you would stirred eggs. When done, turn out of the jpot on to your chopping board and mince them up quite fine with a small quantity of fresh green parsley; now proceed to arrange these ingredients in the paste pie-mould, packing neatly, but not too close. Now prepare the following sauce or gravy: - Take 2 ozs. of butter; put it into a saut pan and stand over the fire; dredge in about i oz. Savoury Pastry. of flour and cook over the fire till quite brown; add i pint of good brown stock and turn into a deep stewpan '; add lb. of shred cooking apples; set it over the fire and stir till the apples are cooked; then add a glass of brandy, another of port; a wee pinch of sugar and plenty of cayenne (yet do not overdo it). When it thickens continue to stir till nearly cold, and just on the point of setting; then pour it into the pie-case over the meat.; place on the lid and serve cold. If your sauce will not set firm, add a few sheets of gelatine while boiling. Price from xos. 6d. upwards, according to size; a very tasty dish, eminently suitable for ball suppers where the wine list is not free.

No. 109.- Sweetbreads Pie.

Take three or four sweetbreads, and soak them in warm water for a couple of hours to disgorge or blanche; cool, and cut into neat callops; set them on the fire in a clean stewpan with a pottle of small button mushrooms, and about a quart of white stock; stew gently till tender; lay the sweetbreads in a deep pie dish, with the mushrooms, and about a dozen of white forcemeat balls (No. 74), the green tips of a dozen asparagus, and the yolks of six eggs, poached as follows: Take a stewpan of boiling water set it over the fire to boil steadily; select half a dozen small eggs, break them carefully, and separate the whites, from the yolks, without breaking, and as you separate them, turn the yolks into the water, and cook till hard; when cold, they will be as required. After you have filled up the pie dish and seasoned to your liking, fill up with gravy, cover with best pufif paste, notch round, decorate with leaves, put a large rose in the centre, glaze over with egg, and bake in a moderate oven. When done, remove the rose from the centre, and fill up the pie with some of the gravy reserved for the purpose; put a dish frill or folded napkin round, and serve steaming No. 110.- Tongue Pie.

Take any remains of roast or boiled poultry, and pick all the meat free from bones; put all fair-sized pieces Savoury Dish Pies. aside, and all the small scraps into a mortar; add some seasoning, a little butter, andpounddowntoa smooth paste, and make it up into small portions, about the size of walnuts. Then take the remains of an ox tongue, cut it up into neat and convenient sized pieces, season, and fill into a pie dish alternate layers of tongue, chicken, forcemeat balls, and some hard poached egg yolks, as directed in No. 109. When the dish is quite full, add in some good gravy or stock; cover with puff paste, and decorate according to your fancy; wash over with egg, and bake in a moderate oven. Dish with an ornamental pie frill or folded napkin, and serve hot.

No. 111.- Pie k la Canova.

Boil for a few minutes to soften lb. of macaroni, and cut it up into inch lengths; slightly butter a deep pie dish, and line the sides with boiled crust. No. 5 to No. 9, (see pages 29 and 30). Then take the short pieces of macaroni, already prepared, and set them upright on the bottom of the dish, and close together; spread a layer of forcemeat No. 74, over the bottom, and then fill the dish with a rich filling of game; cover the pie with some hot water paste; wash over and bake in a moderate oven. When done, lay a lace paper on a dish and turn it out, macaroni upwards; serve with plenty of green parsley round. A very dry eating pie but has a very good effect, on account of the honeycomb appearance of the top. Serve hot.

No. 112.- Artichoke Pie. Boil one dozen artichokes, or more, according to the size of your pie; take off the leaves, and chokes, and the bottoms, clear from the stalks; lay a lb. of good sweet butter in the bottom of the dish, on that a layer of artichokes, sprinkle in a little pepper and sallt and some powdered mace; then add the remainder of the artichokes, and season as before, and then lay another j lb. of butter over the top, broken up into small pieces; chop up some truffles very fine and sprinkle over. Then to every artichoke used, poach the yolk of an Savoury Pastry. egg as directed in No. 109, and lay them round the inside of the pie dish; pour in some white wine or stock; cover with best puff paste; decorate according to fancy, wash over with egg, and bake in a warm oven. By the time the crust is cooked, the pie will be done. Do not over season it.

No. 113- Eel Pie.

Skin, wash, and trim the eels; cut them in pieces about two inches long; season with salt and pepper; fill into the dish, add half a pint of water or veal stock; put on a crust of best puff paste, decorate with leaves (having a rose for the centre), wash over with egg, and bake in a moderate oven. When done, remove the rose from the top with the point of a sharp knife, and fill the dish with gravy or sauce made as follows: Take all the trimmings of the eels, heads, tails, &c., and boil them in about half a pint of good veal stock; season with salt and pepper, and the strained juice of half a lemon; strain; then thicken with a little flour and butter, the same as directed in No. 33, Chapter V., and fill up the pie with it. Do not put heads or tails into the pie under any consideration.

No. 114.- Salmon Pie.

Take a piece of salmon, clean, and season with salt, mace, and nutmeg; rub over the bottom of the dish with a piece of sweet butter, lay in the salmon, and then take a tin of lobster and chop up the meat very fine, and mix it into some sauce made as directed in the previous recipe, and pour into the dish. Put on a thin crust of best puff paste; decorate with leaves, wash over with egg, and bake carefully in a moderate oven.

No. 115.- Turbot, or Cod Pie.

Parboil the fish and season with salt, pepper, cloves, nutmeg, and sweet herbs chopped fine; lay the fish into the dish with some hard poached yolks of eggs (see No. 109) and a small onion or eschalot chopped fine. Put on top a few pieces of butter; cover with best puff paste, decorate, wash with egg, and bake. Soles, herrings, plaice, &c., can be used in the same manner; oysters may Savoury Dish Pies. be added if required; all kinds of fish left over can be used for either pies or patties. Let your stocks and sauces, as far as possible, be made and flavoured in accordance with the character of the fish used for the different pies.

No. 116.- Lobster Pie.

This can be made from either fresh or canned lobster; for example I choose the canistered. Open the tins and pick out all the finest pieces and lay them aside on a clean plate; pound up all the remainder with a little butter in a mortar, season with essence of anchovies, pepper, and tarragon vinegar, or lenion juice. When well pounded, put it into a stewpan with half a pint of water, or veal stock, and i oz. of fine flour, mixed with butter, the same as directed in No. 28, Chapter V., and stir it over the fire till it thickens; then mix in the reserved lobster cut to neat pieces, and turn into the dish; put on the crust, decorate with leaves, wash over with egg, and bake in a moderate oven. As soon as the crust is cooked, the pie is done.

No. 117.- Oyster Pie.

. It is most economical to use canistered oysters. Open two or three tins as required; keep the oysters whole, and drain the juice into a stewpan; add pepper, essence of anchovies, nutmeg (grated), and vinegar; thicken it over the fire with about 2 ozs. of butter and fine flour rubbed together, as directed in No. 33, Chapter V. Mik in the oysters and fill the dish; put on a crust of best puff" paste, decorate with leaves, wash over with egg, and bake in a moderate oven. Of course, fresh oysters will make a far superior pie to the canistered, and where the price is no consideration I would advise you to use them; but for ordinary purposes the canistered answer admirably.

With fish pies, where the fish is cooked, a puff paste lid can be made in the same way as directed for Veal Pie k la Furieuses (No. 108); and when the dish is filled, place the lid into position and serve. You must, however, pay particular attention to have the crust neat, and the same size and shape as the dish in which you propose to make the pies. Savoury Pastry. Chapter VIll.

VOL-AU-VENTS AND AND THEIR FILLINGS.

PRACTICALLY a Vol-au-Vent is nothing but a large patty; but instead of being made for individual service, like the patty, it is cut, spooned, and helped round to the guests; but being large, a great deal more patience and ingenuity is usually practised upon them, in order to make them more acceptable, and thus it comes that the fillings kre not only very savoury and tasty, but at the same time rather expensive. The process of building up the cases being rather complicated, I propose to devote some space to the subject. Fig. 76. - Showing how to cut out a Vol-au-Vent Case.

No. 118.- How to make VoI-au-Vent Ga.ses.

Take the best puff paste No. i, and instead of only giving three turns, as directed, give it a fourth, finishing the sheet to the thickness required - generally from y in. to I in. will be found to give the most satisfactory results. After it is rolled out, let it lie for half-an:hour. Now take 1 the lid of a saucepan of suitable size for your purpose, Vol-au-Vents and their Fii.lings. and lay it upon the sheet, and with a sharp knife dipped in hot water, proceed to cut it out, as shown in the illustration Fig. 76, holding the knife slightly at the bevel to ensure your piece of paste being somewhat larger at the bottom than the top when cut out. Have a very thick baking-plate, and lay a sheet of paper over it. Now take the cut-out piece of paste and turn it over, thus bringing the largest circle to the top; now with the point of your knife, score the top in the same manner as shown in the illustration Fig. 77, taking care to cut the inside ! circle nearly through to the tin; egg over, and when it has j stood for about twenty minutes, bake in a moderate oven., To prevent it taking on too much colour, cover over with Fig. 77. - The cut-out piece of Paste marked round with the point of a Knife to form Lid and Sides.

a sheet of newspaper, but do not cover over until your vol-au-vent has come up to its full extent. It will, if of moderate size, take about three quarters of an hour to bake. When it has been in the oven half-an-hour, draw up on to the " stock," and with a very sharp knife take off the ornamented top very carefully, and then scoop out the whole of the paste remaining underneath, leaving the sides and bottom rather thin, but of sufficient strength to hold the diflferent fillings presently described. This is the simplest and most expeditious way to make the case, and it will be, when baked, about 3 ins. in height; but as cases are often wanted twice or three times that height, I will explain the method adopted to obtain them. Of course, it would be an impossibility to make them from one piece of paste to rise in flakes to anything like Savoury Pastry. that height, even although you were to bake it in a paper case, for the shape would be very uncertain and unsatisfactory; and if you were to try to get it without a case, it would in nine cases out of ten topple over and be spoilt. The best way, and that which I have been most successful with, is to roll the paste down, after it has had the four turns, to about in. in thickness, and let it lie about twenty minutes, and then cut' out three or four pieces, for each case required, in the same way as previously directed, but instead of leaving the paste in the centre of them all, take it out, making rings of all but those required for the bottom, which should be treated in the same manner as previously directed. Wash over with egg, taking care that it does not run down the sides, for that would prevent the rings especially from coming up even. Set the pieces on a sheet of paper on a baking-plate, and bake in a moderate oven; remove the paste from those pieces required for the bottoms, as previously directed. Now trim off the egged top and brown bottom from all the rings, with the exception of the ring that forms the top, on which leave the egg-glaze; place the bottoms on the board and arrange the rings upon them, fitting them together as neat and close as you can. When you have built them up to your satisfaction, take a tablespoonful of flour and put it into a clean basin; break an egg into it, and mix into a smooth soft paste with a wooden spoon; if too thick, add more egg, and with a small egg-brush wash over the top and bottom edges of your rings, and fix them together as required. When you have obtained the height desired, set them on a baking-plate; cover with a sheet of newspaper, and dry them in the mouth of the oven. Providing you have carried out these instructions properly, the case will be a very handsome production. In fixing the pieces together, take particular care to have the joints neat and as imperceptible as possible, giving to the whole the appearance of being composed of one piece of paste only. Vol-au-Vents and their Fillings. Another method is to make two cases as first described, and when baked to join their two tops together - of course, taking off sufficient of the paste to make them upright and fit properly together; then take the bottom off the top to allow the filling to be introduced. This makes a very pretty shaped case (Fig 78) if they have come up Fig. 7S. - Vol-au-Vent Case ready for filling.

evenly in the oven; if not, you must use your ingenuity to trim them into a presentable appearance. Be careful to stop up all holes there may be in the sides after you have emptied the interiors with pieces of the crust that you have trimmed off, sticking it in firmly with the egg paste before described. Besides plain cases, which may be either round, oval, or square, there are others which require to be more elaborate, and are cut out with cutters sold expressly for the purpose, either scalloped or vandyked, round or oval. The cutters, when used, require to be dipped into hot water, and I will here explam why. Probably you may have noticed when cutting out your penny tarts that in pressing the cutter into the paste you drive down the paste with the cutter, giving it the appearance of having a slightly rounded edge; by the use of hot water this is avoided; you cut out the pieces with a sharp edge instead of a round. In all other particulars the directions previously given will apply.

If you have not any fancy cutters and yet require a fancy case, after you have cut out the paste quite plain Savoury Pastry. take a very sharp knife and cut out little V-shaped pieces - see Fig. 79. By taking pains you can produce a very excellent vandyked case. Wash over the top with egg, and bake in a moderate oven. Fig. 79.-Vlovf a Vol-au-Vent Case can be vandyked round if you have no lars;e Cutter. No. 119.- Lobster Vol au- Vent Homard). Volau-Vent de By referring to the illustration (Fig 80), you will see that the case is rather composite. First make the bottom, either cutting out with a vandyke cutter, or in the same way as directed in No. 118; set it on to a sheet of paper on a baking-plate; then cut out the plain top a trifle smaller, wash over, and bake in a moderate oven. When done, take out the centres, and fix together with egg paste. Now for the filling. Procure as large a lobster as you can get for a shilling, and as you only require the shell for use, it is unnecessary to be too particular about the quality, but, at the same time, get the shell as large as you possibly can. Now open a canister of lobster and turn it on to a plate, and pick out all the best and whitest of the meat and lay it aside; put the remainder into the mortar with a good-sized piece of best and whitest of the meat and lay it aside; put the remainder into the mortar with a good-sized piece of butter, and pound to a smooth paste; season with cayenne, salt, Tarragon vinegar, and essence of anchovies. When well pounded, put into a stewpan, with % pint of veal stock or water; rub 2 ozs. of butter, with i J ozs. of fine flour, in the same way as directed in No. 33; Vol-au-Vents and their Fillings. add it into the stewpan, and stir over the fire till it thickens; it must not be too thick, and be careful to cook the flour, or it will eat clammy. When done, carefully mix in the reserved pieces of fish, cut into small pieces; taste, and if savoury enough, fill into the case; place on the lid, set it on a lace paper on a dish, and garnish with the empty lobster shell, as shown in the illustration (Fig. 80); a little endive or parsley will be an Fig. 80. - Vol-au-Vent de Homard.

improvement to the appearance. Price would be from 5 s. to I OS. 6d., according to size.

Of course, if there is any meat in the lobster purchased for garnishing, it should be mixed into the filling.

No. 120.- Oyster Vol-au-Vent (Vol-au-Vent de Hultres).

I tin oysters.

I small tin mushrooms.

I dozen fresh oysters.

Mode. - Take the tin of mushrooms and oysters and empty their contents into a stewpan; set them over the Savoury Pastry. fire and bring to the boil; then rub them through a fine wire sieve into a clean basin; after you have passed the whole of the oysters and mushrooms, pour the puree back into the stewpan, add a tablespoonful of essence of anchovies, a tablespoonful of Tarragon vinegar, a little cayenne pepper, and one gill of milk or cream; rub together 2 ozs. of butter with the same quantity of flour, as directed in No. 33; add it to the mixture in the stewpan, with a rub or two of nutmeg, and stir over the fire till it thickens; scald the fresh oysters in their own liquor for five minutes, then cut them up, add them into the sauce, stir well together, and fill into a plain oval or round case previously prepared, and set on a lace paper on a silver dish; garnish with endive or parsley, and sell at 5s. to I OS. 6d., according to size.

No. 121.- Sweetbread Vol-au-Vent (Vol-au-Vent de Ris de Veau).

Cut out and prepare a plain oval case. For the filling

3 sweetbreads (lamb's). X lb. tongue (dressed). 6 truffles. I small tin champignons.

Mode. - Scald and blanch the sweetbreads in warm water for a couple of hours; then cook them for a quarter of an hour; take up, trim, and cut up into neat pieces, not too small; put the pieces into a clean stewpan, with the tongue cut into very thin pieces; add the mushrooms whole and the truffles chopped into neat dice, the liquor from the mushrooms, and about half a pint of good stock; simmer gently for about ten minutes; then strain the liquor, taking care not to break any of the pieces of the meat; put the liquor into the stewpan, and thicken over the fire with a little flour rubbed with the butter as before directed; mix in the meat and fill the case, piling it up rather high in the centre, reserving some of the best-looking pieces to garnish the top, using some fine green parsley to obtain a good effect. Price would be from 7s. 6d. upwards. Vol-au-Vents and their Fillings. No. 122.- Vol-au- Vent k la Financire. Make a case in the same way as directed in No. 1 1 8, and bake, taking care not to cook too much; then prepare the following filling:

I pint tin clear soup.

X lb. dressed tongue.

i lb. breast of chicken (roast or boiled).

% lb. sweetbreads (dressed).

I small tin champignons.

I small tin cockscombs.

4 large preserved French truffles.

J4 oz. gelatine.

Mode. - Turn the mushrooms, cockscombs and their liquor into a stewpan, andsimmer gently for ten minutesFig. 81. - Vol au-Vent 4 U Financiere.

soak the gelatine in half-a-pint of cold water; strain the liquor from the mushrooms and cockscombs; turn them on to a plate and stand aside; cut the tongue, chicken and sweetbread up into neat callops, as near alike as possible, and set them aside. Put the liquor into a stewpan with the gelatine and tin of soup; give it a boil up; season with a little salt, pepper or cayenne; taste and - if nicely flavoured - thicken with two tablespoonsful of arrowroot; wet with a little cold water; then stir over the fire till it thickens. CareSavoury Pastry. fully stir in the whole of the ingredients, and the truffles cut up into thin slices. Warm up, and fill hot into the case, reserving some of the best pieces to garnish the top, as shown in the illustration (Fig. 8i), using some fine green young parsley to set it off. Dish on a lace paper on a silver dish. A glass of sherry would improve the sauce. Price, from 7 s. 6d. upwards.

It will, no doubt, be remarked by the professional portion of my readers that these fillings are somewhat different to those usually found in cookery books, and although this is the case I can safely say that the method I give will prove satisfactory to your patrons. The reason for the difference is this: - In the ordinary routine of the pastrycook's existence, he has often to prepare these dainties at very short notice, without any sort of a warning, and having often worked these methods successfully, 1 give them to you. It will be noticed that I resort pretty frequently to the store cupboard, but would certainly not do so if I had stoves going in the kitchen from which to supply my wants; but it is to aid those who often have an opportunity of taking a small order, and could probably do so if they knew how. By studying these pages, they will certainly know how, and practice must make them perfect.

No. 123 -Kidney Vol-au Vent (Vol-au-Vent de Bognons).

For this cut out a plain oval case, rather high, and bake as previously directed in No. 118. For the filling

( lb. kidneys.

X lb. butter.

i pint tin clear soup.

X oz. aromatic mixture (No. ii).

Mode. - Wash the kidneys and slice them up very thin with a sharp knife; put them into a stewpan with the butter, some of the aromatic mixture, a little salt and pepper; set them over the fire and fry till brown. When done, turn in the soup and the remainder of the aromatic mixture, and stew gently for a short time. Take up the VoL-AU- Vents and their Fillings. kidney, add to the sauce a little cayenne and two tablespoonsful of Worcester sauce, and if to your taste thicken with a little flour and butter, rubbed together as previously directed - it should be pretty thick - and then stir in the kidneys; fill into the case, place on the lid, and serve. Price 5s. to los. 6d., according to size.

No, 124.- Pigeon Vol-au-Vent k la Publisher (Vol-ku- Vent de Pigeons k la £diteur).

Prepare a plain oval case to the following dimensions - 9 ins. long, 6 ins. wide, and 8 ins. high after it is baked. For the filling take:

4 pigeons.

X lb. lean ham.

lb. sausage meat (pork).

X lb. veal.

I small tin champignons.

Mode. - Bone the pigeons and cut them in halves. If you cannot do this yourself, the poulterers will do it for you, but you will want the carcases. Trim up, not small or too large, and lay aside; put half the ham, the whole of the veal, and sausage meat into a mortar, and beat to a smooth mass. Then rub into it 2 ozs. of crumb of bread, soaked in milk and squeezed dry; mix it all thoroughly together, seasoning with salt, pepper, mace, the juice of half a lemon, and bind together with an egg. Put about a teaspoonful of this forcemeat on each of the halves of the pigeons, and make them up into neat fillets in the shape of a very small ham, binding them up with wide tape to keep them in shape, with the leg and claw protruding. Put the whole of the trimmings, carcases, &c., into the stewpan, the ham cut up neatly, the tin of mushrooms, and the liquor, some lemon thyme, bayleaf, cloves, peppercorns, mace, half a small onion, and an inch of carrot. Add about a pint of veal stock, and give it a boil up to extract all the flavour. It should be reduced to nearly half a pint, strain it, and take out the best pieces of ham and the mushrooms, and lay them aside on a plate; return the scraps to the stewpan; add another pint of stock; Savoury Pastry. set the pigeons upon the top of the scraps, and simmer gently till done. Take up the pigeons; let them get cold; unroll them and glaze with a brush, and stand aside to set firm. Now take the remainder of the forcemeat, and make up into little quenelles, half of them round, and the remainder of them oval and flat; poach them as before directed in the liquor in the stewpan. When done, put the oval ones aside, and egg the round ones over; roll in breadcrumbs, and fry in boiling fat to a nice golden colour. There should be from eight to twelve of each. Strain the whole of the sauce into a Fig. 82.- Vol-au-Vent de Pigeons a la Editeur.

clean stewpan; give it a boil up, and thicken with a little arrowroot; fill up the case with the quenelles, mushrooms, ham, and some of the pigeons, reserving the best pieces for the top; fill up with the thickened sauce; pile the remainder of the meat upon the top (Fig. 82); sauce carefully over; dish on a lace paper on a silver dish; garnish with some sprigs of parsley, and serve. Sell from 7s. 6d. and upwards, according to size. This will be found a very expensive dish, and when made is of firstclass quality. VoL-Au- Vents and their Fillings. 125.- Chicken Volau-Vent (Vol-au-Vent Poularde).

This is usually served in plain round or oval cases; the size and height being, of course, according to price. For the filling take:

I tin of boiled chicken.

X lb. cooked ham.

X lb. veal.

I small tin mushrooms.

Mode.- Open the tin of chicken, and pick out all the primest pieces, and lay them aside on a clean plate; put half the remaining meat into the mortar, and pound it up well; put the remainder of the contents of the canister into a stewpan, with the veal and ham cut up small, some peppercorns, cloves, mace, and a few herbs; add a pint of stock or water; set it over the fire, and simmer gently for twenty minutes. At the end of that time take up the ham, and cut up the best of it into neat fillets, which place with the prime pieces of fowl already picked out; put the remainder of the meat into the mortar, and pound it up well; mix with that first pounded; season with salt, pepper, and add a small piece of the crumb of bread soaked in milk and squeezed dry; bind the mass together with a couple of eggs, and form into quenelles about the size and shape of half a walnut, and poach these carefully in the sauce. Now strain the sauce into another stewpan; add the liquor from the mushrooms, and about a dozen of the smallest; cook for about ten minutes. Take up the mushrooms, and thicken up the sauce with a little cornflour or arrowroot; stir in the pieces of fowl and ham, reserving a little of the sauce; fill into the case; pile the quenelles round the edge neatly on top of the case; put the mushrooms in the centre; pour the sauce over, and serve as before directed. Price from 7s. 6d. and upwards.

No. 126.- Quail Vol-au-Vent (Vol-au-Vent de Cailles).

Cut out a nice oblong vol au-vent case (see illustration, i Fig. 83), and bake. It should be as large as the dish will allow,, and about 4 ins. in height when baked. Roast the birds Savoury Pastry. carefully, covering their breasts with a thin slice of fat bacon. When done, cut them in halves, and glaze each half nicely with some strong brown glaze, which dry by setting at the mouth of the oven. Mix the juice that has run from the birds into half a pint tin of clear soup, and give it a boil up; skim off all fat; thicken with a little arrowroot, and stand aside. Take three or four cockscombs, blanch them in hot water; also take about J dozen champignons and 3 or 4 truffles; shred up into inch square pieces. Lay the birds neatly round in the case and warm the other ingredients in the sauce; stir Fig. 83.- Vol-au-Vent de Cailles.

over the fire; pour into the centre, reserving one of the birds for the top along with the cockscombs, truffles, and mushrooms, which arrange on top as shown in the illustration (Fig. 83) and serve. Price from 7s. 6d. upwards, I according to size.

No. 127.- Partridge Vol-au-Vent (Vol-au-Vent de Perdreaux).

Make a case similar to the one directed for the quails. Roast a pair of birds, and when partially cooked, trim off the breasts in neat fillets; take off the legs; slit open and take out all the bones; altogether, you will require about twenty pieces, which lay aside on a clean plate. Put all the scraps and bones into a stewpan, with cloves, peppercorns, mace, sweet herbs, half-an-onion, and about an inch of carrot; add i J pints of stock, and stew gently for Vol-au-Vents and their Fillings. about twenty minutes. Strain, and return the sauce into the stewpan; then pick out all of the best of the remaining meat; put it into the mortar and pound it up well, mixing in some of the aromatic mixture No. 11 (page 31); add a few breadcrumbs, and form it into a pliable paste with the yolk of an egg. Form this forcemeat into small round quenelles and poach them in boiling water as before directed. Now warm up the sauce and thicken with a little arrowroot, stirring over the fire till it thickens; then mix in the pieces of birds and quenelles; fill into the case and serve as before directed. Price from 7s. 6d. upwards.

All kinds of game can be used for these vol-au-vents, following any of the directions before given. Take special care to remove all bones, and season nicely with spices and herbs suitable to the kind of game used. If the flesh is white, keep the sauce the same colour; and if dark, have your sauce dark, rich, and thick.

They can be served either hot or cold. If served cold, be extra lavish with the parsley or green garnishing; or, if preferred, various coloured aspic jelly (No. 12), can be used with excellent effect.

No. 128.- Vol-au- Vent k la Camparte. Roll down your paste in the same way as directed in No. 118; then cut out your rings 8 ins. in diameter, and then one piece 9 ins. in diameter for the bottom; place the bottom and two of the rings on a sheet of paper on a baking-plate, quite plain; the other two rings vandyke round, as directed at the end of No. 118, and then place on the tin with the others, wash over with egg, and bake in a moderate oven. When done, build up, using the egg-paste to fix them together, and have the vandyked rings of paste for the top. Now prepare the following filling: - Take a boiled fowl, and trim off all the white meat from the breast and lay it aside on a clean plate. Put the remaining meat into a mortar, add the hardboiled yolks of 2 eggs, salt, pepper, and a good handful of breadcrumbs, and pound it all up into a pliable paste; taste, and if savoury enough, bind together with one or Savoury Pastry. more raw eggs; do not beat the eggs in, but mix very gently, and work up the paste in small cubes about i in. square; poach them, and stand aside. Now mince up the white meat very fine, but do not pound it; season with salt and white pepper, and then mix it into some Bechamel sauce (No. 129), and lay on a dish about J in. thick to set firm. Take about 6 ozs. of nice red readydressed tongue, and shave up with a very sharp knife into very thin slices. Pound up about % lb. of fineflavoured ham, adding a small portion of breadcrumbs and a spot of " Bole Armenia "; bind together with egg, and make into small marble quenelles. Poach the yolks of eight eggs as directed in No. 109, page 124. Open a small tin of champignons, and a small bottle of truffles. Now prepare about i quart of aspic jelly. No. 12 (see page 33), and, when on the point of setting, fill the case as follows: - Cut up the white Bechamel sauce into cubes, about the same size as those prepared from the pounded-up meat, and arrange the whole of the filling tastefully into the case, adding the aspic as you go along till the case is filled, reserving some of the bestlooking pieces for the top; pile in a pyramid, pour over the aspic, but not before it is on the point of setting, and serve cold on a lace paper on a silver dish. Price from 7s. 6d. upwards, according to size.

No. 129.- Bechamel Sauce.

Put a couple of ounces of butter into a stewpan with the same quantity of fine flour (Vienna), and stir it over the fire with a wooden spoon without allowing it to take on any colour; then gradually dilute with a pint of new milk and cream; season with salt and pepper, grated nutmeg, and a bay leaf; boil and stir again for about fifteen minutes, or longer if necessary; add a small piece more butter, and a wee pinch of sugar, and press through a napkin or tammy, and it is ready for use

I am very well aware that there is a more elaborate way of preparing this sauce in the kitchen; but for all purposes of the pastrycook's art, this will be found the most simple and expeditious way of preparing it. Vol-au-Vents and their Fillings. No. 130- Vol-au- Vent k la Sicrelly. Thisvol-au-vent differs from any of the others previously given, and when completed does not look like a vol-auvent at all. Roll down a sheet of puff paste No. i to half an inch in thickness, and cut out two 6 in. squares; mark round about an inch from the edge all round, cutting in rather deep; place on a sheet of paper on a bakingplate, wash over with egg, and bake in a moderate oven to a nice colour. Scoop out the centres, and dry them well in the oven; then stand aside. For the filling take a boiled fowl and trim off all the meat from the bones, cut Fig. 84.- Vol-au- Vent a la Sicrelly.

up all the primest pieces into neat dice, and lay them aside; break up the carcase, and put it into a stewpan with a small bunch of sweet herbs, a small piece of mace, a few peppercorns, cloves, and a quart of stock. Cover, and simmer gently at the side of the stove until reduced to one pint; then strain away the liquor into a clean stewpan; add half a pint of good thick cream and a little cornflour, stir at the side of the stove till it thickens, and it is ready for use. While the sauce has been reducing down, prepare a couple of tins of champignons by trimming them all to equal size, and half-a-dozen truffles must also Savoury Pastrv. be got ready by cutting them into very thin shavings, and % lb. of dressed tongue must be cut up into dice, about the same size as the white meat from the fowl. Now take each case separately - having one on a piece of good stout cardboard, and the other on the dish in which it is to be served; stir all the ingredients carefully into the steaming hot sauce, and fill the cases; let them stand a few minutes to set, and then turn the one off the cardboard over on to the one on the dish. Now have about a pint of Bechamel sauce (No. 129), and mask the vol-au-vent. case completely with it, using a brush or palette knife to put it on very smooth; chop or mince up some very green parsley, and place it on the top and sides in a design, as shown in the illustration (Fig. 84), using a paper cornet for the purpose; further garnish with coloured aspic jelly (No. 12), and serve. Price from 7s. 6d. and upwards, according to size.

No. 131.- Fish Vol-au-Vent, with Bechamel Sauce (Volau-Vent de Poissons k la Bechamel).

Cut out an oval vol-au-vent case, and bake as directed in No. 118; set it on a lace paper on a silver dish. Now take about i J lbs. of the fillets of soles, or more, according to the size of the vol-au-vent, and trim into neat even pieces; dry them in a cloth, and dust over with flour in which you have mixed a little salt and pepper; then fry them to a nice colour in oil, over a clear fire; drain them free from grease on a sheet of paper; make some Bechamel sauce (No. 129) hot, season with salt, and a little cayenne pepper; then mix in the prepared fish, and fill into the case; garnish the top with four very small crayfish and some nice bright green endive, and send to table. Price from 5s. and upwards, according to size.

All kinds of fresh fish can be used for vol-au-vents in the same manner, taking care to trim them into nice neat callops. Any fish left over from a previous dinner can also be used. Some prefer just a suspicion of anchovy essence, but be very careful not to add too much, as the beauty lies in keeping your sauce as white as possible. Vol-au-Vents and their Fillings. No. 132.- Vol-au-Vent de Poulet k la Comtesse. Make a case the same as directed in No. 118, about the size of a cheese-plate, and build up to about seven inches in height, and when ready stand aside. For the filling, take a pair of fine fat pullets, and put them into a large sized stewpan with a small prime piece of fat bacon, a handful of pot herbs and vegetables, some peppercorns, cloves, and a large piece of stick cinnamon; add three pints of stock, and stand it over the fire to simmer gently for half-an-hour. Then take up the fowls, and with a sharp knife cut four fillets from each bird, from off the breasts only, keeping them all of the same size as near as possible; take off the skin, and trim neatly; now take off the four legs, remove all the sinew and skin, cut them in halves, and trim them as near the shape of the breast fillets as you can; lay them separately over the Fig. 85.- Showing how the Fillets are decorated with Truffles.

bottom of a large dish, place another dish on top, and press them flat with a large weight, and set aside to get cold. Now return the remainder of the birds to the stewpan, and reduce the liquor down to half; strain into another stewpan, and pick out all the pieces of chicken from the scraps that you can, put it into a mortar, and pound to a smooth paste. To every lb. of this paste, add i oz. of fine flavoured ham (shred very fine), 2 oz. of bread crumbs, the yolks of 2 hard-boiled eggs (chopped fine), and season with salt, pepper, and a suspicion of cayenne; mix all together with a couple of yolks of eggs to bind together; form up into quenelles about the size of a penny piece, and a quarter of an inch in thickness; poach them, and lay aside for use. Now trim up the legs and fillets as much alike as you can, and decorate them by brushing over with good Savoury Pastry. strong aspic, and then setting on some very thinly cut truffles, as shown in the illustration (No 85). Open and trim up a tin of champignons; stir into the reduced sauce any of the remaining beaten-up paste, with a little arrowroot to thicken; then turn in the mushrooms, and give them a good boil up; draw to the side of the stove, and keep hot. Carefully warm up the fillets of chicken, with the quenelles, and fill carefully into the case, reserving the best pieces for the top; pour over the sauce, place the best pieces on the top in a pyramid, and serve. Price from 7s. 6d. upwards, according to size. 1' '

' '

V-;

.....a '. lL

I ' I vV Fig. 86. -, showing how the Case for the Vol-au-Vent a la TElite is cut out; by showing shape of eight pieces to form star top.

No. 133.- Vol-au-Ventld'Homaxd k la T&ite. Take a sheet of puff paste No. i; give it a fourth turn, and leave it about 10 ins. square and at least ins. thick; let it lie for half-an-hour, covered with a damp cloth; then with a very sharp knife dipped in hot water, trim it down to 8 ins. square, being very careful to trim iton all four sides, or it will not come up evenly. Now cut out from each side, as shown in the illustration Fig. 86; this will give you a star measuring about eleven inches from point to point; wash over with egg, and Vol-au-Vents and their Fillings. mark round about three - quarters of an inch from the edge, as shown by the dotted lines on the illustration Fig. 86, and bake in a moderate oven to a nice colour. When done, remove the whole of the centre, leaving only the outside crusts, and stand aside ready for use. Now roll down some puff paste trimmings to the thickness of half-a-crown, and with a sharp knife cut out eight triangles as in Fig. 86 b); prick all over the triangles with a fork to prevent them blowing, let them stand for twenty minutes, and then bake. When done, with a sharp knife pare off the brown bottoms which have been in contact with the tin, and set them aside to get cold.

Now take two fine lobsters (one must be a hen), break off all the shell in the usual way and separate the meat on to two plates. Pick out the coral from the hen lobster, and wash it in three or four waters to cleanse it from sand and grit; then put it into a mortar, pound it up very smooth, and rub it through a hair sieve; collect it all carefully into a small basin, and add half a tumbler of clear aspic jelly (No. 12); mix thoroughly, and pour half of it out on to a large dish, which stand aside to set. Keep the remainder liquid by standing by the side of the stove, or on the oven stock. Take the meat from the claws, and pick it to pieces with a couple of forks, separating all the fibres. Now take the eight triangular pieces of paste, and with a small and soft brush cover one side of them with the red liquid sauce, and then spirinkle the meat already prepared roughly over them, and stand aside to set. When the sauce has set firm, give them a shake to remove all surplus white meat, and lay in a cool place ready for use, as presently directed.

Cut up the remainder (that from the tails) of the meat into nice little square dice with a very sharp knife, and all pieces of meat that are discoloured put into the mortar; add a small piece of lobster butter (No. 135), season with cayenne, anchovy essence, and the juice of half a lemon (or a few drops of Tarragon vinegar, if liked), and pound it up to a very smooth paste; turn into a plate, and when quite cold and firm, make it up into small marbles, and then flatten them a little. Make a pint of sauce as Savoury Pastrv. directed in No. 1 34, and proceed to fill the case; put a layer of the white with any of that from the claws you may have left, then a few small sprigs of chervil, and cover up with the sauce; now put in a layer of the red lobster quenelles and more chervil, and cover with the sauce. Continue this till you have filled the case; raise it up in a pyramid, and as the sauce is on the point of setting, pour it over the top, taking great care not to let Fig. 87. -Vol -au- Vent a 1' Elite.

any of the sauce run down the side; should it do so clear it off immediately with a knife. Now place the eight triangular pieces upon the centre to form the star, as shown in the illustration (Fig. 87), and have some bright green parsley minced up very fine, and sprinkle it down the joints. Lay a heap of bright green aspic between each point, and on the dish and top, with some green parsley or chervil, as shown in the illustration (Fig. 87), and it is Vol-au-Vents and their Fillings. ready to serve. A very elaborate vol-au-vent if served cold. Price from 7s. 6d. upwards, according to size.

Canned lobster can be used, but of course it does not approach the fresh either in colour or flavour.

No. 134.- Sauce k Vtlite.

Boil gently ij4 pints of aspic jelly No. 12 (see page 33) until reduced to i pint; then add to it four finely minced anchovies, some cayenne pepper, and a small spoonful of Worcester sauce; stir together very gently at the side of the stove; then add i pint of Madeira wine, stir it well in, and cool as quickly as you can on ice. The result will be an exquisitely flavoured and clear sauce. Use as previously directed. A ( pint of selected shrimps, or prawns can be used at your discretion instead of the anchovies, or all together if price is no object. This sauce should set to a tolerably firm jelly when cold, but take particular care not to get it too tough and leathery. A little more water or wine will remedy it.

No. 135.- Lobster Butter.

Put the lobster coral after cleansing it, into a mortar, with about a third of its volume of fresh sweet butter, with a little mace, nutmeg, cayenne, and salt, and pound it up to a smooth paste; rub it through a fine hair sieve, press it into a jar, run a little melted butter over the top, and store in a cool place for use.

It is perhaps unnecessary for me to remind my readers that it is the hen lobster only that yields the spawn or coral at certain seasons, when it would be advisable to procure a supply without the lobster from your fishmonger, and prepare it for future use.

No. 136- Vol-au-Vent k la Pontif.

Roll down a sheet of puff paste No. i, and cut out two rings, as directed in No. 118, about the size of a cheese-plate; then cut out a square piece for the bottom just a trifle larger than the rings, place them on a sheet of paper or a baking-tin, wash over with egg, and bake in Savoury Pastry. a moderate oven. When cooked, pile up and fix together as before directed, and place on a lace paper on a silver dish. Now prepare the filling No. 64, page 87, having the quenelles and square pieces of meat, truffles &c., larger than there directed, and then pour over the sauce No. 65, page 88. Garnish round with an abundance of parsley, and place some in a pyramid of parsley over the top, as shown in the illustration (Fig. 88). Sell at from 7s. 6d. upwards, according to size. Fig. SS.-Vol-au-Vent a la Pontif.

No. 137- Vol-au- Vent d'Homaxd k TAurore.

Make a fancy case, wash over, and bake in a moderate oven. Now prepare the following filling: Take a fine cooked lobster, and pick out all the best and whitest of the meat; put it into a clean mortar, and pound to a smooth paste; season with salt, cayenne, and a few drops of Tarragon vinegar, a little cinnamon, and sufficient butter to form a nice smooth paste; put on to a plate, and stand aside in a cool place. Now put all the remaining meat into the mortar, and colour a nice colour with lobster butter (No. 135); season with cayenne. Tarragon vinegar, and essence of anchovies; pound down smooth, VoL-AU- Vents and their Fillings. and then proceed to make up the red and white paste into small quenelles about the size of cracknuts, and fill them into the case, raising up into a pyramid in the centre; place on a folded napkin on a silver dish, pour over the sauce No. 138, and garnish round with some green chervil. Price from 5s upwards, according to size.

No. 138.- Sauce k TAurore.

Rub J oz. of fine flour with oz. of fresh sweet butter in the same way as directed in No. 33. Put pint of good plain veal stock into a small stewpan; add the white outside of a moderate sized mushroom, a small onion, a little mace, cayenne, and a tablespoonful of essence of anchovies; simmer gently for twenty minutes, or until reduced to half a pint; strain through a sieve; return the flavoured sauce to the stewpan, set it over the stove, and bring to the boil; put in the previously mixed flour, and stir it over the fire till it thickens; add a large spoonful of lobster butter (No 135), or sufficient to tint the sauce a nice colour, and use as directed in the previous recipe. Do not under any consideration boil the sauce after you have added the lobster butter, or you will ruin the colour. If this sauce is liked sharp, add some Tarragon vinegar or strained lemon juice.

As will be seen from the foregoing, almost everything can be used as fillings for these vol-au-vents. The principal thing to be studied, is to produce as savoury a filling and as delicate a sauce as can be conceived.

The whole of the fillings and cases are interchangeable; thus making an endless variety of vol-au-vents, and as they are at all times appreciated, I would advise their introduction upon almost every occasion - at any rate, more frequently than is usually the rule.

No. 139.- Savoury Tourte au Zephyr.

Roll down two sheets of pufF paste No. i to equal thickness ( inch), and about the size of a meat-plate if round, or the size of your dish if oval; flour well on the centre, and wet round the edges only; place one on the top of the other, and pinch round the same as you would Savoury Pastry. if you were making turnovers; mark all round with a knife, and cut a design upon the centre, taking care not to cut too deep; wash over with egg, place on a clean tin, and bake in a moderate oven to a nice colour. When done, remove the top, and take out as much of the inside paste as you can; then fill it up with any of the fillings previously given for patties or vol-au-vents, and send to table on a lace paper or folded napkin. Mincemeat and Pies. Chapter IX. MINCEMEAT AND PIES.

1HAVE no doubt that all my readers have their own pet formula for making these very popular delicacies. Yet I have no hesitation in offering my own recipe for their manufacture.

The mince pie is really a venerable institution in this country, and has been so for more years than the eldest amongst us can remember; in fact, I have an old cookery book in my possession over 200 years old, and in it they are spoken of as being old, and as natives of the soil.

They appear here almost with the first dawn of November. I believe a dish of them appears at the Lord Mayor's Banquet, at the Mansion House, in London, on November 9th, and they are in constant demand till the spring is far advanced; but it is specially during the festive Christmas season that a more active demand sets in, when, of course, it is necessary to be well prepared, and to this end every pastrycook uses his best endeavours to excel his neighbour, and so secure the lion's share of the trade.

To this end I give you these high-class mixtures for mincemeat, and make no apology for including them in these pages.

No. 140.- Mincemeat k la Royal, 2s. per lb.

30 lbs. lean beef.

36 lbs. kidney beef suet.

56 lbs. apples (Pairmains).

24 lbs. muscatel raisins.

40 lbs. currants.

20 lbs. sultanas.

20 lbs. raw sugar.

13 lbs. citron peel.

15 lbs. preserved ginger (with the syrup).

10 lbs. mixed glac? fruits (cut small). Savoury Pastry. lo lbs. candied orange peel. 10 lbs. candied lemon peel. 5 lbs. brandied cherries (whole).

5 lbs. chopped sweet almonds. 4 doz. fresh lemons.

6 bottles best French brandy.

2 bottles good brown sherry. 4 ozs. ground cinnamon.

4 ozs. ground nutmeg. 4 ozs. cloves. 4 ozs. allspice. 4 ozs. mace.

3 ozs. ginger.

6 ozs. salt (in fine powder).

No. lil.-Mincemeat to sell at Is. 6cL per lb.

25 Ids. apples.

1$ lbs. currants.

15 lbs. raisins.

12 lbs. raw sugar.

20 lbs. beef suet.

20 lbs. mixed candied peel.

9 lbs. tripe (cooked).

4 lbs. lean beef.

6 ozs. ground mixed spice.

3 ozs. salt.

I bottle brandy.

I bottle sherry.

6 lemons.

No. 142.- Mincemeat to sell at Is. per lb.

20 lbs. apples.

12 lbs. suet.

12 lbs. raisins.

12 lbs. currants.

12 lbs. raw sugar.

12 lbs. mixed drained peel.

lb. mixed ground spice.

I oz. ground ginger.

bottle Irish whisky.

% bottle rum.

No. 143.- Mincemeat to sell at lOd. per lb.

25 lbs. currants.

18 lbs. apples.

10 lbs. suet.

8 lbs. raisins.

10 lbs. raw sugar.

10 lbs. mixed drained peel.

% lb. mixed ground spice.

3 ozs. salt. Mincemeat and Pies. Mode. - After you have decided which is the best and most suitable for your locality and customers, proceed to its preparation, bearing in mind the following hints and instructions:

Thoroughly wash, dry, and pick the currants free from stones and strigs; stone the raisins and chop them up small; peel, core, and chop the apples up fine; parboil the beef, which should be free from fat and gristle, and mince it up in a machine; chop up the suet and peel, mixing the whole together in a pan or crock of suitable size with your hands; squeeze the juice from the lemons, and strain it to keep out the pips, and stand it aside for use. Stew the fresh lemon peel in water till tender; empty out all the pith, and chop up fine, and add to the other ingredients; chop up the candied or drained peel fine, and the glac fruits and ginger; mix all together, add the sugar and mixed spice dry. Now open the bottles of spirits and wine; mix their contents with the lemon juice; add it to the dry ingredients, and thoroughly mix. It is now ready for sale, or for your mince pies. Points to Remember in Manufacturing Mincemeat.

It is always advisable to prepare the mincemeat as early in the season as possible, watching for opportunities to buy the ingredients at a favourable price, especially the suet, which will vary considerably as the year gets along towards December, having it chopped during the intervals of the slack time which precedes Christmas, and which we are all more or less acquainted with. Mincemeat, like good wine, improves by keeping, so there should be no compunction in commencing the job as soon as possible. To quote an old saw" in this connection, " the longer it is kept the better it will get." Use prime sound cooking apples for mincemeat, as they improve the mixture up to a certain point, after which, if you require to cheapen it, the usual way is to add in a considerable quantity of apples. The limit is given in Savoury Pastry. all the foregoing recipes. They should be thinly peeled, carefully cored, and chopped as fine as possible - in fact, almost to a pulp.

Do not under any circumstance use flour when chopping up the suet, or your mincemeat will prove far from successful. Buy the suet in bulk, and refuse all offers of the butcher to chop it for you at the same price. Remember the time it will take you to chop it, and think for a moment if it is reasonable for the butcher to give you all that time for nothing. He would, undoubtedly, mix in a liberal amount of flour, which is cheaper than suet, besides a proportion of inferior fat, which, unfortunately, is not always beef, and if they chop it without the flour it is liable to cake into a mass that is not very easily broken up.

The reason I so particularly warn you to avoid flour is that the mincemeat should lie loose and crumbly in the pie when cooked, and look rich and tempting, which it certainly will not, if you, by any manner of means, get flour into it. Flour, you know, has a tendency to bind it together into an ugly lump of unsightly looking tacklie resembling " duff," instead of the rich succulent mixture it should be.

If when you are chopping the suet it should prove obstinate, and bind itself together in a mass of fat (and this is the time when the mischief-working flour is introduced), take some of the apples and chop them up with it. This will effectually prevent it from binding together, and enable you to chop up the suet with ease.

Malaga raisins are preferable for mincemeat on account of their superior flavour, and although they may be dearer in price, you will find they are not so much dearer in the end; being more fleshy you have less waste, and they are easier to stone. It is of the first importance that you carefully stone or seed the raisins, which is much better done by hand than machine, or if you like they can be purchased already seeded. They must, however, be chopped, or cut up, before being added to the other ingredients. You will, of course, weigh them before stoning, and if afterwards, out of curiosity, you weigh them Mincemeat and Pies. again, you will find that the greatest loss is the time they have taken to prepare. It is wisest to depute this job to the female members of your establishment as their fingers are usually more nimble, and what is of more importance - they eat less.

Sultanas are often used, instead of raisins, principally because the time is needed for other purposes; but they certainly have not the flavour of the raisins; and I would advise you to purchase the ready-seeded raisins at the small advanced price, which, after all, would usually be lower than the sultanas, and so save the time just the Fig. 89.- The Edinburgh Peel Cutter.

You have all, no doubt, had some sort of experience with the sticky and syrupy drained peel, or, otherwise, hard and sugary, candied. What time you have wasted, how you have blistered your fingers, and the swear-words you have given expression to, without making very much headway upon the peel ! But, nowadays, that would be a useless waste of time; for the peels can be bought already chopped or cut by machme, and there are several firms who study the baker's requirements, and cuts his peel fine to suit him accordingly. The saving of both time and patience is very considerable, and will well recompense you for the trifling extra outlay for the Of course, if your business is large, you would use a Savoury Pastry. considerable amount of peel in your business all the year round, and it would be to your advantage to have a machine (Fig. 89), and cut your own. Of course, there is a considerable advantage in this, which will be apparent to all in the trade.

Very particular attention must be bestowed upon the spices used. See that they are fresh-ground and free from any musty or stale smell; taste, carefully noting if the sample has the required pungency, as spices lend themselves so easily to adulteration that you would require to use double the quantity of one brand against another to obtain a satisfactory flavour. Above all avoid cheap spices of all descriptions; they are a delusion and a snare, and you would certainly rue using them in compounding your mincemeat. It is most satisfactory to purchase the spices whole, and grind them yourself in a small mill, which can be procured from the confectioner's machinist at small cost; and the next best is to buy every kind ground separately and mix them yourself; but, of course, there are some reputable firms who will guarantee the genuineness of their goods, and these are the ones with whom you should deal.

It is, of course, optional as to the kind of wine or spirit used in your mincemeat; some prefer one, some another; but they are rlecessary if you desire to have a high-class mincemeat that will keep without fermenting for any length of time. Of course, these hints are directed to the preparation of high-class mixtures, but it will certainly be to your advantage to study them when making up any of the cheaper kinds presently following. No. 144.- Mincemeat at 8d. per lb.

28 lbs. currants.

20 lbs. dried apples.

15 lbs. sugar (raw).

10 lbs. mixed peel.

10 lbs. suet.

10 lbs. raisins (seedless).

lb. mixed ground spice.

% lb. salt. Mincemeat and Pies. Mode, - Soak the apples in a pail of water for twentyfour hours; then cook them in a large preserving kettle till soft; turn them into a large pan, and when cold, break them up with your hands; add in the chopped peel and suet, then the spice, salt, currants, and raisins (cut up), and last, the currants and sugar, and it is ready for sale.

No. 145.- Mincemeat at 6d. per lb.

30 lbs. currants. 28 lbs. dried apples. 18 lbs. raw sugar. 15 lbs. mixed peel. 10 lbs. suet. 8 lbs. raisins (seedless). I lb. mixed spice. i lb. salt.

Mode. - Exactly the same as directed in the previous mixture, but bear in mind the price you are going to obtain for it, and buy the ingredients accordingly. For instance, you will not be able to use best kidney suet, but will have to be contented with something else; and although I have stated suet in the recipe, a very good substitute would be the back fat of a pig, which could be run through a sausage-machine and all used. The price would usually be about 5d. per lb., according to quantity required.

The following fillings are not intended for shop sale, but are usually used for filling cheap mince pies; and where plenty is wanted for money, they are made in large quantities, providing a respectable though, of course, not a high-class dainty for the masses.

No. 146.- Penny Mince Pie Filling.

18 lbs. currants.

8 lbs. back fat.

14 lbs. dried apples.

10 lbs. sugar.

Yz lb. mixed spice.

% lb. salt.

Mode, - Run the fat through a machine, or chop it up fine; soak and cook the apples; then mix altogether, Savoury Pastry. adding the spice and salt in fine powder. This mixture contains no peel or raisins, but those ingredients will not be missed by the usual purchasers of these goods. If you make up this mincemeat, a considerable time before it is required for use, and keep it covered up in a large wooden tub it will ferment and will work itself "twangy." This is not a disadvantage and you will find your patrons prefer it - at least, that has been my experience with it, and I may say that I have made some tons, and what is of more importance, sold it, or rather the pies containing it.

No. 147.- Another Gheap Mince Pie Filling.

lo lbs. currants.

8 lbs. brown sugar.

4 lbs. beef dripping.

8 lbs dried or canned apples.

lo lbs. stale cake crumbs.

4 11 ground mixed spice.

Mode. - Rub the stale stuff through a coarse sieve; soak and stew the apples, if dried, and if canned break them up with the soaked crumbs and sugar; then mix in the dripping, taking care to break it up into very small pieces; add the spice and salt, and last of all the currants. If there does not seem enough currants, you can add as many more as you like to bring it up to your standard.

No. 148.- A Cheaper Mince Fie Filling.

Well soak in a large tub or pail lo lbs. of stale bread (age is of no consequence); then squeeze it out dry on to the board and mix with it 7 lbs. of cheap jam (without stones) 8 lbs. of brown sugar, i lb. of mixed ground spice, and lb. of salt in fine powder. When you have thoroughly well mixed the whole together, it will be a sloppy-looking mass. To this add a liberal allowance of currants, and it is ready for use. It is, of course, better for standing sometime before use, as it will get "twangy," which is exactly what the people who purchase it like. But do not under any consideration Mincemeat and Pies. sell this mixture for mincemeat over the counter, or it will cause you some trouble to persuade your customers that you have made some mistake. They would, perhaps, make inquiries to find out why you had it on the premises; and if they found out the purposes you put it to - although it is perfectly pure and wholesome when cooked - they would no doubt make a terrible bother about it that would not be very easy to face, so don't sell it - except in the pies.

No. 149.- Twopenny Mince Pies (Round).

These are popular almost everywhere, and although they, of course, vary both in size and shape, this is the popular price, and I will endeavour to inform you as to Fig. 90.- -Set of Plain Round Paste Cutters.

the matter of shape. Take a sheet of puff paste No. i, and after you have given it the three turns, roll down to the thickness of i in.; let it lie a short time; then take a plain round cutter (size according to neighbourhood), about the fourth from the largest of the set, and chop out as many pieces as you require tops for your mince pies, and as you cut them out lay them on a clean baking-plate; cover with a damp cloth, and set aside for a few minutes. Now collect together all the scraps or tnmmings, and roll them out into a thin sheet; cut out as many bottoms as you have tops, thin out slightly, and

Savoury Pastry. sheet patty pans with it; lay in a spoonful of mincemeat Nos. 140 to 145, splash with water, and place on the lid, turning the lids over as you place them into position; press round the edges slightly; set them on to a flat tin, and after they have stood for about a quarter of an hour, bake them in a moderate oven. When done, slide out of the patty pans on to a wire, and they are ready for sale. Of course, either deep or shallow patty pans can be used; the deep one will hold the most mincemeat.

No. 150.- Twopenny Mince Pies (Oval). These are in demand in some localities; they are made exactly the same as the round ones, the only difference being in the shape of the cutters and pattypans used, which, of course, must be oval instead of

No. 151.- Mince Pies Baked Without Pans.

In case you do not happen to have the quantity of patty pans that you desire to make pies, they can be made as follows: Take a large, clean flat tin; splash it with water; cut out the bottoms; and sheet them on to the tin nearly close together; lay on a spoonful of mincemeat in the same way as before directed; splash with water; then place on the tops, pressing them down round the edges; and when they have stood for about fifteen minutes, bake in a moderate oven.

All these pies have been left plain; in some localities they have to be dredged over with sugar after they are

No. 152.- Penny Mince Pies (No. 1). In some localities it is usual to make the penny pies exactly the same as the twopenny ones just described, only making them half the size, using best paste and best fillings into them; but, then, of course, they are very small, and would not satisfy the hungry artisan, who will have to be more liberally catered for. To meet this case, you will have to start in and prepare something Mincemeat and Pies. very special, both as regards size and quality, for it stands to reason that you cannot afford to fill a large pie with mincemeat at 2s. per lb., and sell it for aid. Therefore I submit the following.

No. 153.- Penny Mince Pies (No. 2).

For these take the American puff paste No. 3, and roll down in a sheet about in. in thickness, and cut out with a crinkled cutter; lay them on a board; then roll down the scraps and trimmings rather thin, and cut out with a plain round cutter; thin out, and sheet the patty pans; lay in a spoonful of either of the fillings, Nos. 146, 147, or 148; splash with water; thin out the previously cut-out lids; place them on the filling; wash over with water; dredge sugar over; bake in a moderate oven, and sell at id. each. These goods are first-class sellers, especially in neighbourhoods where there is a lot of traffic, and many passers-by. For if nicely bakecf and stacked into the window, they cannot fail to be attractive, and when the people have once got their flavour, they will prefer them to the better class goods.

No. 154.- Lenten Mince Pies.

Usually mince pies are continued along for a considerable time into the spring, and I have sometimes been turning them out at Easter. However, there is a speciality that may be introduced at Easter and during Lent, which are eminently proper, and would no doubt be appreciated if introduced:

I lb. hard boiled white of egg.

i lbs. apples.

I lb. raisins.

I lb. currants.

I lb. sugar.

lb. oiange, lemon, and citron peel.

4 oz. ground mace.

oz. ground cloves.

ji oz. ground nutmegs.

pint of brandy.

juice of 6 Seville oranges.

Mode. - Proceed with apples, raisins,' and currants. Savoury Pastry. exactly the same as directed in the other mincemeats. Put the peel into a mortar and pound down to a smooth paste; mix it with the sugar, brandy, juice of the oranges, and spice in a basin; mince up the egg whites very fine; mix them with the apples, raisins and currants; then pour over the other ingredients and well mix ready for use.

Now roll down a sheet of pufF paste trimmings to the thickness of a halfpenny, and sheet as many patty pans as you require pies. Lay in a spoonful of the filling; splash with water; then, from a sheet of puff paste No. i, an eighth of an inch thick, cut out suitably sized pieces for the top with a round crinkled cutter; wash over with egg; then cut out from another thin sheet of paste some small rings with a plain cutter, and place one ring on each pie; wash the ring with egg, and mark a cross in the centre of the ring with the point of a sharp knife, and bake in a moderate oven. Price 2d. No. 155.- Mince Pastry.

Take three or four sandwich tins and sheet them with American puff paste No. 3, rolled very thin; press it up slightly at the edges all round; then dock the sheet all over with a fork on top of the paste; spread a layer of any of the mincemeats given in this chapter about J in. thick; on top of the mincemeat place a thin layer of puff paste No. i; mark it into eight sections, dock well, and bake in a moderate oven. When done, dredge sugar over, and sell, cutting out into id. or 2d. sections, according to the filling you have used.

No. 156.- Fried Mince Pies.

Roll down a sheet of puff paste trimmings very thin, and cut out with a 2-in. plain round cutter; wash round the edges, lay in a spoonful of any of the better fillings given in this chapter; place another round on top, and press the edges firmly together; wash over with egg, and fry to a nice colour in hot lard. Take up, drain on paper, pile on to a lace paper on a glass dish, dust sugar over from Mincemeat and Pies. a dredger, and serve. These are usually served hot; if you allow them to get cold, they can be warmed up in the oven, and some fresh sugar dredged over. Sell at 2d. each, or, if you use one of the commoner fillings, you can sell at id.

Savoury Pastry. ehatDter X

MISCELLANEOUS SAVOURY PASTRY.

UNDER this heading will be found a variety of savoury pastries that could not be classed in any of the previous chapters.

No. 157.- Sausage Bolls.

These are popular all the year round or nearly so, and figure very frequently on the order list. Fig. 91.- How Sausage Rolls are shaped: (i) The Paste rolled out with the Meat in position; (2) the ends folded on to the Sausage Meat; (3) showing how the sides are folded; (4) the Roll, complete ready for the oven.

Take i lb. of pork sausage meat, and divide it into twenty equal-sized pieces; flour rather liberally, and roll each piece out to about the thickness of your little finger (have them all of equal length), flatten out with the palm of your hand, and stand aside. Take a sheet of puff paste No. i, and roll down to the thickness of a quarter of an inch, and then with a 4 J inch plain round Miscellaneous Savoury Pastry. cutter cut out twenty pieces of paste. After all are cut out, take your small rolling-pin, and roll out to a thin oval shape, as shown in the illustration Fig. 91; lay on a piece of the sausage meat, then fold over the two ends A. A. (2, Fig. 91), then fold over the sides b. b. (3, Fig. 91); run the pin over, and stab them five or six times with the point of a sharp knife; wash over with egg, place on to clean tins, and bake in a moderate oven. When done, they will appear like 4, Fig. 91. Price 2d. No. 158.- Sausage Rolls (Another way).

Divide the sausage meat as previously directed, then roll down a sheet of pufF paste No. i to about a quarter of an inch in thickness; then with a Scotch scraper (see Fig. 2) cut out squares to weigh about 2 ozs.; flatten them out with your small rolling-pin, keeping them as square as possible; lay one piece of sausage meat in the centre, and fold over turnover fashion; press out a little with the pin; then trim the three sides ofif square with a sharp knife; cut three or four slashes in the top with the point of a sharp knife, wash over with egg, plate on to clean tins, and bake in a warm oven. Sell at 2d. This is the method usually adopted when you require to make penny rolls, but then you will not give half so much crust, and a wee bit more than half as much meat used in the twopenny rolls.

No. 159.- Sausage Rolls (" Large size").

Take lb. of sausage meat, and damp down about y lb. of stale bread; add a quantity of salt and pepper, and mix well together; then divide it up into twenty equal-sized pieces, and make them up into small sausages. Now take a piece of American puff paste (No. 3), and ' when it has had the number of necessary rolls, weigh it off into 2 oz. pieces, keeping them as square as possible by cutting out with the Scotch scraper; fold in the corners, and mould tightly under your hands; then with your small rolling-pin thin them out to about 4 inches; Savoury Pastry. lay one of the prepared sausages in the centre, and fold over turnover fashion; wash over with egg, plate, and bake in a warm oven. Sell at 2d. each. In poor neighbourhoods where quantity is appreciated before quality, these rolls will have a ready sale, especially if you make the filling tasty with plenty of seasoning.

No. 160.- Sausage Rolls (Faxmlioase Fashion).

It is usual in some parts of the country to make the crust for sausage rolls from bread dough. Take for every Fig. 92. - Tin partially filled with Sausage Rolls.

2 lbs. of bread dough, from 4 to 6 ozs. of lard, and a bit of salt, and mix it well in by rubbing it on the board with your hands; when well and smoothly mixed, divide it into twenty pieces, and mould them up round like buns, under your hands; let them lie covered up for a few minutes, and then roll out round or oval; place a sausage in the centre, and fold up the same as directed in No. 157, and as you do them, set them close together crumby, on a high edge tin (see Fig. 92); stab them five or six times with a three prong fork, and set them aside to prove; wash over with milk and egg when proved large enough, and bake in a warm oven. These are very substantial fare, and usually sold at country public-houses; at the same time, they are pretty tasty, and would no doubt sell where quantity is the first consideration. Miscellaneous Savoury Pastry. No. 161.- Sausage Rolls (Vegetarian).

2 lbs. stale brown bread. yi lb. butter. 2 ozs. dried sage. 1% ozs. salt. I oz. pepper.

Mode, - Soak the bread in water, and squeeze out dry; place on the board, and rub the butter and other ingredients into it; taste, and if savoury enough, add in a little Bole Armenia for colour, and it is ready for use. This can be used in exactly the same way as the regular sausage meat, but be careful not to sell them to an inspector for sausage rolls, unless you term them " vegetarian." In the place of the butter, you can use either lard or some good beef dripping - in fact, anything in the shape of fat can be used.

No. 162.- Darvelly Puffs (Savoury).

Roll down a sheet of puff paste rather thin, and cut out pieces with a two-inch plain round cutter; roll them out a little, and lay on a spoonful of the mixture No. 163; fold over turnover fashion, wash over with egg, stab three or four times with the point of a sharp knife, plate on to clean tins, and bake in a moderate oven. Sell at 2d. each. These are a very tasty little dainty, easily made, and sell fast wherever introduced.

No. 163.- Darvelly Puff Filling.

Take the white meat from the breast of a boiled chicken, and mince it up fine with a sharp knife, and to every J lb. of minced chicken, allow 2 ozs. of prime cooked ham, and 2 ozs. of roasted lean veal; put the veal and ham into a mortar with the yolks of two hard boiled-eggs, and pound it up to a smooth paste; add a little ground cinnamon, cayenne pepper, and a wee drop of essence of anchovy. When well beaten down, add in the minced chicken, and use as previously directed.

No. 161- Ohicken Puffs k TAlezander.

Roll down a sheet of puff paste to the thickness of an old penny piece, and cut out pieces with a small round Savoury Pastry. Vandyke cutter; thin out a little with the small rollings pin; then fold them over turnover fashion, wash over the top with egg, and bake in a warm oven to a nice colour. When done, open them with a knife and scoop out some of the inside paste, leaving them very thin paste shells; then fill pretty liberally with the following mixture, and serve cold. Price from 2d. each, according to size.

No. 165.- Alexander Puff Filling.

10 ozs. finely minced chicken.

4 ozs. cooked ham.

2 ozs. fresh butter.

Yolks of 2 hard-boiled eggs. Cayenne pepper.

Mode. - Put the ham, yolks of eggs, and butter into a clean mortar, and pound them to a smooth paste; rub through a wire sieve, moisten with a couple of tablespoonsful of cream, or stock; season with cayenne; then mix in the finely minced fowl, and use as previously directed.

No. 166.-Pd.ts k la Reine.

Line ten or twelve small crinkled domed shaped dariole moulds (Fig. 93) with puff paste trimmings, and Fig. 93.- Dariole Mould for Pates la Reine.

fill up the centre with ground rice; cut out lids from best puff paste with a fine crinkled cutter, just large enough to overlap the bottoms; place them on, wash over with egg, and decorate with leaves; bake in a moderate oven to a nice colour. When done, take off the tops, dust out the rice, and dry the bottoms a little more in the oven, and set aside for use. Now make the following filling: Miscellaneous Savoury Pastry. Take the perfectly white meat from the breast of a roast fowl, and pound it well in a mortar to a smooth paste; rub it through a fine sieve on to a plate; reduce some Bechamel sauce (No. 129), and then mix the chicken pure into it, and season to taste; fill into the cases, place on the covers, make them thoroughly hot in the oven, and serve. Price from 6d. each, according to size. The Bdcharnel sauce should be well flavoured with mushrooms.

No. 167.Maj:row Bouches k la Claremont.

Roll down a sheet of puff paste to the thickness of half-a-crown, and with a round cutter cut out crescents, as shown in the illustration (Fig. 94); then with a sharp Fig. 94. - How the Bouchees are cut out.

knife go round the edge, cutting nearly through the paste; set them on a tin, wash over with egg, and bake to a nice colour in a warm oven. When done, take out the centres, and lay in a spoonful of the marrow patty filling No. 38. Now chop up two or three red chilies, and the same quantity of very green parsley, and sprinkle it over the top. These are to be served cold. Price 2d. each, according to size.

These bouch6es must be made very small. The meaning of the term is really a mouthful, and please to remember that the folks who eat these have not very large mouths; but give them large, and they will soon make you remember it.

No. 168.- Bouchees k la Comtesse.

Roll down a sheet of puff paste No. i, and cut out

pieces about the size of a penny piece with a crinkled

cutter, and press the centre with a cutter one size smaller;

wash over, and bake in a moderate oven. When done, Savoury Pastry. press in the centre with your finger, or the handle of the wash-brush, and lay in a spoonful of the filling used in Vol-au-Vent k la Comtesse (No. 132); but the filling can be prepared smaller; lay one of the quenelles upon each bouchde, and garnish round with green parsley; dish on a lace paper or folded napkin, and serve hot. Price 2d. No. 169.- Lobster Poffis k la Valcaisis.

Roll down a sheet of pufF paste to the thickness of half a-crown, and chop out as many pieces as required, with a heart-shaped cutter; thin out a little and then press them across with the rolling-pin, as shown in the illustration (Fig. 95, a); lay on a spoonful of the filling, No. 1 70, and fold over, as shown in, Fig. 95; egg Fig. 95. - Lobster Puflfs k la Valcaisis. a) Where and how pressed with the Rolling-pin. d) Completed and cooked ready to over lightly, and then turn them over into semolina (or it may be dredged over from a dredger, taking care however, not to use too much); plate on to clean tins, and bake in a moderate oven. When baked, dust over lighlty with a mixture of salt, pepper, and cayenne, and serve very hot on a folded napkin. Price 2d. each, or 1 s. 9d. per dozen.

These are remarkable thirst promoters, and are usually served at balls and soirees, where the caterer is paid for all wine consumed.

No. 170.- Filling for Valcaisis Puffs.

Open a tin of lobster and pound it quite smooth in a mortar, with a piece of fresh butter; season with salt. Miscellaneous Savoury Pastry. cayenne, the juice of fresh lemons, and essence of anchovies; colour with lobster butter (No. 135) to a very bright pink; rub the whole through a fine sieve, and use as directed.

No. 171.- Game Puffs k la Brennan.

Roll down a sheet of puff paste No. i very thin, and cut out twelve pieces (or -more as required) with a small round crinkled cutter, and cut another twelve pieces with a plain round cutter, slightly smaller; damp them a little, and place a plain round piece on the top of the crinkled round; wash over with egg, and bake in a moderate oven. When done, take a sharp knife, separate them, and take out a portion of the centre paste; lay in a spoonful of the filling No 172; place on the tops, and serve either hot or cold. Price 2d. each, or 1 s. gd. per

No. 172.- Brennan Puff Filling.

Pound down in a mortar any remaining cold game, taking care to pick out all bones and sinews; season with pepper, salt, a little of the Aromatic Mixture No. 11, (see page 31) and the juice of half a lemon. When fine enough, rub through a sieve, and mix in three or four tablespoonsful (according to quantity) of rich brown gravy or stock, and use as previously directed.

No. 173.- Bouches of Ham k la Condor.

Take some small crinkled dome-shaped dariole moulds, and line them with puff paste trimmings, pressing them into shape with a piece of paste; set them on a clean baking-plate, and stand aside. Now grate up about Jlb. of the lean shank of a cooked ham on to a plate, taking care to grate the meat up very fine; beat up a pint of cream; season with pepper, and a little ground mace, and cayenne, adding in 2 yolks .of eggs; mix in the prepared ham, and fill the cases. Now beat up 2 whites of eggs with a little lemon juice, and spread it over the tops of the filling; chop up some parsley very fine, and sprinkle over the top and bake in a moderate oven. When done, serve hot. Price 2d. each, or is. Qd. per Savoury Pastry. dozen. Do not make these too large. If your ham is not cooked dry enough to grate, pound it up in a mortar, and rub it through a wire sieve; but, of course, the grating is much the best way.

No. 174.- Bouches of Tongue k la Condor.

These are made in exactly the same way as the ham, substituting grated tongue in the place of the ham. Tongue must be grated, and not pounded in the mortar; the tips of tongues which are often left over, grate up splendidly.

No. 175.- Bouches of Hajn and Egg k la Condor.

Line the dariole moulds in the same way as directed in No. 173. Take the same filling and mix in a hard-boiled egg, minced fine, to every ounce of ham used. A few French capers minced very fine are esteemed an improvement; fill into the cases, finish, and bake. The capers can be sprinkled over the top in the place of parsley, if preferred. Fig. 96.- Puff a I'Aurore. a) Shape of Cutter, (v) How to press with Rolling-pin. c) Cooked ready for table.

No. 176.- Puffs k I'Aurore.

Roll down a sheet of puff paste No. i to about in,

thick, and cut out with a fancy cutter, as shown in the

illustration (Fig. 96, a); thin out a little with a small

rolling-pin; press them across the centre with the pin Miscellaneous Savoury Pastry. to thin out a little (Fig. 96, b); then fold over, wash over with egg, and bake in a moderate oven to a nice colour. When done, open them, and take out some of the inside paste. Now take some of the sauce (No. 138), and mix into it some finely minced lobster; fill it into the puffs, and fold them together in their original positions. Now beat up a piece of fresh butter with a wooden spoon to a cream; season with salt, pepper, and a little essence of anchovies, and enough lobster butter to make it a nice salmon colour; fill it into a piping bag, having a leaf tube, and lay a leaf upon each of the puffs, as shown in the illustration (Fig. 96, c and they are ready to serve. Price 2d. each, or is. 9d. per dozen. Fig. 97.- Dish of " Darioles de Poulet a la Rochefort."

No. 177.- Darioles de Poulet k la Rochefort.

Take some plain dome-shaped dariole moulds, grease them slightly, and stand aside; then make up some hot water or boiled paste. No. 5 to No. 9; roll it out under your hand into thin lengths, a trifle smaller than a penholder, and then proceed to lay the paste round and round close together, coiling it up the mould to form small beehives; when you have lined sufficient for your purpose, fill them with bran, and lay a thin piece of paste over for a cover; place in a moderate oven, and cook. When baked, lift off the lids and brush Savoury Pastry. out all the bran. Now turn out of the moulds on to a clean tin, and wash over with some beaten up egg, and return to the oven to nicely brown. When done and cold, fill with the filling (No. 178), and, when set, pile up in a pyramid on a folded napkin on a silver dish, as shown in the illustration Fig. 97, and serve. Price 3d. each, or 2s. 9d. per dozen.

No. 178.- Filling for Darioles k la Rochefort. Take the breast or other remaining portions of cold boiled fowl, and mince it up very fine, taking care to use a very sharp knife to avoid smashing it, as the pieces must be separate, and when you have done 6 ozs., lay it aside on a plate; now take 4 ozs. of boiled tongue, cut it very thin, and afterwards cut each slice into V -shaped pieces, and mix with the minced fowl; chop up 2 ozs. of the fat of ham, and a small clove of garlic previously cooked in plenty of water, to take out some of the flavour, and mix the whole well together; make a pint of Bechamel sauce (No. 1 29), add a few chopped champignons, and half a large truffle; stir all into the sauce, and fill into the cases as previously directed.

No. 179.- Anchovy Puffe k TAniericaine.

Roll down a sheet of puff paste trimmings rather thin, and cut out small diamonds; thin out a little, and press across from point to point; fold over, wash over the top with egg, and then with a fork prick the wide end of the triangle, and the narrow part, make some lines, thus forming the stars and stripes on them; place on to a clean tin, and bake to a nice colour in a moderate oven. When done, open them, and scoop some of the paste from the centre, and stand aside. Now take about a dozen anchovies, scrape, and bone; then cut them up with a sharp knife into small neat fillets; have a Httle aspic jelly No. 1 2 and moisten them with it; then sprinkle over some fine grated Parmesan cheese, a pinch of cayenne pepper, and the squeeze of half a lemon; place a small portion of this filling into each puff, and then pile high on a folded napkm, and serve cold. Price 2d. Miscellaneous Savoury Pastry. each, or is. gd, per dozen. A little whipped cream, flavoured with essence of anchovies, and coloured with lobster butter, can be substituted for the cheese and aspic jelly, to make a variety.

No. 180.- Petits P&ts h, la Tuscan.

Have some small dariole moulds the shape of a Turk's cap; line them with puff paste trimmings rolled rather thin; press them well into the shape of the tins, using a piece of paste to do so. Now roll down another sheet of paste trimmings; let it lie a short time, and prepare the following filling: Prepare about J pint of fresh cooked cockles, and rinse them in a little tepid water; dry them on a cloth; put a pat of butter into a small stewpan with a little pepper and salt; turn in the cockles, and shake them over the fire for a few minutes to brown; then take them up on to a sheet of paper to drain away all grease. Now take pint of Bechamel sauce (No. 129), and add to it a little cayenne pepper and salt, and flavour with essence of anchovies; then mix in the cockles, and fill into the cases; chop out rounds from tlie sheet of paste, place it over the filling, and press together at the edge; make a small hole in the centre; place them on to a baking-plate, and cook in a moderate oven. When done, turn them out of the cases, and pile on to a folded napkin, and serve. Price 3d. each, or 2S. 6d. per dozen.

Cockles are " a poor man's fare," but treated in this fashion make a very tasty dish, and few people who partake of them would recognise them as the lowly cockle of the gutter merchant.

No. 181.- Petits TLt6B aux Tomatos k la Reine. Procure some tin moulds very small, but in the shape of half an Imperial or Royal crown (Fig. 98), and line them with very thinly rolled puff" paste trimmings, pressing it well into the impressions, and stand aside while you prepare the following filling: Scald half-a-dozen ripe medium-sized tomatoes, and remove the skins; place on a tin, and cook them in the oven till tender. Place in a Savoury Pastry. small stewpan, a pat of butter; add 2 shalots chopped fine, and fry them over the stove till brown; then add an ounce or two of finely minced ham, a tablespoonfiil of parsley, the tomatoes mashed, 2 or 3 ozs. of breadcrumbs; season with salt and pepper, and bind the mixture together with 2 eggs; place a spoonful of the mixture into each of the paste lined crowns, and then put on a very thin layer of crust; trim round, place on a baking-sheet, and cook in a moderate oven. When done, turn them carefully out of the moulds on to a clean sheet of paper, and Fig. 98. - Crown Mould for Petits Pates aux Tomatos a la Reine."

glaze them over with some very stiff melted aspic; then pile them on to a folded napkin on a silver dish, and serve. Price from 2d. each, or is. gd. per dozen, according to size.

No. 182.- Petits Vol-au- Vents de Homard aux Tomatos.

Make some very small square patty cases, and bake them as directed in Chapter V.; press in the centre, and then prepare the following filling: Scald about 6 tomatoes, and remove their skins, place on a baking-dish, and cook in the oven. Take a small tin of lobster, separate out the whitest meat, and place the pink or red into a mortar, add a piece of butter, season with salt, cayenne, and a few drops of essence of anchovies, and pound down to a very smooth paste. Now, if the tomatoes are cooked sufficiently thoroughly, incorporate them with the lobster paste; mince up the remaining lobster; mix all together. VjOOQ IC Miscellaneous Savoury Pastry.

and fill into the cases. Whip up a small portion of cream, fill into a piping bag, and lay from a star tube upon the top of the filling; dust slightly over the cream a little cayenne, and they are ready to serve. Price from 2d. each, or IS. 9d. per dozen. These must be made very small; if required larger, they would be termed patties," and sold at patty prices.

No. 183.- Petits Vol-au- Vents de Froma.ge aux Tomatos.

Make some small oval cases the same as previously directed, and bake to a nice colour in a moderate oven; then fill with the following mixture: Slice up J lb. of tomatoes into a shallow baking-pan; season with salt, pepper, and a little cayenne; cover over with a buttered paper, and cook in a moderate oven. When done, moisten with a little good stock, and rub them through a fine sieve; now mix in about 2 ozs. of grated Parmesan cheese; make the mixture hot, and fill into the cases, and serve in a pyramid on a folded napkin, or lace paper on a silver dish. Price 2d each, or is. 9d. per dozen, according to size.

No. 181- Petits Vol-au- Vents de Poulet aux Tomatos.

Make some very small patty cases (see Chapter V.), and set them aside. Now make the pure of tomatoes as directed in No. 18, leaving out the cheese, and place it in a stewpan. Mince up ( lb. of the breast of either a boiled or roast fowl; season nicely, and mix into the pure; make hot, and fill the cases; place a small piece of green fresh parsley on the top, and serve. Price 2d. each, or is. gd. per dozen.

No. 185.- Bouch of Oysters and Tomatoes.

Roll down a sheet of puflf paste trimmings very thin, and cut out with a small crinkled cutter; place the cut out pieces into shallow patty pans; lay a dummy in the centre, and bake in a moderate oven. When done, remove the centres, and stand aside in the patty pans. Make up half the purde of tomatoes given in No. 183, adding some Tarragon vinegar and essence of anchovies. Notes, Savoury Pastry. Now take an oyster for each bouche; put them into a saut pan with a piece of butter, and shake them over the fire till brown; take them up and drain on paper: dust over with pepper, salt and cayenne, and then with a soft camel's hair brush, glaze over with some brown glaze, and let stand till set. Now take your cases, put in a spoonful of the tomato puree, and place one of the oysters in the centre; mince up some green parsley and sprinkle over; set them into the oven to get hot, and then take them out of the patty pans on to a lace paper or folded napkin, and serve hot. Price 2d. each, or is. gd. per dozen.

No. 186.- Petits Vol-au- Vents de Veau aux Tomatos.

Make some very small patty cases in the same way as directed in Chapter V., and bake to a nice colour in a moderate oven. When done, set them aside. Prepare the tomato pure as directed in No. 183, and mix into it about yi lb. of cooked veal pounded down to a smooth paste in a mortar: warm it up and fill into cases, and serve hot. Price 2d. each, or is. gd. per dozen. Fig. 99.- Cannelon Stick.

No. 187.- Savoury Cannelons. Grease as many "cannelon sticks" (Fig. 99) as you require, and lay aside for use. In case some of my readers do not quite know what these implements are, I will describe them. Usually they are made from either "box" or "beech" wood, though other woods will answer. They are about 6 ins. long, and yi in. to J in. thick, turned perfectly round on a lathe, with an ornamental end to form a handle, as shown in Fig. 99. When you have procured and greased them, roll down a sheet of puff paste No. i very thin, and cut it up into long narrow ribbons about i in. wide. Now proceed to wind the paste ribbons round and round the stick as shown in Miscellaneous Savoury Pastry. Fig. loo, slightly overlapping to about 3 ins. in length; wash over with egg, and, if desired, further decorate with leaves and flowers cut from the paste trimmings; set them on to a clean baking-plate, and cook to a nice colour, in a moderate oven. When done, and partially cold Fici. 100. - How the Cannelons are rolled up.

remove the "sticks" and trim off the ends, if rough (this will give you the shape shown in Fig. loi), and then proceed to fill them with a bag and tube, using any of the rich patty or other fillings given in these pages, Fig. ioi.- The Cannelon baked ready for table.

naming the variety according to the filling you have used. But, perhaps, a few examples will prove serviceable to you.

No. 188.- Cannelons anx Hultres. The cannelon cases being made, proceed to fill them, in the way described in No. 187, with the oyster patty filling (No. 26, Chapter V.); place a fine sprig of parsley or chervil at each end; pile them in a pyramid on a lace paper or folded napkin on a silver dish, and send to table. Price 2d. each or is. 9d. per dozen, according to size.

No. 189.- Cannelons de Gibier. These are filled with a rich, highly spiced mixture of finely minced game, and served in the same way as the others. Savoury Pastry. No. 190.- Cannelons de Volaille.

Instead of game, take some fine-flavoured mince or pure of chicken - the filling given in No. 31, Chapter v., will answer first-class. Served as before directed, and sold at the same price.

No. 191.- Cannelons d'Homard k TAurore.

These would be filled with very finely-minced lobster, and Sauce a TAurore (No. 138, Chapter VIII.). Of course, the filling and sauce should be nearly on the point of setting, and are easily forced into the cases from both ends, taking very particular care to fill them full.

For any further varieties I must refer you to Chapter V., where you will find plenty of different fillings to give you variety.

No. 192.- Cheese Straws.

These are rather ancient, but being savoury pastry, and generally in demand, find a place in these pages. Take some puff paste trimmings, and roll them down in a thin sheet on the board; open a bottle of Parmesan cheese, turn it out on a sheet of paper, and season with salt, cayenne pepper, and a small portion of ground cinnamon; sprinkle the cheese over the sheet of paste, fold it over, roll out thin again; then sprinkle on more cheese, and continue this till you have rolled in a good portion of cheese; finish in a thin sheet; let it lie a short time, and then proceed to cut it up into thin straws about 3 ins. long; lay them on a sheet of paper on a baking-plate, and cook to a nice golden colour in a moderate oven. When done, pile in transverse rows on a lace paper, or folded napkin, on a silver dish, or bind them into neat little bundles with green ribbon. These are usually sold by weight at about is. 8d. per lb.

No. 193.- Cheese Slices k la Stanley.

Roll down a sheet of puff paste to a J in. thick; now cut it out into slips i4 ins. wide, and cut up these slips into ( in. squares (a, Fig. 102), and, as you cut them off, place on to a clean tin, cut side down (d); allow plenty Miscellaneous Savoury Pastry. of room between each piece, and bake very pale in a moderate oven. When cooked they should be about I in. square. Now prepare the following mixture:

j lb. Parmesan cheese. 3 ozs. butler. Yolks of 2 eggs. Tablespoonful of vinegar. Salt and cayenne.

Mode. - First grate up the cheese; put the butter into a basin and cream it up with a wooden spoon; add in the yolks of eggs, and the vinegar, season with salt and cayenne, and then mix in the grated cheese. Now Fig. 102. - Cheese Slices k la Stanley, (a) How they are cut out. (d) How placed on the Tin ready to bake.

take one of the squares of baked paste, and spread the prepared cheese moderately thick upon it, and set them nearly close together on a sheet of paper on a bakingplate as you spread them. Give them a few minutes in a hot oven, or brown them with the salamander made red hot. When done, pile on a folded napkin on a glass dish, and serve; garnish with very green parsley.

These make an excellent and appreciated kors cPczmre'' and should be much in request during the season of balls and such like divertissements, Cheshire or American cheese can be used, but it must be very dry to grate well, and Savoury Pastry. have some little flavour, or they will not be required. Price would be about is. 6d. per dozen, or by taking anything of a quantity they could be supplied for less; that is, of course, providing you do not make them too large.

No. 194.- Savourf Sandwiches h, la Madame Favart.

Roll down and cut out the paste in the same way as directed in No. 193, and bake in a moderate oven. When cooked, spread on the following mixture, and serve very hot: Take a tin of lobster and turn it out into a dish; put it into a mortar; add 4 ozs. of good butter, a teaspoonful of essence of anchovies, a tablespoonful of good piquant sauce, some cayenne, a little salt, the juice of a couple of lemons, and pound down to a very smooth paste; taste, and if savoury enough, proceed to spread it on to the pieces of paste, and sandwich them together; make hot at the mouth of the oven. Price 2d. each, or IS. 9d. per dozen. You can make them larger or smaller, as required.

No. 195.- Cheese Remequins k la Royal.

After you have given your paste a couple of turns, cut a piece out of the corner, and roll it out thin; sprinkle in some grated Parmesan cheese, fold up, and roll out again; and when you have rolled in enough cheese to well flavour, roll the paste down thin, and cut out with a small plain round cutter; set them on to a sheet of paper on a thick tin, egg over, and bake in a hot oven. Dust over while hot with salt and cayenne, and serve in a folded napkin, in a deep dish. Any trimmings left over can be used up for cheese straws. Sold at is. 4d. per lb.

No. 196.- Cheese Souffles k la Chambord.

Sheet two dozen oval patty pans with puflf paste trimmings rolled rather thin, and cut out with a plain oval cutter; then prepare the mixture No. 197 and divide it out among the two dozen patty cases and bake. When done, beat up three whites of eggs as for meringue; add a pinch of salt, some cayenne pepper, and a little vinegar; and when quite light, stir in very carefully i j4 ozs. Miscellaneous Savoury Pastry. of clarified butter and 4 ozs. of fine flour; lay a spoonful of this upon the top of the cheesecakes and give them about five minutes in a very hot oven; as soon as they take on any colour, remove from the oven; take out of the tins, pile on to a lace paper or folded napkin, and serve hot.

No. 197.- Cheese Filling for Souffles.

Put 2 ozs. of dry grated cheese into a stewpan with i oz. of fresh butter and pint of cream; set it over the fire to nearly boil; then add i ozs. of fine flour and the yolks of 3 eggs, some salt, cayenne, and the juice of half a lemon, and stir it over the fire till it thickens; fill it into the cases and bake as directed. It is much the best way to add in the lemon juice after the mixture is cooked.

No. 198.- Cream Cheese Cakes.

Roll down a sheet of paste rather thin; cut out and sheet 2 dozen small patty pans; lay in a spoonful of the mixture No. 199 and bake with care in a moderate oven. If your oven is too hot, the cream cheese will turn black and have a very bad appearance. When nicely cooked, dust over with a little fine flour mixed with salt and cayenne. Sell at 2d. each, or is. 9d. per

No. 199.- Cream Cheese Filling.

Take 2 small sixpenny cream cheeses, commonly called " Bon-dons "; trim off all the outsides and put them into a clean porcelain mortar; add 3 ozs. of butter, I a little salt, cayenne pepper, and the yolks of 4 eggs, and I beat it well together to mix; when quite smooth, add a I tablespoonful of Tarragon vinegar and fill into the cases ' as before directed. The yolks should be beaten into the cheese one at a time, and take care to give it a thorough pounding.

No. 200.- Petits Talmouses an Parmesan.

Line some patty pans with puff paste trimmings, rolled down very thin; then put in a spoonful of the mixture No. 201; place them on a baking-plate, and bake to a Savoury Pastry. nice colour. When done, split them open, and fill with the cream cheese No. 202, and they are ready to serve. The beauty of these dainties consists in having them ready for the table just upon the fall of the gong. Price 3d. each, or 2s. 6d. per dozen.

No. 201.- Cream Curd Puff.

4 ozs. cream curd.

2 ozs. butter.;

4 ozs. flour.

3 ozs. grated cheese. I ) gills milk.

5 eggs.

Mode, - Weigh the curd, put it into a basin, and beat it smooth with the butter; add the flour, grated cheese, and the milk; put it into a stewpan, and cook it over the fire till it will not cling to the sides of the pan, stirring well all the time; take off the fire, and then proceed to beat the eggs in one at the time, and use as directed.

No. 202.- Cream Cheese.

6 ozs. Parmesan cheese (grated). 3 ozs. butter.

1 gill milk.

3 yolks of eggs.

Little cayenne pepper and salt.

Mode. - Slightly warm a mortar, and put the cheese and butter into it, and pound it quite smooth, adding the yolks of eggs and seasoning; put the milk into a stewpan, and stir the paste into it till dissolved; then cook till it thickens, when it is ready for use. CAUTION. - On no account must this be boiled or it will spoil.

No. 203.- Savoury Cheese Cakes. Line some deep patty pans with the trimmings of puff paste, and then prepare the following mixture:

X lb. grated cheese. X lb. butter. X lb. flour.

2 eggs. Cayenne.

Mode, - Cream up the butter, mix in the cheese and Miscellaneous Savoury Pastry. flour, and well beat in the eggs; then fill in the sheeted pans, and bake in a moderate oven. Sell at id. each.

No. 204.- Eissoles. Roll down the trimmings of pufT paste to the thickness of a penny piece; cut off in slips, and lay down the centre (as shown in the illustration, Fig. 103) a small spoonFiG. 103. - The Paste rolled out and Meat laid on.

ful of any of the patty fillings (given in Chapter V.); damp the paste along the edges and between the meat; and then fold over, turnover fashion (see Fig. 104); press down round the meat with your hands, and then take a small, round cutter large enough to cut out the Fig. 104.- How the Paste is folded over.

rissoles (see Fig. 105). When you have cut out the number required, proceed to egg them all over with ' whole beaten-up egg, to which a very small pinch of salt has been added, and have your breadcrumbs or vermi- ' celli run through a sieve to ensure it being of equal size, and roll the rissoles into whichever you prefer, as you Fig. 105. - How the Rissoles are cut out.

egg them over, laying them as you do them on a plate or board. Have ready upon the stove a stewpan half j full of clean boiling lard, and le sure that the lard oils, ! which you can tell by noticing little jets of steam rising up at intervals over the surface of the boiling fat. Plunge

Savoury Pastry. in the rissoles five or six at a time - they will take very little time to cook When nicely browned, take them up with a drainer (Fig. io6) and lay them on to a sheet of newspaper, several times folded, and set them in the oven for a few minutes. This will effectually free them from grease. Serve them piled on a folded napkin or lace paper on a dish; garnish round with parsley. Sell at from IS. 9d. to 2s. gd per dozen, according to size and material they are filled with. Fig. io6. - Rissole Dipper or Drainer.

No. 205.- Rissoles k la Vause. Mince up equal portions of tongue, ham and chicken quite dry; flavour with the aromatic mixture No. ii (see page 31); add a little cayenne and just a suspicion of lemon juice; bind it together with egg, and work it off into small portions about the size of half a walnut, using a ? flour to prevent them sticking. Enclose each of these quenelles in a very thin crust, keeping them as near the shape of a ball as possible; then flatten them with your hand; egg over, and roll in breadcrumbs, and fry to a nice colour, as directed in the previous recipe. Price, from is. 9d. to 2S. 9d.per dozen, according to size.

No. 206.- Eissoles k la Princess. Take about lb. of cooked veal, and half that quantity of nice flavoured ham; put it into a mortar with a small piece of butter and a little aspic jelly No. 12, and pound down to a smooth paste; season with pepper, salt, a little cinnamon, and some finely-broken sweet herbs. When you have reduced the mass to a smooth Miscellaneous Savoury Pastry. paste, divide it off into quenelles a little larger than " cob nuts." Now roll down a sheet of puff-paste trimming; lay on the quenelles, and cut out with a paste jigger (see Fig. ii), going all round each of the quenelles; wash them over with egg and roll them into vermicelli broken very small, and fry to a nice colour, as previously directed; drain on a paper, and then dust them lightly over with cayenne pepper. Pile on a folded napkin or lace paper, and serve. Price as before.

No. 207.- Rissoles k la Beaumont.

Finely mince a piece of cold venison, and to lb. of the meat add J lb. of mashed potatoes, a small handful of breadcrumbs, some chopped parsley, half an onion or eschalot, and season with the aromatic mixture No. II (see page 31), salt, and pepper; bind together with two or three yolks of eggs; put a small pat of butter into a stewpan; put in the mixture, and stir it over the fire to cook. Turn out on to a plate, and when cold make up into rissoles, the same as directed in No. 204, using a small Vandyke cutter, instead ol the plain round one there directed; egg over, roll in breadcrumbs, and fry to a nice colour; pile on to a lace paper or folded napkin, and serve. Same price as before. It is considered, aufait to serve red currant jelly in a separate dish with these.

No. 208.- Eissoles de Fromage k la CeciL

Take j4 lb. of grated cheese; season it with salt and pepper; then bind it together with some of the tomato puree given in No. 183, and one zg work up into lengths a little thicker than a lead pencil, and cut off about i ins. in length; sharpen the ends to points under your hands. Now proceed to place them into very thin paste, and shape them to crescents; egg over and roll in breadcrumbs; fry as before directed. Take care to keep them crescent shape. When done, dust over with fine salt, and serve hot as before. Price, from i IS. 9d. to 3s. 6d. per dozen. Savoury Pastry. No. 209.- Eissolettes k la President. Roll down a sheet of puff paste trimmings very thin and cut out pieces 3 ins. long and one i in. wide; egg them all over and lay on three pieces of the following mixture; fold over and press firmly together, and then make them round like a long thin cork; wash over slightly with egg, and then work out some of the paste into long round lengths, about the size of a knittingneedle, and bind them round the rissolettes, barber-pole Fig. 107. - Dish of Rissolettes a la President.

fashion; egg over again, and roll in very fine white breadcrumbs, and fry in boiling lard to a nice colour as before directed; dust slightly over with cayenne, and serve hot, neatly piled upon a folded napkin, as shown in Fig. 107. Sell at 2s. 9d. per dozen.

No. 210.- Filling for Rissolettes k la President. Pound down m a mortar about i lb. of fine flavoured, well-cooked, lean ham, with a small piece of butter, the yolks of two hard-boiled eggs and just a suspicion of seasoning; take out on a clean plate and stand aside on ice get firm. Now take the same quantity of cooked tongue and proceed as before, taking care that you pound it up very fine; now take the white meat from a roast or boiled fowl; put it into a mortar, and moisten Miscellaneous Savoury Pastry. with a few spoonsful of well-flavoured stock; add a little cayenne pepper and lemon thyme, taking care not to over season, and beat it down to a smooth paste. This gives you three different coloured and flavoured meats that will all blend nicely in the eating and yet totally different in taste. Now proceed to work them separately in little pellets about as large round as a cedar pencil; using a little flour to prevent the farce from sticking to your hands or the board. When rolled out, cut off into suitably sized lengths, used as directed in No. 209. Keep each kind of meat separate and remember to put one piece of each kind into every rissolette. A much smaller quantity of filling can be made if desired.

No. 211.- Fried Patties.

These differ only in shape in not being rissoles; but are called for as frequently. Roll down a sheet of puff-paste trimmings very thin and stamp out twenty rounds with a small round cutter; lay out ten of them on the board and place a spoonful of any of the previous forcemeats in the centre; damp round the edges; lay another piece of the cut-out paste on the top and press round the edges; curl them over to crimp them; then wash them all over with egg and roll in breadcrumbs; and fry in hot lard as directed in No. 204; take up; drain and serve as there directed. Price from is. 9d. to 3s. 6d. per dozen, according to fillings and size.

No. 212.- Fried Patties kla Gavana.

Take some very small crinkled dariole moulds, about J in. high and i J ins. broad; roll down some puff paste trimmings very thin; stamp out suitable size rounds and press them into the moulds with another piece of paste; fill in with a salpicon of venison as given in No. 207; gather all the edges of the paste to the top and flatten down; and bake in the oven till partially cooked and firm. Then take them out of the moulds; and when cold, wash over with egg and roll in finely-broken vermicelli and fry in the hot lard as before directed. Price from is. 9d. to 3s. 6d. per dozen, according to size and filling.

Savoury Pastry. No. 213.- Fried Patties a la Fantasia.

Roll down the paste as directed in No. 211, and cut out pieces with a crinkled oval cutter; lay in a spoonful of the filling given at No. 38; damp round the edges and place another piece of paste on top; wash over with egg, and then roll out some pieces of paste under your hands, about the size of a knitting-needle, and twist it on one side of the patty in any easy and fantastical pattern you can think of, and then roll in fine breadcrumbs and fry in hot lard. Price as before.

Do not, when making any kind of goods that are to be fried, use puff paste, for it will not come up as if baked; the hot fat prevents it from doing so, and you obtain much better results from the trimmings which should, upon all occasions, be used. The End.




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