Home | Cookbooks | Diary | Magic Menu | Random | More ≡

Vegetable Cookery, 1833
A Foods of England online text. For more see Cookbooks


TITLE: Vegetable cookery, with an introduction, recommending abstinence from animal food and intoxicating liquors
AUTHOR: by 'A Lady', thought to be Martha Brotherton, wife of Joseph Brotherton, MP for Salford, founders of the Vegetarian Society.
PUBLISHER: This edition: Wilson, London
DATE: First published 1821, this edition 1833
THIS VERSION: This transcript is based on the online version at archive.org, digitized from an edition in the collections at The Wellcome Library. This is an Optical Character Recognition scan, it has been partly edited, but still contains very significant errors.



VEGETABLE COOKERY
WITH AN
INTRODUCTION,
RECOMMENDING
ABSTINENCE FROM ANIMAL FOOD
AND
INTOXICATING LIQUORS.

BY A LADY.

THE FOURTH EDITION.

LONDON:
PUBLISHED BY EFFINGHAM WILSON,
MESSRS. CLARKE, AND MESSRS. THOMSON, MANCHESTER*
F, W, WAKEMAN, DUBLIN; AND MESSRS. WAUGII AND INNES, EDINBURGH.
MDCCCXXXIII.
LONDON:
PRINTED BY WILLIAM CLOWES, Stamford Street.

CONTENTS
Introduction Soups, & e.
Omelets, Fritters, &c.
Eggs
Vegetables
Salads
Sauces, &c. . .
Savoury Pies, Puddings, &c. Preparations of Cheese, &c. Puddings, &c.
Pancakes, Fritters, &c.,
Pies, Tarts, &c.
Cheesecakes, Custards, &c. Creams, Flummery, &c. Bread, Buns, &c.
Biscuits, Cakes, &c. Preserved Fruits, Jellies, &c. Pickles, &c.
Cheese, &c.
Syrups, &c.
Lemonade, Sherbets, Syrups, Spoon-meat
Useful Family Receipts Appendix .,

INTRODUCTION.

The pernicious custom of eating animal food having become so general in this country, the following observations are submitted to the consideration of the public, in the hope that some impartial and welldisposed persons will be thereby induced to relinquish the practice, from a conviction that the flesh of animals is not only unnecessary for the support of man, but that a vegetable diet is more favourable to health-, humanity, and religion.

That animal food is unnecessary to the sustenance of man will appear evident, when it is considered that, in the first ages of the world, mankind lived wholly on the vegetable productions of the earth, and that even at this day, millions of human beings in Asia and Africa subsist in a similar manner. But we need not go back to the primitive ages, nor travel to distant climes, in order to prove that vegetable food is nutritive and salutary; we have the evidence at hand: the most hardy Highlanders take comparatively little animal food; and the Irish labourer, who works hard and possesses much strength, lives principally on a vegetable diet. If additional testimony were needed, proofs sufficient to establish the practicability and salutariness of the system are afforded in the health and strength enjoyed by the persons belonging to the society ot which the Editor of this work is a member, upwards of one hundred of whom have entirely abstained from animal food and intoxicating liquor from ten to twenty years.

That a vegetable diet is id ore favourable to health there can be little doubt. The nations that subsist on this kind of food are strong, robust, and capable of enduring the greatest fatigue; and it is generally admitted that the long lives of the primitive race of men must, in a great degree, be attributed to the wholesomeness of the food on which mankind then lived. On the other hand, we have the testimony of several eminent characters, both ancient and modern, that many of the diseases with which mankind are afflicted may be ascribed to the eating of animal food.

Dr. Lambe has clearly demonstrated that not a few of the diseases with which the people of this country are afflicted may be attributed to this baneful diet. An eminent physician of Paris, in a work published some years ago, lias also shown that numerous diseases are caused or increased by the eating of animal flesh.

It is generally allowed that the eating of swine’s flesh is the principal cause of the scurvy, and that a vegetable diet is absolutely necessary to effect a complete cure. Dr. Buchan says that ‘ consumptions, so common in England, are in part owing to the great use of animal food.’ The gout is also said to be caused, in some degree, by the eating of flesh-meat, and instances jire on record of its being cured by a milk-diet.

Mr. Abernethy, whose opinion on this subject will not be questioned, says, ‘ If you put improper food into the stomach, it becomes disordered, and the whole system is affected. Vegetable matter ferments and becomes gaseous; while animal substances are changed into a putrid, abominable, and acrid stimulus. Now some people acquire preposterous noses, others blotches on the face and different parts of the body, others inflammation of the eyes - all arising from the irritations of the stomach. I am often asked,' says Mr. Abernethy, ‘ why I don’t practise what I preach. I answer by reminding the inquirer of the parson and the sign-post; both point the way, but neither follow its course.’ Thus we see that it is easier to acknowledge a true principle than to live according to it.

As a further illustration of the pernicious effects of animal flesh on the human system, the following fact may be adduced: ‘ The late Sir Edward Berry prevailed on a man to live on partridges, without vegetables; but after eight days’ trial he was obliged to desist, in consequence of strong symptoms then appearing of an incipient putrefaction.' This fact alone is sufficient to prove that it is the use of the vegetables along with the animal substance that enables mankind to sustain the bad effects of the latter.

In addition to the above, let us not forget that animals, like human beings, are subject to diseases, uncleannesses, and surfeits; that diseased meat is sometimes exposed for sale, and also that it is not a very un frequent practice for butchers, perhaps with diseased lungs, to blow their meat, particularly veal, to make it look fine.

Animal food, therefore, must always be more or less dangerous. For it is impossible for us to take into our stomachs putrefying, corrupting, and diseased animal substances, without being subjected to foul bodily diseases, weaknesses, corruptions, and premature death. If, then, we would enjoy health ourselves, and avoid laying the foundation of disease in our offspring, we must cease to degrade and bestialize °ur bodies by making them the burial-places for the carcasses ot innocent brute animals, some healthy, some diseased, and all violently murdered.

I hat food has an effect on the disposition is clearly evinced by the different tempers of the carnivorous and herbivorous animals; the former are savage, ferocious creatures, that prowl out at night and seek to destroy all within their reach; the others wander tranquilly on the plains in herds, enjoy themselves in the day, and manifest their innocence by various playful sports with each other. The temper of the carnivorous animal, however, is materially altered by the kind of food which is given to it. A dog, for instance, which is fed on raw flesh, is much more fierce and rapacious than one that feeds on milk or vegetable substances. And the ferocity even of a lion has been greatly abated, and he has been rendered tractable, by being fed on vegetable food.

The same effect of aliment is discernible among the different nations of men. ‘The Tartars,’ says Sir John Sinclair, ‘ who live principally on animal food, possess a degree of ferocity of mind and fierceness of character which forms the leading features of all carnivorous animals. On the other hand, a vegetable diet gives to the disposition, as it appears in the Brahmin and Gentoo, a mildness of feeling directly the reverse of the former.’

There can be no doubt, therefore, that the practice of slaughtering and devouring animals has a tendency to strengthen in us a murderous disposition and brutal nature, rendering us insensible to pity, and inducing us more easily to sanction the murdering of our fellow men. On the contrary, vegetable food clears the intellect, preserves innoccncy, increases compassion and love.

We shall now proceed to show that a vegetable diet ought to be preferred from a principle of humanity. It cannot be doubted that there exists within us by nature a repugnance to the spilling of blood; and vve cannot even see an animal tortured, much less killed, without feelings of compassion: this feeling of the heart, implanted by the Deity, should be considered as a guide to human conduct.

Had the Creator intended man to be an animal of prey, would He have implanted in his breast an instinct so adverse to His purpose? Could He mean that the human race should eat their food with compunction and regret; that every morsel should be purchased with a pang, and every meal of man empoisoned with remorse ? Were we forced with our own hands to kill the animals which we devour, who is there amongst us, whose disposition has not been vitiated, that would not throw down with detestation the knife, and, rather than imbrue his hands in the blood of the innocent lamb, consent for ever to forego the favourite repast ? Then ought we to induce others to commit what we cannot freely commit ourselves ? Wild beasts of the field will seldom kill, unless impelled by hunger or in self-defence: what excuse then can we have for such a practice, while we have so many delicious fruits and vegetables ?

If we attend to the anatomy of the human body, it seems as if man was formed by nature to be a frugivorous animal; and that he only becomes an animal of prey by acquired habit. The form and disposition of the -intestines is very similar to that of the ouranoutang, or man of the woods, an animal which lives on fruit and vegetables. It has also been remarked that all carnivorous animals have a smooth and uniform colon, and all herbivorous animals a cellulated one. Nor do we appear to be adapted by nature to the use of animal food from the conformation of the teeth. The carnivorous animals, such as lions, tigers, wolves, dogs, &c., have their teeth long, sharp, and uneven, with intervals between them; but the herbivorous animals, such as horses, cows, sheep, goats, &c., have their teeth short, broad, blunt, adjoining one another, and distributed in even rows. Now, as man has received from nature teeth which are unlike those of the first class, and resemble those of the second, it seems that nature intended him to follow, in the selection of his food, not the carnivorous tribes, but those races of animals which are contented with the simple productions of the earth.

Some persons, however, will argue that man is a mixed animal, and designed to live upon both animal and vegetable substances, because he does so live. This reminds us of a circumstance mentioned by Buffon, of a sheep being so trained to eat mutton that it would no longer eat grass; but will any man contend that sheep were designed to live on mutton, because their nature might be so far perverted, as in the case above mentioned? If, then, men have degenerated from their original simplicity and innocence, is it to be contended that custom is a sufficient proof that their conduct is now right ? Others say that animals eat each other, and why may not we eat them ? What ! because we see a wolf worry a lamb, are we to imitate the practice, and inherit the disposition of the wolf? Some modern sophists will sarcastically ask, ‘ Why is man furnished with the canine or dog teeth, except that nature meant him to be carnivorous V Is then the propriety of an action to be determined purely by the physical capacity of the agent? Is it right to do everything we have the power to do ? Because nature has furnished man with the capacity to devour human flesh, will any one pretend that lie was made to feed on his fellow men ? The possessing of similar instruments, powers, or capacities, ought not to be too much relied upon as indications of nature, with respect to the mode of living. Ilares and rabbits have feet very similar, but how different arc their habits! A dog lias claws. and he will make a hole in the ground with them to get at a mouse; but he will not burrow in the ground to escape from the cold: therefore it would be absurd to infer that he was designed by nature to live like a rabbit. The ouran-outang and man have similar teeth; the former lives entirely on fruits, and the latter gives proof that he can devour every kind ot animal, from the oyster to the elephant. Another question asked by the opposers of this humane system is, ‘ If we should live entirely on vegetable food, what would become of the cattle? They would grow so numerous, they would produce a famine, or eat us up if we did not kill and eat them.’ These are rather suppositions than arguments, mere fancies, because unexperienced. But it may be observed that there are abundance of animals in the world which men do not kill for food, and yet we do not hear of their injuring mankind, or becoming too numerous. Besides, multiparous animals live but a short time, and many of them perish unless attention is paid to them by men. Cattle are at present an article of trade, and their numbers are industriously promoted. If cows and sheep were kept solely for their milk and fleece, and if they should become too numerous, mankind would readily find means of reducing them, without having recourse to the butcher’s knife.

We need not, however, at present be under any apprehension in this country of being eaten up by cows and sheep, for there is sufficient land for the support of a great increase both of men and animals. England alone, which now contains only about twelve millions of inhabitants, is capable of producing, by spade husbandry, a sufficiency of nutritive vegetables for the support of one hundred and twenty millions of human beings: but if every one must consume a pound of flesh a day, there is scarcely enough of land for the existing population: we are therefore more likely to suffer from famine under the present system than we should be if the practice of abstaining from animal food were more generally adopted. To those who ask what would be the consequence if the vegetable system should be universally adopted - this must be the answer: It is evident that, by imitating those of the golden age, we should be free and happy. There would be fewer diseases, less crime, no wars, no slavery; but universal peace and good will would be established among men.

Having stated a few of the facts and arguments which may be advanced in favour of a vegetable regimen, in reference to health and humanity, it may be useful to show that the laws contained in sacred scripture, and the practice of the wisest and the best of men in all ages, are in accordance with the laws of nature and the dictates of reason. Some persons adopt the system on account of health, or from motives of compassion to the brute creation; but they cannot see how the mode of living, as to food, can have anything to do with religion.

In the first place, it may reasonably be asked, what kind of religion is that which is opposed to humanity? And is it of no consequence, in a moral or religious point of view, whether man lives according to sensual appetite or enlightened reason ? If ye live after the flesh, says the Apostle, ye shall die; but if ye through the spirit do mortify the deeds of the body, ye shall live.

The design of the laws of God is to teach man the best means of attaining happiness both here and hereafter. And as so much depends on our possessing a sound mind in a sound bodv, our merciful Creator, who knows what is best lor us. has condescended to give us laws respecting what we should eat and what we should not cat. This we shall endeavour to show by directing the reader’s attention to some passages of Scripture, which, if they have any meaning, must be directions to man in the choice of Ids food. If, then, reason, humanity, and the law of God point the same way, we have three witnesses to the truth of the doctrine. The conflicting opinions of men, respecting what is best cither for the promotion of health or happiness, cannot safely be relied upon; let Deity, then, decide the question; and if ye will do His will, ye shall know by experience whether the doctrine be of God.

In the first chapter of Genesis, after God had created man, he directed him concerning his food, saying, ‘ Behold, I have given you every herb bearing seed which is upon the face of all the earth, and every tree in which is the fruit of a tree yielding seed, to you it shall be for meat.' In the Decalogue Jehovah says, ‘ Thou shall not kill.' Who dare limit the precept to the killing of human beings, when God has said, ‘ Ye shall neither add to the law nor diminish aught from it?’ He further says, Flesh with the life thereof, which is the blood thereof, shall ye not eat: neither shall ye eat any manner of fat of ox, or of sheep, or of goat, in any of your dwellings. In the Christian dispensation, the Apostles held a council and issued a decree to the Churches, saying, ‘ It seemed good to the Holy Ghost and to us to lay upon you no greater burden than these necessary things: that ye abstain from meats offered to idols, and from blood (or intoxicating wine, see Ezelc. xxxix. 19), and from things strangled,' or, in other words, from animals which have suffered a violent death. From Judith xi. 12, we learn that the eating of animal food was what God had forbidden by his laws. And we have the strongest proof that the Israelites were fed with manna for forty years in the wilderness, although they had much cattle. In Ecclus. xxxix. 20, it is said that the principal things for the use of man’s life are salt, flour, wheat, honey, milk, &c.; but there is no mention made of the flesh of cattle. From Prov. xxvii. 23 - 27, it would seem that the design of keeping flocks was for the fleece and the milk. See also 1 Cor. ix. 7, and Psalm xlix. 14. These and several other passages which might be adduced may reasonably be considered as sufficient to convince a humane person that it is contrary to the written law of God, and to the feeling of compassion implanted in the heart, to kill innocent animals for our daily sustenance. We are well aware, however, that objections will be brought from scripture against this doctrine, as, for instance: ‘ Every moving thing that liveth shall be meat for you,’ &c. But it should be recollected that every moving thing that liveth is not fit for meat: people do not eat lizards, worms, flies, serpents, and dogs. Again: ‘ Not that which goelh into the mouth defiles the man.' - But does any man imagine that, by this declaration, our Saviour meant to give full licence to gluttony and intemperance - that a man might swallow poisoji - or that he might eat anything which the law of God forbade to be eaten ? The sense in which the words were used must be gathered from the reason and the occasion of their being spoken, which was this - The Pharisees, being offended, murmured at the disciples of Jesus for sitting down to meat with unwashen hands: in answer to them, .Jesus says, ‘ Not that which goelh into the mouth defiles’ &e.; that is to say, not a little soil or filth taken into the mouth, by eating with unwashen hands, can be said to defile a man, &c. This is the plain and obvious sense of the words. Besides, these words were spoken twenty years before the Apostolic decree, which appears to forbid the use of animal food to the Gentiles; and would the Apostles make a decree in direct contradiction to the declaration of Jesus? Another objection has been stated: - In the account of Peter’s vision we are informed that the Lord said to him, ‘ Rise, Peter, kill and eat.' But what did Peter himself learn from the vision? He says that he understood that he was not to call any man common or unclean; and that the Gentiles were denoted by the animal appearances. Surely it will not be contended that real animals were let down in a sheet out of heaven ? Peter was by this vision corrected of a prejudice he, in common with the rest of the Jews, entertained against the Gentiles: and we afterwards find bis brethren accusing him of going in to men uncircumcised and eating with them; that is to say, he went and partook of the sacrament with Gentiles, and they became Christians, God having commanded him to do so - for the right rendering of the passage is, Rise, Peter, sacrifice (or consecrate) and eat. Another objection is, that the Apostle Paul has determined the lawfulness of eating anything sold in the shambles, or set before us, asking no questions for conscience sake. But will any man in his senses interpret this permission to extend further than to things lawful and proper to be sold or eaten ? This would suit unprincipled dealers in flesh, and supersede the necessity of market-lookers. Besides, are we sure that nothing but flesh-meat is sold in places called shambles ? Moreover, can it be believed that St. Paul gave this permission in contradiction to the decree of the Apostles, a decree to which he himself consented, and which he was very active in circulating among the different churches ? On an impartial examination, it will be found that these permissions of the Apostle relate entirely to meals offered to idols; parts of which offerings (though not of flesh-meat) were sometimes sold in the shambles or market, and sometimes eaten in private houses; and these the Apostle permitted to be eaten by Christians, asking no questions (whether they had been offered to an idol) for conscience sake. The intention of that part of the decree was to keep Christians from idolatry, and the best way to effect this was by prohibiting all communication with idols and idolaters in their feasts instituted in honour of their idols: it being pretended by some that they might innocently partake of idolfeasts, since they knew that an idol was nothing, and there was but one God. But after all, it may, perhaps, be said by some, that it is the blood which is forbidden, and not the flesh. This is a weak objection, as it is well known that the flesh is constituted of the blood: how, then, can we eat flesh without eating blood ?

Having endeavoured briefly to answer some of the most common objections drawn from scripture, against the system, perhaps we may be permitted to say a few words respectingjfa/i. On the authority of medical men it may be stated, that the flesh of fish is more unwholesome than that of land animals; it being more putrescent, as may be concluded from the nauseous and hepatic eructations of the stomach after it is eaten. But it may be said, Did not Jesus eat fish ? and were not his disciples fishermen ? In order to come at the truth on this subject, it is necessary we should not rest in the word, fish, nor limit its signification to one kind of fish; neither should we conclude that there is but one kind of fishers; for we know that there are various sorts, as pearl-fishers, coral-fishers, and fishers of water-plants of different kinds, as well as of the animal fish. Now, we shall not presume to decide which of these pursuits the disciples were engaged in, or whether Jesus did not call them away from their worldly occupation of fishing, because we may not be possessed of all the evidence necessary to come to a correct conclusion: but we may be permitted to submit to the reader’s consideration a few facts which may be the means of furnishing reasonable ground for doubting whether feasting on salmon, by way of fasting from flesh, be quite consonant with the practice of Jesus and his disciples. We learn from Numbers xi. 5, that when the Israelites murmured against Moses, and wished to return to Egypt, they said, ‘ We remember the fish, which we did eat in Egypt freely; the cucumbers, and the melons, and the leeks, and the onions, and the garlic.’ Now, we are informed by Herodotus, that fish was in his time very much used as food in Egypt, many families living entirely upon it: that it was sometimes used/res/i, and sometimes roasted. Sometimes they dried it in the sun, then beat it small in a mortar, and afterwards sifted it through a piece of fine cloth; and thus formed it into cakes as bread. This is the very mode in which the Egyptians now prepare the £o£os-plants: they dry them in the sun, roast or broil them; then having parched the seed within the lotos, whose head resembles that of a poppy, they make bread of it. ( See Beauties of Nature and Art displayed, vol. xii. p. 141.) - Pococke says, that when he was in Upper Egypt, they told him there was a large fish called lotos, which probably is the lotos that was so highly esteemed by the Egyptians. {See his Travels in Egypt, Pinkerton' s Coll. p. lxi. p. 333.) - Watermelons are much eaten in warm climates, which, being moist and cooling, are of course particularly grateful to the palate. These, and several other facts to the same purport which might be adduced, must, at least, lead us to doubt whether Jesus or his disciples did really eat animal fish. And especially, when we know that Parkhurst, in his Greek Lexicon, says, ‘ It seems not very natural to understand the Greek word, opsarion (John xxi. 9), as signifying fish. It signifies some other kind of provision, of the delicious sort, tliat may be eaten with bread.’ Indeed, fish and honey do not seem to be very suitable to be eaten together. In addition to this evidence, if the reader will take the trouble to refer to Calmet’s Dictionary, he will find that ‘ James and John were fishermen with Zebedee their father; ’ and yet ‘ they never ate either fish or flush' From Josephus we learn that no animal fish will live in the Dead Sea, and yet the prophet Ezekiel speaks of an abundance of fishers who should fish on its borders. We should recollect also, that when the net brake, while the disciples were fishing, the fish did not escape ! Taking these circumstances into consideration, and viewing the subject impartially and uninfluenced by prejudice or appetite, we shall, perhaps, be justified in maintaining that the scriptures, properly understood, do not sanction the eating of either fish or animal flesh; at all events, there is reasonable ground for our entertaining such an opinion, and the Apostle says, ‘ He that doubteth is condemned if he eat; for whatsoever is not of faith is sin.’

Thus we have endeavoured, as far as our limits will allow, to state the grounds on which the members of the Society of Bible-Christians abstain from animal food, which is done, not only in obedience to the Divine command, but because it is an observance which, if more generally adopted, would prevent much cruelty, luxury, and disease, besides many other evils which cause misery in society. It would be productive of much good by promoting health, long life, and happiness; - and thus be a most effectual means of reforming mankind. It would entirely abolish that greatest of all curses. War; for those who are so conscientious as not to kill animals will never murder human beings. On all these accounts the system cannot be too much recommended. The practice of abstaining cannot be wrong; it must therefore be some consolation to be on the side of duty. If we err, we err on the sure side; - it is innocent; - it is infinitely better authorized, and more nearly associated with religion, virtue, and humanity, than the contrary practice: and we have the sanction of the wisest and the best of men - of the whole Christian world for several hundred years after the commencement of the Christian era. It is in opposition to a practice manifestly brutal and savage; a practice which cannot answer any ends but those of luxury, disease, cruelty, and oppression - ends of all others the most opposed to the true principles of Christianity,

ON THE PERNICIOUS EFFECTS OF INTOXICATING LIQUORS.

O, madness ! to think use of strongest wines And strongest drink our chief support of health.
When God, with these forbidden, made, choice to rear His mighty champion, strong above compare,
Whose drink was only from the liquid brook.
Milton.

The numerous and disgusting scenes of drunkenness which we daily behold render it necessary that every effort should be made to stem, if possible, the torrent of this detestable vice; or this once flourishing and happy country will become, ere long, a general scene of poverty, crime, disease, and misery. If intemperance must be patronised, it is quite in vain to erect places ol worship, or to expect anything hut disappointment in attempting to diffuse religious knowledge among the inhabitants of Britain. 1 The drinking of intoxicating liquors is the root of almost every evil in society; it is the parent of poverty, of diseases of all sorts, of feebleness of hotly and mind, and at last the drunkard departs from life regretted not even by friends, parents, or brethren. It is also probable that more than half the crimes which bring men to an untimely end are the fruit of strong drink. It then all this be true, what a tremendous collection of misery and mischief is to be ascribed to this single cause ! Poverty ! Disease ! Theft ! Murder ! - Can this be read without concern, or is it possible such depravity should be seen with indifference ? Were murders committed by any other weapons, or were half the number of the families who might otherwise prove useful to the community as easily plunged into vice and ruin by any other means, is it possible that the professed ministers of the Gospel, or those who are clothed with civil authority, should be unconcerned spectators of such dreadful and enlarging scenes of wickedness and misery ? ‘ Common humanity would prevent a single murder, and restrain the uplifted arm that would administer one deadly potion, or that aimed a deadly weapon at one innocent at the breast. But what is a single murder, compared to the many thousands that are annually sent out of the world by a slow but sure poison ? And among these, how many unoffending children and helpless babes fall pitiable victims V In addition to this catalogue of misery, it may be stated as a melancholy fact, that a very great proportion of the cases of insanity are caused by excessive drinking. It is high time, therefore, that something should be done: but what must that something be? If the magistracy will do nothing towards even restraining the licentiousness of those nurseries of profligacy and crime, the public-houses; and if Government, in order to increase the revenue, continue to permit the bread of the people to be converted into poison, and retailed in those infamous recesses of wickedness, the dram shops; what can be done? There remains only one effectual way of counteracting tliis evil, and that is, for all who call themselves Ministers of the Gospel to strike at the root of this great sin, by setting an example of entire abstinence from every kind of intoxicating liquor, and using all their influence to induce their hearers to do the same; then, and not till then, may we expect prosperity, health, and happiness to be enjoyed by the people of this land. They must not suppose that, by their merely recommending moderation, the evil can now be removed, or even abated; it is the moderate drinkers that keep the immoderate in countenance; - one says, ‘ a glass or two will do you good - another, that ‘ a bottle now and then will do no man any harm - and a third contends that he cannot be considered a drunkard who does not get intoxicated more than once a week. So that it is impossible to draw the line, or to say in what moderation consists: but if the teachers of religion will show by their example, as well as by precept, that it is not necessary in any degree .to drink strong liquor, some good may possibly be effected.

In order to adopt any system, it is desirable to see the practicability of it; in this case it is quite easy, as it requires no sacrifice from the young, and very little from those of more mature age. There only wants a beginning in the performance. It is the want ot resolution to begin that prevents the good; for if once we begin in good earnest and from proper motives, we shall find the path so pleasant that we need never turn aside from it. It is very certain that strong liquors of every kind are hateful to the natural appetite; for children and young people, when they first taste them, discover all the marks of strong dislike; but by habit this dislike is overcome, and custom becomes a second nature. Sipping leads to drinking, and drinking to the beastly vice of drunkenness. Therefore, a child ought not to have strong drink presented to it, no more than it ought to have poison presented to it. It should not even see it, and, if possible, not hear of it, and the pernicious beverage ought never to gain admittance to our dwellings.

That intoxicating liquors are quite unnecessary to the support of the human body, every medical practitioner of any celebrity will not hesitate to admit; and nobody will deny that they are very expensive; for it is a fact, that one moderate dram-drinker consumes as much grain, in spirits, as would produce bread for forty people.

Some persons imagine that strong liquors are essential to bodily strength. This false notion is partly grounded on the idea of a nutritious property in those liquors, and partly perhaps on a logical error in using the word strong, as being necessarily connected with strengthening the animal body. The first notion is entirely wrong, since it is proved by continual evidence, that strong liquors are inimical to animal life throughout the creation, and that no living animal or plant can be supported by such fluids, but that, on the contrary, they all become sickly and perish under their influence. ‘ I presume,’ says Dr. Carlyle, ‘ that no man would give a lamb, a calf, a chicken, or a duck spirituous liquors, with a hope of rendering it sooner fat, even if such liquors were so cheap as to make it an economical process; yet many parents do this by their children.' The fact is, there is neither strength nor nourishment in spirituous liquors; if they produce vigour in labour, it is of a transient nature, for there always succeeds a sense of weakness and fatigue. ‘ Look at the horse, with every muscle of his body swelled from morning till night in the plough or the team; does he make signs for spirits to enable him to cleave the earth or climb the hill? No - He requires nothing but cool water and substantial food. It is the same with regard to human beings, and those men are capable ol performing the greatest exploits in work, both as to their degree and duration, who never taste spirituous liquors’ In confirmation of the above observation, Smollett, in his Travels in Italy, remarks, that ‘ a porter in London quenches his thirst with a draught of strong beer; a porter of Rome or Naples refreshes himself with a slice of water-melon or a glass of iced water: now, it is commonly remarked that beer strengthens as well as refreshes; but the porters of Constantinople, who never drink anything stronger than water, will carry a load of seven hundred weight, which is more than any English porter ever attempted to raise.’ It should also be recollected that Samson, who is reputed the strongest man that ever lived, was a water-drinker.

Another great and prevailing error is the supposing that spirituous liquors lessen the effects of cold upon the body. On the contrary, I maintain, says Dr. B. Rush, that they always render the body more liable to be affected and injured by cold. The temporary warmth they produce is always succeeded by chilliness. If anything besides warm clothing and exercise is necessary to warm the body in cold weather, a plentiful meal of wholesome food is at all times sufficient for that purpose. The people of Lapland do not require strong drink to keep them warm, their drink being only water, and it is remarked by Linnaeus that they have very few diseases. We may, therefore, conclude with Hoffman, that ‘ water is the fittest drink for all persons of all ages and temperaments. 13y its fluidity and mildness, it promotes a free and equable circulation ol the blood and humours through all the vessels of the body, upon which the due performance of every animal function depends; and hence water-drinkers are not only the most active and nimble, but also the most cheerful and sprightly of all people. In sanguine complexions, water, by diluting the blood, renders the circulation easy and uniform. In the choleric, the coolness of the water restrains the quick motion and intense heat of the humours. It attenuates the glutinous viscidity of the juices of the phlegmatic; and the gross earthiness which prevails in melancholic temperaments. And as to different ages - water is good for children, to make their tenacious milky diet thin and easy to digest; to youth and middle-aged, to sweeten and dissolve any scorbutic acrimony or sharpness that may be in the humours, by which means pains and obstructions are prevented; and for old people, to moisten and mollify their rigid fibres and to promote a less difficult circulation through their hard and shrivelled vessels.’

In addition to the above facts and opinions, it may be observed, that many alterations take place in the mind in consequence of the influence of the bodily organs; and these latter are greatly influenced by the kind of aliment which the body receives. God knows what is in man and what is best for him; he has, therefore, graciously forbidden in his word, what would injure either body or mind, and commanded what is best calculated to be useful to both. An instance of which we find previously to the birth of Samson: his parents were expressly commanded by the angel of the Lord not to drink wine or strong drink, that he might be filled with the Holy Spirit from his birth; and it is said the Lord blessed him. It is also said of John the Baptist, * He shall be great in the sight of the Lord, and shall drink neither wine nor strong drink; and he shall be filled with the Holy Spirit, even from his mother’s womb.’ Now these things, no doubt, are recorded for our use and instruction. Taking, then, into consideration, what has been advanced, any rational person must be convinced that the drinking of intoxicating liquor is injurious to both body and mind; that its effects in families are seen to be destructive of all social comfort; and its pernicious influence on the morals of the community is beyond what either the tongue can express or the pen describe. If, then, we value our health; if we wish to enjoy domestic comfort and see our children sober; if we have any regard even for the temporal prosperity and happiness of society in general, we shall never again suffer another drop of that baneful liquor to touch our lips. But when we consider that our own eternal happiness, and the eternal happiness of millions is at stake, it being declared in Holy Writ that not only drunkards cannot inherit the kingdom of heaven, but that without holiness no man can see the Lord, we must allow that abstinence from those tilings which are calculated to grieve or quench the Holy Spirit, becomes an important religious duty. Let us, therefore, humbly desire to live continually under the influence of the glorified Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, and attend to this apostolic exhortation:
‘ Whether ye eat or drink, or whatever ye do, do all to the glory of God.’

Salford) August 22nd, 1829.

VEGETABLE COOKERY.

SOUPS, &c.

1 . Peas Soup.

Steep a quart of split peas all night in soft'" water, put them into a pan with four quarts of water, let them boil gently till the peas are perfectly tender, then pulp them through a sieve, return the soup into the pan, with the addition of two turnips, and one large carrot sliced, a little celery, leeks, thyme, sweet marjoram, three onions, and a few peppercorns; when sufficiently stewed, strain and add catsup and salt. Serve it up with fried or toasted bread, cut in small squares.

2. Peas Soup.

Boil peas, turnips, carrots, celery, onions, leeks, and some sweet herbs in a proportionate quantity of water. When sufficiently tender strain them through a colander; then take a quarter of a pound of butter rolled in flour, brown it, and add it to the soup, with two or three spoonsful of catsup. Add some sliced turnips, carrots, leeks, and lettuce, after being stewed till tender. Season with pepper and salt. To make it green, bruise some spinach, and strain some juice

* Distilled, or what is commonly called steam water, is decidedly the best lor making peas soup.

24 soups, &c.

into the soup when about to he removed from the fire.

3. White Peas Soap.

Take half a pint of whole white peas, four large onions, a handful of sweet herbs, one head of celery, four leeks, one parsnip, one carrot, one turnip, three cloves, and two or three leaves of mace, and boil them in three quarts of water. When boiled down to two quarts, rub the ingredients through a sieve, and put the soup again upon the fire, with a piece of butter rolled in flour. Having beaten three eggs into a pint of cream, put them gradually into the soup, which must not be suffered to boil. If agreeable, some fried spinach and bread may be added.

4. Peas Soup.

Take a pint of whole peas, one carrot, half a small Savoy cabbage, two heads of celery, some whole black pepper, a bundle of sweet herbs, and two onions, with as much water as will make three quarts of soup. Boil these until the peas become perfectly tender, when they should be rubbed through a colander. Take two large handsful of spinach, scald it, and beat it in a marble mortar, and rub it through a sieve. Take some lettuces, a little mint, four small green onions, or leeks, not shred too small, and a little celery. Put these into a saucepan with half a pound of butter and a little flour. Let them stew till tender; then put the spinach and the herbs into the soup, and let them boil till sufficiently incorporated. A few heads of asparagus will greatly improve the soup.

5. Green Peas Soup.

Take a quart of old green peas, and put them into two quarts of water, with a sprig or two of mint.

25

ROUPS, &C.

Boil till tlie peas become very soft, then pulp them through a sieve. Put the pulp and water into a stewpan, with a pint of young peas, two or three cucumbers cut into thick square pieces, and lettuce-stalks sliced; put to them a few ounces of butter mixed witli potato flour. Salt and pepper to the taste. Boil gently, or rather simmer over the fire. II not sufficiently green, add to the soup three spoonsful ol spinach-juice a few minutes before it is served up.

6. Green Pens Soup.

In shelling the peas, separate the old from the young, and to a quart of old peas put a pint of water, an ounce of butter, a lettuce, two onions, pepper and salt, stew them till quite tender, pulp them through a sieve; then add two quarts more of water, the hearts and tender stalks of lettuces, the young peas, and a handful of spinach cut small; stew them till quite soft. If the soup be too thin, or not rich enough, a little flour and butter may be added, and boiled up in it. Have ready a little boiled mint and parsley to put in when you serve it up.

7. Green Peas Soup.

To three pints of well-grown peas put three quarts of water, a little salt, and a piece of white bread, let them boil till they are quite soft, then pulp them through a sieve; stew three or four lettuces, and three onions sliced, with half a pound of butter; put all together and let it boil; season with pepper and salt, add a little chopped parsley, have ready a pint of young peas, separately boiled, to put in just before you serve it up.

8. Green Peas Soup.

To a gallon of water put a quart of full-grown peas, three onions, a head of celery, one carrot, a turnip,

n

26

SOUPS, &c.

a sprig of mint, and a few peppercorns. Let them boil till the ingredients become quite soft, and after being strained and pressed through a hair-sieve, put into a stewpan some cucumber that has been previously lried, and a quarter of a pound of butter rolled in flour; when the butter is melted, pour it and the cucumber together into the soup, with a pint of young peas. Stew all together till the soup is of a proper thickness, taking care to stir it often. Serve it up hot.

9. Green Peas Soup with Milk.

Take as much milk as you want soup; when it boils, put in green peas, and a piece of white bread, boil them till quite soft; then pulp them through a coarse sieve, and add butter worked with a little flour; pepper and salt to the taste. If the peas be not too old, the soup will be very good without being passed through a sieve. Turnip or celery may be added.

10. Green Peas Soup.

Flour and fry in butter a quart of green peas, four onions, a carrot, a turnip, and a parsnip, then pour on them three quarts of water; let it simmer till the whole will pulp through a sieve. Then boil in it the best of some celery cut thin, adding a little flour and butter, pepper and salt to the taste, also a little chopped parsley.

11. G) •een Peas Soup with Rice.

Put two quarts of old peas into a stewpan with a few spoonsful of water, two or three sliced onions, one carrot, a turnip, and a head of celery. Stew these together for the space of fifteen minutes, taking care that the ingredients do not burn. Then add, by degrees, the required quantity of water, with a spoonful or two of catsup, till all the vegetables have

27

SOUPS, &c.

become so tender as to be rubbed through a coarse sieve; season to the taste; and add to the soup when strained, a large handful of spinach, separately boiled, and rubbed through along with the pease and other ingredients. The soup being so far prepared, add to it four or five spoonsful of rice boiled very tender; then take five or six yolks of eggs, and after beating them with about half a pint of cream, strain through a sieve, and mix it with the soup, stirring it about half a minute, without permitting it to boil, as in that case it would instantly curdle. Should it be thought too rich, the eggs and cream may be omitted.

12. Asparagus Soup.

Make this in the same way as green pease soup, (No. 7,) with the tender green part of asparagus cut in small pieces, reserving a part of it to put in after the soup is strained, with fried bread cut in small squares.

13. Dried Green Peas Soup.

To one quart of dried green peas put three quarts of soft water, four onions sliced, floured and fried in fresh butter, the coarse stalk of celery, one carrot, a turnip, and a parsnip, with some whole pepper and a little mace; these must stew gently till they will pulp through a sieve; have ready a handful of beets and some of the root sliced, some celery and spinach, which must be first blanched, then stewed tender in

I the strained liquor; when the soup is ready, add the third of a pint of spinach-juice, which must be stirred in very cautiously, for if it be suffered to boil it will curdle; a crust of bread and some tops of asparagus may be added.

14. Grey Peas Soup.

To five quarts of water put two of peas, three large

n 2

28

SOUPS, &c.

onions, two heads of celery, some crust of bread, a little thyme, and some sage, let it boil three hours, then strain it through a cloth, thicken with flour and butter, give it another boil, have ready some fried onions and sage rubbed fine, salt and pepper, and pour the soup over them and serve it up.

15. A good and cheap Peas Soup.

Steep a quart of peas in soft water twelve hours, pick them and put them in a stewpot with six quarts of water, cover the pot close and set it in the oven, let them stew till quite soft, stirring them frequently; then rub them through a coarse sieve or colander; put the soup in a pan, and put in a handful of chopped parsley, some leeks, onions, and beets coarsely chopped, pepper and salt to the taste; let them stew together an hour, then work a table spoonful of flour with six ounces of butter, stir it in the soup till the butter is melted; let it boil, then serve it up with toasted bread cut in small squares.

16. Peas Soup.

To a quart of split peas or three pints of whole peas, take two large carrots sliced, four or five goodsized turnips, six onions, and the outside stalks of two heads of celery made very clean, a crust of bread, and a handful of salt, put them in a stewpot that will hold twelve quarts; nearly fill it with soft water, (steam water is preferable,) cover it with a plate, and tie paper over it; set it in the oven all night; slice two turnips, one carrot, the white part of the celery, and two onions, or a few sweet leeks; melt two ounces of butter in a saucepan, and stew the vegetables in it with about a tea-cupful of water till quite soft, then pass the soup through a coarse sieve or colander, mashing the vegetables, and pressing them with a wooden spoon; then put the soup into a pan

29

soups, &c.

with the stewed vegetables, salt and pepper, and two ounces more of butter, with a little flour worked in it, stir it till the butter is melted, and when it boils it will be ready for use. Serve it up with thin toasts of bread. A little mint dried and powdered may be added.

17. Peas Soup.

Put a quart of peas in a pan with some butter, a handful of parsley, a few eschalots, and some salt; shake them well over the lire till half done, then cover the pan and let them steam half an hour, stirring them occasionally. When the peas are soft, crush them in a bowl or marble mortar, and pulp them through a sieve. When ready to serve, mix the pulp with a soup of vermicelli or rice, made in the common way.

18. Peas Broth.

Steep a pint of split peas in clean soft water a few hours; take them out and set them on the lire with three quarts of water, adding an onion, a large carrot, and one or two turnips sliced, also the outside stalks of celery, a crust of bread, or a little rice, pepper and salt to the taste. When the vegetables are. quite tender, strain it through a hair-sieve; return it into the pan, and have ready a little chopped parsley, sweet leek, and the white part of celery; let it boil up a few minutes, and you will have some excellent broth. If required, a little flour and butter may be mixed together and stirred in, before it is taken olF the lire.

19. Potato Soup.

Slice six onions, six heads of celery, and ten or twelve moderatesized potatoes; put a quarter of a pound of butter into a stevvpan with a little vegetable broth, let it boil slowly half an hour, then add three

n 3

30

soups, See.

or four quarts of boiling vegetable broth, boil or simmer gently half an hour longer till the potatoes are dissolved, then rub it through a sieve, and season to the taste; when it boils up again, take it off the fire, and add a pint of cream that has been boiled.

20. Herb Soup.

Melt five ounces of butter in a stewpan with a little flour and water, when hot, slice into it four good sized onions, and shake the pan well over the fire for five minutes; cut very smail two or three roots of celery, two handsful of spinach, a cabbage lettuce, and some parsley; put them into the pan with the onions. Set it over the fire till the vegetables are well done, stirring them pretty often; then mix in a little flour, Cayenne pepper, salt, some crusts of stale white bread, and two quarts of boiling water; stir the whole well together, and let it stew half an hour. Before you serve it up, add the yolks of two eggs well beaten, and a spoonful of vinegar, but do not let it boil again. The green part of asparagus is a pleasant addition, cut into the soup with the other vegetables.

21. A iiolher Soup.

Take four ounces of butter cut in pieces and put it in a stewpan, set it over the fire to brown a little, then take three or four onions sliced, three heads of celery, two handsful of spinach, a small cabbage, two or three turnips, two cabbage-lettuces, parsley, pepper, and salt to your taste; stew these gently about half an hour, then put to them two quarts of water, let them simmer till the roots become quite tender, when any part of them may be taken out, and the remainder served up in the soup.

31

soups, &c.

22. Another.

Take some middling-sized onions, a few lettuces cut small, two heads of celery, and one turnip; slice them very thin, and fry them in a quarter of a pound of butter till they are brown. Put them in a pan with four quarts of boiling water, pepper, salt, mace, and two French rolls; boil all together till the bread is reduced to a pulp; then strain through a lmir-sieve, and set it again on the fire, skim it well, and thicken it with the yolks of three eggs. When sent to table add fried or toasted bread cut small.

23. Another.

Put a quarter of a pound of butter in a pan, set it on the fire, and shake it round till melted; put in six sliced onions and shake the pan well for two or three minutes; add two heads of celery, two handsful of spinach, or a little chervil, some pot marjoram, two cabbage-lettuces cut small, and some parsley; shake the pan well over the fire ten minutes, then put in two quarts of water, and some crusts of bread; let it boil gently for an hour; add Cayenne pepper and 6alt to the taste.

24. White Soup.

Put into a clean pan three quarts of water, the crumbs of a twopenny loaf, with a handful of sweet herbs, some whole pepper, two or three cloves, an onion sliced, and a little salt; let it boil till it is quite smooth, keeping it covered; take the white part of the celery, endive, and lettuce and two turnips, cut them in pieces, boil them well, strain the soup off into a clean pan, put in the vegetables with a good piece of butter stirred in it till melted, then let it boil till very smooth, skim it, and soak a small roll (rasped) in a little of the broth, put it in the tureen, and pour the soup over it.

32

soups, See.

25. Onion Soup.

Melt half a pound of butter in a stew-pan, shake it well on the fire till it has clone hissing, slice in six middling-sized onions, and keep shaking the pan over the fire five or six minutes; add four heads of celery cut small, a handful of spinach, a cabbage-lettuce, and some parsley, all finely shred; stir these well in the pan twenty minutes, adding a little flour, and pour two quarts of boiling water into it, with some stale crusts of bread, a little beaten mace, pepper, and salt; stir all together, and let it boil gently threequarters of an hour; then take it off the fire, and stir in two well-beaten yolks of eggs and a spoonful of vinegar, and it will be ready to serve.

26. Brown Onion Soup.

Pare and slice ten large onions, fry them in butter till they are a nice brown and very tender, then lay them in a sieve to drain out the butter; when drained put them in a pan, with five quarts of boiling water; boil them one hour, and stir them often, then add pepper and salt to your taste; rub the crumbs of a penny loaf through a colander, put it to the soup, stir it well, and boil it two hours more; ten minutes before you serve it up, beat the yolks of two eggs with two spoonsful of vinegar and a little of the soup, pour it in by degrees, stirring it all the time one way, but do not let it boil.

27. Cucumber Soup.

Pare and slice five or six cucumbers, and add to them the inside of as many cos-lettuces, a sprig or two of mint, three onions, pepjrer, and salt, and a little parsley; put them with four ounces of butter into a pan, to stew in their own liquor near a gentle fire three-quarters of an hour; then pour two quarts

33

SOUPS, &c.

of boiling water to the vegetables, and stew them two hours; dust a little flour into a teacupful of water, stir it into the soup, and boil it fifteen or twenty minutes longer, then serve it up.

28. Brown Soup.

Take a small piece of butter and set it over the fire in a clean iron pan; put it to a few spoonsful of fine oatmeal; stir the whole about briskly with a broad wooden spoon till the butter is melted, and the meal be uniformly of a deep brown colour; great care being required, by stirring it continually, to prevent the meal being burned in the pan. A very small quantity of this roasted meal (perhaps half an ounce) would be sufficient to be put into a saucepan, with an onion sliced, and boiled with a pint and quarter of water, and forms a portion of soup, which, when seasoned with salt, pepper, and vinegar, and eaten with bread cut small and mixed with it the moment it is served up, makes a palatable kind of food. This soup may be made in a short time, a few minutes being sufficient for boiling it.

29. Brown Soup.

Put into a clean pan three quarts or more of water with raspings of bread to thicken it, about a small tea-cupful to a quart, two or three onions sliced, some whole pepper, and salt, cover it close and boil it an hour and a half; strain it through a sieve; cut some celery, endive, lettuce, spinach, and with any other herbs you like; fry them in butter, and put a piece of butter with a little flour into a pan, set it on the fire, stirring it till of a fine brown, then put in the herbs and soup, boil it till the herbs are tender, and the soup of a proper thickness 5 serve it up in tv tureen, with fried bread cut in dice.

34

SOUPS, &c<

30. Spring Soup.

Take a pint of young pease, some chervil, sorrel, young green onions, parsley, lettuces, spring carrots and turnips sliced, stew them in some butter and a few spoonsful of water till tender; when done, pulp it through a sieve, and add what quantity of water you like; season with pepper, mace, and salt.

31. Herb Soup.

Grate about half a pound of white bread, put it in a pan with two quarts of water, let it boil till it is of a proper thickness; fry or stew in butter a good handful of spinach, some parsley and a little green onion, dredging them with a little flour; put them in the soup with pepper and salt to the taste; boil all up together.

32. Herb Soup.

Take a crust of bread and about a quarter of a pound of fresh butter, put them into a soup-pot or stew-pan, with a good quantity of herbs, as beet, sorrel, leek, chervil, lettuce, and purslain, all washed clean, and coarsely chopped; put to them two quarts of water, and let them stew till reduced to one-half, when it will be ready to serve.

33. Hop-top Soup.

Take a large quantity of hop-tops, about April or the beginning of May, when in the greatest perfection, tie them twenty or thirty in a bunch, lay them in spring water an hour or two, drain them well, and put them into some thin pease soup; boil them well, and add three spoonsful of the juice of onions, some pepper and salt, let them boil some time longer; when done, soak some crusts of bread in the broth,

35 '

SOUPS, &c.

lay them in the tureen, and pour in the soup. - This is a plain, but very good soup.

34. Barley Soup.

Five and a half ounces of Scotch barley, five ounces of pease, eighteen ounces of potatoes, five and a half ounces of crust of bread, salt and vinegar to the taste; water in proportion to the consistency most palatable. This soup may be improved, if necessary, by frying the bread in butter, by which it is not only rendered much harder, but being impregnated with an oily substance, remains hard after being put into the soup. The bread may be cut in pieces the size of large pease, or in thin slices; and after it is fried, it may be put into the dish, and the soup poured on when it is served. This soup may likewise be improved, by mixing with it various kinds of roots, and green vegetables, as turnips, carrots, parsnips, celery, cabbages, sour-crout, &c. as also by seasoning it with herbs and black pepper.

35. A very good and cheap Soup.

Take turnips, carrots, brocoli, celery, onions, potatoes, cabbage or lettuce, a proportionate quantity of each, slice them and put them in a pan with pepper and salt, and a proper quantity of soft water; let it boil two hours, then strain the liquor through a hairsieve, and return it into the pan; take out all the stringy and hard part of the vegetables, and mash the remainder to a pulp in a bowl, pass it through the sieve, and return it into the pan, adding an oatcake toasted and cut in pieces, and a little flour and butter mixed together; boil it two hours longer, adding any kind of pot-herbs to the taste.

36. Egg Soup.

Break the yolks of two eggs into a dish with a piece



36

SOUPS, &c.

of butter tlie size of an egg; take a tea-kettle of boiling water in one hand, and a wooden spoon in the other, pour in about a quart by degrees, stir it all the time till the eggs are well mixed and the butter melted; then put it in a saucepan, set it on the fire, and continue stirring it till it begins to simmer; then take it off the fire and pour it between two vessels, out of one into the other, till it be quite smooth, and have quite a froth; season it, set it on the fire again, and keep stirring it till it be quite hot, it is then ready for serving up.

37. Turnip Soup.

Pare six or seven turnips, put them into a gallon of water with some white pepper, an onion with a few cloves stuck in it, a bunch of sweet herbs, some mace, and a large crust of bread; let them boil an hour and a half; then strain it through a sieve; take three heads of celery cut into small pieces, put them in with two raw turnips, and two young carrots cut in pieces, cover them close, and let them stew; cut some turnips and carrots in dice, flour and fry them brown in butte with two large onions cut thin, put them into the soup with an ounce of vermicelli, let all stew till the celery is tender and the soup good: add salt to the taste.

3S. Carrot Soup.

Take twelve carrots, and after scraping them clean, rasp them to the core, which must not be used; four heads of celery cut small, two large onions and a handful of spinach shred, a little sorrel, or juice of lemon, and a few peppercorns. Stew these in a quarter of a pound of butter over a stove very slowly, stirring them till the roots and herbs become soft, then pour in three pints of water with the soft part of a roll, boil till the bread has become very soft, then strain through

37

SOUPS, &c.

a sieve. Put the soup when strained into a saucepan, boil it slowly, and skim it frequently. A soup prepared in this manner should be about the thickness ot cream.

39. Carrot Soup.

Slice six large carrots into a stew-pan with a quarter of a pound of butter and two heads of celery; grate the red part only ot six large carrots, put it in the pan with a pint of water over a slow fire, let it simmer an hour, then add two quarts more water, and a little catsup and butter if requisite, and the crumbs of two rolls; let it boil a quarter of an hour, then rub it through a sieve, return it into the pan and make it hot, but do not let it boil.

40. Spinach Soup.

Shred two handsful of spinach, a turnip, two onions, two carrots, a head of celery, a little thyme and parsley. Put all into a stew-pot with a little butter the size of a walnut, and a pint of vegetable broth, stew till the vegetables are quite tender; work them through a sieve with a wooden spoon, return the soup into the stew-pot or a pan, and add a quart of water, pepper and salt; boil all together and it will be ready for use. The green part of asparagus boiled a little, and cut about the size of peas, is a great improvement.

41. Soup made at Iver, in Bucks.

Take two gallons and a half of water, a quart of split peas, previously soaked for twentyfour hours, two pounds of potatoes which have been well boiled, skinned and mashed the day before, herbs, salt, pepper, and two onions; boil them very gently to1 gether for five hours, covering it closely up, and allowing as little evaporation or steam from it as

E

I

3S

soups, See.

possible, then set it by to cool. It will produce rather better than two gallons of soup, and, if properly made, there will be no sediment, but the whole will be blended and mixed together, when it is warmed for use.

42. Kidney Bean Soup.

Take a handful of sorrel, chervil, and a lettuce; wash and drain them in a sieve, chop them very fine, and put them in a saucepan. Boil a quarter of a peck of white kidney beans, and with the broth moisten the herbs; rub one-half of the beans through a sieve and mix with the soup; when it has boiled a few minutes, add the yolks of four eggs and a quarter of a pound of fresh butter; season to the taste, and pour it on bread cut small, and the other half of the beans.

43. Potato Soup.

Peel and slice six large onions, six potatoes, six carrots, and four turnips; stew them in a quarter of a pound of butter, and pour on them four quarts of boiling water, adding some celery, sweet herbs, white pepper, and salt; stew it all gently four hours, then strain it through a coarse cloth; have ready some onions, celery, and sage, to your taste; mix a little flour into a tea-cupful of water, boil it with the soup fifteen or twenty minutes, and serve it up.

44. A Common French Soup.

Put some thin slices of toasted bread or dry crusts in a soup-dish, moisten them with boiling vegetable broth; when soaked, add as much more broth as will make the bread swim easily, but do not boil the bread with the broth. Herbs or stewed vegetables may be added.

45. Vermicelli Soup.

Blanch six ounces of good vermicelli by setting it on

39

SOUPS, &c.

the fire in cold water, let it boil up, then strain it off and put it into cold water, for if left to strain hot it becomes lumpy; drain it quite dry from the cold water, adding as much milk or thin cream as you want soup, and let it boil; to two quarts of soup take six yolks of egg, beat them very well, and add by degrees a pint of boded cream, strain it through a sieve, and add a spoonful of catsup; take the soup off the fire and stir in the eggs and cream, put it on the fire again, stirring it till it is ready to boil, then take it off again, and add a small lump of sugar and some salt.

46. Another Vermicelli Soup.

Put as much vegetable broth, strained through a lawn sieve, into a pan as you want soup, boil it, and put in your vermicelli prepared as in the preceding receipt; let it boil a quarter of an hour, then take it off the fire that it may not be too much broken, and that the soup may be clear and not too thick.

47. Cheese Soup.

Take about half a pound of bread crumbs, sifted through a colander, and a quarter of a pound of grated Swiss or Parmesan cheese, simmer them together in a stew-pan with some vegetable broth, until the bread and cheese are well stewed. Mix three or four yolks of eggs in a saucepan with as many spoonsful of broth, stir it over a slow fire, or stove, till well mixed, without boiling; when the soup is taken off the fire, stir in the egg, and serve it up immediately, with toasted bread on a dish, in small squares. Add pepper and salt, or any other seasoning, according to the taste.

48. Cheshire Cheese Soup.

Put the crumb of a penny-loaf into three pints of

u 2

40

SOUPS, &c.

water, boil it, and grate half a pound of old Cheshire cheese, put it into the bread with a little pepper and salt, and boil it. Butter, cream, or eggs may be added if preferred.

49. An excellent Soup.

Melt half a pound of butter very slowly, and put to it four onions sliced, a head of celery and a carrot cut in pieces; fry them in the butter a quarter of an hour, till they are quite browned on all sides, put them in a soup-pan with four quarts of boiling water, a pint and a half of young peas, with some black and Jamaica peppercorns. When the vegetables are quite tender, let the soup stand to clear, then strain it into a clean pan: when it boils, add to it three onions sliced thin, a head of celery, carrots sliced, and some small thick squares of turnip, or turnip radishes, and a little Cayenne. When the vegetables are tender, the soup is finished. Serve it up in the usual way.

50. Rice Soup.

Wash half a pound of rice several times in warm water, rubbing it well, then wash it in cold water, set it on the fire with two quarts of vegetable broth, and let it boil (stirring it frequently) till the rice is quite tender; add more of the broth as required; melt a piece of butter mixed with a little flour in a saucepan, adding a few spoonsful of the broth; when boiled, take it off the fire, and have ready a little boiled parsley chopped fine, and the yolks of two eggs well beaten, stir them in the butter, &c., mix all together in the soup, and serve it up immediately.

N.B. When the yolks of eggs arc added to soups, they should not be suffered to boil afterward.

51. Rice and Lentil Soup.

First make a good vegetable broth with cabbages,

41

SOUPS, &c.

turnips, onions, carrots, parsnips, sweet leeks, and celery, of each in proportion to its strength, adding half a pint of peas. While the soup is preparing, put half a pint of lentils into a small pan, and stew them in a little water or vegetable broth; when soft, pulp them through a sieve. Wash a quarter of a pound of rice very clean, and stew it with a piece of butter and some of the vegetable broth strained quite clear; when it is ready, add to it the lentil cullis or pulp, and season it well. If too thick, put in some more of the broth. Add seasoning to the taste.

52. Another Soup.

Melt a quarter of a pound of butter in a pan that will hold three quarts, fill it about half full with carrots and turnips cut into small pieces; set them on the fire a quarter of an hour, shaking them frequently; then add as much water as will nearly fill the saucepan, and after letting it stew for an hour, slice in three large onions, and put in a little rice or pearl barley, washed and steeped in warm water; stew it together two hours longer; about a quarter of an hour before serving up, stir in a tea-cupful of the raspings of bread, some salt, and Cayenne pepper.

These preparations are best done over a small charcoal-fire, taking particular care that they stew very gently.

53. Savoy Soup.

Take four good-sized Savoy cabbages, cut them in quarters and about half-boil them, strain the water off, and when they are cool, squeeze them as dry as possible, then put them into a pan with as much vegetable broth as will cover them, set them covered close on a moderate fire and let them stew two hours; melt a quarter of a pound of butter in a frying-pan, with a little Hour, stirring it till it is a fine brown,

e 3

42

SOUPS, &c.

then put in two onions sliced, and when they are fried a nice brown, pour in two quarts of vegetable broth, let it stew a few minutes, then pour it into the souppan, lay some crusts of French roll in the dish or tureen, and pour the soup upon them.

54. German Cabbage Soup.

Take a firm white cabbage, wash it well, and mince it, let it sweat on a slow fire in a little butter; when it begins to be tender and to shrink, moisten it with vegetable broth, adding pepper and salt to the taste, and, if required, a little more butter may be stirred in; when the soup gets a good colour, put in bits of bread cut the size of a penny, and it is ready for the table.

55. Green Bean Soup.

Boil some beans when they begin to be mealy, skin and bruise them in a bowl or marble mortar till quite smooth, put them in a pan with some vegetable broth, a quarter of a pound of butter rolled in flour, pepper and salt to the taste. Boil some parsley and spinach, rub it through a sieve into the soup to make it a nice green. Serve it up with fried or toasted bread. Other vegetables, such as leeks, onions, lettuces, turnips, and celery, may be added if approved.

56. Pumpkin, or Gourd Soup.

There is a method of making a soup with this fruit, which by many is considered both wholesome and agreeable. Take a pumpkin that is moderately ripe, and not too large, pare off the thick rind, and take out all the soft pulp, using only the solid part; cut it into small square pieces, and fry them in butter till brown, seasoning them with salt. Boil three pints of milk, then add to it the fried pumpkin, season it with pepper, and more salt, if required, (a little turnip,

43

SOUPS, &c.

onion, and celery may be added,) let it stew gently till soft, then lay some toasted bread in a_ dish, and pour the soup over it.

57. Bread Soup.

Put a quart of water on the fire with as much dry crust of bread cut to pieces, as the top of a roll, (the drier the better,) and a bit of butter. Boil and beat it with a spoon, keep it boiling till the bread and water are mixed; season it with salt. It is very good for a weak stomach.

58. Milk Soup, with Almonds.

Take two quarts of new milk, some cinnamon, half a dozen bitter almonds, a little salt, and a very little sugar, boil them together on a moderate fire; blanch half a pound of sweet almonds, beat them to a paste in a marble mortar, mix a little milk with them by degrees, then put them in a saucepan on the fire with a little grated lemon-peel and a little lemon-juice, then pass it through a coarse sieve and mix it with the milk in the soup-pan and let it boil up. Cut some slices of French roll and dry them before the fire, soak them a little in the milk, lay them at the bottom of the tureen, and pour in the soup.

59. Milk Soup.

Boil a pint of milk, with a little salt, and (if approved) sugar; lay some sliced bread in a dish; pour over it a part of your milk to soak it, and keep it hot, taking care that it do not burn. Beat up the yolks of five eggs, and add them to the remainder of the milk just when you are going to serve it up. Or, boil three pints of milk, witli a bit of lemon-peel and cinnamon, a few coriander seeds, a little salt, and about three ounces of sugar, till it is reduced to one-

44 soups, &c.

half; strain it through a sieve, and finish your soup as before.

60. Broth.

To three quarts of water take half a pint of peas, two good-sized carrots, three turnips cut in small pieces, and an onion sliced, a crust of bread, an ounce of Scotch barley, some leaves and stalks of celery; let it boil till reduced to two quarts, then strain it through a sieve, and add a little chopped celery, parsley, and sweet leek; pepper and salt to the taste.

A little butter may be added, if preferred, but it is very good without.

61. Broth.

Take two quarts of water, four ounces of butter, a stale crust of bread, a little barley or rice, boil them one hour, adding a little more water, two or three carrots, rasp and boil them well, with thyme, leeks, and celery, toast your bread, and pour it on. A little catsup may be added.

62. Vegetable Broth, for making Soups, Sfc.

Half fill a pan with whatever vegetables are most approved, and some seasoning herbs, add water nearly to fill the pan, and let it boil till the vegetables are tender, then strain it off, and keep it for use as wanted. It will not keep more than two days, and the fresher it is used the better. It is much used by the French in making soups.

63. Brewis.

Cut some bread in thin slices, (toasted if preferred,) pour some boiling water upon them, and cover the basin with a plate, let it stand a few minutes, then

45

SOUPS, &c.

stir in a lump of fresh butter; add salt to the taste. Oat-cake cut in pieces is very good in brewis.

64. Peas Porridge.

Put a quart of green peas, a small bundle of dried mint, and a little salt, into a quart of water; let them boil till the peas are quite tender, then put in pepper and a little butter (the size of a walnut) rolled in flour, stir all together, and let it boil a lew minutes; add two quarts of milk, and let it boil a quarter of an hour longer; take out the mint, and serve it up. Water or vegetable broth may be used instead of milk, if preferred.

65. A n excellent Broth for weak stomachs.

To a pint of water take a small table-spoonful of pearl barley well washed in warm water, a thin slice of good light bread, a sprig of thyme, or a small piece of mace; simmer till it is reduced one-half, then strain it and add salt to the taste. If approved, a little parsley chopped fine may be added, and a little good butter. This is an excellent substitute for chicken broth.

66. Scotch Broth.

Take four ounces of Scotch or pearl barley, a few groats, a stale crust of bread, four ounces of butter, two quarts of water, boil them one hour and a half, then take two turnips, and two carrots, cut them small, boil them, keep adding a little water as it boils; then take either pot-herbs or greens cut small, boil all up together; add salt before you put in your greens.

67. Onion Porridge.

Cut about half a dozen middling-sized onions into slips, put them into a saucepan with a piece of butter;

46

SOUPS, &c.

stew them over the fire till they are done enough, and lightly coloured, stirring them frequently, add boiling water or vegetable broth; salt and pepper, boil it two minutes, and afterwards simmer it a little, with some thin slices of bread toasted and put in.

68. Celery-Porridge.

Cut some celery and endive small, and stew them well in some vegetable broth; when quite tender, add a little butter browned, and a little flour if requisite; stew them ten minutes longer, and serve it up with fried sippets of bread, or a slice of toast laid at the bottom of the dish.

69. Soup Herb Powder, or Vegetable Relish.

Take dried parsley, winter savoury, sweet marjoram, lemon thyme, of each two ounces; lemon-peel cut very thin and dried, sweet basil, an ounce of each; one drachm of celery-seed. Dry them in a clean Dutch oven, but not too quick; when quite dry, powder them very fine, and sift the powder through a fine-hair sieve; stop it close in a bottle, and it will retain its flavour some months.

70. Savoury Powder.

Salt one ounce, mustard half an ounce, mace and cloves together a quarter of an ounce, white pepper ground, and lemon-peel grated, half an ounce each, grated nutmeg a quarter of an ounce, prepared ginger three drachms, Cayenne pepper two drachms; pound the mixture together very well, and pass it through a fine hair-sieve, and bottle it for use.

The above articles will pound easier and finer, if dried in a Dutch oven at a good distance from the fire.

Zest, a vegetable powder, prepared by the late Dr. Kitchener, is an excellent seasoning for soups, gravies, &c. &c.

47

SOUPS, &c.

Any of these soups may be varied at pleasure, by changes amongst the vegetables. Those of our culture the best suited to the purpose, both of the larger vegetables and herbs for seasoning, are,

Asparagus

Mint

Beet-leaves, green and

Onions

white

Parsnips

Basil

Peas

Carrots

Pennyroyal

Celery

Potatoes

Chives

Purslain

Cucumbers

Salsify

Endive

Sorrel

Eschalots

Spinach

Fennel

Tarragon

Hamburgh Parsley

Thyme

Leeks

Tomatoes

Lettuce

Turnips

Marigold

WinterSavoury

Marjoram



OMELETS, FRITTERS, &c.

Omelets should be fried in a small frying-pan, made for that purpose, with a small quantity of butter. One of the great errors in cooking an omelet, is, that it is too thin; consequently, instead of being moist, the substance is little better than a piece of fried leather - therefore only use half the whites that you do yolks of eggs; every care must be taken in frying, not to have too hot a fire, that it be not over-done, as much care should be taken as in poaching an egg.

The objection to an omelet is that it is too rich: an addition of some finely-mashed potatoes, about one

48 OMELETS, FRITTERS, &C.

table-spoonful to an omelet of six eggs will much lighten it.

Omelets are often served with gravy; but, as a general principle, no substance which has been fried should be served in gravy, but accompanied by it; or what ought to eat crisp becomes soddened and flat.

In compounding the gravy, great care should be taken that the flavour does not overcome that of the omelet, a thing too little attended to; a fine gravy with a flavouring of sweet herbs and onions is, perhaps, the best; gravies to omelets are in general thickened; this should be done with potato-flour or arrow-root. - Da. Kitchener.

71. Receipt for the common Omelet.

Five or six eggs will make a good-sized omelet: break them into a basin, beat them well with a fork, and add a salt-spoonful of salt; have ready chopped a small quantity of sweet leeks or green onions, and a little parsley, beat it well with the eggs, then take three ounces of butter, break half of it in little bits and put it in the omelet, and the other half into a very clean small frying-pan; when it is melted, pour in the omelet, and stir it with a spoon till it begins to set, then turn it lip round the edges, and when it is of a fine light brown it is done. The safest way to take it out is to put a warm plate over the omelet, and turn the pan upside down; serve it up on a hot dish. It should never be done till just wanted.

72. Omelet.

Take five or six eggs, beat them well; add one onion cut small, two table-spoonsful of bread crumbs, and a little sage; mix all together, and season with pepper and salt, fry it either the size of the pan, or in fritters: slice three or four onions, fry them and lay

OMELETS, FRITTERS, &C. 49

them round the omelet, serve them up with brown gravy.

73. Omelet.

Take beet, or spinach and parsley, a good handful, a little leek and lemon-thyme, chop them all together, season with pepper, salt, and a little grated nutmeg, mix it up with a large spoonful of flour and four spoonsful of milk, then beat up three or four eggs and put in, and just before you put it into the oven, melt two ounces of butter and mix with it. Twenty minutes will bake it in a quick oven.

74. Omelet.

Make a thin batter of eggs, milk, and a little flour; add to it chopped parsley, a little sweet leek, or a small quantity of eschalot, a little pepper, salt, and grated nutmeg; melt some butter in a flat dish, and pour the batter into it. Bake it in a quick oven.

75. Omelet.

Melt two ounces of butter in a dish, add six wellbeaten eggs, with a little bread crumbled very fine, strew a little parsley over, chopped small, season with pepper and salt, and bake it in a quick oven; serve it up with brown gravy; a little asparagus is a great improvement, keeping the water that the asparagus Mas boiled in for making your gravy.

76. Omelet.

Break any number of eggs, and beat them well with some salt and pepper; melt some butter in a fryingpan on a slow lire, put in the eggs and fry the omelet a fine brown; it must not be turned in the pan, fold one half over the other, and lay it on a hot dish the brown side outward.

F

50

OMELETS, FRITTERS, &C.

77. Omelet.

Make three omelets very thin, of three eggs each, seasoned with pepper, salt, chopped parsley, and a little sweet leek or eschalot; cut each omelet in two, spread them in the pan as much as possible; rub them well over with beaten egg, and strew them over with bread-crumbs, then fry them a good colour. Serve with mint sauce, or crisped parsley, and brown gravy in a boat.

78. Potato Omelet.

Beat six eggs, leaving out two whites, and have ready about two table-spoonsful of potato boiled and mashed very fine, put it to the eggs with a tablespoonful of fine bread-crumbs, a little salt, pepper, and about an ounce and a half of butter broken into small bits; melt a little butter in a clean frying-pan, pour in the batter and fry it a nice light brown, or it may be baked in a flat dish in a quick oven. Serve it with gravy in a boat.

79. Omelet.

Take the yolks of eight eggs and the whites of four, beat them well, and after adding some chopped parsley, a little thyme, eschalots or sweet leeks, pepper, and salt, beat them five minutes longer, then add a quarter of a pint of cream and about one ounce of butter broken into small pieces; melt some butter in a frying-pan and pour in the omelet, stirring it about till it begins to set, then gather it up together with a knife or a small slice, into an oval or round form according to the form of your dish. Serve it up quite hot, with a little brown gravy round the edge of it.

80. Omelet.

Beat six eggs, add some chives or leeks, pepper and

51

OMELETS, FRITTERS, &C.

salt; mushrooms, eschalots, and young onions chopped fine: a little asparagus may be added at pleasure. It may be either fried, or baked in a quick oven.

81. Omelet with Asparagus.

Boil half a hundred of asparagus in the usual way, cut the green ends small as far as they are tender, mix it with ten well-beaten eggs; make some clarified butter hot in the frying-pan, and put in the omelet, sprinkle it over with a little pepper and salt, and fry it a nice brown; it should be an inch thick, and should be served up immediately. Vinegar and butter for spuce.

82. Omelet with Sorrel.

Make small omelets with about two eggs each; have some stewed sorrel ready to put in before you roll them up. Serve hot.

83. Cheap, wholesome, and savoury Food.

Take one pound of East India rice, steep it in cold water two hours, then put it in boiling water; if it has been properly steeped it will be sufficiently boiled in five minutes; then pour the water from it and dry it over the fire the same as potatoes. Use it with the following gravy; fry some onions in three ounces of butter till brown and tender, then add a little flour mixed with some water, salt, and Cayenne pepper to the taste.

84. Minced Omelet with Mushrooms and Eggs.

Chop rather small some plain cold bread omelet, with three or four hard-boiled eggs and a few fresh mushrooms (when they can be procured), boil up some gravy in a saucepan, either brown or white according to the taste, put in the egg, &c., and let it nearly boil in the gravy, adding seasoning to the

52 OMELETS, FRITTERS, &C.

taste and a squeeze of lemon-juice; a little cream may be added after it is taken off the fire. Keep it hot and serve it up with sippets in the dish. A few pickled mushrooms, or those that are preserved with salt in their own liquor, are very good substitutes for fresh mushrooms.

85. A Savoury Dish of Force-meat.

Boil some eggs hard, take out the yolks and mash them with a little butter, add some bread-crumbs, some chopped parsley, beets, and sweet leek or a little onion, pepper and salt, mix them up with wellbeaten eggs, till it will adhere together. Melt a little butter in a Dutch oven, then put in the forcemeat, and roast it before the fire till of a good brown, basting it now and then with a little butter; when done, serve it up with brown gravy, to which may be added the whites of the eggs, cut as for egg-sauce, if approved.

86. Another.

Take bread crumbs, some butter, either rubbed in the bread or melted, parsley, chives or sweet leeks, mushrooms chopped, two raw eggs, salt, Cayenne pepper, and a little cream: mix all well together, and bake it, or fry it in balls.

S7. Onion and Sage Fritters.

Take three large onions, about half boil them in two waters; then chop them with some boiled sage and parsley, season them well with pepper and salt, and mix them with some bread-crumbs. Beat three or four eggs, and mix all together; fry it in fritters, and serve with brown gravy. Reserve a little of the onion and sage to put on the dish.

53

OMELETS, FRITTERS, &C.

88. Rice Fritters.

Boil four ounces of the best rice in water till tender; strain it and mash it a little with a wooden spoon, add two well-beaten eggs, a little salt and pepper; fry it in fritters a nice light brown, serve it up with crisped parsley and melted butter in a boat. It is very good without eggs.

89. Onion Fritters.

Pare three large onions, boil them in two or three waters till rather tender, chop them small; mix four well-beaten eggs and four spoonsful of milk with two large spoonsful of flour or bread-crumbs; then put in the onions with a little pepper and salt, and mix it well together; fry it in fritters in olive-oil and butter over a moderate fire, till they are of a light brown. Serve them up with brown gravy with a few pickled mushrooms in it, or a teaspoonful of lemon pickle.

90. Onion and Sage Fritters.

Chop small four middling-sized onions, fry them a nice brown, mix them with some bread-crumbs, a teaspoonful of powdered sage, pepper, and salt; beat four eggs very well and put in; then mix ail well together, and fry the fritters in olive-oil and butter over a quick fire. Reserve about a third part of the fried onion to put in the dish with brown gravy. Apple-sauce and mustard are a great improvement to this dish, also a little powdered sage put into the gravy, or sprinkled on the fritters.

91. Force-meat Balls and Eggs.

Rub a piece of butter the size of an egg in about a quarter of a pound of bread-crumbs; add a little chopped parsley, leeks, sweet marjoram or wintersavory, and lemon-thyme, a little grated nutmeg, pepper, and salt; mix all very well together with two

F 3

54

OMELETS, FRITTERS, & C.

well-beaten eggs and a little cream j make it up in balls, and fry them in oil and butter; put them in a dish with some eggs boiled hard, cut in quarters, or cut across in three, and fried with the balls; pour over them brown gravy. Currant jelly is a pleasant addition to this dish.

92. A Dish of Eggs and Bread.

Beat the yolks of five eggs and the white of one; mix as much bread-crumbs as will make it a stiff batter, adding a little salt; put it in a small oval dish buttered, and set it in the oven about a quarter of an hour; melt some butter in a frying-pan, and turn the substance out of the dish into it, having ready the whites of the five eggs and one yolk beaten to pour over it, keeping it to one side of the pan as much as possible; sprinkle it over with bread-crumbs, and when browned, turn and brown it on the other side. Serve it up with brown gravy in the dish, and onion sauce in a boat.

93 . Brown Gravy.

Take two or three ounces of butter and one tablespoonful of flour; put them together in a frying-pan with a small bit of white sugar; keep stirring it over a slow fire till it is of a fine brown, then add boiling water till of a proper thickness; season it with pepper and salt, and a little mushroom catsup if approved. A little zest is an excellent seasoning for gravy.

The gravy would be much improved by being made with vegetable broth instead of water, and thickened with potato-flour.

55

EGGS.

94. To boil Eggs.

Put the eggs in a pan with cold water on the fire, and if permitted to boil one minute, the eggs will be done as much as when boiled three minutes in the usual way.

95. To poach Eggs.

Put salt and a little vinegar into the water when it boils, take it off the fire to put in the eggs, which must be broken separately into a tea-cup and put very carefully into the water; cover the pan, and set it on the fire just to simmer. They will be done in about three minutes; then take them up with a slice, cut off the ragged part of the whites, and lay them on buttered toast.

96. Eggs Hashed.

Boil some eggs hard, and take out part of the yolks whole, and cut the rest in quarters, yolks and whites together. Set on a little water with a spoonful of catsup and a little shred thyme and parsley in it; when it has boiled a few minutes, put in your eggs with a little grated nutmeg, and shake them up with a piece of butter till it be of a proper thickness. Serve it up hot with sippets in the dish.

97. Eggs with Lettuce.

Scald some cabbagedettuce in water, squeeze them well, then slice them and toss them up in a saucepan with a piece of butter; season them with pepper, salt, and a little nutmeg. Let them stew half an hour, chop them well together when they are enough,

56 EGOS, &c.

lay them in your dish; fry some eggs nicely in butter and lay on them.

98. Sliced Eggs.

Take eight or ten eggs boiled hard, cut them into thick round slices, and put them into sauce made as follows: Cut three large white onions into round slices, fry them white in butter; when nearly done, dredge them well with flour, and moisten them with some good milk and a few spoonsful of cream; keep stirring with a wooden spoon to prevent them from burning: when your sauce is done, grate a little nutmeg into it, and season with a little salt and pepper, &c.; then add the eggs, and serve it up immediately with sippets round the dish.

99. Eggs with Cream.

Take a dozen of eggs boiled hard, cut them in two, take out the yolks and rub them through a hair-sieve; chop the whites very fine, and make a sauce with cream; when your sauce is well done, add a lump of butter, then the chopped whites; season it well and pour it into your dish, cover the whole with the yolks; baste with a little butter, and brown with a red-hot shovel.

100. Eggs with Butter.

Break some fresh eggs into a dish, without injuring the yolks, then powder them over with a little pepper and salt; to a dozen eggs fry a quarter of a pound of butter over a moderate fire; when quite done, which you may know by the ear, pour it over the eggs, let them stand a minute or two, then pour the eggs carefully into the frying-pan, keeping it a proper distance from the fire, lest the eggs should stick; when done at the bottom, use the salamander for the top, till they

EGGS, &C. 57

are turned white; then dish without breaking them, and pour over them a little vinegar.

101. Eggs.

Boil eight eggs hard, and put them in cold water, then peel them without breaking the whites, cut a small bit off the end of four, as they will stand upright on the dish; split the other four through the middle, and lay them round the others; put a little flour, water, butter, and catsup into a stewpan, and make it hot; put a little chopped parsley in it, and pour it over the eggs.

N.B. The parsley should not be boiled, either in the sauce or before it is chopped. Garnish with small branches of curled parsley.

102. Fried Eggs with Parsley.

Boil some eggs hard, slice and fry them with oliveoil and butter, brown a little butter in the pan with a little flour dusted in it, pour in a little water and salt, let it boil and pour it on the eggs. Garnish with fried parsley. - It is very good with parsley-sauce instead of fried parsley.

103. Fricassee of Eggs.

Boil some eggs hard, slice them; take a little flour and water, a little cream, butter, nutmeg, salt, pepper, chopped parsley; boil it up and pour it over the eggs, with a hard yolk in the middle of the dish and toasted sippets. After it is taken off the fire, a few pickled mushrooms may be added.

104. Puttered Eggs with Spinach.

To a pint of new milk with a little cream in it put two ounces of butter and a little salt; when near boiling, pour it gradually on six well-beaten eggs, stirring it well; set it on a slow lire, and stir it till it becomes

58

EGGS, &C.

thick, but do not let it boil; pour it on toast cut in squares. Lay boiled spinach in heaps round the egg, or press the spinach into seven or eight tea-cups, and turn it out on a separate dish, or lay it round the egg. A handful of parsley boiled with about half a peck or three-quarters is an improvement.

105. Buttered Eggs.

Beat five eggs, put three ounces of butter in a basin with a little cream or new milk, and set the basin in boiling water till the butter be melted, then pour it into a saucepan with the eggs, hold it over a slow fire, shaking it one way as it begins to warm; pour it into a basin and back, then hold it again over the fire, stirring it constantly and pouring it into the basin, more perfectly to mix the egg and butter, until it is hot and thick without boiling. Serve it on toasted bread.

106. Scotch Dish of Eggs.

Boil hard five pullets’ eggs, and, without removing the white, cover them completely with good forcemeat; fry the whole a fine light brown, and serve it with brown gravy in the dish.

107. Eggs with Sorrel and Lettuce.

Take a good deal of sorrel and two cabbage-lettuces chopped small, put them in a stewpan with butter, pepper, salt, chopped parsley, and green onions; cover it close, stew gently till almost dry, thicken with two yolks of eggs mixed with cream, put it in your dish with hard eggs boiled and cut in quarters, and sippets round the dish.

10S. A French Dish of Eggs.

Take some butter with green onions chopped, put them in a stewpan, stir it over the fire with a dust of

59

EGGS, &C.

flour, a tiding some herb broth; when it boils, skim it, let it be of a proper thickness; put six hard-boiled eggs cut in slices in your stewpan, thicken it with two yoiks of eggs mixed with cream, the juice ot a lemon, and a tea-spoonful ot mustard. Put it in the dish and serve it up with sippets.

109. Eggs with Onions and Mushrooms.

When you have boiled the eggs hard, take out the yolks whole, and cut the whites in slips, with some onions and mushrooms. Fry the onions ana mushrooms, then add the whites, and turn them about a little, dredge them with flour, and add a little mushroom catsup. Boil this up, then put in the yolks, and add pepper and salt. Let the whole simmer for about a minute, then serve it up.

1 10. Eggs hashed.

Boil eggs hard, slice them, fry an onion sliced, in butter; put in the eggs with a little flour and herb broth, cream, chopped parsley, pepper and salt. Serve them hot.

111. Eggs. A French Dish.

Boil six eggs about five minutes, peel them and cut them in quarters lengthwise; set half a pint of new milk on the fire, with a little flour worked in some butter, a little pepper, salt, and a little nutmeg grated, let it simmer gently about twenty minutes, stir in some more butter and cream, then put in the eggs and a little parsley chopped fine. Serve it up with sippets in the dish. This dish may be varied by a few fried onions being stewed with the flour and butter, leaving out the nutmeg.

112. To fry Eggs.

Melt some butter in a frying-pan, break your eggs

( separately into a tea-cup, put them carefully into the pan, and fry them on rather a brisk fire: when they begin to set, keep pouring the hot butter on the yolks with the slice till they are enough. If preferred crisp and rather hard, they may be turned over.

113. To fry Eggs.

Boil some eggs hard, slice them, fry them quick in butter, lay them on a dish before the fire; brown a little butter in the pan with a little flour, add hot water, with a few young onions or eschalot chopped small, pepper, salt, and grated nutmeg, boil this up. If not thick enough, mix a little flour with a bit of butter; give it a boil and pour it over the eggs.

114. Eggs with Cucumbers.

Peel some cucumbers, cut them in halves, take out the seeds, slice them and some onions, steep them in salt and vinegar an hour; drain them in a cloth and fry them; when a little brown, flour them; put in a little water and let them stew. The sauce must not be very thin; if not tart enough, add a little lemonjuice, with a little pepper and salt; lay poached or fried eggs on the cucumbers.

115. Asparagus and Eggs.

Cut some asparagus (that has been previously boiled) the same size as peas, break six eggs into a basin, beat them up, put them with a little pepper and salt, and the asparagus, into a stew-pan with two ounces of butter, and keep stirring it all the time it is on the fire; when it becomes thick, it is done; then put a toast on the dish, and pour the eggs and asparagus on the toast.

N.B. This should be served up immediately when done, for if permitted to stand, it will not be good.

116. A Ragout of Eggs,

Boil eight eggs hard, then shell and cut them in quarters. Have ready a pint of good herb gravy, well seasoned and thickened over the fire, with two ounces of butter rolled in flour. When quite smooth and hot, pour it over the eggs, and serve them up.

By using "cream instead of gravy, putting an ounce more of butter and omitting the flour, this will make a fricassee.

117. Ragout of Eggs and Mushrooms.

Take some large mushrooms, peel and scrape them clean, put them into a saucepan with a little salt, cover them, and let them boil a little, then put in a gill of milk, an ounce of butter rolled in flour, seasoned with mace and nutmeg: boil it till it be of a good consistency. Have ready six hard-boiled eggs, take out the yolks whole. Put some toasted sippets in a dish, and the yolks upon them, then pour over them the whole of your ragout.

118. Eggs with Cheese.

Put a quarter of a pound of grated Swiss cheese into a saucepan with a piece of butter half the size of an egg, some parsley and chives chopped, a little nutmeg and half a glass of sherbet. Set it over a gentle fire, moving it about till the cheese is melted. Then mix with it six eggs, and set it again over the fire till they are nicely done. Serve it up with small pieces of toasted bread round the dish.

119. Eggs fried in Paste.

Boil six eggs three minutes, put them into cold water, then take the shells off (be careful not to break the whites) and wrap the eggs up in slips of puff paste; brush them over with beaten eggs, and sprinkle a very few fine bread crumbs over them, have some clarified butter in a pan, when hot put in the eggs; fry them

G

62 EGGS, &C.

a fine light brown, and serve them up with a little brown gravy.

120. A Fricassee of Eggs.

Take a penny-loaf, without the crust, cut in thin slices, toast it a light brown, cut it into sippets. Put olive-oil and butter into the frying-pan, make it hot, put the sippet in, turn it over in the pan, and lay it on a dish. Have ready six eggs boiled hard, pare and cut them from end to end, into three, fry them in the remainder of the oil, put one on each sippet; sprinkle over them crisped parsley. Serve them up with melted butter.

121. Egg-balls.

Pound the yolks of eggs boiled hard, in a marble mortar, with a little flour, white pepper and salt, add as much raw yolk of egg as will make it up into balls, about one to three, boil them three minutes before they are jaut into soups, &c.

122. Egg-balls with Onions.

Make some balls of eggs and boil them as in the preceding receipt; chop the whites a little, and fry them with some onion that has been partly boiled; when of a nice brown, add a little pepper, salt, and a little hot water or herb-broth; let it boil about a minute, then pour it on toasted sippets, and lay the balls round it.

123. Sorrel with Buttered. Eggs.

Boil some sorrel, chop it and stir it into some buttered eggs, and pour it on sippets. Beets or spinach boiled with a little parsley, and a leaf or two of sage, is also very good mixed with buttered eggs in the same way. Boiled sorrel, squeezed and stirred on the fire with some butter, and laid on fried toast with poached eggs, is very good.

EGGS, &C.

63

124. Minced Eggs and Parsley.

Boil some eggs rather hard, peel and chop them small with some boiled parsley, mix them up with a little good melted butter and a small portion of salt. Serve with sippets round the dish.

125. To preserve Eggs for eating in the Shell.

Boil any number of fresh eggs for the space of one minute and a half, and when wanted for use, after any length of time, let them be reboiled for the same space of time as at the first.

126. To preserve Eggs for the Winter.

Put them in a deep earthen pot in lime water, with a large handful of salt in it; or they may be covered with salt only; they keep very well.

127. To preserve Eggs for Winter use.

Fill a box with eggs, with a layer of bran between each layer of eggs; when quite full, lock it, or fasten it so that it will not give way; then tie a string round it, and hang it up in a cool, dry place, turning it twice a week.

128. To preserve Eggs for Winter use.

Dissolve eight ounces of chlorate of lime in a gallon of water, then put in the eggs. They may also De preserved many months by merely altering their position daily in order to prevent the yolk settling and sticking to the shell. Shelves with holes in and painted are best suited for the purpose.

129. To preserve Eggs.

Eggs may be preserved in a small way in bottles, or other vessels; they must be put in quite fresh, the bottle then filled with lime-water, a little powdered

g 2

64 EGGS, &C.

lime sprinkled in at the last, and then the bottle closed.

To prepare the lime-water, put four gallons of water to three pounds of slaked quick-lime in a covered vessel; when clear it is ready for use.

Eggs brushed over with a solution of gum-arabic, and, when dry, put in a box, and the interstices fdled up with powdered charcoal, may be preserved many months.

VEGETABLES.

130. To boil Asparagus.

Cut off as much of the white end as will leave the asparagus about six inches long; scrape the remaining white part very clean, and as they are done put them in fresh water; tie them in small even parcels, put them in boiling water, and boil them till tender, but do not overboil them; take them up with a slice into a sieve to drain a little; have ready a thin toast to dip into the water; lay it in a dish, and the asparagus upon it, the white ends outward; pour melted butter over the green part when you serve it up.

131. Asparagus like Green Peas.

After cutting the tender part of asparagus the size of small peas, wash them in spring water; scald them a moment in boiling water, drain them well, and dress them as peas, with white sauce, only omitting the lettuce.

132. Gourds.

Pare a gourd, then boil it in water; when it is done enough, and there is very little water remaining, put to it some milk, butter, a little salt, and sugar; add

VEGETABLES, &C. 65

some slices of bread if agreeable; do not set it on the fire after adding these ingredients.

133. To boil Turnips.

When you have pared the turnips, cut them in slices, then put them in a saucepan, and cover them with water. As soon as they are enough, take them off the fire, put them into a sieve and drain them well. Mash them well with some butter, or some good cream, and a little salt, then put them into your dish, and serve them up.

134. To boil Parsnips.

They must be boiled in plenty of water, and when they are soft, take them up, scrape them fine with a knife, mash them and put them in a saucepan with some milk, stir them over the fire til L they have thickened, taking care that they do not burn. Add an ounce of butter and a little salt, and when the butter is melted, serve them up.

135. To boil Sprouts or Greens.

Pick and wash your sprouts very clean, take them out of the water to drain; have water boiling in a pan, put them in, boil them quick, take off the scum as it rises. When they are tender, take them out and drain them, for if suffered to remain in the water after they are enough, they will not only lose thencolour, but also their flavour. Serve them up with good melted butter.

136. To boil Spinach.

Be careful to pick it exceedingly clean, then wash it three or four times, put it into a saucepan, that will just hold it, with a little water, throw a little salt over it, and cover it close. Put your saucepan on a clear quick fire, and when the spinach is shrunk

G 3

66

VEGETABLES, &C.

or fallen, it is enough; then put it into a clean sieve to drain, and squeeze it well; lay it on a plate, and send it to the table with melted butter in a boat."

a

137. Another.

After having picked and washed it very clean, put it in a pan of boiling water with a handful of salt; boil it very quick without being covered, then drain it through a sieve, and press it between two strong plates, or wooden trenchers; lay it neatly on a dish and cut it across each way four times. A poached, egg may be laid on each piece of spinach.

138. To boil Potatoes.

Pare and wash the potatoes very clean, put them into a pan with cold water just sufficient to cover them, adding a little salt; let them boil very gently, and when enough, or before they break, drain the water from them as dry as possible; sprinkle in a little salt, and hold them over the fire to dry, shaking the pan carefully now and then till the potatoes look dry and mealy. If not wanted immediately, lay a clean cloth close over them in the pan and keep them hot; but, to be nice, they ought not to stand long after being boiled.

New potatoes, after being well cleaned, should be put on the fire in boiling water, with some salt; when enough, drain the water well from them, dry them, and cover them with a clean cloth; shake them up with some butter, and dish them up quite hot.

139. Potatoes boiled and broiled.

When the potatoes have boiled slow till nearly done, pour the water from them and dry them well; then put them on a gridiron over a clear brisk fire; turn

VEGETABLES, &C. 67

them till they are brown all over; serve them up dry, with melted butter, or brown gravy in a boat.

Or, - when nearly boiled enough, as above, put them into a saucepan with a bit of butter, shake them about often (for fear of burning) till they are brown and crisp.

It will be an improvement if, previous to frying or broiling the potatoes, you flour and dip them in the yolk of an egg, and then roll them in fine sifted bread-crumbs; ‘ they will then deserve,’ says Dr. Kitchener, ‘ to be entitled Potatoes full dressed.’

140. Jo boil Beans.

In shelling the beans, take off the eyes or green ends, wash and drain them through a sieve or colander, and put them into plenty of boiling water with salt in it, boil them till tender; then drain them again through a colander, and serve them up with boiled parsley and melted butter in a boat.

141. To boil Carrots.

Wash and brush the carrots; boil them in plenty of water, with a little salt in it, till quite tender, then rub off the skin with a clean cloth, and slice them; serve them up with melted butter.

142. To boil Vegetable Marrow.

Gather them for boiling before they are large and full of seeds, and boil them in plenty of water, with some salt in it, and a bit of potash about the size of a large pea; when enough, slice them and serve them up with melted butter. They are very good sliced thin, after being boiled, and then fried in batter in the same way as cauliflower or beet-root, and served up with gravy. A little fried onion may also be added, if approved.

68

VEGETABLES, &C.

143. Kidney Beans.

First carefully string them, then slit them down the middle and cut them across. Put them into salt and water, and when the water boils in your pan, put them in with a handful of salt. They will be soon done, which may be known by their feeling tender. Drain them through a sieve or colander, and serve them up with melted butter in a beat. Vinegar is an agreeable addition.

144. To boil Leeks.

Strip off the outside leaves, boil them with a little salt in the water till they are tender, lay them on buttered toast; eat them with melted butter, pepper, and salt.

Radishes done in the same way are very good.

145. To boil Cauliflowers.

Cut the flowers close at the bottom from the stalk, lay them in salt and water an hour, then boil them in milk and water, (or water alone,) observing to skim it well; when the stalks are tender, they are enough, and should be instantly taken up and drained. Serve them up with melted butter in a boat. Cauliflowers should be boiled in plenty of water, and very quickly at the first, then not quite so fast, as the flower would be enough before the stalk, and they are not good when over-boiled.

Brocoli is boiled in the same way.

146. To boil Peas.

Shell them as clean as possible that they may not require washing, boil them with some salt in the water, and a sprig of mint if approved; be careful not to over-boil them, as it destroys the flavour. When they arc enough, drain them through a sieve, but not

69

VEGETABLES, & C

very dry; put them into a dish, and stir in a piece of butter, and a dredge ot flour.

147. To boil Hop-Tops.

The young shoots of the wild hop are frequently eaten as a boiled salad; boil them in water with some salt in it; when they are well done, drained, and cold, Serve them up with pepper and salt, oil and vinegar over them. They are sometimes eaten hot with melted butter.

148. Beans and Cauliflower.

Boil some green or nonpareil beans; when about half done, put in some cauliflower broken in small branches, let them boil together till quite enough, then drain, and serve them up with good melted butter poured over them. A little parsley, boiled and chopped, may be added, if preferred.

149. To boil Cabbage.

Halve, or, if large, quarter the cabbages, boil them in plenty of water, with salt in it, very quickly; when half done, drain them and put them in fresh boiling water; when enough, drain them and press the water from them very well. They may either be served as they are just boiled, with melted butter, or chopped with a piece of cold butter, and a little pepper and salt.

150. To boil Artichokes.

Wring the stalks off, and lay the artichokes in the water cold, with the bottoms up, by which means the dirt concealed between the leaves will boil out. After the water boils, they will take nearly two hours to be done enough. Serve witli melted butter, salt, and pepper.

The water in which artichokes, greens, cauli-»

70

VEGETABLES, &C.

flower, salads, &c. are washed, should have a large handful of salt thrown in it.

151. Sea Kale.

This must be boiled very nice and tender, and served upon toast like asparagus, with melted butter poured over it. It requires rather longer boiling than asparagus.

152. To make Vegetables tender.

When peas, French beans, &c. do not boil easily, it has usually been imputed to the coolness of the season, or to the rains. This popular notion is erroneous. The difficulty of boiling them soft arises from an excess of gypsum imbibed during their growth. To correct this, throw a small quantity of carbonate of soda into the boiling water with the vegetables.

153. To slew Onions.

Peel some onions and put them in a dish with some butter that has been previously browned, put them into a brisk oven; when nicely browned, pour some thin melted butter on them; add pepper and salt, and let them stew a quarter of an hour longer. If the onions are strong, they should be boiled about ten minutes, changing the water once before they are stewed.

154. To stew Onions.

Peel six large onions, slice and dredge them, fry them gently to a fine brown, then put them into a small stewpan with a very little water, pepper and salt, cover and stew them two hours; a little flour and butter may be added, if requisite.

71

VEGETABLES, &C.

155. To roast Onions.

Roast onions with the skins on in a Dutch oven, turning them frequently; let them be thoroughly done; "they are very good with cold butter, pepper, and salt, to eat with bread or potatoes.

1 56. To make a Ragout of Onions.

Take a pint of small young onions, and four large ones, peel and cut the large ones very small; put a quarter of a pound of butter into a stewpan; when it is melted and has done hissing, throw in your onions, and fry them till they begin to look a little brown; then dredge in a little flour, and shake them round till they are rather thick; put in a little salt, some pepper, a quarter of a pint of water, and a tea-spoonful of mustard. Stir all together, and when it is well tasted and of a good thickness, pour it into your dish, and garnish it with fried crumbs of bread or raspings. You may use raspings instead of flour, if preferred.

1 57. Calecannon

Is an Irish dish, and is made by boiling and mashing greens, young cabbage, and spinach, and then mixing them with good mealy mashed potatoes, butter, pepper, and salt, and pressing it into a basin or mould well-buttered; set it in a hot oven five or six minutes; then turn it out on a dish. In this dish two-thirds should be potato.

Plain Calecannon is made in cottages with infinitely less ceremony, and it is quite as good. Boil the greens or cabbage till nearly done; put the peeled raw potatoes to them; when done, drain the water very well from them; dry them a little, and with pepper, salt, or shred onion, and a good piece of butter, beat them up together.

'72

VEGETABLES, &C.

1 58. Mushrooms.

Put some water or vegetable broth in a stewpan, with pepper, salt, parsley, green onions, and a handful of chopped mushrooms well-cleaned; boil them over a stove or slow fire till thick; beat six eggs or more, according to your quantity, and mix all together. Then butter some small cups, put in the mixture and bake them quick; turn them out on a dish, and serve them with mushrooms stewed white.

159. Mushrooms stewed whole.

Wipe some large buttons, boil them up quickly in a little water; put to them a piece of butter mixed with a little flour, a little pounded mace, Cayenne and salt; boil this up, often shaking the pan. When done, add a little cream.

160. To broil Mushrooms.

Peel and cut off the stalks of some moderate-sized mushrooms, put a small bit of butter in each, sprinkle them with salt and pepper, set them in the oven, and serve them up with the liquor that comes from them.

161. To grill Mushrooms.

Choose large, firm, fresh-gathered mushrooms, skin and score them on the under-side, put them on a dish, with a little fine oil or melted butter over them, pepper and salt; when they have stood an hour or more, broil them over a clear fire, and serve them with a sauce made from the water in which the mushroomstalks and parings have been boiled, with the addition of a little chopped parsley, young onion, butter, and the juice of a lemon.

162. To slew Mushrooms.

The mushrooms should be peeled very thin and put

73

VEGETABLES, &C.

into water, with the juice of a lemon, melt a bit of butter in a stewpan, then put in the mushrooms and a little pepper and salt; set them over the fire for about fifteen minutes, (they should stew very slowly;) add a little cream, or a little butter worked up with a dredge of flour.

163. Mushrooms with Toast.

Put some cleaned mushrooms into a stewpan, with a little butter, pepper, salt, and juice of lemon, some green onions, parsley, sweet savoury, and three cloves tied in a bit of muslin; set them a proper distance over the fire till nearly dry; add a dust of flour, with a little vegetable broth, boil them fifteen minutes, then take, out the herbs; thicken with two yolks of eggs mixed with cream, put the top of a French roll toasted and buttered in a dish, and pour on the mushrooms.

164. To force Cucumbers.

Make a slit down the side and take out the seeds, fill the cucumbers with force-meat that has been, boiled, tie them up with packthread and fry them, stew them in vegetable broth with the butter they were fried in, salt, Cayenne pepper, and a little pounded cloves, mix a little flour in part of the gravy to thicken it, and boil all together.

165. Ragout of Cucumbers.

The cucumbers must be pared, the inside taken out, and then cut in pieces; lay them in a dish singly with half a spoonful of vinegar and a little salt, for two hours, turning them frequently; by this means the juice, which is so cold to the stomach, will be drawn out of them; then press them in a cloth and put them in a saucepan with some butter, shake them over the fire, then add a pinch of flour, and moisten

li

74

VEGETABLES, &C.

them with vegetable broth; let them simmer on a slow fire till they are clone enough, then put in a thickening of yolks of eggs and a little milk, set them on the fire again, but not to boil.

166. Hotch-Potch.

Grate three large carrots, and two or three turnips, boil them with a pint and a half of green peas and an onion sliced, with just as much water as will cover them; when tender, rub them through a coarse sieve, return the pulp into the pan with some butter, pepper, and salt; have ready a pint of rather young peas boiled, some carrot, turnip, and lettuce sliced, and stewed till tender; mix all together, and serve it up in a deep vegetable-dish or tureen.

167. Fricassee of Red Beet-root.

After being boiled in salt and water, put some slices into a saucepan with some butter, parsley, chives or sweet leeks chopped, a little garlic, a pinch of flour, salt, pepper, and vinegar to the taste; let it boil a quarter of an hour.

168. Red Cabbage dressed the Dutch way.

Cut a red cabbage small, and boil it in water till tender; then drain it as dry as possible; put it in a stewpan with some pure olive-oil and fresh butter, a small quantity of vinegar and water, an onion cut small, pepper and salt; let it simmer till all the liquor be wasted, it may then be eaten either hot or cold, and is considered to be an excellent pectoral medicine, as well as a pleasant food.

169. To stew Red Cabbage.

Take off all the coarse outside leaves of the cabbage, cut it small, and wash it well; scald it in boiling salt and water, then wipe it dry, and put it into a stewpan with

75

VEGETABLES, &C.

one onion sliced thin, a piece of butter the size of an egg, a little allspice tied in a bit of muslin, some pepper, salt, and a quarter of a pint of water; stew it gently till the cabbage is well done, then take out the allspice and add a spoonful or two of good vinegar.

Savoys or cabbages may be stewed in the same manner as the red cabbage, only about half boil them in water the common way and then stew them; it takes off much of the strong flavour.

Cabbages of every kind are very much improved by being boiled in two waters.

170. To stew Carrots.

About half boil your carrots, then nicely scrape and slice them, put them into a stewpan with half a teacupful of vegetable broth, some white pepper, salt, and a little cream; simmer them till very tender, but not broken; then stir in a little flour and butter, mix well, and let it simmer a while longer. A little chopped parsley may be added a few minutes before it is served up, if approved.

171. Green and JVliite Beet.

The leaves of these plants are very good boiled with some parsley and eaten as spinach. The large white beet when full grown, and the leaves stripped off to the middle rib, which is thick and fleshy, may be peeled and stewed, and eaten like asparagus.

Hamburgh parsley roots, boiled like young carrots, eat very well alone or in soups.

172. To cook Peas the French way.

Wash and pick clean three quarts of fresh-gathered peas, put them in plenty of cold water with a quarter of a pound of butter; handle the peas with the butter till all the butter adheres to them and till they stick together; take them out of the water by hands-

ix 2

76

VEGETABLES, &C.

ful, and drain them through a colander; then set them to stew with a bunch of parsley and green onions; when they have recovered their green colour, powder them over with a little flour, stirring and moistening them with boiling water till they are covered with it, which must be reduced quickly on a brisk fire; the moment you perceive there is no liquor remaining, dip a small lump of sugar into water, that it may soon melt, put it to the peas, and a very small quantity of salt (say a pinch); the sugar should predominate: then mix three ounces of butter with a spoonful of flour, but mind that the peas are boiling when you put the kneaded flour and butter in; thicken them with it over the fire, then serve them up.

173. To stew Spinach.

Pick and wash the spinach well, and put into a pan with a little salt and a few spoonsful of water, taking care to shake the pan often. When stewed tender, take it out and put in a sieve to drain, and give it a squeeze. Return it into the stewpan after being well beaten, and put to it some cream, with pepper, salt, and a piece of butter; stew about a quarter of an hour and stir it frequently. When served up, a few poached eggs may be added, and sippets of fried or toasted bread.

174. To stew Spinach and Sorrel.

Take spinach and sorrel in the proportion of onefourth of sorrel to three of spinach; pick and wash them very clean, cut them a little and put them in a stewpan with two or three spoonsful of water; stew them over the fire till they soften and become liquid, then leave it to stew at a distance over the fire for an hour or more, stirring it sometimes; thicken it with a little flour; when quite done, add some pepper and salt.

77

VEGETABLES, & C.

175. To stew old Peas .

Steep them in soft water all night, then put them in a pan with water just enough to cover them and a little butter; stew very gently till the peas be quite soft; season with pepper and salt.

176. To stew Green Peas.

Put a quart of peas into a pan with a lettuce and onion, both sliced, a bit of butter, pepper, salt, and no more water than hangs to the lettuce from washing; stew them two hours very gently; when to be served, beat up an egg and stir it into them, or a little flour and butter.

177. Green Peas with Lettuce.

Boil the peas in hard water till nearly enough, after which let them be drained through a sieve. Cut the lettuces and fry them in butter; then put them and the peas into a stewpan with some water, pepper, and salt; thicken with flour and butter, and add a little shred mint.

178. To stew Peas.

Take a quart of shelled peas, a large Spanish onion, or two of middling size, and two cabbage or Silesia lettuces cut small; put them into a saucepan with half a pint of water, season them with a little salt, a little pepper, mace, and nutmeg. Cover them close, and let them stew a quarter of an hour, then put in a quarter of a pound of fresh butter rolled in a little flour, a spoonful of catsup, and a small piece of butter as big as a nutmeg; cover them close, and simmer gently an hour, often shaking the pan. When enough, servo it up.

179. Green Peas with Cream.

Take a quart of line green peas, put them into a

ii 3

*78

VEGETABLES, &C.

stewpan with a piece of butter the size of an egg rolled in a little flour, season them with a little salt and nutmeg, a lump of sugar the size of a nutmeg, a small bundle of sweet herbs, some parsley chopped fine, and a quarter of a pint of boiling water. Cover them close, and let them stew very softly half an hour, then pour in a quarter of a pint of good cream. Give it one boil and serve it up.

ISO. To steio Green Peas a mild way.

Put a pint of young peas into a stewpan with very little water, and two young lettuces cut small; stew them gently till the peas are tender, then add four spoonsful of creaijr, a lump of sugar, and the yolks of two eggs; stir the whole together for a short time, but do not allow it to boil; add a little salt and serve it up.

181. To stew Celery.

After stripping off the outside leaves, cut the celery into lengths of about two inches, then put it into a pan with as much good milk as will just cover it, let it boil gently till quite tender, season with pepper, salt, and a little nutmeg; thicken it with a little flour and butter, and let it boil a few minutes.

182. To stew Celery White.

Boil the white part till tender, cut it in pieces, stir some cream over the fire with a little flour and butter, put in the celery, salt, pepper, and pounded mace; shake all together till hot, but do not let it boil.

183. Another 7cay.

Wash and clean six or eight heads of celery, cut them about three inches long, boil them tender, pour away all the water, and take the yolks of four eggs well beaten, half a pint of cream, a little salt and onion

79

VEGETABLES, &C.

chopped fine, pour it over; keep it stirring in the pan all the while. When it begins to be thick, dish it up.

184. To stew French Beans.

Boil the beans till tender, drain them in a sieve, and put them in a pan with a little cream, flour, and butter, pepper, and salt; let them stew gently about ten minutes, then serve them up.

1S5. Cauliflower with White Sauce.

When the cauliflower is boiled till nearly tender, drain it well, then separate it into small pieces, and put it into a saucepan with white sauce, and a few small mushrooms in it, or some very small onions that have been previously boiled. Serve it with toasted sippets.

1 86. To hash Potatoes.

To about five pounds of potatoes, pared and cut as for a pie, take a quart of water, a little fine oatmeal to thicken it, some salt, pepper, and two ounces of butter; let it boil, shaking the pan round frequently, then add some chopped parsley and sweet leeks; let the potatoes boil till they are enough, stirring them now and then, to prevent their burning to the pan. This is an excellent hash. Onions, with a little sage, chopped and stewed with the potatoes, also make a very good hash.

187. To slew Potatoes.

Cut your potatoes as for a pie, put them in a pan in layers, with a little chopped onion, pepper, and salt between each layer, then put some butter on the top, adding a little water, cover the pan, and set it on the fire that the potatoes may stew moderately.

80

VEGETABLES, &C.

They will be ready in half an hour, or rather less. They are very good prepared in this way and baked.

188. A Hash of cold boiled Potatoes.

Pare them the size of thick corks, then cut them in slices half an inch thick, put them in a stewpan with skinned green onions and parsley chopped, a little pepper, salt, and butter; moisten with vegetable broth, or mushroom liquor, shake or stir them on the fire till the herbs are done.

189. To boil new Potatoes.

When first gathered, the skin is best rubbed off with salt and a coarse cloth, then wash them very clean, and put them into salt and water some time before they are boiled; when you put them in the pan, put as much water as will barely cover them, adding a little salt; boil them very slow till nearly done, then pour the water from them very dry; cover them close with a clean cloth, and then the pan-cover, set them where they will keep hot, but be careful they do not burn in the pan, as it quite spoils the flavour of the potatoes. Dish them up with some bits of butter on the top.

190. To mash Potatoes.

Pare, and boil them slowly and carefully, dry them well, and mash them very fine, adding a little salt and butter to them; then add a little hot new milk, beat them well with the masher, and they will be ready for the table.

191. Potatoes with Onions.

After being pared and washed, wipe the potatoes quite dry, put them whole in a tin or large dish that will hold them without being laid one upon another, season them with pepper and salt, add two or three

81

VEGETABLES, &C.

onions sliced, some butter, water, and a dredge of flour; bake them in a quick oven, but do not let them burn. Brown some butter with a dredge of flour in it, then add to it pepper, salt, and hot water; boil it up and serve it in a boat to eat with the potatoes.

192. Potatoes Scolloped.

When boiled (and well dried), beat them fine, add to them cream, the yolk of an egg, pepper, salt, and a piece of butter; do not make them too moist; fill some scollop shells, smooth the tops with the back of a spoon, rub them over with a little yolk of egg, set them in a Dutch oven to brown before the fire; if nicely done, they make a good supper dish.

193. Potatoes in Balls.

Prepare them as above; roll them in balls with a little flour, brown them in a common Dutch oven, or fry them. Or, when mashed, &c., press the potato into a pint basin, then turn it out, and brown it before the fire.

194. To roast Potatoes.

Pare them, melt some butter in a dish in the oven, put in the potatoes, sprinkle them with a little salt, and dredge a little flour over them; turn them frequently till they are enough. They should be roasted in a quick oven.

195. To stew Herbs.

Take of beets, parsley, and leeks, an equal quantity of each, cut them small, put them into a frying-pan, just cover them with water, season with pepper and salt, stew them forty minutes; stir in two ounces of olive-oil or butter, and they are ready to serve. They may be eaten with potatoes, bread, or boiled rice.

S2 VEGETABLES, &C.

196. To stew Cucumbers.

Take an equal quantity of cucumbers and onions, fry them a nice brown in butter, put them in a saucepan with half a gill of water or vegetable broth, season with pepper and salt, and stew them till quite soft; then work a little flour and butter together and put in; let it boil a few minutes till of a good thickness.

197. To fry Potatoes.

Pare and cut them into thin slices as large as a crown-piece, fry them brown in olive-oil and butter, lay them on a plate or dish, and sprinkle a little salt over them; or they may be dipped in batter and fried.

198. To fry Artichoke-bottoms.

First blanch them in water, then flour and fry them in fresh butter, lay them in a dish and pour melted butter over them; or you may serve them up with melted butter, seasoned with nutmeg, pepper, and salt.

199. To fry Onions.

Take some large onions, peel them, and cut them in slices about a quarter of an inchThick, put them into batter without breaking them, and fry them of a nice brown.

200. To fry Cauliflowers.

Boil a large cauliflower till nearly enough; then slice it and dip it in batter; fry it in butter a nice brown. Serve it up with brown gravy in a boat.

201. To fry Cauliflowers.

Take two fine cauliflowers, boil them in milk and water; leave one whole and pull the other to pieces; take a quarter of a pound of butter with two spoonsful of water, and a little Hour, boil it up, and put in the

83

VEGETABLES, &C.

•whole cauliflower, cut in two, and fry the pieces till they are soft. Serve up with the fried round the boiled.

202. To fry Beet-root.

Boil the roots till nearly tender, with plenty of salt in the water, and a bit of potash the size of a large pea; when cold, pare and slice them very thin, sprinkle them with salt and pepper; either dip them in batter, or dredge them with flour, and fry them with butter or olive-oil.

203. To fry Turnips.

Pare and wash some good firm turnips, wipe them dry, then cut them in thin slices; spread them on a board; season them with pepper and salt, and dredge them with flour, fry them in butter till brown and tender; serve them up with fried onions and brown gravy.

Carrots are very good when fried in a similar way.

204. To fry Mushrooms.

6

Take large fresh mushrooms, peel and wash them, dry them in a clean cloth; put a little olive-oil and butter into the frying-pan, put them in the gilled side upwards, sprinkle a little pepper and salt over them, and as they discharge their liquor, take it out of the pan and keep it hot. When they are enough, put them on the dish with the following gravy. Put a little butter and flour into the frying-pan, stir it on a slow fire till brown; add the liquor which has been produced by stewing the parings and stalks of the mushrooms in water, with a little pepper and salt in it; stir it on the fire till it boils, and serve it up in a boat. It makes excellent gravy.



84

VEGETABLES, &C.

205. To ragout French Beans.

Boil some beans till tender, then take your stewpan, put in a piece of butter, when it is melted dredge in some flour; then peel a large onion, slice and fry it brown in the butter; then put in the beans, with a little pepper, salt, and nutmeg; boil it up, and add the yolk of an egg and some cream; stir them all together for a minute or two, and dish them up.

206. To fry Parsley.

Let it be nicely picked and washed, then put into a clean cloth and swung backwards and forwards till perfectly dry, then put it in the frying-pan in hot butter, fry it rather quick, but do not brown it; the moment it is crisp take it out with a slice, and lay it on a sieve or coarse cloth before the fire to drain.

207. To crisp Parsley.

Pick and wash young curled parsley, dry it in a cloth as before, spread it on a sheet of clean paper in a Dutch oven before the fire, and turn it frequently till it is quite crisp. This is a much more easy way of preparing it than frying it, which is seldom well done. Parsley may also be very nicely crisped by spreading it on a dish before the fire (not too near), and putting little bits of butter upon it, turning it frequently with a fork.

208. A Batter to use in frying Vegetables.

A quarter of a pound of fine flour, a little pepper and salt, the yolks of three eggs, and a small tea-cupful of ginger-beer or water, beat it till quite smooth; it should be pretty thick, or it will not adhere to the vegetables.

209. To dry Mushrooms.

After taking off the end of the stalk, wash them, and

85

VEGETABLES, &C.

boil tliem for a moment in water; when drained, put them in a cool oven to dry. Keep them when done in a dry place. Soak them in warm water for use. They will also keep very well thread on a string, and hung up in a dry kitchen.

210. Another way to dry Mushrooms.

Clean them well by wiping them, take out the brown part, and carefully peel off the skin, dry them on sheets of paper in a cool oven, and preserve them in paper bags in a dry place. When to be used, let them simmer in a little water, and they will nearly regain their original size.

211. Mushroom Powder.

Dry the mushrooms whole, set them before the fire to crisp; pound and sift the powder through a fine sieve; preserve it in glass bottles closely corked.

212. Mushroom Powder.

Wash a pint of mushrooms quite clean, scrape out the black part, and do not use any that are worm-eaten; put them into a stewpan over the fire without water, with two large onions, some cloves, a quarter of an ounce of mace, and some white pepper, all in powder; simmer and shake them till all the liquor is dried up. Lay them on tins or sieves in a slow oven till they are dry enough to beat to powder, then put the powder into small bottles corked and tied closely, and kept in a dry place. A tea-spoonful will give a very fine flavour to any soup, gravy, or sauce; and it is to be added just before serving, and one boil given to it after it is put in.

213. Means of restoring frosted Potatoes.

Soak them twelve hours in cold water before they are to be prepared as food, changing the water every

i



S6 VEGETABLES, &G.

hour. If much frozen before laid in cold water, to each peck of potatoes take a quarter of an ounce of saltpetre dissolved in water, and mix it in the water which boils the potatoes.

214. To keep Green Peas.

Gather your peas on a fine dry day, shell them, and put them in dry clean bottles, cork them close and cement them with bottle cement, and keep them in a cool dry place.

215. Another way to keep Green Peas.

Scald your peas, then drain and dry them between clean cloths, after which, put them in wide-mouthed bottles, and pour clarified butter over them, then close the bottles well, and cement the corks down; after which bury them underground, or keep the bottles in sand with the necks downward. When used, boil them till tender, with a bit of butter, mint, and a small portion of sugar.

216. A nolher way to keep Peas.

Shell, scald, and dry them as above, then put them on tins or earthen dishes in a cool oven once or twice to harden, keep them in paper bags hung up in the kitchen. When wanted for use, soak them an hour or two in water, and set them on the fire in cold water, with salt and a small bit of butter; a sprig of dried mint may be added. Serve them up as fresh peas. Windsor or Nonpareil beans dried and steeped a few hours in water are very good when boiled and served up with parsley-sauce.

217. To preserve Chervil, Sorrel, Bert,
All these herbs arc excellent in the making of soups, t &c., and may be preserved in summer for the winter. J When they are prepared in a proper manner, they

87

VEGETABLES, &C.

lose nothing of their original flavour. The method of doing this is so easy as to require but little attention.

Take sorrel, chervil, beet-leaves, purslain, parsley, chives, and cucumbers, if in season, in quantities proportioned to the strength of each. Pick these carefully, wash them several times, and set them to drain. Then chop them, and press them with the hands, that little or no water may remain.

Put a good piece of butter into a pan, and the herbs upon it, with as much salt as will salt them well. Stew them over a slow fire till they are well done, and there is no liquor remaining. Let them stand to cool, and then put them into nice clean pots.

The smaller the consumption of them is likely to be, the smaller the pots must be, as, when once they are opened, the herbs will not keep at farthest more than three weeks.

"When the herbs are quite cold in the pots, melt some butter, and when it is no more than lukewarm, pour it over the herbs. Let them stand till the butter is well congealed, then tie paper over the pots, and set them in a place neither too hot nor too cold. They will keep till Easter, and are very useful during the winter.

W hen wanted for soup, put as much as there is occasion for into some broth made without salt, and the soup is prepared at once.

If to be used as sauce, put them into a saucepan with a piece of butter, boil them very quick, and add three yolks of eggs with some milk. This sauce may be served with hard euus.

O o

The best time for preserving these herbs is about the end of September.

i 2

l

88

SALADS.

Salad-herbs are cooling and refreshing, and make a graceful appearance on the dinner-table. The principal herbs used in the compounding of salads are - lettuce, cress, mustard, radishes, sorrel, parsley, young onions, spinach-tops, corn-salad, American cress, mint, endive, celery, young beets, beet-root (after being boiled), water-cresses, &c. &c.

Let the herbs be fresh gathered, nicely trimmed, and repeatedly washed in salt and water. When well drained, properly picked and cut, arrange them in the salad-dish; but never dress a salad till just before it is wanted, as it will flatten and lose its light appearance by standing.

A variety of salads may be prepared as follows: -

1. Spinach, parsley, sorrel, lettuce, and a few onions.

2. Lettuce, spinach-tops, pennyroyal, sorrel, mustard, cress, and a few onions.

3. Lettuce, mustard, cress, sorrel, young onions, and parsley.

4. Lettuce, American -cress, onions, parsley, mustard, radishes, and corn-salad.

5. Endive, lettuce, celery, parsley, and onions.

6. Lettuce, celery, beet-root, endive, parsley, cress, and onions.

218. Salad for the Winter.

Take young tender colewort plants, sorrel lettuce, endive, celery, parsley, full grown onions, which arc better to cut and cat with salads in winter than young

89

SALADS, &C.

ones, and season them well with salt, cream and vinegar. Add sugar, if approved.

219. Boiled Salad.

Take boiled or baked onions, (if Portugal the better,) some baked beet-root, cauliflower, or brocoli, and boiled celery, or French beans, or any of these articles, with the common salad dressing; add to this, to give it an enticing appearance, and to give some of the crispness and freshness so pleasant in salad, a small quantity of raw endive, or lettuce and chervil, or burnet, strewed on the top. This is considered more wholesome than the raw salad, and is much esteemed.

220. Dressing for Salad.

Boil a couple of eggs for twelve minutes, and put them in a basin of cold water for a few minutes; the yolks must be quite cold and hard, or they will not incorporate with the ingredients. Rub them through a hair-sieve with a wooden spoon, or very smooth in a basin, and mix them with a table-spoonful of water, or very rich cream, then add two tablespoonsful of oil, or melted butter; when these are well mixed, add, by degrees, a tea-spoonful of salt, the same of made mustard, and a little powdered lump-sugar; when these are smoothly united, add very gradually three table-spoonsful of vinegar, rub it with the other ingredients till thoroughly incorporated with them. Put this sauce in the dish, and lay the cut herbs lightly over it, and garnish with beetroot sliced and marked, rings of the white of eggs, young radishes, &c. Let the sauce remain at the bottom of the bowl, and do not stir up the salad till it is to be eaten. Onions may be served separately on a small dish.

90

SALADS, &C.

221. Dressing for Salad.

Take the yolks of two eggs boiled bard, a dessertspoonful of grated Parmesan or strong Cheshire cheese, a little made mustard, a dessert-spoonful of Tarragon vinegar, and a large spoonful of catsup. When well incorporated, add two spoonsful of salad oil, and one spoonful of vinegar, then heat it well. This mixture must not be poured upon the salad, but left at the bottom of the dish.

222. To dress Cucumbers raw.

Pare and slice them thin into a basin of spring water with an onion, drain them between two plates and sprinkle them with salt; add pepper and vinegar. They may be dressed as salad by mixing a little oliveoil with a little mustard, and adding pepper, salt, and vinegar to the taste.

223. Cucumbers dressed raw.

Pare them, and, as you cut them, score the ends that they may be in small bits, as if slightly chopped; add some small young onions, Cayenne pepper, salt, a little ginger, the juice of half a good lemon and some vinegar.

This is an excellent way of using them, and seldom disagrees with the stomach.

SAUCES, &c.

224. To melt Duller, which is rarely well done, though a very essential Article.

Mix in the proportion of a tea-spoonful ot flour to four ounces of the best butter, on a trencher; put it into a small saucepan, and two or three table-spoons-

91

SAUCES, &C.

fal of hot water, boil it quick a minute, shaking it all the time. Milk used instead of water requires rather less butter, and looks whiter.

A more economical and plain way of making melted butter is to take about a quarter of a pint of water, dredge into it as much flour as will make it a proper thickness, boil it, and then stir in about two ounces of butter till well mixed. Do not set it on the fire afterwards.

225. Melted Butter.

Cut two ounces of butter into small pieces, that it may melt more easily, and mix better; put it into a very clean pint saucepan, with a large tea-spoonful of flour, and two table-spoonsful of milk; when well mixed, add six table-spoonsful of water; hold it over the fire, and shake it round almost constantly the same way, till it begins to simmer, then let it stand quietly and boil up. It should be of the thickness of good cream.

Obs . - Milk mixes with the butter much more easily and more intimately than water alone can be made to do.

N.B. If the butter oils, put a spoonful of cold water to it, and stir it with a spoon; if it is very much oiled, it must be poured backwards and forwards from the saucepan to the boat till it is right again.

226. French melted Butter.

Put into a saucepan a quarter of a pound of fresh butter, a spoonful of (lour, a little salt, half a gill of water, half a spoonful of white vinegar, and a little grated nutmeg; set it on the fire till it thickens, but do not let it quite boil, then serve it up.

227. fFhile. Sauce.

Stew, with a little water, a bit of lemon-peel, some

92

SAUCES, &C.

sliced onion, some white peppercorns, a little mace, and a hunch of sweet herbs, until the flavour be good, then strain it, and add a little good cream, a piece of butter, and a little flour, salt to the taste. A few mushrooms are a great improvement.

22S. White Sauce.

Take half a pint of cream and a quarter of a pound of butter, stir them over the fire one way till it be thick; then add a spoonful of mushroom pickle; pickled or fresh mushrooms may be added.

229. White Sauce.

Take half a pint or more of stock which has been prepared from ivory powder, set it on the fire in a saucepan, with a few small mushrooms, a bit of mace, lemon-peel, white pepper, and salt; let it simmer till it tastes well of the seasoning, then take out the peppercorns, mace, and lemon-peel, and add a quarter of a pint of cream; if not thick enough, a little potato-flour and butter may be added; stir it on the fire till ready to boil, then put in a tea-spoonful of lemon-juice.

230. Rice Sauce.

Wash a quarter of a pound of rice in warm water, set it on the fire in a pint of milk, with a little onion sliced, white peppercorns and mace, and a little horse-radish; when the rice is quite tender, take out the spice, and rub the rice through a sieve into a clean stew pan; if too thick, put a little cream or milk to it.

231. Mushroom Sauce.

Pick and chop a pint of young mushrooms, put them into a saucepan with a piece of butter, some salt and pepper, let them stew till tender, then have ready

SAUCES, &c. 93

some brown gravy, made of vegetable or mushroom broth, to pour on them.

232. Mushroom Sauce, White.

Clean half a pint of young mushrooms, take off the skins by rubbing them with salt; put them in a stewpan with a little salt, half a pint of cream, a little mace or nutmeg: thicken the whole with a little flour and butter; let them boil, stirring them constantly, to prevent them from curdling.

233. Currant Sauce.

Boil two ounces of dried currants in a pint of water, five minutes, then add the crumb of a roll, a few cloves, or mace, and some butter, stirring it till it becomes perfectly smooth.

234. Piquant Sauce.'

Put two sliced onions into a stew-pan, with a piece of butter, a carrot, turnip, parsnip, a little thyme, sorrel, basil, two eschalots, a clove of garlic, and some parsley; turn it over the fire till well coloured; then add a little flour moistened with a little water, and a spoonful of vinegar, let it boil gently a few minutes; then skim and strain it through a sieve, season with pepper and salt.

235. Russian Sauce.

To four spoonsful of grated horse-radish, put two tea-spoonsful of patent mustard, a little salt, one teaspoonful of sugar, and vinegar sufficient to cover the ingredients.

236. Fennel Sauce.

Take some fennel and parsley, wash and boil them till they become tender, drain and chop them fine;

94

SAUCES, &C.

put all together into melted butter just when it is wanted, as the herbs lose their colour by standing.

237. Gooseberry Sauce.

Put some gooseberries into cold water, set them on the fire, and let them simmer very carefully till tender; then drain them and add a little juice of sorrel, a little ginger and some melted butter. It is very good made with plain melted butter and sugar only, or with a little boiled parsley chopped small and put in.

23 S. Mint Sauce.

Take young mint, pick and wash it clean, then chop it fine, put it into a sauce-boat, sprinkle it well with sugar, and pour in vinegar to the taste.

239. Onion Sauce.

Boil some large onions in water, till they are tender, changing the water twice; put them into a colander; when drained, pass them through the colander with a wooden spoon, put them into a clean saucepan, with an ounce of butter, a little salt and a gill of cream; stir all together till it is of a good thickness.

240. Brown Onion Sauce.

Slice some large mild Spanish onions, fry them in butter over a slow fire, add some brown gravy, pepper, salt, Cayenne, and a bit of butter rolled in browned flour; skim it, and put in a table-spoonful of mushroom catsup, or a dessert-spoonful of walnut pickle; it may be flavoured with any pungent vinegar, minced eschalot, or made mustard; or made more mild by using celery, turnip, or cucumber, and only half the quantity of onions.

SAUCES, &C.

95

241. Sage and Onion Sauce.

Slice two mild Spanish onions and a few sprigs of sage, stew them in a little water ten minutes, put in a tea-spoonful of salt and pepper, and two ounces of bread-crumbs, mix well together, then pour to it half a pint of vegetable broth, gravy, or melted butter, stir well together, and simmer it a few minutes longer.

242. A common simple Sauce.

Put a few raspings of bread in a saucepan with two eschalots chopped, or a little sweet leek, a little butter, half a spoonful of vinegar, pepper, and salt, and three spoonsful of vegetable broth, or mushroom liquor, boil it up a moment or two, but do not let it be too thick.

243. Apple Sauce.

Pare and core some good baking apples, put them in a saucepan with very little water, cover the pan and set it on a 7uoderate fire, simmer till the apples are soft, drain the water well from them, and stir in a little butter and moist sugar. Serve it hot.

244. Bread Sauce.

Boil a small onion sliced, with a little mace and white pepper, in water, till the onion be quite soft; strain, and pour the water on grated white bread, and cover it; mash it and put in a saucepan, with a good piece of butter, some cream, and a little salt; boil the whole up together, and serve it hot.

245. To make Parsley Sauce when no Parsley leaves are to he had.

Tie up a little parsley seed in a bit of clean muslin, and boil it ten minutes in some water; use this water

9G

sauces, Sec.

to melt the butter, and throw into it a little boiled spinach minced to look like parsley.

246. Caper Sauce.

Take some capers, chop half of them very fine, put the rest in whole, chop some parsley with a little grated bread and salt, put them into melted butter, and let them boil up.

247. An excellent Substitute for Caper Sauce.

Boil slowly some parsley, to let it become of a bad colour, cut but do not chop it fine; put it to melted butter, with a tea-spoonful of salt, and a dessertspoonful of vinegar; let it boil, then serve it up. Pickled cucumber cut in small bits and put into melted butter, is also a very good substitute for caper sauce.

248. Egg Sauce.

Boil the eggs hard, and cut them into small pieces; then put them to melted butter, but do not boil it up afterwards.

249. Lemon Sauce.

Cut thin slices of lemon into very small dice, put them into melted butter, and give it one boil.

250. Celery Sauce, While.

Clean two heads of nice white celery, and a small onion, shred it rather fine; stew it in a pint of water and a tea-spoonful of salt, till quite tender, mix an ounce of butter with some Hour, add a quarter of a pint of good cream, and give it a boil up, stirring it all the time. Add a squeeze of lemon-juice.

251. Another Way.

Cut small three heads of nice clean white celery, and

97

SAUCES, &C.

an onion sliced, put them in a clean saucepan with a small lump of butter, sweat them over a slow fire till quite tender, then put in a spoonful of flour, a quarter of a pint of water, salt and pepper, and a little cream or milk; boil it a quarter of an hour, and pass it through a small hair-sieve with the back of a clean wooden spoon.

252. Cucumber Sauce.

Chop small two or three pickled cucumbers, add a little grated lemon-peel, a little butter, salt and pepper, a dredge of flour, with two spoonsful of water or vegetable broth, just let it boil, then stir in two table-spoonsful of good cream, or some brown gravy. It should be served up immediately.

253. Queen’s Sauce.

Simmer some crumbs of bread in a little vegetable broth, till quite thick and smooth, then add a few pounded sweet almonds, and the yolks of two hardboiled eggs pounded very fine, add pepper and salt, and a sufficient quantity of boiled cream to make it a proper thickness, make it hot without boiling.

254. Sorrel Sauce.

Pound sorrel sufficient to draw two spoonsful of juice, mix with it some butter worked with a little flour, add salt, pepper, nutmeg, and the yolks of two eggs. Make it hot without boiling.

O

255. Parsley Sauce.

Wash and pick some parsley very clean; put a teaspoonful of salt into half a pint of boiling water, boil the parsley about seven minutes, drain it on a sieve, mince it quite fine, then bruise it to a pulp, put it in a sauce-boat, and mix with it, by degrees, about half a pint of good melted butter.

K

98

SAUCES, &C.

256. Cheap Gravy.

Boil half a pint of water with an onion sliced in it, a little salt and whole pepper, add to it half a pint of mushroom or vegetable broth, brown some butter with a little flour in a frying-pan, then pour in the mixture, with the addition of catsup, if approved: when well boiled, strain it.

257. Another.

Brown a little flour and butter in the frying-pan, and add by degrees as much water, in which mushrooms or mushroom-peels and stalks have been boiled, as will make it a proper thickness; season with pepper and salt.

258. Thickening for Sauce - what the French call ltonx.

Brown . - Melt some butter very slowly, stir into it browned flour till it is the thickness of paste, stir it well together with a wooden spoon for fifteen or twenty minutes, till it is quite smooth and a fine yellowish brown; this must be done very gradually and patiently, for if the fire be too hot, it will become bitter; pour it into a jar or basin, and keep it for use. It will keep good a fortnight in summer, and longer in winter.

A large spoonful is generally enough to thicken a quart of gravy; if at all burnt, it will spoil everything it is put into. When cold, it should be thick enough to cut with a knife like a solid paste.

IV/iite . - Melt some good sweet butter slowly, and stir into it the best sifted flour till like a thin but firm paste; stir it over a slow fire a quarter of an hour, but do not let it brown.

The latter is used for thickening white sauces.

The browned Jlour is easily prepared by laying a

99

SAUCES, &C.

quantity of fine flour on a dish, and placing it before the fire, or in a moderate oven, till it is sufficiently browned, and turning it frequently that it may be equally coloured.

259. Oiled Butter.

Put some fresh butter into a saucepan, set it a distance from the fire, so that it may melt gradually, till it becomes an oil, and pour it off quietly from the dregs.

06s. - This will supply the place of olive-oil, and by some is preferred to it, either for salads or frying.

260. To make Mustard.

Rub out the lumps of the mustard with the back of a spoon, then add some salt and boiling water, beating it till perfectly smooth; keep it covered close in a cool place, wipe the glass clean round the edges when there has been any used.

261. To make Mustard for immediate use.

Mix the mustard with new milk by degrees, till it be quite smooth, and add a little raw cream. It is much softer this way, is not bitter, and will keep well. A tea-spoonful of sugar to half a pint of mustard is a great improvement.

262. Kitchen Pepper.

One ounce of ginger, ten cloves, pepper, cinnamon, mace, and nutmeg, of each half an ounce, and six ounces of salt; mix all these well, and keep the mixture very dry. It is a great improvement to all brown sauces.

100

SAVOURY PIES, PUDDINGS, &c.

263. Herb Pie.

Take lettuce, spinach, beets, a little parsley, and a little sweet leek (or a small onion and a leaf or two ot sage), cut them, and season with pepper and salt; lay them in a dish with some butter and water, put a cup in the middle of the dish, lay a crust over and bake it; when the pie is enough, take out the cup and pour in three well-beaten eggs, lay on the crust again, and set it in the oven a minute or two before it is taken to the table.

264. Herb Pie.

Take lettuce, beets, leeks, spinach, and parsley, of each a handful, give them a boil, then chop them small; have ready a pint of groats and two or three sliced onions boiled in a cloth, put all together in a frying-pan with half a pound of butter, a little salt, and a few apples cut thin, stew them over the fire a few minutes; fill your dish, and lay over it a good crust - or bake it in a raised crust. The above quantity will make a large pie.

265. Herb Pie.

Pick a handful of parsley, the same quantity of spinach, two lettuces, mustard and cress, white beetleaves, and a small onion, wash and boil them a little, drain, press out the water, cut them small, mix and lay them in a dish sprinkled with salt, hlix a batter with a little flour, two eggs well beaten, half a pint of cream or good milk; pour it on the herbs, cover it with a paste, and bake it.

101

SAVOURY PIES, PUDDINGS, &C.

266. Force-meat Pie.

Take of beets and parsley eacli a handful, a small quantity of leeks cut line, a quarter of a pound of bread-crumbs, about two ounces of butter rolled in flour, make the whole into balls; add water to keep them moist. Season with pepper and salt, and cover with paste.

267. Stewed Herb Pie.

Cut young carrots, turnips, artichoke-bottoms, mushrooms, peas, onions, lettuces, parsley, celery, or any of them you have; make the whole into a nice stew, with a large piece of butter, some pepper and salt, and a very little water. Bake a crust over a dish, with a little lining round the edge, and a cup turned up to keep it from sinking. When baked, open the lid, take out the cup or dish, and pour in the stewed herbs.

268. Potato Pie.

Put a layer of sliced potatoes in a dish, then a layer of eggs boiled hard and cut in slices, and a few chopped onions or mushrooms; put in a little butter cut in small pieces, and a quarter of a pint o l water; season with pepper and salt; put a paste over, and bake it; when baked, melt two ounces of butter in a saucepan, add to it some hot water, and, if liked, a spoonful of mushroom catsup; pour it into the pie. The onions may be omitted, if more agreeable.

269. Potato Pie.

Cut the potatoes into squares, with one or two turnips sliced; add butter and water just to cover the potatoes, season with pepper and salt, and then cover them with paste. A little mushroom catsup may be added. An onion sliced and a little dried sage may

K 3

102 SAVOURY PIES, PUDDINGS, &C.

be used instead of the turnips. A few mushrooms are a great improvement to a potato pie.

270. Potato Pie.

Pare and cut the potatoes, and season them with pepper and salt as before, butter the bottom of the dish, and put the potatoes in with a little sliced onion or some mushrooms, a tea-cupful of water, and a tablespoonful or more (according to the size of your pie) of tapioca that has been steeped an hour or two in warm water; put on a good crust and bake it. Have ready to eat with it four or live eggs boiled rather hard and chopped small, some butter and hot water, pepper and salt, just boiled up together; serve it up in a sauce-tureen.

271. Savoury raised Pies, to eat cold.

Take some cold plain omelet, and some hard-boiled eggs, cut in small pieces, a few sliced potatoes and mushrooms, season them with pepper and salt, put them into good raised crusts, with as much tapioca jelly as will nearly fill up the pies, lay some bits of butter on the top and close them up. They are very good made with plain omelet and tapioca only, and a little butter.

They may be made in small dishes or patty-pans with puff paste, and are considered excellent.

272. Mushroom Pie.

Peel some mushrooms, and, if rather large, cut them in pieces, take about the same quantity of potatoes, pared and sliced, season them with pepper and salt, add some butter broken in small pieces, put in a little water, cover it with a good common paste and bake it. Stew the parings and stalks of the mushrooms half an hour in some water, then strain it, and when the pie is baked, put in the gravy.

SAVOURY PIES, PUDDINGS, &C. 103

273. Carrot Pic.

Slice as many carrots, when half boiled, as will fill your dish, season them with pepper and salt, put in a good lump of butter and a little water; cover it with a paste, and bake it.

274. Onion Pie.

Chop some onions small, rub in some dried sage, season with pepper and salt, put them in a dish with a good lump of butter and a little water; boil some apples and mash them up with a little sugar, lay them upon the onions, put a paste over and bake it.

275. Mixed Vegetable Pic.

Take some potatoes, turnips, carrots, celery, and one onion, cut them in pieces, and season them well with pepper and salt, add some butter, cut in small pieces, and some water, cover it with a crust, and bake it. A little tapioca boiled in water to a jelly, and poured into the pie when baked, is a great improvement: asparagus, or sea-kale, is a pleasant addition. This pie is very good when cold.

276. Turnip Pie.

Take turnips, peel and cut them in pieces, add some onions, about half boiled, chop them up with pepper, salt, and butter, put them in your dish with the turnips, make a paste as for a potato-pie, cover it over, and bake it; when enough, add more hot water and butter, if requisite.

277. Peas and Mushroom Pie.

Season some rather young peas and mushrooms with pepper and salt, add some butter, and a little water, cover with a good crust, and bake it.

104

SA.VOUHY PIES, PUDDINGS, &C

278. Potato Pasty.

Peel, boil, and mash potatoes as fine as possible, mix them with salt, pepper, and a good piece of butter; make a paste, roll it out thin like a large puff, and put in the potatoes, fold over one half, pinching the edges: bake it in a moderate oven.

279. Sage and Onions with Buttered Toast.

Half boil some sage and onions in two waters, then fry them in butter, and season with pepper and salt, lay the mixture on buttered toast with some brown gravy. It is very good with mustard and applesauce. A little water in which peas, or asparagus, have been boiled poured upon the toast is an improvement; or the toast may be dipped in the water.

280. A Savoury Pudding.

Take off the crust from a twopenny loaf, pour some boiling milk on it, cover it, and let it stand till cold, crush the bread very fine, add pepper, salt, four eggs, a quarter of a pound of butter, a few onions chopped small, a little thyme, sage, and marjoram; bake it in a dish in the oven. This is very good eaten with potatoes.

281. Savoury Macaroni Pudding.

Simmer half a pound of macaroni in plenty of water and a table-spoonful of salt, till tender, but not too soft; the form should be preserved, and no part beginning to melt (this caution will serve for the preparation of all macaroni); drain the water from it, beat up five yolks and two whites of eggs, half a pint of cream, three table-spoonsful of finely-grated cheese, and season with pepper and salt; mix these well together and put them in a pudding-mould well buttered, then let it steam in a stewpan of boiling watc? about an hour; serve quite hot with gravy.

105

SAVOURY PIES, PUDDINGS, & C.

282. A Groat Pudding .

Pick and wash a pint of groats, and put them in a dish with a quart of water, a large onion chopped small, a little sage, sweet marjoram, a good lump of butter, and a little pepper and salt.

283. A Bread Pudding with Onions.

Take the crumb of a penny-loaf and a middle-sized onion chopped small, a little sage, pepper, and salt, mix these up with two eggs and a little milk, lay a good puff paste in a dish, and bake it in a quick oven.

284. Mushroom Patties.

Put some water or vegetable broth in a stewpan with jrepper, salt, parsley, green onions, and a handful of chopped mushrooms, well cleaned; boil them over a stove or slow fire till thick; beat six eggs, or more according to your quantity, and mix all together, adding a few bread crumbs. Then butter some small cups, put in the mixture, and bake the patties quick; put them into a dish, and serve them up with white sauce.

285. Mushroom Dumpling.

Line a basin with paste, put some sliced mushrooms, some bread-crumbs, a piece of butter, some pepper, salt, and a little water; cover with paste, and boil it one hour and a half. It is also very good baked.

2S6. Onion Dumpling.

Peel and boil six small onions, chop them small, put to them some bread-crumbs, a little dried sage and thyme, add salt, pepper, and butter to your taste; boil in a basin, as the above.

106

SAVOURY PIES, PUDDINGS, & C.

2S7. Potato Pudding.

Peel five pounds of potatoes, one pound of onions, and half a gill of groats, chop them small, tie them up in a cloth, boil them three or four hours. When boiled, season to your taste with pepper, salt, and butter.

2SS. Peas Pudding.

Wash the peas very well in warm water, and, if whole, steep them two hours; tie them up loosely, and boil them till they will pulp through a wire-sieve, then add salt, pepper, and two well-beaten eggs; stir in a good piece of butter, and tying it up firm, boil half an hour. Turn it out of the cloth, and serve it up with melted butter in a boat.

2S9. Herb Pudding.

Steep a quart of groats in warm water an hour, put in half a pound of butter cut in little bits; take spinach, beets, and parsley, a handful of each, three or four leeks, three onions chopped small, a few apples, three sage-leaves cut fine, and a little salt, mix all well together, and tie it close in a cloth; boil it two hours, and take it up to loosen the string a little when boiling. Three-quarters of a pound of rice may be used instead of groats, if preferred.

290. A Green-bean Pudding.

Boil and blanch some beans when old and mealy, beat them in a mortar with very little pepper and salt; some cream, and the yolk of an egg; a little spinachjuice will give a finer colour, but it is as well without; boil it an hour in a basin that will just hold it; pour parsley and butter over.

291. Onion and Sage Pasty.

Boil some onions, fresh sage, and a little parsley;

107

SAVOURY PIES, PUDDINGS, &C.

chop them together, add some butter, pepper, and salt. Inclose them in paste, and, when baked, pour in a little hot water.

PREPARATIONS OF CHEESE, &c.

292. Toasted Cheese with Onions.

Peel some onions, cut them in two, and boil them a little, changing the water once, then chop them, and put them in the oven with a little pepper, salt, and butter; cover them, and let them stew till tender; when sufficiently done, spread them on a dish and cover them well with good toasting cheese cut in thin slices, without the crust; toast it rather quick, and serve it up hot.

This is an excellent dish.

293. Macaroni with Cheese.

Boil two ounces of macaroni in a pint of milk till tender, then drain the milk from it, and put it in a dish over some grated cheese, lay some bits of butter upon it, cover it with grated cheese and toast it. A layer of bread-crumbs may be put over the macaroni before the cheese, if preferred.

294. Macaroni with Parmesan Cheese.

Boil four ounces of macaroni till it be quite tender, lay it on a sieve to drain; then put it in a pan, with about a gill of good cream, and a lump of butter rolled in Hour, boil it five minutes, put it on a plate, lay over it Parmesan cheese toasted; send it to the table on a water-plate, for it soon grows cold.

1 OS PREPARATIONS OF CHEESE, &C.

295. A Welsh llabbit ( or Rare Bit.)

Toast a slice of bread on both sides, and butter it; toast a slice of cheese on one side, lay that next the bread, and toast the other side with a salamander; rub mustard over and serve it very hot, covered.

296. Toast and Cheese.

Cut a slice of bread about half an inch thick, pare off the crust, and toast it so as just to brown it, without making it hard, and cover it with good rich mellow cheese, a quarter of an inch thick, without the crust, and lay it in a cheese-toaster; carefully watch it, that it does not burn, and stir it with a spoon, to prevent a pellicle (or thin skin) forming on the surface. Have ready good mustard, pepper, and salt.

297. Swiss Eggs.

Mix two ounces of grated cheese and two of butter melted, with six beaten eggs, season with pepper, salt, chopped parsley, and young onions; fry it very lightly with a little butter in the frying-pan, and serve quite hot.

298. A Ramakin.

Take an equal quantity of Cheshire and Gloucester cheese, beat it fine with some fresh butter (two ounces to half a pound of cheese), then add the crumb of white bread soaked in cream, three well-beaten yolks of eggs and one white, stir all together, and bake it in the dish you intend to serve it in, a quarter of an hour in a moderate oven.

1 299. Braised Cheese.

Melt some slices of good rich cheese in a small dish over steam or a lamp, adding butter, pepper, (and mustard, if liked); have ready soft toasts in allot

PREPARATIONS OF CHEESE, &C. 1 00

water-dish, or cheese-dish over hot water, and spread the cheese on them.

300 . Fondue.

Take half a pound of good grated cheese, the crumb of a roll steeped in hot milk, a piece of butter the size of a walnut, the yolks of three eggs well beaten, mix all together verv well, then add the whites beaten to a froth, immediately before you put it in the oven. Bake it in a dish or mould in a quick oven; it has the appearance of a pudding, and is excellent.

301 . Roasted Cheese.

Grate three ounces of rich Cheshire cheese, mix it with the yolks of two eggs, four ounces of grated bread, and three ounces of butter; beat the whole well in a mortar, with a dessert-spoonful of mustard, and a little salt and pepper; toast some bread and cut it into proper pieces, lay the mixture thick upon them, and set them in a Dutch oven before the fire covered with a dish till hot through, then remove the dish, and let the cheese brown a little. Serve as hot as possible.

302 . Cheese Toast.

Mix some fresh butter, made mustard, and salt into a mass; spread it on fresh-made thin toast; and grate or scrape Gloucester cheese upon it.

303 . Potted Cheese.

To a pound of grated cheese add three ounces of butter, a little mace, Cayenne pepper, and a tea-spoonful of mustard; beat all together in a mortar, put it in small jars, and pour clarified butter over. Keep it in a cool dry place.

L

110 PREPARATIONS OF CHEESE, &C.

304. Stewed. Cheese.

To a pint of water take four middling-sized onions, three ounces of butter, pepper, and salt; stew them till the onions are quite enough, then shred in a quarter of a pound of good old cheese, but not faded, keep stirring it about one minute after the cheese is put in; have bread ready toasted on a dish and pour it over.

305. Cheese Fritters.

Pound some good cheese with bread-crumbs, raw yolks of eggs and butter; make this mixture into small oval balls, dip them in stiff fritter batter, and fry them.

SANDWICHES.

306. Cheese Sandwich.

Take two-thirds of grated Cheshire cheese, and one of butter, a little cream, and a small proportion ot made mustard; pound them in a mortar; cover small slices of bread with this, then lay a slice of bread over each, press them gently together, and cut them in small pieces. A little Cayenne pepper may be added.

307. Beet-root Sandwich.

Take slices of fried beet-root, as prepared in ?vo. 202, and lay it between bread and butter, with mustard.

Vegetable Marrows, if gathered before the seed is formed, and half boiled, then sliced, seasoned, and fried in the same manner as beet-root, make very good sandwiches.

SANDWICHES.

Ill

308. Egg Sandwich.

Take fresh-laid eggs, boil them hard, put them in cold water till quite cold, then peel them, and after taking a little of the white off each end, cut them in slices and lay them between bread and butter with a little salt and mustard, if approved.

309. Fried Egg Sandioich.

Beat up some eggs, season them with pepper and salt, fry them in butter as a pancake; when cold, cut it in small pieces, and put them between bread and butter.

310. Omelet Sandwich.

Make a light batter by beating up four eggs with two table-spoonsful of water, and adding some breadcrumbs; season with pepper and salt, fry it in small lritters about the size of a crown-piece. When they are cold, put them between bread and butter with mustard.

311. Potted Meat.

lo eight ounces of boiled rice take four ounces of potato boiled and well dried, mash both together with the yolks of six hard-boiled eggs, until it is all alike and appears like stiff paste; add pepper, salt, and mace, six ounces of fine bread-crumbs, and six ounces of clarified butter; mix all well together, and put it down in pots, and pour clarified butter on the top.

312. Remoulade.

Pound the yolks of two hard-boiled eggs in a mortar with a little sour cream, or the raw yolk of an egg, a spoonful of made mustard, pepper, salt, Cayenne pepper, one spoonful of vinegar, and two of oil; rub it through a sieve, and it is ready.

112 SANDWICHES.

313. To serve Butler as a small Dish.

Have two wooden fluted spoons, such as are used for lifting butter; wash and boil them when wanted, dry them well, and rub them over with a bit of butter to clean them perfectly; then lightly rollup between tbe spoons bits of butter in the form of corks, fir-cones, small pine-apples, shells, &c. It may be rolled in crimping-rollers to look well, or worked through a sieve or colander; - or squeezed, through a very clean cloth strainer, on the dish you intend for the table; it may also be scooped with a tea-spoon to look well; garnish with curled parsley.

PUDDINGS, &c.

314. A pple Pudding.

Pare and core some good baking apples, put them in a pan witli very little water, cover the pan, and set it on a moderate fire, turning it now and then, that the apples may soften regularly. When nearly soft, drain the water from them, put them in a basin to cool, stirring in a little sugar; make a good common paste, roll it out, put it in a cloth, and enclose the apples in it; tie it up close, and boil it in plenty of water. If a large pudding, it will take two hours to boil it.

315. Apple Dumplings.

Pare some large good baking apples, cut them in two, take out the cores, and fill up the space with sugar, put the halves together, and enclose them in paste; tie up each dumpling in a cloth, and boil them from

PUDDINGS, &C. 11

three-quarters of an hour to an hour, according to the size.

316. Baked Apple Pudding.

Put five large apples into an earthen pot, set it in a pan of water on the fire, and let them simmer till they will pulp through a colander; grate into the pulp the yellow rind of a lemon, and squeeze in the juice, put in two large spoonsful of grated bread, four ounces of butter melted, sugar to the taste, and six eggs well beaten; bake it in a dish with puff’ paste.

317. Baked Apple Pudding.

Peel and core ten large apples, boil them as for sauce, stir in a quarter of a pound of butter till cold, beat five eggs and put in, the rind of a lemon grated and juice, sweeten it, and bake it in puff paste.

318. Apple Pudding.

Put to a pint of cold cream enough of grated biscuit or French roll to thicken it, grate in some nutmeg, cut in some candied orange-peel, sugar to the taste, and eight eggs well beaten with a little salt. Lay a puff paste in a dish, and slice in twelve pippins upon it, laid in regular layers; pour in the other ingredients, and bake it three-quarters of an hour. Serve it up with powdered sugar sifted on the top.

319. Apple Pudding.

Pare and grate three-quarters -of a pound of juicy apples; put to them six ounces of butter beat cold to a cream, four beaten eggs, two Naples biscuits pounded, the rind of a lemon grated, sugar to the taste, and a spoonful of orange-flower water. Bake in puff paste, and when done, strew candied orange sliced over the top.

l 3

114

PUDDINGS, &C.

320. A boiled Apple Pudding.

Take half a pound of apples chopped fine, half a pound of bread-crumbs, and half a pound of currants, some grated lemon-peel, five well-beaten eggs, and a quarter of a pound of sugar; boil it three hours.

321. Green Apple Pudding.

Pare and scrape some Keswick codlings (Westmoreland pippins) as for a tart, rub them through a sieve with as much juice of spinach as will make the pudding green, add lour eggs well beaten, a quarter of a pound of butter, about two ounces of bread-crumbs, and a little lemon-peel chopped; if the apples are not sharp, a little lemon-juice may be added; put a paste round the dish and bake it.

322. Apricot, Gooseberry, or Apple Pudding. Put the fruit in a jar, set it in a saucepan of water on the fire till it will pulp through a colander; to a pint of pulp, when cold, put the yolks of six eggs, the whites of four, a quarter of a pound of butter melted, three spoonsful of rose-water, and sugar to the taste; stir all well together, and bake it in a dish in puff paste half an hour in a quick oven.

323. A Swiss Apple Pudding.

Place alternate layers of sliced apples and sugar, with a very thin layer of rusk, pounded and soaked in milk; finish with the powdered rusks; and pour melted butter over the pudding. Grate sugar over it when to be served.

324. Nottingham Apple Pudding.

Peel six good baking apples, take out the core with the point of a small knife, or an apple-corer, but be sure to leave the apples whole; fill up the space where you took the core from with sugar, place them

115

PUDDINGS, &C.

in a pie-dish, and pour over them a nice light batter, prepared as for batter pudding, and bake an hour in a moderate oven.

325. Boston Apple Pudding.

Peel one dozen of good apples, take out the cores, cut them small, put them into a stewpan that will just hold them, with a little water, a little cinnamon, and the peel of a lemon; stew over a slow fire till quite soft, drain the water from them, then sweeten with moist sugar, and pass it through a hair-sieve; add to it the yolks of four eggs and one white, a quarter of a pound of good butter, half a nutmeg, the peel of a lemon grated, and the juice of one lemon; beat all well together, line the inside of a pie-dish with good puff paste, put in the pudding, and bake it half an hour.

326. Apple Pudding with Cream.

Grate four large apples, add to them a quarter of a pound of Naples biscuits grated, a little powdered cinnamon, half a pint of cream, sugar to the taste, a little salt, and six eggs well beaten, leaving out half the whites. Bake it with a crust round the edge of the dish; when done, sift powdered sugar over it.

327. Apple and Bread Pudding.

Pare and cut some apples as for a pie, put a little sugar to them, cover them and set them in a moderate oven till they begin to soften; then take them out, and when nearly cold, cover them well with bread that has been soaked in warm milk - or set the bread and milk, covered with a plate, in a moderate oven till the bread has absorbed the milk. An egg or two may be added to the milk, if preferred, but it is a very wholesome and good pudding without eggs.

116

PUDDINGS, &C.

Almost any kind of fresh fruit may be used in the same way.

328. An Alderman! s Pudding.

Boil a pint of cream with a bit of lemon-peel and some fine sugar, pour it hot over half a pound of new Savoy biscuits, cover the bowl with a plate till the cream is soaked up, then add three ounces of sweet almonds pounded or chopped fine, eight eggs, the yolks and whites separately beaten; bake it in puff paste, with a thin layer of orange or apricot marmalade in the middle.

329. Almond Pudding.

Blanch six ounces of sweet almonds and a dozen bitter ones; beat them in a marble mortar with orangeflower water, add the juice and rind of one lemon grated, a quarter of a pound of butter melted, six yolks of eggs and four whites, a pint of cream, with sugar to the taste; bake it half an hour in puff paste, or butter some cups and fill them half full, and bake them.

330. Almond Pudding.

Take half a pound of sweet almonds with a few bitter ones, blanch and beat them, half a pound of clarified butter, half a pint of cream, a quarter of a pound of Savoy biscuits, the yolks of six eggs and half the whites; sweeten it to your taste; bake it in puff paste.

331. Apricot Pudding.

Pare ten or twelve apricots, scald, stone, and bruise them, with some of the kernels, put a pint of boiling cream to some white bread-crumbs, when cold add the yolks of four eggs, and sugar to the taste; bake it half an hour in puff paste.

117

PUDDINGS, &C.

332. Arrow-root Pudding.

To a pint of boiling milk add two ounces of arrowroot, previously mixed smooth with a little cold milk, set it on the fire and let it boil, constantly stirring it; when cool, add three eggs, a few bitter almonds blanched and beaten, lemon-peel, and sugar; bake it in a moderate oven.

333. Boiled Arrow-root Pudding.

Set a pint of milk on the fire, mix two ounces of arrow-root with a little cold milk quite smooth like starch; when the milk is near boiling, pour it upon the arrow-root, stirring it all the time, return it into the pan and set it on the fire a few minutes to thicken, but do not let it boil, stirring it briskly; when cold, add three eggs well-beaten and a little salt, boil it an hour in a buttered basin. Serve it up with melted butter and currant-jelly.

334. Baiter Pudding.

To three or four well-beaten eggs, add a little milk, salt, and six spoonsful of flour, beat it well with a wooden spoon tilt the batter is quite smooth; add as much more milk as will make it of a proper consistence; boil it in a buttered basin, with a cloth tied tight over it, an hour and a half, or in a cloth without the basin, an hour and a quarter.

In boiling puddings, the water should never be allowed to cease from boiling.

335. Common Batter Pudding.

Beat two eggs very well, put to them about the third of a pint of milk, a little salt, and as much flour as will make it a stiff batter; when quite smooth, thin it by degrees with the remainder of the milk; boil it an hour and a quarter, or butter a dish and bake it in a quick oven.

1 IS

PUDDINGS, &C.

336. Yorkshire Batter Pudding.

Mix some batter as above, melt some butter in a flat dish or dripping-pan, pour in the batter, and bake it in a quick oven; when nearly enough, lay a little more butter on the top; cut it in squares, and serve it up.

337. A nice light Batter Pudding.

Take four well-beaten eggs, one pint of new milk, four spoonsful of flour, and a little salt, mix it quite smooth, and strain it j boil it in a basin an hour and a quarter.

338. Boiled Batter Pudding with Fruit.

Beat the yolks of five, and the whites of three eggs, add a few spoonsful of new milk to be taken from a quart, (the quantity to be used,) and a little salt, mix in six large spoonsful of flour, and beat till quite smooth, add the remainder of the milk by degrees; put in the fruit, such as prunes, French plums, raisins or currants, and pour it into a basin well-buttered, and then dredged with flour; tie it in a cloth and boil it.

This kind of pudding is very good baked, with fresh fruits, adding four spoonsful of cream, and a tea-spoonful of powdered ginger.

339. Batter Pudding without Eggs.

Mix a pound of flour with a pint of milk, beat it till quite smooth; add a little salt and some powdered ginger. Boil it in a cloth an hour and a half.

N.B. I (prepared ginger be used, not quite a teaspoonful; if the common powdered ginger, double the quantity. Two tea-spoonsful of the tincture of saffron may be added, if approved.

121

PUDDINGS, &C.

340. Black-Cap Pudding.

Make a fine smooth thin batter of a pint of milk, three or four well-beaten eggs, a little salt, and good fine flour; add about six ounces of currants, boil it in a buttered basin an hour and a quarter; serve it up with melted butter.

341. Bread and Riqe Pudding.

Boil a quarter of a pound of rice in milk till quite tender, put it in a basin and let it stand till the next day. Soak some thin slices of bread an hour in cold milk, drain and mash it fine; mix it with the rice, adding two well-beaten eggs and a little salt; tie it up in a cloth, and boil it an hour. Serve it up with sweet sauce.

342. Baked Bread Pudding.

Put a quarter of a pound of butter to a pint of new milk, set it on the fire, stirring it all the time; as soon as the butter is melted, stir in it as much stale white bread grated as will make it moderately thick; then pour it into a basin to cool, put in three eggs wellbeaten, a little salt, nutmeg or mace, and some moist sugar; butter a dish, and bake it three-quarters of an hour. Haifa pound of currants may be added.

343. Small Bread Puddings.

Pour a pint of warm milk on a pint of grated bread, stir in two ounces of butter, when nearly cold add five eggs well beaten, a little grated lemon-peel, sugar to the taste, and two table-spoonsful of orange-flower water; bake in small cups buttered, half an hour. A quarter of a pound of currants, and candied orange or lemon may be added, if approved.

344. Plain boiled Bread Pudding.

Grate white bread enough to fill a pint measure, pour

120

PUDDINGS, &C.

upon it a pint and a half of new milk made scalding hot, and let it stand uncovered till cold. Work this smooth with a spoon, put in sugar to the taste, and three eggs well-beaten, with a little salt. Boil this in a basin well-buttered, for an hour and a quarter. It is very good baked.

345. Common Bread Pudding.

Pour a quart of boiling milk on as much bread cut in small pieces as will soak up the milk, cover with a plate, and let it stand till cool, then mash the bread, and add three well-beaten eggs, mix it up well, and put it in a wet cloth floured, and boil it an hour and a half. Serve it up with sweet sauce.

346. Another Bread Pudding.

Take some pieces of stale bread, and soak them well in hot water, then press out the water and mash the bread, add a little powdered ginger, nutmeg, salt, and sugar, and a few clean currants, mix the whole well together, lay it in a buttered dish, with a few bits of butter on the top; bake it in a moderate oven, and it will be good either hot or cold. A spoonful of rosewater will be an improvement.

347. Bread Pudding.

Boil a pint of milk with two ounces of butter and a little mace, pour it on two tea-cakes, or a French roll, when cold, beat it up well with three eggs, two spoonsful of sugar, a quarter of a pound of currants, the peel of half a lemon grated, and a little salt; bake or boil it; if baked, turn it out of the dish it is baked in.

34S. A Bread Hasty Pudding .

Set a quart of new milk on the fire, and when scalding hot, put in grated bread, till it is about the thickness

121

PUDDINGS, &C.

of common hasty pudding. Beat the yolks of two eggs with a little salt; take out a few spoonsful of the milk before you put in the bread, to mix with them; then put it to the bread and stir it over the fire tvvo or three minutes. It must not be suflered to boil. Eat this with sugar and cold butter. It is very good without the eggs.

349. Bread Pudding.

Boil a quart of new milk, witli a little cinnamon and lemon-peel, five minutes, take out the seasoning, and pour the milk on the crumbs of three twopenny rasps, or French rolls, cover it till cool, then add six wellbeaten eggs, sugar, and nutmeg. It may be either boiled or baked.

A Savoy pudding may be made the same way, with biscuits instead of bread.

350. Bread Pudding.

Take a loaf of white bread, cut a hole in the bottom, add as much good milk as it will absorb, tie it in a cloth and boil it an hour. It may be improved by first boiling the milk with a little cinnamon in it, and when cool, add two or three eggs before it is poured upon the loaf. Serve it up with melted butter, or sweet sauce.

351. Bread and Butter Pudding.

Boil gently for five or ten minutes a pint of good milk, with the peel of half a lemon, a little cinnamon, and a spoonful of almond or orange-flower water, then sweeten with good sugar; break the yolks of five eggs and the whites of three into a basin, beat them well, and add the milk, beat all well together, and strain through a hair-sieve; have some bread and butter cut very thin, put a layer of it in a pie-dish, and then a layer of currants, and so on till the dish is nearly full, then pour the custard over it, and bake it half an hour. M

I

1 22

PUDDINGS, &C.

352. Pearl-Barley Pudding.

Take a pound of pearl-barley, wash it clean, put to it two quarts of new milk ancl half a pound of sugar, with a little nutmeg grated; then put it into a deep dish and bake it in a slow oven till it thickens. Take it out of the oven, beat up four eggs, mix up all well together, butter a dish, pour it in, bake it again an hour, and it will be excellent.

353. Biscuit Pudding.

Scald a pint of cream or new milk, and pour it upon a quarter of a pound of Naples biscuits grated; let it stand till cold, then add two spoonsful of powdered sugar, half a spoonful of flour, some orange-flower or rose water, a little mace or cinnamon, four yolks of eggs and two whites well beaten, with a little salt, mix all well together, butter a basin and dredge it with flour, put in the pudding and boil it one hour, sift fine sugar over, and serve it up with melted butter.

354. Buttermilk Cttrd Pudding.

Turn three quarts of new milk, warm from the cow (or made milk warm), with a quart of buttermilk, drain off the whey through a sieve, and when the curd is dry, pound it in a marble mortar, with half a pound of fine sugar, an ounce of sweet, and two or three bitter almonds, and a lemon boiled tender; when these are well beaten and mixed together, add two ounces of grated bread, a quarter of a pound of butter melted, the juice of a lemon, a little salt, a teacupful of thick cream, five eggs with but half the whites well beaten, and a glass of rose-water, stir it well, and bake it in a dish or cups well buttered, turn it out carefully, and sift sugar over it.

355. Cabbage Pudding.

Scald one or more nice tender cabbages, bruise and

,95

PUDDINGS, &C. 15i>.

season it with a little mace or nutmeg, ginger, pepper, and salt, put in some green gooseberries or barberries, and either a few large spoonsful of swelled rice or bread-crumbs, add some butter broken in small pieces, mix it well with the yolks of four eggs well beaten. Wrap it up in a large cabbage-leaf, tie it in a cloth, and boil it an hour.

356 . Castle Puddings.

Take the weight of two eggs (in the shell) in butter, the same of powdered sugar and flour, about halt melt the butter in a basin before the fire, beat the eggs very well, mix the butter and sugar together, then the eggs and a little grated lemon-peel, then add the flour; butter some cups like coifee-cups with flat bottoms, fill them a little more than half full, and bake them about half an hour in a moderate oven. Serve them up with raspberry vinegar sauce.

357 . Carrot Pudding.

Scrape three or four carrots very small, mix them with about half a pound of bread crumbs, pour over this three gills of boiling cream or good milk; when cold, add six eggs beaten to a froth, sugar, nutmeg, and a very little salt; bake it an hour in puff paste.

358 . Carrot Pudding.

Wash and scrape some carrots, boil them till very tender in a good deal of water, take off the red part, and rub half a pound of it through a sieve; add to it four ounces of butter melted, half pound of grated white bread, half a pint of cream, a little salt, six eggs well beaten, sugar to the taste, a wine-glass of orange-flower water, and some candied orange or lemon peel cut thin. Bake it half an hour in a dish, with puli' paste round. Sift fine sugar over it before it is served up.

m 2

124

PUDDINGS, &C.

359. Carrot Pudding.

Boil come carrots till they will pulp through a sieve, take a quarter of a pound of the pulp, half a pound of potato boiled and mashed very fine, with a little salt, half a pound of flour, a quarter of a pound of moist sugar, a quarter of a pound of butter melted, two ounces of candied orange, and three-quarters of a pound of currants; mix all well together over night, and boil it full four hours. When the pudding is taken out of the pan, let it remain in the cloth about three minutes before you serve it up. This pudding is excellent.

360. Carrot Pudding.

To three-quarters of a pound of carrot, when boiled and pulped through a sieve, mix a quarter of a pound of Savoy biscuit, four yolks and two whites of eggs well beaten, six ounces of butter beaten to cream, a little nutmeg, and two ounces of sugar, the rind of a lemon boiled till tender and pounded, and the juice of two. Bake it in puff paste.

361. Cocoa-nut Pudding.

Grate the nut, and mix with it a quarter of a pound of butter melted, four well-beaten eggs, a little rosewater, mace and nutmeg, sweeten to the taste; bake it in a dish with puff paste round it.

362. Charlotte or French Fruit Pudding.

This pudding may be made of any kind of fruit, or of a mixture of such as blend well, as apple and apricot marmalade.- Butter a mould or dish, and lay even slices of bread, half an inch thick, buttering them on both sides with good butter; put each piece half over the other, and lay a piece well buttered at the bottom of the dish, cut to the size, fill the mould

PUDDINGS, &e. 125

with apples stewed (not so much as for marmalade) with a little sugar, and rubbed through a sieve, soak slices of bread in melted butter and milk, and cover the top with them, lay on a plate and weight, and bake it in rather a quick oven; when nearly done, take off the plate and brush the top over with beaten egg, sift powdered sugar on the top, and brown it.

This turned out of the mould when baked, is sometimes called an apple-loaf but any kind of ripe or preserved fruit may be used.

363. Cold Pudding.

Take a pint of new milk and half a pint of cream, boil it with two ounces of almonds blanched and beaten, beat the yolks of six eggs and two whites, adding two spoonsful of rose-water, stir the boiling milk to the eggs, adding a quarter of a pound of fine sugar, boil all together on a slow fire two minutes, then put it in a cloth and tie it tight, let it drain an hour, then turn it out and beat it in a wooden bowl with a potato-masher; add some candied lemon and orange; return it into the cloth and tie it up very tight: hang it up another hour, and it will be ready for use. ('over it with frothed cream with a little sugar in it.

364. Cottage Pudding.

Two pounds of potatoes pared, boiled, and mashed, one pint of milk, three eggs, and two ounces of sugar, mix them well together with a little salt; bake it three-quarters of an hour.

365. Cowslip Pudding.

Cut and pound the flowers of half a peck of cowslips, add a quarter of a pound of Naples biscuits grated, three gills of thin cream, boil them a little, then beat six eggs with a little rose-water sweetened; mix all

M 3

126

PUDDINGS, &C.

together, butter a clisli and pour it in. Bake it, and when done, sift fine sugar over it.

366. Boiled Curd Pudding.

Bub the curd of two quarts of new milk well drained through a sieve, mix with it six well-beaten eggs, a little cream, two spoonsful of orange-flower water, a little pounded mace, three spoonsful of bread-crumbs, three spoonsful of flour, currants and raisins half a pound each; boil it an hour in a thick well-floured cloth.

367. Cheese Curd Pudding.

Put a little rennet into two quarts of milk; when it is broken put it into a coarse cloth to drain out all the whey, then rub the curd through a hairsieve, and put to it eight ounces of bread, four ounces of butter, a little mace, the rind of a lemon grated, and a spoonful of rose or orange-flower water, sweeten it, beat four eggs very well, mix all together, butter the cups, and bake them half an hour. Half a pound of currants may be added.

36S. Custard Pudding.

Take two large spoonsful of fine rice flour, put to it a little salt, six eggs well beaten, some cinnamon, sugar to the taste, and a pint of cream or new milk; stir it well, put it in a cloth well floured, and boil it three-quarters of an hour; move it about some minutes after it is put in the pan.

369. Small Custard Puddings.

Take a pint of cream, boil it, let it stand till it be cold, then add the yolks of five or six eggs and half of the whites, two spoonsful of flour, and a little lemon-peel, or cinnamon; bake them in small cups half an hour in a slow oven. Just before you set

PUDDINGS, &C. 127

them in the oven, melt a quarter of a pound of butter and put it in.

370. Cobbett Corn-Flour Puddings.

The corn-flour makes very good batter 'puddings baked, a pound of flour, a quart of water, a little salt, and two eggs, though eggs are not necessary.

Plum-pudding. - A pound of flour, a pint of milk, live or six ounces of butter rubbed in the flour, a pint of water, half a pound of raisins, the same of currants, a little salt and sugar; boil it in tbe usual way.

The butter may be omitted, and four eggs used instead. It is very probable that the addition of a large spoonful of potato-flour would be a great improvement.

371. Damson Dumpling.

Make a good hot paste, roll it out, lay it in a basin, and put in what quantity of damsons you think proper, wet the edges of the paste, and close it up, boil it in a cloth one hour and a half, if large two hours.

\ ou may make any kind of preserved fruit dumplings the same way. They are also very good baked.

372. A Dutch Pudding.

Melt one pound of butter in half a pint of milk, mix it into two pounds ol flour, eight eggs well beaten, and four spoonsful of yeast, set it before the fire to rise for an hour, add one pound of currants, and quarter of a pound of sugar.

'! his is a very good pudding hot, and equally so as a cake when cold.

373. A Dumpling.

Beat four eggs very well, add a spoonful of yeast, about bait a pint of milk, a little salt, and flour to

128

PUDDINGS, &C.

make it as stiff as you can beat it, it must be beaten an hour; scald a wooden dish very well, then butter it and dredge it with flour, boil it an hour, and pour melted butter over it.

374. Eve’s Pudding.

If you’d have a good pudding, pray mind what you’re taught:

Take two pennyworth of eggs, when there’s twelve for a groat,

Take of the same fruit, ’tis said, Eve did once cozen, When par’d and well chopp'd, at least half a dozen; Six ounces of bread (give a beggar the crust),

And grater the crumb as small as the dust:

Six ounces of currants, well cleaned from the dirt. Lest they break your poor teeth and spoil all your sport;

The rind of a lemon, grated quite thin,

Will do it no harm if the whole you put in,

Six ounces of sugar will not make it too sweet.

Some nutmeg and salt will make it complete:

Now boil it three hours without hurry or flutter,

And then serve it up with some good melted butter.

N.B. Mother Eve made this pudding so wond’rous nice,

That Adam exclaimed, ‘ Give me another slice.’

375. Baked Gooseberry Pudding.

Put some gooseberries in a jar, and set them over the fire in a pan of water till they will pulp; take a pint of the juice pressed through a coarse sieve, stir in it an ounce and a half of butter, three eggs well beaten and strained, a few bread-crumbs, or four ounces of Naples biscuits, sweeten it well, put paste round a dish and bake it.

129

PUDDINGS, &C.

376. Gooseberry Pudding.

Scald a quart of green gooseberries, rub them through a sieve, stir in a quarter of a pound of butter, sweeten it, add two or three Naples biscuits, four eggs well beaten, mix it well, bake it half an hour.

377. Grateful Pudding.

Take a pound of flour, a pound of white bread grated, and six eggs; beat the eggs up and mix with them a pint of new milk, then stir in the bread and flour, and a pound of raisins stoned, a pound of currants, half a pound of sugar, and a little ginger; mix all well together, and put it into a dish and bake it.

378. George Pudding.

Boil very tender six ounces of whole rice in a small quantity of milk, with a large piece of lemon-peel; let it drain, then mix with it a dozen good-sized apples, boiled to pulp as dry as possible; add a glass of rose-water, the yolks of five eggs well beaten, two ounces of candied lemon and orange, or citron cut very thin; sugar to the taste, line a mould or basin with good paste, beat the whites of the eggs to a very strong froth, and add to the other ingredients; fill the mould, and bake it of a fine brown colour; turn it out of the mould when served up, make a sauce for it with a tea-cupful of sherbet, some sugar, the yolks of two eggs, and a bit of butter the size of a walnut; simmer without boiling, and pour it to and from the saucepan till of a proper thickness, pour it on the pudding, or serve it in a boat.

379. Light German Puddings.

Melt three ounces of butter in a pint of cream, let it stand till nearly cold, then mix two ounces of fine flour, two ounces of sugar, four yolks and two whites

130

PUDDINGS, &C.

of eggs, and a little rose or orange-flower water, bake in small cups buttered, half an hour; turn them out of the cups and serve them up the moment they are done.

3 50. Hard Dumplings.

Mix some flour with a little salt into a stiff paste, either with milk or water, make it up into balls with a little flour, throw them into boiling water, and boil them half an hour. They are very good eaten with cold butter. A few currants are a very good addition, but they require boiling a little louger.

351. Hasty Pudding.

Set some milk on the fire, and when it boils, put in a little salt, and stir in by degrees as much flour as will make it of a proper thickness, let it boil quickly a few minutes, beating it constantly while on the fire; pour it into a dish, and eat it with cold butter and sugar, or treacle. Eggs may be used with it if preferred.

382. Lancashire Dumplings.

Rub about three ounces of butter into two pounds of flour, add a little salt and a few currants, mix them up in rather a stiff paste with water that has had a little yeast stirred in it; cover it and let it stand an hour or two, then make up the dumplings about the usual size of yeast dumplings, and boil them about twenty minutes. Serve with melted butter and sugar.

383. Lemon Pudding.

Take two large lemons, grate off the yellow rind very thin, then squeeze out the juice, and boil the lemons in plenty of water (changing the water frequently) till tender; then beat them in a mortar to a paste, add three ounces of grated bread or biscuits, four eggs

131

PUDDINGS, &C.

well beaten, half a pint of good milk, and a quarter of a pound of sugar, mix all well together, put it in a wooden dish well buttered, and boil it three-quarters of an hour.

3S4. Lemon Pudding.

Put half a pound of loaf sugar and six ounces of fresh butter into a saucepan, set. it over a slow fire till both are melted, stirring it well, as it is very liable to burn, but do not let it boil; pour it into a basin and grate the rind of a lemon into it, and leave it to cool; have ready two sponge biscuits soaked in a quarter of a pint of cream, bruise them fine and stir them into the sugar and butter; beat the yolks of eight and the whites of four eggs with a little salt, squeeze in the juice of a lemon, and mix it well in; lay a puff paste in a dish, strew it with pieces of candied lemon-peel, put in the pudding, and bake it three quarters of an hour in a moderate oven. Sift line sugar over it.

385. Lemon Pudding.

To six ounces of clarified or oiled butter take six ounces of loaf sugar grated, first rubbing the lumps of sugar on the rind of a large lemon till you have taken off all the outer rind; add the juice of the lemon, put all together in ajar, with the yolks of nine eggs well beaten, set the jar in a pan of cold water on the fire, stirring it constantly till it simmers and thickens; it is then ready for use, either for a pudding or cheesecakes. If covered close and kept in a cool place, it will keep good some weeks. If the lemon be a very juicy one, use only half the juice.

38G. Lemon Pudding.

Beat the yolks of four eggs, add four ounces of white sugar, rubbing some of the lumps on the rind of a lemon, to take out tire essence; boil the rind till it

132

PUDDINGS, &C.

is soft, changing the water to free it from bitterness; then beat it in a mortar with the juice of a lemon, mix all with four or five ounces of butter melted; put a paste into a shallow dish, mark the edges, put the mixture into it, and bake it. Slide it carefully out of the dish upon another, when sent to the table.

387. Lemon Pudding.

Set half a pint of new milk on the fire; when it begins to boil, put in one ounce of bread-crumbs, and let it boil a little, add the grated rind and juice of a lemon, four yolks of eggs, three ounces of clarified butter, and sugar to the taste; line a shallow dish with puff paste, put in a layer of preserve and pour the pudding over it, and bake it half an hour.

388. Macaroni Pudding.

To three ounces of macaroni take a pint of new milk, a piece of lemon-peel, and a bit of cinnamon, stew it gently till tender, beat three eggs well, and mix them with half a pint of cold milk, a little salt, sugar to the taste, add grated nutmeg or powdered ginger, put a puff paste round the edge of a dish, and lay a layer of the macaroni and then a layer of preserve, such as gooseberry or raspberry jam, orange or apple marmalade, &c.; spread the remainder of the macaroni over this, and pour the milk and eggs upon it, and lay bits of butter on the top. An hour will bake it in a moderate oven. Sift sugar over it when done.

3S9. Millet Pudding.

Put six ounces of millet, well washed, in three pints of new milk, with a pinch of salt; set it in a moderate oven till it begins to thicken, then beat up three esigs, and add by degrees some ot the milk from the millet; sugar to the taste, and a little nutmeg or cin-

rtJDDINGS, &c. 133

namon; mix all together, and put it in the oven till done.

390. Nassau Pudding.

Cover a dish with puff paste, spread it with marmalade or raspberry jam the third of an inch thick, put eight yolks and four whites of eggs in a pan with a quarter of a pound of butter and six ounces of lump sugar bruised, stir them together on a slow fire ten minutes; when cold, put it in the dish and bake it. A custard poured over the fruit and baked makes an excellent pudding.

391. Northumberland Pudding.

Make a hasty pudding with a pint of milk sweetened, a little salt, and flour to make it of a proper thickness; when boiled enough, pour it into a basin, cover it with a plate, and let it stand till the next day; then mash it well with a spoon, and add a quarter of a pound of clarified butter, a quarter of a pound of currants, and two ounces of candied lemon cut in thin slices. Bake it in tea-cups buttered, turn them out on a dish, and serve them with raspberry-vinegar sauce in a boat.

392. Oatmeal Pudding.

Pour a quart of boiling milk over a pint of the best fine oatmeal; let it soak all night; the next day add two beaten eggs and a little salt, butter a basin that will just hold it, cover it tight with a floured cloth, and boil it an hour and a half. Eat it with cold butter and salt. When cold, slice and toast it, and eat it as oatcake buttered.

393. An Orange or Lemon Pudding.

Melt a quarter of a pound of butter, and pour it on two ounces of grated bread or biscuit; grate in the

N

134

PUDDINGS, &C.

yellow rind of two large lemons, or Seville oranges and squeeze in the juice; put in the yolks of six eggs and four whites, with sugar to the taste. Bake it in a dish lined with puff paste, in rather a quick oven. A raw apple scraped and put in is an improvement.

394. A boiled Orange Pudding.

Beat the grated rind of two Seville oranges in a mortar to paste, put a quarter of a pound of Naples biscuits into a pint of cream, mix this with the orange paste, add sugar to the taste, and five well-beaten eggs: mix all together with a pinch of salt, tie it in a floured pudding-cloth, and put it in a pan of boiling water; an hour will boil it: serve with sweet sauce.

395. Whittington Orange Pudding.

Take half a pound of melted butter, half a pound of sugar, and the yolks of eight eggs, mix all well together with two ounces of candied orange. Put puff paste all over the dish, and bake it half an hour. Two ounces of biscuits may be added.

396. Oxford Dumplings.

Take two ounces of grated bread, four ounces of butter, four ounces of currants, two large spoonsful of flour, a dessert-spoonful of grated lemon-peel, and a little pimento or ginger in fine powder. Mix it with two eggs and a little milk into five dumplings, and fry them in butter on a slow lire of a fine yellow brown. When made with double the quantity of flour instead of bread, they are very good. They may also be made of eggs with biscuits, leaving out the whites, and made up into balls about the size of an egg, rubbed over with the yolk, and fried a light brown.

397. Plum Pudding.

Pour a pint of boiling milk on a pound of bread-

135

PUDDINGS, &C.

crumbs, cover it with a plate a quarter of an hour, then stir well in it two ounces of butter, and sugar to your taste; when nearly cold, add six eggs well beaten, an ounce of sweet almonds and a dozen bitter ones blanched and chopped small, a pound ot raisins stoned, a pound of currants, a little ginger, nutmeg, or mace, and lemon-peel; a little ground rice or flour may be added, if requisite, as it should be made very stiff; boil it three hours. A little candied orange or lemon is an improvement.

398. Plum Pudding.

Rub a quarter of a pound of butter in three-quarters of a pound of flour, three-quarters of a pound of raisins stoned, a pint of milk, two eggs, three spoonsful of moist sugar, a little salt, and a small tea-spoonful of powdered ginger. Boil it four hours. - This pudding is very good without eggs, mixed up with only as much milk as will make it up very stiff, and leaving out the sugar.

399. Salford Plum Pudding.

Rub half a pound of butter into a pound of flour, add a pound of currants, a pound of bread-crumbs, a pound of raisins stoned and cut a little, the grated rind of a lemon, six well-beaten eggs, a little mace or nutmeg, eight ounces of sugar, two ounces of candied orange or lemon sliced, a little salt, and as little milk as will make it up quite stiff: boil it in a floured cloth five hours. Serve with sweet sauce.

This pudding will keep several months, boiled six hours, tied up in a cloth, and hung up folded in a sheet of cap paper to keep out the dust, after it is cold. When to be used, it must be put into a clean cloth, and boiled an hour and a half.

136

PUDDINGS, &C.

400. Norton Plum Pudding.

To a pound of bread-crumbs pour a pint of boiling milk, cover it with a plate for an hour, then stir in four ounces of butter, six eggs well beaten, a pound of raisins stoned, a pound of currants; lemon-peel, mace or nutmeg, and sugar to the taste; boil it three hours. If it be requisite to add a little flour, boil it an hour longer. A large spoonful of potato-flour is a great improvement.

401. A good common Plum Pudding.

To a pound and a half of flour take five eggs well beaten and as much milk as will make it a stiff batter, add salt, Jamaica pepper or nutmeg, and sugar to the taste, a pound of raisins and half a pound of currants; boil it four hours.

402. Parlour Pudding.

Slice half a pound of white bread, put it in a bowl with six ounces of butter, pour a pint of boiling milk upon it, and let it stand uncovered; when cool, work it well with a spoon, then add six ounces of sugar, six eggs well beaten, a little mace or nutmeg, grated lemon-peel, a little salt, and half a pound of currants well cleaned and dried. Bake it in cups or pattv-pans well buttered in a quick oven; then turn them out on a dish, and serve them up with melted butter or sweet sauce in a boat.

403. Parsley Dumplings.

Take half a pound of grated white bread, rub in a quarter of a pound of butter, add six ounces of currants, a handful of parsley chopped fine, three ounces of sugar, three eggs well beaten, some grated nutmeg, four spoonsful of rose-water, and three-quarters of a pint of new milk, mix all well together, and

137

PUDDINGS, &C.

divide it into three or four dumplings, butter the cloths you tie them in, and boil them half an hour; serve with melted butter, sugar, and vinegar.

404. Potato Pudding.

Take a pound of potatoes, after they are boiled and peeled, and beat them in a marble mortar, with a quarter of a pound of butter. Boil an ounce of lemon-peel, and beat it in the mortar by itself; put to it the lemon-juice, and mix it with the potatoes, add to them six yolks of eggs and four whites, with sugar to the taste. Put it into a dish with a crust round the edge, and bake it in a slow oven.

405. Potato Pudding.

To half a pound of boiled potatoes, beaten in a marble mortar with two ounces of butter, add a quarter of a pint of cream, the rind of a lemon grated, and the juice strained in, sugar to the taste, two ounces of almonds beaten with orange -flower water, some candied orangepeel cut thin, and the yolks of six eggs well beaten, with a little salt. Bake this in a dish with a puff crust round the edge of it for an hour in a moderate oven. Sift powdered sugar over before it is sent to table.

406. Potato Pudding.

Mix twelve ounces of boiled potatoes, well dried and mashed, one ounce of butter, a little salt, a quarter of a pint of milk, three eggs, one ounce of good cheese grated fine, and a little boiling water to make it of a proper consistence. Bake it.

407. Potato Pudding.

Two pounds of potatoes boiled and mashed, one pound ot flour, and a little salt, mixed well together into a stiff paste, tie it in a wet cloth dusted with flour;

138

PUDDINGS, &C.

boil it two hours. A little butter mashed in the potatoes and a few raisins are an improvement. Serve it up with sweet sauce.

40S. Preserved Fruit Pudding.

Make a crust as for any other fruit pudding, roll it out a good length, rather thin; spread it with raspberry jam, or any other kind of preserved fruit, roll it up and wrap it in a cloth; tie it tight at each end, and boil it according to the size.

409. Puddings in Haste.

Break some butter in small pieces into some grated bread, add a few currants, the yolks of four eggs and two whites, some grated lemon-peel and ginger, mix well together and make it up into small balls about the size and shape of an egg with a little flour; put them into a pan of boiling water, and when they rise to the top they are enough; about twenty minutes is the time required. Serve with sweet sauce.

They may be made as New College puddings by adding sugar, nutmeg, and some candied orange, made up into balls the size and shape of a goose egg, and fried in butter over a slow fire a nice brown; but they are much nicer baked in cups or patty-pans.

410. Quaking Pudding.

Mix a pint of cream or very good milk gradually to two spoonsful of flour, beat it quite smooth, add to it five well-beaten eggs, a little salt and sugar, strain it into a basin well buttered, and boil it an hour and a half.

411. Quince Pudding.

Scald six large quinces till very tender, pare ofl’ the rind and scrape them to a pulp, sweeten with powdered sugar; add a little powdered ginger, cinnamon,

139

puddings, Sec.

and a little salt; beat the yolks of four eggs, and stir a pint of cream to them, mix with the quince, and bake it with puff paste round the edge of the dish three-quarters of an hour in a moderate oven; when enough, sift powdered sugar over it.

412. Queen Anne's Pudding.

Mix in equal proportions grated bread, chopped apples, loaf sugar, cleaned currants, and butter, with six well-beaten eggs, adding salt, nutmeg, grated lemonpeel, and two ounces of candied citron, lemon, and orange; mix the ingredients thoroughly, and when the mixture has stood an hour, put it in a buttered mould, tie a floured cloth over it in several folds, and boil it two hours and a half.

413. Common Rice Pudding.

Wash and pick half a pound of rice very clean, put it in a dish with two quarts of milk, and sugar to the taste; bake it in a moderate oven. It may be made richer by adding butter, eggs, and powdered cinnamon, or grated nutmeg, but it is very good without.

414. Dutch Rice Pudding.

Soak four ounces of rice in warm water half an hour, drain and put it into a stewpan with half a pint of milk and half a stick of cinnamon; simmer till the vice is tender. When cold, add four eggs well beaten, two ounces of butter melted in a tea-cupful of cream, three ounces of sugar, a quarter of a nutmeg grated, and some grated lemon-peel; put a light puff paste into a mould or dish, and bake it in a quick oven.

415. Rice Pudding with Apples.

Boil six ounces of rice in a pint of milk till tender, then fill a dish about half full of apples pared and cored, sweeten, put the rice over them as a crust,

140 PUDDINGS, &C.

and bake it. A little lemon-peel or nutmeg may be added.

416. Rice Pudding with Fruit.

Swell the rice with a very little milk over the fire, then mix fruit of any kind with it, currants, gooseberries scalded, pared and quartered apples, raisins, or black currants; put one egg into the rice, boil it well, and eat it with sugar.

417. Rice Pudding.

Stew a quarter of a pound of rice very gently in a pint and a half of new milk; when the rice is tender pour it into a basin, stir in a piece of butter, and let it stand till quite cool, then put in four eggs, a little salt, some nutmeg and sugar. Boil it an hour in a basin well buttered.

4 IS. Rice Pudding.

Wash a quarter of a pound of rice, stew it gently in a pint of milk till it is pretty thick; then pour it into a. basin and let it stand to cool, put to it a small teaspoonful of beaten cinnamon, the rind of a lemon grated, four large apples pared and chopped small, two eggs, and sugar to the taste. Mix all well together, tie the pudding tight in a cloth, and boil it an hour and a quarter.

419. Rice Pudding with Cream.

Simmer a quarter of a pound of rice in water till it is tender, pour off the water, and set over the fire with milk enough to make it moderately thick; when near boiling, pour it into a basin, and stir in a piece of butter; when cold, add a quarter ot a pint of cream, the yolks of five eggs, and the whites of two, nutmeg and sugar to the taste. Boil it in a cloth three-quarters of an hour.

PUDDINGS, &C.

141

420. Rice Pudding with Raisins.

Steep a quarter of a pound of rice in milk, then boil it with half a pound of raisins two hours; grate a little nutmeg and sugar over it; send it to the table with melted butter in a boat.

421. Plain Rice Pudding.

To three-quarters of a pound of rice, well cleaned, take two quarts of new milk and half a teaspoonful of salt, bake it in a moderate oven; when enough, take the skin off the top and put the rice into a basin warmed and rubbed over with a little butter, press it into the basin, then turn it out on a dish: serve it up with melted butter and sugar. Raspberry-vinegar, or preserved fruit, may be eaten with it.

Butter, sugar, powdered cinnamon, and a beaten egg may be added before it is put in the basin, if approved. It makes a pretty-looking dish, to put the rice in small cups buttered, and turned out on a dish.

422. Roiled Ground Rice Pudding.

Set a pint and a half of new milk on the fire; mix six ounces of ground rice quite smooth with half a pint of cold milk; add this to the other milk when nearly boiling, and stir them over the fire till pretty thick, then pour it into a basin, leaving it uncovered till nearly cold, sweeten it to the taste, add a little salt, and six eggs well beaten. Boil it an hour and a half in a basin well buttered.

423. Ground Rice or Cheesecake Pudding.

Set a quarter of a pound of ground rice, in a pint of milk, on the fire till it thickens, but not till it boils, stirring it constantly; put it in a basin with a quarter ol a pound of fresh butter, stirring it till the butter

142

PUDDINGS, &C.

is melted; throw a thin cloth over it, and let it stand till the next day, then add three eggs well beaten, with a little salt, cinnamon, and sugar to the taste; add a spoonful of rose-water, and a quarter of a pound of currants, well cleaned and dried. Bake it either in puff paste or without.

424. Ground Rice Pudding.

Take a pint of milk and mix into it six ounces of ground rice; set another pint of milk over the fire with a little cinnamon in it, when it boils, pour in the rice gradually, and keep stirring it till it has boiled a few minutes, then pour it out and stir in it two ounces of butter; when nearly cold, beat four eggs, and put in some sugar, about a dozen bitter almonds blanched and beaten fine, and an ounce of sweet almonds; bake it in a dish either with or without paste.

It is a very good pudding without butter and almonds.

425. Sago Pudding.

Wash and pick very clean two ounces of sago, set it on the fire in about a pint of water; when it boils pour the water from it, then put a pint of new milk and a pinch of salt to the sago, with some cinnamon, and boil it till thick; when cool, stir in half a pint of cream, five eggs, leaving out two whites; add sugar to the taste, and bake it with paste round the dish. A few bread-crumbs or biscuit may be added.

426. Sandy Lane Pudding.

Cut fine, stale bread in thin slices, boil a pint of milk and put to it, let it stand till cold, sweeten it with white sugar, and add two spoonsful of rosewater mixed with four eggs well beaten, beat all together till it is a line batter; butter a wooden

143

PUDDINGS, &C.

dish and put in the batter, dredge a little flour on the top, tie a cloth over, and boil it an hour.

427. Scalded or Cumberland Pudding.

Boil a pint of milk, then stir in it a little salt, and as much flour gradually stirred in as will make it like hasty pudding; boil it three minutes, and pour it into a basin; when cool, add four well-beaten eggs; mix and boil it in a clean cloth an hour. Serve it up with melted butter and currant jelly.

428. Sippet Pudding.

Butter a dish, and put in a layer of bread and butter cut in thin slices; strew over it some currants, a little lemon-peel, and grated nutmeg, then a layer of bread and butter, and so on till the dish is nearly full; beat three eggs, put to them as much milk as will soak the bread, sweeten it and pour it into the dish, strew some currants on the top, and put a dish over it, or some thin crusts of bread, before it is put into the oven, to prevent the fruit at the top from being scorched. The crusts may be taken off when it is nearly enough. A few almonds blanched and cut in small pieces, candied lemon or orange, is a great improvement. Serve it up with melted butter.

429. Snow Balls.

Pare and core as many large apples as there are to be balls, wash some rice, about a large spoonful to an apple will be enough, boil it in a little water or milk with a pinch of salt, and drain it, spread it on the cloths, and put in the apples, boil them an hour. Put them into cold water, before they are turned out of the cloths.

430. Spinach Pudding.

Pick and wash a quarter of a peck of spinach, put it

144

PUDDINGS, &C.

in a saucepan with a little salt, covered close; when boiled tender, put it into a sieve to drain, then chop it and mix it with some grated bread, half a pint of cream, a little nutmeg, salt, and two ounces of melted butter, add four well-beaten eggs, set it on the fire till it thickens, then wet and flour a cloth, tie it up and boil it an hour. Serve with melted butter and sift fine sugar over it.

O

431. Another Spinach Pudding.

A pint of grated bread, three ounces of butter cut in sm a, 1 pieces, half a pound of currants, sugar, nutmeg, and salt to the taste; mix all together with half a pint of spinach-juice, three spoonsful of cream and three eggs; boil it an hour and a half in a basin well buttered.

432. Spoojiful Pudding.

A spoonful of flour well beaten up witli a spoonful of cream or milk, one egg, a little salt, and a little powdered ginger; boil it half an hour in a cup well buttered.

433. Suffolk Dumplings.

Make a very light dough with yeast, as for bread, but with milk instead of water, add a little salt; let it rise an hour before the fire; have ready a pan of boiling water, make the dough into balls about as large as moderatesized apples, put them in and boil them twenty minutes; if you doubt their being enough, stick a clean fork into one, and if it come out clear it is done.

When you eat them, tear them apart on the top with two forks, for they become heavy with their own steam. Eat them immediately, with melted butter and sugar, or common pudding-sauce.

PUDDINGS, &C.

145

434. Tansy Pudding.

Blanch and heat four ounces of almonds with a little rose-water, add the crumb of a French roll, a quarter of a pound of fresh butter melted, a quarter of a pint of syrup of roses, and sugar to the taste; put all together into a stewpan with a pint of boiling new milk or cream, let it boil up and pour it into a basin; when cold, add six wellbeaten eggs, two tablespoonsful of tansy-juice, and two of spinach-juice. It may either be boiled or baked.

435. Tansy Pudding.

Put as much boiling cream to four grated Naples biscuits as will moisten them, beat them with the yolks of four eggs. Have ready a little juice of tansy and as much spinach-juice as will make it a pretty green. Be careful not to put too much tansy in, as it will make it bitter. Mix all together when the cream is cold, with a little sugar, and set it over a slow fire till it becomes thick, then take it off, and, when cold, put it into a cloth well buttered and floured; tie it close, and let it boil three-quarters of an hour; take it up in a basin, and let it stand ten minutes, then turn it carefully out, and serve it with melted butter.

436. Tapioca Pudding.

Wash and pick a quarter of a pound of tapioca very clean, then put it in a saucepan on the fire with cold water, when it has boiled two or three minutes, strain it; then return it into the pan with a pint of new milk; let it boil gently till the milk be nearly soaked up, then pour it out to cool, and stir in two ounces ot butter; add sugar and nutmeg to the taste, the yolks of five and whites of two eggs well beaten, and a table-spoonful of rose or orange-flower water; butter a dish, and put puff paste round the edge and bake it. It is very good boiled. A mixture of

o

246

PUDDINGS, &C.

tapioca and rice makes an excellent pudding made in the common way, without eggs; or it may be mixed with ground rice.

437. Treacle Padding.

Take of currants, raisins stoned, and butter, half a pound of each, one pound of flour, two large spoonsful of treacle, a little sugar and lemon-peel, mix it with about half a pint of water; candied orange, and a little nutmeg or mace may be added; boil it five hours.

438* Treacle Dumpling.

Make a paste as for a preserved pudding, roll it out rather thin, then spread it over with very stiff treacle, and roll it up; wrap it in a cloth and tie it at each end; boil it according to the size in plenty of water; serve it up with melted butter, but do not cut it in slices till on the table.

439. A Welch Pudding.

Melt half a pound of butter in a basin set in a pan of hot water, mix with it gradually the yolks of eight and whites of four eggs well beaten; add fine sugar, grated lemon-peel, and mace to the taste; bake it in a shallow dish with a border of puff paste, and stick slices of candied citron or orange round the edges.

440. Windsor Pudding.

Melt half a pound of butter, add to it half a pound of the crumb of French roll or light tea-cake, the grated rind of a lemon, half a pound of chopped apples, half a pound of currants, half a pound of jar raisins stoned and chopped, five eggs well beaten, and a little salt; mix all well together, and boil it in a basin or mould three hours.

U1

FRITTERS, &C.

441. Cream Sauce for Puddings.

Boil gently some thin cream with sugar, cinnamon, and lemon-peel; when it tastes well, take out the seasoning, and thicken it with a little butter and potato-flour; let it just boil up, then pour it from one vessel to another till quite smooth; set it in a pan of hot water covered close till wanted; and immediately before it is served up, add a glass of sherbet or raspberry vinegar. This sauce is very suitable tor custard, rice, or bread pudding; also for fresh fruit puddings, leaving out the vinegar or sherbet.

442. Apple Fritters.

To four large spoonsful of flour, take half a pint of warm cream, two yolks of eggs, and a dessert-spoonful of barm, set it to rise one hour; pare and slice some good baking apples, melt several ounces of butter in a frying-pan on a slow fire, put in the slices of apple separately, after strewing on them sugar and nutmeg, then covering them with the batter; when done, drain the butter from them, and sift sugar over.

443. Apple Fritters.

To a quarter of a pound of flour add four or five spoonsful of cream or new milk, a little salt, and three eggs well beaten, beat the whole into a smooth batter, pare and slice some apples, taking out the core, dip them in the batter and fry them: serve them up with powdered sugar sifted over them. Apricots, peaches, pears, peeled and sliced, may be used instead of apples; preserved fruits also of a solid kind may be cut into proper-sized slices and used in the same way. The batter may be made with ginger-beer instead of milk, if preferred, and as much flour as will make rather a thick batter, two ounces of butter to be melted and put in, three eggs, and a little salt., Oranges

148 FRITTERS, &C.

sliced, and the rinds taken off quite clean, make excellent fritters.

444. Plain Bread Fritters.

Pour a pint of boiling milk on half a pound of breadcrumbs; when cold, beat it smooth, adding the yolks of five eggs, two ounces of sugar, and grated nutmeg, fry it in fritters, or as a pancake.

445. Apple Pancalces.

Pare and cut some apples in thick slices, fry them in butter a light brown, keep them as whole as possible; when tender, take them out, melt some butter in the pan, and put in some batter as for a pancake, then put in a layer of apples, then a little more batter, fry them a nice brown, and strew sugar on each pancake.

446. Apple and Custard Pancake.

Pare and slice some apples thin, fry them in good butter, beat four eggs with six spoonsful of cream, some rose-water, sugar, and nutmeg, stir them together, and pour it over the apples, fry it a nice brown, then turn it carefully. Serve it up with fine sugar sifted over it.

447. American Pancakes.

Mix a pint of cream, five spoonsful of fine flour, five eggs, and a very little salt; fry the pancakes very thin in fresh butter, and between each strew sugar and cinnamon. Serve up six or eight at once.

448. Gooseberry Pancakes.

Melt some good butter in a frying-pan, put in a quart of gooseberries, fry them till tender and mash them, beat six yolks of eggs and three whites, sugar to the taste, four spoonsful of cream, lour large spoonsful of

149

FRITTERS, &C.

bread-crumbs, and three spoonsful of flour, mix all together, then put to them the gooseberries, and set them in a saucepan on the fire to thicken; fry them in fresh butter and sift sugar on them.

449. Rice Pancakes.

Simmer half a pound of rice till very tender in as much water as will keep it moist, drain it and let it stand uncovered till cold, then mash it very fine and put to it half a pint of scalded cream, two ounces of butter melted, a quarter of a pound of flour, a little salt and nutmeg or cinnamon, five eggs well beaten; fry them in pancakes or fritters, and sift sugar over them. It makes a nice pudding, either baked v threequarters of an hour, or boiled one hour.

450. Ground Rice Pancakes.

Set a pint of new milk on the fire, and, when it is near boiling, stir into it three ounces of ground rice mixed up with a quarter of a pint of cold milk; keep it on the fire till it thickens, but do not let it boil, put it into a basin to cool, stirring in a quarter of a pound of butter: when cold, add some sugar, salt, powdered cinnamon, and four eggs well beaten; fry them a nice light brown, and sift sugar over them.

451. Wafer Pancakes.

Beat four eggs well with two large spoonsful of flour, and two of cream, one ounce of powdered loaf-sugar, and a little grated nutmeg or mace; put a little butter in a bit of clean cloth, rub the pan well with it, pour in the batter as thin as a wafer; fry them only on one side, lay them on a dish with grated sugar between each pancake. Serve them up hot, with sugar and a lemon,

o 3

150

FRITTERS, &C.

452. Carrot Fritters.

Beat two or three boiled carrots with a wooden spoon till they are quite smooth, put to each carrot, if large, two eggs, a little nutmeg and salt; to three carrots put a handful of flour, moisten them with a little cream or milk, add sugar to the taste, beat them well half an hour, and fry them in butter or fine olive-oil; squeeze over them the juice of a lemon, and sift fine sugar on them.

, 453. Currant Fritters.

Put four yolks and two whites of eggs to a pint of milk, mix with it half a pint of bread-crumbs grated fine, a little nutmeg, six ounces of currants, a quarter of a pound of butter melted, a little salt, and flour sufficient to make it of a moderate thickness; fry them the size of fritters.

454. Hasty Fritters.

Take half a pint of ginger-beer, and stir into it by degrees as much flour as will make it a stiff batter, put in a few currants or chopped apples, beat them up quickly and fry them in butter, drop a large spoonful for each into the pan, taking care that they do not stick together, turn them, and when they are of a fine brown, lay them on a dish and strew sugar over them.

455. Rice Fritters.

Boil a quarter of a pound of rice in milk till it be rather thick, then mix it with a pint of good milk, four eggs, some sugar, cinnamon, nutmeg, six ounces of currants, a little salt, and as much flour as will make it into a thick batter. Take a separate spoonful for each fritter, fry them in butter a light brown. Serve them up with white sugar and butter.

151

^RITTERS, &C.

456. Rice Fritters.

Boil the rice in milk, put in a little cinnamon and the peel of a lemon, sweeten it with sifted sugar; when the rice is done, take out the lemon-peel and cinnamon, and stir a piece of butter in, add four eggs and a little nutmeg, butter a pewter dish and spread the rice on it; when cold, cut it out with a cutter of what shape you think proper, then dip the rice in beaten es", and fry the fritters in butter a nice brown. Serve them up with fine sugar.

457. Potato Fritters.

Slice potatoes thin, dip them in smooth batter, and fry them. Serve them up with white sugar grated over them. Lemon-peel and a spoonful of orangeflower water may be added to the batter.

458. Potato Fritters.

To half a pound of potato, mashed fine after it is boiled, add a large spoonful of cream, four eggs well beaten, a little salt, half a spoonful of lemon-juice, a wine-glass of sherbet, and a little nutmeg grated; beat these to a light batter, and fry them in butter the usual size of fritters. Serve them up with sugar sifted over them.

459. Tansy Fritters.

Pour a pint of boiling milk on a pint of bread-crumbs, let it stand an hour, then add tansy-juice to the taste, and some spinach-juice to green it, the grated rind of half a lemon, the yolks of four eggs well beaten, mix all well together, and put them into a stewpan with three ounces of butter, stir it over a slow fire till quite thick, then pour it out and let it stand two hours; fry in butter the same as other fritters, and sift sugar on them. It is very good baked in puff' paste as a pudding.

152

FRITTERS, &C.

460. Paste Fritters.

Roll some puff paste very thin, put into it marmalade or any other sweetmeat, roll them up in what form you please and in different shapes, fry them in butter, and sift a little powdered sugar over.

461. Egg Fritters.

Take some well-drained poached eggs, brush them over with well-beaten yolk of egg, strew over them some good cheese grated, then bread-crumbs, fry them a moment in very hot clarified butter. Serve with fried or crisped parsley.

462. Spanish Puffs.

Boil a stick of cinnamon, a piece of lemon peel, and a little sugar, in three-quarters of a pint of water for ten minutes; let it cool, then add to it three eggs well beaten and three large spoonsful of flour, beat them well together, then add three more yolks of eggs, and boil the whole over the fire till it thickens almost to a paste; melt some butter in a frying-pan, drop them in with a tea-spoon, and fry them a delicate nice brown. Sugar may be added, if preferred.

463. Sweet Toasts.

Cut the crust off two small loaves, then cut them in slices and dip them in cream or cold milk, lay them separately on a dish, beat three eggs with some grated nutmeg and sugar, adding a quarter of a pint of cream, then melt some butter in a frying-pan, wet the toasts over with the egg and cream, and lay them in the pan the wet side downward, pour on the remainder of the egg, and fry it a nice light brown. Serve with rose-water, sugar, and butter boiled up.

464. Spinach Toasts.

Put some boiled spinach in a mortar with some sugar

15

FRITTERS, &C.

anil butter, pound it fine, put in a spoonful of cream and a little nutmeg, three beaten eggs, a handful of currants, and some grated lemon-peel; cut some toasts, heap your spinach on it, wash it over with egg, and strew crumbs of bread over; bake it and serve it up.

465. Rice Eggs.

Wash very clean in warm water three ounces of rice, boil it in a pint of new milk till soft, pour it into small saucers about the size of an egg when poached, or a little larger; the next day turn them out of the saucers and lay half of a preserved apricot on each. They are equally good with any other kind of preserved fruit. Blanc-mange put in saucers in the same way has still more the appearance of eggs.

466. Vermicelli Pudding.

Take four ounces of vermicelli, boil it in a pint of new milk, with a stick of cinnamon, till it is soft, then put in half a pint of cream, a little butter, the yolks of four eggs, sweeten it, and bake it in a disli without paste.

467. Dish of Rice and Apples.

Blanch some of the best rice, strain it, and set it to boil in milk, with lemon-peel and a bit of cinnamon; let it boil till the rice is dry, then cool it, and raise a rim three inches high round the dish, having rubbed the dish over with egg, to make it stick; then egg the rice all over. Fill the dish half way up with marmalade of apples; have ready the whites of four eggs beaten to a fine froth, and put them over the marmalade, then sift the sugar over and set it in the oven, which should be hot enough to give it a beautiful colour.

154

FRITTERS, &C.

46S. Buttered Rice.

Wash and pick some rice, drain and put it with some new milk, just enough to swell it, over the fire; when tender, pour off the milk, and add a bit of butter, a little sugar, and pounded cinnamon, dry it and shake it, that it do not burn, and serve.

469. A Supper Dish.

Wash three ounces of rice, and boil it in milk till tender; strain off the milk, lay the rice in small heaps on a dish, strew over them some finely-powdered sugar and cinnamon, and put warm sherbet and a little butter into the dish. The rice put into small tea-cups and turned out, looks neater.

470. Sweet Omelet.

To a gill of cream or good milk put four well-beaten eggs, sugar, nutmeg or cinnamon, and a small pinch of salt; fry it a nice light brown on a slow fire, sift fine sugar over.

471. Rice Omelet until Cream.

Mix two large spoonsful of rice-flour with three eggs, a little salt, a quarter of a pound of fine sugar, two ounces, of good butter and a pint of cream; boil all together till it becomes thick; when nearly cold, add a little grated lemon-peel, six eggs, the yolks and whites beaten separately, and a few almonds blanched and beaten; have a dish with white paper buttered on both sides, pour in the omelet and bake it; when done, turn it out carefully on a dish, and sift fine sugar over it.

472. Apple Fritters.

Mix batter as for a pudding, only rather thicker, chop some apples small and put them in, fry them in oil or butter; a large tabicspoonful will make them

155

PIES, TARTS, &C.

of a proper size. Another way of making them is to cut the apples (when pared) in slices, and dip them in a thick batter and fry them. The apples should be of a good baking kind, or they will eat hard. Sugar and butter may be eaten with them. Currant fritters may be made in the same manner.

PIES, TARTS, &c.

473. Apple Pie.

Pare, core, and slice some good baking apples; cover the edge of the dish and about an inch down the sides with a shred of puff paste, put in the apples with moist sugar sufficient to sweeten it, cover the pie with the paste, make a small hole in the middle, and put in a slip of writing paper rolled up, but not close, to keep it open. Stew the parings and cores in a little water, strain it, and when the pie is baked, pour it into the pie through a small funnel.

If the apples are good, seasoning is unnecessary; - if they are insipid, a little grated lemon-peel and juice, quince marmalade, or a little grated nutmeg, is an agreeable addition. Bake in a moderately hot oven. The dish should be quite filled with apples, as they shrink very much in baking.

474. Pear Pie.

Pare and slice the fruit, boil the parings a little with some apple parings and a bit of lemon-peel, in water, then strain the liquor, and put it in a broad pan with the sliced pears, stew them about a quarter of an hour, adding sugar to the taste; pour them into a dish, and, when cool, proceed in the same way as for an apple pie, leaving out a part of the syrup to put in after the pie is baked,

15G

PIES, TARTS, &C.

Pears that are not good for eating raw, being of a hard kind, are generally the best baking pears, and make excellent pies when prepared as above. They are also very good mixed with apples. If of the softer kind, they do not, of course, require stewing.

475. Gooseberry, and other Fruit Pies.

Gooseberries, cherries, and currants, should be fresh gathered, picked, and washed; lay any of these fruits in a deep dish heaped to the centre, cover the edge of the dish with a shred of paste, allow about a quarter of a pound of sugar to a quart of fruit, cover it with paste, and bake it in a moderately hot oven.

Plums, damsons, a mixture of currants and raspberries, or any other kind of fruit, may be used for pies in the same way.

Black currants, though not in general use for fruit pies, make a very good pie, of which many persons are extremely fond, but if not quite ripe, they should be stewed in a little water, with the requisite portion of sugar, about a quarter of an hour, and remain till cold before being made into a pie.

When gooseberries are very sour, pour boiling water upon them and let them stand about ten or fifteen minutes, then drain the water from them.

476. Fig Tart.

Slice some good figs, and put to them as much milk as will just cover them, put a plate over and set them in a moderate oven to stew a little; stir in a small piece of butter, and sugar to the taste; line a soupplate or patty-pans with puff paste; finish them in the same manner as mince pies.

A few sharp apples or a little lemon-juice would probably be an improvement.

157

PIES, TARTS, &C.

477. Mince Pies.

Take six good-sized lemons, squeeze out the juice, and scrape out all the pulp and skins, then boil the rinds till they are quite tender, changing the water five or six times to take out the bitterness; chop them in a bowl with half a pound of apples and a pound of raisins stoned; add a pound of currants, a pound of sugar, the juice of the lemons, and threequarters of a pound of butter melted and stirred up well amongst them; put it close down in a pot and tie a paper over it, and it will keep six or seven weeks in a cool, dry place. A little Cayenne, mace, and candied orange or lemon may be added, if approved.

478. Egg Mince Pies.

Boil six eggs hard, chop them small, melt six ounces of butter, and put in a pound of currants well cleaned and dried, half a pound of raisins chopped, the grated rind of a lemon and juice, mace, nutmeg, sugar, and a very little salt, candied orange and lemon.

479. Rhubarb Tarts.

Take the stalk of rhubarb, peel off the stringy part, and cut it to the size of gooseberries, and make it the same way as a gooseberry tart.

Gooseberries mixed with rhubarb make a very good tart.

480. Prune Tarts.

Give the prunes a scald, take out the stones and break them; put the kernels into a little cranberryjuice, or currant-syrup, simmer with the prunes and sugar, and when cold make it into a tart.

481. Macaroni Tart.

Boil tender in salt and water a little macaroni, strain

p

15S

PIES, TARTS, &C.

it through a sieve, put a little butter and the macaroni into a stewpan, stew it a little, put in some sugar, beaten cinnamon, and half a pint of cream, boil it pretty thick, then cool it, cover the bottom of a tart-pan with puff paste, put in your macaroni with custard over it; bake it a good colour and serve it up.

482. Spinach Tart.

Scald some spinach, drain and squeeze it dry, chop and stew it in butter and cream, with very little salt, sugar and bits of citron; and a little orange-flower water, and bake it in puff paste.

483. Cranberry Tart.

Having picked and washed the cranberries, put them in a dish, with six ounces of sugar to a quart of fruit, and a little water, line the edges of the dish with paste, and cover it; bake it as other fruit pies.

American, Russian, and Swedish cranberries make very excellent tarts. It is not unusual to stew them a little with sugar and a few spoonsful of water, and let them cool previous to being used for tarts.

Crow-berry (clusterberry), or bilberry tarts may be made in the same way.

484. Fruit Pasty, or Turnover.

Make a hot crust as for raised pies, allowing a little more butter, roll it out quickly and cut it in different forms; lay apples stewed as for sauce, rhubarb or scalded gooseberries in the crust, with moist sugar, add to apples a little lemon-peel or cinnamon, double up the paste and pinch the edges; bake in a moderate oven. Turnovers or pasties may be made in the same way, with any kind of solid preserves or jam.

PIES, TARTS, &C.

159

485. Raspberry Tart with Cream.

Lay some puff paste in a large patty-pan or shallow pie-dish, put in raspberries and a few red currants, sweeten with good sugar, cover it with a thin lid, and bake it; when enough, cut it open and have ready the following mixture warm: half a pint of cream, the yolks of two eggs well beaten, and a little sugar, add this to the tart, and return it into the oven for five or six minutes. It is a very good tart with plain cream.

4S6. Orange Tart.

Line a tart-pan with puff paste, put into it orange marmalade that is made with apple jelly, lay small shreds of paste on crosswise.

4S7. Tarts made after the French manner.

Having made a crust as directed for this purpose, roll it out, and cut it round by a plate, according to the size required for the tart. Lay the paste on a sheet of tin, then spread the sweetmeat upon it, which must be a jam or marmalade, not a sweetmeat made with syrup, but do not spread it too thick, leaving a border round the edge an inch, or an inch and a half wide, according to the size of the tart. AVet the border with a feather dipped in water, and then lay over it another border of the crust rolled tolerably thick, so as to rise just above the sweetmeat. Ornament this border according to the fancy, and lay over the sweetmeat little ornaments of paste cut with the jagging iron, or otherwise according to the taste; about three-quarters of an hour will bake it. Sift a little fine sugar over it before it is sent to table. If preferred, the border may be made of the light puff crust; it renders the tart rather more delicate.

v 2 .

160

PIES, TARTS, &C.

48S. A Crust for making the French Tarts.

To a pound and a half of flour, allow three-quarters of a pound of butter, and a little salt; put the flour in a bowl, make a hole in the middle, and put in the salt and butter cut in small pieces; pour in the water with great care, as there should only be water enough just to make it hold together and roll it smooth, work the butter and water well together with the hands, and then by degrees mix in the flour; when the flour is all mixed in, mould the paste till it is smooth and free from lumps; let it lie two hours before it be used. It is a very nice crust for baked fruit puddings.

489. Light Puff' Crust.

Mix a pound and a half of flour with just water enough to make it into paste, and a little salt, mould it lightly together, and let it lie two hours; then roll it out, and put a pound of butter into the middle of it, fold the ends of the paste over and roll it out, then fold it over it again and roll it, repeat this six times in winter, and five in summer; it should not be more than half an inch thick each time it is rolled, and a little flour dusted lightly over and under it to prevent it sticking: this is a very light and delicate crust.

490. Rice Paste for Sweets.

Boil a quarter of a pound of ground rice in the smallest quantity of water, strain from it all the moisture, and dry it as well as you can, beat it in a mortar with half an ounce of butter, and one egg well beaten, and it will make excellent paste for tarts.

491. Rich Puff Paste.

To one pound of flour take three-quarters of a pound of butter, break a little butter into the flour, and

161

PIES, TARTS, &C.

mix it with as little water as will make it in a stiff paste, roll it out, and lay the butter on in thin slices, dredge it well with flour, double it up, and roll it out thin twice, handle it as little as possible. It is better to roll the butter in at twice. Bake it in a moderately quick oven, or it will not be light.

A paste less rich may be made with two pounds of flour and half a pound of butter, rub them together, and mix into a paste with a little water, two well-beaten eggs and a little salt; fold it up and roll it four times.

492. Another Way.

Beat the white of an egg to a froth, add as much water as will make twelve ounces of flour into a stiff paste, roll it very thin, and lay five ounces of butter on in small slices, dredge it, fold it up, and roll it out three times.

493. Short Paste.

Bub extremely fine six ounces of butter into one pound of flour well dried, and a spoonful of sifted loaf-sugar, work up the whole into a stiff paste, with as little hot water as possible.

494. Paste for Custards.

To half a pound of flour put a quarter of a pound of butter, the yolks of two eggs, and three spoonsful of cream, mix them up together, and let it stand a quarter of an hour, then work it till smooth, and roll it out very thin.

495. Excellent Short Crust.

Take two ounces of white sugar pounded and sifted, and well dried, mix it with a pound of very dry flour, rub into it three ounces of butter, so fine as not to be seen; beat the yolks of two eggs, and add as

r 3

162

PIES, TARTS, &C.

much cream as will make it into a smooth paste, roll it thin, and bake it in a more moderate oven than for puff paste.

496. Another.

Mix an ounce of sugar, pounded and sifted, with a • pound of flour well dried, rub three ounces of butter in it till it looks all like flour, and with a gill of boiling cream work it up to a fine paste.

497. Tart Paste, called Short Paste.

To one pound of flour rub in a quarter of a pound of butter, make a hole in the middle, put in a little water, two yolks and one white of egg, work it up to a proper consistence, and roll it out for use. When for tarts or sweets only, put two ounces of powdered loaf-sugar in the paste.

498. Paste, for Family Pies.

Rub half a pound of butter into a pound and a quarter of flour, and a tea-spoonful of salt; mix it with half a pint of water, and roll it out well several times.

499. Sweet arid Crisp Tart Paste.

To one pound and a quarter of flour take ten ounces of fresh butter, the yolks of two beaten eggs, and three ounces of sifted loaf sugar, mix up well together, with half a pint of new milk, and knead it well.

500. Tartlets.

Roll out puff paste a quarter of an inch thick, cut it into pieces, line small patty-pans, little larger than a crown-piece, pare them round the edges, and put in a small quantity of apricot, raspberry, strawberry, apple, marmalade, or any kind ot jam; string them

163

PIES, TARTS, &C.

crosswise with paste for the purpose, and bake them from six to ten minutes in a quick oven. They should be very lightly browned.

501. Paste for stringing Tartlets, fyc.

Mix an ounce of fresh butter with your hands in a quarter of a pound of Hour, and a little cold water, rub it well between the board and your hand till it begins to string; cut it into small pieces, roll it out and draw it into fine strings, lay them across your tarts in any form you please, and bake them immediately.

502. Pvjf Paste.

Rub two ounces of butter into a pound of flour, mix it up with a little cold water, then roll in at three times ten ounces of butter, spread on the paste in small bits, and dredge well with flour, and a little fine salad oil sprinkled all over, fold it up and roll it, keeping the paste-roller from the edges of the paste as much as possible.

A very little volatile salts dissolved in milk, mixed up with the paste, will make it much lighter, and will have a good effect in puff's of all kinds. Eake in a quick oven.

503. Common Pie Paste.

To one pound of flour take a quarter of a pound of butter, a tea-spoonful of yeast put into a quarter of a pint of cold water, rub half of the butter in the flour, and the other half spread on the paste, with flour dredged on it; when you have rolled the paste, cut it in pieces and lay one piece upon another, and roll it out three times.

504. A Plain Crust for Common Pies or Fruit Puddings.

Pare the crust oifa French roll, or two moderatesized

164 PIES, TARTS, &C.

light tea-cakes, pour on it a pint of boiling new milk, let it stand all night covered close; when wanted for use, rub a little butter in as much flour as will make it of a proper consistence, mix all together, adding a little salt, and roll it out for use.

White Bread, or tea-cake dough mixed with milk, with a little butter rolled in it, makes a very useful and wholesome good crust for common fruit pies.

505. Hot Paste for raised Pies.

To one pint of water put two ounces of butter in a saucepan, take two pounds and a half of flour, break two eggs into it; when the water and butter boils, stir it by degrees into the flour with a wooden slice till well mixed, then work it well with the hands till quite smooth and stiff, then put it into an earthen pan or bowl covered close, and set it before the fire ten or fifteen minutes; if it appears too soft, dredge a little flour in it, and work it smooth; raise your pies immediately.

506. Paste for Raised Fruit Pies, or Custards.

Put half a pound of butter into a saucepan with a pint of water, take tw'o pounds and three-quarters of flour, make a hole in the middle, and when the water and butter boils, pour it into the flour by degrees, stirring it with a slice till it is well mixed, then knead it with your hands till it becomes stiff; cover it close with an earthen pan or bowl till cold; it is then ready for use.

507. Icing for Fruit Tarts, Puff's, <$‘c.

Beat up the whites of two eggs to a solid froth; lay some on the middle ol the pie with a paste-brush, sift over it plenty of powdered sugar, and press it down with the hand, wash out the brush, and

CHEESECAKES, CUSTARDS, &C. 165

sprinkle by degrees with water till the sugar is dissolved, put it in the oven for ten minutes, and serve it up cold.

CHEESECAKES, CUSTARDS, &c.

508. Cheesecakes.

Set a pint of cream on the fire, when near boiling put in six yolks of eggs and half the whites, well beaten; when it becomes a fine curd strain it through a lawn sieve, and while the curd is hot slice in a quarter of a pound of butter. Let it stand till cool, then add two ounces of almonds blanched and beaten with orangeflower water, a little beaten mace, and sugar to the taste; bake them in puff paste. Add currants, if approved.

509. Almond Cheesecakes.

Blanch six ounces of sweet and half an ounce of bitter almonds, beat them well with a little orangeflower water, two Naples biscuits grated, six ounces of butter melted, six yolks of eggs and three whites, the juice of a lemon or Seville orange, and the rind grated, sugar to the taste; bake them in puff paste.

510. Almond Cheesecakes.

Take six ounces of almonds, beat them with a little rose-water in a marble mortar, six ounces of butter beaten to a cream, halt a pound of fine sugar, six e gg s well beaten, and a little mace; bake them in small tins in put! paste.

166 CHEESECAKES, CUSTARDS, &C.

511. Apple Cheesecakes.

Grate half a pound of apples, add to it a quarter of a pound of butter melted, and a quarter of a pound of sugar, the yolks of four and the whites of two eggs, the juice and grated rind of a lemon; bake them in puff paste.

512. Bread Cheesecakes.

Pour a pint of boiling cream on a sliced roll and let it stand two hours, add five or six well-beaten eggs, a quarter of a pound of butter melted, and some pounded mace, beat them well together, add half a pound of clean dry currants, and a table-spoonful of rose or orange-flower water; bake them in puff paste.

513. Curd Cheesecakes.

Put a little rennet in about three or four pints of new milk, drain the whey well from the curd, then rub it through a sieve with a little butter; when quite smooth, add the yolks of three eggs, a little cream, rose-water, and sugar, a few almonds, and a little nutmeg or mace; just before it is baked, put in the whites of the three eggs beaten to a froth, and some currants.

514. Lemon Cheesecakes.

A quarter of a pound of melted butter, four eggs, two ounces of Naples biscuits grated, the juice of a lemon and the rind grated, with sugar to the taste; bake them in puff crust, and be careful not to overfill them. Add more lemon-juice if required.

515. Lemon Cheesecakes.

Boil the rinds of two lemons till quite tender, changing the water frequently, pound them in a marble

CHEESECAKES, CUSTARDS, &C. 167

mortar, add six yolks of eggs and four whites, half a pound of sugar, a pint of cream, the juice ot two lemons, and two Naples biscuits grated, mix well together, and set it over a slow fire to thicken, stirring it all the time; when it begins to thicken, take it off, stirring it till cold; bake them in patty-pans lined with puff paste; sift fine sugar over before they are set in the oven.

516. Lemon Cheesecakes.

Blanch, and beat very fine, three ounces of sweet almonds, and half an ounce of bitter ones, add the yolks of four or five eggs, six ounces of sugar, and six ounces of butter melted, put in the rind of one lemon and a half grated; grate a little fine loalsugar over before you set them in the oven.

517. Another Way.

Take two large lemon-peels, boil, and pound them in a mortar with about six ounces of loaf-sugar, the yolks of six eggs, mix all well together, and fill the pans about half full.

Orange cheesecakes may be done in the same way, but be careful to change the water frequently, to take out the bitterness.

518. Plain Cheesecakes.

Three-quarters of a pound of cheese-curd, and a quarter of a pound of butter, beaten together in a mortar. Add a quarter of a pound of bread soaked in cream or milk, three eggs, six ounces of currants, sugar to the taste, and a little candied orange-peel. Bake them in puff crust in a quick oven.

519. Potato Cheesecakes.

After taking out the inside of two middling-sized lemons, boii them till tender, and beat them in a

16S CHEESECAKES, CUSTARDS, &C.

marble mortar with four ounces of sugar, then add six ounces of boiled mealy potatoes mashed quite fine and smooth, add four ounces of butter melted in a little cream, and the juice of the lemons; when well mixed, let it stand till cold; line patty-pans with paste, and rather more than half fill them; sift fine sugar over, and bake them in a quick oven.

520. Good plain Cheesecakes.

Boil a little cinnamon, bitter almonds or lemon-peel, (according to taste,) in a quart of new milk, a few minutes, then pour it upon eight well-beaten eggs; return it into the pan and stir it on the fire till it is about the consistence of buttered egg, not allowing it to boil; pour it into a basin, and stir in it a little fresh butter, adding white sugar to the taste. Currants may be added, if approved.

521. Rice Cheesecakes.

Boil four ounces of ground rice in a pint of good milk, with a little cinnamon; when nearly cold, add four eggs well-beaten, six ounces of butter melted, a little rose or orange-flower water, sweeten it, and bake it in small tins lined with paste.

522. A Dish of Rice in Puff Crust.

Boil some rice in clean water very tender, skim it, and when done enough pour it into a bowl, add to it some butter, sugar, nutmeg, salt, rose-water, and the yolks of six or eight eggs; put it into a dish lined with puff crust, lay a crust over it, and bake it. When done, sift sugar over it. For a change, boiled currants and beaten cinnamon may be added, and the nutmeg omitted.

523. Cheese-curd Puffs.

Take half a pint of cheese-curd well-drained from the

CHEESECAKES, CUSTATtDS, &C. 1^9

whey, beat it quite fine in a mortar, with a spoonful and a half of flour, three yolks of eggs and one white, a spoonful of orange-flower water, grated nutmeg 1, or powdered mace, and fine sugar to the taste; lav this mixture in very small round cakes on a tin plate; bake in rather a brisk oven. Serve with sweet sauce.

524. Excellent light Puffs.

Mix a little grated lemon-peel, mace, half a spoonful of rose-water, a little loaf-sugar, and one egg; then fry it, but not brown, beat it in a mortar, and add four eggs; put some fine olive oil or clarified butter in the frying-pan; when quite hot, put in a dessertspoonful of batter for each puff; fry them a light brown, and serve immediately.

525. Almond Custards.

A pint of cream, a quarter of a pound of almonds, blanched and beaten fine, with orange-flower water, the yolks of four eggs, and sugar to the taste. Stir it over the fire till it thickens, and then pour it into cups.

52G. Almond Custards.

Take three gills of cream, boil it well with a little cinnamon, take it off to cool, blanch and beat one ounce and a half of almonds, five yolks of eggs, two whites, and some loaf sugar, set it on the fire, keep stirring it till tolerably thick, then take it off and let it stand to get cold, giving it a stir now and then; when cold, put it in custard glasses. A few bitter almonds may be added, if approved.

527. Baked, Custards.

Boil a pint of milk or cream, with a piece of cinnamon or a laurel-leaf, let it stand till nearly cold; if

«

170 CHEESECAKES, CUSTARDS, &C.

cream, add four yolks of eggs; if milk, six; with sugar to the taste; pour them into cups and bake them lightly.

528. Baked Custard.

Boil a pint of cream with a little cinnamon, when cold, add four eggs beaten and strained, a few bitter almonds beaten fine, nutmeg, and sugar; bake it in cups.

529. j Blest Custard

Set a pint of biest over the fire, with a little cinnamon and three laurel-leaves, keep stirring it till it be scalding-liot, then take it off; have ready mixed a spoonful of flour, and the same of thick cream; pour the hot biest upon it by degrees, mix it well together, and sweeten it to your taste.

530. Biest Custard.

Set some new milk on the fire, with a stick of cinnamon, and as much biest as will make it the consistence of almond custard, stirring it constantly; when it thickens take it off; add sugar and spice to the taste.

531. Boiled Custards.

If the custards be made with cream, four yolks of eggs should be allowed to a pint; but where good cream cannot be had, they may be made with milk, allowing six yolks of eggs to a pint, and adding a tea-spoonful of Indian arrow-root, or fine rice flour. Sweeten with fine sugar, and add a few bitter almonds pounded fine, or boil a laurel-leaf in them, which will have the same effect; a little orangeflower or rose-water may be put in, according to the flavour preferred. Be very careful to stir them all the time they are on the lire, to prevent their curdling.

171

CHEESECAKES, CUSTARDS, &C.

Preserved oranges cut in halves, and the inside taken out and filled with this custard, makes a very nice dish. The French often flavour their custards with a very small quantity of coffee or chocolate, or with vanilla, either of which are very pleasant, but the latter particularly.

532. Common Custard.

Boil a little cinnamon in a pint of new milk; when taken off' the fire, put it to some biest, and sugar to the taste; more milk may be added, but as biest varies in quality, it is better to try a little of the mixture in the oven before you bake it in the crusts. A few bitter almonds, blanched and chopped fine, boiled in the milk, is a pleasant addition. Bake either in raised crusts, or in dishes lined with custard paste.

Egg custard may be made in the same way, allowing five or six eggs (according to the size) to a quart of milk.

533. Gooseberry Custard.

Scald green gooseberries in water, drain them from the water, and pulp them through a sieve; to a pint of pulp put four eggs, two spoonsful of orange-flower water, and sugar to the taste. Set it over the fire till it thickens, when cold put it into custard cups.

534. Solid Custard.

Boil one ounce of isinglass, or half an ounce of Irish Moss*, in a quart of new milk till dissolved, beat

* There having been many objections made to the use of isinglass, ivory-powder, hartshorn-shavings, &c. in the ‘ Vegetable Cookery,’ to these objectors we would say, - searr/t the vegetable world, and you will, no doubt, discover ample substitutes for these very objectionable articles; and we will speedily dispense with the use of them, and expunge them from our pages. We consider we have done much in showing to the world, how luxuriously they may live without having

<4 2

172 CHEESECAKES, CUSTARDS, & C.

well the yolks of five eggs, and mix with the milk, then strain and set it on the fire till it thickens to the consistency of a boiled custard; sweeten to the taste, and pour it into a mould. A little cinnamon, or a few bitter almonds, boiled in the milk, is an improvement.

CREAMS, FLUMMERY, &c.

535. Almond Cream.

Beat two ounces of sweet almonds and a few bitter ones in a mortar, with a tea-spoonful of water to prevent oiling; put the paste to a pint of cream, and add the juice of two lemons sweetened, beat it up with a whisk to a froth, lay the froth on the bottom of a sieve as it rises, then pour the cream into glasses, and the froth on the top.

536. Almond Cream.

Blanch and beat four ounces of almonds, with about half an ounce of bitter ones, adding a little rosewater to prevent them from oiling; boil a quart of cream, and let it stand while you beat the whites of four eggs to a froth, mix them with the almonds, then stir them in the cream till well-mixed, adding sugar to the taste, set it on the fire to simmer, stirring

recourse to the cruel sacrifice of animal life, whereby the feelings of humanity are violated. Let others join in the work, and the system of Vegetable Cookery may he greatly improved and simplified. ‘ Nature is frugal and her wants lew.’ We have an excellent substitute for isinglass in the ‘ Irish Moss,’ in making Soliil Custard, Dutch Flummery, and several other similar things; hut it does not answer all the purposes for which isinglass is used.

CREAMS, FLUMMERY, &C. 173

it one way till it thickens, then pour it into a glass or china dish.

AVhen the cream is quite cold, stick some almonds in, blanched and cut lengthwise.

537. Barley Cream.

Take a quarter of a pound of French barley, boil it in three or four waters till tender; then set a pint of cream on the fire, with some mace and nutmeg; when it begins to boil, drain out the barley from the water, put it in the cream, and let it boil till it be rather thick and soft, then season it with sugar and salt. When it is cold, serve it up. Two eggs and a little rose-water may be added.

538. Steeple Cream.

To one pound of good loaf-sugar sifted very fine, take a quarter of a pound of red currant-jelly, and the whites of two eggs; beat it an hour with a silver spoon, and heap it up as high as possible on a glass dish.

539. Clouted Cream.

Take a gill of new milk and set it on the fire, with six spoonsful of rose-water, and four or five pieces of mace, put the mace on a thread; when it boils, put to it the yolks of two eggs well-beaten, stir them very well together, then take a pint of good cream, put it to the rest, and stir it together, but do not let it boil after the cream is in. Pour it out of the pan and let it stand all night; the next day take the top off it, and serve it up in a glass dish, with preserved fruit of any kind.

540. Devonshire Cream.

Put warm milk into a bowl, turn it with a little ren-

q 3

174

CREAMS, FEUMMERY, &C.

net, then put some scalded cream, sugar, and cinnamon on the top, without breaking the curd.

541. Dutch Cream.

Take one pint of new milk, one pint of cream, the yolks of three eggs, two drachms of vanilla, and five ounces of loaf-sugar, separate the vanilla and cut it small; dilute well the yolks of the eggs in the milk, mix all together, and putting it on a gentle fire, stir well with a slice, and when it sticks to it the cream is complete; when cold, serve it up.

542. Apple Cream.

Pare and boil some good baking apples, drain the liquor from them, and pulp them through a sieve; add sugar to the taste while the pulp is warm; and when cold, add some good cream, and it will be ready for the table.

543. Gooseberry Cream.

Boil one quart of gooseberries with just as much water as will cover them; stir in half an ounce of fresh butter; when soft, pulp them through a sieve, sweeten the pulp while hot with good sugar, then beat it up with the yolks of four eggs, serve in a dish, cups, or glasses. Good cream may be used instead of yolks of eggs.

544. Gooseberry Cream.

Put green gooseberries into an earthen pot, and set it in a pan of water; let them simmer till they are quite soft, then pulp them through a sieve, and add sugar to the taste; when nearly cold, mix with the pulp about an equal quantity of cream and milk.

Apple cream may be made in the same way.

175

CREAMS, FLUMMERY, & C.

545. Lemon Cream.

To a pint of spring water, add the whites of live eggs well-beaten, the juice of four lemons, and the grated rind of two; add sugar to the taste, and mix all well together; set it on the fire, but do not let it boil; when cool, add the beaten yolks of the eggs, set it on the fire again till of a proper thickness; pour it into a basin, and stir it frequently till cold; then put it in custard glasses.

546. Lemon Cream frothed.

Sweeten a pint of cream with loaf-sugar, put in the rind of a lemon, set it over the fire, and just let it boil; strain the juice of a large lemon into a deep china or glass dish; when the cream is nearly cold, put it into a tea-pot and pour it upon the juice, holding the tea-pot as high as possible. Let it remain in the same dish.

547. Snow Cream.

To a pint of cream, add the whites of two new-laid eggs well beaten, a little sherbet, and sugar to the taste; whip it to a froth, and serve it in a dish, or lay it on custard, trifle, or preserved fruit.

54S. Stone Cream.

Put in the dish intended for the table, three spoonsful of lemon-juice, with a little of the peel grated, some apricot or any other sweetmeat chopped small; then take a pint of good cream, with a little isinglass and some sugar, boil it till the isinglass is dissolved, then strain it into a jug with a spout, and when about the heat of new milk, pour it over your sweetmeats, round and round in the dish, till it is full. It should be mado some hours before wanted.

176

CREAMS, FLUMMERY, &C.

549. Rhubarb Cream.

Peel and wash a quantity of rhubarb, put it into a pan with a little water, lemon-peel, a bit of cinnamon, and as much moist sugar as will sweeten it, set it on a moderate fire, and reduce it to a marmalade, pass it through a hair-sieve, and when cold, mix with it a pint of cream, or two eggs beaten up with a pint of new milk.

550. Italian Cream.

Take two parts of cream and one of milk, about a quart in all, boil, and pour it on four ounces of fine sugar and the thin rind of a lemon: when wellflavoured, add the beaten yolks of eight eggs, and beat the whole very well; set it on the fire, stirring it till it begins to thicken; add three-quarters of an ounce of isinglass, (which has been dissolved in as little water as possible,) whisk it well, then strain through a lawn-sieve, and pour it into moulds. It would be well to try a little in a small cup.

551. Quince Cream.

Take quinces when quite ripe, pare and cut them in quarters, scald them till they are soft, pulp them through a hair-sieve; mix an equal weight of quince and fine powdered sugar, and the whites of eggs beaten till as white as snow; it is then ready to serve.

Apple cream may be made in the same way.

552. Raspberry Cream.

Mash the fruit gently, and let it drain through a sieve, sprinkling a little sugar on the fruit, which will produce more juice, then put the juice to some cream and sweeten it, then a little milk may be added; but the cream must be put in first, or the milk will curdle. It may be made from jam or jelly

177

CREAMS, FLUMMERY, &C.

when the fresh fruit cannot be obtained. If made with jam, put six ounces to a pint of cream, pulp it through a sieve, and add the juice of a lemon, whisk it in a shallow dish; lay the froth on a sieve, adding a little more lemon-juice; when no more froth will rise, put the cream in a dish or glasses, and heap on the froth.

Strawberry cream may be made the same way.

553. Raspberry Cream.

Rub the pulp from a quart of raspberries through a hair-sieve, mix it well with cream and fine sugar to the taste; put it in a stone jug, and mill it with a chocolate-mill or small whisk, taking off the froth as it rises, and laying it on a hair-sieve, as much as will be wanted; put the remainder in a glass dish, and heap the froth upon it.

A mixture of strawberry and red-currant cream, the fruit to be strained through a clothstrainer, may be made the same way.

554. Velvet Cream.

Take a large tea-spoonful of orange-flower water, the juice of a large lemon, nearly half an ounce of isinglass, and sugar to the taste; let it boil till the isinglass is dissolved, then strain it, and pour about a pint of cream to it, let it stand till cold, then pour it into moulds.

555. Apple Solid.

Dissolve [two ounces of isinglass in half a pint of water, strain it, and put it to a pound and a half of the pulp of good tart baking apples, when pared and boiled, and the water well-drained from them; add the juice and grated rind of a lemon, and bruised loaf-sugar to the taste; boil all together till it will leave the sides of the pan, then put it into a mould, If right, it will cut like citron.

178

CREAMS, FLUMMERY, &C.

556. Lemon Solid.

Boil tlie rind of two lemons pared very thin, and half an ounce of isinglass in a pint of cream and a quarter of a pint of milk, with sugar to the taste; when the isinglass is dissolved, strain it, and when nearly cold, put in the juice of two^ lemons, stirring it till it is ready for the moulds, which will be when it begins to stiffen.

557. Lemon Solid.

Grate the rind of a large lemon, with some lumps of sugar, into a china dish, and strain the juice upon it; boil a pint of thick cream, sweeten to your taste, and pour it hot upon the lemon, but do not stir it; when cold, ornament with sweetmeat: this quantity will only be sufficient for a small dish.

558. Blanc-mange.

Simmer two ounces of isinglass in a quart of new milk half an hour, then add a pint of cream, one ounce of bitter almonds blanched and bruised a little, or a few laurel-leaves and cinnamon; stir it on a slow fire twenty minutes, add sugar to the taste, stir till nearly cold; let it stand to settle, then clear it off into moulds.

Or, take one ounce of isinglass to a quart of cream, simmer them with two ounces of sweet almonds and one of bitter, blanched and bruised a little, sweeten and put in a very little fresh butter, keep stirring till it boils, strain, and stir it till almost cold, then pour it into cups.

559. Blanc-tnange.

Put an ounce of isinglass into a basin with boiling water enough just to cover it, let it stand till the next day; then add a pint of cream, two spoonsful of orange-flower water, and line sugar to the taste; boil

179

CREAMS, FLUMMERY, &C.

all together till the isinglass is dissolved, strain through a line sieve, and when settled pour it into moulds. The moulds must first be scalded, then dipped in cold water before the blanc-mange is put in, or it will not turn out. Bitter almonds may be used instead of orange-flower water.

560. French Flummery .

Dissolve an ounce of isinglass in a quart of cream, boil gently over a slow fire a quarter of an hour, stirring it all the time; then take it off and add sugar to the taste; put in a spoonful of rose-water and another of orange-flower water, strain and pour it into a mould; when cold, turn it out.

561. Butch Flummery.

Pour three-quarters of a pint of boiling water over an ounce of isinglass, and set it by till the next day; add the yolks of four eggs well beaten, half a pint of sherbet, lemon-juice, and loaf-sugar rubbed on the rind, to the taste; set all together over a brisk fire till the isinglass is dissolved, stirring it all the time, then strain through a fine sieve into moulds, wetting the moulds. Boil some of the rind of the lemon pared thin with the other ingredients.

Half an ounce of the Irish moss may be used instead of isinglass, after being steeped in cold water a few minutes, and the water well shaken out of it. When strained, the flummery should stand a little to settle, and then cleared off carefully into moulds.

562. Melon Flummery.

Take some stiff flummery that has plenty of bitter almonds in it, make it a pale green with the juice of spinach; when cold, and it becomes as thick as cream, wet the melon-mould, and put the flummery into it; pour a pint of clear jelly into a basin, and the next

ISO

CREAMS, FLUMMERY, &C.

day turn out the melon, and lay it in the middle of the basin of jelly; fill up the basin with jelly that is beginning to set, let it stand all night, and turn it out the next day on a glass dish.

563. Green Flummery.

Dissolve two ounces of isinglass in boiliner water, and put to it two ounces of sweet and one of bitter almonds, and as much juice of spinach as will make it green, set it over a slow fire till near boiling, then strain through a gauze sieve; when it grows thick, pour it into a mould, and the next day turn it out.

564. Rice Flummery.

Boil five ounces of ground rice slowly in a quart of new milk, add a little lemon-peel, forty bitter almonds chopped fine, and a quarter of a pound of loaf-sugar; stir it all the time when on the fire, and boil it twenty minutes, then pour it into a mould; let it stand all night; serve with cream and preserved fruit.

565. Biscuit Trifle.

Soak sponge biscuits in sherbet till they will absorb no more, lay them in a dish, and pour round a custard, or cream, sugar, and lemon-juice, well whisked; just before the trifle is served, sprinkle over it some nonpareil comfits, or stick a few blanched split almonds into it.

Macaroon or ratafias may be used instead of biscuits.

566. Gooseberry or Apple Trifle.

Scald any quantity of either of these fruits, as much as will make a thick layer at the bottom of a dish, when pulped through a sieve; if of apples, mix the rind of half a lemon grated fine, and add sugar to the taste. Mix half a pint of milk, half a pint of cream,

181

CREAMS, FLUMMERY, &C,

and the yolk of one egg, give it a scald over the fire and stir it all the time, but do not let it boil; add a little sugar, and let it stand till cold: lay it over the apples with a spoon, and then a whip made the day before as for other trifle.

567. A Froth to set on Trifle, or Custard.

Sweeten half a pound of the pulp of damsons, or any other scalded fruit, add the whites of four eggs well beaten, beat the pulp with them until it will stand very high, put it on the trifle, &c. with a spoon; it will take any form, and should be rough, to imitate a rock.

568. Cream Sponge.

Boil an ounce and a half of isinglass in a quart of good cream, strain, and let it stand to cool, but not to set; take off the yellow rind of a lemon with lumpsugar, and grate the sugar into a bowl; squeeze the juice of the lemon upon it, mix this with the cream, and whisk all together till it begins to stiffen, then put it into moulds, and let it remain all night.

569. Raspbernj Sponge.

This may be made the same way as cream sponge, using raspberry-juice instead of lemon-juice and rind. Strawberry-sponge is made alter the same mfftiner.

570. Lemon Sponge.

Dissolve one ounce of isinglass in a pint of water, then strain and let it stand till nearly cold; add half a pound of bruised loaf-sugar, the juice of three lemons, beat the white of one egg to a froth, and add to the other ingredients, beat them all together for an hour, then put it into moulds. The rinds of the lemons should be steeped in the water the isinglass is dissolved in.

R

182 Creams, flummery, &e.

*

57 1 . Apple J clly.

Pare and core some apples, put them in a stewpan with as much water as will cover them, boil very fast; when the fruit is all mashed, add a quart of water, boil half an hour more, and run it through a jellybag. Or, prepare apples as above, and add half an ounce of isinglass boiled in half a pint of water to a jelly, put it to the apple-water, and add sugar, a little lemon-juice and peel; boil all together, take out the peel, and pour it into a mould. In summer, codlins are the best; in winter, golden rennets or pippins.

572. Apple Jelly.

Take large, juicy, tart apples, slice them very thin into water without paring; weigh the apples and put them in a pan, allowing a pint of water to a pound of fruit, boil till the apples are soft but not pulp, strain or squeeze it through a thin cloth or flannel; to every pint of juice allow a pound of loaf-sugar, and to three pints of jelly, the rind of two lemons pared very thin, the juice of three strained, and a little white ginger sliced, scraping off the outside, and the whites of two eggs beaten to clear it; boil it twenty minutes, or till it will jelly; pour it into glasses or moulds.

573. Arrow-root Jelly.

Put half a pint of water on the fire with a glass of raspberry-vinegar, a little grated rind of a lemon, and the juice strained, sugar to the taste; let it boil, then pour it by degrees upon a dessert-spoonful of arrowroot previously mixed smooth with two spoonsful of cold water, stir it well and return it into the pan, and boil three minutes.

574. Ivory Jelly.

To six ounces of ivory powder put two quarts of water, cover the jar, and set it in a moderate oven till re-

CREAMS, FLUMMERY, &C. 183

duced nearly one-half; then strain, and either let it stand to be cold and set, or, if wanted immediately, clear it into a pan and set it on the fire, with nearly half a pint of sherbet, the rind of a lemon pared very thin, the juice of two or more lemons according to the size, and sugar to the taste; stir in the whites ot four new-laid eggs well beaten; let it boil five minutes, then run it through a flannel jelly-bag dipped in hot water and wrung quite dry. The flavour may be varied by adding two table-spoonsful of orange-flower water, or using Seville oranges instead of lemons, or a mixture of both.

575. Isinglass Jelly.

Dissolve two ounces of isinglass in a quart of water, strain, and let it stand till cold, then clear it from the sediment and put it in a pan, with the rind of a lemon pared very thin, the juice of oranges or lemons, and sugar to the taste; add half a pint of sherbet, and clear with the whites of eggs as before; the shells also may be added: when it has boiled about five minutes, put in half a tea-cupful of cold water, and boil a few minutes longer, then cover it with flannel and a plate, and let it stand twenty minutes; run it through a jellybag as above, returning it into the bag till it runs clear.

576. Spanish Rice Jelly.

Boil a pint of thick cream with a stick of cinnamon or a few bitter almonds, let it stand to cool, then strain, and set it on the fire with three ounces of riceflour silted through a lawn-sieve, the whites of three eggs well beaten, sugar to the taste, and a little rosewater; boil till about the thickness of hasty-pudding, wet six cups or glasses with rose-water, and pour it in; when cold, turn it out on a dish and serve.

u 2

184

CREAMS, FLUMMERY, &C.

577. Hartshorn Jelly.

Steep four ounces of rasped hartshorn ten minutes in eight ounces of water with sixty grains of muriatic acid dissolved in it, then wash it carefully in two or three waters; it must then be boiled with a quart of fresh water for half an hour, pressed through a cloth, and the liquor filtered through flannel while hot, then to be boiled a little with sugar, the rind and juice of lemons, and run through a flannel, and it will be a perfectly clear jelly.

578. Lemon Jelly.

Grate the yellow rinds of four lemons with a fine grater into three gills of water, let it stand an hour, and add half a pound of loaf-sugar, and the juice of four lemons when the sugar is dissolved; strain it through a fine sieve, and set it on the fire with three gills of strong isinglass or ivory jelly, and the whites of five eggs well beaten; tie a bit of turmeric in muslin, and lay it in a spoonful of water till wet, then squeeze a little into the jelly to make it lemon-colour, but not too yellow; when it has boiled a little, skim it, and run it through a jelly-bag.

579. Cranberry and Rice Jelly.

Boil and press the fruit, strain the juice, and mix into it by degrees as much ground rice as will, when boiled, thicken to a jelly; boil gently, stirring it, and sweeten to the taste, put it in a basin or mould and turn it out; serve with milk or cream.

5S0. Hen’s Nest in Jelly.

Make a small hole at one end of five or six eggs, take out the inside and fill them with blancmange; when quite still', peel oil’ the shells; pour very clear ivory or isinglass jelly into a proper-sized basin, as high as will make it a right shape; when set, turn it out and

1S5

CREAMS, FLUMMERY, &C.

put it in a dish the round part downward, with lemonpeel shred like straws laid round and round the top of the jellv, and lav the eggs in the middle. A saucer, laid on the top of the jelly before it is set, gives a better form for arranging the eggs, and it may easily be removed.

581. Orange Jelly.

Dissolve an ounce and three-quarters of isinglass in a pint of water, squeeze and strain the juice of six oranges and two lemons, with as much of the rind of each rubbed off with loaf-sugar as suits the taste; grate the sugar into half a pint of sherbet, mix all together, and let it boil a few minutes, strain through flannel, and if not a good colour, take a little out, and put in it a little saffron; when of a good colour, strain and mix it with the jelly. Put it in moulds.

5S2. Orange Jelly.

Grate the rinds of tw'o Seville oranges, two China oranges, and two lemons, squeeze the juice of six Seville and two China oranges and three lemons upon the grated rinds, take three-quarters of a pound of loaf-sugar and a pint of water, and boil it to a thick syrup; when cold, put it to the juice. Boil two ounces of isinglass in a pint of spring water till dissolved; strain it through a sieve, and stir it till nearly cold, then put it to the syrup, pass it through a jellybag, and put it in a mould.

583. Orange Butler.

Take juice of six oranges, the yolks of three eggs, with halt a pint of sherbet; alter beating the eggs well, add the orange-juice, beat it a little more, then add the sherbet, strain through a thin cloth; set it on a slow lire, stirring gently till it becomes thick, then take it off, and with a spoon lay it on a pewter

a 3

186

CREAMS, FLUMMERY, &C.

dish till cold. Serve in a glass dish, or in any form you please.

584. Fairy Bulie.r.

To the yolks of six hard-boiled eggs take a quarter of a pound of butter, three ounces of fine sugar, moistened with a table-spoonful of lemon-juice; beat all together to a fine paste, let it stand in a cool place three hours, then rub it through a wire-sieve on the plate intended for the table.

585. Fairy Butter.

Boil four eggs hard, beat the yolks in a mortar with two ounces of fine sugar, three ounces of butter, and two ounces of sweet almonds blanched and beaten to a paste; moisten with orange-flower water, and when all are mixed, rub it through a colander or wiresieve on a dish, and serve biscuits or ratafia drops between.

586. Irish Butter.

Dissolve an ounce and a half of isinglass in threequarters of a pint of water, strain, and add to it a pint and a half of cream, the whites of three eggs well beaten, a very little saffron to colour it, steeped in two table-spoonsful of orange-flower water; strain, and add sugar to the taste; boil it a quarter of an hour, then strain it through a lawn-sieve, either into a mould to turn out, or into a basin to be cut out in slices or any other form. The mould should be dipped in cold water.

5S7. Italian Cheese.

Take one pint of cream, and a tea-cupful of sherbet, sweeten to the taste, whisk it up, and put it into a hair-sieve, with a piece of muslin over, to drain till next day, turn it out into a dish, strew it over with

CREAMS, FLUMMERY, &C. 187

candied lemon shred fine, or almonds blanched and split.

588. Lemon Cheese.

Take a quart of cream and half a pint of sherbet, grate into it the rinds of two lemons, add the juice of three lemons strained, and sugar to the taste; whisk it twenty minutes, then lay a thin cloth in a sieve and pour it in, the next day turn it carefully out of the cloth, and garnish with candied or preserved orange sliced thin, or nonpareil comfits. The above quantity makes a large dish.

589. Sweet Egg Cheese.

Boil three quarts of new milk with a pint of cream, loaf-sugar, cinnamon, mace, and lemon-peel; when it tastes well of the seasoning, strain it through a sieve, and beat eight eggs with the juice of three lemons and one orange, put them in the milk pretty hot, stir it on the fire till it becomes curds; cool it, and pour it in a thin cloth laid in a sieve to drain, then press the curd into a mould for the purpose with holes in, let it drain two hours, then turn it on a dish, and pour a cream on it.

590. Snow Cheese.

To a pint of cream put the juice of three lemons and the rinds of two grated, two spoonsful of orangeflower water and sugar to the taste; whisk it about a quarter of an hour until it thickens, then put it into muslin in a small sieve; let it stand until the next day, then turn it out on a glass or china dish.

591. Biest Curds.

Put some milk on the fire, and when hot or near boiling, stir in as much biest as will make it curdle, stir it on the fire till it thickens, or begins to sepa-

188 CREAMS, FLUMMERY, &C.

rate; if to be drained through a cloth or in a mould, it should be curdled, hut if to be used as a cream with preserved fruit, it should be taken off the fire when it is thickened: in either case sugar, cinnamon, or any other seasoning may be added.

592. Cream Curds.

Take six eggs, heat and strain them into a quart of cream, and mix them well together; have three quarts of water on the fire, with a little salt in it; when it boils put in a table-spoonful of vinegar, or a pint of thick sour buttermilk; stir in the eggs and cream, and as the curds rise keep sprinkling in a little cold water with your fingers; when sufficiently risen, take the pan off the fire and let it stand a little, lay a cloth in a sieve or colander, and skim the curds into it. They will be ready to turn out the next day, and are excellent.

593. Lemon Syllabubs.

Put the rind of a lemon pared very thin in a pint of cream, or rub off the rind with a part of the sugar you intend to sweeten it with; let it stand two hours, then add two-thirds of a pint of lemonade, and squeeze in the juice of a lemon, whisk it and take off the froth as it rises, fill your glasses, and lay on the froth.

594. A Lemon Syllabub.

Rub a quarter of a pound of loaf-sugar in one piece on the rind of two lemons till you have got all the essence out of them; then put the sugar into a pint of cream and a gill of sherbet; squeeze in the juice of both the lemons, and let it stand for two hours; then whip it with a whisk, or mill it with a chocolatemill, and as the froth rises take it ofl, and put it on a sieve to drain. Let it stand all night, then put the

CREAMS, FLUMMERY, &C. 1S9

remainder into the glasses, and with a spoon put on the froth as high as you can.

595. Seville Orange or Lemon Posset.

Squeeze a Seville orange or lemon-juice into a glass dish with a wine-glass of sherbet, or mix all together, if preferred, and sweeten well with fine sugar; then take cream, and warm it over the fire with a bit of lemon-peel, but not to boil; put it into a tea-pot and pour it into the juice, holding the tea-pot up very high, that it may froth and curdle the better; when it has stood three or four hours, strew currants on the top.

596. Orange or Lemon Posset.

Grate some crumbs of bread and put into a pint of water, with half the peel of a Seville orange, or lemon grated, or sugar rubbed on it to take out the essence; boil all together till it looks thick and clear, and beat it well; to the juice of half a lemon or orange put a pint of sherbet, two ounces of the best almonds blanched and beaten, and half an ounce of bitter ones, beaten very fine with a little orangeflower water, add sugar to the taste, mix well and put it to the posset: serve it up in a bowl or tureen.

597. Cold Posset.

Mix a pint of new milk with a pint of cream, steep in it the rind of one or two lemons pared very thin, let it stand several hours, then add to it a pint of sherbet, and a quart of lemonade or lemon beverage (see Lemonade ), with sugar to the taste, whisk or froth it with a large wooden syringe, laying the froth on a sieve as it rises; then pour the remainder into a large china bowl, and let it stand eight or ten hours; then cover the top with currants, and lay on the froth; strew cither comfits or a few currants on the top.

190

CREAMS, FLUMMERY, &C.

598. A Dish of Siiow.

Put six apples over the fire in cold water; when they are soft, skin and pulp them through a sieve, beat up the whites of six eggs to a froth, sift a quarter of a pound of double-refined sugar and strew it in the eggs; beat the pulp to a froth, then beat the whole together, till it be like stiff snow: heap it high on a china dish.

599. Floating Island of Apples.

Bake or scald two or three large sharp apples; when cold, pare and pulp them through a sieve; beat the pulp with fine sugar, and the whites of three eggs that have been beaten with a little rose-water; mix it a little at a time, beat till light, and lay it on almond custard, or jelly.

600. A floating Island.

Take the whites of four new-laid eggs, and a little currant jelly, put them in a large basin, and beat them till they are very much frothed, then pour a little strong balm-tea upon a pint of cream, and put in as much rennet as will make it thick in the dish, lay the froth on, and strew small comfits on the top.

601. Lemon Honeycomb .

Sweeten the juice of a lemon to the taste, and put it in a glass or china disli; mix the white of an egg that is beaten with a pint of good cream, the rind ot a lemon, and a little sugar; whisk it, and as the froth rises, put it on the lemon-juice. Prepare it the day before it is to be used.

602. Raspberry Ice.

Take one pint of cream, with as much raspberry pulp (the seed, having been strained out) as will make it

Creams, flummery, &c. 191

a pretty colour, sweeten to the taste; dissolve an ounce of isinglass in very little water, strain, and let it stand, till nearly cold; whisk the raspberry and cream five minutes, then whisk in the isinglass.

603. Loaf Royal.

Take out nearly all the crumb of a small round or oval loaf of fine white bread, put the crust in cream to soften, then fill it with raspberry jam, placing the crust on the top, which has been cut out to take out the crumb, after being soaked in the cream; put it on a dish, and pour over it a good custard.

604. Hedgehog.

Take a pint of cream and half a pint of new milk, a little mace and a few bitter almonds blanched and chopped fine, set all together on the fire; when near boiling, add ten eggs well beaten, stirring it on the fire till it turns to whey and curds; take it oil' the fire and add fine sugar to the taste; put it in a thin cloth and hang it up till the whey be well drained from the curd, or till the next day, then turn it out, and stick almonds blanched and sliced all over it.

Custard or jelly may be put round it on the dish.

BREAD, BUNS, &c.

605. To malce Bread with Leaven.

Take a piece of leaven the size of a goose egg to half a peck of flour, make a hole in the middle of the flour, and break the leaven into it, and put as much water made milk-warm as will wet half the flour: mix the leaven and flour well together, then cover with the remainder of the flour, and let it stand all

192

BREAD, BUNS, &C.

night. The next morning the whole lump will he well fermented or leavened; add a little salt, and as much warm water (not warmer than new milk) as will mix it, knead it up quite stiff and firm till it be smooth and pliable, the more it is kneaded the better: let it stand by the fire about two hours, then make it up into loaves and bake them.

In the northern counties, where leaven is most used, it is common to mix some rye flour, in the proportion of about a fourth part, with the wheaten flour in leavened bread, and which, in all common household bread, is a great improvement.

606. To make Bread with Yeast.

Put some water milkwarm to as much yeast as will be required, stir it well together, and let it stand to settle five or six minutes; then make a hole in the middle of your flour, and pour the water carefully oil', leaving the brown sediment at the bottom; add more water, and mix it with a part of the flour into a kind of batter; strew a little flour over it, and let the remainder lie round it. This is called setting the sponge, and should be done two hours at the least previous to kneading; for a large quantity it should be done the night before, and by morning it will be much risen: add then more warm water and some salt, knead it exceedingly well into rather a stiff dough, and let it rise two hours or less according to quantity; then make it into loaves.

A quartern loaf requires about two hours in a wellheated oven, larger ones in proportion.

607. Bread with Potatoes.

To fourteen pounds of good sound flour, either coarse or fine, lake five pounds of potatoes, pared and washed very clean, boil them in a proper quantity of water till quite soft, mash them and rub them

193

BREAD, BUNS, &C.

through a wire-sieve into the middle of the flour, adding water sufficient to make it of a proper heat, and some salt; when well mixed, add a due proportion of yeast; cleared with warm water as in the preceding receipt, let it rise an hour or more m the sponge, and then knead it very well; let it stand to rise an hour, or longer, according to quantity, and bake it in the usual way.

This bread eats well, and is not so soon stale as the common bread.

60S. To make Bread with a mixture of Rice.

Boil a pound of rice in water till quite tender, pour off the water, and put the rice before it is cold to six pounds of flour; add the usual quantity of yeast, a little more than the usual quantity of salt, and as much lukewarm water (adding the water the rice was boiled in) as will make it into dough; it will require the same time to rise, and is to be baked in the same way.

609. Bread for Toast and Bxitter.

Take two pounds of flour after being gently warmed before the fire, and rub into it half a pound of boiled and well-dried mealy potatoes. When well mixed, adil a proper quantity of yeast and salt, with warm milk and water sufficient to make it into dough, which must be allowed two hours to rise, before being formed into a loaf; then put it into a tin, and when in the oven take care it be not over-browned.

610. Scalded Bread.

Take about one-third of the quantity of flour you intend to use, pour boiling water upon it, stirring it till it be rather a stifl paste, let it stand till cold, then knead it, with the remainder of the Hour, adding warm water, yeast, and salt as for other bread: it

s

194

BREAD, BUNS, &C.

must be extremely well kneaded, then let it rise two or three hours; bake it in tins that will hold about nine pounds; the oven should be hot as for other bread when first put in, but it should remain in the oven some time longer than bread made in the usual way. It is usual to put it in the oven at night, whence it has obtained the name of night-bread. When baked, fold it in a clean wet cloth, and put it in the cellar a day or two before it is cut. This is an excellent way of making bread, and will keep well if properly managed: but much depends on the kneading and the heat of the oven. It is only proper for coarse flour; that makes the best bread where the corn is ground all together, or only a little of the coarse bran taken out.

61 1. Common Wheaton Bread on Mr. Cobbelt’s

Plan.

Make a hole in the middle of a bushel of flour; stir a pint of yeast into some milk-warm water, let it stand a little to settle, then pour it into the middle of the flour, and stir it with a wooden slice about a minute, till you have a thin batter; sprinkle a little flour over the batter, and cover the whole with a cloth three or four folds to keep it warm; set it "fit a proper distance from the fire, according to the state of the weather and the season of the year: when the batter has risen enough to make cracks through which it ferments, form the whole into dough thus: - strew in six ounces of salt, then work the flour into the batter round the edges, pouring in milk-warm water, or milk, as it is wanted, till the whole is moistened; knead it extremely well. It may then either be immediately formed into loaves, letting them rise twenty minutes before put in the oven; or let the dough rise an hour in the mass, and then make it up into loaves, I3uke according to the size.

195

BREAD, BUNS, &C.

612. French Bread.

Take a peck of fine flour, make a hole in the middle, put a quart of lukewarm milk and water to some good yeast, stir it well together and let it stand five or six minutes to settle, then pour it carefully through a hair-sieve into the flour (leaving the brown sediment at the bottom of the basin), stir it till of the consistence of thickish batter, throw a cloth over, and let it rise an hour in a warm place; then add an ounce of sifted sugar, a little salt, and as much lukewarm milk with half a pound of fresh butter melted in it as will make it into dough of a moderate stiffness; let it rise another hour, then mould it up into bricks, lay them on tins, and set them before the fire fifteen or twenty minutes to rise, lightly covered with a cloth; bake in a brisk oven.

This is the French bread as made in England, but in France it is usually made with leaven.

613. Another way to make French Bread.

Take a quarter of a peck of the finest flour, a little salt, yeast, and as much milk rather warm as will make it into a light dough, adding the yolks of three and the whites of two eggs beaten and strained; stir it about and beat it a little, but do not knead it. Have ready three quart wooden dishes, lightly rubbed over with a little butter, divide the dough into them, set to rise, then turn them out into a quick oven. Rasp them when baked.

614. Bread, with a Mixture of IF he at and

IndianCor n Flour.

Take one-third of Indian-corn flour to two-thirds of wheatflour; scald the corn-flour by pouring on it, and mixing it up with a quart of boiling water to every lour and a halt pounds, which will only just wet

s 2

196

BREAD, BUNS, &C.

it in such a degree as to leave part of it quite dry. Having thus scalded the corn-flour, lay it out in small lumps on a clean board to cool; then take it and rub it well into the two-thirds of wheat-flour; this being done, the whole will appear like dry flour, then proceed as directed in No. 611, to set the sponge, to let it rise, to make the dough and bake it. The finer the wheat flour is, the more water it will absorb; but the very fined of wheat-flour will not absorb so much water, pound for pound, as cornflour.

615. Potato-Flour.

The potatoes must be clean washed, pared, and lightly grated into an earthen pan of cold water; let it stand till the pulp falls to the bottom and the water begins to clear, then pour off the water, and add a good deal more of spring water, stirring the pulp with your hand; rub it through a hair-sieve, pouringplenty of water upon it in passing through the sieve; let the water stand till the farina subsides and the water clears, then pour the water gently off, add fresh water several times; then put the farina upon earthen dishes before the fire, covered with paper to keep out the dust; when quite dry, pound or roll it to a fine powder, and sift it through a lawn sieve.

The fibre that remains in the sieve may be used with wheat-flour in making bread, as directed in the following receipt.

The potato-flour keeps well in tin canisters or bottles, and may be very usefully applied to a variety of purposes.

616. Potato-Flour.

Twelve pounds of wheat-flour kneaded with six pounds of the fibre of potatoes, will produce, when well baked, twenty-one pounds of excellent bread. The mode of preparing the fibre is as follows: -

197

BREAD, BUNS, &C.

After washing it in two waters, place it about an hour upon a sieve to drain, and add to it in its raw state the usual quantity of yeast mixed with a little warm water and salt; let it stand about an hour, then work it well in the flour. It requires very little addition of water, but rather a longer time to rise.

A wholesome bread may be made with the potato fibre and either barley-flour or oatmeal. The addition of some of the potato-flour which has been separated from the fibre (by washing and afterwards dried), would make it more nourishing.

In a time of scarcity and bad harvest the corn is generally unsound, and often very difficult and troublesome to make the flour into bread at all; in such a case, the common soda will be found one of the most simple and best means to remedy that defect, in the proportion of a quarter of a pound to every fifteen pounds of flour; in some instances more might be required, and others less, according to the state of the flour. The flour should be made as dry as possible, and the soda either powdered fine and mixed with it, or dissolved in the water you make up the bread with. It is a much more wholesome ingredient to mix in bread than alum and many other things which are used for that purpose, and has been repeatedly tried.

When a loaf is hard baked, it answers exceedingly well to wash it very well with a clean cloth and cold water, a short time after it is taken out of the oven, or while it continues hot; fold it in a cloth, and lay it in the cellar a day or two before you cut it.

617. Apple Bread.

A very light pleasant bread is made in France, of a mixture of apples, (when pared, cored, and baked; or stewed with very little water,) and flour, in the proportion of one part of apples to two of flour, cm-

s 3

19S

BREAD, BUNS, &C.

ploying the usual quantity of purified yeast, which must be beaten up in the Hour with the warm pulp of the apples, the sponge may then be considered set; let it rise eight or ten hours, then make it up, and hake it in long loaves like large rolls; little or no water is necessary.

6 IS. Bath Buns.

To three pounds of flour take four spoonsful of yeast, three eggs, half a pound of fresh butter, melted in a pint and a half of milk, a few caraway seeds, and a little salt, mix all together in rather a light douuh, let it stand till well risen, then lay it on tins in small cakes; dip a clean feather in a little milk and wet them over, then bake them in a brisk oven.

619. Cheltenham Buns.

Rub half a pound of butter in three pounds of flour, set it to rise with a little good yeast, and a pint and a half of warm new milk; when risen well in the sponge, add two eggs well-beaten, half a pound of good raw sugar, half a pound of currants, and a little salt; mix all well together in rather a light dough, set it to rise again, then make it up into buns, and bake them in small tins in rather a brisk oven. Half a pound of raisins may be added.

620. Buns.

Rub a quarter of a pound of butter into two pounds of flour and a quarter of a pound of loaf-sugar powdered; add two eggs wellbeaten, two tablespoonsful of yeast, and a table-spoonful of carawayseeds; mix the whole into a paste, about the stiffness of bread-dough, with warm milk; let it stand to rise, and make it into buns, and bake them in a brisk oven.

199

BREAD, BUNS, &C.

G21. Excellent Buns.

To three and a half pounds of flour, take half a pound of butter, half a pound of powdered loaf-sugar, three eggs well beaten, a pint and three-quarters of new milk just warm, and lour table-spoonsful ot good yeast; let it rise well in sponge, then mix them up with currants, caraway-seeds, lemon-peel grated, or candied lemon. They should be very light, and baked in cheesecake tins.

They are very nice without the currants.

622. Common Buns.

To three pounds of flour put half a pound of sugar, rub in a quarter of pound of butter and a little salt; warm nearly a pint and a half of new milk, and mix with it five table-spoonsful of yeast; when it has stood a little to settle, clear it off into the middle of the flour, stirring it till of a thin batter, cover it and let it rise well in the sponge; then mix it up with three-quarters of a pound of currants, well cleaned, a tea-spoonful of ginger, and half an ounce of caraway-seeds. Make it up into buns, cover them with a cloth, and let them rise twenty minutes, or half an hour in cold weather, and bake them in a brisk oven.

623. Hard Biscuits.

Warm two ounces of butter in as much skimmed milk as will make a pound of flour into a stiff paste, beat it with a paste roller, and work it smooth, roll it out thin, and cut it into round cakes, prick them with a fork. Six minutes will bake them.

624. Biscuits or Cracknels.

Take three pounds of flour, rub in six ounces of butter quite fine, very little salt, one egg well beaten, with a small table-spoonful of well-purified yeast,

200

BREAD, BUNS, &C.

mix all together with as much skimmed milk as will make it a very stiff paste, knead it, and beat it with a paste roller till perfectly smooth; cover with a cloth, and let it stand an hour and a half or two hours, then roll it out as thin as possible, cut the cakes with a tin cutter, and prick them with a stamp made with wire for the purpose the size of the biscuit, bake them on tins in rather a quick oven. The paste must be very stiff, or the biscuits will not be nice. They will keep good for many weeks in a dry place.

625. Excellent Biscuits.

To a pound of flour put a little salt and one egg well beaten, mix it up with as much water (with a tea-spoonful of yeast) as will make it up in a stiff paste, knead it till quite smooth, cover it up close half an hour, then roll it out, and put in a quarter of a pound of butter, as for puff paste, dredge with flour, and roll it out well, stamp or prick, and cut it in squares or any form you please, bake in rather a quick oven.

626. Abernethy Biscuits.

To seven pounds of flour, one quart of new milk, half a pound of butter, half a pound of loaf-sugar, add two ounces of caraway-seeds; mix and knead them very well together, then roll them out, cut and stamp them with a block. Bake them in a quick oven.

627. Plain Crisp Biscuits.

Take a pound of flour, the yolks of two eggs wellbeaten, and a quarter of a pint of new milk, make it up in a stiff paste, knead it well and beat it with the paste roller, till quite smooth, then roll it out very thin, cut it into biscuits, and bake them in rather a quick oven; they should be quite dry and crisp.

201

BREAD, BUNS, &C.

62S. Crushers, or Stamped Biscuits.

Rub a quarter of a pound of butter in a pound of flour, mix with cold water, and a tea-spoonful of yeast, knead it till quite smooth, cover it on the board with a basin for half an hour, make it into balls, and put each into the mould of a small butter print, or roll out the paste about the third ot an inch in thickness, and stamp it with the print.

629. Excellent Rolls.

Warm an ounce of butter in a pint of milk, put to it a spoonful and a half of yeast, and a little salt. Put two pounds of flour in a bowl, and mix in the above; let it rise an hour, then knead it well; make it into seven rolls, and bake them in a quick oven.

A little saffron boiled in half a teacupful of the milk, and strained into the above, is an improvement.

630. Rolls with a mixture of Potatoes.

Dry a pound and a half of flour. Bruise a pound of well-boiled mealy potatoes, mash them with half an ounce of butter, and half a pint of milk, till they will pass through a wire-sieve. Put a quarter ot a pint of warm milk to three table-spoonsful of good yeast, add a little salt, and make it the usual stillness of dough. Let it stand before the fire to rise, then work it up into common-sized rolls, and bake them half an hour in a pretty quick oven. They eat well toasted and buttered.

631. French Rolls.

Rub an ounce of butter into a pound of flour; add to it one egg, two spoonsful of yeast, and a little salt, mixed with as much milk, just warmed, as will make it into a light paste. Let this rise half an

202

BREAD, BUNS, &C.

hour, then make it into moderate-sized rolls, and set them before the fire half an hour longer. Half an hour will bake them in a quick oven.

632. Brentford Rolls.

Take two pounds of flour, two eggs well beaten, a little salt, and two ounces of sugar finely powdered. Put to these three large spoonsful of good yeast, and milk enough made just warm, to mix it into a light paste. Set this before the fire to rise for half an hour, then roll out the dough thin, make it into twelve rolls, let them stand before the fire to rise, and bake them in a brisk oven.

633. Breakfast Calces.

Rub a quarter of a pound of butter into two pounds and a quarter of flour, put to it a little yeast, three eggs and a pint of warm new milk, with a little salt, knead it up and let it stand on the hearth to rise, then make it into rolls or cakes, cover them with a cloth, and let them rise a little longer, bake them in a moderate oven.

634. Common Tea Cakes.

To two pounds of flour, take half a pint of new milk, and nearly the same of water, hot enough to make the whole a proper warmth to mix with three table-spoonsful of good yeast, let it settle a little, rub two ounces of butter in the flour, and a little salt; mix in the yeast, &c., and let it rise in sponge, then make it itp in the usual way.

Currants may be added.

635. Scotch Tea Cakes.

Take three pounds of flour well-dried, with a little salt in it, warm a pint and a quarter of new milk, put half of it to four large spoonsful of good yeast,

203

BREAD, BUNS, &C.

stirring it well'; when settled, mix it into the middle of the flour, and a quarter of a pound ot butter melted in the remainder of the milk, let it stand covered up three-quarters of an hour, then add three well-beaten eggs, four table-spoonsful of warm cream, half a pound of currants, half an ounce of carawayseeds, and half a pound of good sugar, mix all well together, and when risen, make it up in cakes, lay them on warm tins, rubbed over with a little butter, cover them with a cloth, and set them on the hearth fifteen or twenty minutes, then bake them in rather a brisk oven. The seeds may be omitted, if preferred.

636. Norton Crumpets.

To a quart of good milk, rather warm, take four large spoonsful of purified yeast, and a little salt, mixing it by degrees into as much flour (beating it a little to take out the lumps) as will make rather a thick batter, and add two well-beaten eggs, then cover and set it on the hearth to rise; when well risen, keep taking the batter from the top with a wooden spoon, and bake it on a bake-stone or iron-plate, rubbed over with a bit of butter in a clean cloth: about a quarter ot a pint of batter will make a good-sized crumpet; turn them as soon as possible after you lay them on with a tin slice the size of the cake; when browned, turn them again, and lay them on a cooler part of the stone to soak a little, always keep the hottest part to pour the fresh batter upon, and take care they do not burn. As they are baked, lay them on a clean cloth, and keep them covered. When to be used, toast them, or lay them on a tin with a clean wet cloth over them, set them in the oven, and they will eat as i( fresh baked. To dip them quickly in milk or water, answers the same purpose as a wet cloth. Be careful not to dry them, or they will not be nice.;

204

BREAD, BUNS, &C.

637. Common Crumpets.

Take a pint and a half of milk, just warm, mix with it five table-spoonsful of good yeast; when it has stood to settle, pour it off by degrees into two pounds of flour and a little salt, stirring it till well-mixed, beat it till it become a thick batter. A small portion of salt of tartar dissolved in a little milk (in the proportion of about a tea-spoonful to two pounds of flour) and stirred well in, is a great improvement. When well-risen, bake them as above.

63S. Potato Crumpets.

Grate some potatoes of the most mealy kind into some clean water, rub them through a hair-sieve, adding plenty of water, then pour off the water, leaving the starch quite clear at the bottom; mix it with the potatoes, and to about three pounds of potatoes, mix half a pound of flour, an egg, and a little salt; bake them in the same manner as crumpets, and butter them hot. A spoonful of yeast may be added.

639. Muffins.

To three pounds of the finest flour, take a pint and a half of warm milk and water, with some good yeast well-purified, and a little salt, strain the liquor into the flour, and beat it a quarter of an hour; set it an hour to rise, put it into pieces the size of an egg, roll them in the hand like balls, put them on a cloth dredged well with flour, and laid on the hearth; lay a clean flannel over them as you roll them up, also keep the dough closely-covered the whole of the time. All the dough being rolled into balls, those first done will be ready for baking, and will spread out into the right form for muffins; lay them on the heated plate or stone, and as the bottom begins to change colour, turn them on the other side, but be careful they do not burn.

BREAD, BUNS, &C. 205

A little soda dissolved in a little water, and mixed well in, helps to lighten the dough.

040. Mvffins another way.

Take three pounds of flour, make a hole in the middle, then mix two or three large spoonsful of yeast with a little salt, and as much milk rather warm as will make it into a light paste, (it will take about a pint and a half,) pour it into the middle of the flour, stirring a little of the flour into it; let it stand all night covered with a cloth, then beat it well together, a quarter of an hour, let it stand an hour to rise, then take the batter out with a large spoon, and lay it on a board wedl-dredged with flour, in round pieces little larger than an egg, cover them with a flannel on the hearth till the stone be hot, then slide them off the board upon the stone or iron-plate; when browned on the under-side, turn them.

641. Yorkshire Muffins.

Take two pounds of flour with a little salt, warm a pint of new milk, mix a part of it to four large spoonsful of fresh yeast, and melt two ounces of butter in the remainder; put it in the flour with two wellbeaten eggs, and when the yeast is settled, add it to the flour, and mix all well together; beat the dough with a wooden spoon twenty minutes, make it up into balls on a board well-dredged; lay a cloth in a tray on the hearth, dredge it well with flour, and as you make them up lay them on at a proper distance from each other, in order that they may not run together in rising; cover them with a cloth, and in about twenty minutes have your tins hot, lay them on quickly and shape them a little with your fingers, bake them in a quick oven, and watch them well.

A tea-spoonful of carbonate of soda dissolved in a

x

206

bread, buns, &c.

little of the milk, and mixed up with the dough, adds much to the lightness, and is a wholesome addition.

642. Rvs/cs, or Tops and Bottoms.

Beat four eggs with half a pint of new milk, in which has been melted a quarter of a pound of butter, add to it two large spoonsful of yeast, and three ounces of sugar; put them by degrees into as much flour as will make a very light paste, rather like batter; let it rise before the fire half an hour, then add more flour to make it a little stiffen Work it well and divide it into small cakes and flatten them; when baked and cold, slice them, and put them in a cool oven to dry and brown a little.

643. Rusks.

To three pounds of flour, take six ounces of sifted sugar, six ounces of butter, and three spoonsful of yeast, mix it with as much new milk, rather warm, as will make it into rather a light dough, set it before the fire to rise; when risen, roll it into cakes, about five or six inches in length and two broad, and bake them in a moderate oven; when baked, cut them into thin slices and dry them upon tins in a very slow oven.

644. Italian Rusks.

Cut a savoy or lemon-cake in two, and then into slices, lay them on a baking tin, and dry them in a slow oven, till they are of a nice light brown, and quite crisp.

64.5. Common Rusks.

Take a pound of white bread dough, roll in it four ounces of butter; when well incorporated, make it up into rolls, bake in a quick oven. \V lien the rolls arc cold and the oven cool, slice them and lay them on

BREAD, BUNS, &C. 207

tins to dry. These rusks are very suitable for the weak and sickly.

646. Potato Cake.

Peel, boil, and mash very fine, after being well-dried, two pounds of potatoes, add three ounces of butter, two ounces of moist sugar, a quarter of a pound of currants, and three well-beaten eggs; bake it threequarters of an hour.

647. Irish Spotted or Freckled Bread.

To six pounds of flour, melt a pound of butter in little more than a quart of new milk, adding six tablespoonsful of yeast and a little salt; when it has risen, mix in half a pound of sugar, the same quantity of currants well-cleaned and dried, and raisins stoned and chopped a little, a few almonds blanched and chopped, and some candied orange. Bake it in two loaves.

This Irish breached, or mottled loaf, is the holidaycake of Munster.

648. Common Seed Loaf.

To about three pounds of white bread dough that has been mixed with milk, or tea-cake paste, put half a pound of brown sugar and some caraway-seeds, knead it well, and bake as common bread.

649. A Sally Lunn.

(A well-known cake at Bath.)

To two pounds of dour, take half a pint of milk and half a pint of cream, with a bit of butter the size of a walnut; when a little warm, put to it three wellbeaten yolks of eggs, three or four spoonsful of wellpurified yeast, and a little salt; mix the whole together, and let it rise an hour, then make it into cakes, and lay them on tins lightly rubbed over with a little

T 2

203

BREAD, BUNS, &C.

butter; let them stand on the hearth to rise about twenty minutes, covered with a thin cloth, then bake them in rather a quick oven.

650. frigs.

Two pounds of flour, mix with it half a pound of sugar sifted, and an ounce of caraway-seeds; melt half a pound of butter in a pint of milk; when about as warm as new milk, put to it three eggs, leaving out one white, and a spoonful of yeast, mix them well together, and let the paste stand five hours to rise; make it into wigs, and bake them on tins.

651. Wigs.

Two pounds of flour, a quarter of a pound of butter rubbed in it, a quarter of a pound of fine sugar, very little salt, and three spoonsful of new yeast; make it into a light paste with half a pint of warm cream, let it stand an hour to rise; then make it up into wigs. Bake them on tins in a quick oven. Caraway-seeds may be added, if approved. They may also be made into large round cakes, crossed so as to be easily divided into quarters, and stand before the fire to rise on the tins, before they are baked.

652. Yorkshire Cakes.

Dry a pound and a half of flour before the fire; beat up an egg with a spoonful of good yeast, add threequarters of a pint of new milk lukewarm; strain the whole through a hair-sieve into the flour, mix it lightly into dough, and let it rise by the fire an hour, then make it up into cakes, rub the tins with very little butter, and let them be warm when you lay the cakes on them, cover with a thin cloth, and let them rise on the hearth about twenty or thirty minutes; bake them in a brisk oven. This makes very good buns, with a little good moist-sugar and a few caraway-seeds.

209

BREAD, BUNS, &C.

653. Oatcake.

Mix some good oatmeal with a little salt and warm water, and a spoonful or two of yeast, beat till it is quite smooth and rather a thick batter, cover and let it stand to rise, then bake on a hot bake-stone, in the same manner as crumpets, but not quite so quick.

Those who like them soured should ‘ lay the leaven as it is called, over-night.

654. Clap Bread.

Mix some oatmeal and water well-together, about the same consistence as common dough, then roll it out into cakes as thin as possible; bake them on a stone or iron-plate of a moderate heat, over the fire; when baked on both sides, set them on an edge before the fire till perfectly dry.

This bread will continue good many weeks, if kept in a dry place. It is very good with cheese or butter, and may be toasted, if preferred.

655. Potato Calces.

Boil and mash some good mealy potatoes with a little butter and salt, add a little good yeast and a few spoonsful of milk, with as much flour as will make it the consistence of dough; roll it into cakes, let them rise two hours, then bake in a moderate oven.

The potatoes should be well-dried after bekm boiled.

656. Ferment for Bread, used by the Inhabitants of Long Island, in the State of New York.

Take as many hops as may be held between the thumb and three fingers, put them into a pint and a halt or a quart ot water, and boil them well together; put in a few slices of apples; then pour the liquor off, or strain it through a coarse cloth, and add three or

t 3

210

BREAD, BUNS, &C.

four spoonsful of molasses (treacle), and stir in as much flour as will mingle it to the consistency of thin hatter. Set the whole in the corner of the kitchen fire-place, or in any temperature of moderate warmth, until a fermentation takes place, which will happen in a few hours, then mix it with flour.

This will be sufficient, for one baking, for a family of eight or ten persons.

657. The method of malting Leaven.

(As practised in the Northern Counties.)

When leaven is to be first produced, a lump of yeastdough must be put into an earthen vessel, and set in a cool damp place. In about ten or fourteen days it will be in a proper state to use as a ferment for bread. At every making of bread, a sufficient quantity of the leavened dough should be laid by for leaven against the next baking. The makers of bread with leaven have learnt from experience, that it is best to use the same pan for keeping the leaven, and the same tub for making the bread, without ever washing them. They are kept clean by scraping. It is usual to borrow a piece of leaven to begin with; if this can be done, it is better than to make it for immediate use.

658. To make and preserve Yeast.

(As practised in America.)

To make it: - I3oil a handful of hops in three pints of water three or four minutes; the water must boil when the hops are put in; strain the liquor, and then thicken it with flour to the consistence of starch. Let it stand till it is about milk-warm, and put it into a jar large enough to allow room for it to rise; then add a tea-cupful of yeast, and let it work.

To preserve it: - After the yeast has risen suffi-

211

BREAD, BUNS, & C.

eiently, add as much meal made from Indian corn (or coarse flour) as will make it stiff enough to he rolled thin; then immediately, and before it rises a second time, roll it, and with a tea-cup or tin cutter, cut it into cakes, and dry them in the shade, in an airy room, or any other suitable place. Turn them three or four times a day. After they are quite dry, put them into a basket or bag, and keep them aired, and free from moisture. One of these cakes, soaked about fifteen minutes in cold water, will be sufficient for two good-sized loaves.

659. Flour, or Pay dual Yeast.

Take a pound of fine flour, and mix it up with boiling water about the thickness of moderately thick watergruel; add half a pound of coarse moist-sugar, and when it is lukewarm, pour it upon three large spoonsful of well-purified yeast in a pan large enough to give room for the fermentation. As it ferments, take off the yeast, and put it into a stonebottle with a small neck, cork it, and keep it in a dry warm place. When half used, replenish it with flour and water prepared as at first, but no addition of yeast will be required. This is to be the regular process to keep up the stock.

660. Flour Yeast.

Boil one pound of good flour, a quarter of a pound of brown sugar, and a little salt, in two gallons of water for an hour; when milk-warm, bottle it and cork it close. It will be fit for use in twenty-four hours.

One pint of this will make eighteen pounds of bread.

66 1 . Flour Yeast.

Thicken two quarts of water with three spoonsful of fine flour, boil it half an hour, and add half a pound

212

BREAD, BUNS, &C.

of brown sugar; when nearly cold, put it in a large jug with four spoonsful of good yeast, shake it well together, and let it stand one day to ferment near the fire, without being covered. There will be a thin liquor on the top, which must be poured off", shake what remains, and cork it up for use. Take four large spoonsful of the old to ferment the next quantity, always keeping it in succession.

662. Russian Yeast.

Make a thick wort of ground rye or malt, and for a gallon of this take three ounces or more of leaven, and dissolve it in a little of the wort; mix the whole, and add half a pound of ground malt; shake the mixture for some time, and in half an hour add two large spoonsful of good yeast; cover for forty-eight hours, and the whole will be good yeast.

663. Yeast.

Boil two ounces of the best hops in a quarter of water till reduced to a pint, strain it. To half a pound of flour dried and sifted, take an ounce of isinglass dissolved in warm water; mix the whole together in six quarts of warm water, and a tea-cupful of fresh yeast; let it stand thirty hours in a warm place, and it will become excellent yeast, fit for any purpose.

664. Camp Yeast.

Make a thin gruel with a gallon of spring water, flour of rye, wheat, or peas, stir and boil it well for twenty minutes, then add to it half a pound of sugar; when about new-milk warm, put a quarter of a pint of fresh yeast to it, cover it and let it ferment near the fire, or in a warm place, taking off the yeast as it ferments. Keep a few spoonsful of it closely corked in a bottle to ferment the next. A gill ot this yeast is sullicicnt for four quartern loaves.

213

BREAD, BUNS, &C.

6G5. Potato Yeast.

Peel and boil a peck of potatoes, mask them very well, put to them about three quarts of boiling water, or as much as will make it about the thickness of yeast, then rub it through a tin colander, and add half a pound or three-quarters of good yeast; put it in an earthen pot and tie it close up, it will keep good several months in cold weather. The bread will require three times more of this than of common yeast, and rather more time to rise.

666. Potato Yeast.

Peel and boil some mealy potatoes till they are soft, and when bruised add as much boiling water as will make them of the consistence of common yeast. To every pound of potatoes put in two ounces of coarse moist sugar or treacle, and two table-spoonsful of good yeast, stirred in while the potatoes are warm. Make this in a vessel large enough to admit of the fermentation, and keep it warm till it has done fermenting. It will then be fit for use. Let it be kept in the cellar.

667. To keep Yeast.

Put the yeast in a stone jar or wide-necked bottle, pour on it clean water and stir it well; cover the jar close, and set it on the floor in the cellar. By changing the water in summer every two days, it will keep well, and purify it, that it may be used for any kind of bread.

66S. To purify and bleach Yeast.

Bad yeast may be improved by mixing in it a .little flour and sugar with a little warm water, or by bleaching it, that is, beating up the yeast with water equal in quantity to itself, and the white of an egg to a quart of yeast; let it stand twelve hours, then

214

BISCUITS, CAKES, &C.

pour off the thin part, and what remains will be improved yeast.

Washing yeast is to stir it up with plenty of clean water, let it stand five minutes, then pour it off, and throw the brown sediment away, then let the other stand covered up till next day or till wanted.

BISCUITS, CAKES, See.

669 . Almond Cake.

Take six ounces of sweet almonds, half a pound of powdered sugar, seven eggs, six ounces of flour, and the rinds of four lemons grated; pound the almonds very fine with a little orange-flower water, then add the lemon and yolks of eggs well beaten till it is as white as a sponge paste; beat up the whites of the eggs in a strong froth like snow; mix them very light with the paste; then add the flour by degrees as lightly as possible; butter a mould, and bake in a moderate oven for an hour, with many folds of paper under, and one on the top.

670 . Almond Puff Cakes.

Rub five ounces of butter in seven of flour, and five ounces of sugar finely powdered; make it into a stiff paste with a little rose-water; roll it out and strew on a few sweet almonds blanched, chopped small, and steeped in sherbet with a little sugar, then lay on a cover of paste, and bake them in squares in rather a brisk oven; when nearly enough mark them across, and when done, break them in the marks.

671 Queen Anne’s Biscuits.

A pound of flour well dried, half a pound of fine

215

biscuits, cakes, &c.

sugar powdered and sifted, a pound of currants well cleaned and dried, and half a pound of butter. Rub the butter in the flour, then mix in the sugar and currants, add ten spoonsful of cream, the yolks of three eggs, three spoonsful of rose-water, and a little mace pounded fine. When the paste is well worked up, set it in a dish before the fire till it be thoroughly warm, then make it up into cakes, put them on a tin well buttered, prick them full of holes on the top, and hake them in a quick oven.

672. Apple Biscuits.

One pound of pulp of apples, a quarter of a pound of powdered sugar, a quarter of a pound of flour, a quarter of a pound of potato flour, four whites and one whole egg, and essence of cloves. - Take as many apples as will produce a pound of pulp, bake them in a quick oven till quite soft, then pass them through a hair-sieve; put them in a copper-pan, adding the sugar and an egg, with a little essence of cloves; whisk it over a gentle fire till quite hot, then take it off and whisk it Cold; afterwards take four whites of eggs and whisk them to a strong snow; put your paste in and mix them well together; sift the potato powder and flour, and mix these in together as lightly as possible; dress them round with a spoon on paper, and bake them in a moderate heat, iceing the biscuits before you bake them; viz. beat up the whites of eggs to a strong froth, put a little over the biscuits, and then sift fine sugar on them.

673. Chesterjield Biscuits.

One pound of sugar, one pound of flour, sixteen eggs, and one ounce of carawayseeds. Put the yolks of the eggs, sugar, and seeds into a bowl, beat them very well; then beat the whites to show, mix them in while the flour is sifted lightly over; bake

210

biscuits, cakes, &c.

them in paper cases; when done, cut them in long thin slices, and dry them in a cool oven.

674. Banbury Cakes.

Set a sponge with two tablespoonsful of thick purified yeast, half a pint of warm milk, and a pound of flour; when risen, mix with it half a pound of currants, well cleaned and dried, half a tea-spoonful of salt, half a pound of candied orange and lemon shred small, one ounce of spice, such as powdered cinnamon, allspice, ginger, and nutmeg or mace; mix the whole well together with half a pound of honey: roll out puff paste a quarter of an inch thick, cut it into rounds with a tin cutter about four inches across, lay on each with a spoon a small quantity of the mixture, close it round with the fingers in an oval form, place the joining underneath, press it gently with the hand, sift sugar over, bake them on a baking-plate a quarter of an hour in a moderate oven, and of a light colour.

675. Berkshire, Cakes.

To half a peck of good flour take a pound and a half of butter, a quarter of a pound of sugar, a quarter of an ounce of cinnamon and mace together, and three pounds of currants well cleaned and dried, half a pint of yeast, and a little rose-water; boil as much milk as will do to knead it, and when nearly cold, put in some caraway-seeds, work all well together at the fire; pull it to pieces several times before it is made up, then make it into small cakes, flatten, and lay them on tins. Bake them in rather a moderate oven.

676. Bath Buns.

Rub half a pound of butter in a pound and a half of flour, a quarter of a pound of powdered sugar, a

m

biscuits, cakes, &c.

little salt, and half an ounce of caraway-seeds; beat the yolks of four eggs and three whites, put half a pint of warm milk to four spoonsful of good yeast; when settled, pour it off to the eggs, and mix all into the middle of the flour, till about a third of the flour is mixed in; cover it with flannel, and set it before the lire to rise about half an hour, then mix all up, and cover it till well risen; make up the buns, and set them before the fire on a baking tin about a quarter of an hour; bake them in a quick oven; when done, brush them over with sugar and beaten

egg-

678. Bath Calces.

Rub a quarter of a pound of butter into a pound of flour, put a spoonful of good yeast, as much warm cream as will make it into a light paste, and set it to the fire to rise. When you make it up, add a little salt, sugar, and four ounces of caraway-comfits; work part of them in, and strew the rest on the top. Shape it into round cakes about the size of a French roll; bake them on sheet tins, and serve them hot.

679. A light Calce.

Take a pound of flour, half a pound of currants, sugar, a little mace and salt, melt a quarter of a pound of butter in a quarter of a pint of new milk, add two well-beaten eggs, and two spoonsful of purified yeast; beat all together very well, and when risen quite light, bake it in a quick oven. This makes very nice buns.

6 SO. Biscuits.

Take the weight of three eggs in lump sugar sifted, with the weight ot two eggs in flour, beat the yolks with a little grated lemon-peel, the sugar stirred

u

21S

BISCUITS, CAKES, &C.

gradually into the eggs all one way; beat the whites till the froth will stand; beat it well, and stir in the flour very gently. Bake them in buttered tins in a quick oven.

681. Naples Biscuits.

Put a quarter of a pint of water, two spoonsful of orange-flower water, and half a pound of fine sugar into a saucepan, and let it boil till the sugar is dissolved, then pour it upon four eggs well beaten, stirring the whole as fast as possible while the syrup is poured in; continue beating it well till cold, then stir in half a pound of flour, make clean white paper into moulds the proper size for the biscuits, pour the batter into them, and put them on tins to bake; sift fine sugar on and set them in a brisk oven, taking great care that they are not scorched.

682. Savoy Biscuits.

Take six eggs, separate the yolks and whites, mix the yolks with six ounces of sugar powdered fine, and the rind of a lemon grated; beat them together a quarter of an hour, then Vhisk the whites in a broad basin till they are a complete froth; mix them with the yolks, and add five ounces of flour well dried; stir the whole well together, then take some of the batter. into a biscuit funnel*, and draw it along clean white paper to the proper size of a biscuit; sift fine sugar on, and bake them in a hot oven. They must be very carefully watched, for they are very soon done.

* Take fine brown Holland, make a bag in the form of a cone, about five inches over at the top; cut a small hole in the bottom, and tie in a small tapering tin pipe, about two inches long, and half an inch wide at the bottom, lay the pipe close to the paper, and press out the mixture as wanted.

219

BISCUITS, CAKES, &C.

6S3. Scotch Biscuits.

Take a pound and a half of flour, pour the third of a pint of boiling water on nine ounces of butter, let it stand till nearly cold before you mix it with the flour, adding a few carawayseeds, and powdered sugar to the taste; roll them out, but not very thin; wet them over with a little rose-water, and sift sugar on them.

684. Sponge Biscuits.

Beat well the yolks of eight eggs and the whites of four separately, to a strong froth, mix and beat them well with one pound of sifted loaf-sugar; have ready a quarter of a pint of boiling water, with one good spoonful of rose or orange-flower water in it; as the eggs and sugar are beaten, add the water by degrees, then set it over the fire till scalding hot; take it off and beat it till almost cold, add three quarters of a pound of flour well dried and sifted, and the peel of one lemon grated; bake them in small long pans, in a quick oven; sift sugar over before you put them in.

An earthen or tin pan, set in a pan of water over the fire, should be used.

685. Lemon-Drop Biscuits.

Take a pound of good lump-sugar, pound and sift it very fine, the whites of two eggs beaten well with a little essence of lemon, then mix with the sugar, and drop it on papers the size of half a crown; let them stand about ten minutes, then bake them in a very cool oven.

686. Nun’s Biscuits.

Blanch and beat half a pound of almonds, with a little rose or orange-flower water, add the whites of

u 2

220 BISCUITS, CAKES, &C.

six eggs beaten to a froth; then beat the yolks very well, and add to them three-quarters of a pound of sifted loaf-sugar; mix the almonds with the eggs and sugar, and add a quarter of a pound of flour well dried, the rinds of two lemons grated, and some shred citron; hake them in small tins buttered, with sugar sifted on them; only half fill them.

687. Yarmouth Biscuits.

Take six ounces of currants, clean and dry them very well, rub a little flour among them to make them white, half a pound of sugar powdered, twelve ounces of sifted flour, and half a pound of fresh butter rubbed in it, beat three eggs, and mix all together in a paste; roll them about the eighth of an inch thick, and cut them in shapes; bake them on two papers on tins, in rather a quick oven.

688. Drop Biscuits.

Beat well together one pound of sifted sugar with eight eggs for twenty minutes, then add a quarter of an ounce of carawayseeds, and a pound and a quarter of flour well dried; lay white paper on a baking tin, put the mixture in a biscuit-funnel, and drop it out on the paper about the size of half-a-crown; silt sugar over, and bake them in a hot oven.

6S9. Frost Biscuits.

Take half a pound of potato flour, four ounces of powdered sugar, six ounces of butter beaten to cream, two well-beaten eggs, the grated rind of a lemon, beat or whisk them well together twenty minutes: bake the biscuits in small tins in a moderate oven.

690. Caraway Cakes.

Take two pounds of flour, with half a pound of fresh butter rubbed well in, ten eggs (leaving out five

221

BISCUITS, CAKES, &C.

whites), three spoon'sful of yeast, a little warm cream, and two ounces of sugar, mix all well together and set it by the fire; when risen put in three-quarters of a pound of caraway-comfits, and the rind of one or two lemons grated; make them up in small round balls; butter the tins and bake them in a moderate oven.

691. Caraway Cake.

Take three pounds and a half of the best flour, well dried, rub in a pound and a half of fresh butter, till the whole is quite fine, then put in a pound of sugar powdered and sifted, four well-beaten eggs, four large spoonsful of good purified yeast, half a pint of cream, half a pint of milk, and six spoonsful of rose-water. Mix all well together, and let it stand before the fire half an hour to rise, then put in a quarter of a pound of caraway-comfits, and bake it an hour and a half or two hours; or divide it in two, and bake it one hour.

692. Cakes that will keep well.

Have in readiness a pound and a quarter of flour well dried, take a pound of butter unsalted, work it with a pound of white sugar till it creams, and three spoonsful of rose-water; boil the rind of an orange till tender, and beat it with a little of the sugar; mix these together, then grate in a little nutmeg, add three yolks of eggs and two whites, mix them well, and stir in the flour; make them into small cakes, wet the top with sherbet or water, and strew it with fine sugar; bake them on buttered papers well floured.

693. Plain Currant Cake.

Take three pounds of flour, twelve ounces of butter; dissolve the butter in hot water, put it in the flour vvith a little yeast, and set it to sponge; when well lisen, make it into a stiff batter, but do not knead it

u 3

222

BISCUITS, CAKES, &C.

with the hands; one pound and a half of currants well cleaned and dried, a little nutmeg, lemon-peel grated, and ten ounces of sugar; beat all together; when risen bake it.

694. A very good common Calce.

Rub eight ounces of butter in two pounds of flour well dried, mix in it three spoonsful of well purified yeast, with a pint of milk just warm, let it rise an hour and a half, then mix in the yolks and whites of four eggs, beaten separately, one pound of good moist sugar, a wine-glass of rose-water, the rind of a lemon grated, and a tea-spoonful of ginger; add either a pound of currants or some caraway-seeds, beat it ten minutes, and bake it in a brisk oven.

695. Citron Cake.

Work a pound of butter to cream, mix with it a pound of finely-powdered sugar, a pound of flour well dried and sifted, put lightly in a quarter of a pound of almonds blanched and chopped fine, a little mace, three or four ounces of citron, and eight eggs, the yolks and whites beaten separately. Half a teaspoonful of carbonate of soda, dissolved in a tablespoonful of rose-water, will add to its lightness.

696. Cinnamon Cake.

Put six eggs and three table-spoonsful of rose-water into a broad basin, whisk them well together, add a spoonful of sifted sugar, a dessert-spoonful of pounded cinnamon, and flour to make it into a good paste; roll it out, cut the cakes in any shape you like, and bake them on white paper. Keep them in a dry place.

697. Cracknels.

Mix half a pound of flour, and half a pound of sugar;

223

BISCUITS, CAKES, &C.

melt four ounces of butter in two spoonsful of cream, then with four eggs beaten and strained, make it into a paste, add caraway-seeds; roll it out as thin as paper, cut the cakes with a tin cutter, wash them with the white of an egg, and dust sugar over.

698. Hard Caraway Biscuits.

Mix two pounds of flour, one pound of sugar, two ounces of butter, and one ounce of caraway-seeds, with four eggs and a few spoonsful of water to make a stiff paste; roll it thin, cut the cakes in any shape, and bake them on tins: while baking, boil half a pound of sugar in a gill of water to a thin syrup; while both are hot, dip each cake into it, put them into the oven on tins, to dry for a short time, and when the oven is cool, put them in again, and let them remain till quite dry.

699. Diet Bread.

Beat the yolks of twelve eggs, then add by degrees a pound of loaf-sugar sifted very fine, the grated rind and juice of a lemon, eight ounces of flour well dried, and lastly the whites of six eggs beaten to a froth; beat it an hour, and bake it an hour in a moderately brisk oven.

This is a very excellent cake.

700. Shrewsbury Cakes.

Take one pound of flour, rub in half a pound of butter, half a pound of sugar, and a few carawayseeds, mix them in a stiff paste with a little rosewater; roll them out thin, cut them, and bake them on tins.

701. Shrewsbury Calces.

To half a pound of flour take six ounces of loaf-sugar powdered, and a quarter of a pound of butter; mix

224

BISCUITS, CAKES, & C.

all together, with one egg well beaten; roll it thin, and cut it in forms; dust a little sugar over before you set them in the oven.

702. Shrewsbury Calces.

Beat six ounces of butter to cream, then add twelve ounces of flour dried, eight ounces of powdered sugar, a few caraway-seeds, and one egg well beaten; mix these well together; roll it thin, cut it out in cakes, and bake them on tins in a moderate oven.

They may be made up into balls, and just flattened on the tins with the hand.

703. Ginger Cakes.

Beat up three eggs in half a pint of cream, put them over the fire, and stir them till warm; then add a pound of butter, half a pound of powdered loaf-sugar, and one ounce of prepared ginger; carefully stir them together over a moderate fire, to melt the butter, then pour it into the middle of two pounds of flour, and make it into a good paste; roll it out rather thin without any flour, and cut the cakes with a tin cutter. They are generally baked on three papers, laid on tins in a hot oven.

704. Seed Cake.

Take one pound and a quarter of flour, three-quarters of a pound of loaf-sugar pounded, the yolks of ten eggs, and the whites of five beaten to a froth, one pound of butter beaten to cream; mix these well together, add nearly an ounce of caraway-seeds bruised; butter the pan, and sift sugar on the top.

705. A light Seed Cake without Butter.

Take the yolks of six eggs and three whites, beat them well half an hour, then add four ounces of pow-

225

BISCUITS, CAKES, &C.

tiered loaf-sugar, mix it with the eggs; add eight ounces of flour and a few caraway-seeds; stir the whole well together, and put it in a tin or basin lined with writing paper buttered. Half an hour will bake it, if the oven be quick.

A nicer plain cake cannot be made, if care be taken in the baking.

70G. A plain Cake.

Take rice and wheat flour, of each six ounces, nine well-beaten eggs, half a pound of powdered sugar, and half an ounce of caraway-seeds; having beaten this one hour, bake it the same time in a quick oven. This is a very light cake, and is very suitable lor delicate stomachs.

707. Eccles Cakes.

To a pound of flour take three-quarters of a pound of butter with the salt worked out of it; mix the flour to a paste with water that has a small portion of yeast in it; roll it out thin, and lay the butter on in small pieces the same as for puff paste, dredge it, fold it up and roll it out twice or three times, then fold it up and cover it with a cloth or bowl two or three hours in a cool place, then cut it in pieces about the size of an egg, make them round, and with the thumb make a hole in the middle of each, working it round till it will admit of a dessert-spoonful of currants and some sugar, moistened with as little water as possible, and a few drops of essence of lemon; close the paste very well, and lay them on the board the closed side downward, roll them out and bake them on tins in a quick oven. If preferred, the sugar may be boiled to syrup with as little water as possible, and then mixed with the currants, which should always be very well cleaned.

226

BISCUITS, CAKES, & C.

708. Plum Calce.

Take two pounds of flour, one pound of butter, one pound of sugar, one pound of currants, a little cream, lemon-peel, mace, and cinnamon; first rub the butter in the flour, then put in the cream, a little yeast, and five eggs, and set it to rise: when risen enough, add the other ingredients; bake in a tin lined with paper well-buttered.

709. Plum Cake.

Three pounds of flour well-dried, half a pound of powdered sugar, nutmeg, mace, and cinnamon finely powdered, half an ounce all together, ten yolks of eggs and five whites well-beaten, and a quarter of a pint of good yeast; melt a pound of butter in a pint of cream, add to it the eggs and yeast, mix it with the flour, and let it stand to rise an hour before the fire; then add three pounds of currants well cleaned and dried, and half a pound of raisins stoned and shred small; candied orange, lemon, or citron, and sweet almonds may be added, if approved. Butter a tin, and bake it two hours.

710. Small Plumb Cakes.

Take a pound of flour, rub into it half a pound of butter, the same of powdered sugar, and a little beaten mace; beat four eggs very well (leaving out two whites) with three spoonsful of yeast, put to it a quarter of a pint of warm cream, strain them into your flour, and make it up light, set it before the fire to rise; just before you put it into the oven put in three-quarters of a pound of currants. Bake it in small tins in a quick oven.

711. f Padding Cake.

Beat two pounds of butter to cream with the hand,

BISCUITS, CAKES, &C. 227

then put in one pound of fine sugai' sifted, half a pound of almonds blanched and beaten a little with orange-flower water, two pounds of flour well dried, half an ounce of beaten mace and cinnamon, mix these well together; then beat the yolks and whites of sixteen eggs separately, put to them a glass of rose-water; put the flour and eggs to the butter and sugar by degrees, and beat it with the hand an hour; then put in two pounds of currants cleaned and dried, half a pound of citron, and half a pound of candied lemon. Butter a tin and bake it three hours. An iceing should be put on this cake after it is baked, as follows: -

Almond Iceing for the Bride Cake: - Beat the whites of three eggs to a strong froth, beat a pound of almonds with an ounce of bitter ones very fine, with a little rose-water, mix a pound of powdered sugar very lightly with the whites of eggs and almonds; have it ready when your cake is enough; lay it on thick and even, then put it in the oven to brown. It will then be ready for the sugar-iceing.

Sugar Iceing for a Cake: - Beat two pounds of double-refined sugar with two ounces of starch, or potato-flour, sift it through a gauze-sieve, then beat the whites of five eggs with a knife half an hour, beat in the sugar by degrees, or the froth will fall; when all the sugar is in, add a few drops of essence of lemon, beat it half an hour longer, then lay it on the almond-iceing, and spread it quite smootli and even with a knife; if it be put on as soon as the cake comes out ol the oven, it will be hard by the time the cake is cold.

Another Iceing for a Cake: - Beat the whites of four eggs to a very strong froth, and mix with them by degrees a pound ot fine sugar powdered and sifted, a tea-spoonful of powdered gum-arabic, three spoons-

22S

BISCUITS, CAKES, &C.

ful of orange-flower water, or lemon-juice; beat these well together, and immediately lay it on thick. The cake must be set into a cool oven, that the iceing may be hardened.

712. A common Plum Calce.

Three pounds and a half of flour, half a pound of sugar, some grated nutmeg or pounded mace, eight eggs well-beaten, a wine glass of rose-water or rosesyrup, half a pint of yeast, a pound of butter melted in a pint and a half of milk, and put just warm to the other ingredients; let it rise an hour before the fire, then mix it well together; add two pounds of currants, butter a tin and bake it.

713. Potato-flour Calce.

To one pound of this powder put one pound of eggs, beat three-quarters of a pound of butter with a wooden spoon till it becomes cream; beat the yolks and whites of the eggs separately; when the latter are well-frothed, add a little of the flour, then put it to the butter, then the remainder of the flour and yolks; lastly, ten ounces of powdered sugar, with two spoonsful of rose or orange-flower water, and the grated rind of two lemons; put it in a hoop lined with paper and buttered, bake it an hour and a half in a quick oven, or bake it in small tins.

714. Pound Cake.

Beat a pound of butter to a fine thick cream, add ten yolks of eggs and five whites beaten to a froth; when well-mixed, put in a pound of sugar sifted fine, a pound of flour, a little mace and rose-water; beat all together for an hour, then put in a pound of currants well-cleaned and dried, or an ounce of caraway-seeds; butter some paper well, put it in a tin, and bake an hour in a quick oven.

229

BISCUITS, CAKES, &C.

715. American Potash Calces.

Rub a quarter of a pound of butter into a pound of flour, stir a quarter of a pound of loaf-sugar in half a pint of milk till dissolved; make a solution of about half a tea-cupful of salt of tartar, crystal of soda, or any purified potash, in half a tea-cupful of cold water, mix all together, and work it up into a paste of a good consistence, roll it out, and form it into cakes or biscuits, and bake them on tins. The lightness of these cakes depends much on the briskness of the oven.

716. Jumballs.

W eigh a pound and a quarter of flour, take out as much as will do to roll the cakes in, rub in half a pound of butter as for paste, add three-quarters of a pound of powdered sugar, leaving out a little to dust on the cakes before they are put in the oven, add a little grated lemon-peel, or essence of lemon; mix it up with two beaten eggs and a little cream; roll out the paste, cut it in narrow shreds, and form it into rings or knots, or any other other form; bake moderately quick.

717. Lemon Cake.

Half a pound of powdered loaf-sugar, half a pound of flour, the grated rind of one lemon, two ounces of butter, two well-beaten eggs; mix all well together, and roll out thin, lay it on a tin, and when baked cut it in small squares.

718. King Cakes.

Take one pound of flour, three-quarters of a pound of butter, half a pound of sugar, and half a pound of currants. First rub the butter in the flour, then add the sugar and currants, a little mace, and four eggs

x

230

BISCUITS, CAKES, &C.

well-beaten; make them up in small round cakes, and butter the papers you bake them on; or bake them in small tins.

719. Queen Cakes.

Six ounces of butter beaten to cream, six ounces of sugar powdered fine, six ounces of flour, the yolks of four eggs and two whites, half a tea-spoonful of volatile salts dissolved in a little orange-flower water, and a few currants; beat them together a quarter of an hour, then butter small tins, fill them half full, and bake them. They are soon baked.

720. Queen Cakes.

To one pound of flour take a pound of butter, rub onehalf in the flour, and melt the other half; add a teacupful of cream, eight well-beaten eggs, a pound of powdered loaf-sugar, a few drops of essence of lemon, half a pound of currants, and a tea-spoonful of volatile salts, beat all together, and bake them in small tins. A few caraway-seeds may be added, if approved.

721. Ratafia Calces.

Take half a pound of sweet almonds and half a pound of bitter ones, blanch and beat them fine with rose or plain water, to prevent them from oiling, mix a pound of fine-sifted sugar with the almonds, have ready well-beaten the whites of four eggs, mix them lightly with the almonds and sugar, put it on a moderate fire in a preserving-pan, stirring quickly one way till pretty hot; when a little cool, roll it in small rolls and cut it in thin cakes, dip your hands in flour and shake them on it, tap them lightly with your finger, put them on sugar papers, sift fine sugar over, and immediately set them in a moderate oven.

They may also be made the same as the French

BISCUITS, CAKES, &C. 231

macaroons, only half the almonds bitter, and the other half sweet, and about half the size of macaroons.

722. Rice Cake.

Put a quarter of a pound of rice, well-washed, into a saucepan, with half a pint of water; when it begins to swell, add about half a pint of new milk; let it remain on the fire till the rice is well mixed with the milk and water, and is become quite tender; take it off and stir in half a pound of butter; let it stand till cold, then add a pound and a quarter of flour, half a pound of sugar, four eggs well-beaten, and a little salt; mould the whole well together, make it up into a cake, or loaf, glaze it over with the yolk of egg, and bake it an hour in a tin well buttered.

723. Rice Cake.

Mix half a pound of fine rice flour, and four ounces of wheat flour, with half a pound of finely-powdered sugar; beat very well and strain eight eggs; flavour with a little orange-flower water and essence of lemon, or the rind of a lemon finely grated; beat tlte whole together twenty minutes, and bake in a quick oven.

724. French Rice Cake.

Wash and pick quite clean four ounces of the best rice, steep it an hour in boiling water, with a blade or two of mace, and a dessert-spoonful of salt, setting the pan in a warm place; then drain the water very well from it, and dry it in the pan over the fire, shaking it, or stirring it up frequently with a fork; pour on it a quart of boiled cream, in which the yellow rind of lemon has been infused; let it remain till the rice has absorbed all the cream; add a lump ot butler, line sugar, and essence of lemon to the

232 BISCUITS, CAKES, &C.

taste; when cool add the yolks and whites of eight eggs beaten separately; then pour three ounces of butter melted into the mould, turning it round till the cooling butter adheres to all sides of it; cover the mould with fine bread crumbs, and pour in the mixture; bake it an hour in a moderate oven. Turn it out of the mould while warm.

725. Savoy Cake.

Take the weight of four eggs in fine sugar powdered and sifted, the weight of seven in flour well dried, mix the yolks of the eggs with the sugar you had weighed, a little grated lemon-peel and orangeflower water, beat them well together half an hour, then add the whites whipped to a froth, mix in the flour by degrees, beating it all the time; put it in a tin well-buttered, and bake it an hour. This is a very delicate light cake, and may be baked in a melon moukl or any other shape.

726. Wafer Cakes.

To a pound and a half of flour, take six ounces of fine-powdered sugar, and half an ounce of carawayseeds, mix all up together with half a pint of good cream; roll out the paste very thin, cut the cakes with a tin cutter; prick them well, and bake on tins in a moderate oven.

727. Royal Cakes.

Put into a saucepan a quarter of a pint of water, a piece of butter the size of a walnut, two ounces of fine sugar, a little grated lemon-peel, and a little salt, set it on the fire; when it has boiled about half a minute, stir in it by degrees four spoonsful of flour, constantly stirring it till it becomes a smooth paste, pretty stiff, and adheres to the pan; then take it oil’ the fire, and add three eggs well beaten, put them in

BISCUITS, CAKES, &C.

233

by degrees, stirring the paste all the time that it may not become lumpy; add a little orange-flower water and a few almonds pounded fine, bake them in small cakes or sheets of tin well -buttered; half an hour will bake them in a moderate oven.

72S. Ratafia Drops.

Blanch and beat four ounces of bitter and two ounces of sweet almonds with a little rose-water, a pound of sifted sugar, the whites of two eggs well beaten, and a table-spoonful of flour; drop them into balls about the size of a nutmeg; and bake them on wafer paper.

729. Sponge Cake.

Grate the rind of a lemon to the yolks of seven eggs, beat them and five whites separately; boil a pound of loaf-sugar in a quarter of a pint of water, pour it boiling hot upon the eggs and lemon-peel, whisk it immediately very well for twenty minutes, then stir in three-quarters of a pound of flour well dried and sifted; put it immediately in moulds, and bake it in a moderately hot oven. If baked in two they will take near an hour.

Be careful always to have your mould quite dry; rub it all over the inside with clarified butter, then dust pounded sugar over it; tie a slip of white paper round the mound, fill it with the mixture about three parts full; when done, let the cake stand awhile before it is turned out.

730. Turk’s Cake.

Take eight eggs, and the weight of them in fine sugar sifted, and the weight of six in flour; beat the whites to a snow, then beat the yolks, mix these with the sugar, and whisk it very well, grate the rind of a lemon to the flour, beat all well together; bake it an hour and a half, in a mould called a Turk’s cap.

x 3

234

BISCUITS, CAKES, &C.

731. The Vicarage Cake.

A pound and a half of flour, half a pound of moist sugar, a little grated nutmeg and ginger, two eggs well beaten, a table-spoonful of yeast, and the same of orangeflower or rose-water; mix it to a light paste with a quarter of a pound of butter melted in half a pint of milk; let it stand before the fire half a an hour to rise, then add three-quarters of a pound of currants, and bake it in a tin well buttered in a brisk oven.

732. Tunbridge Cakes.

A pound of flour, a quarter of a pound of butter rubbed fine into it, five ounces of fine sugar powdered, two eggs and a few carawayseeds; mix them to a paste with milk; roll it out very thin, and cut them into cakes with a tin cutter; prick and lay them on sheets of tin buttered, and bake them.

733. Wiltshire Cakes.

Take two pounds of flour, one pound of sugar, and a pound of butter, wash the butter in orange-flower or rose water, dry the flour, and rub the butter in as for puff paste; beat three eggs well in three spoonsful of cream, a little mace, and salt; mix these well together, and make them into small flat cakes, rub them over with the white of an egg, and grate sugar upon them; a quarter of an hour will bake them in a moderate oven.

734. Macaroons.

Beat a pound of sweet almonds fine in a mortar with a wine-glass of water; mix a pound of fine powdered sugar with the almonds, and as many whites of eggs beaten to a froth as will make it of a proper consistency; lay sheets of clean white paper on tins, and

BISCUITS, CAKES, &C.

235

then sheets of wafer paper: drop the paste upon it, sift fine sugar over them, and bake them carefully in a quick oven. Let them stand till cold, then cut the wafer-paper round, leaving it at the bottom of each macaroon.

735. French Macaroons.

Take half a pound of sweet almonds, beat them very fine in a mortar, moistening them with the whites of eggs beaten to a froth, taking care they do not oil; then take one pound and a half of sugar finely powdered, and mix it well with the almonds; add whites of eggs beaten to a froth till the whole is of a consistency that will easily drop from the spoon: lay sheets of paper on tins, then wafer-paper, and drop the paste upon it so as not to run together. Bake them in a brisk oven, but do not let them burn: when cold take off the paper.

736. Portuguese Macaroons.

Take five ounces of flour of potatoes, ten whites of eggs, one pound of sweet almonds, and a pound and a quarter of moist sugar; blanch the almonds and bruise them in a mortar; then beat the whites of eggs till they froth; mix them with the almonds, sugar, and flour; beat the whole well together, and put it into moulds like Savoy biscuits, or in paper cases like common biscuits, and bake them in the same manner.

737. Italian Macaroons.

Take a pound of Valencia almonds blanched, pound them quite fine with the whites of four eggs, add two pounds and a half of finely-sifted sugar, and rub them well together, put in by degrees ten or eleven more whites, working them well as you put them in; to try their lightness it is best to bake one or two,

236

BISCUITS, CAKES, &C.

and if heavy, add one or two more well-beaten whites; put the mixture into a biscuit-funnel, and lay them on wafer-paper, about the size of a small walnut for each macaroon; have ready about two ounces blanched and cut into slips, put three or four pieces on each, lay them on three or four folds of paper on tins, or on baking wires, and bake in a moderate oven.

Almonds will be more easily pounded, if blanched and dried a few days previous to their being used.

73S. Gingerbread.

Take one pound of flour, six ounces of butter melted in half a pound of treacle, one ounce of ginger, and one egg, make it into a stiff paste, and bake it in squares, marked in slips about an inch broad, in a moderate oven.

739. Another JVay.

Take three pounds of flour, one pound of sugar, the same quantity of butter, rubbed in very fine, one ounce of ginger, and some nutmeg; then take a pound of treacle and a quarter of a pint of cream warmed together; mix it into a stiff paste, and roll it in thin cakes or nuts; bake them in a slow oven on tins. If too soft to roll out, set the paste in a cool place two or three hours.

740. A good sort without Butter.

Mix two pounds of treacle, candied ginger, orange, and lemon, a quarter of a pound of each, all sliced very thin, half an ounce of caraway-seeds, half an ounce of •prepared ginger*, and as much flour as

* In making gingerbread, & c,, where powdered ginger is to be used, the prepared ginger will be found greatly preferable to that commonly used.j

237

BISCUITS, CAKES, &C.

will make a soft paste; lay it in cakes or balls on tin plates, and bake in a quick oven. Keep it in an earthen vessel with a cover, or a tin box, in a dry place, and it will keep some months.

741. Good plain Gingerbread.

Mix half a pound of butter with three pounds of flour, eight ounces of brown sugar, and an ounce of prepared ginger, make into a paste with a pound and a half of molasses warm. Form it in balls about the size of a walnut, and bake in a moderate oven.

742. Another way.

Mix half a pound of treacle, with half a pound of butter melted in it, into two pounds of flour, one ounce of ginger, half a pound of sugar, and half an ounce of caraway-seeds; mix it well, and let it stand an hour or more, then roll it into cakes, and bake them on buttered tins. An egg well beaten, and a little grated lemon-peel may be added.

743. Orange Gingerbread.

Put a pound and a half of treacle into a saucepan, with half a pound of sugar, and half a pound of butter; set it over the fire till the butter is melted, stirring it several times well together; then pour it into an earthen dish, and when cold, put to it an ounce of ginger finely powdered, a quarter of a pound of candied orange cut small, and one pound of flour; then roll it out, and cut it into cakes with a tin cutter, or cut it in squares. Bake it on tin plates buttered.

744. Excellent Gingerbread.

Beat half a pound of butter to cream, put to it threequarters of a pound of flour, six ounces of sugar, two well-beaten eggs, one pound of warm treacle,

233

BISCUITS, CAKES, &C.

two ounces of candied lemon, or orange, some grated lemon-peel, three quarters of an ounce of prepared ginger, and half a tea-spoonful of carbonate of soda, dissolved in half a wine-glass of rose-water; mix all well together, and spread it about half an inch thick in a hot tin well buttered; bake in a moderately brisk oven. When baked, let it stand a few minutes, then cut it in squares, and lay it on a board till quite cold. Keep it in a tin box, with white paper between each layer.

745. Traveller's Gingerbread.

Rub half a pound of butter in a pound and a half of flour, add a pound of sugar, some grated lemonpeel, ginger to the taste, two eggs well beaten, and half a tea-spoonful of carbonate of soda dissolved in a little rose-water; mix all together in a stiff paste, roll in balls, and bake in rather a moderate oven.

746. Transparent or Snap Gingerbread.

Melt half a pound of butter, and mix it well with a pound of treacle and a pound of sugar, then put in ten ounces of flour, and a quarter of an ounce of prepared ginger, a wine-glass of rose-water, and some grated lemon-peel; beat it a few minutes, and drop it on hot tins buttered; bake it in a moderately quick oven.

747. Transparent or Snap Gingerbread.

To three-quarters of a pound of flour take one pound of sugar, melt a quarter of a pound of butter in half a pound of treacle, and a glass of rose-water, with half a tea-spoonful of carbonate of soda dissolved in it, add mace and ginger, and a little grated lemonpeel, mix all well together, adding an egg well beaten; let it stand two or three hours in a cool place, then drop it on warm tins well-buttered, and

239

biscuit?, cakes, &c.

bake in rather a quick oven, and, while warm, after it has stood a short time, roll up the snaps lightly, the upper side outwards. As a crisp state adds much to the quality of this gingerbread, it will be found to answer best to make only a small quantity at once; and the paste, keeps well in a jar covered close.

748. Parkin.

Bub half a pound of butter into three pounds of oatmeal, half a pound of sugar, an ounce of ginger, and as much stiff treacle as will make it into a stiff paste, roll it out in cakes about half an inch thick, lay them on buttered tins, and bake them in a moderate oven.

Observations on Making and Baking Cakes.

Currants should be very nicely washed, drained in a sieve, dried in a cloth, and set before the fire, then spread them on a plate that you may more easily perceive the grit and stalks, which should be carefully picked out. If damp they will make cakes or puddings heavy. A dust of dry flour shaken well amongst them is of use.

Eggs should be very long beaten, yolks and whites separate, and always strained through a tin strainer. A large tin basin is best for beating eggs in for cakes, as the yolks can in this be heated a little over the fire while the whisking is going on, which greatly assists the process. It is a good test in beating eggs, when they are so thick as to carry the drop from the whisk.

Sugar should be rolled to powder on a clean board, grated with a fine grater, or pounded in a mortar, and silted through a fine sieve.

240 BISCUITS, CAKES, &C.

Spices should be pounded fine, and kept in bottles closely corked.

Almonds also, when blanched and chopped very fine, will keep many weeks in a bottle well corked.

Lemon-peel should be first grated, it is much better than chopping it; when grated and sprinkled with salt, or powdered loaf-sugar, it will keep good several months closely corked in a bottle.

After all the articles are mixed together for cakes, they should be well and long beaten, as the lightness of the cake depends much on their being Well incorporated.

Plum Cakes made with yeast require less butter and eggs, and eat equally light and rich; the butter should always be mixed in the flour before it be set to rise, either by being rubbed in, or melted in the milk.

The heat of the oven is of great importance for cakes, especially those that are large; if not quick the batter will not rise, and to prevent the cakes being scorched, a sheet or two of white paper may be laid over them.

To know when a cake is soaked, take a broad knife that is very bright, plunge it into the centre, and draw it out instantly; if the batter adheres to it at all, put it in the oven again immediately.

Yeast, when used for cakes or biscuits of any kind, should always be well purified, by stirring it in a jar with plenty of cold spring water, and letting it stand a day or two covered close before it be wanted, then pour the water oil' and take out the yeast carefully, leaving the brown sediment at the bottom. It will keep good a week or ten days in the hottest

PRESERVED FRUIT, JELLIES, &C. 241

weather, in a cool cellar, by pouring off the water every two days and adding more, and covering it to keep it fresh. A wide-necked stone bottle is the best to keep it in.

PRESERVED FRUIT, JELLIES, &c.

749. To Preserve Apricots.

Gather the apricots quite dry before they are too ripe, pare them, weigh and split them in halves, lay them on dishes with the hollow part uppermost, have ready their weight of lump-sugar finely powdered, strew it over and let them stand twelve hours, blanch the kernels, and put them into a preserving pan with the fruit and sugar, let them simmer very gently till the fruit looks clear, taking off the scum; then take out the fruit carefully, and boil the syrup a little longer till quite clear; pour it upon the fruit with the kernels. When cold, cover them with tissue paper rubbed lightly over with olive oil.

750. Apricots whole.

Pare the apricots as thin as possible before they are too ripe; take out the stones with a common wooden skewer, taking care not to divide the fruit, strew on an equal weight of powdered sugar; let them stand twelve hours, then set them on a moderate fire in a preserving-pan, with an ounce of white ginger sliced (after scraping off the outside) to every five pounds of fruit; simmer very gently, and when about halt done, take the pan off the fire, and cover it close till nearly cold, then put it on the fire again, and let them boil very gently till clear; take out the fruit

Y

242 PRESERVED FRUIT, JELLIES, &C.

carefully into small jars, laying a bit of stick crosswise to prevent the fruit from rising; boil the syrup a little longer, and when clear, pour it upon the apricots.

Green-gages and Orlean plums (dividing them) may be done in the same way, leaving out the ginger.

751. Green Aj)ricots.

Gather the apricots just before they begin to ripen, lay vine or apricot leaves at the bottom of the pan, and the fruit in layers, with leaves between, and when all the fruit is in, put plenty of leaves on the top; fill the pan with spring water, and cover it close, set the pan at a distance from the fire, where they can be gradually heated, and remain in a moderate heat for several hours till they become rather soft, but not cracked; take out the fruit very carefully and drain it; make a thin syrup with some of the water, allowing a pound of sugar to a pint and a half of water; when cold, pour it on the fruit in a preserving-pan, set it on a very slow fire, or on a stove, till the apricots green, but on no account to boil or crack; remove them very carefully into an earthen pan, and let them stand in the syrup for three days, then pour off as much as will be requisite, adding more sugar to make a good syrup, and a little white ginger sliced; boil it till clear, and when cold, pour it on the fruit after being well drained from the thin syrup, which will serve to sweeten pies. Cover them when cold with tissue paper. If the fruit is not so green as it ought to be, a small piece of alum boiled in the syrup will improve the colour.

752. Magnum.-Bonvm Plums; excellent as a Siceel-

mcat or in Tarts, but not good to be eaten raw.

Prick the plums with a needle, and slit the skin at the seam with a sharp knife, simmer them very gently

PRESERVED FRUIT, JELLIES, &C. 243

in a thin syrup, allowing a pound of sugar to a pint of water; put them in a bowl, and when cold pour the syrup over. Let them lie three days; then make a syrup of three pounds of sugar to five of fruit, with no more water than hangs to large lumps of the sugar dipped quickly, and instantly brought out. Boil the plums in this fresh syrup, after draining the first from them. Boil them very gently till clear, and the syrup adheres to them. Put them singly into small pots, and pour the syrup over. These plums are apt to ferment, if not boiled in two syrups; the first will make a pleasant liquor mixed with a little water, but will have too much acid to keep. Do not break them; one parcel may be done after another, and thereby save much sugar.

752. Ripe Currants.

To one pound of currants cut from the stalks, take eight ounces of bruised loaf-sugar, sprinkle it gently amongst them and put them in bottles, cork them lightly, and set them in a pan of cold water on a slow fire, till the water is scalding, keep them at that point twenty minutes, then take them off the fire, and let them remain in the water till cold, then cork them tight, and cement or tie down the corks. They should be kept in a cool place, and free from damp. Black currants answer very well done in the same way.

753. Gooseberries.

Gather your gooseberries dry, just before they turn red. Allow a pound of sugar to a pound and a quarter ol fruit, boil them half an hour, with a part of the sugar, stirring them frequently, then add the other sugar, and boil them three-quarters of an hour longer, put them in jars, and when quite cold, cover them with tissue paper, cut very little larger than the

244 PRESERVED FRUITS, JELLIES, &C.

top of the jar; another paper may be tied over if preferred, but it is not necessary.

Ripe gooseberries are preserved in the same way, but require rather less boiling.

755. Green Gooseberries.

At the time gooseberries are ready for bottling, pick out the largest for preserving; to every two pounds of gooseberries, take a pound and a half of loaf-sugar bruised, put the fruit and sugar in an earthen vessel, cover it close, and set it in a pan of water on the fire till the syrup will separate from the fruit; when cold, pour oft' the syrup, boil it and pour it hot upon the fruit; the next day boil all together gently about twenty minutes, then take out the fruit and boil the syrup a quarter of an hour longer, then pour it upon the fruit; if there be any gooseberries hard or discoloured amongst them, they should be picked out before the syrup is added.

756. Strawberries.

To each pound of strawberries take an equal weight of loaf-sugar, dissolve it in currant-juice while cold, then set it on the fire, and when it boils, let the strawberries have a scald in it, but not to boil, then take them out with a slice or spoon with holes in it; boil the syrup, skim it, and pour it on them hot; boil it several times, till they will set. The scarlet strawberries are the best.

757. Green Gages.

Let your plums be quite sound, and not quite ripe, prick them with a fork six or seven times about the stalks, and put them into cold water as you prick them, or they will turn black; scald them, and have another preserving pan with boiling syrup, drain the water from the plums, and place them regularly in an

PRESERVED FRUIT, JELLIES, &C. 245

earthen pan, pour the boiling syrup over them, and let them stand till next day, then drain all the syrup from them, boil, skim it, and pour it over them; repeat it for seven or eight days, then drain the syrup from them, adding more sugar to make it equal to the weight ot fruit, boil it half an hour, skim it quite clean, and pour it over the fruit,

Orleans plums may be preserved in the same way.

75S. Seville Oranges.

Take some of the largest and clearest oranges you can procure, cut a small hole at the stalk end, about large enough to admit a quill, curve the rinds according to fancy; put them in cold salt and water four or five hours, then put them on the fire in fresh water and boil them slowly four hours, changing the water once; then drain them on a sieve with the open end downward, whilst you prepare a thin syrup, with half a pound of sugar to every pint of water; after boiling the syrup ten minutes, put in the oranges and boil them ten minutes, then put them with the syrup into a large jar, and cover them with paper; the next day boil the oranges and syrup together fifteen minutes on a brisk fire, return them into the jar, and the next day drain the syrup from them, and boil it twenty minutes, then pour it hot upon the oranges, repeating this process six or seven successive days; adding more sugar or syrup till you have rather .more of sugar in weight than fruit; let them stand a week, and give the syrup another boil, pour it hot upon them, and keep them in a large jar, taking care that they are always well covered with syrup. Lemon-juice may be added to the syrup, if approved. This is a very superior way of preserving oranges.

759. Seville Oranges in Slices.

Put the oranges in cold salt and water for two days,

v 3

246 PRESERVED FRUIT, JELLIES, &C.

changing it each day, place a plate over with a small weight to keep them covered; then lay them in clean water for two or three days, changing the water every day; boil them in fresh water till the rind is tender; when cold, cut them in slices about the third of an inch in thickness, picking out all the seeds; make a thin syrup as follows: - Allow a pint of water, the juice of one lemon strained, and half a pound of loaf-sugar for each pound of fruit; when the syrup is clear, put in the oranges, and let them boil three-quarters of an hour, or till they look clear; let them stand in the syrup a week or ten days, then drain the syrup from them, and boil it, adding half a pound more of sugar to each pint of syrup; when clear, put in the oranges, boil it fifteen or twenty minutes, then put it into pots.

760. Pears.

Take some baking pears of a very hard kind, set them over the fire in a large preserving pan with water, let them simmer till rather soft, then take them out of the boiling water with a skimmer, or slice, and put them into cold water, and pare them in the following manner: - First cut off the blossom end of the pear, then hold the stalk end in your hand, and bring the knife down the skin straight, so as to take it off all round the pear in five pieces, as you pare them put them in fresh cold water, then drain the water well from them, and put them into a pan of boiling syrup, prepared as for cucumbers, which must have boiled ten minutes, then let the pears boil in it ten minutes, and skim it with paper; boil them in the same manner six days, adding more sugar till the syrup is of a fine thickness; let them remain in the syrup till wanted for candying or drying.

PRESERVED FRUIT, JELLIES, &C. 247

761. Jargonel Pear a.

Parc them very thin, before they are quite ripe, and simmer in a thin syrup; let them lie a day or two; then make the syrup richer, and simmer again, repeat this till they are clear, then drain, and dry them in the sun, or a cool oven, for a short time.

They may be kept in the syrup and dried as wanted, as it makes them more moist and rich.

762. To preserve Ripe Fruit without Sugar.

The gooseberries, currants, cherries, raspberries, &c. should not be too ripe: being ready picked, fill bottles with the fruit till they will hold no more, allowing room for the cork; and in filling, shake the bottles frequently. When filled, cork each bottle lightly, and then proceed to scald the fruit. This operation may be performed over a slow fire, either in a copper, or large kettle, first putting a cloth at the bottom to prevent the heat from cracking the bottles. The copper must be filled with cold water, so as nearly to cover the bottles, which must be put into the water rather slanting till they reach the bottom, in order to expel the air that might lodge in the cavity at the bottom of them. The bottles should not touch the bottom or sides of the copper, and the heat of the fire should be such as gradually to raise the water in the copper to the temperature of 160 or 170 degrees by a brewing thermometer, in the course of about three-quarters of an hour. For want of an instrument of this kind, the proper temperature may be determined by the finger, to which it will feel very hot, but will not scald. If the water should become too hot, a little cold water must be added to it, and when it has acquired the proper degree of heat, it must be kept at it as steadily as possible for about an hour, but not longer, as a greater heat^fcr a longer time, is liable to crack the fruit. As soon as the

248 PRESERVED FRUIT, JELLIES, &C.

fruit is properly scalded, take the bottles, one at a time, out of the copper and fill them up, to within an inch of the place to which the cork will reach, with boiling water, kept in readiness for the purpose, and which may be very conveniently poured into them from a tea-kettle; cork them immediately, pressing the corks down gradually, but make them very tight. In driving the corks the bottles must not be shaken, as that might cause the hot water to break them. When the bottles are corked, lay them on their side, which will cause the corks to swell, and prevent the air from escaping. When cold, they may be removed to a cool, dry place, always observing to let them lie on their side, until required for use. During the first month or two, it is necessary to turn the bottles a little round, once or twice a week, to prevent the fermentation that will arise in some fruit from forming into a crust; the turning of the bottles keeps the fruit moist with water, and no mould will ever take place. After the first two months, it will be quite sufficient to turn the bottles a little round once or twice a month.

The liquor which is poured from the fruit, makes a very agreeable syrup, when boiled up with sugar.

763. Cucumbers.

Take large cucumbers, the greenest possible, and most free from seeds, put them into a broad jar or stew-pot, with a cabbage-leaf over them, cover and set them in a warm place till they turn yellow, then boil the salt and water and pour on them, repeating it till they are green; then wash them, and set them over a slow fire in clean water, with a bit of alum pounded fine; and a cabbage-leaf under and over, till they just boil; then take them off and let them remain till cold; cut them in two, and take out the seeds and soft pulp carefully; put them in cold spring

PRESERVED FRUIT, JELLIES, &C. 249

water, and let them stand two days, changing the water each day, to take out the salt; then wipe them quite dry, and put them into syrup made as follows: - To every pound of sugar allow a pint of water, and to six pounds of sugar two ounces of the best white ginger sliced, scraping off the outside; and to each pound of fruit one lemon, the rind pared very thin, and cut in shreds like straws, and the juice squeezed and strained into the syrup when boiling. The syrup must be boiled two or three times a week for a month, and must be cold before it is poured on the fruit, adding more sugar if requisite.

Melons, before they are too ripe, are preserved in the same manner, allowing an ounce of roche alum, finely powdered, to twelve melons. Vine-leaves are preferable to cabbage-leaves, when they can be obtained.

7 64. Damsons.

Wipe and prick the damsons, and put them into a deep stew-pot, adding one pound of sugar to three quarts of fruit; set them in a cool oven till they are warm through, but be careful they do not burst; when you take them out of the oven, drain the syrup carefully from them, and set it on the fire with another pound of sugar; let it boil ten or fifteen minutes, then pour it hot upon the damsons; repeat the boiling of the syrup, if necessary, once or twice, till you think they will keep well. Cover them with double tissue paper, rubbed over with olive-oil; then tie papers over.

Plums, cherries, cucumbers, or any kind of fruit preserved in syrup, may be covered in the same way.

765. Damsons.

Gather the damsons quite dry, and wipe them with a cloth, taking out those that are bruised; put them in

250 PRESERVED FRUIT, JELLIES, &C.

jars that will hold about three gills, and to three gills of fruit, put a quarter of a pound of good moist simar; tie two papers on separately, then set them in a pan ot cold water on the fire, and simmer them very gently about an hour; let them stand in the water till cold.

766. Another way.

Wipe the damsons, and take a pound of sugar to three pints of fruit, put them in a large jar, and set it in a pan of water on the fire, or in a very cool oven, till the syrup will separate from the fruit; when cold, take out the fruit, boil the syrup and pour it hot upon it; repeat it several times, and the last time, simmer the fruit in the syrup a quarter of an hour, then put it in jars, and boil the syrup a quarter of an hour longer before you pour it on the fruit.

When cold, paper them as above.

777. Cherries.

Stone some of the finest Kentish cherries, in the following manner: - Cut a quill as for a tooth-pick, only make the end round, press it down close to the top of the cherry, holding the stalk at the same time, and pulling it gently, the stone will come out without tearing the cherry to pieces; then put the cherries in a jar with an equal weight of powdered sugar, a layer of fruit and a layer of sugar alternately; let them stand two days, then set the jar on the fire in a pan of cohl water, and let them remain till the fruit is scalded a little; the next day boil it gently about ten minutes, and the syrup a little longer; repeat the boiling of the syrup several times, just scalding the fruit each time.

778. Cherries.

Stone the cherries carefully, and to every quart take a pound and a half of loaf-sugar; put a layer of cher-

251

PRESERVED FRUIT, JET, LIES, &C.

l’ies and a layer of sugar in a stone jar, set them half an hour in a pan of water on the fire, let them stand two days, then boil them gently about half an hour; then take out the fruit into small jars, and boil the syrup a quarter of an hour longer; pour it on the fruit, and when cold, paper them as before directed.

779. Barberry Jelly.

Pick the fruit and put it into an earthen jar, with water enough to cover it: set the jar in a pan of cold water on the fire till the fruit is all burst, and the water is well incorporated with the juice; then run the liquor through a jelly-bag, and to every pint allow three-quarters of a pound of fine sugar, and boil it till it will jelly.

Black-currant jelly may be made in the same way, but the jar must be only half-full of currants and filled up with water.

780. Blackberry Jelly.

Take blackberries when quite ripe, pick and put them in a stewpot covered close, set them in a pan of water, and let them stand over the fire till reduced to a pulp; then strain and put to a pint of the juice a pound of powdered loaf-sugar, and the juice of a lemon strained; boil it to a jelly, and pour it into pots for use. The rind of a lemon pared very thin may be boiled in it.

781. Red Currant Jelly.

Take the finest currants when quite ripe, one-third of white to two of red, strip them from the stalks, and weigh an equal weight of sugar and fruit; clarify and boil the sugar to the second degree. (See Degrees oj Boiling Sugar.) Put the fruit to this in the preserving pan, boil and skim it fifteen minutes, and run it through a hair-sieve, then put it in pots or glasses.

252 PRESERVED FRUIT, JELLIES, &C.

A few fresh raspberries mixed with the fruit makes very good pies or puddings.

The best way of 'picking red and white currants, is to take three or four bunches together in the fingers, and strip them from the stalks with a three or four-pronged fork.

782. An excellent Receipt for Red Currant Jelly.

Take two-thirds of red currants to one of white, squeeze them (without picking), strain, and press the juice through a hair-sieve, and immediately make it quite hot, but do not letit boil; to every pint of juice allow a pound of sugar, powdered fine, and also made quite hot in the oven, have it ready to put to the hot juice, and add*it by degrees, stirring it till the sugar is melted, then put it into pots immediately. This is both an economical and expeditious way, and has very much the flavour of the fruit.

Black Currant Jelly, made the same way, with a mixture of white currants, is very superior to that made by boiling; only put the currants in the oven to stew with a little water, the juice being much thicker and more difficult tostrain.

783. Cranberry Jelly.

Make a verystrong isinglass jelly; when cold mix it with double the quantity of cranberry juice, which must be pressed and strained from the fruit after having been stewed in a jar with a little sugar; sweeten with fine loaf-sugar, boil it up, and then strain it into a mould.

7S4. Damson Jelly.

Dissolve one ounce of isinglass in half a pint of water, adding an ounce of lump sugar, three-quarters of a pint of damson syrup; and two table-spoonsful

PRESERVED FRUITS, JELLIES, &C. 253

of lemon-juice; let it just boil up, then strain it through muslin, and when nearly cold, pour it into moulds. The rind of a lemon pared very thin and boiled in the syrup improves the flavour: more sugar may be added, if required.

785. Orange Jelly.

Grate the rinds of two Seville oranges, two China oranges, and two lemons, squeeze the juice of six Seville and two China oranges and three lemons upon the grated rinds, take three-quarters of a pound of loaf-sugar and a pint of water, and boil it to a thick syrup, when cold put it to the juice. Boil two ounces of isinglass in a pint of spring water till dissolved; strain it through a sieve, and stir it till nearly cold, then put it to the syrup, pass it through a jelly-bag and put it in a mould.

7S6. Raspberry Jelly.

Mash the raspberries well with a wooden spoon, set them on the fire in a preserving pan, stirring it all the time, when near boiling, take it off and strain it through a hair-sieve, measure the liquor into a clean pan, and let it boil twenty minutes, then to every pint of juice put fourteen ounces of loaf-sugar, stir it well off the fire till the sugar is dissolved, then boil it twenty minutes, stirring it well; pour it into pots or glasses, and when cold sift fine sugar over; the next day paper them. About a third part of currants may be added.

Gooseberry Jelly may be made the same way, or the gooseberries might be stewed without bruising, and then strained through a hair-sieve.

7S7. Quince Jelly.

Take the liquor in which the quinces for marmalade have been boiled, run it through a jelly-bag, and to

z

254 PRESERVED FRUITS, JELLIES, &C,

every pint allow a pound of fine loaf-sugar: boil it til^ it is quite clear and will jelly.

788. Apricot Jam.

Scald the fruit, take off the skins, and stone them; then to every pound of fruit, take three-quarters of a pound of loaf-sugar pounded, boil it till clear, drop a little on a plate, and if it jellies, it is enough; pour it into moulds to turn out.

The bruised fruit, or that which is too ripe for preserving whole, may be used for this purpose.

789. Cherry Jam.

To four pounds of cherries, allow a pound of fine sugar, and half a pint of red-currant juice; stone the cherries, and boil the whole together pretty fast till it will stiffen, then put it into pots for use.

Boil the currant juice and sugar together before you put in the fruit.

790. Another way.

To twelve pounds of Kentish or duke cherries when ripe, weigh one pound of sugar; break the stones of part, and blanch the kernels, put them to the fruit and sugar, and boil it till the jam will leave the pan. Pour it on plates to dry. Keep it in boxes with white paper between each layer.

791. Red Currant Jam.

Put any quantity of currants into a preserving-pan, with two pounds of sugar to every three pounds of currants, and a little raspberry-juice to dissolve the sugar; put in your currants, and boil them till they are very clear. Put them into jars, and when cold, strew sugar over, coyer with paper, and keep them in a dry place.



PRESERVED FRUITS, JELLIES, &C.

255

792. Black Currant Jam.

Gather your currants when quite dry, pick them from the stalks, and bruise them in a bowl; to every two pounds of fruit, add a pound and a half of loaf or good moist sugar; boil them an hour, stirring them all the time, then put them into pots before the sugar is added.

793. Raspberry Jam.

Gather your raspberries when quite ripe and dry, mash them fine, and strew over them their weight of sugar, and to every three pounds of fruit, allow a pint of the juice of white or red-currants; boil them three-quarters of an hour over a slow fire, skim them well; and put them into pots or glasses, put papers over as before, and keep them dry. Strew on the sugar as soon as possible after the fruit is gathered; and in order to preserve its fine flavour, do not let it stand long before you boil it. Or, boil the raspberries with the currant-juice half an hour before the sugar is added, and half an hour aftervyards.

For white raspberries, use white currant juice.

Another way - Is to weigh an equal quantity of fruit and powdered sugar, boil the fruit on a slow fire half an hour, then add the sugar, and boil it three-quarters of an hour more.

794. Gooseberry Jam.

Put twelve pounds of the red hairy gooseberries, when ripe, and gathered dry, into a preserving-pan, with a pint of raspberry-juice, strained as for jelly, boil rather quick, and stir them with a wooden spoon; when they have boiled about an hour, put to them six pounds of white Lisbon sugar, and boil them slowly to a jam. It requires long boiling, or it will not keep; it is excellent for tarts or puffs. Look at it ' z 2

256 PRESERVED FRUITS, JELLIES, &C.

in two or three days, and if the syrup and fruit separate, it must be boiled again. Cover wiih tissue paper, rubbed over with olive-oil.

795. Gooseberry Jam.

To four pounds of ripe red gooseberries, allow a pound of fine sugar; cut the gooseberries in halves, then boil them with the sugar till the jam will stiffen, it will require long boiling, and must be well-stirred to prevent it from burning.

796. Black Plum Jam.

Gather the plums when quite ripe, bruise them in a preserving-pan as much as possible, and heat them over a slow fire till quite soft, then pulp them through a colander or coarse sieve; rub the pan with a little fresh butter, and boil the fruit an hour, stirring it all the time, then put eight ounces of powdered loafsugar to every pound of jam; mix it off the fire, then set it on the fire again and boil half an hour; put it in pots and sift powdered sugar over.

The Magnum-bonum plums prepared in the above manner make an excellent jam; indeed it is considered by those who have tried it, to be the best and cheapest way of preserving that fruit, and it keeps well.

The common red plums may also be used in the same way, with moist sugar.

797. Peach Jam.

Take ripe peaches, and proceed as for plum jam, adding half an ounce of bitter almonds, mixed with a little powdered sugar, to every pound of jam. Apricot, Jam may be made the same way.

798. Strawberry Jam.

Take ripe scarlet strawberries, bruise them, and add a little juice of red currants, put eleven ounces of

PRESERVED FRUITS, JELLIES, &C. 257

I

sifted loaf-sugar to every pound of fruit, set it over a clear fire, and boil forty minutes. When done, put it in pots; and when cold, paper them.

799. Rhubarb Jam.

An excellent jam may be made with a mixture of two-thirds of red-currants to one-third of garden rhubarb; it may also be made with the same proportion of gooseberries before they are quite ripe; it also answers very well with raspberries; one pound of sugar to two of fruit, will be found quite sufficient, boiling the fruit three-quarters of an hour before the suo-ar be added, and afterwards till it becomes like pulp or jam.

800. Blackberry Jam.

To each pound of bramble berries, allow three-quarters of a pound of good moist sugar, put half of it to the fruit, and boil it about twenty minutes; then add the other half, and the juice of a lemon, to every two pounds of fruit; boil it half an hour longer, then pour it into pots.

SOI. Apricot Marmalade.

When you preserve apricots, pick out all the bruised ones, and those that are too ripe for preserving; boil them in the syrup till they will mash, then beat them in a marble mortar to a paste, take half their weight in loaf-sugar, and put as much water to it as will dissolve it, boil and skim it well; then boil it with the fruit till clear, and the syrup thick like a fine jelly; put it into glasses or cups, and paper them as directed.

802. Apple Marmalade.

Pare and slice some sharp apples into water; scald them till quite tender, and pulp them through a sieve;

z 3

258 PRESERVED FRUITS, JELLIES, &C.

put three-quarters of a pound of sugar to every pound of apple into a preserving-pan, let it boil gently over a moderate fire, skimming it well. Put it into sweetmeat pots when of a proper thickness.

Pears may be prepared in the same way; or they may be mixed with apples.

803. Quince Marmalade.

Pare, core, and quarter the quinces, boil them gently in water till they begin to soften, but do not cover them in boiling; strain through a hair-sieve and beat them in a mortar to a pulp; allow to every pound of pulp three-quarters of a pound of fine sugar; boil till the marmalade is stiff, then put it into pots.

804. Orange Marmalade.

Rasp Seville oranges, or pare them very thin, then cut them in quarters, and take out the pulp quite clean; tie the rinds in thin cloths and set them on the fire to boil, changing the water three or four times to take out the bitterness; when quite tender, take them out and cut them in thin chips; take out all the seeds and skins from the pulp, and mix it with some lemon-juice, put it to the sliced orange; and to every pound of fruit take a pound and a half of good loaf-sugar and a pint of water; set the sugar and water on the fire, and when it has boiled ten minutes, put in the orange, let it boil rather quickly, stirring it constantly; when quite clear, pour it into pots or glasses.

Lemon marmalade may be made the same way.

Smooth Orange Marmalade may be made as above, only the rinds, instead of being cut into chips, must be pounded in a mortar, and gradually mixed with the syrup; boil it till clear.

PRESERVED FRUITS, JELLIES, &C. 259

S05. Scotch Marmalade.

To twelve of the clearest Seville oranges you can procure, take six lemons, quarter them and take out the pulp and skins quite clean; cut the fruit in chips, and to every two pints of chips allow five pints of water; boil them four hours with the cover on the pan; if the chips are then quite soft, the sugar must be added by degrees, allowing two pounds of loafsugar to one pound of fruit; also the juice of the oranges and lemons with the pulp cleared of the seeds and skins; when the sugar is perfectly dissolved, boil it quickly till clear, which will be in about half an hour or three-quarters after the sugar is added.

806. Scotch Transparent Marmalade.

To two pints of the juice and pulp of Seville oranges take two pounds of yellow honey, and boil to a proper consistence, and quite clear.

807. Raspberry Marmalade.

Bruise the fruit and strain it through a sieve, when quite ripe; weigh the pulp and boil it quickly till reduced nearly one-half, then mix in half a pound of sugar powdered, to a pound of fruit; boil till it becomes stiff, then pour it into sweetmeat pots or moulds.

808. Gooseberry Marmalade.

Put green gooseberries in cold water, set them on a slow fire with a small bit of alum till they are scalded, and become just soft enough to pulp through a hairsieve; allow the same quantity of sugar, and boil it the same as the raspberry.

809. Apple Cheese.

Pare and core your apples, put them in a deep stew-

260 PRESERVED FRUITS, JELLIES, &C.

pot or jar, and put the parings and cores at the top, tie a paper over, and bake them in a moderate oven till they are quite soft; take off the parings and core, also any bits of hard apple which may be on the top, pulp the fruit through a sieve, and put it in a stewpan with powdered sugar to your taste; boil it four hours till it be quite stiff, then put it into moulds or cups; and paper them as the damson cheese: set it in a dry place, and in three weeks it will cut quite smooth.

You may add the rind of a lemon grated, and a few blanched almonds cut in small pieces, before you put it in the moulds.

S10. Another way.

Take four large apples, scald them till they will pulp through a colander, add a little cream and lemonpeel; take half an ounce of isinglass, boil it in a little water, strain and mix it with the pulp, add sugar to the taste, and two yolks of eggs, keep stirring it till cold, then put it into a mould. This will only do for present use.

811. Apricot Cheese.

Put ripe apricots into an earthen jar, and set it in a pan of water, let the fruit boil till soft, then pulp it through a colander, and allow to every pint of pulp three-quarters of a pound of loaf-sugar powdered, boil it fast till it becomes stiff. Some of the kernels blanched and put in, are a great improvement.

812. Bullace, or Plum Cheese of any kind.

Weigh the fruit and allow a pound of sugar to every four pounds of fruit. Put the fruit into an earthen jar, set it in a pan of water on the lire, or in a cool oven, till the fruit is softened, so that it will pulp through a sieve, then boil the pulp with the sugar

PRESERVED FRUITS, JELLIES, &C. 261

till stiff. Some of the kernels of the fruit bhanehed and put in is considered an improvement.

813. Cherry Cheese.

Stone Kentish cherries, blanch some of the kernels in boiling water, and mix with the fruit; to every twelve pounds of fruit put three pounds of powdered loaf-sugar; boil it to a thick jam, and when the fruit no longer adheres to the pan it is done enough; then pour it into pots.

814. Damson Cheese.

Pick ripe damsons and put them in a jar, tie whitepaper over, and bake them in a slow oven till they are quite soft, or scald them in as much water as will just cover them, drain and rub them through a sieve while hot, put the pulp and juice into a stew-pan with' fine-powdered sugar to your taste; boil it over a moderate fire till quite stiff; it will require boiling three hours; keep it stirring, to prevent it burning to the pan, and a few minutes before you take it off the fire, mix the kernels of the damsons with it. Pour it into cups or moulds, and in a day or .two cover them with tissue paper, rubbed over with olive oil and put close over them: keep it in a dry place. It will keep several years.

815. Green Gooseberry Cheese.

Take six pounds of green gooseberries, before they begin to ripen, cut off the ends quite clean, and put them in cold water for an hour or two; then take them out and bruise them in a wooden bowl, put them in a brass pan over a clear fire, stirring them till tender; when quite of a pulp, add four pounds and a half of loaf-sugar powdered, and boil it till very thick and of a good green colour, stirring it often; then pour it into moulds.

26:2 PRESERVED FRUITS, JELLIES, &C.

816. Black Butter.

Take gooseberries, currants, raspberries, strawberries, cherries, (plums, or any other kind of fruit may be added,) of each an equal quantity, boil them till reduced to a pulp, then rub them through a coarse sieve, and to every three pounds of fruit allow one pound of sugar; boil it till quite thick, then pour it into pots. It is a very pleasant sweetmeat, keeps well, and will cut quite smooth.

S17. Black Currant Rob.

Gather your currants when quite ripe, pick them clean from the stalks, put them into a large stew-pot, and tie paper over; bake them two hours in a moderate oven; then take them out and squeeze them well through a thin coarse cloth, put six quarts of the juice into a pan, and boil it over a slow fire, stirring and boiling it till reduced to about two quarts, then pour it into flat pots and dry it; paper it as directed, and keep it in a dry place.

S18. Elder Rob.

When the elderberries are quite ripe, pick them clean, put them in a jar and bake them in a slow oven nearly two hours, then squeeze out the juice through a coarse cloth, boil it over a slow fire till it be very thick, keep it stirring; three quarts should be reduced to one; put it into pots, and set it in the sun for two or three days; paper it as before. This, as well as the black currant rob, is an excellent thing for a hoarseness or sore throat.

SI 9. To dry Jjrplcs.

Put them in a cool oven six or seven times and flatten them gently by degrees, when soft enough to bear it. If the oven be too hot, they will shrink, and at

PRESERVED FRUITS, JELLIES, &C. 263

first it should be very cool. - The biffin, the minsliul crab, or any tart apples, are the best for drying.

820. To dry Apples.

Boil them in new wort on a slow fire for a quarter of an hour, then take them out and press them rather fiat; dry them in an oven or stove, put them in layers in a box, with writing paper between, and they will keep all the year.

821. To dry Damsons.

Spread the damsons, when quite ripe, on thin coarse cloths, laid on large dishes or baking tins, set them several hours in a very cool oven, then take them out, and when cold put them in again, doing so repeatedly till dry enough to keep; put them in a box with white paper between each layer, keep them in a dry place, and they will eat like fresh plums during the winter.

822. To dry Gooseberries.

To six pounds of gooseberries, when they begin to turn red, take two pounds of bruised sugar, strew it on them and let them stand three days, then put them in a jar covered close, and set it over a gentle fire in a pan of cold water; when near boiling, take them off and let them stand till the next day; then drain the syrup carefully from them and boil it a little, pour it upon the fruit, and let it remain a few days or a week, boil the syrup up again, and let them stand a day or two longer, then draip them from the syrup and pour water on; drain and dry them on sieves or dishes, in the sun, or a cool oven. Keep them dry. They are very good in puddings instead of raisins.

823. To dry Gooseberries without Sugar. Gather the large red hairy gooseberries when dry

264 PRESERVED FRUITS, JELLIES, &C.

and nearly ripe, lay them singly on sieves or dishes in the sun, or before the fire till quite dry, they may now and then be put in a very cool oven. Keep them from the air with white papers between the layers of fruit.

S24. To dry Cherries.

To four pounds of large Kentish cherries, allow a pound of sugar; stalk and stone the cherries, then make the sugar into a syrup with as much water as will cover them well; boil the cherries in it gently for about half an hour; let them stand three or four days, then boil the syrup, adding more sugar, and pour it boiling over the cherries, let them stand four days longer, then take them out and lay them on sieves to dry, either in the sun or in a slow oven; and when they are sufficiently dried, put them in boxes, laying white paper between each layer of cherries.

825. To dry Cherries without Sugar.

Stone the cherries and set them on the fire in a preserving-pan, let them simmer in their own liquor; shake them in the pan, and put them in earthen dishes, the next day give them a scald, and when cold, put them on sieves to dry before the fire or in a cool oven. Twice or three times, an hour each time, will dry them. Keep them as above.

S2G. To dry Pears.

Pare any kind of large baking pears; to half a peck, put two pounds of sugar and three pints of water; set them in a moderate oven in a large jar to stew, but do not let them be soft, then take them out, let them stand a few days, and boil the syrup again and pour it on them, and let them stand a day or two longer; then drain them from the syrup, and lay them on dishes or tins, to dry in a cool oven.

PRESERVED FRUITS, JELLIES, &C.

265

827. To bake Apples.

Take large apples, core but do not pare them, cut them in two, then strew sugar on a flat dish, and lay the apples the flat side downwards, strew sugar over and bake them in a moderate oven.

82S. To bake Apples the French way.

Cut the apples in two without paring, take out the coresand fill up the cavity with butter and sugar; bake them in a moderate oven.

829. To scald Codlins.

Wrap each apple in a vine-leaf, and pack them close in a clean saucepan; when full, pour as much water in as will cover them. Set it over a gentle fire, and let them simmer slowly till done enough to take the thin skin off' when cold. Place them in a dish, with or without milk, cream, or custard, and dust fine sugar over the apples.

830. Black Caps.

Take some large apples, cut a slice off the stalk end, and scoop out the cores; set them on a tin in a quick oven till they are brown, then wet them with a clean feather dipped in rose-water, grate sugar over, and set them in the oven again till they look bright and nearly black, then take them out and put them in a deep dish, pour round them thick cream or custard.

831. To slew Pippins.

Make a syrup of half a pound of loaf-sugar, to a pint of water, clarified with the whites of eggs. Pare the apples, scoop out the cores, and stew them very gently in the syrup till they look clear; some lemon-peel cut in very narrow shreds, like straws, and scalded a

2 A

266 PRESERVED FRUITS, JELLIES, &C.

few minutes in water, may be stewed with the pippins, to lay over them in the dish.

Pears are excellent stewed in the same way.

• 832. To stew Pears.

Pare the fruit and cut out the blossom end with a sharp knife. To every two pounds of fruit allow half a pound of sugar and a pint of water. Boil the sugar and water to a syrup, then put in the fruit with some lemon-peel and cloves, cover and let them stew gently, till the pears look red and are tender. The common baking pears are the sort generally used for this purpose, but swan-egg pears done this way are extremely delicate. They will keep several months.

Any of the common baking pears are very good, when pared and stewed in a cool oven, with as much water as will cover them, in which the peels of the pears, some apple parings and cores have been boiled, allowing two pounds and a half of sugar to a peck of fruit; cover with a plate that will fit inside the stewpot, and tie a paper over.

833. To stew Pears purple.

Peel some large pears, put them in a stew-pot and boil the parings in water just sufficient to cover them, then strain the liquor and add sugar to make it a syrup, pour it over the pears, and lay a pewter plate close upon them, then put on the cover quite close, and set them in a pan of water, in a boiler over a slow fire, let them stew till quite tender, and they will be a fine colour.

S34. To bake Pears.

Wipe, but do not pare them; lay them on tin plates, and bake them in a slow oven, when done enough to bear it, flatten them with a silver spoon; they should be baked three or lour times very gently; or, they

PRESERVED FRUITS, JELLIES, &C. 267

may be put on a cake-tin and baked three ’or four hours in a cool oven, without any further trouble, and they are very good; it is much the best way of using the hard dry pears, and which are quite unfit to eat raw.

835. To bcilce Pears.

Take twelve large baking pears, pare and cut them in halves, leaving on the stalk, take out the core, and place them close together in a block-tin pan, the inside of which is quite bright, with the cover to fit close; put to them the rind of a lemon cut thin, with half its juice, a small stick of cinnamon, and twenty grains of allspice; cover them with spring water, and allow one pound of sugar to a pint and a half of water, cover them up close and bake them six hours in a very slow oven: they will be quite tender, and of a bright colour.

836. To bottle Black Currants.

Cut the currants from the stalks, when dry and fresh gathered; put them in clean bottles, with eight ounces of powdered loaf-sugar to a quart of fruit; cork them loosely, and set them in a pan of cold water, with some hay between and under the bottles, set them on a slow fire till the fruit begins to shrink a little in the bottles, then take the pan off the fire, and let them stand till quite cold; rosin or cement the corks, and set the bottle in a cool place free from damp. - See ‘ Bottle Cement.'

837. To bottle Damsons.

Gather the damsons carefully before they are ripe, put them into wide-necked bottles, cork them loosely, and let them stand a fortnight^ then look them over, and il any be spoiled or mouldy, take them out, wipe and cork the rest close; set the bottles in sand, the

2 a 2

268 PRESERVED FRUITS, JELLIES, &C.

necks downward, and they will keep till spring, and be as good as fresh ones.

838. To bottle Damsons.

Gather the damsons quite dry and sound before they are too ripe, put them in wide-necked bottles, cork them loosely, and set them in a moderate oven for three or four hours. All kinds of fruit that are bottled may be done in the same way, and if properly done, will keep good for two years. When cold, cement the corks, and set them in a cool dry place, with the necks downward, to prevent them from fermenting.

Be very careful the oven is not too hot, or the bottles will fly. Cork them tight when they are quite cold.

It is a very good plan to lay a double sheet of brown paper in the oven, and lay the bottles on their sides, turning them occasionally.

839. To bottle Green Currants.

Gather the currants when the sun is hot upon them, cut or strip them from the stalks with a fork, and put them in clean dry bottles; set them in a dry cool place, or keep them in dry sand, with the necks downward.

Black currants, before they are quite ripe, may be done the same way.

S40. To bottle Cranberries.

Pick them quite clean and put them in clean bottles, fill the bottles with cold spring water that has been previously boiled; cement the corks, and keep them in a cool place. American cranberries and clusterberries are kept in the same way. hen to be used for tarts, stew them a little with a few spoonsful of the water they have been kept in, and sugar.

PRESERVED FRUITS, JELI.IES, &C. 269

841. To bottle Gooseberries.

Pick gooseberries of the small round kind, put them in clean dry bottles, cork them, but not tight, put them in a pan of cold water, and set them on a moderate fire; when the gooseberries change colour and begin to shrink a little in the bottles, take them off the fire and let them stand till cold, then cork them tight and cement the corks. Keep them in dry sand in a cool place, with the necks downward. They should be done very gently, and it is well to put a little hay at the bottom of the pan and between the bottles.

Green cun-ants answer very well done in the same way.

Rhubarb peeled and cut as for tarts, bottled and scalded in the same manner as gooseberries, will keep many months, and answers extremely well.

842. Another way.

Pick the gooseberries as before, into clean bottles, then fill them up with spring water that has been boiled with a small bit of alum in it, and stood till cold again; set them on the fire in a pan of cold water; when they begin to look white in the bottles, take the pan off the fire, and let them stand till cold; then take them out of the pan, cork and cement them, and keep them in a cool place free from damp.

843. To preserve. Apples during the winter.

Spread a coarse cloth on the floor in an upper room, place a layer of apples, then a cloth, and so on alternately to any height you please; then throw a large coarse cloth over the whole, taking great care that the cloth be turned under the edge of the cloth first laid on the floor, all the way round, so as to communicate with the floor on every side.

2 a 3

270 PRESERVED FRUITS, JELLIES, &C.

The Americans fold them singly in papers, instead of laying cloths between the layers.

844. Another way to preserve Apples.

Put a layer of apples and a layer of dried fern alternately in boxes, and cover them quite close: fern never gives the apples a musty taste, which straw is very apt to do. Chaff, or the husks of oats, answer very well for keeping either apples or winter pears.

845. Another.

Dry a glazed jar perfectly well, put a few pebbles in the bottom; fill the jar with apples, and cover it with a bit of wood made to fit exactly, and over that put a little fresh mortar. The pebbles attract the damp of the apples, and the mortar draws the air from the jar, and leaves the apples free from its pressure, which, together with the principle of putrefaction contained in the air, are the causes of decay. Apples have been thus kept quite sound and juicy till July.

846. Another.

Apples, after remaining on the trees as long as safety from frost will admit, should be taken immediately from the trees to close casks, and kept as dry and cool as possible; if suffered to lie on the floor for weeks, as is frequently the case, they wither and lose their flavour.

A much approved way of preserving them for spring, is to put them in dry sand as soon as gathered, about the middle or end of October, (drying the sand in the summer, and keeping it dry for the purpose.) put the apples in layers, with sand between each layer. The sand keeps the apples from the air- it checks the evaporation of the apples - thus preserving

PRESERVED FRUITS, JELLIES, &C. 271

their flavour; the moisture is absorbed by the sand, the apples kept dry, and all mustiness prevented.

Apples may also be preserved in hods, in the manner of potatoes. The apples should be of hardy, good keeping sorts, and not more than four or five bushels should be put into one hod. It is requisite to place straw or dried fern at the bottom and sides, and also to cover the top of the apples, so as entirely to separate them from the earth, which is not always observed with potatoes. Dry scivd would probably answer better than either fern or straw.

S47. To preserve Nuts.

When ripe, put the nuts into a large earthenware-pan, and when fdled with nuts, place it in a deep hole dug for the purpose, in a dry part of the garden. The top of the pan being covered with a flat piece of wood, put! on a heavy weight or stone, and fill the hole with earth. By these means, nuts may be kept in a fresh state till the time for ¦lathering' them from the trees returns.

Another way is to shell them, rub them in a cloth, and bottle them; place the bottles in the cellar. It is also not unusual to put salt amongst nuts to preserve them.

848. To clarify Sugar.

Put half a pint of water to every pound of sugar, beat up some whites of eggs with it, allowing one with the shell to every six pounds of sugar; put it on the fire when the sugar is dissolved, and when it rises in boiling, sprinkle in a little cold water, which should be kept at hand in a basin, in case the sugar should rise rapidly; let it rise three times without skimming it; the fourth time skim it well, throwing in a little cold water each time, till the white scum ceases to rise, then strain it through a flannel or cloth strainer,

272

PRESERVED FRUITS, JELLIES, &C.

saving tlie scum for use; when a certain quantity of scum is taken off, it may be clarified; the latter scum may sweeten pies, or be used in some other way.

Sugar will not ferment, nor be fermented, without yeast, being dissolved in four times its weight of water, that is, four pounds of water to one of sugar: when once the fermentation begins, it continues to the end.

849. A new method to clarify Sugar.

Take ten pounds of fine loaf-sugar, break it in pieces, and put it in a pan with two quarts of water, in which beat up one pound of ivory-black, and two whites of eggs whipped up; melt it in a moderate heat, but take care the sugar does not boil; add a little cold water occasionally, to prevent ebullition; when the whole is dissolved, pass it through a flannel bag; at first it will run quite thick, but by returning it for a time or two into the bag, it will at length become as clear as spring water.

This syrup is kept for the most delicate purposes of confectionary.

850. To clarify coarse brown Sugar. Suppose you take fifty pounds, put it in a pan that will hold a third more than the required quantity, and pour in twenty pints of water, but first well mixed with five whites of eggs; take five pounds of small branch charcoal, finely pounded, mix it in the pan on the fire, and let it boil, it will look as black as ink; if it rises too fast, add a little cold water; skim, and then strain it through a bag, at first it will be black, but continue to strain it till quite clear; it must repeatedly be returned, till it comes out as clear as the clarified loaf-sugar.

Sugar prepared according to any of the above methods is greatly to be preferred to sugar in its raw state, in making syrups, jellies, &c.

273

PRESERVED FRUITS, JELLIES, &C.

851. Degrees of boiling Sugar.

Confectioners have seven essential degrees of boiling sugar, or bases of their art: 1st, thread, large or small; 2nd, pearl; 3rd, the blow; 4th, the feather; 5th, the ball, large or small; 6th, the crack; 7th, caramel.

No. 1. A Thread. - Dip the tip of your fore-finger into the syrup, apply it to the thumb: on parting them you will find a thread, which will break at a little distance, and remain as a drop on the finger; this is the small thread: if the thread be longer, it is the great thread.

No. 2. A Pearl. - When you separate the thumb and finger, and the thread reaches, without breaking, from one to the other, it is the small pearl; if the finger and thumb be stretched to their utmost extent, and the thread remain unbroken, it is the large pearl.

No. 3. A Blow - may be known, by dipping the skimmer in the sugar, shaking it, and blowing through the holes; if, in doing this, sparks of light or bubbles be seen, we may be sure of the blow.

No. 4. A Feather. - The larger and greater quantity of bubbles, when blown through the skimmer, are the large feather.

No. 5. A Ball. - Dip your finger into a glass of cold water, then into your sugar, and into the water again; if you make the sugar into a small ball, it is the small ball; when larger and harder, it is the great ball.

No. 6. A Crack. - Dip the same finger into the sugar, and on taking it out, it the sugar that adheres to it breaks in your finger, with a slight noise, and does not stick to it, it is a crack. Boil it again, and it it breaks on plunging your finger into the water, it is the great crack; you must be very attentive, for it passes rapidly to caramel, if not attended to in a minute.

No. 7. A Caramel. - It breaks, as just observed,

274 PRESERVED FRUITS, JELLIES, &C.

making a noise, like glass; when the sugar is at the crack, add to it five or six drops of lemon-juice, to prevent its graining. When boiled, take it from the fire, and set the bottom of the pan into cold water, to jirevent its burning. The production of caramel is attended with some difficulty, and great attention is necessary; the lemon-juice must be used cautiously, as too much would spoil the sugar: if lemon be not at hand, use a few drops of vinegar, honey, or butter; any acid or grease will smooth the sugar, as the sugar has no longer any moisture: it requires a strong fire, but it must be to the body of the sugar only, and not to the sides of the pan, as it is very liable to burn, which will completely spoil it. The edges of the pan must be kept clean with a small clean sponge.

Observations on Preserved Fruits.

Sweetmeats should be kept in a cool place, but quite free from damp; heat makes them ferment, and damp causes them to mould; they should be looked at several times in the first two months, after they are preserved, that they may be boiled again a little if not likely to keep; they keep best in small jars. In preserving gooseberries, currants, &c., it will be found useful to dissolve a part of the sugar in a little juice of fruit or water, to make a thin syrup before the pan is set on the fire, and when hot, put in the fruit, and sut^ar, (when it is preferred boiling the sugar with the fruit at the first,) and even where that system is not adopted, a little juice or thin syrup will rather prevent the fruit from sticking to the pan, which it is very apt to do, when first set on the fire, without great care. The practice of rubbing the bottom and sides of the pan with a little fresh butter is frequently adopted, and answers very well. It will be found to answer the purpose of economists, to

275

PICKLES, &C.

hnlf-boil tlie fruit before the whole of the sugar is added. Cherries, green gooseberries, Siberian crabs, and other fruits kept in syrups, should not be put into rich syrup at the first, as it tends to make them hard and shrivelled; a thin syrup of about a pound of sugar to a pint and a half or a quart of water, (according to the kind of fruit to be preserved,) will be found quite sufficient to begin with, adding more sugar each time of boiling, till the syrup is rich enough.

PICKLES, &c.

S52. To pickle Red Cabbage.

Slice it thin into an earthen dish, cover it close and let it stand two days, then drain it through a sieve; boil some good vinegar with ginger, whole black pepper, and a bit of alum the size of a hazel nut; pour it on the cabbage, and cover it close. When cold, tie leather on the jar, and it will be ready for use in a few days. A few slices of red beet-root, or some small branches of cauliflowers, may be added, after being salted.

854. Another way.

Cut the cabbages in quarters, take out the cores, and cut them in thin slices. Salt the whole very well, and lay it in an earthen pan four days covered close, turning it every day; then squeeze it well, a handful at once, and put it in a pan of boiling vinegar, with bruised ginger, whole pepper, and a small bit of alum or nitre; let the cabbage boil one minute, then put it in jars, covering them till cold; then tie leather over them, or two papers separately tied.

Small sprigs of cauliflower, or slices of red beetroot, may be added.

27 6

PICKLES, &C.

854. Elder Buds.

Gather elder-buds when about the size of hop-buds, put them into salt and water for nine days, stirring them two or three times a day, and proceed as for cucumbers.

855. Cauliflowers.

Pull the cauliflowers in small pieces, put them in a jar and sprinkle them well with salt, pour boiling water over to cover them, tie them up close and let them stand till the next day, then drain them carefully, and spread them on a clean cloth, cover them with another, and let them remain till the next day, when they will be quite dry; make a pickle of good white vinegar with white pepper-corns, ginger a little bruised, a little mace, and scraped horse-radish; lay the cauliflower in a stone jar, and pour the pickle boiling hot upon it.

856. Cauliflowers.

Cut the cauliflowers in small bunches, throw them for one minute only into boiling salt and water, drain, and put them into cold spring water, then drain and dry them very well, put them in good white vinegar cold; let them stand a week or ten davs,

o ' # . »

then change the vinegar, adding mace, white pepper, nutmeg, and scraped horse-radish.

Keep it covered close, and let it stand at least three months before you use it.

857. Samphire.

Take some fresh gathered samphire, sprinkle it with two large handsful of salt, cover it with spring water, and let it stand twenty-four hours, then put it in a brass pan with a handful of salt, cover it well with vinegar, then cover the pan close, and set it over a slow fire till green and crisp, for should it remain till

PICKLES, &c. 277

soft, it will be spoiled; when cold, tie over it paper and leather.

858. Parsley.

Make a strong brine that will bear an egg; put in any quantity of fine curled parsley; let it stand a week, then make a fresh brine as before, and let it stand another week, then drain it well and put it into spring water, changing it three successive days; scald it in hard water till green, then take it out and drain it. Boil as much distilled vinegar as will cover it, with two or three blades of mace, a nutmeg sliced, and a shalot or two; when cold, pour it on the parsley, with two or three slices of horse-radish; tie leather over it.

859. Cucumbers.

Take half a pound of bay-salt to one hundred of cucumbers, boil the salt and water and pour it hot upon them, cover them up close for three hours, then take them out of the jar and wrap them in a cloth till cold, then put them in a pan with vinegar, mace, ginger, black pepper, and salt; let them simmer till they begin to turn green, then put them in jars, with scraped horse-radish, and tie leather over.

860. Cucumbers.

Take the small long sort, fresh gathered, pour over them a strong brine of salt and u'ater boiling hot, cover them close, and let them stand all nioht; the next day stir them gently, then drain and dry them in a cloth; make a pickle of good vinegar, ginger sliced, Cayenne and black pepper; when the pickle boils, put in the cucumbers, cover them and let them boil quick three minutes; put them into the jar with the pickle, and cover them close; when cold, put in a sprig of dill with the seed downward. They will

2 /$

278

PICKLES, &C.

be very crisp and green done in this way, but if not quite green enough with once boiling, boil up the pickle again the next day, and pour it on the cucumbers immediately.

861 . Another way.

Put the cucumbers into an unglazed stone jar, cover them with brine made with a quarter of a pound of salt to a quart of water, cover them with cabbage leaves and then a plate, set them on the hearth before the tire for two or three days till they turn yellow, then green them as directed in No. 763, for Preserved Cucumbers, then drain and wipe them quite dry; make a pickle as above, and pour it hot upon them.

The pickles should always be kept well covered with vinegar.

862. Beet Roots.

Boil the roots till tender, peel and cut them in slices, gimp the edges in the shape of wheels, or any other form; put them in ajar, and pour on them as much vinegar boiled with mace, ginger sliced, and some horseradish, as will cover them. Pour it on hot, and tie it down close.

A little bruised cochineal may be added.

863. Mushrooms.

Take only the buttons, rub them with a bit of flannel and salt, throw a little salt over, and put them in a stewpan with a little mace and white pepper; as the liquor comes out, shake them and keep them uncovered over a gentle fire till all the liquor is dried up; then put as much good vinegar into the pan as will cover them, let it warm, then put them into small jars or glass bottles. They will keep two years.

279

PICKLES, &C.

864. Mushrooms while.

Put some button mushrooms into milk and water, wipe them from it with a bit of new flannel, throw them into spring water and salt as you wipe them, boil them four minutes, then immediately drain them, cover them close between two cloths, and dry them well, then boil a pickle of double distilled vinegar, mace, and a very little white pepper; when cold, put it to the mushrooms, put them in small glass bottles with wide necks, pour a tea-spoonful of olive-oil on the top; cork them well and tie leather on. When opened for use, tie a bit of cotton at the end of a small stick, or the small end of a tea-spoon, and take off the oil quite clean.

Some scald them in milk, which is also a very good way.

865. Indian Pickle.

To every gallon of vinegar put two ounces of turmeric, and half an ounce of Cayenne pepper; put in gherkins, large cucumbers cut down the middle and the seeds taken out, small green melons, small apples, French beans, radish pods, nasturtium buds, capsicum; also cauliflower, small onions, elder buds, cabbage, and small lemons, the latter pared very thin and cut in quarters; squeeze out some of the juice and take out the seeds, but not the pulp; cut the cauliflower into small branches, and the cabbage in slices, spread them on a dish, and strew a good handful of salt over them; add fresh salt to them three or four days, first pouring away the liquor that drains from them, then spread them out on a dish, and set them in the sun or before the fire, till quite dry and shrivelled; when all are prepared, arrange them in a large jar, strew in some mustard-seed, a few cloves of garlic, sliced horseradish and ginger, according to the quantity; then pour in the vinegar, &c. The

2 B 2

280

PICKLES, &C.

pickle may be replenished at any time; it never spoils, and is better with keeping. When more vinegar is added, turmeric and Cayenne must be put in as at first.

The ginger should lie in salt and water twentyfour hours, then sliced and laid in salt three days before it is used for the pickle. If preferred, the cauliflowers may be scalded about four minutes, cabbages about eight minutes, and then well dried, French beans, cucumbers, or fruit, should be just scalded and dried.

866. Indian Pickle.

Divide the heads of some cauliflowers into pieces, and add some slices of the stalk when pared, put to them two white cabbages sliced, with the inside slices of carrots, onions, and turnips. Boil a strong ¦brine, simmer the pickles in it two minutes, drain them, and let them dry over a stove or before the fire till they are shrivelled; then put them into a jar and prepare the following pickle: - To four quarts of vinegar, add two ounces of flour of mustard, two ounces of long pepper, two ounces of ginger, four ounces of black pepper, half an ounce of cloves, with some horseradish, and a few eschalots. Boil the whole, and pour it on the pickle while hot; when perfectly cold, tie it down, and, if necessary, add more vinegar afterwards; in a month it will be excellent.

S67. White. Cabbage.

Take three white cabbages, cut, and salt them as you would red cabbage; put the cabbage, when cut, in a deep earthen pot, cover it close, and let it stand in the cellar a week, turning it every day; then take it out and shake it open on a coarse cloth, to drain the brine from it, then put it in ajar with half a pound of white mustard-seed, two heads of garlic, and one

2S1

PICKLES, &C.

ounce of turmeric; boil one gallon of vinegar, one ounce of long pepper, two ounces of white pepper, a small quantity of Cayenne, one ounce of ginger, and a quarter of an ounce of mace, all together, then pour it on the cabbage, &c., stir it well up, and keep it close from the air; stir it every day for a month, and it will be fit for use.

S6S. Onions.

In the month of September choose the smallest white round onions, scald them to take off the brown skin, have ready a very clean stewpan of boiling milk and water, throw in as many onions as will cover the top; as soon as they look clear on the outside, take them up as quick as possible with a slice, and lay them on a cloth; cover them close with another, and scald some more, and so on. Let them lie to be cold, then put them in ajar, or wide-mouthed glass bottles, and pour over them the best vinegar, just hot, but not boiling. When cold, cover them.

869. Onions.

Peel some small onions, and throw them as you peel them into salt and water, changing the brine once a day for three days together, then set them over the fire in milk and water till near boiling; drain and dry them, then pour on them the following pickle, boiled and stood till cold again; distilled vinegar, salt, mace, white pepper, and a bay-leaf or two. They will not look white with any other vinegar.

870. Lemons.

Grate off the yellow rind of small lemons, and put them in an earthen pot, cover them entirely with salt, and let them stand a fortnight; then scald them three times with salt and water, letting them stand till cold each time, then put them in a jar, and boil as

2 B 3

2S2

PICKLES, &C.

much vinegar (with pepper, ginger, and a little mace) as will cover them; pour it upon the lemons; when cold, tie a bladder over, and they will be ready for use in six months. Care should be taken to "keep them well covered with vinegar.

871. Barberries.

Take out the worst of the barberries, and put them into equal quantities of vinegar and water; to every quart of this liquor put half a pound of coarse sugar, boil all together, and skim it till it looks a fine colour: when cold, strain it through a cloth, pressing it to get all the colour from the fruit, let it stand to settle, then pour it clear to the best of the barberries.

Another way is to put them in salt and water only, changing it occasionally.

872. Radish Pods.

Gather the pods when young, put them in salt and water twenty-four hours, then boil the salt and water, pour it on the pods, and cover them close; when cold, boil it and pour it on again, repeat it till they are green, then drain them and make a pickle of good vinegar, with mace, ginger, long pepper, and horseradish; pour it boiling hot upon the pods, and, when nearly cold, boil the vinegar again and pour it on. When cold, tie leather over.

S73. Fennel.

Set some spring water on the fire, and when it boils put in some fennel tied in bunches, with some salt; just let it scald but not boil; when it is of a fine green, dry it in a cloth; when cold, put it in a glass jar with some bruised nutmeg, mace, and a few white pepper-corns; fill up the jar with good cold vinegar,

PICKLES, &c. 283

and lay some fresh fennel on the top; cover it as other pickles, with paper and leather.

874. Nasturtiums.

Gather the knobs or seeds of nasturtiums while young, put them into cold salt and water, changing the brine once a day for three days; make a cold pickle of vinegar, eschalot, pepper, mace, and horseradish, put in the seeds, and tie them up close.

875. Melon Mangoes.

Take the proper sort of melons for pickling, fresh gathered; cut a small square piece out of one side, scoop out the seeds, and mix them with mustard-seed and shred garlic; fill the melon as full as the space will allow, and replace the square piece, bind it up with small new packthread; boil as much vinegar as will cover them well, adding black and Cayenne pepper, salt, and ginger; pour it boiling hot over the mangoes four successive days; the last time, add flour of mustard and scraped horseradish just as it boils up.

When cold, cover them close, observing to keep them well covered with vinegar. Large cucumbers, called green turley, prepared as mangoes, are excellent, and are sooner ready for eating.

876. Cucumber Mangoes.

Lay the cucumbers in a strong brine two days, wipe them dry, then cut open one end and take out the seeds; in every cucumber put a clove of garlic, a slialot, a small onion, a clove, a little sliced ginger, Cayenne, and whole black pepper: till them up with mustard-seed and scraped horseradish; stitch on the ends, put them quite close in your jar, and pour on

284

PICKLES, &C.

boiling vinegar enough to cover them; repeat boiling the vinegar every clay till they are green.

The large green cucumbers are the best.

877. Cucumber Mangoes.

Take the largest green cucumbers, before they are too ripe, or yellow at the ends, cut a piece out of the side, and take out the seeds with an apple-scraper or tea-spoon, and put them into a very strong brine for eiglit or nine days, or till they are yellow, stirring them well two or three times each day; then put them into a brass pan, with a large quantity of vine-leaves both under and over them; beat a little roche alum very fine, and put it in the salt and water they were taken from, pour it upon your cucumbers, and set them upon a very slow fire for four or five hours, till they are a good green; then take them out and drain them on a hair-sieve, and wipe them dry; when cold, put into them horseradish, mustard-seed, two or three heads of garlic, a few peppercorns, a few slices of green cucumbers cut small, till you have filled them; then take the piece you cut out and sew it on with a needle and thread. Have ready the following pickle: to every gallon of vinegar put half an ounce of mace, the same of cloves, two ounces of ginger sliced, the same of black pepper, Jamaica pepper, three ounces of mustard-seed tied up in a bag, four ounces of garlic, and a stick of horseradish cut in slices; boil the whole five minutes in the vinegar, then pour it upon your pickles, tie them down, and keep them for use. The jar will require filling up with good vinegar frequently.

87S. Kidney Beans.

Pour over them boiling brine, cover them close, the next day drain and dry them, pour over them a boil-



28.5

PICKLES, &C.

ing pickle of good vinegar, Jamaica and black pepper, a little mace and ginger; repeat boiling the vinegar every day till the beans look green.

Radish pods may be done in the same way.

S79. Kidney Beans.

Take cheese-whev after it is scalded, make a brine strong enough to bear an egg; let the beans be young, dry, and fresh gathered, put them in the whey brine, and let them remain till they become a bright yellow colour, then drain them through a sieve, and dry them with a coarse cloth; put them in a brass pan, and cover them with good alegar, put in some dill, and cover them close: put paper round the edge of the cover to keep in the steam, set the pan on a slow fire, and let it remain till the beans become green; then take them out of this pickle, and put them in a jar with fresh alegar boiled up with black and Jamaica pepper, and sliced ginger, taking care to have them well covered with alegar.

Cucumbers, gherkins, radish-pods, parsley, nasturtiums, broom-buds, and elder-buds, may all be pickled in the same way.

8S0. Walnuts.

Prick the walnuts well with a pin when young; to one hundred, put a quarter of a pound of whole black pepper, a quarter of a pound of ginger sliced or bruised a little, a quarter of a pound of mustard, a handful of the tops of garlic or shalot, and sliced horseradish; fill up the jar with cold vinegar, adding four large handsful of salt; cover it close with two covers of leather, and as the vinegar wastes, fill up the jar. Let them stand a year before you use them; if preferred, the vinegar may be boiled with the seasoning, and poured hot upon the walnuts. \\ hen the walnuts are used, the vinegar may

286

PICKLES, &C.

be improved and made useful for sauce, by boiling it up vvilli cloves and garlic; then strain it and cork it up in bottles.

SSI. Walnuts.

Prepare a pickle of salt and water strong enough to bear an egg, boil and skim it well, then pour it over the walnuts, and let them stand six days; then make a brine as before, drain and put them into it, and let them stand a week, then drain and dry them with a cloth; pour over them, quite hot, as much good vinegar, boiled with mace, cloves, nutmeg, allspice, bruised ginger, scraped or sliced horseradish, and Jamaica pepper-corns, as will cover them. A little garlic and mustard-seed may be added, if ap-

cold, tie the jar up close. They will be ready in six months, but be careful to gather the walnuts before the shells become hard.

Walnuts are more liable to become black and soft when they lie in brine previous to being pickled, but are sooner ready for use.

SS2. Walnuts green.

Take fine clean walnuts before the shells become bard, lay them in strong salt and water twelve days, changing the brine every two days, then set them over the fire till they will peel; having peeled them, return them into the same water, cover them very close, and set them over a slow fire till they are green; then drain them well, and boil as much vinegar as will cover them, with whole black and Jamaica pepper, mace, ginger, and a few bay leaves; pour the pickle hot upon the walnuts and cover them close; when cold, tie them down with leather. As the vinegar wastes, add sufficient to keep them covered.

proved

Win

287

PICKLES, &C.

8S3. Sugar Vinegar.

To six gallons of water, take nine pounds of brown sugar, the whites of four eggs well beaten, put in while the water is cold; when near boiling, skim it well, and boil it a quarter of an hour; put it in a cask when about new-milk warm, with a little yeast spread on a toast; keep it in rather a warm place, stirring it frequently; the oftener it is stirred the sooner it will be ready for use.

884. Sugar Vinegar.

To one gallon of water, put one pound and a half of sugar, dissolve the sugar in part of the water over the fire till it will make the whole just warm, then put it in a cask with a little alum and a little yeast, bung it up very lightly, and let it stand in a warm place till sour, then bottle it. Do not wash your cask, and the next making will be ready in a much shorter time.

885. Another way.

Boil ten pounds of coarse sugar, twelve gallons of water, and half a pound of brown bread together for one hour, then take out the bread, and pour the liquor into an open vessel to cool, and on the following day add half a pint of yeast. Let it stand twelve or fourteen days, and then put it in a cask, and set it in the sun till sufficiently sour, which will commonly be in about six months.

The bung-hole must merely have a bit of slate over it.

88G. Gooseberry Vinegar.

Take three gallons of water, and four quarts of gooseberries bruised; place the whole in a tub, in which it must remain three days, being stirred often; then strain it off, and add to every gallon of liquor

28S

PICKLES, & C.

one pound of coarse sugar; pour the whole into a barrel with a toast and yeast. (The strength can be increased almost to any required degree, by adding more fruit and sugar.) It must then be placed in the sun, and the bung-hole covered as before mentioned.

887. Gooseberry Vinegar.

The gooseberries should be full ripe, and bruised till all are broken; to every quart of pulp put five pints of cold water; let it stand two days, stirring it three times a day, then strain it through a sieve, and afterwards through a flannel bag; to every gallon put a pound and a half of good moist sugar; when the sugar is dissolved, put it in a cask and stop it; if made of white or green gooseberries, the colour will be finer.

8S8. Gooseberry Vinegar.

Take the gooseberries when full ripe, stamp them small; to every quart put three quarts of water; stir them well together; let it stand twenty-four hours, then strain it through a canvas bag; to every gallon of liquor add one pound of brown sugar, and stir it well together before you barrel your liquor.

The old bright yellow English gooseberries are the best.

889. Cowslip Vinegar.

To fifteen quarts of water put five pounds of coarse sugar, boil them together ten minutes; when cold, put four quarts of cowslip flowers into the liquor, with a small tea-cupful of barm: stir it well twice a day for a week, and set it in the sun.

890. Primrose Vinegar.

To fifteen quarts of water put six pounds of brown sugar; let it boil tea minutes, and take off the

PICKLES, &c. 289

scum; pour it on half a peck of primroses; before it is quite cold, put in a little fresh yeast, and let it work in a warm place all night; put it in a barrel, in the kitchen, and when done working, close the barrel, still keeping it in a warm place.

891. Vinegar from Clover -flowers.

Take a quartern measure of clover-flowers, half a pound of coarse sugar, and one pound of treacle, to one gallon of water; put the sugar and treacle to the water, and boil them twenty minutes; when just warm, put a little yeast to it; put the flowers in a vessel, and pour the liquor upon them. Stop it up close, and let it remain till fit for use, which will not be many weeks.

892. Raisin Vinegar.

To every two pounds of Malaga raisins put four quarts of spring water, lay a bit of slate on the bung, and set it in the sun till it is fit for use. A large wide-necked stone-bottle will do as well as a cask, if it be kept in the chimney-corner, or near the side of the fire-place a proper time.

893. Vinegar from Crabs.

To one peck of crabs bruised, put nine gallons of cold spring water; let them stand about nine days, covering the tub with a cloth, and stirring them twice every day; then strain the liquor through a haircloth, and put into a cask iron-hooped and painted. To every gallon of liquor put one pound of sugar, and stir it in the cask several times to dissolve the sugar; set the cask in the sun, and cover it with a bit of slate or tile till ready for use. This makes good strong vinegar that will do for pickles.

290

PICKLES, &C.

89 4. Vinegar from Malt Liquor.

To ten gallons of malt liquor, (not beer,) take half an ounce of cream of tartar, the same of bay salt and alum, dissolved in two quarts of the liquor boiling hot; put it hot into the cask, cover the bunghole with a piece of brown paper, and it will be fine vinegar in a short time.

S95. To distil Verjuice for Piclde.

Take three quarts (or a larger quantity if requisite) of good verjuice, distil it off very gently in a cold still; the sooner it is done in the spring the better; it will in a short time be fit to pickle mushrooms, or to put in sauces, &c., where lemon is required.

896. To make Verjuice.

Take crabs when quite ripe, lay them together to sweat a few days or a week, then wipe them dry and pick them from the stalks; they must then be stamped quite to a mash; strain and press them through a hair-bag. Put the verjuice in a large jar, covered close, and in a few weeks clear it off into bottles.

897. To preserve Vinegar.

Put the vinegar in a clean vessel, and let it just boil a quarter of a minute, then put it into bottles; or it may be put in bottles and set on the fire in a pan of water, till the water boils; when cold, cork them well, and it will keep several years.

S9S. Vinegar of Roses.

Take dried roses, put them in a stone bottle, a large handful to a quart of distilled vinegar, set it in the sun or by the fire till the virtue is extracted, then strain and keep it for use.

PICKIjES, &c.

291

899, Elder Vinegar.

Strip elder-flowers from the stalk, and dry them on a sheet of paper; when quite dry, put them into glass bottles, and fill the bottles up with vinegar; cork them close; it will be ready for use in live or six weeks. Put half a peck to a gallon.

900. Cucumber Vinegar.

Put fifteen large cucumbers, pared and sliced thin, into a jar with a quart of vinegai, four onions sliced, a few eshalots, a little garlic, a very little Cayenne pepper, a little white pepper and salt; let it stand four days, then strain it off and bottle it with some whole pepper.

901. Essence of Vinegar.

During a hard frost, expose vinegar to the weather in shallow vessels; the watery parts will freeze, but the spirit will remain fluid. Repeatedly expose the fluid as it is obtained, and if the season be very cold, a pint of strong vinegar will be reduced, by the frequent exposure, to about a table-spoonful of fineflavoured essence, and very pungent.

902. Vinegar in Balls.

Take bramble-berries when about half ripe, dry them, and then beat them to powder, make it up into balls with strong vinegar, as large as nuts, dry them very well, and keep them in boxes. When wanted for use, dissolve a ball in some stale gingerbeer, or vinegar that is not so sour and good as you wish, and it will become strong vinegar.

Green bramble-berries, put into good sherbet or wine, will make good vinegar in a few hours.

2 c 2

292

PICKLES, &C.

903. Common Vinegar.

Dissolve two pounds of molasses in nine quarts of water, pour it into a vessel with half a peck of cowslip pips, when cool add yeast, expose it to the rays ot the sun, and in three months bottle it for use.

904. Walnut Catsup.

Wipe a hundred walnuts when fit to pickle, slice and pound them in a mortar with three-quarters of a pound of bay-salt; boil two quarts of good gooseberry vinegar, and pour it upon them, let it stand two days, then strain it off and bottle it; put a clove of garlic into each bottle; a quart more vinegar may be poured over the walnuts after the first is drawn off; it will serve for present nse if well stirred.

905. Mushr oojn Catsup.

Take care to have the mushrooms fresh gathered and full grown; put a layer at the bottom of a deep earthen pan, and sprinkle them with salt, then another layer of mushrooms, then more salt, and so on alternately; let them remain four hours, then mash them well with your hands, and let them stand two days, stirring them well each day; then put them into a stone jar, with an ounce and a half of whole black pepper, and half an ounce of allspice and mace; cover the jar very close, and set it in a pan of boiling water, and keep it boiling two hours; take out the jar, and pour the liquor through a hair sieve, and boil it gently half an hour; skim it well, and pour it into a clean jug; cover it close, and let it stand in a cool place till next day, then clear it off carefully through a thick flannel bag, till it is perfectly clear; let it stand two days longer covered close, then pour it off, leaving the sediment, (if any,) and bottle it in small bottles; cork them closely and

293

PICKLES, &C.

seal them, or dip tliem in bottle cement. If kept in a cool, dry place, it may be preserved a long time, and only half the usual quantity is required.

If badly corked, and kept in a damp place, it will spoil. Examine it from time to time, and if any pellicle appears about it, boil it up again with a few pepper-corns.

906. Mushroom Catsup.

Take a stewpan full of the large flap mushrooms, that are not worm-eaten, and the skins and stalks of any others; throw a handful of salt among them, and set them by a slow nre. They will produce a great deal of liquor, which must be strained; put to it four ounces of eschalots, two cloves of garlic, a good deal of pepper, ginger, mace, cloves, and a few bayleaves. Boil and skim it very well; when cold, cork it close. In two months boil it up again, with a little fresh spice, and a stick of horse-radish, and it will then keep a long time; which mushroom catsup rarely does, if not boiled a second time.

907. Essence of Mushrooms.

This delicate relish is made by sprinkling a little salt over the mushrooms; in three hours after, mash them; next day, strain off the liquor, and boil it till reduced to half. It will not keep long, but is preferable to any catsup, which, in order to preserve it, must have spice, See., and that generally overpowers the flavour of the mushroom.

908. Lemon Pickle..

To six lemons, each cut into six or eight pieces, put one pound of salt, four cloves of garlic, with mace, nutmeg, Cayenne pepper, and allspice, a quarter of an ounce each, and two ounces of flour of mustard; to these ingredients add two quarts of good vinegar,

2 c 3

294

PICKLES, &C.

boil them a quarter of an hour in a stone jar set in a pan of water, then set it by for six weeks, stirring it well every day; pour it into small bottles, and keep them very well corked.

Obs . - The only general rules that can be given for the proper and safe preparation of pickles are, to have sound vegetables, not over ripe, dry, and fresh gathered, trimming and wiping them carefully; washing only such things as are to be steeped or parboiled previous to pickling. The best common alegar and vinegar may, in most cases, be used for pickling; it should always be made scalding hot, and stand till cold, when cold vinegar is required, as raw vinegar is apt to become thick and ropy; the gooseberry and sugar vinegar both answer very well for many kinds of pickle, if well made, and not too new. If the vinegar is not good, the pickles will be bad. It is scarcely possible to give a rule for the quantity of spices to be used, except that it should not be so great as to overcome the natural flavour of the articles pickled. Stone jars are the best for keeping pickles, as they are not so porous as the common earthen jars; the pickles should also be kept well covered with vinegar, and the jars well closed; cork bungs to fit the jars, with a wrapper of leather round, and a cover of the same tied over, answers extremely well for that purpose. Small glass jars or bottles are the best for mushrooms, nasturtiums, See., dipping the necks in bottle-cement. When necessary to boil vinegar for pickles, do it in a stone jar, on a hot stove, or in a pan of water on the fire.

By parboiling pickles in brine, they will be ready in less time than they are when done by soaking them in cold salt and water for six or eight days; when taken out of the hot brine, let them be cold,

295

PICKLES, &C.

and wiped quite dry, before you put them in the pickle. A wooden spoon with holes in should be used for taking pickles out of the jars; they should never be taken out with a fork or the fingers; and pieces of pickle, such as mangoes, cucumbers, &c., should never be returned into the jar to the stock, but be kept separate in a small jar of vinegar. When the pickles are used, boil up the liquor with a little salt and fresh spice; when cold, bottle and cork it for use, either for sauce, or to pickle nasturtiums and gherkins, where a fine colour is no object.

CHEESE, &c.

909 . New-Milk Cheese.

Put five quarts of strippings, or afterings, as it is sometimes called, that is, the last of the milk, into a pan with a large spoonful of rennet*; when it is become curd, cut it through with a saucer or skimming-dish, just to break it; let it stand two hours, then spread a thin cloth in a sieve, put the curd in it and let the whey drain from it; break the curd a little with your hand, and put it into a vat with a twopound weight upon it; when it has stood twelve hours, bind a fillet round, and turn it every day till dry, from one board to another.

It may either be used in that state, or ripened with dock-leaves, or nettles, under and over, between two plates. If the weather be tolerably warm, it will be ready in three weeks.

* In Barbary, instead of rennet, especially in the summerseason, they turn the milk with the flowers of the great-headed thistle, or wild artichoke.

296

CHEESE, &C.

910. Cream Cheese.

To four quarts of new milk put two of cream, mix them together when cold, add as much boiling water as will make it new-milk warm; when sufficientlycurdled lay a thin wet cloth in a vat, then put in the curd with a dish, lay a board on that will go within the vat, lay on it a ten-pound weight, and let it drain fourteen hours; then take it out, and if too thick to dry soon, cut it in two with a string of packthread, and dry the parts separately. Do not put in any salt.

911. Cream Cheese.

Boil two quarts of cream, put it to four quarts of new milk, the yolks of three eggs, three spoonsful of sugar, and as much rennet as will turn it; mix all together, and run it through a clean hair sieve; when turned to curd, take it into a cheese-vat that will hold it all at once, lay a sinker (a board that will fit within the vat) upon it, and a weight upon that; let it stand till the next day; changing the cloths several times, and drawing it tighter each time, till it will go into a smaller vat. Turn it into clean cloths every day till ready for eating.

The cloths should be very thin at the first.

912. Another way.

Take five quarts of new milk, put to it a quart of cream and a quart of water boiled separately, add tw r o yolks of eggs well-beaten, and a table-spoonful of sugar, and as much rennet as will turn it, lay a thin cloth in a sieve and pour it in; change the cloths four or five times, then lay the cheese in clean grass or ruhes under and over, changing it twice a day; put a clean hot flannel twice a day over the grass.

CHEESE, &C.

297

913. Cream Cheese in straw vats.

Take one quart of cream, two quarts of good new milk, a little sugar, and one spoonful of rennet; add as much warm water as will make it as warm as new milk; when the curd is formed do not break it up, but put it in a straw vat without any cloth, and as the whey runs from it, keep adding more, but do not press it; in twelve hours turn it on a new bottom, let it stand two days, and it will be solid; strew a little salt on both sides and turn it twice a day, wiping it every time; as soon as it will stand on an edge, set it up, and keep it in a dry room before a window to have air, and it will be ready for eating in ten days.

914. York Cream Cheese.

To a quart of thick cream taken out of the cream-pot, put two quarts of new milk and a little salt, let it stand a day or two to thicken, stirring it sometimes; then pour it into a clean wet cloth laid in a sieve, let it drain till the next day, then turn it into a clean wet cloth, and afterwards into a clean dry cloth, once or twice every day, till dry enough for use, which will be in about ten or eleven days. After the first two or three days, lay it in a cloth on a board instead of a sieve.

915. Fresh Cheese.

Sweeten some new milk to the taste, grate in a little nutmeg, add very little salt, and a little rennet, just enough to turn it to a very soft curd. It must be formed in the dish in which it is to be sent to table, after being drained through a thin cloth laid in a hair sieve.

916. Cheese to eat new.

Take six quarts of new milk, turn it with a little ren-

298

CHEESE, &C.

net, and let it stand till it is a light curd; do not break it, but take it up in a dish, and lay it in a cloth in a sieve, then cover it with a cloth and lay a board to fit within the sieve, lay a pound weight upon it, and turn it into a dry cloth twice a day till all the whey is drained from it, then have boards to turn it upon, and keep wiping it often, till ready for use.

917. To keep Cream.

Mix with any quantity of good cream, half the weight of finely-powdered lump-sugar, stir it together till the sugar is dissolved, and preserve it in bottles well corked. It will then keep very good for several months.

918. To preserve Butter.

Take two parts of the best common salt, one part of good loaf-sugar, and one part of saltpetre, beat them well together; to sixteen ounces of butter thoroughly cleansed from the milk, put one ounce of this composition, work it well, and put it down in pots.

The butter thus preserved is the better for keeping, and should not be used till it has been kept a month. This article should be kept from the air, in the best glazed earthen pots, that will hold from ten to fourteen pounds each.

919. To preserve Milk.

Provide some perfectly clean and dry bottles, draw the milk from the cow into the bottles, or instantly put it in when milked, and as they are filled immediately cork them, and tie the corks down with twine or wire; set them in a pan with a little straw at the bottom, and between the bottles; fill it up with cold water, and heat the water gradually till it begins to

299

CHEESE, &C.

boil, then immediately take the fire from under (if a fixed boiler), or take the pan off the fire, and let it stand undisturbed till quite cold; then take the bottles out, wipe them dry, and pack them with straw or saw-dust in a box or hamper, and set them in a cool cellar, or the coolest part of a ship.

It is said that milk preserved in this manner, although six months in the bottles, will be as sweet as when first milked from the cow.

920. To 'prevent Milk and Butter from tasting of Turnips.

Pour a quart of boiling water to two ounces of saltpetre, when dissolved and cold put it in a bottle, or jug with a cover, and keep it for use; put in tw T o large spoonsful to every four gallons of milk immediately when brought in, stirring it well. This method, if constantly and regularly attended to, will effectually prevent both milk and butter from tasting either of turnip, cabbage, or any strong herb the cows may accidentally crop at any time. A little saltpetre, about the size of a walnut, may also be put in the cream-pot, stirring it well twice a day.

921. To purify rancid or tainted Butter.

Melt and skim the butter as if for clarifying, then put in a piece of well-toasted bread. In a very few minutes the butter will lose its offensive taste and smell, but the bread will become quite foetid.

[ 922. To make salt Butter fresh.

To every pound of butter allow a quart of new milk, put them in a churn with a little arnalto; churn them well together, and in about an hour take out the butter, and treat it exactly as fresh butter, by

300

CHEESE, &C.

washing it in water and adding the usual quantity of salt. By this process the butter gains about three ounces in the pound, and is equal to fresh butter. A common earthen churn will answer the purpose.

SYRUPS, &c.

923. Clarified Syrup.

Break into small pieces two pounds of fine lumpsugar, put it in a clean well-tinned pan, with a pint of cold spring water, stir it till the sugar is dissolved, set it over a moderate fire, beat about half the white of an egg, and put it to the sugar before it gets warm, and stir it well together; when it boils take off the scum, and keep it boiling till perfectly clear, then strain it through muslin; put it in a close-stopped bottle, and it will keep several months.

It is an elegant article for sweetening at the table. Fruit-syrups are also much better when made with this clarified syrup, than when made with sugar only.

924. Capillaire.

Beat up six eggs and the shells, put them to three quarts of cold water, fourteen pounds of lump-sugar, and three pounds of coarse sugar, stir it well together, boil and skim it well; when cold, boil it again, skim it as before, and add a pint of orangeflower water; strain it through a jelly-bag, and put it in bottles for use. A spoonful or two of this syrup, mixed with water, either with or without lemon-juice, makes a very pleasant drink.

SYRUPS, &C.

301

925. Syrup of Roses.

Pour four pints of boiling water on one pound of fresh rose-leaves, or half a pound of dried leaves, cover it close for twelve hours, then strain, and add four pounds of good loaf-sugar; boil it to a syrup, and, when cold, bottle it.

A table-spoonful or two of this syrup, put into a little water with a little lemon-juice, makes a very pleasant liquor.

926. Syrup of Vinegar.

Take of good vinegar two pounds and a half, refined sugar three pounds and a half; boil it gently to form a syrup. This is a very pleasant syrup, and is often preferred to the lemon syrup.

A little of this syrup, or ginger syrup, according to the taste, is an agreeable addition to any of the milder syrups when mixed with water.

927. Syrup of Clovegillifowers.

Pour three pints of boiling water on one pound of clove-flowers cut off from the white part, let them stand twelve hours covered close, then strain and boil it gently to a syrup, with five pounds and a half of refined sugar powdered.

Syrup of marigolds may be prepared the same way.

928. Syrup of Violets.

Pour five pints of boiling water on two pounds of the fresh petals of blue violets in a glazed earthen vessel, cover it close, and let it stand twenty-four hours, then strain, and add seven pounds of refined sugar.

2 D

302

SYRUPS, SiC.

929. Syrup of Ginger.

Boil two ounces of ginger in four pints of water, until the strength is sufficiently extracted, add four pounds ot loaf-sugar, and boil it till it becomes a thick syrup, take off the scum quite clear; when cold, bottle it.

Or, pour five pints of boiling water on two ounces of prepared ginger, let it stand twenty-four hours; then strain it, and add seven pounds of loaf-sugar powdered; boil it gently to a syrup.

930. Syrup of Cloves.

Put a quarter of a pound of cloves to a quart of boiling water, cover it close and set it on the fire, boil gently half an hour, then strain it, and to a pint of liquor add two pounds of loaf-sugar; clear it with the whites of two eggs beaten up with a little cold water; let it simmer till it is a strong syrup; preserve it in vials closely corked.

Cinnamon or mace syrup may be made in the same way.

931. Syrup of Orange Peel.

Pour three pints of boiling water on four ounces of the fresh rind of Seville oranges, pared very thin, cover it close, and let it stand twelve hours, strain and boil to a syrup with five pounds of good loafsugar powdered.

932. To keep Lemon Juice.

Keep the fruit in a cool place two or three days, squeeze the juice into a basin, then strain it through muslin which will not permit the least pulp to pass; have ready half and quarter ounce vials perfectly dry, fill them with the juice so near the top as only to admit half a tea-spoonful of olive-oil into each, or a

303

SYRUPS, &C.

little more, if for larger bottles. Cork the bottles, and set them upright in a cool place.

When you want lemon-luice, open such a sized bottle as you will use in two or three days; wind some clean cotton round a skewer, and dipping it in, the oil will be attracted, and when that is removed, the juice will be as fine as when first bottled.

This will keep good for several years.

933. Orange Syrup, useful to mix with Water when the fresh Fruit cannot be procured.

Squeeze the juice from the finest fruit, and strain it through fine muslin or flannel, take equal quantities of juice and clarified syrup, boil it with a little of the rind till clear: when cold bottle it in small bottles.

Lemon Syrup may be prepared in the same way, allowing half a pint more of the clarified syrup to a pint of lemon-juice.

This and any of the following syrups, mixed with water, make a very agreeable beverage.

934. Elder Syrup.

Pick the berries from the stalks, put them in an earthen pot, with half a pint of water to each quart of berries, cover them, and set them in the oven till they are sufficiently stewed to extract the juice from them; to every pint of syrup add one pound of brown sugar, and a little bruised ginger, boil it half an hour, and when cold, bottle it, cork it up close, and keep it in a cool place.

When to be taken warm at bed-time, as in cases of cold or sore throat, boil a little grated nutmeg, or lemon-peel, in water a few minutes, then add one third part of syrup to two of water. A little lemonjuice.

Blackberry Syrup may be prepared in the same way2 d 2

304

SYRUPS, &C.

935. Syrup of Mulberries.

Boil some mulberries with very little water, strain it through a fine hair sieve, and to every quart of clear juice put a pint and a half of clarified syrup, boil it to a syrup over a slow fire. When cold, bottle it.

936. Syrup of Cherries.

Stone, and strip from the stalks any quantity of very ripe cherries, and proceed as for mulberries.

Syrup from any kind of juicy fruit may be made in the same way, adding sugar more or less, according to the sweetness or acidity of the fruit used.

Grape Syrup may be prepared in the same manner.

937. Syrup of Lemons.

Take strained lemon-juice one pint, put it in a stone jar covered close, set it in a pan of boiling water a quarter of an hour; when cold, make it into a syrup with two pounds of loaf-sugar powdered, add gradually to the syrup, cover it close, shaking the jar frequently; strain it, and when cold, bottle it.

Lemon Syrup answers quite as well, prepared in the same way as the Orange Syrup. See No. 933.

938. Raspberry and Currant Syrup.

Take fifteen pounds of loaf-sugar to eight quarts of water, beat up the whites of two eggs, and mix in while the water is cold, set it on the fire, and proceed as directed in No. 923, To Clarify Sugar; when clear, put in two quarts of currant and two of raspberry juice that has been pressed from ripe fruit and strained; boil it briskly half an hour, taking ofi the scum quite clean; when cold, put it in a large stone jar with a tap in it, or a small cask, adding a quarter of an ounce of isinglass dissolved in a little of the

305

SYRUPS, &C.

liquor; close it well up, and let it remain undisturbed for three months, then, if quite clear, bottle it, and it will be ready for use. This syrup makes an exceedingly pleasant liquor mixed with water.

Strawberry and Currant Syrup may be made in a similar way, but to obtain the juice trom the strawberries, half a pint of water should be put to each quart of fruit in a jar, and the jar set in a pan of water on the fire till the strawberries are in that state that the juice can be pressed from them through a sieve, it may then be put with the currant juice and proceeded with as above.

White Currants may be used if preferred.

Gooseberry, Cherry, and Mulberry Syrup, with a mixture of raspberry or currant juice, according to the kind of fruit used, may be prepared after the same manner.

939. Raspberry Vinegar.

Bruise eight pounds of raspberries, and pour on them three pints of good gooseberry or sugar vinegar; let them stand twenty-four hours, frequently stirring them with a wooden spoon; put six pounds of loafsugar, broken in large lumps, into an earthen vessel, and the fruit and vinegar into a jelly-bag; let it drop upon the sugar till all the juice is drained out, pressing it gently now and then; pour the liquor into a preserving-pan and let it boil a little over a moderate fire, and, when cold, bottle it. When wanted for use, put two large spoonsful in a tumbler of water, and if too sweet, add a few drops of vinegar.

This is one of the most useful preparations that can be kept in a house, not only as affording a most pleasant and refreshing beverage, but being of singular efficacy in complaints of the chest.

A stone jar is the best to boil it in, set in a pan of water; or it may be boiled in a block-tin pan,

2u3

306

SYRUPS, &C.

Red Currant Vinegar is prepared in the same way, adding a little more sugar. It may also be made with a mixture of strawberries or raspberries. Black currant and elderberry vinegar, prepared in the same manner, are extremely useful in cases of hoarseness or sore throat.

940. To make the celebrated Eastern Beverage, called Sherbet.

This liquor is a species of negus, without the wine. It consists of water, lemon or orange-juice, and sugar, in which are dissolved perfumed cakes, made of the very best Damascus fruit, and containing also a few drops of rose-water: anotlier kind is made of violets, honey, fresh juice of grapes, & c. It is well calculated for assuaging thirst, as the acidity is agreeably blended with sweetness. It resembles, indeed, those fruits which we find so grateful when thirsty.

941. Sherbet.

Take nine Seville oranges, and three lemons, grate off the yellow rinds, and put the raspings into a gallon of water. Take three pounds of loaf-sugar, boiled to a syrup with three pints of water, and a little white of egg to clear it, then add to it the juice of the fruit, keep stirring it till almost cold, then mix it with the water, strain it through muslin, and bottle it for use.

942. Lemon Sherbet.

To five gallons of clear soft water, take fifteen pounds of sugar, and the whites of five eggs well beaten, boil it a quarter of an hour, taking off the scum quite clean: pour it on the rinds of twenty good-sized lemons, pared as thin as possible, and an ounce and a half of the best Jamaica ginger, sliced or bruised; cover it close, and let it stand till the next day; then clear it off into a cask with the juice of the lemons

307

SYRUPS, &C.

strained and boiled half an hour with a pound of loafsugar; add half an ounce of isinglass dissolved in a little of the liquor; close the cask, and in three weeks bottle it. It may be bottled sooner if fine.';

943. Lemon Sherbet.

Pare six large lemons, and boil the peels in six quarts of water with a little ginger a quarter of an hour, then add three pounds of sugar; when cold, put in the juice of the lemons and strain it, and it is fit for use.

944. Cowslip Sherbet.

To four gallons of water take twelve pounds of loafsugar, put in the whites of four eggs beaten to froth, to clear it; boil it half an hour, taking off the scum as it rises; then pour it on a peck and a half of cowslips, and the rinds of eight lemons, and six Seville oranges; boil the juice of the lemons and oranges with half a pound of loaf-sugar, and put in; cover it and let it stand in a very cool place two days: then squeeze out the cowslips, and strain it into a barrel or drink-pot, reserving a tea-cupful to dissolve a quarter of an ounce of isinglass in; put it in the vessel, and close it up. In three weeks bottle it.

*** The colour and flavour of the sherbet will be much improved, if the cowslips be cut taking a part ol the cup as well as the flower, and leaving the hard substance at the bottom of the pip.

Primrose, and rose sherbet may be made in the same way.

945. Orange Sherbet.

To five gallons of clear soft water, take fifteen pounds ot loaf-sugar, and the whites of six eggs; mix all together while cold, boil it half an hour, taking off the scum, then pour it boiling hot on the rinds of eighteen ol the largest Seville oranges, paired very

308

SYRUPS, &C.

thin; squeeze the juice from the Seville oranges, and three dozen of large sweet oranges, boil it a quarter of an hour with a pound of loaf-sugar; when both are nearly cold, mix them together and strain it through muslin, put it in the cask with the rinds of the Seville oranges, and half an ounce of isinglass dissolved in a little of the liquor, and the whites of six eggs beaten to a froth; put the cork in loosely, and in a few days close it up tight. In two months try it, and if fine bottle it.

946. Black Currant Sherbet.

To fourteen pounds of currants, fresh gathered and bruised, put twelve quarts of water; let it stand two days, stirring it frequently, then strain it through a sieve, and add fourteen pounds of brown sugar, mix it well with the liquor, and put it in the cask, with the whites of three eggs well beaten, and the shells, one pint of raspberry juice, and half an ounce of isinglass; close it up, and when it has stood one month, try it, and if fine, bottle it, if not, clear it off into another vessel, and let it stand another month.

947. Raspberry and Currant Sherbet.

To four quarts of juice, add twelve quarts of water, and fifteen pounds of sugar boiled briskly for about half an hour, then pour it into a vessel to cool, reserving a little of the liquor to dissolve half an ounce of isinglass. When cold put it into a large jar, or small cask, and the following day put in the isinglass; cork it up and put some clay over the top ot the cork to keep out the air; in one month clear it off, but if it be not sufficiently fine, run it through a jelly-bag, and return it into the cask, or clear it oil into another vessel, and let it stand one month longer, then bottle

syrups, &c. 309

it; put in the corks very loose for about a fortnight, then cork them fast.

Any kind of fruit sherbet may be made in a similar way, such as gooseberry, strawberry, cherry, blackberry, black currant, &c.

94S. Another way.

Bruise the fruit, and squeeze out all the stalks, then strain the pulp through a hair-sieve, and add to it cold, clear, soft water, allowing three quarts of water to one of juice, and to every four quarts of liquor, put three pounds and a half of sugar; stir all together till the sugar is dissolved, let it stand till the next day, then skim, and strain it through a cloth, put it in the cask with some isinglass dissolved in a little of the liquor, or water; put in the cork rather loosely, and in about a week close it tight; in three weeks try it, and, if fine, bottle it.

949. Rhubarb Sherbet.

Peel and boil six or eight sticks of rhubarb ten minutes in a quart of water; strain the liquor through a sieve, adding the rind of a lemon pared very thin, and two table-spoonsful of clarified sugar; let it stand five or six hours, strain it through muslin, and it will be ready to drink.

950. Sherbet.

This celebrated oriental beverage, about which so much has been said and written, is the most simple diluent imaginable. A decoction of oatmeal and sugar seasoned, when cold, with rose-water, spices, &c., is the brief recipe for making this liquor.

951. To fine Sherbet when it will not fine m the 7 usual way.

To every five gallons take one ounce of powdered

310

LEMONADE, &C

gum arabic and one ounce of powdered chalk, mix them well together and put them to the sherbet; leave out the bung for a day or two, then take off the scum, and close it up for a few weeks, when it will be ready for use.

952. Another way.

Take a sheet of writing-paper, roll it up lightly in the form of a scroll, and put it in the cask; it will be fine enough to bottle in a week or ten days.

953. A Substitute for Cream.

Beat up a fresh-laid egg in a basin, and pour boiling tea gradually over it, stirring it rather quickly to prevent its curdling. It is difficult from the taste to distinguish it from good cream.

LEMONADE, SHERBETS, SYRUPS, &c.

954. Apple Beverage.

Take a sufficient quantity of sharp juicy apples and pears before they are quite ripe, to fill a cask within three inches of the top: bruise them a little and put them in the cask, then fill it up with water, let it remain until the liquor acquires the taste of cider, then draw it off and bottle it; and fill up the vessel again with water. This is said to be a pleasant liquor. Siberian crabs would, no doubt, be a pleasant addition.

955. Lemon Beverage.

To ten gallons of water, take fifteen pounds of loafsugar, the whites of eight eggs well beaten; stir

311

LEMONADE, &C.

them all together while the water is cold; when near boiling, skim it well, and when it boils, put in three ounces of bruised ginger, and boil it twenty minutes; pour the liquor boiling hot upon the rinds of twenty lemons thinly pared, when cold, put it in the cask, and add to it two table-spoonsful of yeast, the juice of thirty lemons strained through muslin, and half an ounce of isinglass, dissolved in a little of the liquor, and stand till cold. In two days close it up, and in three weeks bottle it.

956. Lemonade.

Pare five lemons very thin, and put to the rinds half a pound of loaf-sugar, and a quart of boiling water; cover it close, and let it stand till cold; then add to the juice of the lemon nearly half a pint of cowslip or other pale sherbet; pour in a pint of boiling skimmed milk to break it; then run it through a jelly-bag till fine. If, while running, you find it is not acid enough, put a wine-class of clear lemonjuice or vinegar into the jelly-bag.

957. Lemonade.

Squeeze the juice of as many lemons as will flavour two quarts of spring water pleasantly, put in a little of the rind pared very thin, loaf sugar to the taste, and the whites of three eggs beaten to a froth; set it over a clear fire, let it boil a few minutes, strain it through a jelly-bag, and when cold it will be fit for use.

N. B. One yolk of egg may be added, if agreeable. Orangeade may be made in the same way.

958. Orange or Lemonade.

Squeeze the juice of oranges or lemons, or both, pour boiling water on a little of the peel, and cover it close; boil water and sugar to a thin syrup, and

312

LEMONADE, &C.

skim it; when all are cold, mix the juice, infusion and syrup, with as much more water as will make a rich sherbet, strain through a jelly-bag, or muslin, adding water and capillaire.

959. Lemonade.

Pour some boiling water on the rind of lemon pared very thin, cover it close; when cold, add lemon-juice and sugar to the taste. More water may be added, if required; strain it through muslin. A little cinnamon and ginger boiled in the water, is a pleasant addition.

960. Portable Lemonade.

Take half an ounce of tartaric acid, loaf-sugar three ounces, essence of lemon half a drachm; pound the sugar and acid very well together in a marble mortar, gradually adding the essence; mix the whole very well, and paper it in twelve separate parcels, each of which, when mixed in a tumbler of water, will make a very pleasant and refreshing draught. A drachm of prepared ginger, mixed with the acid and sugar, is an agreeable and wholesome addition.

961. Orgeat.

Blanch and pound very fine three-quarters of a pound of Jordan almonds, and two ounces of bitter ones, with a quarter of a pint of orange-flower water, to keep them from oiling, stir in it by degrees one pint of rose and one pint of spring water, and three pints of milk, and strain the whole through muslin; add a pint of capillaire or clarified sugar.

Py adding three-quarters of a pound of fine powdered sugar to the almond paste, and putting it down in pots, it will keep several months. When wanted ior use, take a piece the size of an egg, and mix it

LEMONADE, &C. 313

well with half a pint of water, and strain it through muslin.

962. Orgeat.

To half a pound of sweet almonds, allow one ounce of bitter almonds, blanch and beat them very fine in a marble mortar; mix with them gradually a pint of spring water, then strain through a muslin sieve as dry as possible, add more water to the liquor till properly diluted, then sweeten it with capillaire, or very fine powdered sugar. It should be put in a decanter, and shaken before it is poured out for use.

963. Orgeat for present 7ise.

Boil two quarts of milk with a stick of cinnamon, let it stand till.'quite cold; blanch two ounces of the best sweet almonds and a dozen bitter ones, pound them together in a mortar with a little rose-water, then mix them well with the milk, adding sugar to the taste; just give it a boil, then strain it through muslin or a lawn sieve; when quite cold, it will be ready for use. Great care should be taken that the almonds do not oil.

964. Ginger Beer.

To five gallons of water, take four pounds of brown sugar, one pound of treacle, two ounces and a half of ginger, and one ounce and a half of hops; bruise the ginger, and boil it with the hops half an hour in about three quarts of water, adding a table-spoonful of salt, and a little isinglass, then strain it upon the sugar and treacle, adding cold water to make up the five gallons; stir in it two table-spoonsful of yeast, and let it stand covered up till the second day, then put it in the barrel, or large stone bottles, leaving out the corks, or put them rather loosely in; and after two days close them up, and in two or three days it will be quite ready for use.

2 E

314

LEMONADE, &C.

If put in a barrel it will keep fresher, if bottled off, when clear, into clean stone bottles, that will hold two or three quarts each, putting in each bottle a tea-spoonful of brown sugar, and half a tea-spoonful of rice, or yeast, and keeping the bottles well corked.

965. Ginger Beer.

To five gallons of water, add four pounds of brown sugar, two ounces of ginger (bruised), and one ounce and a half of hops; boil all together half an hour, adding about a table-spoonful of salt when boiling; then strain it through a sieve; when nearly cold, add two table-spoonsful of good yeast, cover it, and let it stand till the next day; then put it into a barrel or drink-pot, with two tea-spoon sful of sugar, highly browned in the oven, but not burnt; let it work two days; then dissolve a small portion of isinglass in half a tea-cupful of water or ginger beer, put it into the barrel, and close it up. It will be ready to drink in a day or two.

If it be drawn off into clean dry stone bottles, soon after it is tapped, the beer will keep fresher, provided the bottles be well corked. A little yeast and sugar mixed together, and a tea-spoonful or two put in each bottle is an improvement.

966. Treacle Beer.

To eight quarts of boiling water, put one pound of treacle, half an ounce of ginger, and two or three balm leaves; boil all together a quarter of an hour; when cool add a little yeast; the next day put it in a cask or a large stone jar, with a tap in it, and in two days draw it off into clean dry stone bottles, and cork them well.

967. Imperial.

To half an ounce of cream of tartar, add the juice

315

LEMONADE, &C.

of a lemon, and the rind pared very thin; pour on them four pints of boiling water, stir it and cover it close; when cold, sweeten with loaf-sugar; strain it and it will be fit for use. It is better to be used fresh.

968. Imperial.

Pour two gallons of boiling water on one ounce of bruised ginger, one ounce of cream of tartar, the rind and juice of a large lemon, and a pound of loafsugar; when cold, add one large table-spoonful of good purified yeast; let it stand six hours, then strain it and put it in small stone bottles, tying down the corks. It may be used the second or third day.

969. Ginger Beer or Pop.

Take of bruised ginger one ounce, cream of tartar one ounce, boiling water one gallon, citric acid forty grains, lump-sugar one pound. Mix well together, and when nearly cold, add to it two spoonsful of good yeast, and let it stand twelve hours; strain it, then bottle it and cork it tight. It will be fit for use in twenty-four hours.

970. Pop.

Boil the rinds of two lemons, pared very thin, in two quarts of water for five minutes, then pour it upon a pound of loaf-sugar (on which has been pressed the juice of the two lemons), half an ounce of cream of tartar, and one ounce of ginger bruised; let it stand covered close half an hour, then add six quarts more of cold or boiled water, when of a proper degree of beat add a table-spoonful of yeast; let it stand four hours, then strain it through flannel or muslin, and bottle it; tie down the corks, and it will be ready for use in a day or two.

2 e 2

316

LEMONADE, &C.

971. Lemon Water.

Pare a lemon very thin, then cut three or four slices from the middle of the lemon, and put them in a teapot with a bit of the rind and a dessert-spoonful of white sugar, or a table-spoonful of capillaire or clarified syrup (No. 923), pour in a pint of water, and stop it close two hours.

972. Fresh Currant Water.

Squeeze a quart of fresh currants through a sieve with your hands, put in two table spoonsful of powdered sugar, squeeze in a lemon, and add a quart of water.

A very refreshing and delicious liquor may be made in the same way, from any kind of fresh, ripe, juicy fruit.

973. Currant, Cherry, Strawberry, and Raspberry Waters.

Mash any of the above fruits, adding a little water, then strain it through a sieve, and afterwards through a flannel bag; more water must then be added, with clarified or capillaire syrup (Nos. 923,924), to the taste; strain it again through the bag, and serve it up quite fresh. The liquor is never so transparent or clear, as when the fruit is boiled in the water.

974. Apple Water.

Cut two large sharp apples in slices, and pour on a quart of boiling water, cover it close; in two or three hours strain it, and add a little sugar. It is equally good made with roasted apples.

975. Toast and JFatcr.

Take a piece of the upper crust of bread, about twice the thickness toast is usually cut; toast it carefully

317

LEMONADE, &C.

till it be well browned all over, but not at all blackened or burnt; put this into a jug, and immediately pour on it as much boiling water as you wish, cover the jug, and let it stand till cold; the fresher made the better. A bit of fresh-pared lemon-peel, or dried orange-peel, infused with the water, is a grateful addition, and makes a very pleasant summer drink: it may be drank freely without danger; but cold water, just taken from the pump, cannot. This is decidedly the best way of making it, but if wanted immediately: - Toast a small piece of white bread till very dry and brown, but do not burn it, put it immediately into a jug of cold spring water, or distilled water, cover it with a plate, and let it stand a little before you use it.

976. Milk and Water.

Put one-third of new milk to two-thirds of spring or distilled water. It is best to drink it cold, but if warmed, it should be by putting warm water to cold milk, and not warmer than new milk.

Butter-milk alone, or mixed with milk and water, is exceedingly wholesome, both for children and adults, and may be made quite pleasant by adding a little sugar and hot water.

977. Whey.

As whey from cheese-making cannot at all times be procured, it may be made in the following manner: - Take a quart of new milk while warm, put in a little rennet to break it; let it stand in a moderately warm place, till the whey looks clear, then put it through a thin cloth, but do not press it, that the whey may be the purer. If made with skimmed milk, it should be warmed to the degree of new milk.

If parents and others who have the care of children, cannot reconcile themselves to giving them the most

2 e 3

318

LEMONADE, &C.

wholesome and salutary of all beverages, pure water, some of the above simple drinks will be found pleasant and useful.

978. Sugar Milk.

Boil some fine sugar in milk, and flavour it with lemon-peel, or bitter almond. It is a suitable refreshment for children.

979. Srigar Water.

Sweeten boiling water with loaf-sugar. It is a frugal

o o o

beverage, much used in France.

Irish Moss, boiled in milk or water, sweetened with a little loaf-sugar, and strained, is a very nourishing beverage.

980. A pleasant Drink.

Pour two table-spoonsful of capillaire, and the same quantity of vinegar, or one spoonful of lemon-juice, into a pint of cold water.

9S1. Another.

Put a tea-cupful of cranberries into a cup of water, and mash them: in the mean time boil two quarts of water with one large spoonful of oatmeal and a bit of lemon-peel; then add the cranberries, and as much fine sugar as will leave a sharp flavour of the fruit, boil all for half an hour, and strain it off.

Another, - most refreshing and agreeable draught. Put about a wine glass full of milk into a barge tumbler, with a lump or two of sugar; when the sugar is dissolved, pour into it a bottle of soda water.

319

SPOON-MEAT.

982. Oatmeal Porridge, commonly called TF 'iter or Thick Porridge.

Set some water on the fire, and when it boils, put in some salt, then with a slice stir in by degrees some oatmeal, which should be sprinkled in very carefully, beating or stirring it all the time: when about the consistence of hasty pudding, and sufficiently boiled, pour it on plates. It is generally eaten with cold milk, buttermilk, or treacle, or with cold butter. This is excellent food.

983. Scotch Sowms

Mix five pounds of oatmeal with one quart of buttermilk, and five quarts of lukewarm water; cover it, and place it at a little distance from the fire; let it stand thirty-six hours, then pour off the liquid and add more water, repeating the latter operation two succeeding days; then put some of the meal into a hair sieve, adding plenty of water, and knocking the sieve with the hand to make the finer particles of the meal pass through, leaving the coarser part. Again let it stand eight or ten hours, then pour the water off, and put the remainder into an untinned iron pan with a little salt, adding water to make it about the thickness of good melted butter. Stir it constantly while on the fire, and let it boil till it becomes smooth.

984. Oatmeal Flummery.

To three pints of water, put one pint of bruised groats, let it stand two or three hours, then pour off the water, and put as much fresh water on as before,

320

SPOON-MEAT.

stirring it well; let it stand four hours, then strain it through a hair sieve, or cloth; boil it, and keep stirring it all the while, put into it a little water now and then as it boils; when boiling, drop a little on a plate, and if it do not stick to the plate, it is enough.

985. Oatmeal Flummery.

Put a pound and a half of very fine white oatmeal to steeq> a day and a night in cold water, then pour it off clear, adding as much more water, and let it stand the same time; then strain it through a fine hair sieve, and boil it till it is about as thick as hasty pudding, stirring it all the time. When first strained, put to it one large spoonful of white sugar, and two of orange-flower water; pour it on dishes, and serve to eat with new milk, or cream and sugar. It is very good with cold butter and molasses.

986. Frumenty, or Furmity, as it is sometimes called.

Take a quart of ready-boiled wheat, two quarts of milk, a quarter of a pound of currants or raisins, clean picked and washed; stir these together and boil them; beat up the yolks of three or four eggs, with a little salt, nutmeg, and two or three spoonsful of milk, and add them to the wheat; stir them together for a few minutes, and sweeten to the taste.

9S7. Frumenty.

Take some good wheat, just wet it a little, and put it in a coarse bag, beat it with a stick till the external husk will rub off, then wash it well in five or six waters, rubbing it with the hands till it is perfectly clear of the loose bran; then rub the pan you intend to boil it in with a little butter, to prevent the wheat from burning or sticking to the pan; boil it in plenty

SPOON-MEAT.

321

of water till quite soft; when done enough, put it in a clean earthen pot, and when cold it will be quite a jelly, in which state it is called, in some parts of England, creed or creeled wheat; it will keep several days. When to be prepared for eating, put as much of the wheat with milk into a pan as will make it about the consistence of rice milk; stir it constantly with a wooden slice or spoon, mashing the wheat, as it is very liable to burn; when near boiling, stir in a small portion of flour, mixed smooth with a little milk; add pimento, sugar, and salt to the taste; when it boils it will be ready to serve. If preferred, the frumenty may be thickened with the yolks of eggs, beaten with a little milk, instead of flour, and instead of pimento, powdered cinnamon or grated nutmeg. Some currants or raisins, washed and picked very clean, and added to it, is a great improvement. The boiled or creeled wheat is very good eaten warm with cold butter.

Scotch barley may be prepared in the same manner.

988. Milk Porridge.

To a pint and a half of new milk put half a pint of water, set it on the fire, and when just ready to boil, stir in about a dessert-spoonful of oatmeal and a little salt mixed with water; when it boils, take it off the fire, and pour it into a basin, either with or without bread. It is very good made with skimmed milk.

989. French Milk Porridge.

Stir three large spoonsful of oatmeal into a quart of water, let it stand till clear, then pour off the water and add fresh water, stir it well, and let it stand till the next day; then strain it through a fine sieve, leaving the coarse part ot the meal at the bottom, set it on a clear brisk fire, adding about half the quantity

SPOON-MEAT.

of new milk by degrees as it warms; when ready to boil, take it off the fire, adding a little salt. This is very light and proper food for weak stomachs.

990. French Milk Porridge or Custard.

Blanch and bruise six or seven bitter almonds, simmer in a pint of milk half an hour, then strain and sweeten it with four ounces of loaf sugar, adding a pinch of salt, boil it for a minute or two, then mix it with the beaten yolks of five eggs, and pour it on some bread cut in small pieces, or on Savoy biscuits. Serve it up as a simper dish.

991. Egg Porridge.

Set a pint of spring water on a clear fire, mix a spoonful of good Hour with the yolk of an egg and a little cold water; when the water nearly boils, pour in the mixture, stirring it till ready to hoil, by which time it will be of a proper thickness; add a little salt, and pour it into a basin to cool without stirring.

992. Rice Milk.

Wash and pick half a pound of rice very clean, soak it twelve hours in cold water, then pour off’ the water, and set the rice on the fire with three quarts of milk and a little cinnamon, stirring it frequently; when sufficiently boiled, mix a spoonful of wheat or rice flour with a little water, and stir it well in; add sugar and salt to the taste.

993. Rice Milk.

Take half a pound of rice, boil it in a quart of water, with a little cinnamon; let it boil till all the water is absorbed, taking care that it does not burn; then add three pints of milk, a little salt, and the yolk of an egg well beaten, keeping it stirring while you put them in. When it boils, sweeten it to the taste.

SPOON-MEA.T.

323

994. Rice Milk the French way.

After washing the rice well, set it over the fire half an hour with a little water, then add by degrees some warm milk, till it be sufficiently tender and of a proper thickness; let it simmer very slowly; add and suaar to the taste.

o

995. Ground Rice Milk.

Set a pint of new milk on the fire with a little cinnamon, and when scalding hot (not boiling) stir in a large spoonful of ground rice, previously mixed smooth with two or three spoonsful of new milk; keep stirring it on the fire till it thickens, but do not let it boil: add a very little salt, and sugar, if preferred.

996. Millet Milk.

Wash three spoonsful of millet-seed in lukewarm water, then put it in a quart of new milk, with very little salt; let it stew gently till it becomes moderately thick; add sugar to the taste.

997. Sago with Milk.

Prepare a large spoonful of sago by washing it well, then soaking it in cold water an hour, pour off the water, and add a pint and a half of new milk, simmer till reduced to a pint; sugar or salt may be added. Tapioca may be prepared the same way.

998. Arrow-root with milk.

Set a pint of milk on the fire, when near boil in c, pour it upon a dessert-spoonful of arrow-root powder, previously mixed smooth with cold water, pour the milk gently upon it, stirring it constantly, return it into the pan, and stir it on the fire a minute or two. The powder will mix better if the sugar be mixed with it previous to being moistened with water.

324

SPOON-MEAT.

Salep, potato-flour, and the patent barley and sago powder, may be prepared in a similar way.

999. Panada.

Put a large piece of crumb of bread into a saucepan, with a quart of water and a blade of mace; let it boil two minutes, then take out the bread and bruise it very fine in a basin; mix as much of the water with it as you think it will require, pour away the rest, and sweeten it to the taste; if approved, put in a piece of butter as big as a walnut, and grate in a little nutmeg.

1000. Panada, made in Jive minutes.

Set a little water on the fire with a glass of sherbet, some sugar, a little nutmeg or cinnamon, and lemonpeel, the moment it boils up, put in some grated crumbs of bread, letting it boil as fast as possible; when of a proper thickness just to drink, take it off. Panada may also be made by boiling a bit of lemonpeel in water, adding bread-crumbs as before, and when nearly boiled enough, put in some orange or lemon-syrup. A little ginger-syrup is a pleasant addition.

All the ingredients must be boiled, for if any be added afterwards, the panada will not jelly.

1001. Oatmeal Porridge for Infants.

Set two-thirds of a pint of milk on the fire, mix onethird of a pint of water with a spoonful of good oatmeal, stir it into the milk just before it boils, let it remain on the fire till near boiling, then pour it from one jug to another seven or eight times, which will incorporate the fine part of the meal with the milk; set it on the fire, and when again ready to boil, take it off and let it stand in the pan a little while to fine, then pour it carefully off, leaving the brown husky

SPOON-MEAT*

325

part of the oatmeal at the bottom of the pan. A little salt may be added, and sugar, if approved. Equal quantities of barley-water, or water-gruel and new milk, is very good and proper food for very young infants.

1002. Flour Porridge for Infants.

To two-thirds of new milk, after it has stood five or six hours, add one-third of spring-water, and set it on a clear fire, and just before it boils, put in a spoonful of good flour, and a little salt mixed smooth with a little water, stir it till near boiling, then pour it out, and it will be ready for use. Infants’ food should never be warmed more than once after it is first made.

1003. Bread Porridge for Infants.

Pour boiling water on some thin slices of good light white bread, let it stand to cool, then drain off the water and bruise the bread very fine, mix it with as much new milk as will make it of a proper thickness; it may be warmed as wanted, but should not be boiled. For very young infants, half water and half new milk is best to mix with the bread, then strain it through a coarse hair sieve. Sugar may be added, but it is better without. Rusks, or French rolls are very nice for the purpose, when made of good sound flour. Where milk is too heavy for the stomach, it may be made with water only; it should then be boiled.

1004. Mush, or, as the Italians call it, Polenta.

To two quarts of boiling water with a little salt in it, take a pound of Indian corn meal; let it fall carefully from one hand into the boiling water, while you stir it constantly with a slice held in the other hand; let it boil three-quarters of an hour, keeping it stirred all the time, and taking care that it does not burn.

32 G

SPOON-MEAT.

When boiled, pour the mush into a deep dish; it may either be eaten hot with milk, or remain till cold, then turned out of the dish upside down, when it will he quite solid.

It is very good cold; also cut in slices and fried in butter, to which fried onions and sage with a little parsley may be added, with pepper and salt. A slice laid in a cheese-toaster, with cheese upon it, either sliced or scraped, makes an excellent Welsh rabbit.

The mush may be used in a variety of ways.

The Indian corn meal, mixed with a little water and'an egg, in a stiff paste, and rolled out thin, makes very good biscuits.

1005. Hommony.

Take of the white Indian corn, skinned and split, put any quantity on the fire with plenty of water, adding more boiling water as it wastes; it requires long boiling; ten or twelve hours is not too long; when enough, add butter, pepper and salt.

It is better to boil it seven or eight hours the day before it is wanted. This is excellent food.

1006. Macaroon Rice.

Put a pound of rice into five pints of cold water, boil it gently for two hours, when it will be of the consistence of thick paste; then add two pints of milk, and two ounces of strong Cheshire cheese, grated fine, season it with pepper and salt. Boil it gently another hour. It will produce eight pounds of good wholesome food.

1007. Savoury Rice.

Put one pound of rice into three quarts of boiling water, let it boil twenty minutes, then skim the water, and add one ounce of butter, a little salt, and spices;

327

SPOON-MEAT, &C.

let it simmer gently on the fire, closely covered, an hour and a quarter, and it will be ready to serve.

100S. A Mixture of Rice and Scotch Barley.

To one pound of rice and one pound of barley, put two gallons of water, let them boil over a slow fire four hours; before it is taken off the fire, add four ounces of sugar, and one of salt.

1009. Mucilage of Rice.

Boil two ounces of fine rice flour with a quarter of a pound of loaf-sugar in a pint of water till like a clear jelly, strain it through a thin cloth; let it remain till cold; it affords a pleasant and nourishing jelly.

A little cinnamon may be boiled in it, if approved.

1010. Vermicelli with Milk.

Put your vermicelli in boiling milk, and stir it quickly to prevents its becoming a paste or doughy. Let it be well salted, or well sugared. Half an hour is sufficient to break the vermicelli.

1011. The best and most simple way of making Water Gruel.

Set a pan of water on the fire, then mix as much oatmeal in a basin with cold water, as will make it a proper consistence; when the water is hot (but not boiling), pour it upon the meal and water, and stir it well; take out the spoon, and leave it to settle about two minutes, then pour it carefully into the pan, leaving the coarse part of the meal at the bottom of the basin; set it on the fire, stirring it till it boils, and in five minutes you will have excellent smooth gruel. Do not put any salt in, unless intended to be eaten with pepper and butter. It is very good without anything; a little sugar and nutmeg may, however, be added, if preferred.

2 v 2

3:28

SPOON-MEAT, &C.

A mistaken idea almost generally prevails, that water-gruel is not nourishing; it is, on the contrary, a light, cleansing, nourishing food, either in sickness or in health, both for young and old.

1012. Barley TFaler.

To two quarts of water, put two ounces of pearl barley; when it boils, strain it very clean, then put fresh water to it with a bit of lemon-peel, and let it boil till reduced nearly one-half, then strain it off, and add lemon juice and sugar to the taste.

It is very good made with common barley, and less apt to nauseate than the pearl barley.

1013. Compound Barley Water.

Take of simple barley water, two pints; raisins stoned, two ounces; figs sliced, two ounces; liquorice roots sliced aud bruised, half an ounce; distilled w r ater, one pint. In boiling add the raisins first, then the figs, and lastly the liquorice a short time before it is finished; the strained decoction should measure two pints.

These liquors are to be used freely, as diluting drinks in fevers and other acute disorders. A little lemon-juice will be found a pleasant addition.

1014. Currant Gruel.

Make a quart of water-gruel, strain, then boil it a few minutes with two table-spoonsful of currants till they are quite plump; add nutmeg and sugar.

1015. Rice Gruel.

Wash, and soak two large spoonsful of rice in cold water an hour; pour off the water and add a pint and a quarter of new milk and a little cinnamon; stew it gently till the rice is sufficiently tender to pulp through a sieve, return the pulp and milk into the

329

SPOON-MEAT, &C.

pan, with a very little salt, and let it simmer on the fire ten minutes; if too thick, add a little more milk or water very gradually, so as not to prevent it from simmering. Add sugar to the taste.

1016. Groat Gruel.

Pick some groats very clean; boil them in spring water till quite tender and thick, then reduce it with boiling water to the consistence of gruel, letting it boil up with some currants, nutmeg, and sugar to the taste. Sherbet or lemon-juice may be added, if approved. Groats when creed, are very good boiled in milk with a little salt.

1017. Onion Gruel.

Slice an onion and boil it in plenty of water till ten der, then add a spoonful of oatmeal mixed with cold water, a lump of butter, some pepper and salt; let it boil a few minutes, and eat it with bread.

1018. Arrow-root Gruel.

Pour a pint of boiling water on a dessert-spoonful of arrow-root, mixed smooth with a little cold water, stirring it well, return it into the pan and let it boil a few minutes, adding sugar and lemon-juice, or raspberry vinegar. By adding more of the powder an excellent jelly may be made. Arrow-root is also very good prepared with milk as above, adding a little sugar only.

1019. Another way of preparing Arrow-root.

Take two large table-spoonsful of preserved black currants to a quart of boiling water, cover the pan, and let them stew gently half an hour, or till all the strength is extracted from them, then strain the liquor and set it on the fire; when it boils, mix a

330

SPOON-MEAT, &C.

spoonful of arrow-root with cold water, and pour the boiling liquor upon it, stirring it well, return it into the pan, and boil it gently a few minutes, adding sugar if requisite.

1020. Curds and Whey.

Put a little rennet into a quart or more of new milk, according to the quantity wanted, let it stand till solid, then stir it up and serve it in a bowl. A little sugar may be eaten with it, and bread.

The curds, which are usually served up with cream, are prepared in the same manner; then put in a mould with holes perforated in it for the whey to drain off; and the mould being filled up as the whey runs off, till it is full; it is then to be turned out on a dish, and plain or other cream poured over it.

1021. Turkish Yourt.

Let a small quantity of milk stand till it be sour, then put a sufficient quantity of it into new milk, to turn it to a soft curd. This may be eaten with sugar only; or with strawberries and raspberries, as cream, or with any sort of preserved fruit, and bread.

1022. Preserves with Cream.

To any quantity of raspberry, gooseberry, or other kind of jam, mix in some good cream according to the taste. If cream cannot be procured, new milk, thickened over the fire with a spoonful of rice or potato-flour, or half a spoonful and the yolks of two eggs, will be a very good substitute for it. This is a very simple and pleasant dish taken with bread.

1023. To mull Sherbet.

Set half a pint of sherbet, and half a pint of water, or ginger beer, on the fire, beat three eggs very well,

331

SPOON-MEAT, &C.

adding a little cold water; when it boils, pour it by degrees upon the egg, stirring it, then return it into the pan, with sugar and nutmeg to the taste, stirring it a little on the fire, till it thickens, but do not let it boil; strain and serve it with toast.

Ginger beer alone may be mulled the same way. When taken off the fire, it should be poured from one vessel to another for a few minutes.

1024. To mr/ll Milk.

Boil a quart of new milk five minutes, wtih a stick of cinnamon, and sugar to the taste, then take it off the fire and let it stand to cool, beat the yolks of five eggs very well, adding to them a little cold cream, then pour the milk gradually upon the egg and cream, stirring it all the time, return it into the pan, and stir it on the fire till it thickens, but not to boil, then pour it from one jug to another the same as mulled beer, and it will be ready to serve. Serve it up with dry toast or biscuit.

USEFUL FAMILY RECEIPTS.

1025. To make Coffee a simple and easy way.

Pour a quart of boiling water on a tea-cup full of fresh-ground coffee, set it on the fire, and keep it on the point of boiling for three or four minutes, holding it over the fire and taking it off at pleasure, so as to keep up tire temperature, but to prevent any violent ebullition, pour out a cupful two or three times, returning it into the coffee-kettle; set it on the hob a few minutes till the coffee clears.

Coffee maybe made at the table in a coffee-pot with a strainer in it, by infusion only, in the propor-

332

USEFUL FAMILY RECEIPTS.

tion of one cup of coffee-powder to six cups of boiling water, and it requires only a very few minutes to have good, clear coffee.

1026. Another way.

To six ounces of fresh-ground coffee, put a pint of cold water, two raw eggs with the shells, and a large tea-spoonful of mustard-flour; mix them well together in a pan, then pour in full three quarts of boiling water, set it on the fire, let it boil a few minutes, pour a little out two or three times, returning it into the pan, then cover it close, and let it stand on the hob to settle, and in a few minutes you will have rich and excellent coffee.

1027. Another.

Put the ground coffee into a vessel with a strainer, and pour the water on it quite cold; cover it close, and plunge this vessel into another filled with boiling water, which must be kept at the boiling point till the process is completed. This method preserves the fine flavour of the coffee.

Dr. Kitchener, in his last edition of The Cook’s Oracle, has the following observations on Coffee, which he received from an intelligent traveller, who had passed some years on the Continent.

“ Coffee, as used on the Continent, serves the double purpose of an agreeable tonic, and an exhilarating beverage, without the unpleasant efl'ects of wine. Coffee, as drank in England, debilitates the stomach, and produces a slight nausea. In France and Italy it is made strong from the best Coffee, and is poured out hot and transparent. In England it is usually made from bad cofl'ee, served out tepid and muddy, and drowned in a deluge of water, and sometimes deserves the title given it in the ‘ Petition against

USEFUL FAMILY RECEIPTS.

333

Coffee,’ 4to., 1674, p. 4, a base, black, thick, nasty, bitter, stinking, puddle-water.”

102S. Coffee Milk.

Boil a dessert-spoonful of ground coffee in nearly a pint of milk, a quarter of an hour; then put into it a shaving or two of isinglass to clear it; let it boil a few minutes, and set it on the side of the fire to fine. This is very suitable for a weak stomach.

1029. Substitutes for Foreign Tea.

The leaves of hawthorn may be taken from April to September (inclusive); they must first be carefully picked and cleansed, then well rinsed in cold water and drained, and whilst damp to be put into a common culinary steamer, where they are to be subjected to the action of vapour till changed from a green to an olive colour; the leaves are then to be dried on a hot plate well heated, and are to be continually stirred up and turned over till thoroughly dry, when they may be preserved for use. Agrimony, Sage, Balm, Peppermint, and similar spicy plants, the flowers of sweet Woodroof, Pimpernel Bose, the leaves of Peach and Almond trees, the young leaves of Bilberry, Black Currant, and common Baspberry, the blossoms of Sloe-tree or Black-thorn, Bed Sage, Wild Thyme, John’s Wort, Mint, Meadow Sweet, Lavender, Bosemary, Wild Marjoram, Wood Betony, Ground Ivy, Hyssop.

The whole, or any of these herbs, mixed according to the taste, are very excellent as substitutes for tea. They should be gathered dry, and picked from the stalks, then dried in the shade.

1030. Chocolate.

Never make chocolate till it is wanted; then boil equal quantities of milk and water, scrape the choco-

334

USEFUL FAMILY RECEIPTS.

late fine, and in quantity according to the strength required; take the milk and water oil the fire, put in the chocolate with sugar to the taste; mill it well and rapidly, that it may be served with the froth on it, and completely incorporated with the milk.

Fry’s Chocolate in Powder, sold in tin canisters, is an extremely useful and convenient preparation, as a cup of excellent chocolate can he prepared in one minute by the following simple process: - Put a large tea-spoonful into a tea-cup with some sugar, and as much boiling water as will just moisten it, rub it smooth in the cup with a tea-spoon, then add a little more boiling water, still stirring it, that the chocolate may be well mixed; the cup may then be filled up, and cream added.

1031. Substitutes for Asses’ Milk.

Mix two spoonsful of boiling water, two of milk, and an egg well beaten; sweeten with pounded white sugar-candy. This may be taken twice or thrice a day.

1032. Another.

Take eringo-root, pearl-barley, and sago, of each half an ounce, liquorice-root, sliced, three drachms; distilled water, one quart; boil them together over a slow fire to a pint, then strain it, and add a pint ot fresh cow’s milk.

1033. Another.

Put an ounce of hartshorn-shavings into a quart of boiling barley-water, reduce it by boiling to little more than a pint; add two ounces of candied eringoroot, sliced, and a pint of new milk; boil it a quarter of an hour longer, then strain it off for use.

USEFUL FAMILY RECEIPTS.

335

1034. Baked Milk, for Consumptive Persons.

Set half a pint of new milk in a moderate oven all night; it will turn thick and brown. It must be drank the first thing in a morning, and the same quantity prepared in the same way for evening. This simple remedy has been found highly beneficial, when regularly attended to for a length of time.

1035. Buttermilk Whey

Is made by pouring boiling milk or water on some rather sour buttermilk, letting it stand to settle a few minutes, then straining it.

1036. Treacle Posset.

Put two table-spoonsful of treacle into a pint of milk when near boiling, stirring it briskly over the fire till it curdles; take it off the fire, and after standing a few minutes, strain it, and take it warm immediately on going to bed. It promotes perspiration, and is readily taken by children.

It may also be made the same way with buttermilk instead of milk.

1037. Refreshing Drink in a Fever.

Put a little tea-sage, two sprigs of balm, and a little wood-sorrel, into a stone jug, or teapot, having first washed them; peel thin a small lemon, slice it, and put it in with a bit of the rind; then pour in three pints of boiling water, sweeten, and cover it close.

Apple-tea is also excellent in fevers.

103S. Another Fever Drink.

Boil three ounces of currants, when cleaned, two of raisins, stoned, and an ounce and a half of tamarinds, in three pints of water, till reduced to a quart; strain it, put in a bit of lemon-peel, and let it stand an hour.

330

USEFUL FAMILY RECEIPTS.

1039. Substitute for White Wine-whey.

Set half a pint of milk on the fire; the moment it boils, jrour in half a pint of sherbet, let it boil up, then set the saucepan aside till the curd subsides, but do not stir it; when it looks tolerably clear, add near a pint of boiling water, and let it stand a little longer; then strain it through a lawn sieve or muslin, and it will be ready for use. A little sugar may be added.

1040. Vinegar, or Lemon Whey.

Pour into boiling milk as much vinegar or lemonjuice as will make a small quantity quite clear, dilute with hot water to an agreeable sharp acid; add a bit or two of loaf-sugar.

1041. Alum Whey.

Boil two quarts of skimmed milk over a slow fire with three drachms of alum till it becomes whey, then strain it.

1042. Mustard Whey for Rheumatism.

Take of the best Durham mustard-seed three ounces, boil it gently in three pints of water till reduced to one; then add one pint of skimmed milk, this produces the whey; strain it through a sieve, and take a tea-cupful lukewarm, night and morning. It is also recommended as common drink for asthma.

1043. Another Way.

To a pint of milk, when very near boiling, sprinkle in gradually flour of mustard until it curdles; let it stand a few minutes, then strain it oil. 1 his whey warms the stomach and promotes perspiration.

1044. Cream of Tartar If hey.

To a pint of milk, when very near boiling, sprinkle in

USEFUL FAMILY RECEIPTS.

337

gradually two tea-spoonsful of cream of tartar, stirring it till clear, then strain it. This whey is very cooling, and is a powerful diuretic.

1045. A cooling Drink.

Wash two ounces of barley in hot water, then boil it in five pints of water till the barley opens, adding a quarter of an ounce of cream of tartar, then strain it.

1046. Almond Emulsion.

Sweet almonds, blanched, one ounce, double refined sugar, three-quarters of an ounce, distilled water two pints. Beat the almonds with the sugar till they form a smooth paste; add the water by degrees, and when well incorporated, strain the liquor through muslin. Great care should be taken that the almonds are free from any rancid taste.

This is a most useful beverage to soften coughs, and may be taken freely as a frequent drink: it will also be found useful as a common drink for children, in fevers, inflammations, &c.

1047. Gum-arabic Emulsion.

To two drachms of powdered gum-arabic, take of sweet almonds, blanched, and double-refined sugar, each half a drachm, of barley-water one pint; dissolve the gum in the warm barley-water, and when nearly cold, pour it upon the almonds and sugar, which must have been previously well beaten together till perfectly smooth; the liquid must be added gradually till well mixed.

This emulsion is principally used for diluting and correcting acrimonious humours.

1048. Saline Mixture for Fever.

Take Carbonate of Potash, .three drachms;

Citric Acid two drachms;

2 a

338

USEFUL FAMILY RECEIPTS.

Distilled Water seven fluid ounces;

Syrup of Saffron two fluid drachms.

An adult may take three table-spoonsful every four hours.

1049. Saline Mixture to be taken in a stale of effervescence.

Take Carbonate of Potash, .three drachms;

Distilled Water five fluid ounces;

Syrup of Saffron one fluid drachm;

Cinnamon Water . . . .half an ounce.

Two table-spoonsful of the above mixture, with one of lemon-juice, may he taken every four hours.

It may be taken in the same way with a solution of citric acid instead of lemon-juice.

1050. Another Saline Draught.

Pound very fine in a mortar fifteen grains of borax, and a quarter of a drachm of cream of tartar, with ten drachms of almond emulsion, then add one drachm of common syrup, and the same quantity of cinnamon water. This mixture will be found useful in fever and irritation of the stomach; but when the stomach is so irritable as to eject this, and other medicines, ten drops of laudanum may be added to the draught.

1051. Carrageen, or Irish Moss, for Coughs, Colds, and Consumption.

The fucus commonly known by the above names has long been highly esteemed by the peasants on the western coast of Ireland as a dietetic remedy for various diseases; more especially for consumption, dysentery, rickets, scrofula, and affections of the kidneys and bladder. Dissolved by being boiled in

USEFUL FAMILY RECEIPTS.

339

water, it forms a thick mucilage, more pure and agreeable than that produced from any other vegetable, and the jelly made from it is found to agree better with the stomach than any of those prepared from animal substances. A decoction of the moss, made by boiling half an ounce in a pint and a half of water or milk until reduced to a pint, is recommended as food for children affected with scrofulous and rickety diseases, for such as are delicate and weakly, and for infants brought up by hand, or after weaning. As an article of diet for invalids generally, it is superior to isinglass, sago, and tapioca, being highly nutritious, bland, and easy of digestion.

Directions for using the Moss medicinally . - Steep a quarter of an ounce of moss in cold water for a few minutes, then withdraw it, (shaking the water out of each sprig,) and boil it in a quart of new or unskimmed milk, until it attains the consistence of warm jelly; strain, and sweeten it to the taste with white sugar or honey, or, if convenient, with candied eringo-root; should milk disagree with the stomach, the same proportion of water may be used instead. The decoction made with milk is recommended for breakfast to consumptive patients, and that with water will be found a most agreeable kind of nourishment, taken at intervals during the day, the flavour being varied with lemon-juice or peel, Seville orange-juice, cinnamon, bitter almonds, or any other substance most congenial to the palate.

The decoction in water is also taken for the relief of cough at any time in the course of the day when it is troublesome, and it is for this purpose simply sweetened with honey or sugar, or the syrup of poppies, syrup of squills, or the honey of roses, as the case may indicate.

In dysentery, either the decoction in milk or water

2 a 2

340

USEFUL FAMILY RECEIPTS.

may be administered with equal advantage, and, in addition to the sweetening matter, if a tea-spoonful of the tincture of rhatany be mixed with each cupful of it, tone will thereby be given to the intestines, at the same time that nourishment will be conveyed to the system, and irritation prevented. A large tea-cupful of the decoction may be taken three or four times a day.

Culinary Directions. - To make Blanc-Mange - Take half an ounce of the moss, and having cleansed it by the process above described, boil it in a pint and a half of new milk, until it is reduced to a proper thickness to retain its shape; to be sweetened and flavoured in the usual way.

To make Orange, Lemon, or Savory Jellies - Use a similar process, substituting water for milk; add lemon, orange, herbs, &c., according to taste.

To make White Soup - Dissolve in water, and afterwards add the usual ingredients.

1052. Iceland Liverwort or Moss; an excellent strengthening Medicine.

Boil two ounces of this herb (previously washed) in a gentle heat, with two quarts of distilled water for fifteen minutes; two drachms of liquorice-root sliced may be added before it is taken off the fire. A teacupful of this decoction should be taken about three times a day; or, a quarter of an ounce of the herb may be boiled in half a pint of milk for ten minutes, and taken for breakfast or supper; or, if chocolate be preferred, it may be made with a decoction of the herb as above (without the liquorice) in the usual manner, instead of water or milk; or it may be prepared with half an ounce of cocoa, in half a pint of distilled water. The best forms for administering this herb in pulmonary consumption, arc the jelly,

USEFUL FAMILY RECEIPTS.

341

made with the powder termed the farina, combined with cocoa, or the decoction. To make it as a jelly, mix as much cold water with a dessert-spoonful of the powder as will make a soft paste, then pour on by degrees half a pint of boiling water, or milk, stirring it briskly; after boiling about ten minutes it will become a smooth thin jelly; sugar, currant jelly, liquorice, lemon juice, or cinnamon may be added, to make it palatable.

1053. Gloucester Jelly.

Take rice, sago, and pearl barley, of each an ounce, wash them very well in warm water, add half an ounce of Irish Moss, and one ounce of eringo-root, simmer the whole with three pints of water till reduced to one, and strain it. When cold, it will be a jelly; of which a large spoonful may be taken, dissolved in milk or sherbet, several times a day. A little sugar may be added.

1054. Isinglass Jelly.

Boil an ounce of isinglass, forty Jamaica peppercorns, and a bit of brown crust of bread in a quart of water till reduced to a pint, then strain it. This is a pleasant, nutritious jelly; a large spoonful may be taken at any time, in sherbet and water, milk or tea. Sugar may be added. The Irish Moss would probably answer still better than isinglass, but only half an ounce.

1055. Strengthening Jelly.

Take gum arabic, white sugar-candy, and isinglass, of each two ounces; infuse them twelve hours in two-thirds of a quart bottle of new milk, then set the bottle in a pan of water on the fire, and let it simmer till all the ingredients are dissolved; then strain it

2 a 3

342

USEFUL FAMILY RECEIPTS.

into a bowl; when cold, it will cut like stiff jelly. A piece about the size of a walnut, to be taken three or four times a day.

1056. The following Recipe for a weak Stomach, as recommended by Sir John Sinclair, has been found extremely efficacious.

Beat up in a basin a fresh-laid egg; add six tablespoonsful of cold water, then two table-spoonsful of farina (flour) of potatoes, to be thoroughly mixed with the water and egg; then pour as much boiling water upon it as will make it into jelly, stirring it well. It may be taken for breakfast, either alone, for with the addition of a little milk and good moist sugar; and not only for breakfast, but at any other time, in cases of great stomachic debility, or consumptive disorders. The food is light, easily digested, and extremely wholesome and nourishing. Bread, biscuit, or rusks, may be taken with it, as the stomach gets stronger.

1057. Restorative Jelly.

Take pearl barley, conserve of roses, bruised isinglass, hartshorn shavings, and candied eringo-root, of each two ounces, boil them in three pints of water on a slow fire till reduced one-third, then strain and squeeze it through a cloth, when cold it will be a strong jelly. Take half of a good-sized tea-cupful three or four times a-day with an equal quantity of new milk warm from the cow, if possible.

1058. An excellent Restorative.

Boil half an ounce of isinglass with a quart of new milk till reduced to a pint; add some sugar, and two bitter almonds, shred small. Take this at bedtime, but not too warm.

USEFUL FAMILY RECEIPTS.

343

1059. To clarify Isinglass.

Break your isinglass into small pieces with a hammer, wash it in several waters, and to four ounces add six pints of water; reduce it by boiling one-third, skimming it carefully; then strain it through a silk sieve: it is then ready to use for making whiskied jellies, creams, &c.

1060. To clarify Honey.

The best kind is clarified by merely melting it in a water-bath, and taking off the scum; the inferior kind by dissolving it in water, adding the white of an egg to each pint of the solution, and boiling it down to its original consistence, skimming it frequently.

1061. Everton Toffy.

Warm, and rub a pan with a little butter, put in a pound of brown sugar, with two table-spoonsful of water, let it boil on a slow fire till it becomes a smooth thick syrup, then stir in half a pound of butter; when it has boiled about half an hour, drop a little on a plate, and if it becomes hard, and leaves the plate quite clean, it is enough: pour it about half an inch thick on a dish or tin well buttered.

From twenty to thirty drops of essence of lemon stirred in, after it is taken off the fire, gives it a pleasant flavour.

1062. Treacle Toffy.

Bub your pan with a little butter, pour in the treacle, and let it boil about an hour, then pour it into a basin warmed and rubbed over with butter; when cool, roll it up in sticks, and fold it in clean paper. Before it is poured into the pan, a little essence of peppermint may be added.

344

USEFUL FAMILY RECEIPTS.

1063. Candied Horehound.

Boil some horehound till the juice is extracted, then add to it sugar that has been previously boiled to a candy, stir it on the fire till it begins to grow thick, then pour it into a paper case dusted with fine sugar, and cut into squares.

1064. Damson Drops.

Bake some damsons, but not to break them, then skin and stone them, pulp them through a sieve, sift some common loaf-sugar, and mix as much with the pulp as will make it very stiff; drop it olf the end of a knife on paper, and put them in a stove to dry; when quite dry, turn them on a sieve; wet the outside of the paper, and they will come off very easily; put them in the stove again, or a very cool oven, till they are quite dry and hard. Keep them in layers on paper, in a box.

1065. Raspberry Drops.

Boil some raspberries and rub them through a sieve to take out the seeds and skins; to a pound of juice put a pound of “sifted sugar and the whites of two eggs, beat the sugar and eggs together, put in the juice by degrees, then beat them two hours with a whisk; drop them on writing-paper lightly rubbed with butter; let them stand in the sun, or before a very slow fire, till quite dry.

1066. Ginger Drops.

Beat two ounces of fresh candied orange in a mortar, with a little sugar to a paste; then mix half an ounce of prepared ginger with one pound of powdered loafsugar; wet the sugar with a little water, boil all together to a candy, and drop it on paper the size of mint drops.

USEFUL FAMILY RECEIPTS.

315

1067. Lemon Drops.

Grate three large lemons, with a large piece of doublerefined sugar, then scrape the sugar into a plate, add half a tea-spoonful of flour, mix well, and beat it into a light paste with the white of an egg; drop it on paper.

1068. Peppermint Drops.

Rub a brass or block-tin saucepan with a little butter, then put in half a pound of loaf-sugar bruised, with four table-spoonsful of water; let it boil briskly ten minutes, then stir in it a tea-spoonful of essence of peppermint; drop it on writing-paper, or pour it on plates rubbed with a little butter.

1069. Black Currant Lozenges.

Put any quantity of black currants into a large jar, cover them close, set them in a moderate oven and let them remain all night, then press the juice or pulp through a coarse thin cloth as dry as possible, set it on the fire with half a pound of powdered loaf-sugar to about three pints of pulp, only let it simmer, stirring it almost constantly; skim it, and when it becomes thick, rub a large flat dish with a little butter, pour in the jam, and set it before the fire or in a cool oven to dry; when sufficiently dried, cut it into lozenges.

O

1070. Lemon Essence.

Rasp the lemons very thin; to a quarter of a pound of raspings allow one pound of sugar, powdered as fine as possible; mix it well till it is all of a colour and well incorporated, press it down into small jars, tie white paper over it, and then leather or bladder, and in one month it will be ready for use.

346

USEFUL FAMILY RECEIPTS.

1071. Quintessence of Lemon-peel.

Take best oil of lemon one drachm, strongest rectified spirit of wine two ounces, introduced by degrees, till the spirit kills and completely mixes with the oil. This elegant and useful preparation possesses all the fragrance and flavour of the freshest lemon-peel. A few drops on sugar will instantly impregnate with the flavour anything you may wish to use it for.

1072. Peppermint Water.

Dissolve six ounces of loaf-sugar in a quart of water, set it on the fire, and let it boil gently eight or ten minutes; drop eighty drops of essence of peppermint on a lump of sugar the size of a large walnut, put it in ajar, and immediately pour on it the boiling water and sugar, stir it a little, then cover it close, and let it stand till quite cold: then strain it through a double fold of flannel, and keep it in a bottle for use.

Cinnamon Water and Aniseed Water may be prepared in the same way.

1073. Seed Water.

Take two spoonsful of coriander-seed, and one of caraway-seed, bruise them well and put them in a quart of boiling water; let it stand several hours, then strain, and beat the yolks of two eggs and mix with the water, then add a little cinnamon-water and loaf-sugar.

1074. Perfumed Lavender Water.

Take oil of lavender one drachm; ambergris one drachm; oil of bergamot half a drachm; musk five grains; mix all well together with one pint of rectified spirit of wine.

USEFUL FAMILY RECEIPTS.

317

1075. Citrate of Potash Powder.

Take carbonate of potash, half an ounce and four scruples; citric acid, half an ounce; sugar two drachms; essence of lemon two drops. Mix the above well in a mortar, and keep it dry in a bottle. Thirty grains in a glass of water will make a pleasant and refreshing beverage.

1076. Ginger Beer Powder.

Take two drachms of fine loaf-sugar, eight grains of ginger, and twenty-six grains of carbonate of potash, all in fine powder, mix them well in a Wedgwood’s ware mortar. Take also twenty-seven grains of citric or tartaric acid, separate from the other powder; then take two tumbler glasses, each nearly half filled with water, stir up the compound powder in one, and the acid powder in the other, then mix the two liquors, an effevescence takes place, and the beer may he drank off immediately.

1077. .S eidlitz Powders.

Take of Rochelle salt one drachm: carbonate of soda thirty-five grains, all finely powdered; tartaric acid thirty grains; dissolve the two first together in nearly half a pint of water, then add the acid, and drink it instantly.

107S. Soda Powders.

To prepare a glass of soda-water, take thirtyfive grains of carbonate of soda, and thirty grains of tartaric acid.

1079. Ginger Lozenges for Heartburn.

To one pound of brown sugar, take half an ounce of prepared ginger and a quarter of an ounce of powdered rhubarb, mix them well together, and put them into

34S

USEFUL FAMILY RECEIPTS.

a brass pan with two table-spoonsful of peppermintwater and one ounce of magnesia; stir it, and let it have one thorough boil up; pour it on a stone, or large dish, rubbed over with olive oil, or fresh butter, and make it up into lozenges.

These lozenges have been found useful for indigestion, or acidity on the stomach.

1080. For Indigestion and Heartburn.

Take of dried soda powdered, half an ounce, rhubarb eleven drachms, cinnamon-powder one drachm, nutmeg grated very fine, one drachm, columbo-root dried and powdered two drachms; mix well together, and divide into thirty-six doses, one to be taken every night in a glass of water.

A cup of chamomile-tea, with a little ginger infused in it, is an excellent remedy for indigestion, taken an hour before rising, and continued for a length of time, every morning.

To eat a crust of bread an hour before breakfast is useful to improve digestion.

1031. Heartburn.

Drink a glass of soda-water, or lime-water; or a glass of water with a little magnesia or chalk in it. A cup of cold chamomile-tea is also very useful in this complaint, or a tea-spoonful of vinegar. Caraway comfits usually relieve the heartburn in a veiy short time.

1082. For a Cough.

Take liquorice-root scraped and sliced, a quarter of a pound, aniseeds rubbed and bruised two ounces, the best raisins stoned, and figs sliced, of each halt a pound; boil them in a gallon of spring water with a small handful of hyssop, and a very large handful of coltsfoot, till reduced to half the quantity, then strain

USEFUL FAMILY RECEIPTS.

349

it, and stir in three large spoonsful ol honey; take it the first thing in a morning, and three times more in the course of a day - about four table-spoonsful at once, rather warm.

10S3. Another, when attended with Difficulty of Breathing.

Boil a quarter of a pound of linseed in two quarts of spring water, strain it on half a pound of figs sliced, and a quarter of a pound of brown sugar-candy; add lemon-juice or a few drops of vinegar: take two table-spoonsful frequently. Linseed or bran-tea, sweetened with honey or sugar-candy, is excellent to be used as common drink by one troubled with a cough.

10S4. Linseed Cough Syrup.

Boil gently two ounces of linseed, two ounces of liquorice-root sliced, a quarter of a pound of the best raisins, and one ounce of Italian juice, in two quarts of water; after it has boiled a little, set it where it will just simmer, covered close, for three or foul hours, then strain it through a sieve, and return it into the pan, with two ounces of sugar-candy and the juice of a large lemon; let it simmer a quarter of an hour longer, and take a little at any time when the cough is troublesome.

1085. Cough Mixture.

Take mucilage of acacia, three fluid ounces;

Syrup of red poppy, six fluid drachms;

Sulphuric acid diluted, one fluid drachm and a half.

Take half a table-spoonful when the cough is troublesome.

Another . - Take mucilage of acacia, two fluid

2 li

350

USEFUL FAMILY RECEIPTS.

ounces; syrup of red poppy, four drac-lims; camphorated tincture of opium, two drachms. One tea-spoonful of the linctus to he taken frequently.

Another .- Take simple oxymel, and mucilage "of acacia, of each two fluid ounces;

Oxymel of squills, and tincture of camphor, of each half an ounce.

Take a dessert-spoonful now and then, when the cough is troublesome.

10S6. White Cough Mixture.

Mix half an ounce of spermaceti with the yolks of two eggs, adding half an ounce of powdered white sugar-candy, then add one drachm of tincture of opium, and five ounces, or ten table-spoonsful of water; a wine-glassful to be taken when the cough is troublesome.

1087. For a Consumptive Cough.

Stir two tea-spoonsful of rye flour into a small teacupful of water, and when well mixed drink it off. Repeat it several times a-day before meals, or at any time when the stomach is not loaded.

1088. For a Consumptive Cough.

Take a quarter of a pound of the herb maidenhair, two ounces of elecampane, two ounces of liquoriceroot, one pound of coarse sugar, and a large handful of horchound; simmer the whole in six quarts of water till reduced to two, then strain and bottle it for use. Take a common-sized tea-cupful morning and evening.

10S9. For an obstinate Cough.

Take mustard mixed up for eating, treacle, andjjlive-

USEFUL FAMILY RECEIPTS.

351

oil, of each two spoonsful; mix all well together. An adult may take two tea-spoonsful when going to bed.

1090. An excellent Reci-pe for a Cough.

Paregoric, syrup of squills, sal-volatile, one ounce of each; mix and take a tea-spoonful in half a wineglass of water, at any time when the cough is troublesome.

1091. For a Cough.

Mix with half a pound of honey, or black currant jam, one ounce of elecampane powder, one ounce of liquorice powder, and one ounce of sulphur: take a tea-spoonful of this mixture at any time.

Another. - Take six ounces of Italian liquorice (that stamped Salazzi is the best) cut in small pieces, put it into an earthen jar, with a quarter of a pint of the best vinegar; simmer till the liquorice is dissolved, then add two ounces of the oil of almonds, and half an ounce of laudanum; mix the whole well together, and take two large tea-spoonsful when going to bed, and one tea-spoonful three or four times a-day if required.

Another. - One ounce of tincture of rhubarb, one ounce of paregoric, one ounce of oil of almonds, and one ounce of sweet spirit of nitre.

Another. - Mix three table-spoonsful of vinegar with the same quantity of treacle, or honey, a teaspoonful of aether, and sixty drops of laudanum; take a table-spoonful at bed-time.

Another. - Boil half a pint of good vinegar with a pound ot brown sugar till it becomes a thick syrup, then mix in it half an ounce of paregoric, and take a spoonful at any time when the cough is troublesome.

2 n 2

352

USEFUL FAMILY RECEIPTS.

1092. Syrup for Coughs, Spilling of Blood, §c.

Take six ounces of comfrey-roots, and twelve handsful of plantain-leaves; cut and beat them well, strain out the juice, and with an equal weight of sugar boil it to a syrup.

An infusion of tormentil-leaves, or a decoction of the roots, is very useful for spitting of blood: brantea, also, has been found highly useful.

1093. Syrup of Angelica-root for the Influenza.

Boil down gently for three hours a handful of angelica-root in a quart of water, then strain it olf, and add liquid Narbonnc or best virgin honey sufficient to make it into a balsam or syrup; take two teaspoonsful every night and morning, as well as several times in the day. If attended with hoarseness or sore throat, add a few drops of sweet spirit of nitre.

1094. For a Hoarseness or Difficulty of Breathing.

Put a fresh laid egg into a small jar with the juice (strained) of two large lemons, or as much as will entirely cover the egg; keep it covered quite close, and set it in about the same degree of heat as if it stood on the chimney-piece where a moderate lire is kept; it will require about twenty-four hours to dissolve the shell; when dissolved, the skin may easily be removed by a pointed knife, then beat it up with two ounces of white sugar-candy powdered fine, or two ounces of honey; put it in a bottle, and keep it closely corked. Take a tea-spoonful at any time.

A quarter of a pint of the best white-wine vinegar may be used instead of the lemon-juice, if more convenient, and more honey or sugar-candy may be added if preferred.

USEFUL FAMILY RECEIPTS.

353

1095. For a Hoarseness.

Take two table-spoonsful of oatmeal, two of brown sugar, and about an ounce of fresh butter, mix them vvitli a spoon till like paste, then pour on it by degrees half a pint of boiling water, stirring it till quite smooth; drink it warm, when going to bed.

Another, for a Cold and Hoarseness . - Mix a fresh-laid egg, well beaten, with two ounces of powdered sugar-candy, the juice of a lemon, and a large spoonful of sweet spirit of nitre: take a tea-spoonful at any lime.

1096. For a Hoarseness.

Boil two ounces of flour of sulphur in a quart of water till reduced to a pint; when settled, pour oft’ the clear part upon half an ounce of liquorice-root sliced, and a quarter of an ounce of coriander-seed bruised; cover it close, and take a tea-spoonful or two at any time.

I Or make a strong decoction of coltsfoot, strain it, then boil it to a syrup with sugar-candy; it is excellent.

Another . - A strong decoction of horehound, strained, and boiled to a syrup with a pound of coarse sugar to a pint, or three-quarters of a pound of sugar-candy.

Or, chew slices of horse-radish like lozenges: it is a very speedy remedy for hoarseness, loss of voice, and catarrhal complaints.

1097. For an Asthma.

Slice a Turkey fig in two, put a teaspoonful of sulphur inside, and cat them in that state.

Brooldime Tea - about a pint to be drank rather warm, the first thing in the morning. This remedy has been found highly beneficial.

2 n 3

354

USEFUL FAMILY RECEIPTS.

Another . - Take three-quarters of an ounce of senna, powdered, half an ounce of flour of sulphur, two drachms of powdered ginger, and half a drachm of saffron; mix them well with four ounces of honey, and take a large tea-spoonful night and morning. This remedy has also been found very useful.

1098. For an Asthmatic Cough.

Cut a pound of figs in thin slices, put them in three pints of water with two ounces of liquorice-root sliced, boil till it is reduced to a quart, strain it and take a small wine-glassful with nearly a tea-spoonful of sweet spirit of nitre, twice or thrice a-day.

Another . - A new-laid egg, well beaten, two ounces of sugar-candy powdered, the juice of a lemon, and a large spoonful of sweet spirit of nitre. Take a tea-spoonful at any time when the cough is troublesome.

1099. A Plaster for a Cough.

To three drachms of diachylon take half a drachm of common brown soap, and two scruples of camphor; mix all well together, and spread it on leather. The above quantity will make two plasters to lay on the chest.

1100. Elder Electuary.

Take five pounds of the juice of elder-berries, and one pound of good brown sugar, or honey; let it simmer gently till like thick syrup. Take a spoonful mixed with a little water at bed-time.

This preparation is good for a cough, and keeps well.

1101. Marmalade, or Electuary for a Cough.

Heat three ounces of Malaga raisins to a fine paste with the same quantity of sugar-candy, add half an

USEFUL FAMILY RECEIPTS.

355

ounce of the conserve of roses, twelve drops of oil of vitriol, and ten drops of oil of sulphur; mix the whole well together, and take a small tea-spoonful night and morning.

This will be found an excellent remedy for a cough.

1102. Draught for a Couglu

Beat two fresh eggs, mix them with half a pint of new milk warmed, two table-spoonsful of capillaire, the same quantity of rose-water, and a little nutmeg. Observe, it must not be warmed after the egg is added. Take a tea-cupful at bed-time and early in the morning.

1103. For the Hooping Cough.

Dissolve one grain of emetic tartar in three ounces of spring water; one tea-spoonful to be taken every two hours. Let the common drink be, almond emulsion, barley-water, linseed, hyssop, or bran-tea sweetened with honey, or treacle.

Another . - Dissolve a scruple of salt of tartar in a gill of water, and ten grains of cochineal finely powdered, sweeten this with fine sugar; give to an infant the fourth part of a table-spoonful four times a day; and from four years old and upwards a spoonful may be taken.

Another . - Dissolve half a grain of alum in a little water, and give it to an infant under a year old in the morning fasting, repeating it twice during the day. This simple remedy has been tried with great success; the quantity to be increased according to the age of the child.

Another . - Three drachms of gum-benjamin, and three of gum-storax, to be divided in twelve parts; one part to be put into a warming-pan of clear coals,

35G

USEFUL FAMILY RECEIPTS.

and placed in the patient’s room all night with the lid open. To he repeated each night.

1104. Embrocation for the Hooping Cough.

Take of emetic tartar, two drachms; tincture of cantharides, one drachm; oil of wild thyme, three drachms; mix well in a bottle, and rub a dessertspoonful on the chest every night and morning.

Equal quantities of amber oil and spirit of hartshorn, mixed and used as an embrocation, and rubbed on the spine night and morning, is also an excellent remedy.

1105. Small Pox.

This complaint generally comes on with shiverings, pain in the head and back, sickness, and the ordinary symptoms of fever: the eruption appears about the fourth day of the fever, and the pustules come to maturity about the tenth or eleventh day. On the first appearance of the complaint, to keep down the feverish symptoms, and to prevent as much as possible the eruption from being great, a little opening medicine will be proper; also from fifteen to twenty drops of antimonial wine in a dose of saline mixture, every six or eight hours, till the feverish symptoms are abated; observing a low and cool diet, and drinking plentifully of lemonade, toast and water, cowsliptea, or barley water, rather warm; the almond emulsion may also be taken freely. The patient should be kept cool.

Cleanliness in this, as in all cases of fever, should be particularly attended to.

1 100. Measles.

This complaint generally begins with shiverings, succeeded by a feverish heal, a severe head-ache in

USEFUL FAMILY RECEIPTS.

357

adults, and heaviness in children, frequent sneezing, running of the eyes and nose, swelling of the eyelids. The patient should be kept moderately cool, without being exposed to the cold air, observing a low diet, and keeping the body gently open; the almond emulsion, toast and water, barley-water, lemonade, and linseed-tea, may be drank freely; marigold-tea is also much esteemed in this complaint; and if the measles do not come out properly, a little saffron-tea, given warm at bed-time, has often a good effect. When the eruption begins to disappear, opening medicine should be given about three times a week, as in small-pox and olher eruptive fevers; an infusion of senna would be very proper; but the patient should not be too soon exposed to the cold air.

Ten drops of balsam of copaiva taken on a little brown sugar night and morning, is generally found useful in removing the cough which so often remains after the measles.

Iceland Moss (No. 1051) has been given to children with great success, after the measles, &c., one ounce boiled in a quart of water, and strained through muslin; two table-spoonsful to be given three times a-day, either in a little milk, or with six or eight drops of elixir of vitriol.

1107. For the Thrush.

Wet a soft linen rag with a little milk rather warm, dip it in soot, and rub the mouth very well with it, then wash the mouth well with milk: by repeating this two or three times a cure has frequently been effected. Rub the mouth with a little powdered loaf-sugar and borax, or wash the mouth with boraxwater; it generally gives relief.

A tea-spoonful of the syrup of black currants given frequently to children for the thrush, has been found

358

USEFUL FAMILY RECEIPTS.

useful. Prepare the syrup as follows: - Bruise, and squeeze the currants through a cloth strainer; to one point of juice take a pound and a half of good loafsugar; when the sugar is dissolved, boil it to a syrup. If preferred, the sugar may be dissolved in half a pint of water, boiled to a syrup for a few minutes, the juice then added and boiled.

110S. For a sore Mouth.

Wash the mouth with boraxwater with a little honey dissolved it in, or sage-tea. To inhale the steam from strong sage-tea will generally give relief.

1109. Remedy for removing Chilblains.

Apply a poultice of roasted onions, or salt and onions jiounded together.

Or, an ounce of white copperas, dissolved in a quart of water, and occasionally applied to the affected parts, will utterly remove the most obstinate chilblains. This application must be used before they break, otherwise it will do injury. If broken, wash them in a little tincture of myrrh and a little water.

Another . - Crude sal-ammoniac, one ounce; vinegar, half a pint; dissolve, and bathe the part, if not broken, two or three times a-day. If broken, poultice, or dress them with basilicon, and add turpentine, if necessary.

Another. - Alum-water applied warm with a bit of sponge tied on a small stick, will prevent the chilblains from becoming painful, if applied early.

Bathing the parts affected with warm vinegar is also an approved remedy.

Another . - Take spermaceti ointment, six drachms; prepared calomel, two scruples; rectified oil of turpentine, one drachm; mix and rub well the part affected, and cover with chamois leather. If ulce-

USEFUL FAMILY RECEIPTS.

359

rated, apply it on lint, and cover with leather as before, dressing them twice a-day. If taken in time, nothing more is necessary than to apply a plaster ot diachylon, spread on leather.

The best preventive is to wear good strong shoes, and wash-leather socks.

1110. Remedy for the Ring-worm.

Dip the finger in lemon-juice, and apply it well to the part affected; some common gunpowder (not glazed) pounded and passed through a sieve, to be sprinkled on the lemon-juice whilst wet, so as completely to cover the wound, and repeated every second day. Three or four applications have generally produced a cure, but in cases where this troublesome disease has been inveterate, a longer time has been required.

Another . - An equal quantity of oil of iron and spirit of turpentine; apply it twice a-day:

Another . - Fry foxglove-leaves in fresh butter, without salt, strain it, and rub twice a-day.

Another . - Take an equal quantity of Barbadoes tar, and fresh butter; mix together in a gentle heat, and anoint the head every day with it. An oil-case or an old linen cap should be worn at the time.

Another . - Wash the head well morning and evening, with soft, or common brown soap and water, with a sponge or flannel; wipe it dry, then sponge it with lime-water from the gas-works, which has been used for purifying gas; or with a solution of an ounce of bay-salt, dissolved in a quart of water.

1111. Ward's Essence, or Embrocation for the.

Croup, Sfc.

lake four ounces of the best rectified spirit of wine

3G0

USEFUL FAMILY RECEIPTS.

and four ounces of camphor, let them be perfectly well mixed, then add four ounces of the volatile spirit of sal-ammoniac. If both the spirits be not good, the proper quantity of camphor will not be absorbed by them.

The above embrocation is exceedingly useful in cases of croup, sprains, rheumatisms, quinsies, See. For the croup the throat is to be bathed with the essence, then a piece of flannel dipped into it and tied round the throat. It has given relief in very violent paroxysms.

1112. For Worms in Children.

Dry some tansey and powder it; mix it with treacle, or honey, and give a large tea-spoonful four or five mornings together.

Or, give a dessert-spoonful of oil and turpentine, mixed with coarse sugar or honey.

A dessert-spoonful of olive-oil alone has frequently been given to children, as a remedy for worms, with very good effect. It should be taken daily, for a week or two.

1113. For the Tape-Worm.

Oil of turpentine is considered almost a specific in every species of worms; one or two drachms at intervals, for children of three years of age, and five drachms for elder children, and more for adults. It should be taken fasting, and strict abstinence observed durim 1 ' its use. It is recommended by some medical men to begin with a full dose early in the morning, and repeat it every hour for three or four hours, as circumstances may require. Mix it with mucilage of o-um-arabic, cinnamonwater, and simple syrup. In case it should not operate on the bowels as an aperient, in the course of two or three hours, a dose of castor oil is recommended. This treatment should

USEFUL FAMILY RECEIPTS.

3Gl

be renewed every four or five days, till the patient is relieved. It is frequently taken mixed with honey, but the following method has often been adopted for children: - Beat up five drachms and a half of rectified oil of turpentine, with the yolk of an egg-, and some sugar with a little water, or common syrup; two doses are generally sufficient.

Essence of bergamot, or essential oil of naphtha, in doses of one or two drachms, mixed with honey, have also been found effective in destroying worms.

1114. For the Gripes in Infants.

Take an equal quantity of oil of nutmegs and oil of wormwood, mix very well, and apply it to the navel and chest, on a warm flannel.

A flannel dipped in brandy, and warmed a little, and laid over the belly, frequently gives immediate relief.

1115. For Costiveness in Children.

Boil half a pint of new milk with three-quarters of an ounce of coarse brown sugar, then add two tablespoonsful of olive oil, and give it warm. This innocent mixture may be given to adults with very good effect, by increasing the quantity.

A large fig eaten every night at bed-time, will also be found very useful.

1116. For Costiveness in Children.

Take a table-spoonful of powdered loaf-sugar and the same of water, boil it a few minutes, then add a table-spoonful ot castor-oil, mix well, and give a teaspoonful to a young infant, every two hours, till it operates; and more in proportion to the age of the child. When the stomach of an infant is disordered by being over-fed, so as to produce symptoms of

2 i

362

USEFUL FAMILY RECEIPTS.

convulsion, the timely application of the above simple remedy will be found very efficacious.

1117. An Infusion of Senna.

Take an ounce of senna, two drachms of aniseeds, one drachm of ginger, two ounces of raisins, three ounces ot prunes, or French plums; pour on a quart of boiling water, and let the infusion stand in a moderate heat for two hours, then strain it. An adult may take a quarter of a pint; or, if required, more may be taken with safety.

This is a very safe and easy purge for children after measles, small-pox, &c. A little sugar may be added, if preferred.

A mixture of sulphur, cream of tartar, and treacle, is also a very useful and proper opening medicine for children: or, a little sulphur given in a few spoonsful of warm milk, when going to bed, three or four evenings together.

1118. Epsom Salts.

This is a very speedy laxative, often operating within an hour, is more regular and uniform than almost any aperient; in a quarter of an hour after taking it, its operation should be encouraged by drinking half a pint or more of warm water, tea, or thin gruel. The best way of covering the taste of Epsom salts, is to put a lump of sugar and a bit of lemonpeel cut thin into the hot water, before you stir the salts in it, to which a few grains of powdered ginger may be added. A dessertspoonful of the salts will generally be sufficient, especially if it be taken in the morning, an hour before breakfast.

Or, - Pour two quarts of boiling water on a quarter of a pound of Epsom salts, and drink a teacupful every morning for nine or ten mornings togctlier,

USEFUL FAMILY RECEIPTS.

363

A large spoonful, or two if necessary, of treacle, stirred in half a pint of warm gruel, taken regularly, at bed-time, seldom fails to keep the bowels in good order.

1119. Test for Epsom Salts.

Those who have doubts about the salts, may always be satisfied by putting to them, when dissolved, a little magnesia, which will mix quietly; but should it be oxalic acid, it will hiss, and boil up immediately.

1120. For the Hiccough.

When caused by acidity in the stomach, take twenty drops of sal-volatile with a tea-spoonful of magnesia, in a glass of mint-water. When it is caused by improper food, an emetic will be necessary: if the spasms be violent, a tea-spoonful of ether with eight drops of laudanum in a glass of cold water, will prove the best remedy. In children, hiccough often arises from acidity in the stomach; in that case, magnesia and rhubarb, in a little mint-water, will be most proper.

Or, for the convulsive hiccough, take one drop of the oil of cinnamon on a lump of sugar, keej) it in the mouth till dissolved, then gently swallow it.

The common hiccough may in general be removed by taking a pinch of snuff, or any thing that will cause sneezing.

1121. For the Gravel.

Take spirit of turpentine, spirit of sweet nitre, balsam of copaiva, half an ounce of each: mix, and take from fifteen to twenty-five drops on loaf-sugar, morning and evening.

Caucus (wild carrot) tea is also an excellent thing

2 i 2

364 USEFUL FAMILY RECEIPTS.

for the gravel, drank rather warm as common drink; the daucus roots should be gathered in August, or the beginning of September.

1122. Convulsion Fits.

Bruise some garlic and steep it in spirit of wine; dip some pieces of brown paper in it and apply to the soles of the feet - it may also be applied to the spine and chest. This seldom fails. Some fresh peony roots scraped, and applied to the soles of the feet, often give immediate relief.

Garliclc Tea - has frequently been given to children with very good effect. That, with a warm bath, and small doses of castor-oil, will generally answer every purpose in ordinary cases.

1123. Spasms.

There is not a more effectual or speedy remedy for the distressing pain arising from spasms, thau repeated doses of hot garliclc tea; it has alone effected a cure when every other remedy had failed, by continuing to take a tea-cupful of the tea lukewarm every night when retiring to rest, for several months.

Copious draughts of hot water usually afford immediate relief.

1124. Tincture of A safcetida, for Convulsion or Hysteric Fits.

Infuse one ounce of asafcetida, bruised, and two large spoonsful of wood-soot (that which is rather hard and shining) in a pint of spirit of wine for three or four days, shaking the bottle frequently; then strain it off, put it in a bottle, and keep it close corked. Three drops may be given to an infant in a tea-spoonful of the mother’s milk, repeating it once or twice daily, as occasion may require, and incrcas-

USEFUL FAMILY RECEIPTS.

365

ing a drop each time, but not to exceed ten; reduce the quantity again a drop each time. An adult may take from thirty to sixty drops, in rue or chamomile tea. This remedy has been repeatedly tried with great success.

1125. Locked Jaw.

Ten drops of the muriated tincture of iron administered in a little water every hour, has been found a specific for that dreadful disease, locked jaw, when other remedies have failed.

1126. Salt a Cure for Epilepsy.

A little salt put on the lips of a person in an epileptic fit is a most effectual remedy.

1127. For the Jaundice.

Break a fresh-laid eg?, without beating it, into a

O O 7 O 3

wine-glass of spring water, and take it the first thing in a morning, and again at bed-time.

Or, take half an ounce of Venice soap, and oil of aniseed sixteen drops, mix well together, and make it up into middle-sized pills; take three or four, two or three times a dav.

J

Another . - Infuse eight ounces of artichoke-leaves in a quart of barley-water for twelve hours, then strain off the liquor, and take a quarter of a pint every morning and night.

1128. For the Head-ache.

Take of ether two fluid drachms, spirit of wine with a little camphor two ounces, and water four ounces; pour a little into the palm of the hand, and press it to the forehead or temples for several minutes, without removing the hand from it. Repeat it as occasion requires. Or, dip a little linen several folds in a littleoi the lotion, and bind it tight to the forehead

2 l 3

366

USEFUL FAMILY RECEIPTS.

and temples, renewing it as it dries; the relief is generally immediate. Ether alone answers very well.

Washing the forehead four or five times a day in cold spring water will frequently relieve a headache.

To hold a little scraped horse-radish in the palm of the hand, closing it till it be warm, then smelling at it will often give relief.

A roasted onion applied hot to the top of the liead and bound cn, will frequently relieve the most violent pain.

For what is termed the Sick Head-ache - drink plentifully of warm chamomile tea till the stomach is settled; then take a basin of gruel, or green tea.

Rosemary, or mint tea is also frequently used with good effect for this purpose.

1129. For the Tooth-ache.

Mix an equal quantity of tincture of bark and tincture of myrrh, put half a tea-spoonful into a little hot water, and wash the mouth with it frequently, keeping it in as long as possible: a bit of lint may also be dipped in the tincture and applied to the tooth.

Another . - Mix a few drops of oil of cloves with a little laudanum, wet a bit of lint or cotton with it, and apply it to the affected tooth. This is an excellent remedy.

Fifteen or twenty drops of laudanum taken in a little water, and the feet put in warm water at bedtime, will frequently give relief.

A roasted onion applied to the ear, or the check, on the side affected, will often relieve the pain of tooth-ache, or pain in the face.

A small portion of sal-prunella, alum, or nitre, applied to an aching, decayed tooth, will frequently relieve the pain.

USEFUL FAMILY RECEIPTS.

367

1130. Another remedy for Tooth-ache.

Alum reduced to an impalpable powder, two drachms; nitrous spirit of ether, seven drachms; mix and apply it to the tooth with a bit of lint or cotton.

1131. Another.

To a table-spoonful of spirit of wine, add the same quantity of sharp vinegar, and a tea-spoonful of common salt; mix them well, and hold the liquid in the mouth, so that it can enter the cavity of the tooth.

Regularly washing well behind the ears every morning, with cold wuater; or, washing the mouth very well every night and morning with strong salt and water, or lime-water, is an excellent preventive.

A mixture of honey with the purest charcoal will prove an admirable cleanser of the teeth.

To use the flour of sulphur as a tooth-powder, every night on going to bed, and if possible after dinner, is an excellent preservative for the teeth.

1132. For a Pain in the Face, attended with Swelling.

Mix two ounces of spirit of hartshorn with one ounce of camphorated oil, and three tea-spoonsful of laudanum; after rubbing the part affected ten minutes with this mixture, apply a piece of warm flannel.

If much swelled and inflamed, a fomentation of chamomile flowers and poppy-heads will be found an excellent application, using it every two or three hours; and at bed-time, apply a poultice of oatmeal and soft water, well boiled.

1133. Bleeding at the Nose.

Apply a cloth dipped in vinegar, or cold water in which sal-prunella has been dissolved, to the back

368

USEFUL FAMILY RECEIPTS.

and sides of the neck; or, wash the nose, temples, and neck with vinegar.

Or, dissolve an ounce of powdered alum in a pint of vinegar, apply a cloth dipped in this to the temples, and put the feet in warm water. A little writing paper applied to the roof of the mouth, or rolled up and placed under the tongue, has sometimes been recommended, and afforded relief.

1134. For the Ear-ache.

Apply a roasted onion to the ear, or a roasted fig. If caused by worms, drop a little warm milk into the ear.

1135. For a Stitch in the Side.

Apply a bottle of hot water wrapped up in flannel; or a bag of hot oats, or hot salt.

1136. To slop) the bleeding of a Wound.

Apply dried puff balls; or, the leaves of balm of Gilead.

1137. For the smarting pain of Sunburn.

Wash the part frequently with sage and plantain lea. Sage-tea alone answers very well.

1138. Gargle for Sore Throat.

A common gargle may be prepared of sage-tea, with honey and vinegar; or infuse some red rose leaves, either fresh or dry, in boiling-water, and and when they have stood an hour, drain off the liquor, and add a few drops of the oil of vitriol; gargle the throat with either of the above, four or five times every day, rubbing frequently with a mixture of two parts of olive oil to one of turpentine.

1139. For a Quinsey.

llub the throat well upwards, towards the ear, with

USEFUL FAMILY RECEIPTS.

369

the oils (see No. 1204), for ten minutes or a quarter of an hour, several times in the course of a day, and at bed-time apply a poultice of roasted onions as hot as possible, putting a little of the onion in each ear, or in that on the side affected. Seven drops of the oil of amber on a lump of sugar, kept in the mouth without moving, till dissolved, has often produced a very good effect. Gargle with halt a pint of barleywater, an ounce of rose-water, two ounces of honey of roses, and half an ounce of nitre.

1140. Emollient or softening Gargles.

Take an ounce of marshmallow-root, and two or three figs; boil them in a quart of water till one-half be consumed; then strain the liquor. By adding an ounce of honey, and half an ounce of water of ammonia, it will make an excellent diluting gargle. It is peculiarly beneficial in fevers, where the tongue and throat are rough and parched. It is also very superior to common acid gargles, in quinseys and inflammatory sore-throats. A decoction of figs in milk and water, adding a little sal-ammonia, is also a very effective gargle.

A pint of boiling water, poured on a table-spoonful of the best green tea, kept covered close and used lukewarm, as a gargle, is highly useful in bilious fevers; adding sugar and milk, if agreeable.

A solution of two drachms of borax in seven ounces of rose-water is also used as a gargle in bilious fevers and thrush; for the latter, add one ounce of honey of roses.

1141. An excellent Fomentation.

Take dried wormwood, southernwood, and chamomile, of each an ounce, bay-leaves dried half an ounce, boil them gently in six pints of water, and strain it off for use.

370

USEFUL FAMILY RECEIPTS.

A mixture of mallow and elder leaves makes an excellent fomentation. Mallow, or chamomile alone, are also very useful for that purpose.

1142. Another for a Swelling attended with much

pain.

Cut in pieces an ounce of the roots of garden poppies, or two ounces of white poppy-heads, and half an ounce of elder-flowers, boil them three-quarters of an hour in three pints of springwater, then strain and press out the liquor. Use it as a fomentation.

1143. Strengthening Fomentation.

Take oak bark, one ounce; pomegranate peel half an ounce; alum, two drachms; smith’s forge-water, three pints. Boil the water with the bark and peel till consumed one-third; then strain and dissolve in it the alum. Foment the weak part with large pieces of sponge, dipped in this astringent liquor, and squeezed dry. The fomentation should be applied as hot as possible.

1144. Yeast Poultice.

Mix well half a pound of linseed-meal, and half a pint of yeast; expose it to a gentle heat till it begins to ferment. This poultice is excellent for stimulating and cleansing foul ulcers.

1145. Charcoal Poultice.

To half a pound of common oatmeal poultice, add two ounces of fresh-burnt charcoal, powdered very fine; mix it well, and use it for foul and foetid-smelling ulcers.

1146. Sorrel Poultice.

Boil any quantity of the bottom leaves of the com-

USEFUL FAMILY RECEIPTS. 371

mon meadow-sorrel till soft, then beat them to a pulp, and apply it to a cancerous or scorbutic ulcer.

1147. Apple Poultice.

Poultices of apples have been successfully employed for cancerous or scorbutic ulcers. They are made by mixing equal quantities of the boiled pulp of apples with bread-crumbs.

Malt Poultice - is also used for the same purposes, and is made by mixing as much fine ground malt with yeast, as will make a poultice of the size and consistence required.

114S. Carrot Poultice

Consists simply of carrots grated with water, so as to form a pulp: this is an excellent poultice to relieve pain arising from a sore, which it also cleanses, and should be changed twice a day.

1149. Mustard Poultice.

Take flour of mustard, one part; oatmeal, three parts; vinegar a sufficient quantity to form a poultice. Boil the oatmeal and vinegar together, and afterwards sprinkle in the flour of mustard. To be applied warm.

%

1150. An excellent Poidtice.

Take groundsel, green chamomile, wild mallows, of each a handful, and a few foxglove leaves, boil them in water till tender, then thicken with oatmeal, adding a table-spoonful of linseed oil.

Chick-weed roasted, then chopped, makes a very useful poultice.

1151. A Poidtice for Boils.

Take an equal quantity of chick-weed and groundsel,

37:2

USEFUL FAMILY RECEIPTS.

boil them together, then thicken with a little oatmeal. When boils are very painful, foment them with a strong decoction of poppy-heads, previous to applying the poultice. Roasted figs are very good for boils. Also, a plaster of honey and flour, or Venice turpentine.

When a boil or whitlow does not break properly, apply the skin from the inside of an egg-shell.

1 1 52. A Poultice for hard or gathered Breasts.

Boil three large poppy-heads in a pint of water till reduced one-half, then strain it on white breadcrumbs, or linseed; simmer it a little on the fire till of a proper consistence; apply it twice a day. If much swelled, apply a poultice of roasted turnips, mashed and mixed with oil of roses, twice or thrice a day: or, foment the breast with a large sponge dipped (and squeezed dry) in a strong decoction of wild mallows and chamomile.

1153. The Irish Plaster, for hard or gathered Breasts.

Put a pint of olive oil and four ounces of yellow wax into a glazed earthen vessel, stir them over a slow fire with a smooth stick till the wax is melted, then add four ounces of frankincense, four ounces of white rosin, and eight ounces of red lead, simmer all together very carefully; take it oil the fire while it continues of a red colour, or it will turn brown and hard.

1154. To inevent or cure sore Nipples.

Take two parts of strong green tea and one of brandy: bathe the nipples with it when the child is taken from the breast.

Cream, juice of valerian, and juice of sea green, boiled till it becomes as butter, makes a very nice ointment for sore nipples, applying it three or four

USEFUL FAMILY RECEIPTS.

373

times a day. Cups formed of the curd of alum posset, or wax, are very useful to prevent the nipples from excoriation.

There is a kind of smooth thick shell, very common at Southport and other sea-bathing places, which has been found exceedingly useful to wear as a cap for the nipple.

A solution of gum-arabic is also very useful, to bathe the nipples with when very tender, covering them with a little tissue paper, dipped in olive oil, or oil of almonds.

1155. To prevent Swelling and Inflammation in the Breasts from Weaning.

Cover the breasts completely with diachylon plaster, cutting a small hole in the centre; nothing more will be necessary, and the breasts will not require being drawn at all, in ordinary cases.

1156. Cholera.

One drachm of nitrous acid (not nitric), one ounce of peppermint water or camphor mixture, and forty drops of tincture of opium; a fourth part to be taken every three or four hours in a "cupful of thin gruel. The belly should be covered with a succession of hot, dry cloths; bottles of hot water to the feet, and constant but small sippings of smooth, well-boiled oatmeal or rice gruel: wine, spirits, or fermented liquor on no account to be taken.

Repeated draughts of hot water have been administered with very good effect on the first attack of cholera; garlick tea would probably be still better.

1157. Another Specific for Cholera.

8 ounces of bazaar sal-ammoniac.

8 ounces of unslaked lime.

1 quart of boiling water,

2 K.

374

USEFUL FAMILY RECEIPTS.

The two first articles to be finely powdered and put into a large bottle; the mixture to be frequently shaken, and in the course of three days it will be fit for use. The liquor is then to be decanted from the sediment and well secured from external air.

Manner of using it . - Three drachms weight or measure, diluted with three times the quantity of water, is a dose for an adult; a few drops of essence of peppermint make it more palatable. When the first dose is ejected, a second has stopped the disease; to allay the thirst which succeeds the stoppage of the vomiting, mint-tea is the most effectual and pleasant.

To children of more than four or five years of age, one and a half to two drachms with nine of water.

Another . - After having taken warm fluid three or four times, to evacuate the contents of the stomach, drink freely of a decoction of oaten bread. Toast an oat-cake carefully till it is as brown as coffee, but not burnt; pour on it boiling water, cover it close, and keep it warm. It should have the appearance of weak coffee.

1158. Remedy for Cholera Morbus.

Take a few corks, and burn them to charcoal, until they can be bruised as fine as lamp-black. Two large tea-spoonsful of the powder, to be mixed in half a small tea-cupful of equal parts ot new milk and water; a dessert-spoonful of this mixture to be taken morning and evening; if the complaint be violent, it may be taken oftener. A tea-spoonful twice a day is enough for a child. Let the common drink be marsh-mallow tea. Charcoal, made from maple-wood, is also used in the same way.

1159. yin excellent Remedy for Diarrhoea. Take as much pomegranate powder as will lie on a

USEFUL FAMILY RECEIPTS. 375

shilling, put it in half a pint of boiling milk, and take a tea-cupful two or three times a-day.

Another .- Take about half a pound of fine flour, make it into a hard ball, tie it in a cloth as tight as possible, and boil it three or four hours, then take it out of the cloth and dry it in a cool oven ten or twelve hours. When to be used, grate it fine, and moisten it with a little water in the same manner as starch; pour it into boiling water in which cinnamon and mace have been boiled, make it about the consistence of water gruel, and add sugar to the taste. It may be prepared with milk, if preferred, leavingout the mace.

Another . - Take of rhubarb, and columba, in powder, equal parts; take three grains every three hours, in a little marsh-mallow tea.

1 1 60. Another for obstinate Diarrhoea.

After having taken the above powder without producing the desired effect, take two scruples of bark in powder, ten grains of compound powder of chalk with opium; form a powder, and take it three or four times a-day.

1161. Colic.

Take half a drachm of rhubarb in powder, brown it a little before the fire, then add to it a very little powdered ginger, mix it with a little sugar and warm water, or a little peppermint water.

1162. For an inflammation in the Stomach or Bowels.

lake an ounce of cool-drawn linseed-oil, half a pint ot cieam, hall an ounce ol borax reduced to powder, and half a pint of the juice of liouse-leek; mix all

2 k2

376

USEFUL FAMILY RECEIPTS.

well together, and take a table-spoonful every half hour.

If it produces drowsiness, the medicine is taking the desired effect.

1 1 63. Dysentery.

Take a sheet of writing-paper, cut in slips, boil it in a pint and a half of milk till reduced to a pint; take it at twice.

It has been given with very good effect to infants for watery gripes, &c.

For common drink in dysentery, dissolve two ounces of powdered gum-arabic in a quart of water; sweeten to the taste.

Another . - Boll several folds of flannel round the body from the chest to the waist; drink water in which rice has been boiled and carefully strained. This simple remedy is considered a certain cure.

Another . - Boil a handful of the leaves or roots bruised of marsh-mallow, in a pint of water, about five minutes, then add a pint of skimmed milk; let it boil up, then pour it into a jug or tea-pot, and drink a small tea-cupful every half hour. This simple remedy has been repeatedly tried with great success.

Another . - Gather bramble-berries when full grown, but before they turn black; pick them, and dry them in a cool oven; keep them from the air in a dry situation; when wanted for use, beat them to powder and take as much as will lie on a shilling, in simple cinnamonwater, night and morning.

This is an admirable remedy for the flux, and may be taken three times a day, if the disease be violent. It is also an excellent remedy for watery gripes in infants.

USEFUL FAMILY RECEIPTS. 377

A decoction of the roots of bramble-berry bushes is a safe and speedy remedy for dysentery.

1164. Useful properties of Charcoal.

The medical qualities of pulverized charcoal arc daily developing themselves. In addition to its value in bilious disorders, two ounces of the charcoal, boiled in a pint of fresh milk, may be taken in doses of a wine-glass full, by adults every two hours, in the most obstinate dysentery, until relieved, which has not failed to be the effect, in almost every instance. It is harmless, and may be safely tried. Charcoal made from the maple-wood is the best for the purpose.

1165. Methods of Treatment for recovering Persons apparently drowned or dead.

Cautions - 1. Lose no time. - 2. Avoid all rough usage. - 3. Never hold the body up by the feet. - 4. Nor roll the body on casks.- 5. Nor rub the body with salt or spirits. - 6. Nor inject tobacco smoke or infusion of tobacco.

Restorative Means, if apparently drowned.

Send quickly for medical assistance, but do not delay the following means: -

Convey the body carefully, with the head and shoulders supported in a raised position, to the nearest house.

Strip the body, and rub it dry; then wrap it in hot blankets, and place it in a warm bed in a warm chamber.

M ipe and cleanse the mouth and nostrils.

In order to restore the natural warmth of the body, move a heated, covered warming-pan over the back and spine.

Put bladders or bottles of hot water, or heated

2k3

378

USEFUL FAMILY RECEIPTS.

bricks, to the pit of the stomach, the arm-pits, between the thighs, and the soles of the feet.

Foment the body with hot flannels; but, if possible, immerse the body in a warm-bath, as hot as the hand can bear without pain, as this is preferable to the other means for restoring warmth.

Rub the body briskly with the hand; do not, however, suspend the use of the other means at the same time.

In order to restore breathing, introduce the pipe of a common bellows (where the apparatus of the Humane Society is not at hand) into the nostril, carefully closing the other and the mouth; at the same time drawing downwards, and pushing gently backwards, the upper part of the windpipe, to allow a more free admission of air; blow the bellows gently, in order to inflate the lungs, till the breast be a little raised; the mouth and nostrils should then be set free, and a moderate pressure made with the hand upon the chest. Repeat this process till life appears.

Electricity may be employed early by a medical assistant.

Inject into the stomach, by means of an elastic tube and syringe, half a pint of warm brandy and water, or wine and water.

Apply sal-volatile or hartshorn to the nostrils.

If apparently Dead from intense Cold.

Rub the body with snow, ice, or cold water. Restore warmth by slow degrees; and, after some time, if necessary, employ the means recommended for the drowned. In these accidents it is highly dangerous to apply heat too early.

If apparently Dead from noxious Vapours, fy c .

1. Remove the body into a cool fresh air. - 2. Dash

USEFUL FAMILY RECEIPTS.

379

cold water on the neck, face, and breast frequently. - 3. If the body be cold, apply warmth, as recommended for the drowned. - 4. Use the means recommended for inflating the lungs, in the directions tor the drowned. - 5. Let electricity (particularly in accidents from lightning) be early employed by a medical assistant.

If apparently Bead from Apoplexy.

The patient should be placed in a cool air, and the clothes loosened, particularly about the neck and breast. Bleeding must early be employed by a medical assistant; the quantity regulated by the state of the pulse. Cloths soaked in cold water, spirits, or vinegar and water, should be kept applied to the head, which should be instantly shaved. All stimulants should be avoided. In cases of coups-de-soleil, or strokes of the sun, the same means to be used as in apoplexy.

1166. Remedies for Poiso?is.

To counteract the effects of arsenic, mercury, antimony, or any of the mineral poisons, taken into the stomach, the liver of sulphur is the most efficacious medicine. Dissolve a large table-spoonful of the liver of sulphur in a pint of water, and give two tablespoonsful of the solution as soon as possible, and repeat it every ten or fifteen minutes for three or four doses, as occasion may require. If this preparation cannot easily be procured, a tea-spoonful of sulphur, with eight or ten grains of salt of wormwood, will afford the best substitute. It will be proper to drink plentifully of warm water, and to excite vomiting, by giving with the first dose of either the above medicines, or immediately after, two scruples of ipecacuanha-powder, and to hasten its operation by titillating the throat with a feather.

380

USEFUL FAMILY RECEIPTS.

Oil and milk may likewise be given.

It neither liver of sulphur nor salt of wormwood can be readily procured, ten grains of potash, or half a table-spoonful of soap-lees, may be given in a little water, or a strong solution of soap in water.

The white ot eggs, mixed with water and sugar, is an antidote against corrosive sublimate.

When mineral poisons, technically called oxide, whether of copper or arsenic, are taken inwardly, one table-spoonful of powdered charcoal mixed either with honey, butter, or treacle, taken immediately, is a complete antidote. Within two hours administer either an emetic or cathartic.

When any of the preparations of opium, henbane, nightshade, hemlock, tobacco, foxglove, or stramonium, or any poisonous fungus mistaken for mushrooms, or spirituous liquors in excess, or any other deleterious matters have been swallowed, exciting sickness without pain in the stomach, or producing giddiness, drowsiness, and sleep, - give instantly one table-spoonful of flour of mustard in water, and repeat it in copious draughts of warm water constantly, until vomiting takes place. If the person becomes so insensible as not to be easily roused, give the mustard in vinegar instead of water, and rub the body actively and incessantly.

When oil of vitriol, spirits of salts, or aquafortis, have been swallowed, or spilt upon the skin, immediately drink, or wash the part with large quantities of water, and as soon as they can be procured, add soap, potash, or chalk, to the water.

11G7. For the Prevention of Infection from Typhus Fever.

Dr. J. C. Smith obtained five thousand pounds from Parliament, for the following recipe: - Take six drachms of powdered nitre, and six drachms ol oil of vitriol; mix them in a teacup, by adding one

USEFUL FAMILY RECEIPTS.

3S1

drachm of the oil at a time. The cup to be placed during the preparation on a hot hearth or plate of heated iron, and the mixture stirred with a tobaccopipe. The cup to be placed in different parts of the sick-room.

11GS. Fumigating Powder.

Take of cascarilla bark reduced to a coarse powder, chamomile flowers and aniseed, equal parts; put some hot cinders on a shovel, sprinkle two ounces of this powder gradually on it, and fumigate the sickrooms. It takes off all smell, and keeps off infection.

Hot vinegar sprinkled on the floor of a sick room, or corks laid on hot cinders in a shovel and carried about the room frequently, will be found useful.

1169. Cautions in visiting Sick-Rooms.

Never enter a sick-room in a state of perspiration (to remain for any time), for when the body becomes cold, it is in a state likely to absorb the infection. Nor visit a sick person (if the complaint be of a contagious nature) with an empty stomach. In attending a sick person, do not stand betwixt the sick person and any fire that may be in the room, as the heat of the fire will draw the infectious vapour in that direction.

1170. Effectual cure for a Wen.

Boil any quantity of salt and water about five minutes, bathe the wen frequently while it is warm, also after it is become cold, ten or twelve times a day, always shaking the bottle well each time before it is applied. It will in some cases effect a cure in a few weeks; in others it will require several months.

Another . - Take a little quick lime reduced to a

382

USEFUL FAMILY RECEIPTS.

very fine powder, mix it with soft soap till like an ointment; spread a little on a bit of thin leather, and renew it every day, or every second, or third day, as occasion requires. If a plaster be inconvenient, the wen may be rubbed well with the ointment twice aday. This remedy has been very successful.

1171. A Cure for Corns.

Roast a decayed onion; when done, take out the soft pithy part, and apply it hot to the corns, after being well pared; then lay over it a diachylon plaster, spread on thin leather, with a very small hole cut in the centre: by repeating this three or four successive nights, the corns will be removed.

A clove of garlick, prepared and applied in the same manner, has also been tried with complete success.

Another. - After bathing the feet in warm water at bed-time, till the corn becomes softened, pare it down with a knife, but not to make it bleed; then wet the surface with saliva, and rub it over with the lunar caustic, extending it round the edges of the corn, continuing it till such a quantity adheres to it, as will shortly change it to a dark grey, and eventually black. There is no danger to be apprehended in applying too much, especially on the corn itself: a little lint or cotton wool should then be applied, to prevent the part coming in contact with the stocking. In five or six days, the part acted upon by the caustic will peel oil', including every vestige of the corn, leaving the part quite smooth and natural.

Another easy remedy is, to bathe the feet, halt an hour, two or three successive nights, in a pretty strong solution oi soda. The alkali dissolves the cuticle, and the corn falls out spontaneously, leaving a small cavity, which soon fills up.

USEFUL FAMILY RECEIPTS*

383

1172. Remedy for Warts.

Cut the stem of a celandine, and rub the warts frequently with the yellow liquid which issues from it; or rub them with the juice of onions; but there is nothing more sale or certain than spirit of turpentine, applied twice a-day, with the point of a very small stick. If the warts be very sore, apply the roots of common rushes bruised, as a poultice; or bruised purslain, changing the poultice twice a-day.

The tincture of muriated iron, or moistened lunar caustic, applied every day, is a useful remedy.

1173. For swallowing Pins.

It is strongly recommended to those who have unfortunately swallowed a pin, to take four grains of tartar emetic, dissolved in warm water, and immediately afterwards to drink the whites of six eggs. The coagulated mass will not remain in the stomach more than a few minutes, and the remedy has been known to remove twenty-four pins at once.

1174. Remedy for frequent Vomitings

Boil the parings of apples in milk till it curdles, then strain and drink it warm.

1175. To prevent Sea-sickness.

Do not go on board immediately after eating; and when on board eat moderately at each meal, take strong exercise, with as little intermission as possible; keep much on deck, and do not watch the motion of the waves.

It will be found of great service to take the elixir of vitriol, dropped on lump-sugar, or in peppermintwater. lire fumes of vinegar may be inhaled with great benefit.

384

USEFUL FAMILY RECEIPTS.

Never drink common water on board, but lemonade, soda-water, &c.

A small bag of saffron worn at the stomach, it is said, will prevent sea-sickness.

In case of sickness and vomiting, a small teaspoonful of sulphuric ether may be taken now and then, in a little water, and apply some of it to the temples and nostrils. Soda-water, chamomile, or ginger-tea, may be taken in the intervals of vomiting, acquiring the habit of walking and standing upright as much as possible. The ancient remedy for sea-sickness, after the stomach had been cleared by vomiting, was acid fruits; also bread and vegetables soaked in vinegar.

If symptoms of vomiting appear, they may frequently be remedied by lying down on the back, and keeping perfectly still.

1176. An excellent Remedy for Rheumatism.

Take of soap liniment, two ounces; oil of olibanum and oil of turpentine, of each a drachm and a half; mix all together, and rub well the part affected. Or, apply a solution of camphor in spirit of turpentine.

1177. For Rheumatwn.

The following is the famous American receipt for the cure of rheumatism, and in some cases even a contraction of the joints: - Take of garlick two cloves, of gum ammoniac one drachm, bruise them well together, in a mortar, make the mixture into three pills with liquorice-powder, and take one of them night and morning; and drink, while taking these boluses, very strong sassafras tea.

Another . - Take the coarsest brown paper cut in suitable pieces for folding on the head, face, feet, or

USEFUL FAMILY RECEIPTS.

383

any other part affected with rheumatism; make the paper quite hot either before the fire or in the oven, then bind it on the affected part with several folds of warm flannel when going to bed. This very simple remedy has seldom failed to give relief.

Another. - Take flour of sulphur four ounces, mix it well in a pint and a half of milk; take a teacupful three mornings, then omit it for three days: repeat this course for several weeks.

Another . - Take flour of sulphur, Turkey rhubarb, guaiacum (gum resin), and nitre, of each half an ounce; pound all together very fine, and take one tea-spoonful, in a little treacle or honey, at bed-time.

1178. Dr. Johnsori’s Recipe for Rheumatism.

Take flour of sulphur, and flour of mustard, of each half an ounce; honey, or treacle, sufficient to make an electuary; take the size of a nutmeg three times a-day, drinking, after each dose, half a pint of the decoction of lovasfe-root.

O

Another . - Dissolve two ounces of saltpetre in three gills of spring-water, and rub the part affected about half an hour every night before the fire. Or, simmer four ounces of saltpetre, pounded fine, in a quart of vinegar till the nitre is dissolved: when cold, bottle it and use it as above.

1179. Liniment for Rheumatism.

Beat two ounces of camphor with four ounces of olive oil, till the camphor is perfectly dissolved. Rub well with it, and apply a little on a piece of new flannel, then bandage with warm flannel.

1 180. For Pain in the Feet and Ancles.

Wear diachylon plasters, spread on thin leather, to the soles of the feet.

3S6

USEFUL FAMILY RECEIPTS.

] 181. For a continued Pain in the Stomach, when attended with a Sensation of Sinking and Coldness.

Bruise half an ounce of cloves, and pour upon them a pint of boiling water; let them infuse several hours, then strain, and drink a tea-cupful warm three times a-day: when the pain is removed, a smaller dose may be taken twice a-day, for several days.

If the patient be in a state of permanent languor and debility, an ounce and a half of cascarilla bark (bruised) should be infused with the cloves. It is considered an excellent strengthener of the stomach and bowels.

1182. To prevent Cramp.

Tie a bandage of flannel list, about an inch and a half or two inches in breadth, just below the knees, every night when going to bed. This has been repeatedly tried, with very good effect.

Rubbing the part affected very well with a fleshbrush, or with flannel, or holding a roll of brimstone in the hand, has often a good effect in relieving the cramp.

1183. For the Sting of Wasps, Bees, and Gnats.

Apply olive-oil immediately, or cut an onion in two round the middle, put some salt on it, and apply it: common salt alone, moistened with a little water, will give immediate relief.

Prussian blue, dissolved in soft water, is an excellent remedy for the stings of insects.

Powdered chalk, or whitening, mixed with a little water to the consistency of paste, is also an useful application; or a little honey.

Another . - Place the pipe of a key upon the part

USEFUL FAMILY RECEIPTS.

387

affected, press it gently for a short time, and it will give immediate relief.

11S4. On Sto alio wins; a Wasp.

Instantly put into the mouth a tea-spoonful of common salt; it will immediately not only destroy the wasp, but it will heal the sting.

1185. Decoction of Marsh-mallow.

Take four ounces of marsh-mallow roots, bruised, four ounces of Muscadel raisins, stoned, and seven pints of water, boil down to five pints; strain the decoction, and when settled, pour off the clear liquor. The mucilage in marsh-mallow roots is very abundant; this decoction is therefore to be considered merely as an emollient. It is to be observed, that this decoction must not be made too thick and viscid, by too long boiling or infusion, for then it becomes nauseous and disagreeable; of course it will not be taken in sufficient quantity.

A simple decoction of the mallow only is highly useful as an injection for excoriation of the bowels, &c. It is an invaluable remedy for dysentery, either in skim-milk, or water.

1186. Wild Mallow.

This weed is perhaps amongst the most valuable of plants that ever grew. Its leaves stewed, and applied wet, will almost instantly cure any cut or bruise, or wound of any sort. Poultices made of it will cure sprains, such as those of the ancle; fomenting with it will remove swellings; and its operation in all cases is very quick. A good handful ought to be well boiled and stewed in a pint of water till reduced to about half a pint.

The mallow may be used directly after it is gathered, merely first washing off the dirt. It should

2 l 2

3S8

USEFUL FAMILY RECEIPTS.

be gathered like other herbs, just before it comes out in bloom, and dried and preserved just in the same manner as other herbs.

The root is pretty nearly as efficacious as the branches; and may be dried and preserved in the same manner.

1187. Tar Water.

To one gallon of cold spring water take two pounds of thin Norway tar; stir it five minutes, and let it stand covered close two days, then draw the water off into glass bottles, and cork them tight.

A well glazed broad flat-bottomed earthen vessel with a tap-hole an inch from the bottom inside should be used, also a wooden tap and stirrer. •

Half or one-third of a pint to be taken fasting, or two hours after meals, first adding as much boiling water as will make it lukewarm.

1188. Lime Water.

Take of lime recently burnt one pound, sprinkle a pint of boiling water upon it, closing the vessel while the lime warms and falls to powder; then pour upon it three gallons of cold water, and close the vessel, stirring it frequently for twenty-four hours; when clear, filter it, and keep it in bottles well corked. A dose is usually from two to four ounces; it is frequently taken in lukewarm milk.

It is chiefly recommended in cutaneous disorders, as scrofula and scurvy.

1189. For Jiifammalion of the Eyes, or removal of Film.

Boil an egg hard, and divide it in the middle, take out the yolk very clean, and while the egg is hot, fill the cavity with very clear honey, and after put-

USEFUL FAMILY RECEIPTS. 389

muslin, and let the honey filter through it into a clean vessel, being careful to exclude dust, &c.

The honey, thus clarified, should be dropped into the eye three or four times a-day, till the disorder bo removed.

1190. For Inflammation in the Eyes.

Beat the white of a new-laid egg to a froth, with a little rose-water, lay it between fine thin linen, and apply it to the eye, changing it frequently.

Another, when caused by lime, fyc . - Beat up a little oatmeal with sour buttermilk; apply it as a poultice in a little muslin, as occasion requires.

1191. For a Bloodshot Eye.

Boil some hyssop, and apply it as a poultice. - For a bruise on the eye, apply a decayed apple; or conserve of roses.

1192. For Wealc and Weeping Eyes.

Make a strong decoction of chamomile boiled in milk; with this let the patient's eyes be bathed several times a-day, as warm as can be suffered without uneasiness. Persons almost blind have been cured by persevering in the use of this prescription. It is proper, however, to observe, that frequently five or six weeks’ bathing is necessary.

1193. Excellent Eye-Water.

Take ten grains of white copperas and half a pint of spring water, shake the bottle well till the copperas is dissolved; when it has stood a day or two, clear it oil into another bottle for use, keeping it well corked. Bathe the eyes when inflamed, with soft linen rag, night and morning.,

2 l 3

390 USEFUL FAMILY RECEIPTS.

1194, Burns and Scalds.

In numerous cases of burns and scalds, the application of carded cotton has succeeded in effecting a cure in a few days. When the discharge exudes through the first layer, more cotton must be added to absorb it. In order that it may adhere to the injured part, the surface should be moistened with oil. The whole will peel off in a few days. When carded cotton is not at hand, apply oatmeal and cold soft water immediately, as a poultice; when it dries, wet the meal again, and do not suffer it to become hard. In bad cases, keep the poultice on two or three days, occasionally moistening it with a little water.

1195. Burns and Scalds.

When a burn or scald is trifling, and occasions no blister, it is sufficient to put a compress of several folds of soft linen upon it, dipped in cold water, and to renew it every quarter of an hour till the pain is entirely removed.

Spirit of turpentine is an excellent thing for extracting the fire, if it be applied immediately; also lime-water, and linseed or olive oil, of each four ounces, mixed well together, renewing the application frequently.

This liniment is extremely useful, if applied in time, in preventing the inflammation subsequent to scalds and burns, or even in removing it after it has taken place.

1196. Poultice for Burns and Scalds.

Take an equal weight of brown sugar and onions sliced, beat them well together in a mortar to a pulp, and lay it on the part affected. Renew the poultice daily.

391

USEFUL FAMILY RECEIPTS.

1197. Elder Ointment, for Burns and Scalds.

Mix a large handful of elder-buds very well with two pounds of palm-oil, let it stand two days, then simmer it on the fire and strain it. When applied to a burn or scald, spread it on soft linen cloth, and renew it twice a-day.

1 198. Salve for Burns and Scalds.

Melt four ounces of white wax, add to it two ounces of olive-oil, simmer them together in a very gentle heat a few minutes; stir the salve till nearly cold, spread it on thin linen.

1199. Turner’s Cerate for Burns and Scalds.

Take six ounces of fresh grass butter and six ounces of white wax, olive-oil half a pint; melt the wax and butter with the oil, then stir in one ounce and a half of lapis calaminaris finely powdered, till it be well mixed and the powder will not settle. Apply it once a-day spread on fine linen cloth. This is also an excellent application for chilblains.

1200. An excellent Embrocation for Sprains, Swellings, Bruises, Rheumatisms, Sfc.

Three ounces of rectified spirit of wine, two ounces of spirit ol sal-ammoniac, one ounce and a half of oil of turpentine, one ounce and a half of olive-oil, and one ounce of opodeldoc.

1201 . Jh hilworth Red Ritbbhig Bottle.

Take spirit of lavender one ounce

tincture of myrrh half an ounce

oil of thyme half a drachm.

Mix.

1202. Spermaceti Ointment.

Take half a pint of fine olive-oil, half an ounce of

392

USEFUL FAMILY RECEIPTS.

white wax, and an ounce of spermaceti; melt the whole over a gentle fire, and keep it stirring till the ointment is cold.

1203. Parsley Ointment.

Take one spoonful of fresh butter, without salt, and some chopped parsley, mix them together, and let them stand two or three days, then simmer it over a slow fire, and when it is quite melted, strain it through a cloth, into small pots, and keep it in a cool place.

1204. Embrocation for Quinsey or Sore Throat.

Two ounces of spirit of lavender,

One ounce of opodeldoc,

One ounce of oil of turpentine,

Half an ounce of oil of thyme.

1205. Drawing Salve.

Take one pound of pitch, half a pound of rosin, and two ounces of fresh butter; set them over a slow fire in an earthen pot to melt, but neither let it boil, nor even simmer, stirring it constantly till all be melted; then take it off, and stir it till quite cold.

1206. To draw out Thorns and Splinters.

Apply nettle-roots bruised and salted, or a plaster of cobbler’s wax, or turpentine, spread on leather, and a poultice over it.

The leaves, or roots, of the mallow, bruised with a little powdered nitre, are also highly useful for the above purpose.

1207. Ague Plaster.

Take olibanum, mastic, and bole Armenian, of each a quarter of an ounce, mix them with two ounces of

393

USEFUL FAMILY RECEIPTS.

the best Venice turpentine. Tie a piece of leather over the pot, to keep it.

When you use it, spread it on a slip of leather about two inches in breadth, aud put it round the wrists. This simple remedy seldom iails to eftect a cure in a short time.

1 208. Excellent Salve and strengthening Plaster.

Take of common pitch, one pound,

Diachylon, three quarters of an ounce, Burgundy pitch, one ounce,

Bees’ wax, half an ounce,

Venice turpentine, one ounce,

Rosin, one ounce,

Basilicon, half an ounce.

1209. Excellent Salve.

Boil very gently half a pint of linseed oil and two ounces of red lead finely powdered; when it has simmered slowly about half an hour, try it on a bit of slate if it will harden, if not, simmer longer; when done enough, add to it an ounce of palm-oil, or more, if wanted rather soft; let it remain till only just warm, then make it into rolls, or, if soft, put it in small pots while hot.

1210. Tacamahaca Tincture, for fresh Wounds, Bruises, and Swellings.

Take spirit of wine, oil of turpentine, spirit of salammoniac, and opodeldoc, four ounces of each. Take a large handful of tacamahaca buds, before the leaves open, bruise them well and put them in ajar with the spirit of wine, &c.; cover it and set it in rather a warm place two or three days, then strain it, and keep it well corked. This is an excellent application.

394 USEFUL FAMILY RECEIPTS.

1211. For recent Cuts or Wounds.

Moisten a piece of lint with a saturated solution of copal gum in ether, moisten the lint with it once or twice a-day, without removing it. If the wound be a cut, care should be taken to close the edges together, before the lint is applied.

1212. For a Sprain.

Take a pint of alegar, half an ounce of saltpetre) and an ounce of spirit of turpentine; stir them together until the nitre is dissolved; then warm it a little, and rub well the part affected twice or thrice a-day, keeping it warm with flannel folded round it.

1213. Plaster for a Sprain.

Mix a little Venice turpentine with flour and the yolk of an egg; spread it on leather.

1214. To warm Beds.

When you put the hot cinders in the pan, take out all the black or blazing coals, if any, and throw in a small handful of salt; this will in some degree prevent the smell of sulphur, which is so disagreeable and offensive.

The following method is more cleanly, and is decidedly a better way. Fill a few stone bottles with boiling water (tying down the corks); put them in the bed half an hour or more before going to bed, and let them remain till you are ready to get into bed. A piece of iron chain heated and put into the pan is perhaps still better.

A large stone bottle that will hold five or six quarts, filled with boiling water, and wrapped up in the bed-clothes, will keep warm, at least two days, in cold weather; of course, it is an easy way of airing beds which arc not in regular use.

USEFUL FAMILY RECEIPTS.

395

1215. Indelible Marking In I.

Take one hundred grains of lunar caustic, one drachm of powdered gum-arabic, and one scruple of sap-green, mix the whole in a phial with an ounce and a half of rain-water- the linen to be. wet with the following mixture, and dried before it is marked.

Preparation liquid . - Dissolve one ounce of salsoda, and one drachm of powdered gum-arabic, in four ounces of rain-water. After marking, leave it in the sun and air to dry.

1216. To make Starch.

Mix the starch with very little cold water, till quite smooth, then add a little more; have the water ready on the fire, and when hot, before it boils, pour it on the starch, stirring it well; let it stand a minute to settle, then clear it off into the pan, leaving the rough or sandy particles at the bottom; set it on the fire, and stir it till it has boiled a little, adding a pinch of salt, and a bit of white wax, aboutUhe size of a small hazel-nut to a pint of starch. If properly made in this way, the starch will not stick in ironing.

1217. Salt of Lemon.

To one ounce of cream of tartar, take half an ounce of salt of sorrel, pound it together, and keep it in a bottle well corked. This mixture answers every purpose of the salt of lemon, and is to be used in the same way.

1218. To take out Iron Moulds.

Wet the stains with water, then lay the linen on a plate placed over a basin of boiling water, or on a water-plate, and put on it a little salt of lemon; as it dries, wet it again with a little cold water: as the spots are removed, the linen should be immediately

896

USEFUL FAMILY RECEIPT!?.

washed with plenty of clean water, to prevent any injury from the acid.

Another . - Lay the cloth on the lid of a tin saucepan, filled with boiling water, and rub the spots with the juice of sorrel and salt, and when the cloth has thoroughly imbibed the juice, wash it with ley of fern or wood-ashes.

1219. Scouring Drops to take Grease, Sfc. from Silk.

One ounce of spirit of turpentine, mixed with two drachms of essence of lemon. Grease and other spots in silks, to be rubbed carefully with a bit of linen rag dipped in the above composition.

Another . - Rub the silk with a bit of flannel dipped in ether, with flannel underneath, then rub it with clean cap-paper.

Another . - Scrape a little pipe clay, or French chalk, on a piece of clean white cap-paper, lay the silk upon it, then sprinkle a little more of the powder over the silk, lay on another jiiece of paper, then iron it with an iron moderately heated.

1220. To take Grease Spots from JVoollen Cloth.

Take magnesia in the lump, wet it with a little water,

and rub the grease spots well; when quite dry,

brush it off, when no stain nor appearance of grease

will be left.

*

1221. To remove Ink Spots from Linen, %c.

As soon as the accident happens, wet the place with juice of sorrel, lemon, or vinegar, then rub it with the best hard white soap.

1222. To lake out Paint from Linen.

Rub the place well with soap, and put it into hot soft

USEFUL FAMILY RECEIPTS.

397

water. Or - Dip a pen in spirit of turpentine, and apply it to the paint spots before it becomes dry; or, if large, use a small sponge; let it remain a few hours, then rub it off with clean cap-paper.

1223. To take out Mildew.

Mix soft soap with powdered starch, half as much salt, and the juice of a lemon; lay it on the linen on both sides with a painter’s brush. Let it lie on the grass, and as it dries wet it again till the stain comes out.

Or - Rub the linen well with soap; then rub on it some powdered chalk; lay it on the grass, and as it dries wet it a little. It usually removes the mildew with twice doing.

1224. To take Stains out of Linen.

Wet it, and rub the stains very well with soap on both sides; then lay on as much starch mixed thick with cold water as you can put on, and lay it on the grass; if not complete the first time, repeat it in two or three days, and should the weather be very hot or dry, sprinkle the part with water.

1225. To take out Fruit, or Acid Stains.

Wet the linen, and lay on it some salt of tartar; then rub it without adding more water.

Or - wet the spots without dipping, put two or three bits of common matches lighted into a small jar, and instantly hold the stained part over it.

1226. Another way.

Tie up in the stained part a little pot-ash, then scrape some soap into cold soft water to make a lather; boil the linen till the stain disappears.

Or - pour boiling milk on the stained linen, and let it lie five or six hours; then lay it in the air till

398

USEFUL FAMILY RECEIPTS.

the stain comes out. Many stains may be removed by dipping the linen in sour buttermilk, and drying it in the sun. It should be wet as often as it dries, till the stains disappear.

1227. To remove Greasespots from printed Books.

Moisten the grease-spots with a camel-hair pencil dipped in rectified spirit of turpentine; when dry, moisten it with a little spirit of wine, and it will remove any stain the turpentine may have left.

1228. To clean OilCloths.

Sweep off the dust; then wipe the oil-cloth with a clean flannel; wet it over with milk, and rub with a dry cloth, or brush it till bright. This method is preferable to cleaning them with wax.

It very dirty they should be cleaned with soap and brush, and when dry, brushed bright.

1229. To clean Paint.

Brush and wipe off all the dust quite clean; then scour the paint with soft water, with a little soda in it, using a little powdered whiting, and mottled or white soap; then wash it with a sponge and clean soft water with a little soda in it; then, immediately wipe it with linen cloths till quite dry.

Another . - Take half a pound of the best soft soap, half a pound of whitening, and a pint of soft water, mix well over the fire, stirring it till quite smooth, let it boil a minute or two, and put it in a jar for use. It is to be used in the same way as soap.

If not very dirty, using a sponge only is preferable to a brush, as it does not take off so much of the paint.

USEFUL FAMILY RECEIPTS.

399

Sponge is well suited for nearly all domestic purposes of cleaning.

1230. To preserve the colour of Black printed Muslins or Calicoes in Washing.

Dissolve a little sugar of lead in the water the prints are to be rinsed in.

1231. To make Flannels keeg their colour, and not shrink.

Take off all the coloured edge, then pour boiling water upon the flannel, and let it stand till cold before you wash it. It will seldom shrink much afterwards.

After the first time of washing, flannels preserve their colour better if washed in merely cold water.

1232. To deem Carpets.

Take up the carpet, and let it be well beaten, then laid down, and brushed on both sides with a clothes brush; turn it the right side upwards, and scour it with gall, soap, and water, very clean; then wash it well with clean water and a sponge; and lastly, with clean water with a table-spoonful of oil of vitriol in it, and dry it well with linen cloths; then lay it on the grass, or hang it up to dry.

1233. To revive Old Writings, which are much defaced.

Boil gall-nuts in wine, then dip a sponge into the liquor, and pass it on the lines of the old writing: by this method the letters, which were almost undecipherable, will appear as fresh as if newly written.

1234. To prevent Ink from turning Mouldy.

Put a bit of salt, the size of a hazel nut, to each quart of ink.

2 M 2

400

USEFUL FAMILY RECEIPTS.

1235. To extract Oil from Boards or Slone.'

Make a strong ley of potash and soft water, and add as much unslaked lime as it will take; stir it together, and then let it settle a few minutes; bottle it, and stop it close; have ready some water to lower it as used, and scour the part with it. If the liquor should lie long on the boards, it will take out the colour; therefore do it with care and expedition.

1236. To clea?i Cast-Iron Stoves and Grate.

Boil a quarter of a pound of the best black lead, with a pint of small beer, and a bit of soap the size of a walnut; when that is melted, dip a painter’s brush in the mixture, and wet the grate, having first brushed off all the soot and dust; then take a hard brush, and brush it till bright.

1237. To take Rust out of Steel.

Cover and rub the steel with sweet oil, and in fortyeight hours use unslaked lime finely powdered, and rub with a spongy piece of wood until the rust disappears.

1238. To take the Black off the bright Bars of polished Stoves in a feio minutes.

Bub them well with some of the following mixture on a bit of woollen cloth; when the dirt is removed, wipe them clean, and polish with glass, not sand paper.

The Mixture . - Boil slowly one pound of soft soap in two quarts of water to one. Of this jelly take three or four spoonsful, and mix to the consistence of paste, with emery.

1239. To take Iron Stains out of Marble.

Mix an equal quantity of t fresh spirit of vitriol and

USEFUL FAMILY RECEIPTS.

401

lemon-juice in a bottle; shake it well and wet the spots, and in a few minutes rub with soft linen till they disappear.

1240. To clean Mahogany Furniture.

Take a little alkanet-root dried and powdered, steep it in spirit of turpentine twenty-four hours, then strain it, mix it with one pint of cool-drawn linseed oil in an earthen pot, adding a bit of alum the size of a nutmeg; let the mixture stand all night in a warm place: rub the furniture over with it, and let it remain one hour; then rub it well off with a linen cloth.

Before the mixture is applied, the furniture should be well washed with vinegar.

1241. Another way.

Take a quarter of an ounce of the finest white soap, grate it small, and put in a new glazed earthen vessel with a pint of water; hold it over the fire till the soap is dissolved; then add the same quantity of bleached wax cut into small pieces, and two ounces of common wax; when the whole is incorporated, it is fit for use. Dip a bit of flannel in the varnish while warm, and rub it on the furniture; let it stand a quarter of an hour, then apply the furniture brush; polish with clean flannel, and lastly with linen.

Raw linseed oil laid on the furniture, and suffered to remain twelve hours, (the first time of using it), then rubbed off with woollen cloth, and lastly with linen, will give a beautiful polish to mahogany, if repeated frequently.

1242. Furniture Oil.

Three gills of cool-drawn linseed oil, one gill of vinegar, and one ounce of muriatic acid.

2 hi 3 ^

402

USEFUL FAMILY RECEIPTS.

1243. [To remove Stains and InkSpots from Mahogany.

To two ounces of oil of vitriol, mix one ounce of muriatic acid, or spirit of salts; mix by shaking them in phials; lay a little on carefully with a feather, or woollen rag; let it remain hut a short time, touch it with oil, then rub it clean off, with a linen cloth or a cork.

Spirit of salts alone is frequently used; some prefer diluting half a tea-spoonful with a table-spoonful of water.

1244. French Polish for Furniture.

To one pint of spirit of wine, take one ounce of shelllac, and half an ounce of sandarac. For colouring red, a quarter of an ounce of dragon’s blood should be added; for yellow, the same quantity of saffron.

Let the gum be well pounded in a mortar, then put into a bottle with the spirit of wine, placed in the air of the fire, shaking it occasionally; when the gum is dissolved, it is fit for use. Make a ball of woollen cloth, or flannel, so that you can hold it conveniently in your hand, shake up the contents of the bottle, and put a little upon the ball, then touch the ball with linseed oil, with your finger, cover the ball with a clean linen rag, then apply it to the furniture, and it will produce a beautiful polish.

1245. Polishing Paste for Brass, tyc.

To a pint of soft water, take a quarter of a pound of white soap, sliced very thin; when dissolved, add half a pound of rotten-stone, pounded quite fine; let it boil three minutes, then add an ounce of spirit of hartshorn or turpentine, mix it well in, but do not boil it afterwards; put it into small jars or cups for use.

USEFUL FAMILY RECEIPTS.

403

Wet a bit of sponge or woollen cloth, and rub it on the paste, rub the brass with it, then rub it off with cloth and polish with wash-leather, in the usual way.

Another . - Boil a quarter of a pound of soft soap in half a pint of soft water, then add one pound of powdered rotten-stone, and lastly one table-spoonful of furniture oil.

1246. Plate Powder.

Two ounces of plate rouge powder, two ounces of quicksilver, killed in chalk, and two ounces of Spanish white. When to be used, take as much quicksilver as Spanish white, with a small portion of the rouge-powder, mix with spirits of wine, and polish with the rouge.

1247. Camphor Soap.

Dissolve three-quarters of an ounce of camphor in a quarter of a pint of spirit of wine, put it in a jar with a pound of white soap shaved fine and a little soft water to prevent it from burning; set the jar in a pan of cold water on the fire, and keep stirring the mixture till well incorporated and restored to a smooth pulp.

Make it into balls while warm.

1248. Cold Cream for chapped Hands, or to he used as a Lip-salve: or, for Sore Nipples.

Put one ounce and a half of oil of sweet almonds, half an ounce of spermaceti, and two drachms of white wax, into a small jar, set it in a small pan on the fire when the wax and spermaceti are dissolved, take the jar off the fire, and add gradually two teaspoonsful of rose-water, stirring it till cold, and the ingredients well incorporated.

404

USEFUL FAMILY RECEIPTS.

1249. Paste for chapped Hands, and which will preserve them smooth, by constant use.

Mix a quarter of a pint of olive-oil with the yolks of two new-laid eggs, a table-spoonful of rose-water, and the same quantity of honey; add as much fine oatmeal, or almond-paste, as will form it into a paste. Honey alone is an excellent thing either for the lips or hands. Spermaceti ointment is also very good.

1250. Bottle Cement.

Melt any quantity of rosin, with a fourth part of bees wax, and a fourth of brick-dust, mix them well in a pipkin on the fire, dip the cork and the top of the bottle into it, turning it round that it may completely cover the cork.

1251. To Cejnent China, fyc.

Beat quick-lime to an impalpable powder, sift it through fine muslin, tie some in thin muslin, wet the edges of the china with beaten white of egg, then instantly dust on some lime, and join them together.

Chinese Method of Mending China . - Boil a piece of white flint glass in river water, for five or six minutes, beat it to a fine powdei, and grind it well with the white of an egg, and it will join china without rivetting, so that no art can break it again in the same place. - Observe, the composition must be ground extremely fine, on a painter’s slab.

Glue . - For a fine, clear, and transparent kind, which will even unite glass so as to render the fracture almost imperceptible, nothing is equal to isinglass simmered in spirits of wine, or common gin.

USEFUL FAMILY RECEIPTS.

405

1252. Rice Glue.

An elegant cement may be made from rice flour, which is at present used in China and Japan. Mix the rice-flour intimately with cold water, simmer, it gently over a slow fire, stirring it constantly; it readily forms a delicate and durable cement, and not only answers all the purposes of common paste, but is admirably adapted for joining paper card, &c. in forming a variety of ornaments. When made of the consistence of plastic clay, models, &c. may be formed, and the articles when dry are susceptible of a high polish, and are very durable.

1253. To make strong Paste for payer, fyc.

Mix fine flour with cold water, then boil it till it is of a glutinous consistence; this makes common paste. When wanted stronger, mix a fourth or sixth part of the weight of flour of powdered alum; when it is required stronger, add a little powdered rosin.

Another . - Boil three-quarters of an ounce of the best gum arabic in a pint of water with fine flour, to the thickness of honey.

1254. Paste that will not turn mouldy.

Make the paste with flour in the usual way, but rather thick, with a little brown sugar, and a small quantity of corrosive sublimate. The use of the sugar is to keep it flexible; and the sublimate, besides preserving it from insects, is an effectual check against fermentation. Add a drop or two of essential oil of lavender, peppermint, bergamot, or any other, which is a complete security against mouldiness. Paste made in this manner, and exposed to the air, dries without change, to a state resembling horn, so that it may at any time be moistened again and applied to

406 USEFUL FAMILY RECEIPTS.

use. When kept in a close covered jar, it may be preserved in a state for use at all times.

1255. To Purify Water.

A large table-spoonful of pulverized alum, dissolved in a pint of water, and then put into a hogshead of water, (stirring it at the time,) will in twenty-four hours so purify it, that it will be nearly as clear and fresh as spring water. It may then be cleared off.

To soften water for washing; a few ounces of soda will be found superior to any kind of pearl or potash. Water, in which a small quantity of soda has been dissolved, gives to glasses, decanters, plate, &c. a fine lustre.

When water has what is called a brackish taste, a liltle sulphuric acid should be put in; if putrid, powdered charcoal renders it comparatively pure.

1256. To clean Decanters.

Dissolve a little soda in soft hot water, when of a proper heat, about half fill the decanters, adding some slips of brown paper, and egg-shells; shake the bottles well till quite clean; then rinse them in clean soft water, with a little soda in it.

Fuller's earth, finely powdered, also answers very well for the same purpose.

1257. To clean Bottles infested with bad smells.

Put into the bottles some pieces of coarse brown paper, fill them with water, shake the bottles exceedingly well, and leave them in that state a day or two: when finding them more or less affected, repeat the process, and afterwards rinse them with clean water, using a bottle-brush.

125S. To clean Water Casks.

Scour the inside well with plenty of sand and

USEFUL FAMILY RECEIPTS.

40?

water, afterwards with charcoal, coarsely powdered, and water; then rinse then with a pretty strong solution of oil of vitriol and water; this will entirely deprive them of their foulness.

1259. White Wash.

Two pounds of chloride of lime made into a paste with water, and all the lumps well broken, add two pounds of slaked Baxton lime or whitening in a smooth paste; the whole may then be converted into a proper state to lay on the walls with water.

1260. To malce Blacking.

Take half a pound of ivory black, a quarter of a pound of treacle, one ounce of sweet oil, a quarter of an ounce of oil of vitriol, half an ounce of copperas, half an ounce of powdered gum arabic, and one quart of vinegar; mix the ivory-black, treacle, gum, and oil together first, then about half of the vinegar, then the remainder of the vinegar, and lastly the copperas.

Another . - Take eight ounces of ivory-black, three ounces of treacle, three ounces of coarse sugar, a table-spoonful of sweet oil, a quarter of an ounce of oil of vitriol, mix all well together with three pints of vinegar.

Another . - Take ivory black and treacle, of each twelve ounces, spermaceti oil four ounces, vinegar two quarts.

Another . - Take ivory black and moist sugar, of each a quarter of a pound; a table-spoonful of flour; the same of oil; and a tea-spoonful of powdered gum arabic: make a paste of the flour, and while hot put in the oil, then the sugar; afterwards mix the whole well together in a quart of water, and you will have an excellent blacking'.

Another .- Take ivory black and brown sugar-

40S

USEFUL FAMILY RECEIPTS.

candy, of each two ounces, a table-spoonful of sweet oil, and a pint of cold vinegar added gradually, till the whole be well incorporated.

Or, take ivory black and treacle, of each half a pound; powdered gum arabic and sweet oil, of each half an ounce; vinegar three pints; boil the vinegar, and pour it hot on the other ingredients.

1261. Black Beetles, or Cock-roaches.

An infallible remedy for exterminating black-beetles from dwelling-houses, is to strew the floors at night with the roots of the common hellebore which grows wild in this country in marshy places: they eat it with great avidity.

1262. To prevent rooms from being infested with Mice, Sfc.

Take some stalks with their leaves, either green or dry, of water -cresses, and lay them where the mice mostly come, and they will not approach it.

White hellebore steeped in milk, sprinkled in rooms, it is said will expel flies. - Or, a small quantity of powdered gum-arabic, a little honey, brown sugar, and roche alum, mixed together in a saucer.

Another. - Simmer half a pint of milk, two ounces of coarse sugar, and one ounce of ground black pepper, about ten minutes; place it about the rooms in saucers.

Wormwood placed about mattresses, beds, &c., will be found exceedingly useful in exterminating moths and fleas.

Camphor and spirit of turpentine is also used for the same purpose.

1263. To exterminate Bugs, $c. from Beds. The bedsteads ought to be taken down three or four

USEFUL FAMILY RECEIPTS.

409

times a year; a good manual cleaning given to all the parts, with soft soap, salt, and water, and the screws dipped in oil. This plan will render all poisonous mixtures unnecessary.

A strong decoction of fox-glove leaves, with a handful of salt in it, has been found useful; - also tobacco water.

APPENDIX.

1264. Gourd, or Vegetable Marrow Soup.

Let the gourds be full grown, but not those with hard skins; slice three or four and put them in a stew-pan with two or three onions sliced, and a good hit of butter; set them over a slow fire till quite tender, (be careful not to let them burn,) then add two ounces of crust of bread, and two quarts of boiling water, season with salt catsup and Cayenne pepper, boil ten or fifteen minutes, and pass it through a sieve; then make it quite hot and serve up with fried bread.

1265. Pace Soup.

Steep half a pound of Patna rice two hours, in a quart of water, then set it over a moderate fire, with a pinch of salt, till the rice is tender, then add two quarts of milk, and let it boil a few minutes; then serve it up in a tureen.

1266. Turnip Hash.

To two quarts of water take four or five moderatesized turnips, pared and cut in pieces as for a pie, a large onion chopped small with a little celery, let it boil an hour, then put in two middling-sized potatoes cut in pieces, with pepper and salt, boil it another hour, then thicken it with some butter and flour, stirring it till it boils; it is then ready to serve. It should be of the same consistence as soup.

APPENDIX.

411

1267. An improved way of making savoury Fritters.

Cut the crusts off some good light bread, then pour some boiling water upon and cover it close, when it has stood a while, drain the water well from it, if any remains, and mash the bread well, adding pepper and salt, sage and onion, parsley, leeks, beet, or any other herbs according to the taste; add well-beaten eggs just when you are ready to fry them. Serve them up in the usual way with brown gravy.

The fritters will be much lighter made in this way, and require fewer eggs.

1268. A savoury dish.

Five ounces of bread-crumbs, rub them through a colander, two ounces of sage minced fine, a large onion about one ounce and a half, minced fine, mix these together with an egg, some pepper and salt, and a bit of butter the size of a large egg. Bake and baste it with butter, serve it up with brown gravy.

1269* Puree of Green Pease.

Take three pints of large green pease fresh gathered, boil them with a handful of parsley, and green onions over a slow fire till they are thoroughly stewed, then put them in a bowl and pound them well, and rub them through a sieve; moisten this puree with a little cream and butter, but do not let it boil or the pease will lose their colour, but set on a corner of the stove: just at the time when you serve it up, put in square slices of bread nicely fried.

The same made very green.

Take pease, parsley, and green onions, as before, boil very quickly in salt and water, when tender drain, and pound them well, when you rub it through the sieve, moisten with a little of the water, season with salt and

2 n 2

412

APPENDIX.

sugar, add a little flour with some butter, let it be very hot but not boil, cut and fry the bread as before. When the pease are not very green, use a little boiled and pounded spinach.

1270. Fried Gourds ( Vegetable Marrow.')

Cut the gourds in quarters, pare them, take out the pulp, and stew them as for the table; when done, drain them quite dry, beat up one egg and dip the gourds in it, cover them well with bread crumbs, and fry them a nice light colour, throw a little salt and pepper over them, and serve them up quite dry.

The marrows cut in slices lengthwise, about a third of an inch [thick, seasoned and fried, without being boiled, are very excellent, and should be served up with brown gravy.

1271. Potato Snow.

The potatoes must be free from spots, and the whitest you can get; put them on in cold water with some salt in it, and let them simmer very slowly; when they begin to break, drain the water well from them, and dry them exceedingly well till they fall to pieces; rub them through a wire-sieve as quick as possible, on the dish they are to be sent up in, and do not disturb them afterwards.

1272. Stewed Vegetable Marrow.

Take off all the skin from the gourds, put them in a stew-pan, with water, salt, lemon-juice, and a bit of butter, set them over a slow fire till quite tender, serve them with Dutch sauce or any other that is sharp and pleasant.

1273. Dutch Sauce.

Put a tea-spoonful of flour and four table-spoonsful of vinegar into a saucepan, with three or four ounces

APPENDIX,

413

of butter, the yolks of four eggs and a little salt; when sufficiently thick work it well that you may refine it, if not curdled do not strain it, season it well, and it is ready.

1274. To fry Celery.

Boil the celery till tender, then divide the root in two, season it with pepper and salt, dip it in the batter used for frying vegetables, and fry it a nice brown. Serve it up with brown gravy in a boat. It is very good fried without the hatter.

1275. An excellent Sandwich.

Pound the yolks of hard-boiled eggs with some butter, and some good mellow cheese; season with Cayenne and salt.

1276. To preserve Mushrooms.

Take any quantity of button mushrooms, wipe them with flannel and salt, throwing them into water as they are cleaned, then wash them and put them in a clean brass or bkuck-tin pan with some salt; set them over a slow fire from ten to fifteen minutes, then pour them into a sieve to drain, and spread them on a cloth till cold, then put them in bottles with the cold liquor, cork them well, and either cement them or tie leather on.

A tea-spoonful of olive-oil put in each bottle, will be found useful in preserving the mushrooms, and when wanted for use, wind a bit of clean cotton round a small stick, dip it in the neck of the bottle, and the oil will be attracted.

1277. Mushroom Tea.

Wash any quantity of mushrooms according to the strength and quantity required, put them in a jug or teapot, with a blade of mace; pour boiling water

2 n 3

414

APPENDIX.

upon them, and set the jug on the hob two or three hours, and it will then be ready for use. This is a good substitute for beef tea.

1279. Common Pancakes.

Make a batter as for a pudding, melt a little butter in a frying-pan, then pour in as much batter as will make the pancake about the thickness of a penny-piece, turn it over before it is quite set, and put in a little more butter; when nicely browned turn it again, then almost immediately slip it out of the pan on a hot dish, laying each pancake upon the other till the whole are fried. To have them in perfection they should be eaten immediately after they are fried. They may be eaten with sugar, and a little lemon or orange-juice. A moderately brisk and clear fire is the best for frying.

1279. Orange Fritters.

Peel the oranges, and cut them in rather thin slices, taking out the seeds, then dip them in batter and fry them in butter till they are nicely browned; sift sugar over them and serve them up quite hot.

1280. Bakewell Pudding.

Take the yolks of four eggs and the whites of two well beaten, a quarter of a pound of butter melted, two ounces of almonds chopped or beaten fine, loafsugar to the taste, two good mealy potatoes boiled, well dried, and mashed fine. Cover a shallow dish with good puff paste, spread a thin layer of fruit jam, or marmalade, then pour in the mixture and bake it.

1281. Dr. Kitchener s Pudding.

Beat and strain three eggs, add gradually a quarter of a pint of milk, rub together in a mortar two ounces of moist sugar, and as much grated nutmeg as will lie

APPENDIX.

415

on a sixpence, stir it into the eggs and milk, add four ounces of flour, three ounces of bread crumbs, and five ounces of butter; mix well at least half an hour before it is put into the pan to boil, put it into an earthenware pudding-mould, tie a pudding-cloth over it very tight, put it into boiling-water, and boil it three hours. Half a pound of Muscatel raisins cut in two, and a little grated lemon-peel, added to the above, will make an excellent plum-pudding.

12S2. Green Pudding.

Take an equal quantity of eggs, butter, and powdered loaf-sugar, melt the butter and put it to the sugar, then beat the eggs and mix it well; bake it in puff paste. It should be served up immediately on being taken out of the oven.

12S3. Scotch Burgoo.

To a quart of coarse oatmeal, add gradually two quarts of water, so that the whole may mix smoothly; stir it continually on the fire till it has boiled a quarter of an hour; then pour it out, and stir in a little salt and butter, with or without pepper. This quantity will serve five or six persons for a moderate meal.

1284. Scotch Short-Bread.

Mix three ounces of good moist sugar with a pound of flour, take half a pound of butter, wash out the salt, and rub two ounces of it in the flour and sugar, melt the other six ounces, and mix up the j)aste with it; roll it out about half an inch thick, and mark it in squares; stick carraway comfits on the top, and bake it in a moderate oven. When cold, break it in the squares.

1285. To preserve Fruits for Tarts or Desserts. Cherries, apricots, plums of all sorts, and Siberian

416

APPENDIX.

crabs, gather when nearly ripe, lay them in small jars that will hold a pound, strew over them six ounces of loaf-sugar pounded, cover with two papers separately tied down, then set the jars in a large pan of water up to the neck, and simmer them very gently three-quarters of an hour. Currants and gooseberries may be done in the same way. Apricots should be pared very thin, and the stones thrust out with a skewer.

Put the jars in the water when cold. Fruit for desserts should be preserved with the stalks on. Let them remain in the water till cold, and keep them free from damp.

1286. Wine-sours.

Clean your wine-sours very well with a cloth, run them down the seam, and prick them well with a needle; allow to every pound of fruit three-quarters of a pound of loaf-sugar powdered, put a layer of plums and a layer of sugar till the jar be full; tie white paper over, and set them in a pan of water on the fire, and let them scald for half an hour; when cold, take the fruit out singly and boil the syrup, skim it, and pour it hot upon the fruit, repeat it four or five times; put them into small pots, grate sugar over, and cover them with tissue paper; then tie paper or leather on to keep out the air, or they will lose their colour, and become purple.

12S7. Siberian Crabs.

Take the crabs when quite ripe, prick them and put them in a jug, pour boiling water over them, and tie them up close till next day; pick out any that may be shrivelled, and to a pint of the water they were scalded with, put half a pound of lump-sugar; boil and skim it, then pour it upon the crabs; let them

flnvc

APPENDIX.

417

syrup, and add more sugar, boil it, and when cold, put in the crabs, and set them on a moderate fire to boil; they will require boiling two or three times till they look clear, and the syrup becomes thick.

1288. Cocoa Nut.

Grate some cocoa nut on a dish, sift fine powdered sugar over it, then another layer of grated nut, with sugar, till the dish is filled. This is a very nice dessert dish.

1289. Parkin.

To two pounds of oatmeal take one pound of flour, three-quarters of a pound of sugar, three-quarters of a pound of butter, melted in a pound and a half of treacle, roll the sugar to take out the hard lumps, mix it well with the meal and flour, adding an ounce and a half of allspice and some prepared ginger, then mix all together, and bake it in cakes about half an inch thick, on buttered tins in a moderate oven.

1290. Hot Ginger Beer Posset.

Cut some bread as for broth, put it in a pint of milk, and set it on the fire till it boils, in the mean time take nearly a quart of ginger-beer, making it quite hot, adding sugar, nutmeg, and ginger to the taste; put it in a bowl or tureen, and pour the bread and milk to it, let it stand undisturbed for a few minutes, and it will then be ready.

1291. To prepare Cocoa.

Put two large tea-spoonsful of cocoa to a pint of boiling water, let it simmer half an hour, then use it with sugar and cream as coffee. It is usual to prepare it with milk, but by many is preferred made with water.

41S

APPENDIX,

129:2. Bread Jelly.

Toast a slice of bread very dry and brown, then pour as much water on as will cover it, let it simmer or stew very gently, and as the water boils away keep adding more, and simmer gently for four hours: it will then be a complete jelly; strain it, and when you want to use it, add a little lemon-peel, or sugar, and a little new milk.

This is very light nourishing food for a weak stomach.

1293. Bread Poultice.

Cut the crust off a slice of bread and pour boiling water upon it, let it stand a few minutes, then press the water from it between two plates as dry as possible, then pour some ‘ Goulard water’ upon it, and apply it to inflammations or bruises.

1294. Tincture of Roses.

Take the leaves of the common rose ( cenlifolia ), place them, without pressing them down, in a bottle, pour some good spirits of wine upon them; close the bottle, and let it stand till required for use. This tincture will keep for years, and yield a perfume little inferior to otto of roses. A few drops will suffice to impregnate the atmosphere of a room with delicious odour.

1295. To preserve the Teeth.

Nothing more is necessary than to wash the mouth well regularly every morning with strong salt and water.

1296. For Dysentery.

Take a large tea-spoonful of fuller’s earth, reduced to a fine powder, mix it with two table-spoonsful of

APPENDIX.

419

simple peppermint-water, and take it immediately: the dose may be repeated in the course of an hour or two, according to the violence of the case. The dose may again he repeated if required, hut two doses seldom fail to produce the desired effect.

A decoction of tormentil roots, taken in the same manner as the marsh-mallow.

No. 1163 is also a simple but effectual remedy for dysentery.

INDEX.




MORE FROM Foods of England...
The Ten-Year Plan... Cookbooks Diary Index Magic Menu Random Really English? Timeline Donate English Service Food Map of England Lost Foods Accompaniments Biscuits Breads Cakes and Scones Cheeses Classic Meals Curry Dishes Dairy Drinks Egg Dishes Fish Fruit Fruits & Vegetables Game & Offal Meat & Meat Dishes Pastries and Pies Pot Meals Poultry Preserves & Jams Puddings & Sweets Sauces and Spicery Sausages Scones Soups Sweets and Toffee About ... Bookshop Vegetable Cookery, 1833

Email: editor@foodsofengland.co.uk


COPYRIGHT and ALL RIGHTS RESERVED: © Glyn Hughes, 05/05/2021
BUILT WITH WHIMBERRY
matrixstats