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Honours of the Table, 1791

A Foods of England online text. For more see Cookbooks

TITLE: "The honours of the table, or, Rules for behaviour during meals : with the whole art of carving, illustrated by a variety of cuts. Together with directions for going to market, and the method of distinguishing good provisions from bad; to which is added a number of hints or concise lessons for the improvement of youth, on all occasions in life".
AUTHOR: John Trusler
PUBLISHER: Printed for the author at the Literary Press, Soho
DATE: 1791
THIS VERSION: This transcript is based on the online edition at archive.org, digitized from an edition in the collections at Leeds University Library. This is an Optical Character Recognition scan, it has been partly edited, but still contains very significant errors.

Note especially the number of old-fashioned 'log s' ſ which have been rendered as 'f'

Honours of the Table,
Art of Carving,
Direftions for going to Market, and tlie Method of diflinguilhing good Provifions from bad ;

ANurr ' -of Hints orconcifc LefTons for the Iniprorcment,'6^ ' Youth, on all Occafions in Life. "i

By the Author of Principles of Politeness

To do the honours of a table gracefully, is one of rtie ouMinee of a well-bred man; aod to carve wet], little as it may feem. Is ufbful twice every day, and the doing of which ill is not only troublefoine to ourrelves, but renders us difagreeabl and ridiculous to others.



Printed for the Author, at the LITERARY-PRERS, No. 6z> Wardour-ftreet, Soho ; and all Book-fcllerj in Tows and Country.



Honours of the Table.

Rules for behaviour at table

OF all- the graceful accomplishemnts, and of every branch of polite education, it has been long admitted, that a gentleman and lady never'fliew themfelves to more advantage, than in acquitting themfelves well in the honours of their table that is to fay, in ferving their guefts and treating their friends agreeable to their rank and fituation in life.

Next to giving them a good dinner, is treating them with hofpirality and attention, and this attention is what young people have to learn. Experience will teach them, in time, but till they learn, they will always appear ungraceful and awkward.

In all public companies precedence is at- tended to, and particularly at table. Wo- men have here always taken place of men, and both men and women have lat above each other, according to the rank they bear in life. Where a company is equal in point of rank, married ladies take place of fingle cnesp and older ones of younger ones.

When dinner is announced, the nintrefs- of the houfe requefts the lady firft in rank, in company, to (hew the way to the reft, and walk firft into the room where the ta- . ble is ferved ; (he then a(ks the fecond in precedence to follow, and after all the la- dies are pafTed, (he brings up the rear her- felf. The mafter of the houfe does the fame with the gentlemen. Among per- fons of real diftindlion, this marfhalling of the company is unneceflary, every woman and every man prelent knows his rank and precedence, and takes the lead, without any direftion from the miftrefs or the mafter,

When they enter the dining-room, each takes his place in the fame order; the miftrefs of the table fits at the upper-end., thofe of fuperior rank next her, right and left, thofe next in rank following, then the gentlemen, and the mailer at the lower-end? and nothing is confidered as a greater mark of ill- breeding, than for a perfon to inter- rupt this order, or^feat himfelf higher than he ought. Cuftom, however, has lately introduced a new mode of feating. A gen- tleman and a lady fitting alternately round the table, and this, for the better conveni- ence of a lady’^s being attended to, and ferved by the gentleman next her. But notwithftanding this promifcuous feating, the ladies, whether above or below, are to be ferved in order, according to their rank or age, and after them the gentlemen, in the fame manner.

The rtriftrefs of the houfe always fits at the upper-end of her table, provided any ladies are prefent, and her hulband at the lower-end } but, if the company confifts of gentlemen only, the miftrcfs feldom ap- pears. pears, m which cafe, the mafter takes the upper- feat. Note. At whatever part of the table the miftrefs of the houfe fits, that will ever be confidered as the firfl: place.

As eating a great deal is deemed indeli- cate in a lady (for her charadter Ihould be rather divine than fenfoal,) it will be ill- manners to help her to a large dice of mea.t at once, or fill her plate too full. When you have ferved her v/iclr meat, (he fiiould be afked what kind of vegetables flic likes, and the gentleman fitting next the difh that holds thofe vegetables^fliould be requefted to help her.

Where there are feveral difhes at table,, the miftrefs of the houfe carves that which is before her, and defires her hulband, or the perlon at the bottom of the table, to carve the joint or bird, before him, Soup is generally the firft thing ferved and, fhould be ftirred from the bottom ; filh, there is any, the next.

Themafteror miftrefsof the table (hoiild continue eating, whilft any of the company are fo employed, and to enable them to do this, they fliould help themfelves accor- dingly.

"Vyhere there are not two courfes, but one courfe and a remove, that is, a dilh to be brought up, when one is taken away ; the miftrefs or perfon who prefides, fhould acquaint her company with what is to comej or if the whole is put on the table at once, fhould tell her friends, that “ they “ fee their dinner i” but, they fhould be told, what wine or other liquors is on the fide-board. Sometimes a cold joint of meat, or a __fallad, is placed on the fide-board

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board. In this cafe, it fhould be announ-ced to the company.

If any of the company feem backward in afkir g for wine, it is the part of the mafter to aik or invite them to drink, or he will be thought to grudge his liquor ; and it is the part of the miftrefs or mafter to afk thofe friends who feem to have dined, whether they would pleafe to have more. As it is unfeemly in ladies to call for wine, the gentleman prefent Ihould aftc them in turn, whether it is agreeable to drink a

glafs of wine. ( Mrs. , will you

do me the honour to drink a glafs “wine with me ?”)and what kind of the winO 'i prefent they prefer, and call for two glafles offuch wine, accordingly. Each then waits till the other is ferved, when they bow 'to each other and drink.



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Habit having made a pint of wine after dinner almoft neceflary to a man who ears freely, which is not the cafe with women,, and as their fitting and drinking with the men,, would be unfeemly ; it is cuftomary^ after the cloth and defert are removed and two or three glafies of wine are gone round; for the ladies to retire and leave the mem to- thcmfelves, and for this, ’tis the part of the miftrefs of the houfe to make the mo- tion- for retiring, by privately-^onfultjng the ladks prefent whether they pleafef to- withdraw. The ladies thus rifingj^ihe men Ihould rife of courfe, and the gentle^eni next the door Ihould- open ity, to let dienoj pafs,.

Rules for waiting a., ahla.


A good fervant will be induftrious, and. attend to the following rules in waiting


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but, where he is remifs, it is the duty of the raafter or miftrefs to remind him.

I. If there isafoup for dinner, according, to the number of the company, to lay each perfon a flat plate, and a foup-piate over it, a napkin, knife, fork and fpoon, and to place the chairs. If there is no foup, the foup- plate may be omitted..

a. To Hand with his back to the fflde-- board, looking on the table. .This t^ie office of the principal, fervant. ' If there are more, then to (land round the ^ble,.,or,. ifj each perfon’s fervant is prefent, that fervant^it ffiould ftand behind his miftrefs's ormafter’S’ chair.

3. To keep the diffies in order upon the table, as they were at firft put on,

A 6 4. If

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4. If any of the garnifh of the difhes falls on the cloth, to remove it from the table in a plate, thus keeping tlie table free from litter.

5. To change each perfbn’s plate, knife, fork and fpoon,as foon as they are done with. This will be known, by the perfon’^s putting his knife and and fork into

his plate.

6. To look round and fee if any want bread and help them to it, before it is called for.

7, To hand the decoraments of the table •viz. oil, virejar, or muftard, to thofe who want, anticipating even their wilhes. Every one knows with what muftard is eaten, with what vinegar, and lb on, and a


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diligent, attentive fervant, will always hand it, before it is afked for»

8. To give the plates, &c. perfedly clean and free from dull, and never give a fecond glafs of wine, in a giafs that has been once ufed. If there is not a fufficient change of glaffes, he Ihould have a veflel of water un- der the fideboard, to dip them in, and fliould wipe them bright,

9. It is genteel to have thin gill-glaffes, and the fervant Ihould fill them only half full, this prevents fpilling, and the foot of the glafs Ihould be perfedtly dry, before it is, given.

10. To give nothing but on a waiter,

and always to, hand it with the left hand, and on the left fide of the perfon he ferves. When ferving wine, to put his thumb on the foot of the glafs, ^this will prevent its over- throw. ji. Never

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ri. Never to reach acrofs a table, or im ferving one perfon to put his hand or arm- before another..

12. To tread lightly acrofs the room,, and never to fpeak, but in reply to a quef— ‘ tion aflced, and then in a rnodett under^- voice.-

13. When the difhes are tOibe removedi- fo remove them wilh care, fo as not to> fpill the fauce or gravy over any of the company j to clean the table-cloth from-, crumbs, if a fecond courfe is to be ferved. up, if not, to take away the knives, forks- aed fpoons, in a knife-tray,, clear away the.- plates, take up the pieces of bread with a-, fork, roll up the cloth to prevent the crumbs falling on the floor, rub the table, clean and bright,, and put on the wine,.



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&TC. from the fide-board, with a decanter of water and plenty of dean glafles.

14. Where water-gl'afles are ufed after dinner, to wafli the fingers ; to put on thofe glafles- half full of clean water, when the table is cleared, but before the doth is re moved^

Thefe things are the province of the fer. vants, but as few fervants are thorough good waiters, and as the mafter of the houfe is re- fponfible for his attendants, it is incumbent on him to fee that his company is pro- perly ferved and attended. For a table ill- ferved and attended, is always a refledion on- the good condud of the miflrefs or mafter.,

Having now pointed out the duty of the perfon entertaining, I will fay a few words


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to thoTe entertained. In my Principles of Politenejsy a book which has gone through a great number of editions^ and of courfe, is very well known, I had occafion to touch upon behaviour at table ; but, as thofe few rules may not occur at this inlfant to every one, I truft, I Ihall be pardoned in repeating them,

. “ Eating quick or very flow at meals^, is charadberiftic of the vulgar j the firft infers poverty, that you have not had a good meal for fome time j. the laft, if abroad, that you diflike your entertain- “ mentj. if at home, that you are rude “ enough to fct before your friends, whac you cannot eat yourfelf. So again, eat- ing your fbup with yournofe in the plate is vulgar, it has the appearance of being “ ufed to hard work, and having, of courfe^ an ^unfteady' hand. If it be neceflary

“ then

( )

f then to avoid this, it is much more fo, that « of .

“ Smelling to the meat whilll on the fork, before you put it in your mouth. I have feen an ill-bred fellow do this, and have “ been fo angry, that I could have kicked him from the table. If you diflike what you have, leave it i but on no account, “ by Imelling to, or examining, it, charge your friend with putting unwholefome y provifions before you.

To be well received, you mufl: always “ be circumfpedt at table, where it is ex- ceedingly rude, to fcratch any part of ‘I your body, to fpit, or blow your nofe, “ (if you can’t avoid it, turn your head,) to eat greedily, to lean your elbows on the table, to fit too far from it, to pick “ your teeth before the dilhes are romov-

•“ ed)

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ed, or leave the table before grace rs- “ faid.

“ Drinking of healths is now growing out of fafhion, and is very unpolite in good company. Cuftom once had made it “ univerfal, but the improved manners of the age, now render it vulgar. What caa “ be more rude or ridiculous, than to inter- rupt perfons at their meals, with unnecef- “ fary compliments ? Abftain then from.

tills filly cuftom,, where you find it out of “ ufe, and ufe it only at thofe tables, where it continues generaU

When you fee but little of a thing at table, or a viand that is fcarce and dear, don’t feem covetous of it, for every one “ will cxpe

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that pare they like, it will fiiew a becom- ing modefly to take the worft part.

“ When invited to dinner, be always there in tinne j there cannot be a greater rudenefs, if you are a perfon of any “ weight with your friend, than to oblige “ him to delay his dinner for your coming, ^ (befides the chance of fpoiling it,) or “ moreunpolite to the reft of the company,

to make them wait for you. Be always “ there a quarter of an hour before the ap- “ pointed time, and remember, that punc- “ tuality in this matter, is a teft of good

' “ If a fuperior, the mafter of the table “ offers you a thing of which there is but “ one, to pafs it to the perfon next you, “ would be indiredlly charging him that ” offered it to you, with a want of good

“ mannersj

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manners, and proper refpe6l to hia com- pany ; or, if you are the only ftranger prefent, it wouldsfee rudenefs to make a “ feint of refufing it, with the cuftomary ‘ apology, / cannot think of taking it fromyou^

“ fir^ or 1 am Jorry to deprive you of ity it be- “ ing fuppofed he is confeious of his o.vn rank, and if he chofe not to give it, would “ not have offered it \ your apology, there- “ fore, in this cafe, is a ^rudenefs, by put-, ting him on an equality with yourfelfj in “ like manner, it would be a rudenefs, to draw back, when requefl.eH’ by a fuperior to pafs the door firft, or ftep into a car-^ . riage before him,

“ If a man of rank is of the party, it is a mark of refpeft, for the mafler to meet him at his coach-door and ufher him “ in.


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In a word, when invited to dine or fup at the houfe of any well-bred man, obferve how 'he doAfthe honours of his table ; mark his manner of treating his company, attend to the compliments of congratulation or condolence that he “ pays, and take notice of h is addrefs, to his. fuperiors, his equals and his inferi- ‘.or?7~ hay, his ver^ looks and tone of voice are worth your attention, for we cannot pleafe without , a union of them

I — ir~ — 'Ti

•• “ Should you invite any one to dine or fup with yoLi, /recolle>(5l whether ever “ you had obhrved liim to prefer one thing to another, .-and endeavour-to pro- cure that thing ; when at table, fay, J think you Jeemed to give this dijh a prefer-- ence, I therefore ordered it. 'This is the wine I ohferved you heji like^ I have there~


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“ fore been at Jome pains to procure it. Tri- “ fling as thefe things may appear, they “ prove an attention to the perfon they are “ faid to ; and, an attention in trifles is the “ tefl of refpe6t, the compliment will not be loft.


te^itfgNtfo ifaLHi rrarjy oi"%ruftr an^'-


“ To a6l otherwife, is indelicate and rude,”



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Mri/lf'icOrcciAr fT-(rrj^ 'Viy-Cul^ OdfYtXiy





ntrii^ fnixriCv^ jLy c^M-^

Iff) r \J

d iLtiwtA-v K^af<-»«

frym upvM ^<^ U,

in aic A.Q ity\

cnid. /tWfc.

Art of Carving.

HEauthor of this work, from a con-

viftion that the knowledge it com- municates, is one of the accomplilhments of a gentlemen, and that the Art of Carving is little known, but to thofe who have long been accuftomed to it, perfuades himfelfj he cannot make the riling generation a more ufeful or acceptable prefent, than to lay before them a book, that will teach them to acquit themfelves well, in the diC charge of this part of the honours of the table. (See the motto in the title-page.)

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Wc are always in pain for a mar, who, in- fteadof cutting up a fowl genteely, is hack- ing for half an hour acrofs a bone, greafing himfelf, and befpattering the company with the fauce : but where the mafter or miftrefs of a table, difle<^s a bird with eafe and grace or ferves her gubfts with fuch parts as are beft flavoured, and mofl: efteemed, they are not only well thought of, but admired. The principal things that are brought then to table are here delineated, and the cuftom- ary method of carving them pointed out, in a manner that, with a little attention, will be readily underflood, and the knowledge of carving, with a little praftice, eafily ac- quired.

Young folks unaccuftomed to ferving at

table, will, with the help of the cuts, and

the inftruftions accompanying them, foon


( )

be able to carve well, if at the fame time they will, as occafion offers,take notice, how « good carver proceeds, when a joint or fowl is before him.

I have alfo taken the liberty of pointing out in the courfe of thefe inftruftions, what parts of viands ferved up are moft efteemed, that perfons carving may be enabled tolhew a proper attention to their beft guefts and friends, and may help them to their lik- ing.

. There are fome graceful methods of carving, that Ihould alfo be attended to, fuch as not to rife from our feat, if we can help it, but to have a feat high enough to give us a command of the table j not to help any one to too much at a time j not to give the nice parts all to one perfon ; but, to dellribute them, if poffible, among

B tlie


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tke whole, or the beft to thofe of fupenor rank, in preference to thofe of inferior, and not to cut the Dices too thick or too thin, .and to help them to gravy, removing the cold fat that fwims on it, in cold weather; hut it is generally beft to afli our friends what part they like beft.

We will then begin with thofe joints, &c. that are fimple and eafy to be carved, and afterwards proceed tofuchas are more comr plicate and difficult.


This cut reprefents a leg or Jlgot of boiled miy:ton, it fliould be ferved up in the difli as it here lies, lying upon its back; and when roafted, the under-fide, as here reprefenteid.,by the letter d, ffiould lie . ' ’ uppermolt

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Leo' of Mutton o

uppermoft in the difh, as in a ham, (which l'ee,p.48 )and in this cafe, as it will be ne- ceflary occafionally to turn it foj as to get readily at the under- fide, and cut it in the .direction a, b, the fliank, which is here broken ami bent, for the ronveni- «ncy of putting into a Icfs pot or vdfel to

B 2 boil

C ^8 )

boil it, is not broken or bent in a roafted joint, of courfe, fhould be wound round, (a-fter it is taken off the fpit,) with half a llieet of writing paper, and fo fc£t up to tabid, that the perfon carving it may take hold of it, without greafing his hands. Accordingly, when he wifhes tovcut it on the under- fide, it being too heavy a joint to be eafily turned with a fork, the carver is to take hold of the fliank with his left hand, and he will thus be able to turn it readily, fo as to cut it where he pleafes with his fight.

^ A leg of weather-mutton, which is by far the beft flavoured, may be readily known when bought, by the kernel, or lit- tle round lump of fat, juft above the letters iflt s


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When a leg of mutton is firft cut, >the perfon carving fhould turn thejoint towards- him, as it here lies, the lhank to the left- hand; then holding it fteady with his fork-, he (hould cut it deep on the fleihy part, i-n the hollow of the thigh, quite to the bone, in the dire6tion a, h. Thus will he cut right through the kernel- of fat, called the Tope s- «)’

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As many are fond of having a bone, and have an idea, that the nearer the bonc^ the fweeter the fiefh j in a leg of rnuttonj there is but one bone readily to be got at, and that a fra all one; this is the Cramp- bons by fome called the Gentleman^ s-hone., and is to be cut our, by taking hold of the ftank- bone with the left hand, and with a knife, cutting down to the thigh-bone at thepoir^c d, then pafiing the knife under the cramp- bone, in the diredtion d, c, it may eahly be ci.t out.


Figure I, repre Tents a flioiilder of mut- ton, which is fometiraes faked and boiled by fanciful people ; but cufioraarily ferved up roafted, and is laid in the difi"!, with tlie back or upper-fide uppermoft, as here re- ptefented.


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When not over-roafted, it is a joint very full of gravy, much more fo tiian a leg, and as fuch, by many preferred, and particu- larly as having many very good, delicate, and lavory parts in it,

B 4 ThO



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The fhank-bone fliould be wound round with writing-paper as pointed ou£ in the ieg^ that the perfon carving may take hold of it, to turn it as he willies. Now,^ when it is firfl; cut, it fhould be in the hollow part of it,, in the diredlion and the knife Ihould be palTed deep ta the bone. The gravy then runs fall into the dilh, and the part cut,, opens wide enough, to- tales many flices from it readily.

The bell fat, that which is full of ker- nels and bert: flavoured, Iks on the outer- edge, and is to be cut out in thin flices ia the direflion e, /. If many are at' table,, and the hollow part cut in the line b, is all eaten. Tome very good and delicate flices may be cut out, on each fide the ridge of the blade-bone, in the diredlion r, d. The line between thefe two dotted lines is that, in the diredtion of which the edge or



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ridge of the blade-bone lies, and cannot be- cut acrofs.

On the under fide of the fhoulder,, as reprefented below, (in figure 2.,) there are

« ' ’

a Slionlder of Mutton

two parts, very full of gravy, and fuch as many perfons prefer to thofe of the upper-


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fide. One is a deep cut, in the direftion g, by accompanied with fat, and the other aH Jean, in a line from z, to k. The parts about tlie fhank are coarfe and dry, as about the Icnuclile in the leg ; but yet fome pre~ fer tills dry part, as being lefs rich or luf- cious, and of courfe, lefs apt to cloy.

Jhoulder of mutton over~roafted is fpoiln A LEG of PORK,

Whether boiled or roafted, is fent up tO’ table as a leg of mutton roafted, and cut up. in the fame manner}, of courfe, I ftiall refer you to what I have faid upon that joint,, only that the clofe,^ firm ftefh about the knuckle, is by many reckoned the beft,, which is not the cafe in. a leg of mutton..

A Jhoulder of Pork is never cut or fent to table as fuch, but the ftiank-bone, with.


( 3S ) . •

fbme little meat annexed, is often ferved up boiled, and called a Spring, and is very good eating.

Edge Bone of Beef o

As this work is not a critical inveftiga- tion of words, but relates merely to the art of carving, I fhall not give my reafons for calling it an Edge-hone^ in preference


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to Ridge-hone^ Each-lone^ or Aeh’^hney bnt have given it that, by which it is generally- known. The above is a reprefentation of ity and is a favourite joint at table,

'In carving it, as the outfide fufFers in its flavour, from the water in which it is boiled, the difli Ihould be turned towards- the cac- ver, as it is here reprefented j and a thick, flice fhould be firft cut off, the whole length of the Joint, beginning at a, and cutting it all the way even and through the whole fur.- face,. from a to

- The foft fat that refembles marrow, lies

on the back, below the letter and the %

firm fat is to be cut in thin horizontal flices at the point c j but, as Tome perfons prefer the foft fat, and others the firm,, each fhould; be alked what he likesr


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The tjpper-parc as here fhewn, is cer. fainly the handfomen:, fulleft of gravy, moft tender, and is encircled with fat j but, there are ft ill fome, who prefer a flice on the under-fide,. which is quite lean^ But as it is a heavyjpint and very troublefome to turn, that perfon cannot have much good mau:- Bers, who requells it.

' I

The fkewer that keeps the meat together when boiling, is here fliewn at a. It fhould be drawn out, before the dilh is ferved up to table ; or, if it is neceffary to leave a fkewer in, that fkewer fhould be a filver ©ne.


This is by fome called a chine of mut- ton, the faddle being the two necks, but as


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a Saddle of Mutton

the two necks are now leldom fent to table together, they call the two lines a faddle..

A faddle of mutton is a genteel' and- handfome difh, it confifts of the two loins- together, the back-bone running down the iniddle,. to the tail. Of courfe, when it

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is to be carved, ycKi muft cut a long fllce in either of the flefliy parts, on the Tide of the back-bone, in die direction a, ..

There is feldom any great length of the tail left on, but if it is fent up with the tail, many are fond of it, and it may readily be divided into feveral pieces,, by cutting be- tween the joints of the tail, which are about „the diftance of one inch aparu

A BREAST of VEAL roafled.

This is the beft end of a bread of veal, with the fweet- bread lying on it, and when , carved, Ihould be fird cut down quite through, in the fird line on the left it it Ihould next be cut, acrofs in the line a, c, from f, to the lad a, on the left, quite through dividing the gridles from the rib- boiics ; this done, to thofe who like fat and


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griftle, the thick or griftly part fhoiild be cut into pieces as wanted, in the lines a, h. When a breaft of veal is cut into pieces and' ftewed, thefe griftles are very tender, and eatable. To fuch perfons as prefer a bone,» a rib fliould be cut or leparated from the reft, in the lines c, and with a part of the breaft, a flice of the fwect-bread e, cut acrofs- the middle,.



( 41 ) •

a KnucMe of Veal

A knuckle of veal is al ways boiled, and: is admired for the fat, finewy tendons about the knuckle, which if boiled tender, are much efteemed^ A lean knuckle is not worth the drefSng


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You canot cut a handfome flice, but iir the diredlion h. The moll delicate fat. lies about the part and if cut in the line di c, you will divide two bones, between, which, lies plenty of fine marrowy fat.

The feveral bones- about the knuckle,, may be readily feparated at the joints, and. as they are covered with tendons, a bone may be given to thofe who like it.


A fpare-rib of pork is carved, by cutting out a nice from the flefhy parr, in the - line b. This joint will afford many good cuts in this direflion, with as much fat , as people like to cat of fuch ftrong meat. When the flefhy part is cut away,

a bone-

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. - . I-

a bone may be eafily feparated from the next to itj in the line d, b, c, disjointing it at c.

Few pork-eaters are fond of gravy, it being too flrong; on this account, it is eaten with apple-fance.

( 44 )

There are many delicate bits about a calf’s head, and when young,, perfedtly white, fat, and well-dreffed, half a headi is a genteel dilh.

When firft cut it Ihould be quite along: the cheek-bone, in the flelhy part, in the-


( 45 )

direction c, by where many handfome flices may be cut. In the flefliy parr, at the end of the jaw-bone, lies part of the throat fweet-bread, which may be cur into, in the' line Cy d, and which is efteemed the bed part in the head. Many like the eye, which is to be cut from its focket ay by forcing th( point of a carving knife'down to the bot-^ tom on one edge of the focket, and cut- ting quite round, keeping the point of the knife flanting towards the middle, fo as to feparate the meat from the bone. This piece is feldom divided, but if you wifli to, oblige two perfons with it, it may be cut into two parts. The palate is alfo reckoned by fome a delicate morfel : this is found on the under-fide of the roof of the mouth, it is a crinkled, white thick fkin, and may be eafily feparated from the bone by the knife, by lifting the head up with your left hand.


, ( 46 )

There Is alfo Ibrne good meat to be met with on the under fide, covering the under jaw, and fome nice, griftly fat to be pared off about the ear, g.

There are fcarce any bones here to be Separated ; but one may be cut off, at the 4ieck, in 'the line f, e, but this is a coarfe part.

There is a tooth in the upper-jaw, the lafl tooth behind, which having feveral cells, and being full of jelly, is called the fweet-tooth. Its delicacy is more in the name than any thing elfe. It is a dou- ble tooth, lies firm .in a focket, at the further end, but if the calf was a young one, may readily be taken out with the jx)int of a knife.


( 47 )

In ferving your gueft with a (lice of head, you fliould enquire whether he would have any of the tongue or brains, which' are generally fer^.^ed up in a feparate difli, in which cafe, a (lice from the thick part of the tongue near the root is belt. Sometimes the brains are made up into fmall cakes, fried, and put round to or- nament itj when fo, give one of thcfe -cakes.


A ham is cut two ways, acrofs in the line c, or, with the point of the carvino- knife, in the circular line in the middle, taking out a fmall piece as at and cut- ting thin dices in a circular direction, thus enlarging it by degrees. This laft method


( 4 )

of cutting it, is to preferve the gravy and keep it moifl-, which is thus prevented from running out.

A Haunch

( 49 )

a Haunch of Venison.

In carving a haunch of venifon, firfl: cut it acrofs down to the bone, in the line r, rf, then turn the difli with the end to- wards you, put in the point of the knife at c, and cut it down as deep as you can in the diredlion c, dy thus cut, you may take out as many dices as you pleafe, on the

C right

( 50 )

right or kft. As the fat lies deeper on the left, between and to thofc who arc fond of fat, as moft venifon-eaters are, the beft flavoured and fattcfl: flices will be found on the left of the line e,
As the fat of venifon is very apt to cool and get hard and difagreeable to the palate, it fliould always be ferved up on a water- difli, and if your company is large, and the joint is a long time on the table, a lamp fliould be fent for, and a few flices ikt and lean, with fome of the gravy, is • prefently heated over it, either in in a filver


( 5t )

or a pewter-plate. This is always done at table, and the fight of the lamp, never fails to give pleafure to your company.

A tongue is to be cut arrofs, in the line a, by and a .flice taken from thence. The moft tender and juicy fiices will be about the middle, or between the line by and

C 2 the

an Ox Toncfiie

( 52 )

the root. Towards the tip, the meat is clofer and dryer. For the fat, and a kernel with that fat, cut off a dice of the root, on the right of the letter b, at the bottom next the difli. A tongue is generally eaten with white meat, veal, ^chicken, or tur- key, and to thofe whom you fcrve with the latter, you Ihould give a dice of the former.


Whether the whole firloin or part of it only be fent to table, is immaterial, with refpcdl: to carving it. The figure here re- 'prcfents part of the joint only, the whole being too large for families in general. It is drawn as (landing up in the dilb, in or- der to Ibew the infide or under-part j but when fent to table, it is always laid do.vn,


( 53 )

fo as that the part defcribed by the let- ' Ci lies clofe on the difh. The part c, d, then lies uppermofl:, and - the line <7 un- derneath.

The meat on the uppcr-fide of the ribs is firmer, and of a clofer texture, than

C 3 ' the

( 54 )

the flefhy part underneath, which is by far the moft tender j of courfe, fome prefer one parr, and fome the other.

To thofe who like the upperfide and - would rather not have the firft cut or out- fide fl.ee, that outflde flice flmuld he firft cjt cfF, qu'te down to the bone, in the di- rection c, d. Plenty of foft, marrowy fat will be found underneath the ribs. If a fcrfon wiflies to have a fl;ce underneath, the joint muft be turned up, by taking hold of the end of the ribs with the left hand, and taifing it, till it is in the pcfition as here reprefenied. One flice or more m.ay now be cut in the direfbion of the line fi, pafllng the knife down to the bone. The fliccs, wfuther on the upper or un- der fide, fhould be cut thin, but not too much fo.


( 5S >

This is a part always boiled^ and is to be cut in the direftion a b, quite down to the boncj but never help any one to the outfide flice, which fliould be taken off pretty thick. The fat cut with this flice is a firm grifUy fat, but a fofter fat will be C 4 found:

( 5 « )’

found underneath, for thofe who prefer it.


Is always boiled, and requires no print to point out how it fhould be carved. A thick flice fhould be cut off all round the buttock, that your friends may be helped to the juicy and prime part of it. Thus cut into, thin dices may be cut from the top s but, as it is a difh that is frequently brought to table cold, a fecond day j it fhould always be cut handfome and even. To thofe to whom a dice all round would be too much, a third of the round may be given, with a thin dice of fat. On one fide there is a. part whiter than ordinary, by fome called the white mufcle. In Wiltjhire and the neighbouring counties, a


( 57 )

bullock is generally divided, and this white part fold feparate as a delicacy, but it is by no means fo, the meat being clofe and dry, whereas the dark.^r coloured parts, though apparently of a coarfer grain, are of a loofer texture, more tender, fuller of gravy, and better flavoured ; and men ofdiflinguilhing palates, ever prefer them.


Which is the thigh part, fimilar to a buttock of beef, is brought to table al- ways in the fame form, but roafted. The outfide flice of the filler, is by many thought a delicacy, as being mod favoury j but, it does not follow, that every one likes it; each perfon Ihould therefore be afked, what part they prefer. If not the

C 5 ' ouifide.

( 58 )

outfiJe; cutoff a thin flicc, and the’fe- cond cut will be white meatj but cut it even and clofe to the bone. A fillet of veal is generally fluffed under the fkirt or flap, with a fitvoury pudding, called forced-rneat This is to be cut deep into, in a line with the furface' of the filler, and a thin flice taken our ; this, with a little fat cut from the fkirt, fhould be given to each perfon prefent,


Before any one is helped to part of this joint, the fhoulder fliould be feparated from the breaft, or what is by fome called the coafl; by paffing the knife under, in thedireftion r, g, d, e. The fhoulder being thus removed, a lemon or orange fliould be Squeezed upon the part, and then fprinkled


. ( 59 ^

a Qirarter of liainb

with fak where the fhoukier joined it,, and the (houlder fliould be laid on it again. The griftly part fhou-ld next be feparated from the ribs, in- the line/, It is now in readinefs to be divided among the com- pany. The ribs are generally mod efteem- ed, and one or two may be feparated from. , tlie reft, in the line b-, or, to thofe who C 6 prefer

C 6o )

prefer the grlflly parr, a piece or two, or more, may be cut ofF in the lines h, ?, &c Though all parts of young lamb are nice, tiie fhoulder of a fore- quarter is the leaft thought of; it is not fo rich.

If the fore-quarter is that of grafs lamb and large, the fhoulder fliould be put into another difh, when taken offi and it is carved, as a fhoulder of mutton, which fee.


A roafted pig is feldom fent to table whole, the head is cut off by the cook, and the body fplit down the back, and fcrved up as here reprefented j and the ; ^ifh garnifhed, with the chaps and ears.


( 6i )

Before any one is helped, the fhoiilder fliould be feparated from the carcafe, by pafling the knife under it, in the circular diredtion ; and the leg feparated in the fanne manner, in the dotted line r, d, e. The mod delicate part of the whole pig, is the triangular piece of the neck, which may


( 62 )

be cut off in the line /, g. The next beft parts are the rjbs, wffcii may be divided in the line a b, &c. Indeed, the bones of a pig of three weeks old, are little elfe than griftle, and may cafily be cut through j next to thefe, are pieces cut from, the leg and Ihoulder. Some arc fond of an ear^ and others of a chap, and thofe perfons may readily be gratified^


This is a hare as truffed and fent up to table- A fl^ewer is run through two IhouJ- ders, ('or wings as fome call them,) the point of which is (hewn at another is paffed through the mouth at a, into the body, to keep the head in its place j atrd two others, thrrmgh the roots of the eais, ' ii^ the dirc(5lion b /, to keep fhe ears erc6t.


-( 63 ;

Thefe fkewers are feldoin removed till the hare is cut up.

Now, there are tv/o ways of cutting it up. The genteelefl:, bed and readied way, is as above defcribed, to put in the point of the knife at^, and cut it through, all


( 64 >

tlie way down to the rump, on one fide the back'bone, in the line g h. This done, cut it fimilarly on the other fide, at an equal diftance from the back-bone. The body is thus divided into three. You have now an opportunity of cutting the back through the fpine or back-bone, into fe- veral fmall pieces, more or le£s,in the lines i k, the back being by far the tendereft parr, fiillefi; of gravy, and the greateft de- licate. With a part of the back Ihould be given a fpoonful of pudding, with which r the belly is fluffed, below the letter k, and ^i'Which is now eafily to be got at. Having thus feparated the legs from the back- bone, they are eafily cut from the belly. The legs are the parts next in eftimation, but their meat is clofer, firmer and lefs juicy. The fhoulders or wings are to be cut off in the circular dotted line e, g. The fhoulders are generally bloody j but ' many

( 65 )

many like the blood, and of coiirfe; prefer the fhoulder to the leg. In a large hare^ a whole leg is too much to be given to any one perfon, at one time, it fhould therefore be divided, and the belt part of the leg is the flefhy part of the thigh at h, which Ihould be cut off.


Some like the head, brains and bloody part of the’ necks before then you begin to difledt the head, cut off the ears at the roots, which if roafted crifp, many are . fond of, and may be afked if they pleafe to have one,



Now the head fhould be divided ; for this purpofe it fhould be taken on a clean plate, fo as to be under your hand, and turning the nofe to you hold it fteady with' your fork, that it does not fly from under the knife j you 'are then to put the point


( 66 ;

of the knife into the Ikull between the ears, and by forcing it down, as foon as ic has made it’s way, you may eafily-divide the head into two, by cutting with fom^e degree of ftrength quite down through to the nofe. Half the head may be given to any perfon that likes it.

But this mode of cutting up a hare can only be done with cafe, when the animal is young. If it be an old hare, the belt me- thod is, to put your knife pretty clofe to the back-bone, and cut off one leg, but as the hip-bone will be in your way, the back of the hare muft be turned toward^ you, and you muft endeavour to hit the joint between the hip and the thigh-bone. When you have feparated one, cut off the other, then cut out a long narrow flice or two on each fide the back-bone, in the di- reftion^ h', this done, divide the back- bone

( 67 )

bone into two, three, or more parts, paffing your knife between the feveral joints of the back, which may readily be effcdted with a little attention and patience.


Is trufled like a hare, and cut up in the fame way, only as being much fmaller, after the legs are feparated from the body, i the back is divided into two or three parts^ without dividing it from the belly, but cut- ting it in the line^ as in the haie 3 and, inftead of dividing the head in two, a whole hial is given to a peifjn who likes ir, the ears being removed, before the rabbit is ftr-ved u".



( 68 )

Like a turkey, is feldom quite dilTefled, u/ilefs the company is large; but when it is, the following is the method. Turn the neck towards you, and cut two or three long flices, on each fide the breaft, in the lines a by quite to the bone. Cut thefe flices from the bone, which done, proceed


( 69 )

to take ofF the leg, by turning the goofe up on one fide, putting the fork through the fmall end of the leg-bone, prelTing it clofe to the body, which when the knife is en- tered at dj raifes the joint from the body. The knife is then to be pafled under the leg in the diredlion d e. If the leg hangs to the carcafe at the joint e, turn it back with the fork, and it will readily feparate, if the goofe is young : in an old goofe it will require fome ftrength to feparate it. When tlie leg is off, -proceed to take off the wing, by paffing the fork through the fmall end of the pinion, preffmg it clofe to the body and entering the knife at the notch c and paffing it under the wing, in the direftion c d. It is a nice thing to hit this notch c, as it is not fo vifible in the bird as in the figure. If the knife is put into the notch above itj you cut upon the neck- bone and not on the wing-joint. A little pradiee


( 70 )


will Toon teach the difference, and if the goofe is young, the trouble is not great^ but very much otherwife, if the bird is an old one.


When the leg and wing on one fide are taken off, take them off on the other fide ; cut oft' the apron in the line f e g, and then take off the merry -thouglit in the line i h. The neck bones are next to be feparated as in a fowl, and all the other parts divided as there direded, to which I refer you.

The beft part of a goofe are in the fol- lowing order the breaft-flices the fiefhy part of the wing, which may be divided from the pinion ; the thigh-bone, which may be eafily divided in the joint from the leg-bone, or drum-ftick, as it called the pinion, and next the fide- bones. To thofe who like fage and onion, draw it out t?. with

( 71 )

v/iih a fpoon from the body, at the place where the apron is taken from, and mix it with the gravy, which Ihould firfi; be pour- ed from the boat into the body of the goofe,^ before any one is helped. The rump is a nice bit to thofe who like it. It is often peppered and falted, and fent down to be broiled and is then called a Devil, as I have mentioned in fpeaking of a turkey. Even the carcafe of a goofe, by foine, E preferred to other parts, as being nivi'C juicy and more favory.


Is cut up the fame way, but the mod delicate part is the bread and the gridle, at the lower part of it.


( 72 )

apB eafant ct ^

The pheafaiT-t, as here reprefented, is fkewered and truffed for the fpir, with the head tucked under one of the wings, but when fent to table, the fkewers are with- drawn.


( 73 )

in carving this bird, the fork fhould be fixed in the breaft, in the two dots there marked. You have then the command of the fowl, and can turn it as you pleafe ( nice down the breaft in the lines ay by and then proceed to take off the leg on one fide, in the direftion dy e, or in the circu- lar dotted line by dy as fee, in the figure of the fowl, page 77. This done, cut off the wing on the fame fide, in the line c, dy in the figure above, and ah hy\n the figure of the fowl, page 77, which is reprefented ly- ing on one fide, with it’s back towards u\. Having feparated the leg and wing on one fide, do the fame on the other, and then cut off, or feparate from the breaft-bone^ on each fide of the breaft, the parts you before fliced or cut down. In taking off the wing, be attentive, and cut it in the notch ay as feen in the print of the fowl for, if you cut too near the neck, as at^,

D yoil^

( 74 )

you will find the neck-bone interfere. The wing is to be feparated from the neck- bone. Next cut off the merry-thought in the line by pafiing the knife under it towards the neck. The remaining parts are to be cut up, as is. deferibed in the fowl, which fee. Some perfons like the head, for the fake of the brains. A phea- fant is feldom all cut up, but the feveral parts feparated, as they are found to be wanted.

The beft parts of a pheafant, are the white parts, firft the breaft, next the wings> and next the merry-thought j but, if your company is large, in order to diftribute the parts equally between them, give part of a leg, with a flice of the breaft, or a fide’s- bone with the merry-thought, or divide the wing in two, cutting off part of the white, flelhy part from the pinion.


( 7J )

The partridge, like the pheafant, is here trufled for the fpit; when ferved up, the fkewers are withdrawn. It is cut up, like a fowl, (which fee,) the wings taken off in the lines by and the merry-thought in the line c, d. Of a partridge, the prime parts are the white ones, viz. the wings,

D 2 breaft

( 76 )

breaft and merry-thonght. The wing is

thought the beft, the tip being reckoned

the moft delicate morfel of the whole. If «

your company is large, and you have but a brace of birds, rather than give offence, in diftributing the feveral ,parts amongfl: them, the moft polite method is to cut up the brace, agreeable to the diredlions giver> for cutting up a'fowl ; afid fending a plate with the feveral parts round to your com- pany, .according to their rank, or the ref- fpeft you bear them. Their modefty then will lead them not to take the beft parts, and he that is laft ferved, wilLftand a chance to get the ni^ft bit; for, a perfon will perhaps take a leg himfelf) who would be offended, if you fcnt him one.


( 77 )

The fowl is here reprefented as lying on its fide, with one of the legs, wings and neck-bone, taken off. It is cut up the fame way, whether it be roafted or boiled. A roafted fowl is fent to tabic, trulfed-like the pheafant, (which fee,) ex- cept, that inftead of the head being tucked D 3 . under


( :8 )

•under one of the wings, it is, in a fowl> cut off before it is drefled. A boiled fowl is reprefrnted below, the leg-bones of which are bent inwards, and tucked in, within the belly ; but the Ikewers are withdrawn, prior to it’s being fent to table. In order to cut np a fowl, it is beft to take it on your plate.

Having fiievvn how to take off the legs, wings and merry-thought, when fpeaking of the pheafant •, it remains only to fhew, how the other parts are divided : -k is the wing cut off, i the -leg^ When the leg, wing and merry-thotight are removed, the next thing is, to cut off the neck-bones de- feribed at /. This is done by putting in the knife at_§^,and palfing it under the long, broad part of the bone in the line^ h, then lifting it up and breaking off the end of the Ih.orter part of the bone, which cleaves


( 73 )

fo the breaft-bone. All the parts being thus fcparated from the carcafe, divide the breaft from the' back, by cutting through the tender ribs on each fide, from the neck quite down to the vent or tail... Then lay the back upwards on your plate, fix your fork under the rump, and laying the edge of your knife in the line V, and pref- fing it down, lift up the tail or lower part of the back, and it will readily divide with the help of your knife, in the line


t So )

Of a fowl, the prime part, are the wings, bread and merry-thought, and next to thefe, thd neck-bones and fide-bones; the legs are rather coarfe^ of a boiled fowl, the legs are rather more tender, but of a chicken, every part is juicy and good, and next to the bread, the legs are certainly the


( 8l )


fulled of gravy, and the fweeteft; and, as the thigh-bones are very tender and eafily broken with the teeth, the griftles and mar- row render them a delicacy. Of the. leg ofafowl, the. thigh is abundantly the bed, and when given to any one of your com- pany, it diould befeparated from the drum- dick, at thejointV; (fee the cut p. 77 ;) which is eafily done, if the knife is introduced un- derneath in the hollow, and the thigh-bone turned back from the leg-bone.

A turkey;

Roaded or boiled, is trufled and fent up to table -like a fowl, and cut up in every refpeft like a pheafant. The bed parts are ^thc white ones, the bread, wings and neck- bones. Merry-thought it has nonej the neck is taken away, and the hollow par^ U 5 -under

( 8s )

utider the breaft fhifFed -with forced- meaT> which is to be cut in thin -flices, in the di redlion from the rump to the neck, and a flice given with each piece of ^turkey. It is cuf- tomary not to cut np more than the breaft of this bird, and if any more is wanted^ to take off one of the wings.

Some epicures are very fond of the gizzard and rump, peppered well, faked and broiled, which they call a Devik When this is to be done, it is generally fliced a little way in the lubftance, in Teverai parts of it, with the knife, peppered and faked a little, and fent down to be broiled, and when brought up, it is divided into parts and handed round to the cornpany, as a >l>enne houch.


( )

This is die reprefentatlon of the back and bread: of a Pidgeon. No. i. the back j No. 1 . the bread. It is fometimes cut up as a chicken, but as the croup or lower-part, with the thigh, is mod prefer- ' red, and as a pidgeon is a fmall bird, and half a one not too much to ferve at once,

f 84 )

It IS feldom carved now, otherwife than by- fixing the fork at the point a, entering th«‘ knife juft before it, and dividing the pid- geon into two, cutting, away in the lines by and a No, at the fame time, bringing the knife out at the back, in the dire6tiona b, and ^-c. No, 2 .



Fifh, in general, requires very little carv- ing, the middle or thickeft part of a fifh^ is generally efteemed the beft, except in a carp, the moft delicate part of which is the palate. This is feldom however taken 'OUt, but the whole head is given, to thofe who like it. The thin part about the tail of a fifti is generally leaft efteemed.


( 8s )

a Cods Head

A cod’s head and fhoulders, if large, and in feafon, is a very genteel and hand- fome difh, if nicely boiled. When cut, it fhould be done with a fpoon or fifh- trowel; the parts about the back-bone, on the fhoulders, are the moft firm and beft; take off a piece quite down to the bone.


( 86 )

in the direftion a, hy dy Cy putting in the fpoon at a Cy and with each (lice of fifh give a piece of the found, which lies un- derneath the back- bone and lines it, the meat of which is thin and a littie darker •coloured, than -the foody of the fifh itfelfi this may be got, by paffing a knife or fpoon underneath, in the direflion d J,

There are a great marry deficate parts about the head, fome firm kernels, and a great deal of the jelly kind. The jelly parts lie about the jaw-bones, the firm parts within the head, which muft be bro- ken into with a fpoon. Some like the palate and fome the tongue, which like- wife may be got, by putting a Ipoon into the mouth, in the direction of the line e f. The green jelly of the eye is never given to any one.

A Piece

( ?7 )

aPieoe of Boiled Salmon

Of boiled falmon, there is one part more Tat and rich than the other. The belly part is the fatteft of the two, and it is cuf- tomary to give to thofe that like both, a thin fhce of each ; for the one, cut it out of of the belly- part in the direftlon d c, the other out of the back, in the line a Thole


( 88 )

wTk> are fond of falmon, generally like the Ikin, of courfe, the dices are to be cut out thin, ikin and all.

There are but few diredions neceflary for cutting up and ferving filh. In 'Turbot^ the fifli-knifc or trowel is to be entered ia the center or middle over the back-bone, and a piece of the filh, as much as will lie on the trowel, to be taken off on one fide clofe to the bones. The thickeft part of the filh is always moll efteemed, but not too near the head or tail ; and, when the meat on one fide of the filh is removed clofe to the bones, the whole back- bone is to be railed with the knife and fork, and the under-fide is then to be divided among the company. Turbot-eaiers efteem the 6as a delicate part.



( Hi

Soals are generally fent to table two way^ foine fried, others boiled •, thefe are to be cut right through the middle, bone and all, and a piece of the filb, perhaps a third or fourth part, according to it’s fize, given to each^ The fame may be done with other fifhes, cutting them acrofs, las may be feen in the cut of the mackrell, be- low, 4. Cy < hj page 50. .



A mackrell is to be thus cut. Slit the fifli all along the back with a knife,, in the line a e b, and take off one whole fide, as far as the line b c, not too near the head, as the meat about the gills is generally black and ill-flavoured. The roe of a male filh is foft like the brain of a calf,


( $0 )

a Mackarel

the roe of the female fifti Is full of fmall eggs, and hard. Some prefer one and fome another, and part of fuch roe as your friend likes Ihould be given to him.

The meat, about the tail of all filh, is generally thin and leaft efteemed, and


( 9 « )

few like the head of a fifh, except it be that of a Carp, the palate of which is ef- teemed the greateft delicacy of the whole.

Eeh are cut into pieces through the bone, and the thickeft part is reckoned the prime piece.

There is fome art in dreffinga Lohjier, but as this is feldom fent up to table whole, I will only fay, that the tail is reckoned the prime part;, and next to this the claws.

There "arc many little dire6lions that might be given to young people with ref- ,pe£t to other articles brought to table; but, as obfervation will be their beft di- redlor, in matters fimple in themfelves, I fhal'l not fwell this work in pointing them out. Where there is any difficulty In


{ )

carving I have endeavoured to remove It, and truft, that the rules I have laid down will, with a littje practice, make the reader a proficient in this art, which may be truly called a polite accompliihmcnt


€> N



I T is by no means advifeable to deal with one butcher, unlefs you can agree to have all your meat, viz. beef, mutton, veal,. lamb and pork, weighed in together at the fame price, all the year round > for butchers are apt to charge occafionally for

a joint

( 94 )

a joint you never had, and they will Al- ways reckon into the weight half pounds and quarters of pounds, which in laying out your money at a market, you may al- ways get abated ; fo you may now and then an odd penny, in a joint of meat i all which at the year’s end tells.

Good meat fliould not look lean, dry or Ihrivclled the flefhy part fhould be of a bright red, and the fat of a clear white.

> When the flefh looks pale and the fat yel- low, the meat is not good. Cow-beef is worth a penny a pound lefs than ox- beef, except it be the meat of a maiden heifer ; which in a buttock you may know, by the udder.


( 95 )


The lean parts of ox-beef will have an open grain j if young, it will have a tender and oily fmoothnefs, except in the neck and brisket, which are fibrous parts j if old. the meat will be rough and fpongy.

Cow-beef is clofer grained, and the meat not fo firm as ox-beef ; the fat is whiter, but the lean paler j prefs the flefhy part with your finger, and if young, it will leave no dent, but the dent you make, will rife up , again foon after.

Bull-beef is clofe-grained, of a deep dusky red, tough when you pinch it; the fat is skinny, hard, and has a rankilh fmell. Meat is fometimes bruifed, and thofe parts look blacker than the reft.


<( )

In buying a buttock of beef, take care you do not buy what they call the moufe- buttock, for the prime one. The differ- ence is eafily known : the prime buttock is firft cut off the leg, and is the thickeft; the moufe-buttock is thinner, and cut off the leg, between the buttock and the leg- bone, is coarfe meat, and not worth fo much by a penny a pound.

A bullock's tongue fhould look plump, clear and bright, not of a blackifli hue.


If mutton be young, the flefh will feel tender when pinched; if old, it will wrinkle up and remain fo, if young, the fat will readily feparate from the lean ; if old, it will flick by firings and skins. The fat of ram-mutton feels fpungy, the flefh clofe-


( 97 )

grained and tough, not rifing again when dented by the finger. If the flacep was rotten, the flefh will be pale; the fat, a faint white, inclining to yellow, and the fielh will be loofe at the bone. If you fqueeze it, hard fome drops of water will Hand on it like fweat j as to the freflinefs or ftalenefs you may know them by the fame marks as in lamb (which fee). Fat mutton is by far the bell. A wether five years old, if it can be got, is the moft delicious ; it’s na- tural gravy is brown. If after mutton is drefifed, the fielh readily and cleanly parts from the bone, the fheep had the rot. Ewe- mutton is worth a penny a pound lefs than wether, the flefli paler, the grain clofer, and the leg of a ewe may be known by the udder on it’s fldrt; a leg of wether- mutton is difiinguiflTable by a round lump "of fat on the infide of the thigh. In a fhoulder, the fhank-bone is more {lender

E than

( 98 )

than that of a wether, and the upper part of the leg near the flioulder of a ewe is Jefs flefliy, and not apparently fo ftrong fat. or fibrous, as the fore-leg of a we- fher


When the bloody vein in the flioulder looks blue or of a bright red colour, it is frdh-killed. If blackifli, greenilh, or ydlowifh, the contrary. In loins, the part under the kidney taints firft, and the fldh, if not frdh-killed, will be foft and flimy.

The bread: and neck taints firft at the Upper-end ; where, when ftale, it will have a dufl^y, yellowilh, or grtenifti appearance, and the fweet-bread on the breaft will be clammy. The leg when frdli-killed will be ftiff at the joint j if ftale, 'it will be


( 99 )

limber, and the flelh feem clammy. To choofe a head, the eyes fliould look plump and lively, if fiink and wrinkled, the head isftalej and, to be delicate, it fliould bo fmall and fat. Indeed, large, over-grown veal is never good. The leg of a cow.- calf is preferable to that of a bull-calf; the former may be known by the ud- der, and the foftnefs of the fkirt j and, the fat of a '^bull-calf, is harder and curdled. Veal, to be delicate, fhould always look white in the flefli, like rabbit or chicken, nor fliould it feem much blown up, hang- ing in the air will redden it, but cut into it and the natural colour loon will be dif- covered.


In chufing a fore-quarter of lamb, take notice of the neck-vein ; if it be of a F. 2 bi ight

( lOO 1 )


^bright blue, it is frefh killed ; If grecnilh or yellowifh, it is bad. When buying a hind-quarter, fmell under the kidney, and try if the knuckle be ftiff; if the kidney has a faint fmell, or the knuckle be lim- ber, it is ftale. Choofe a head, by the fame tokens you would a calf’s head ( fee -Veal). Houfe-lamb, fliould be very fat and plump, or it is worth nothing.



If it be young, in pinching the lean be- between your fingers, it will b~eak, and if you nip the fkin with your nails, it will dent. But if the fat be foft and pulpy like lard, if the lean be tough, and the fat flabby and fpungy, and the ll^in be fo hajd that you cannot nip it with your nails, you may be fure it is old.


( 101 )

Meafly pork may be known by little kernels like hail-fhot, in the fat j in this ftate the meat is unwholefbme, and butch- ers are puniiliable for felling it.


To know frefli' killed pork from fuch as fs not, put your finger under the bone that comes out of the leg or fpring, and if it be tainted, you will find it by fmelling your finger i the flelh of ftale pork is fweaty and clammy, that of frefh-kilkd pork, cool and fmooth.


When young, is beft, and this may be known by the rindj if it is very thick, it is old. If the rind and fat be very tender, it is not boar- brawn, and boar- brawn is the beft,


( >


If tainted, will foon be difcovered by running <1 knife under the bone, that flicks out of rhenn. If the knife comes out clean, and has. a good fmell and flavour, it is fvveet and good ; if much fmeared and

dulled, it is tainted or rufty-.

V .

B A C O N.

‘The befl: rs- the Willfhire. If you buy a flitch, order it to be cut throitgh, and if it is icreaky, if the fat looks firm and cherry- colo li ed, and if the infrde edge does not look brown or yellow, - and if the Ikin is thin and tender when nipped with youF nails, you may fuppofe it young and good,


If the fat be not red, it will boil greafy, and if the inner edge is brown or yellow, it will be rufty.


( 103 )


If the fpurs of a Cafon be fhoit, and hla legs fmooth, he is young; if he has a thick belly and rump, a fat vein on the fide of his bread:, and his comb is pale, we may fuppofe he is a true capon. If frefli, his vent will be hard and clofe, if dale, it

will be a.nd open^

In common fowls^ look at the fpurs, if they are fliort and dubbed, they are young, hut beware that they have not been pared down. If old or dale, they will have a loofe, open vent; if young and frefh, a clofe, hard one. In a hen, if old, her legs and comb will be rough, if young, they wUl be fmooth. Fowls and chickens, fhould be plump and white-legged.



( 104 )

With refpe6t to 'Turkies. If the cock be young, his legs will be black and fmooth, and his fpurs fhort ; if frtlh, his eyes will be lively and his feet limber, but if dale, the eyes will be funk, and the feet dry. So in a hen-turkey, and if fhe be with egg, fhe will have a fuft open vent, if not, a hard, clofe one.

, 1 will not fpeak of game, as they arc not purchafed in markets.


If frelh, are limber-footed j if not, they are dry-footed. If fat, they are thick and Miard, if not, the reverfe. If their nofes are moift and-their throats muddy, they are good for nothing.

A Snipe

( 105 )

A Snipej if fat, has a fat vein in the fide under the wing, and feels thick in the vent j as to other marks of goodnefs^, they are, as in a woodcocks



The heavier and plumper they are, the better. If new and fat, they will feel full and fat in the vent, and be limber-footed i if ftale, the vent will be flabby and green, and the feet dry. The fame oblervationa hold good with refpedl to Larks^ and other fmall birds...


If flale, will be limber and fllrny, if fi-efh, white and ftiffi for this, look in the belly. T he claws of an old rabbit are very long and rough, and the wool matted with

E 5 grey

( ' io6 )

grey hairs j If young, the claws and wool will be fmooth. A rabbit three-fourtha grown, is by far the moft delicate,


If the bill be yellowilh, and the bird has but few hairs, it is young; but, if full of hairs, and the bill and foot red, it is old. If frelh, it will be limber-footed, if ftale, dry footed.


When fat, will be hard and thick on the belly; if. not, thin and lean; if frefh, lim- ber-footed ; if ftale dry-footed. A true wild-duck, has a reddifti foot, and fmaller than the tame one.


( 107 )



Is always known to be frerti, if their gills fmell well, are red, and difficult to open ; if their fins are tight up j their eyes bright and not funk in their heads : but the reverfe of thefe is a fign they are ftale.

‘l^urhot:, is chofen for being thick and plump, and his belly fhould be cream coloured, not of a bluifti white. Small turbot may be known from Dutch plaice, from having no yellow fpots on the back.

Cod^ fhould be thick towards his head, and his flefh fliould be white when cur.

is befl, when thickeft in the poll, and the flefh of a bright yellow.


( 108 )

Scales or Thorn-backs y the thicker they are, the better ; a female feate, if not too large> is bed.

Soalsy flioirld be thick and ftiflT, and their bellies cream-coloured

Sturgemty fliould cut without crumbling,, the flelh fhouid be perfectly white, and the veins and griftles, be a true blue

Herrings and Mackrell : Their gills

fliould be a fhining red, their eyes full and bright, their tails fliflF, and the whole body firm.

'Lohjlers and Crabs, fliould be diofen by their weight, the heavier the better, if no water be in them. Always buy them alive s but when boiled, if their tails when pulled open,fpring too again,they are frefli,


( 109 )

but you may break off a leg and tade it. Hen-lobfters are preferable to cock-lobders on account of the fpawn, and Rich as have not got the fpawn on the outfide of the tail, areftill better. A hen-lobfter is broader in the middle of the tail than the cock, and her daws are not fo large. A middling fized lobfter or crab, is the beft.

« •

Salmon^ when cut, fliould look red and ' bleeding frdh j but, fmell the gills,

Haddockj is a firm, good fifli ; fmall cod, a bad one. Haddocks may be known from fmall cod, by two black fpots, one on eadi fhouldcr.

PlaicCi of the bed kind look bluilh on the belly, and like flounders^ thofe Ihould be chofen which are ftilF, and their eyes bright and not funk.


( no )

Pickled Salmon t\\2it cuts crumbling, is not fo frefli and good, as that which comes away in flakes, whofe fcales are (lifl^ and fhining, and whofe flefli feels oily.

Prawns diCid Shrimp Sy iflimber, of a fading colour, and caft a flimy fmell, are flale,



• \ V

Butter^ fliould be bought by the tafteand' fmell. If you purchafe butter, tafte it on the outfide near the tub, for the middle will be fweer, when the outfide is -rank and flinking.

Chee/Cy is to be chofen alfo by the tafle, but if has a moift, fmooth coat, it generally turns out good,

- /

( ' 111 ) ‘ '

EggSy may be known to be good, by put- ting the great end to your tongue. If it feels warm it is new 5 if cold, ftale j the colder the ftaler. Put an egg into a pint of cold water, the frelher it is, the fooner it will fink. If rotten, it will fwim. To keep them, fee them all upright, the fmall end downwards, in wood-afhes, turning them once a week end-ways, and they will keep good for fome months.


A peck loaf fiiould weigh lylb. 6 oz. a half peck, 81 b. 1 1 oz. a quartern, 41b. 5 oz, and this wichin twenty-four hours after bak- ing. A peck of floury fiiould weigh 141b,

A Number

(. 11 ^ )


Number of Valuable Hints


Concise Lessons,

Worth the attention of Young Persons,

Thefe are the contents oFTrusler^sPr nci- PLES OF Politeness, where every fubjeft is treated of. A book that fells for zs. half-bound,, and which is adopted as a fchool-book at moll of the capital fchools In this kingdom. It has been tranf- , latedinto all European languages, and is as well re-v ceived abroad, as in this country.

SBe-w in every thing a Modesty.

B e net always fpeaking of yourfelf.

Be not awkward in manner.

Fe not balhful.

Be not forward.

Talk not of yourfclf at all.

Boaftnot. ,

Angle not for praife..

'Avoid Lying.

Don’t, equivocate..

Confefs your faults. Tdt

( II3 )

Tell no lies called innocent. '

Avoid vain boafting.

'Gn all occafions keep up Good-Breeding,

Be eafy in carriage.

Lillen when fpoken to.

Vary your addrefs.

Behave well at table.

Attend to the women.

Salute not the ladies.

^tudy a Genteel-Garriage. .

Dread the charaAer of an ilhbred man.

Acquire a graceful air. . .

Be not awkward in fpecch.

Be remarkable for Cleanliness of Persoit Attend to your Dress.

Btudy Elegance
Modulate your voice ; and Acquire a good utterance.

Attend to your looks and gelliires.

Be nice in your expreflions.

Be choice in your ftile.

Avoid Vulgarifms.

Attend 'to your Address^ Phraseology, Small-Talk. ,, '

Ufe falhionable language. < x ’ Bs


Be choice in your compliments.- Acquire a fmall-talk.

Make conji ant at: ions,

Be not inattentive.

not Absence <^Mind.

Learn a Knowledge of ibe World,

Flatter uelicately.

Study the oibles of men.

Obferve e.r-taln times of applying to thofe foibles. Judge ot other men by yourfelf.

Command your temper and countenance.

Seem friendly to enemiei.

Never fee an affront, if you can help it,

0 Avoid wrangling.

Judge not of mankind rafhly.

Fall in with the humour of men,

Truft not too implicitly to any.

Beware of proffered friendfliip.

Doubt him who fwears to the truth of a thing. Make no riotous attacks.

Be nice in your Choice ^Company,

Adopt no man’s vices.

Avoid frequent and noify Laughter,

Never romp or play, like boys.

fo form the Gentleman^ there are Sundry Little Accomplishments.

Do the honours of your table well.

( 15 )

Drink no healths.

Rdyife invitations po^tely. f

Dare to be fingular in a right caufe J and Be not afhamcd to refule.

When at cards, play genteelly.

Strive to write we!l,and grammatically.

Spell your words correctly.

AfFcd not the rake.

Have fome regard to the choice of your amufement?.

Be fecret. ' '

Look not at your watch in company. •

Never be.in a hurry. ,

Support a decent familiarity. , . . . •

Negleft not v^ld acquaintance. • • ^ i^,t

Be graceful in conferring favours.

Avoid all kinds of vanity. ' • • v v\0

Make no one in company feel his inferiority. '

Be not witty at another’s expence.

Be fparing in raillery.

Admire curiofities Ihewn you ; but not too much Never vvhifperin company.

Look not over one writing or reading.

Hum no tune in Company, nor be any ways noify. Walk gently.


( ii6 )

Stare in no one’s face.

Eat not too fall nor too flow. —

Smell not to your meat when eating.

Spit not on the carpet.

Offer not another your handkerchief.

Take no fnuff.

Chew no tobacco.

Withdraw on certain occafions imperceptibly. Hold no indelicate difcoui fe.

Avoid all odd tricks and habits.

Be wife in the Employment ofTiuiu

Read none but ferious and valuable books» Lofe no time in tranfafting bufinefs.

Never indulge lazinefs,.

Be not frivolous.

Study rz Dignity of Manners.

Fafs no Joke with a fling.

Avoid being thought a punfler. - Keep free from mimickry.

•. Never pride yourfelf on being a wag,.

Be moderate in falutations.

Be not envious.

Be not paffively complaifant.

Shew no haflinefs of temper.

Be mild to your fervants .

Keep up outward appearance^,.

( "7 )

51? he well received there are Rules for


'Talk not long together.

Tell no ftories.

Ufe no hackneyed expreffions.

Make no dlgrelfions.

Hold no one by the button, when talking. 1

Punch no one inconverfation.

Tire no man with your talk.

Engrofs not the converfation.

Help not out, or f«-ed;all, the flow fpeaker.

Contradict noone-

Give not your advice unalked.

Attend to perfons fpeaking to you.

Speak not your mind on all occaflons.

Be not morofe or furly.

Adapt your converfation to the company.

Be particular in your difeourfe to the ladies.

Renew no dilagreeable matters.

Praife not a third perfon’sperfedllons, whenfuch praife will hurt the company prefent.

Avoid rude expreffions.

Tax no one with breach of promife.

Be not dark or myfterious.

Make no long apologies.

Look people in the face, when fpeaking.

( >1S )

' Raife not your voice, when repealing.

Swear n- 1 in any form.

Talk no fcandal.

Talk not of your own or others private conccrng,; Few jokes. See, will bear repeating.

Take up tile favourable fide in debating.

Be not clamorous in difputej but Difpute with good humour.

Learn the charafters of company before you fay much.

Suppofe not yourfelf laughed at.

Interrupt no one’s llory.

Make no comparifons.

Aik no abrupt queftions.

Reflcdl on no order of people.

Interrupt no one fpeaking.

Difplay not your learning on all occafions.

Be circumJpeSi in your Behaviour to Su- periors.

Dread Running in Debt. '

Instructions peculiarly adapted t(y Young Women.

Never be afraid ofblulhing.

Don’t talk loud.

Refrain from talking much.

C '^9 >

Don’t, even hear a double-entendre.

Avoid lightnefs of carriage, «

3f dilcreet,

AfFeft no langulfliing.

Dare to be prudifit.

Be not too free.

Be cautious in dancing. . , i

Dread becoming cheap. . r

Be not too often feen in public. i .

Avoid gambling.

Be modeft and moderate in drefs.

Shun the idea of a.vain woman.

Study dignity of m'aiinets. ^ , ,-q-

Beall not of your appetite, llrength, &c. nor fay thing that conveys an indelicate idea. i Accept no prefents of value.

Receive a falute mcdellly. , ^ - •

Give your hand, alfo, when neceflary, modeftly.

Be affable with the men, but not familiar.

Be civil, but not complying.

Be not always laughing and talking.

Seem not to hear improper converfation.

Avoid every thing mafeuline.

Never deal in fcandal.

Sympathife with the unfortunate.

Read no novels, but let your ftudy be hiltory, Seci

( 120 }

Endeavour to fpealc and write grammatically.

Make no cofindante of a-fervant.

Be cautious of unbofoming yourfelf ; particularlvv to a married woman. ^ ’

Confult only your neareft relations.

Tiuft no female acquaintance.

Make no great intimacies.

Suffer no unbecoming freedoms, jet, avoid formality. Form no fricndlhips with men.

T ou cannot be too circumjpebl in matters of Love and Marriage.

Suppofe not all men in love with you, that fhewyou civilities.

Beware of prefuming upon your own innocence.'

- Lofe not the friend, through fear of the lover.

Be prudent, but not too referved.

Let not love begin on your part.

Be not im.patient to be married.

Attend to your Conduct in General.

Betray not you/ affeftions for any man.

If determined to difeourage a man’s addrelTes, unde- ceive him, as foon as poflible.

Be careful not to be deemed a coquet.

Never betray the confidence that any man has re- pofed in you.

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