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The Cook and Housewifes Manual, 1828

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TITLE:The cook and housewife's manual: containing the most approved modern receipts for making soups, gravies, sauces, regouts, and all made-dishes; and for pies, puddings, pickles, and preserves; also, for baking, brewing, making home-made wines, cordials, &c. The whole illustrated by numerous notes, and practical observations on the various branches of domestic economy.
AUTHOR: 'Mrs Margaret Dods' (Pseud. of Johnstone, C. I. (Christian Isobel), 1781-1857)
PUBLISHER: Oliver and Boyd
DATE: 1828
THIS VERSION: This version is based on the one made available at archive.org, based on a copy at the University of Leeds. It is an OCR scan and has been partly edited, but still contaions significant errors.



THE
COOK AND HOUSEWIFE’S MANUAL

CONTAINING THE
MOST APPROVED MODERN RECEIPTS FOR MAKING
SOUPS, GRAVIES, SAUCES, RAGOUTS, AND ALL MADE-DISHES ;
AND FOR
PIES, PUDDINGS, PICKLES, AND PRESERVES
ALSO, FOR
BAKING, BREWING, MAKING HOME-MADE WINES, CORDIALS, &C.

THE WHOLE ILLUSTRATED BY NUMEROUS NOTES, AND PRACTICAL OBSERVATIONS ON THE VARIOUS BRANCHES OF DOMESTIC ECONOMY.

THE THIRD EDITION;

IN WHICH ARE GIVEN,
A COMPENDIUM OF FRENCH COOKERY,
A NEW SYSTEM OF FASHIONABLE CONFECTIONARY,
A SELECTION OF CHEAP DISHES,
AND ABOVE- 200 ADDITIONAL RECEIPTS.

BY MRS MARGARET DODS,

OF EDINBURGH ;

PRINTED FOR

OLIVER AND BOYD, AND BELL AND BRADFUTE } GEO. B. WHITTAKBft, LONDON; ROBERTSON AND ATKINSON, GLASGOW J AND WILLIAM CURRY, JUN. AND CO. DUBLIN.

1828,

ADVERTISEMENT

TO THE

SECOND EDITION.

The present edition of this Work has been retarded beyond the period at which it ought to have appear- ed, by the time occupied in that careful revision and enlargement of the original Volume, which its favour- able reception induced the Editors to undertake. The original Work, though pregnant with solid matter-, was thought to savour somew'hat of a jeu d’esprit. In its improved state, if not much more grave, this Ma- nual will be found more recherche on all culinary sub- jects. It has been carefully revised throughout ; up- wards of two hundred new receipts have been added, besides an entirely new-written and enlarged System of Confectionary, and plates illustrative of the Directions for Carving. But the most important new feature of this edition is a Compendium of French Cookery, compiled for this Work, and embodying all in foreign culinary science that is considered really useful to the English cook. Besides this distinct section of the Volume, wherever, in the preparation of

2 ADVERTISEMENT TO THE SECOND EDITION.

any particular dish, the French method of dressing appeared of importance, the difference has been point- ed out in Observations or Notes appended to the English receipt. (See, for examples, pp. 94, 139, 151, 293, 31 7-) These scattered notices, therefore, toge- ther with the Compendium, form a System of French Cookery more intelligible and better calculated to enlarge the knowledge of the English cook than any French work that can be obtained. They indeed contain the essence of them all, in the shape best adapted to the uses of the home-bred practitioner. The vanity and amusing self-importance of the art- ists imported to teach the refined cookery of France in our barbarian isles, has often drawn ridicule upon their art which ought to be exclusively confined to its conceited professors ; for there is much, not only in the actual Cookery, but in the domestic economy of our refined neighbours, worthy of profound attention. (See page 324.) In the hope that the foreign graces, transplanted into this Volume, may considerably en- hance its value to the practical cook, and in the belief that a culinary system superior to either the French or English may be drawn from the combined excel- lencies of both countries, the Manual in its improved form is now submitted to the public.

It is proper again to notice at the outset, that in mentioning many enriching ingredients, garnishes, and sauces, the things in common and fashionable use are always pointed out, but not always recommended. It has been the aim of the Editors to give as much information as possible; but its application must often be left to individual discretion.

July, 1827.

PREFACE.

It would be unnecessary to introduce this volume, written on a subject of universal interest and ac- knowledged utility, with any prefatory remarks whatever, were it not conceived, that the novel at- tempt of endeavouring to conciliate the lovers of what is called “ light reading,” and to gain their attention to that which they may consider a vulgar and unimportant art, might alarm those graver and more prudent persons, who think, perhaps justly, the subject discussed of that earnest nature, which ac- cords ill with any thing fanciful or discursive ; and who may thence conclude the petty details and dis- play of internal machinery in the Work, idle, if not impertinent and out of place. These weighty ob- jections can only be met by the assurance, that the main business of this Manual has, in no respect whatever, suffered from an attempt to separate the culinary art from its fopperies and technicalities ; and to render that branch of economy, in which the com- fort and respectability of domestic life is so much involved, more attractive to the young housekeeper.

4

PREFACE.

It has accordingly been the object to make this volume comprehend every thing to which the mis- tress of any family, in the numerous gradations of middle life, needs to refer, either for information or to refresh her recollections. The useful receipts are therefore as numerous as in any work of the kind. Many of them are original, the result of ob- servation in various quarters; and, with few excep- tions, they have all stood the test of experiment among skilful cooks and intelligent mistresses of families, and been approved for the judicious com- bination of what is elegant with what is healthful, economical, and agreeable to the palate. The best private sources of culinary knowledge have been applied to, and the most esteemed modern works on Cookery, French and English, diligently com- pared and consulted ; and every hint has been adopted which promised either to increase the mass of information or the practical utility of the vo- lume,— whether economical or culinary.

In exact proportion as the principles of the science of good living are better understood, the practice of Cookery is becoming more simple and more rational; and as it is the design of this Manual to promote the diffusion of useful know- ledge, in the receipts given, health and genuine economy have, in no instance, been sacrificed either to modern fashion or to antique prejudice. The besetting sin of professed cooks has been carefully avoided, — namely, the ordering a bit of this, and

PREFACE.

5

a dash of that, and a little of the other high-priced ingredient, on the same principle of liberality, which makes a milliner overload her customer with ill- assorted and superfluous finery, that she may glo- rify herself in her own handiwork displayed at the expense of another.

But as works of this kind are most frequently consulted on unforeseen emergencies, and on occa- sions when sparing would be parsimony, receipts for the preparation of the most fashionable dishes will be found in sufficient variety. The tasteful economist must judge when to spend and when to spare. It may be proper to notice, that in wine, essences, eggs, cream, gravy, &c., a good deal may yet be saved — even though Cookery is now so much more rationally understood than it formerly was — and the dishes still be savoury and excellent ; and, as a general principle, the total omission of all costly ingredients is recommended to the young housekeeper, as more commenda- ble than the adoption of the paltry substitutes resorted to by spurious economy united with the desire of being genteel. And yet, as inventive economy, as well as neatness and good taste can- not be more advantageously displayed by a lady than in varying as well as in ordering the arrange- ments of her table, this rule must not restrict the exercise of a sound discretion, though, in general, female industry and ingenuity will be better direct- ed in turning what is already in the house, to

6

PREFACE.

good account, than in fabricating substitutes for costly dishes.

It may be thought, that some of the more com- mon processes of the kitchen are too elaborately described in this Work, and that some of the plain receipts are too minute in their detail. But every Manual of Art is presumed to be written for the benefit of the uninstructed ; and to the young cook and housekeeper it is impossible too much to mag- nify the importance of the culinary science, or too carefully to obviate its difficulties.

CONTENTS.

PART I.

Page

Explanation of Culinary Terms 9

Institution of the Cleikum Club 13

Culinary Lectures 28

Directions for Carving, with plates 37

Bills of Fare, and Observations on laying out Tables and ar- ranging Dinners 49

Suppers 79

Dejeuners d la Fourchette 71

Notices of the Provisions in Season in the different Months of the Year 73

PART II.

Chapter 1. Boiling 76

. ฆ - 2. Roasting and Baking 89

3. Broiling 115

4. Frying 122

— - 5. Broths, Soups, and Gravies 130

6. Fish and Fish.Pies 168

7. Vegetables, Roots, and Salads 207

8. Sauces, Essences, Pickles, Catsups, Vinegars,

Herb W ines, M ustards, and other Condiments. ... 228

PART III.

#

Chapter 1. Made-Dishes of Beef, Mutton, Veal, Venison, 270

Currie 312

Sausages 314

Devils 316

Egg-Dishes 320

8

CONTENTS.

l’age

Chapter 2. French Cookery 324

French Sauces 326

French Soups 331

French Made-Dishes . 333

French Dishes of Fish 344

French Forcemeats 346

French Dishes of Vegetables. r 349

French Pastry 351

3. National Dishes, Scottish, Irish, Welsh, Ger- man, and Oriental ; 354

4. Pastry, Pies, Patties, Puffs, Puddings, Pan- cakes, Fritters, and Dumplings 374

5. Creams, Jellies, Blancmanges, Trifles, Custards,

Cheesecakes, Souffles , Rice-Dishes, Sweet- meats, Preserves, Drops, Cakes, Bread 406

. .

PART IV.

Chapter 1. Liqueurs, Cordials, Punch, Brandies, Possets,

Made-Wines, and Beers 447

2. Preparations for the Sick, Cheap Dishes, and

Miscellaneous Receipts 463

— 3. Curing Meat, Hams, Tongues, Butter, and

making Cheese 476

4. Useful Receipts for Cleaning and Keeping Fur- niture and Clothes..... 488

Index....

Final Sederunt of the Cleikum Club 513

*

EXPLANATION

OF THE

MORE UNFREQUENT CULINARY TERMS, FRENCH AND ENGLISH.

It has been suggested that a short Glossary is a necessary accompa- niment to this volume, intended, as it is, for the instruction of the young, as well as the information of the more experienced cook. Instead, however, of elaborate definitions, we shall, in most instances, merely refer to the page at which the dish or process signified is fully explained.

Blanch , to, to soak meats or vegetables in water, also to scald them, or give them firmness or whiteness, by a short rapid boil.

Bouilli, boiled meat of any kind, but generally said of boiled beet.

Bouillon , broth or boiled liquor of many kinds, 136, 326.

Bouillon , Court , a liquor for boiling fish, 344.

Braise , to, see page 298.

Braises, dishes braised or cooked in a braise, page 286.

Brisket, the breast of beef, veal, or lamb.

Casserole, an edging, border, or encasement of rice, paste, or mash- ed potatoes, in which meats are said to be served en Casserole, 299, 367, 371.

Chops, slices of meat, generally from the ribs of mutton, pork, or lamb, with a bit of bone.

Citric Acid, lemon acid.

Civet, a dark thickish stew of hare or venison, 332.

Clarify, to, to refine, to purify by boiling, skimming, straining, or filtering, pages 123, 424, 447.

Collar, to, to bone, season, and roll up meat before dressing, 299, 480.

Crimp , to, said of fish cut into fillets or slices, as cod, salmon, skate, or turbot, when very fresh, and boiled rapidly, till crisp, and curdy.

Cullis , the French Coulis, a rich gravy, the basis of sauces, 234, 327*

Cutlets , slices of veal, mutton, or venison, thinner and smaller than chops, and generally without bone.

Daubes , an order of French dishes dressed en Daube, 287 •

Dejeuner a la Fourchette, or fork breakfast, a breakfast at which the use of forks is required, from solid dishes being served.

Dormants, said of dishes which remain from the beginning to the

10

EXPLANATION OF UNFREQUENT

end of a repast, as the cold pies, hams, or potted meats placed down the middle of a table at large entertainments.

Dormant , a , a centre-piece which is not removed, and which is commonly used by the French, who never change the table-cloth.

Drappit Eggs, eggs poached in sauce, 361.

En Compote , things served in syrup, generally fresh fruits, 350, 430.

En Chemise , fruits rolled in pounded sugar, 432.

En Crustade , said of things served in crusts, or crust shapes, 3/2.

• N. B. In like manner French dishes are said to be a la Maitre d Hotel, ia V Espagnole , a la V enetienne, &c. from the sauces with which they are dressed or served.

En Papilotte , generally said of every thing served in twisted paper, as salmon and mutton cutlets, 173, 180, 207-

Entrees , the French term for first-course dishes.

Entrees de Desserte , dishes made of left meats.

Entremets , the French term for second-course dishes.

Forcemeat , or Forcemeat, Stuffing in general, whether for meats, poultry, fish, balls for soup, pies, &c.

Force, to, or farce, to stuff with forcemeat.

Garnish , any thing useful, relishing, or ornamental, served around, or with dressed meats.

Garnish , to, to decorate, to ornament, Note, p. 48, 175.

Gigot, the French and Scottish term for the leg of mutton or lamb, as distinguished from the loin.

Glaze, the rich juices of meat extracted by heat at a high tempera- ture, and thickened by boiling and evaporation to a jelly.

Glaze, to, to cover meats with glaze, 272.

Godiveau, a sort of French forcemeat, 347.

Gratin , a forcemeat, generally of poultry, ib.

Haricot, so called, from the French word for beans, with which it was originally made ; now understood as a thick stew of beef, mutton, or veal, cut in pieces, dressed with vegetables and roots.

Herbs, Savoury or Fine, are parsley, mushrooms, chives, rocam- bole, &c.

Herbs, Sweet, are lemon-thyme, mint, basil, bay-leaf, &c. &c.

Hotch-potch, any thin stew, or stew-soup, of meat cut to pieces, with fresh vegetables ; also the name of a Scottish national dish, see page 357.

Kitchen-Fee, dripping, probably so called as being formerly the perquisite of the cook.

Lard, to, to enrich meats, poultry, &c. by introducing stripes of lard into them with an implement used for that purpose.

CULINARY TERMS.

11

Maigre, preparations of all kinds if made without butcher meat, poultry, or game, and cooked with merely butter where lard or dripping might at other times be proper.

Maigre Dishes , dishes used by Roman Catholics on the days when the Church forbids flesh-meats ; comprehending fish and vegetable pies and soups, puddings, fruit-pies, egg-dishes, omelets, fritters, macaroni, all preparations of fish, cheese-dishes, fish-sausages, and all creams, jellies, and confectionary, also dressed vegetables, pickles, and preserves.

Marinade , a , a compound liquor of various kinds, but generally of wine or vinegar, with herbs and spices, in which fish or meats are steeped before they are dressed, 99.

Marinade , to, to steep in a marinade, 171.

Panade , a batter for mixing with forcemeats, once employed for basting, 348, Note, 94.

Patties , corrupted from the French pates , the very small hot savoury pies served at dinner, hot luncheons, or suppers.

Puree , a, a pulpy mash of onions, celery, turnips, mushrooms, &c. thinner than a mash, but thicker than a sauce, over which meats are served.

Reduce , to, to boil down a soup or sauce till it become thick and strong.

Roux, white and brown, the French term for thickening made of flour, 231.

Sandwiches, a class of relishing, convenient preparations, named from thjc inventor, 317.

Scallops, small dishes of various kinds, so called from being served either in real scallop shells, or little shapes resembling them.

Sippets, little bits of bread cut in various shapes, and toasted or fried, to serve with meats as garnishings or borders, 130, 371.

Skink, a thin broth ; also the leg or shin of beef from which such broth is generally made.

Stock, broths of various qualities prepared before-hand, as the basis of soups and sauces.

Tendrons, (sometimes tendons,) the French term for the gristles of veal or lamb.

V dimer, to, the French term for working a sauce smooth, by rapid- ly lifting it up in spoonfuls and letting it fall as rapidly, for a length of time.

Vol-au-vent, an elegant French mode of serving meats, particularly things dressed anew, as turbot, chickens, rabbits, p. 388 ; also a mode of serving second-course dishes.

INTRODUCTION.

After the accomplishment of those passages which are re- corded at large in that entertaining and highly-popular his- tory, entitled, “ St Roman's Well,” Peregrine Touch- wood, Esquire, more commonly styled the Cleikum Nabob, who had been deeply concerned in these disastrous events, was sorely pricked in mind ; and, after a time, became af- flicted with melancholy languor, so that his appetite failed, time hung heavily on his hands, and he knew not whereunto to betake himself. This worthy gentleman was, it may be remembered, of a stirring active temper ; prompt, nimble, and prying in spirit ; somewhat dogmatic and opinionative withal, and fond of having a finger in every pie, though it was alleged, that he sometimes scalded his lips with other people’s broth.

The unhappy catastrophe which befel the ancient and honourable house of St Ronan’s occurred about the fall of the year ; and by the end of March, Mr Touchwood, having carried reform as far as was possible in and about the hamlet of Auldtown, was in some danger, as we have distantly in- timated, of falling into hypochondria, or what the learned Dr Cackleben called “fever on the spirits,” vulgarly, fidgets, — a malady to which bachelor gentlemen, in easy circum- stances, when turned of fifty, are thought to be peculiarly liable. It so happened, however, that one of those fortu- nate occurrences which oftenest befal when least looked for, wrought the deliverance of the Nabob from the power of

A

14

INTRODUCTION.

ennui or hypochondria, and restored him to himself. In brief, he exorcised the blue devils which began to torment him, by an attempt to teach his fair countrywomen the mys- tery of preparing culinary devils of all denominations ; be- sides soups, 'agouts, sauces , and the whole circle of the arts of domestic economy, — an entirely new system, in short, of rational practical cookery.

An idea of this kind had, among many others, been for some time floating in the brain of the Nabob, which was rather fertile in projects ; but it would probably never have gone farther than the tongue, save for one of those fortuitous combinations of events which sometimes produce the mightiest consequences, and which about this time sent to St Ronan’s a personage of no less weight than the celebrated Dr Redgill. The Doctor had for some months been what his physician called “ an incipient invalid.” His powers of digestion, though still respectable, were of late rather de- clining ; but his appetite, “ he thanked God,” was vigorous as ever, his taste more refined, and his knowledge matured and extended in every branch of the science. He had been trying the Cheltenham waters in the previous season, and was now recommended by a Scotch physician, who had been singularly happy in the case of his friend, Alderman

j to try the St Ronan’s Spa, the virtues of which

were just then coming into repute.

Like the bulk of mankind, attracted by the glitter of ap- pearance, Dr Redgill, on his arrival, established himself at the New Hotel : but here he soon became discontented with the accommodations, attendance, and, above all, the cookery ; and, learning that a wealthy old East Indian— a sort of hu- mourist, who understood and loved good cheer — had fixed his head-quarters in a quiet, comfortable, well-ordered, old- fashioned inn, where excellent small dinners were served, the Doctor ordered his low-hung well-cushioned vehicle, and on the second morning of his residence at St Ronan’s Well, set out to reconnoitre the capabilities of this land of promise. '

INTRODUCTION.

15

The Nabob, unshaved, half-dressed, blue and yellow, fallen off in flesh, and given up to melancholious fancies about bilious attacks and the fall of stocks, the vanity of riches, and the moral impossibility of Scotch cooks ever boiling rice properly, was, when the Doctor drove in sight, lounging at his parlour window, directing the old grey Ostler in currying the older grey horse, but with little of his for- mer spirit and promptitude. The eyes of the three persons — the Doctor, the Nabob, and the Ostler — were now at- tracted to a spectacle in which all mankind take more or less interest, — a pair of Mrs Dods’ game-cocks, which had lustily commenced a sparring-match. The Ostler staid his curry- comb and its hissing accompaniment, and clapped his hands to cheer the combatants ; the Nabob flung up the sash ; and the Doctor drew up to contemplate the exhibition. The feathered combatants fought it out gallantly, — each, no doubt, animated by the knightly consciousness, that “ his lady saw him,” till one dropped dead, and the other stag- gered over. — “ Well done, Charlie ! — bravely fought, Char- lie !” cried the Ostler, lifting up the survivor.

“ Admirable cock-a-leekie,” said the Doctor, touching the deceased with the end of his whip ; “ all the better for the fight; it would raise the creature’s blood. — A fine brood that !” addressing the Ostler, and throwing eyes of love on a set of ducklings, just escaped from the shell, that were in- nocently disporting themselves in a little puddle, near some goodly rows of green pease in a more advanced state of ve- getation than any the Doctor had seen since he had crossed the Border ; “ these ducklings will, however, be too old before the pease are ready. Strange stupidity, not to have them come together !”* — At this instant the soft treble squeak of a pig of tender days, and then the squall of a full choir, a whole litter of pigs, — Chinese pigs, the Doctor knew by the orientalism of the infant grunt, — struck on his ears ;

• VVe never, for our own private eating, could yet find much to admire in the skin-and-bone ducks of June and July. — P. T.

16

INTRODUCTION.

and, like an old battle-horse starting at the sound of the trumpet, the Doctor alighted, (the Ostler instinctively seiz- ing the reins), and, unheeding the proffered courtesy of the Nabob, who requested him to walk in, pushed forwards. — “ Whereabouts, good woman, whereabouts is the piggery How many days are they littered ” — “ Gude woman, ill woman,” quoth Mrs Dods, — for it was herself who, with a pailful of slops, was sallying towards the delicate objects of the Doctor’s solicitude, under which office she disguised the latent purpose of taking a nearer view of the new arrival at the Spa ; “ Gude woman, ill woman, it can make little odds to you, for they are no for your market and Meg passed on,

“ In maiden meditation fancy-free.”

The Doctor, not yet wholly discomfited in his expectations, followed with grave and ponderous, though eager steps. The appearance of the Hebe who daily ministered to their little wants, called forth a full chorus of grunters, swelling in triple thrice-confounding din ; and the matron of the stye, a full-grown porker, bursting the verge of the sanctuary, ran full tilt against the Doctor, and, getting between his legs, caused him perform a somerset, which made him free of the house ere Meg had time to bless herself. — “ Help ! liilloa, here, good woman !” exclaimed the Doctor, as the enraged matron of the stye, filled with maternal alarms, began to discover her tusks.

“ Ye’ll ken the way back to my pig-stye now, it’s like,” quoth Meg, with a grim smile ; and, ’as a measure of defence, she heaved the whole contents of her brimming pail on the sow, thus allowing a rather copious libation to the Doctor. — “ Help here, Jerry Ostler ; Lord sake help here ! This battle atween the Scots and English is waur than Bannockburn. Is’t you, Mr Touchwood This is a worse job than Saunders Jaup’s jaw-hole yet ; the fat English minister frae the Waal, is smooring a’ my wee grices.”

INTRODUCTION.

17

“ Your grices will smother him, you mean, dame,” said Touchwood. “ Here, sir ; ay, there you are on end again. This way, — follow me. You shall have your revenge though. They bemire you ; you shall crunsh their bones.” Reeking and panting from the struggle, the Doctor, even more provoked by the fancied insolence of the landlady, and the ill-timed mirth of the Nabob, than by the assault of the felon-sow, growled forth something that, were such enor- mity possible, sounded very like wishing the whole party in that place from which it was his duty as a churchman to keep them.

‘f Neither my swine nor my guests boded themselves on you,” said Meg. “ Them that come unsent for, sit unserved ; but that cannot be said of you ; ye contrived to get far ben

on short notice. If folks will scrape acquaintance ”

“ A scraping acquaintance indeed ฆ” interrupted Touch- wood; “ Here, Jerry Ostler, — your currycombs here. Soap, water, towels ! Uncase, Doctor. Faith, as you say, dame, a worse job than Saunders Jaup’s jaw-hole yet.”

The grumbling Doctor, wise enough to make a virtue of necessity, rallied his natural good temper ; for all gourmands are good-natured, except, perhaps, about meal-times ; though it may be as Lord Shaftesbury says of other good-natured men, “ because they care for nobody but themselves ; and as nothing annoys them but what affects their own interest, they never irritate themselves about what does not concern them, and so seem to be made of the very milk of human kindness.” — Such was the Doctor. His rubicund counte- nance, soft and swelling as a jelly, generally beamed easy good-nature ; his ample bosom seemed a reservoir of the very gravy of human kindness ; his full moist lips curved over like the ledges of an overflowing sauce-tureen. Having cast his slough, and got purified from the defilements of the stye, arrayed his outward man in a scanty suit of brown tendered by the Nabob, and fortified the inner with the full of one of Meg’s long-stalked, enamelled, antique glasses

18

INTRODUCTION.

of Touchwood’s Curagoa, the Doctor was now so far molli- fied as to add to a grateful eulogium on the qualities of the liqueur an acknowledgment of the attention of his enter- tainer.

“ Never mind it, man,” said the easy Nabob ; “ I at least am indebted to the delinquent sow ; she abridges cere- mony and idle introductions. You must take a bachelor’s dinner with me to-day. No refusal positively. A glass of Meg’s good wine must atone for short commons. I vow this brush has done me good.”

Nothing was farther from the real intention of Dr Redgill than to refuse an invitation, which the savoury steams now issuing from Meg’s kitchen, “ steams that might have cre- ated a stomach under the ribs of death,” rendered irresist- ibly seductive. With a decent show of hesitation, he yielded ; and, snuffing up the incense-breathing vapours which ascend- ed the stair, followed the Nabob to a private parlour, where an old rich china basin, filled with the balmy and ambrosial fluid, was twice replenished for his solace ; first, however, improved by a pin’s-point of crystals of Cayenne from a sil- ver pocket- case of essence vials, which had luckily escaped the taint of the stye.

“ Excellent hare-soup — very excellent indeed I pronounce it, Mr Touchwood. All the blood preserved — the consist- ence— the concoction complete — the seasoning admirable. Sir, I abhor the injustice of withholding from the poor cook the praise that is her due. It is bad policy, Mr Touch- wood. This hare-soup, I say, is excellent ; and, to my thinking, though a Scottish fashion, the very best way of dressing a hare. Sir, you are in snug quarters here. A sen- sible, discreet person, your hostess, though a little gruff at tlTe first brush. Sir, all good cooks are so. They know their own value — they are a privileged class — they toil in a fiery element — they lie under a heavy responsibility. But, perhaps, after all, you travel with your own cook — many gentlemen do.”

INTRODUCTION.

19

“ No such thing,” said Touchwood ; “ never less alone than when alone in affairs of the stomach. I may have written out a few items for my old dame here, and taken a peep occasionally into the kitchen and larder for the first three months ; but now, matters go on as smoothly as oiled butter.”

“ Sir, you write receipts, then,” cried the Doctor, looking on his hospitable entertainer with augmented respect, — “ perhaps for this very soup — and perhaps — but it would be too great a kindness to request on such short acquaint- ance— though hare-soup, sir, I will candidly own it, is only understood in Scotland. Sir, I am above national preju- dices ; and, I must say, I yield the Scots the superiority in all soups — save turtle and mullagatawny. An antiquarian friend of mine attributes this to their early and long con- nexion with the French, a nation eminent in soups.”

“ No doubt of it, Doctor,” replied the Nabob ; “ but you shall have this receipt, and twenty more receipts. To this ancient hostel now — you will scarce believe it — have been confined twenty admirable receipts in cookery, ever since the fat jolly friars flourished down in the Monastery yonder :

“ The Monks of Melrose made gude kail On Fridays, when they fasted.”

“ You remember the old stave, Doctor”

The Doctor remembered no such thing. His attention was given to more substantial doctrine. “ Sir, I should not be surprised if they possessed the original receipt — a local one too I am told — for dressing the red trout in this heredi- tary house of entertainment.”

“ Never doubt it, man— claret, butter, and spiceries.—

Zounds, I have eat of it till It makes my mouth water.

As the French adage goes, — * Give your trout a bottle of good wine and a lump of butter, and tell me how you like him.’ Excellent trout in this very house— got in the f Friars cast,' man — the best reach of the river. Let them alone for

20

INTRODUCTION.

that. Those jolly monks knew something of the mystery. Their warm, sunny old orchards still produce the best fruit in the country. You English gentlemen never saw the Grey -gudewife pear. Look out here, sir. The Abbot’s haugh yonder — the richest carse-land and fattest beeves in the country. Their very names are genial, and smack of milk and honey ! But here comes a brother of the reformed order whom I have never yet been able to teach the difference be- tween Bechamel and butter-milk, though he understands ten languages. Dr Redgill : — give me leave to present to you, Doctor, Mr Josiah Cargill, the minister of this parish. I have been telling my friend that the Reformation has thrown the science of cookery three centuries back in this corner of the island. Popery and made-dishes, Mr Cargill, — Episco- pacy, roast-beef, and plum-pudding, — and what is left to Presbytery, but its lang-kail brose and mashlum bannocks”

“ So I have heard,” replied Mr Cargill ; “ very whole- some food, indeed.”

“ Wholesome food, sir ! Why, your wits are wool-gather- ing. There is not a barefoot monk, sir, of the most beggarly, abstemious order, but can give you some pretty notions of tossing up a fricassee or an omelet, or of mixing an olio. Scotland has absolutely retrograded in gastronomy ; yet she saw a better day, the memory of which is savoury in our nostrils yet. Doctor. In old Jacobite families, and in the neighbourhood of decayed monasteries, — in such houses as this, for instance, where long succeeding generations have followed the trade of victuallers, a few relics may still be found. It is for this reason I fix my scene of experiment at the Cleikum, and choose my notable hostess as high priestess of the mysteries. But here comes Mr Winterblossom.— No word of Jekyl Never mind.— Serve dinner there. I allow five minutes for difference of time-pieces, and wait a half- minute more for my tardy guest. No man shall call me un- civil— and then proceed to the main business of the day,— eh. Doctor — were King George expected.”

INTRODUCTION.

21

“ Sir,” said the Doctor, “ I venerate your opinion and practice in this matter. Sir, our great English moralist, Dr Johnson, though a fellow of no college yet no mean autho- rity, says, — ‘ The man that does not mind his stomach is a fool : the belly is every man’s master.’ — Sir, I have known young gentlemen, otherwise of unexceptionable morals, dis- grace themselves ; — sir, I say disgrace themselves, and lose the friendship of those who were inclined to serve them and to promote their views in life, by this infamous practice of delaying dinner, which the elegant classic Addison calls a species of perjury. Sir, he brands it as ‘ the detestable habit of keeping your friends waiting dinner.’ — ‘ If such persons did think at all,’ says he, ‘ they would reflect on their guilt in lengthening the suspension of agreeable life,’ — that is, in lengthening the hanging-on half-hour before dinner.”

The dinner was served punctual to the second ; for Meg and the Nabob, though they did not quite agree in harmony, always agreed in time : — a true 'gourmand dinner ; — no sumptuous feast of twenty dishes in the deadthraw, but a few well-chosen and well -suited, — each relieving each, — the boils done to a popple, — the roast to a turn, — the stews to the nick of time. First came the soup — the hare-soup ; Meg called it “ rabbit-soup,” as this was close-time.

“ Sir, if you please,” replied the Doctor, bowing to the tureen as he answered the inquiry of the Nabob, if he would take soup, — “ as our great moralist. Dr Johnson, said of your Scotch barley-broth, — * Sir, I have eat of it, and shall be happy to do so again.’” — Stewed red trout, for which the house was celebrated, — a fat, short-legged, thick-rumped pullet, stewed and served with rice and mushrooms, — a Scotch dish of venison-collops, — and, though last, not least in the Doctor’s good love, one of the young pigs, killed since his adventure in the stye, formed the dinner ; and all were neatly dished, — each dish with its appropriate sauces and gamishings, — the whole in keeping that would have done honour to the best city-tavern in London. — “ Sir, I say city-

a2

22

INTRODUCTION.

tavern,” said Redgill ; “ for I humbly conceive that, in all save flimsy show, business is best understood there, however finely they may talk the matter in the west.”

Such a dinner deserved a grace. It was, indeed, part of the garnish — indispensable. The Doctor’s was short and pithy, delivered in a rolling sonorous voice, pitched to fill the dining-hall of a college ; and then the seats were occu- pied without farther ceremony — for though it be true that at large dinners “ the post of profit is a private station,” there was little here to alarm. The stewed trout had ceased to be luxury to Winterblossom or the Nabob ; and they both knew that though Jekyl would stand out with the most high-bred politeness, like a very gamester or a Hotspur, for his full share of the venison-fat, browned outside of veal, belly-slice of salmon, neck-jelly of cod’s-head, pope’s-eye, crackling, due proportion of stuffing, and all those epicurean delicacies which gentlemen politely urge on each other when resolved to obtain the 'dainty morsel for themselves, they both knew, we have said, that they could do Mr Cargill with perfect ease ; and he was the only other guest present.

Dr Redgill, with cranberry-tart and a copious libation of rich plain cream, was concluding one of the most comfort- able dinners he had ever made in his life, though called a chance- dinner — he in general detested chance-dinners — when Mr Jekyl, in his fishing-jacket and wet shoes, lounged into the room. Certain reasons made an absence from the me- tropolis convenient to the young gentleman at this time. He was therefore still at St Honan’s, and was become rather intimate with the Nabob, who, like Sir Peter Teazle, never grudged him his good advice. The young gentleman bore the rebuke which his want of punctuality drew upon him with entire nonchalance, surveyed the board with an air of half-supercilious scrutiny, and ordered the female-waiter to carry his compliments to Mrs Dods, and say that Mr Touch- wood would be particularly obliged by the re-appearance of the excellent roast-beef he had had yesterday, and a few

INTRODUCTION. 23

slices of cold carrot. The Nabob and the facetious Winter* blossom, who, it may be remembered, was the most pleasant companion in the world, albeit he did not value at a pin’s point any creature on its surface, were well accustomed to these flings in the young man, and gave themselves no man- ner of concern ; but Dr Redgill, who was really, as we have said, a good-natured man, and had bowels even for an un- punctual fisher, took compassion on the gentleman-like young officer, and recommended the stewed fowl, “ hot yet, hardly touched,” — the pig the Doctor kept as a special preserve ; it ate better cold than hot. The young man was grateful, but invincible. Most elaborately did he mix up a relish, com- pounded of made-mustard, shalot-vinegar, catsup, and horse- radish, for his cold regale ; and plateful after plateful was swallowed, the Doctor looking on in silent admiration not unmixed with envy, and resolving at supper to try this in- viting beef, since, unfortunately, a man that lunches cannot comfortably take two dinners in the same day. The drinker certainly has here the advantage over the gourmand.

And now the clash of plates had ceased, the ringing of tumblers was no more ; and, as next in degree to the eating of a good dinner — the digesting is a different thing — comes the pleasure of talking of it, the merits of the several dishes were discussed at large. Winterblossom suggested “ a very little more currant-jelly to the venison-sauce and the Doctor hinted, that, “ had the mustard been mixed one hour earlier, the amalgamation would have been ^complete : — but freshness, after all, was the good extreme; it was very well.” Both were deep in the stewed trout when Jekyl, his solitary meal finished, took the lead with his wonted easy, well-bred assurance, and expatiated so knowingly on the mysteries of the French kitchen, unfolding the intricate combinations of the most complicated ragouts, “ familiar as his garter,” talking so learnedly of unique flavours, braises , daubes, bechamel , the compositions of sauces, their inventors, and the names of modern restaurateurs of celebrity, damn-

24

INTRODUCTION.

ing this one and applauding the other, that the Doctor began to think that on the shoulders of a young lifeguardsman he had discovered the head of a bishop. This was, however, rather a blow that staggered than one which made a lasting impression. “ Sir,” said the Doctor to Touchwood next day, “ the talk of these young fellows is mere foppery. They know little and care less about the matter — mere fop- pery and pretence, sir.”

But on the present day the racy flavour of Meg’s old claret completed the conquest of Dr Redgill’s affections ; and he resolved, if possible, to abide in this land flowing with milk and honey. Holding his nose over his glass, like a beau Bmelling a nosegay, “ Sir,” said he, “ I pronounce this wine: — sir, common wines have taste — this has flavour.” So, amid the smack of green seals and red seals, the cracking of nuts and of jokes, the Nabob withdrew to sound Mrs Dods on the affair of Dr Redgill’s establishing himself in her house : and this he did in a manner which evinced some knowledge of the trim of his hostess.

“ Sick d’ye say, sir he doesna look like it,” said Meg. “ Fond o’ a quiet, clean, weel-ordered house. Is there no that at the grand new hottle he gaed to Deeing ! Deil a fears o’ him — that I should ban ! unless he smore in his creesh ; whilk is not unlikely. — A swalled, judgment-like Jeshuran wi’ eyne like to loup with clean fat,” cried Meg, who had taken deep offence, first, at the Doctor going to the hotel ; secondly, at the freedom with which he, a guest there, had entered her territories.

“ But here he shall come, Luckie,” returned Touchwood, ซ this very night too. What, woman ! would you turn the servant of the Lord— the stranger, from your gates — An invalid too, that cannot get an hour of rest, nor a morsel he can swallow, poor gentleman, in their gilded gingerbread pig-stye down yonder

e Say ye sae, say ye sae, Mr Touchwood cried Meg, .

her features relaxing ; “ not a comfortable meltith o’ meat,

8

INTRODUCTION.

25

and him in a dwining way, ye say. Nabob — though troth he does not look like it. But fat folk are often feckless. There was Mr Matthew Stechy, St Ronan’s auld butler, that kept the first hottle in Glasgow — there is the cook, if ye speak of cooks ! that is for a man-cook, whilk is but a non-natural calling — waxed fatter and fatter to a perfect mere-swine. Weel, he broke — became dyvour, sir — was rouped to the door, took the mill-craft down in the haugh, wrought for his daily morsel, and is now as swack and clean- deliver a man as enters the kirk o’ St Ronan’s.”

“ It will do, by Jupiter and Comus !” exclaimed Touch- wood, who had been absorbed in a very unusual fit of mus- ing- The Cleikum Club — myself President , — must keep order amongst them — Redgill, Vice; Winterblossom, an old coxcomb, but deep in the mystery ; Jekyl, a conceited fop, but has his uses ; Meg for the executive, with this Stechy —-a practical man — nothing like practical men in business — Meg the paragon of economy and cleanliness. — It will do by the boar and peacock !”

“ And what will do, sir ” replied Meg. “ The east chauraer, wi’ the red Turk-upon-Turk bed. It can get a slaik o’ paint, and the easy-chair brought frae Mr Francie’s room. Puir lad, little he sat in’t. The bunker i’ the win- dow that looks down through the firs to the Shaws Place, was aye his seat in the e’ening. I’ll ne’er ha’e a lodger like him !”

“ That’s all past and gone, dame,” cried Touchwood ; “ other matters on hand, woman — but remember the rice- water to mix with your whitening, as I directed you in whitewashing the kitchen.”

“ As ready wi’ your advice as your help,” muttered Meg ; “ but I just took kirn-milk, as I used to do, and the same will serve this turn — but better fleech a fule than fecht him.”

“ Well, he enters to-night,” said Touchwood ; “ Jerry Ostler must settle his bill, and bring over his baggage along with the Doctor’s own man.”

26

INTRODUCTION.

The defection of the great Dr Redgill from the new hotel, after a trial of twenty-four hours, was the most signal tri- umph Meg had yet obtained over this establishment. But she disdained to crimp a customer ; and as Mr Cargill was at this instant passing out, happier than ever, after this sym- posium, to escape to his burrow, she called on him to wit- ness the compact.

“ He’ll get the east chaumer,” said Meg; “ I cannot spare anither parlour, — breakfast his lane, and ye dine the- gither. The Club, — the Cleikum Club, ye ca’ it, — and bet- ter so than making as much ready for ae single gentleman as would serve six. I’ll mak’ ye a’ comfortable, never fear it. But, — and hear me now ! — it’s no to be said, thought, or surmeesed, that by harbouring and resetting a rampant fol- lower o’ the Lethargy o’ the church of England, I’m to change my kirk for the lucre o’ trade and custom. Ye cer- tify that, Nawbob, on saul and conscience, or a dish is no cookit for him in owre that door-stane.”

“ Keep yourself easy, Mrs Margaret,” said Touchwood ; “ the Doctor is a true son of the church of England, I dare say ; but he admires your practice too much to shake your faith.”

“ Na, wha made me a judge and a divine,” replied Meg, greatly mollified with the act of delivering her testimony ; f I’m no dooting but the Doctor has the root o’ the matter in him, Maister Cargill.”

“ Ay, that he has,” cried Touchwood, “ truffles and mo- rels, onions and carrots, I’ll answer for him.”

“ That’s enough,” said Meg.

“ Go, woman, scour your saucepans. Send for Stechy ; have the kitchen like a Dutch paradise to-morrow morning ; for then we take the field !”

By the time that Touchwood returned from his negotia- tion in the kitchen, the good wine had done its good office in the parlour. Not that there were any symptoms of ine- briation, either actual or remote ; but the prevailing mood was free, joyous, and, in short, highly convivial. The Doc-

INTRODUCTION.

27

tor told prosy college-stories of college-feasts, and gave La- tin toasts ; Winterblossom related anecdotes of the bon-vi- vans of another generation, and hummed catches most vilely; and the young man smoked his cigar and the whole party at once.

In this happy hour, on which favouring stars shed pros- perous influences, was the Cleikcjm Club instituted. To conclude the entertainment, the Nabob produced a single bottle of choice Burgundy, Mont Ratchet ; and a special bumper was dedicated to the new-comer. Coffee four years kept was prepared by the Nabob’s own hands — coffee which he had himself brought from Mocha — in a coffee-pot of Pa- risian invention patronized by Napoleon.

Mrs Dods was afterwards courteously summoned to make tea ; and the plan of the proposed club was submitted to her judgment. She startled a good deal at first; and was several times in danger of bolting off the course. But once fairly engaged, her zeal was unbounded ; and long experience ren- dered her the most efficient member of the convocation.

An extended correspondence was arranged with known amateur gourmands as well as practical persons; and also with those clubs, both provincial and metropolitan, of which the eating, rather than the erudite preparation, of dinners, had hitherto been the leading feature.

Meanwhile, as every thing requires time, while the kitchen stores and utensils were getting into order, the Nabob, aided by his friend, delivered what might almost be called a course of lectures on the science of cookery in all its branches. For these, though exceedingly valuable from the curious facts they contained, as well as for their philosophical deductions, Mrs Dods had not patience.

“ Let us to the wark !” she cried ; “ what business ha’e thae lang ink-horn- tailed words wi’ teaching wives to make Cock-a-leekie, or Friar’s chicken”

“ Ay, there it is,” cried Touchwood, “ the very term stamps truth on my theory.”

28

INTRODUCTION.

“ Ay, there’s Friar’s chicken, and Friar’s fish in sauce, and Friar’s balsam, too, Nawbob,” said Meg; “ and my grand-dame, as ye say, was just as good a cook as me, and may be a wee thought better at the jeelies and paistries ; and for a floating island, or a hedgehog, we never could pretend to ony sic grandery at the Cleikum ; mair especially in days when every farmer -chield gangs yanking by on his bluid- horse, and keeps a bred cook, with ten pound a-year and her tea-money. A bonny breed there is o’ them ! Unless I get the jillets o’ my ain up-bringing, I wadna trust them to scour a pot-lid, Mr Touchwood.”

“ Meg shall deliver the lecture on breeding and training cooks,” said the Nabob. “ But a beginning must be made ; and I have thrown together a few loose hints here, which I submit to you, gentlemen. You know my object, gentlemen. It was the saying of a great prince, that he wished every one of his subjects “ had a pullet in the pot.” Why may not I, Peregrine Touchwood, do my best to instruct every fair fel- low-subject of mine how to dress her pullet when she has got it If a Dr King, a Sir John Hill, a Dr Hunter, a Sir John Sinclair, and a Count Rumford, have dedicated their time and talents to the service of their species, in this im- portant line,* why should plain Peregrine Touchwood disdain the task No man cares less about what he eats than I do, gentlemen. A man who has shared horse-flesh with the Tartar, and banqueted on dog’s-flesh with the China-man, is not likely to be dainty of his own gab.”

Here the Nabob took from his pocket the introductory lecture which had been privately retouched by Winterblos- sora, as its garnish showed.

“ Gentlejiex, — Man is a cooking animal ; and in whatever situation he is found, it may be assumed as an axiom, that

INTRODUCTION.

29

his progress in civilization has kept exact pace with the de- gree of refinement he has attained in the science of gastro- nomy. From the hairy man of the woods, gentlemen, dig- ging his roots with his claws, to the refined banquet of the Greek, or the sumptuous entertainment of the Roman ; from the ferocious hunter, gnawing the half-broiled bloody collop, torn from the still reeking carcass, to the modern goxirmet , apportioning his ingredients, and blending his essences, the chain is complete ! First, We have the brutalized digger of roots ; then the sly entrapper of the finny tribes ; and next the fierce foul feeder, devouring his ensnared prey, fat, blood, and muscle !

“ What a style o’ language 1” whispered Mrs Dods J— “ but I maun look after the scouring o’ the kettles.”

“ The next age of cookery, gentlemen, may be called the pastoral, as the last was that of the hunter. Here we have simple, mild broths, seasoned, perhaps, with herbs of the field, decoctions of pulse, barley- cake, and the kid seethed in milk. I pass over the ages of Rome and Greece, and con- fine myself to the Gothic and Celtic tribes, among whom gradually emerged what I shall call the chivalrous or feudal age of cookery, — the wild boar roasted whole, the stately crane, the lordly swan, the full-plumaged peacock, borne into the feudal hall by troops of vassals, to the flourish of trumpets, warlike instruments, marrow-bones and cleavers.”

“ Bravo !” cried Jeykl.

“ Cookery as a domestic art, contributing to the comfort and luxury of private life, had made considerable progress in England before the Reformation ; which event threw it back some centuries. We find the writers of those ages making large account of an art, from which common sense, in all countries, borrows its most striking illustrations and analogies.”

“ Only hear till him !” whispered Meg.

“ The ambitious man seeks to rule the roast ; — The meddling person “ likes to have his finger in the pie;”

30

INTRODUCTION.

— “ Meat and mass hinder no business — The rash man

gets into a stew,” and “ cooks himself a pretty mess — “ A half-loaf is better than no bread;” — “ There goes reason to the roasting of an egg;” — “ Fools make feasts, and wise men eat them — “ The churl invites a guest, and sticks him with the spit ;” — f‘ The belly is every man’s master ;” — ‘f Fie who will not fight for his meat, what will he fight for” — iC A hungry man is an angry man ;” — “ It’s ill talking between a full man and a fasting and, finally, “ It is the main business of every man’s life to make the pot boil or, as the Scots more emphatically have it, ‘ to make the pat play brown,’ which a lean pot never will do.”

“ And that’s as true,” said Meg. “ A fat pat boiling, popples and glances on the tap, like as mony brown lammer- beads.”

“ Hush dame ! — The science, as we noticed, gentlemen, had made considerable advances in England, when the Re- formation not only arrested its progress, but threatened for ever to extinguish the culinary fire. Gastronomy, violently expelled from monasteries and colleges, found no sanctuary either in the riotous household of the jolly cavalier, or in the gloomy abode of the lank, pinched-visaged round-head ; the latter, as the poet has it, eager to

c Fall out with mince-meat, and disparage

His best and dearest friend, plum-porridge

the former broaching his hogshead of October beer, and roast- ing a whole ox, in the exercise of a hospitality far more libe- ral than elegant.

iC But, gentlemen, the genial spark was still secretly cherished in our seats of learning. Oxford watched over the culinary flame with zeal proportioned to the importance of the trust. From this altar were rekindled the culinary fires of episcopal palaces, which had smouldered for a time ; and gas- tronomy once more raised her parsley- wreathed front in Bri-

INTRODUCTION. 31

tain, and daily gained an increase of devoted, if not yet en- lightened worshippers.”

“ Ay, that will suffice for a general view of the subject,” cried Dr Redgill ; “ let us now get to the practical part of the science, — arrange the dinners, — ‘ the proof of the pud- ding is the eating.’ ”

Touchwood had a high disdain for what he called “ the bigotry of the stew-pan” in Dr Redgill, who, like a true churchman, had a strong leaning “ to dishes as they are.” Jekyl was to the full as flighty and speculative as the Doctor was dogmatic. The young man had French theory, — the beau ideal of gastrology floating in his brains. His experi- ence in the most fashionable clubs, and taverns, and bachelor- establishments about the metropolis, had been great ; but it was fortunately modified by a course of peninsular practice ; and, upon the whole, he was found a most efficient member of the club in all that regarded modern improvements, though rather intolerant of Scottish national dishes.

The culinary lectures of Touchwood, whose eloquence for six long weeks fulmined over the Cleikum kitchen, extended to such unreasonable compass, that a brief syllabus of the course is all we can give, without unduly swelling this Manual, and losing sight of the purpose for which it was intended; namely, a Practical System of Rational Cookery and Domestic Economy.

Lecture I. Importance of the science. Its history.

II. On Cooks. — The name clearly derived from Coquin. Their self-conceit and prejudices. Their ignorance. May be propitiated by a printed Manual when they would dis- dain advice. Sly peep into the Manual in the dresser- drawer. Books of receipts most useful to those who have already made some practical progress in the art.

III. On the Kitchen. — Of kitchens in general. The Dutch kitchen. The baronial kitchen, and the corridor communicating with the chambers, whence the lady survey- ed the operations below. — The Vicar of Wakefield’s kitchen.

32

INTRODUCTION.

Kitchen of a comfortable village inn. The farmer’s kitchen. Dark kitchens of great cities. Importance of light. The construction and regulation of the fires. Ovens. Stoves. Supply of soft water in kitchens. Kitchen utensils. Ought to be provided in proper quantity, as well as of suitable kinds. Rather numerous than otherwise, to save the distraction and waste of time occasioned by a scanty supply. A digester, meat-screen, salting-trough, meat-safe, &c. indispensable in families where comfort and economy are studied. Speedily pay themselves by the saving of fuel, labour, and provisions. May be bought on the graduated scale suited to the size and circumstances of the family. The price, to a young house- keeper, of one couch or looking-glass would obtain all those articles so subservient to domestic comfort and economy.

IV. Cleanliness. — Its importance insisted on. Con- sidered the first virtue of a plain cook. — Some difference of opinion among gourmands as to its relative importance. Female cooks generally considered superior to those of the other sex in this quality. Is#, Cleanliness as applicable to all descriptions of culinary utensils. — All saucepans, grid- irons, spits, skewers, &c. to be laid away clean, and kept well-tinned and free of rust Pickle-jars, casks, troughs, paste-pins, &c. to be laid aside clean. Great attention to be given to keep pudding-cloths, tapes, jelly-bags, tammy-cloths, sieves, &c. clean, sweet, and dry. Kitchen-cloths to be washed every day after dinner. Wood-ashes recommended by French artists for this purpose, as soap gives a bad flavour to pudding-cloths, &c. 2 d, Cleanliness as applicable to pro-

visions about to be dressed. — To be duly washed, trimmed, and wiped. Attention to be given to skimming, straining, withholding the sediment and lees. Neatness in dishing without sloping the ledges of the dishes. Anecdotes of the slovenliness of cooks. Nobleman who, visiting his kitchen, found the butter required for the made-dishes stuck over the kitchen fire-place. Mr F of C— — *, on a similar occa-

sion, finds his man-cook employing the contents of a shaving-

INTRODUCTION. 33

jug, which he had just been using, to liquefy a dish of mince- collops !

V. Early Training of Cooks. — Receipts not sufficient to qualify for duty. The/ cook, like the surgeon, must put to the hand. Ought to be duly impressed with the importance of the art, and, above all, with her own individual responsi- bility. Method: arrangement: forecast. The days before a great dinner. The day of a great dinner. What to be done. Soups, jellies, creams, and many made-dishes, to be prepared beforehand. Rules for seasoning. Training of the palate of the cook — indurated by tbe use of spirituous liquors. Gentlemen of forty-five and upwards will generally be found to require a double allowance of Cayenne, eschallot, garlic, salt, and flavoured vinegar, compared with those under that age, unless the juniors have been bred at Oxford. Bachelors to be allowed a fourth more seasonings than married men ; and, in the same proportions, a military gentleman and a ci- vilian. For West and East Indians, peppers and all stimulat- ing condiments may be used ad libitum.

VI. On Family Management and Domestic Economy in general. — 1st, Early rising, importance of. Where im- possible or inconvenient, best substitute an early and dili- gent inspection and regular enforcement of the orders given the night before, for the employment of the morning-liours. 2 d, Marketing and laying in family-stores and articles that improve by keeping — as soap, sugar, starch, paper, spiceries, seeds, fruits, spring-made candles, &c. All best preserved in cool dry places. No expense to be grudged that prevents insects and vermin from getting at the stores. 3d, Choice of provisions. The senses of sight and smell the best guides • Fish of all sorts best when short and thick, well-made, bright in the scales, stiff and springy to the touch, the gills of a fresh red, the belly not flabby, the eyes and fins to be looked at. Meat speaks for itself. The fat of beef to be white and pure ; the lean, smooth-grained, and of a healthy crimson. Veal. — The kidney to be examined, the state of

34

INTRODUCTION.

which will show the feeding and condition of all animals. Ram-Mutton discoverable by the rank flavour and coarse texture of the flesh. Mutton not good under three years' old. Best about five, but seldom to be got in the market of that age. The black -faced or short sheep best for the table, though more depends on the pasture than on the breed. Lamb. — The qualities of it may easily be known by the in- spection of the head, neck, and kidney ; let the neck be fat ; the eyes not sunk, the kidney fresh and fat, the quarters short and thick. Por/c to be chosen by the colour and thick- ness of the rind. Measly pork easily known by the little lumps and kernels mixed with the fat, which look clammy and greasy. All meat known, if stale, by the eyes being sunk, the kidney tainted, the flesh clammy and livid. Veni- son.— Thick and firm in the fat, — the lean pure. The age of deer, hares, and rabbits known by the clefts and claws being close and smooth in the young animal. Game and Poultry. — The age known by the legs and spur. When smooth in the legs and short in the spur, the animal is young. Trick of poulterers to cut and shorten the spur. Stale when the eye is quite sunk, the vent tainted. Black-legged fowls the most juicy. Attention to the breed and form. The Dorking large breed recommended : best, when short, plump, broad in the breast, and thick in the rump. Game, if stale, known by the livid colour of the flesh about the vent. Hams and Bacon good when the flesh adheres firmly to the bone, the smell fresh, the lean clear and not streaked with yellow. Brawn. — If old, the rind thick and hard. Salt Butter and Cheese to be probed and tasted. Fresh butter easily known by the taste. Eggs not easily known when stale. Hold between the eye and a candle in a dark room, and, if the yolk appear unbroken, the egg is not stale, llathcr a doubt- ful test this. Anchovies and Pickled Salmon known by the smell and fresh-colour of the fish. Their pickle-liquor should be pure and well-flavoured. The red colour given to an- chovy-liquor by artificial means, and no test of goodness.

6

INTRODUCTION.

35

The best joints of the best meat cost most money at first, but are the most economical. Utility of purchasing these. All provisions should be bought with ready money; or the bills settled weekly. Shown to be a saving of 20 per cent.

VII. Miscellaneous Hints and Directions. — Strain- ing to be done twice if necessary, or with a double tammy- cloth. All jelly-bags to be moistened in hot water and well wrung, for if used dry, will drink up a considerable quantity of the article strained. Sauces too much thickened can never afterwards be cleared of fat, as the fatty matter will not se- parate. Sauces and broths must have time to cook ; but if kept too long over the fire, will deteriorate both in colour and flavour. This is peculiarly applicable to sauces of game. All sorts of small cakes, and pastry and puffs, short- bread, Savoy cake, &c., must improve by being laid on paper, and heated on the hob, or hot hearth, or before the fire, when to be used. Pastry kept for days is so much re- freshed by this process as to eat nearly as well as when newly baked, from the full flavour of the sugar, butter, and fruit, being given out. Great care to be taken that every single egg used be fresh, as one stale egg will taint dozens.

VIII. Preserving of Provisions by Salting, Drying, Pickling, Preserving. — Importance of sugar in preserv- ing meat, fish, and butter ; — shown to do so most effectually with only a small proportion of salt. The pyroligneous acid, or vinegar of wood, — its uses. Late discoveries in curing provisions in consequence of the premiums of the Highland Society. Meat salts the better of having the bones taken out. Bacon should always be twice salted, and patiently rubbed both times. All meat salted in pieces and packed must be fully covered with the brine. The process of salt- ing accelerated by occasional rubbing with fresh salt. This important subject fully treated of in the Manual.

IX. Premiums to Cooks for diligent Discharge of their Duties and Proficiency in the Art. — For neatness, economy, forecast, preservation of provisions, in-

36

INTRODUCTION.

vention or improvement of cheap family-dishes. Establish- ment for decayed cooks, and prospectus of a National Gastronomical Board.

X. Causes that retard the Progress of the Art. — Ignorance and prejudices of cooks. Inattention of ladies. Impudence and common tricks of quacks and would-be-gas- tronomers.

XI. On French Cookery.— The French, as a nation, allowed to be the best cooks in the world. In what their superiority consists, — wherein worthy of imitation, — their earthen stew-pans, — wood embers, — small furnaces, — their fire applied above and around as well as under their saucepans. Their cookery of vegetables, and of dishes of desserte, that is of cold things, peculiarly commendable. — Reference made to the Manual for the substance of French Cookery.

DIRECTIONS FOR CARVING.

Carving is justly esteemed one of the minor arts of polite life, — a test at first sight of the breeding of men, as its dexterous and graceful performance is presumed to mark a person trained in good fashion. “To dance in hall and carve at board” are classed to- gether, by no mean authority, in the list of a young gentleman’s accomplishments ; and Chesterfield, the great modern teacher of polished life, has made this qualification an object of his pupil’s peculiar study. Carving, like heraldry, hunting, hawking, and other sciences of a like important kind, had a language of its own. Treatises were composed to show how the heron was to be dismembered, the duck unbraced, the crane displayed, the swan lifted, the goose reared, and so forth. The Grand Carver was a function- ary of some dignity in former times ; and till the office is revived, or the oriental custom of having the principal part of the carving performed by the cook is adopted, it is necessary to acquire a knowledge of this art on principles of economy as well as from re- spect to good manners.

To carve quickly and neatly requires a good deal of practice, as well as vigilant observation of those who ' perform the office well. There are awkward grown- up persons, having, as the French say, two left hands, whom no labour will ever make dexterous carvers; yet there is no difficulty in this humble but useful art, which young persons, if early initiated under the eye of their friends, might not easily surmount, and thus save themselves much awkward embarrassment in future life. One objection to allowing juvenile practice is, that young people haggle provisions ; but they might surely be permitted sometimes to try plain joints and cold things, which would soon bring in their hands.

Though no directions can supply the place of practice ; it may nevertheless be useful to tell the young carver how to use his tools, and what is ex- pected from him. What are esteemed the most choice morsels of every dish ought to be known ; for “ to

38

DIRECTIONS FOR CARVING.

deal small and serve all” must be the carver’s maxim. Venison fat., — the Pope’s eye in a leg of mutton., — veal and lamb kidney, — the firm gelatinous parts of a cod’s head, — the thin part of salmon, — the thick of turbot, and other flat fish, are reckoned the prime bits ; — the ribs and neck of a pig, — the breast and wings of fowls, — the legs of hare and rabbit, — the breast and thighs of turkey and goose, cutting off the drumsticks, — the wings and breast of pheasants, partridges, and moor-game, and the legs and breast of duck, are also reckoned delicacies. There are, besides, favourite bits highly prized by some gour- mands, though it is sometimes not easy to discover in what their superior excellence consists; as dry shank of mutton, — turbot fins, — cod’s tongue, — the bitter back of moor-game, — the back of hare, — the head of carp ; and in stew-soups, meat, and forcemeat balls. A knowledge of these things will be of use to the carver as a guide in that equitable distribution of good things, which is the most pleasing part of his duty.

It is well known, that a person of any refinement will eat much more when his food is served in hand- some slices, and not too much at once, than when a pound clumsily cut is laid upon his plate. To cut warm joints fairly and smoothly, neither in -slices too thick, nor in such as are finically thin, is all that is re- quired of the carver of meat, whether boiled or roast- ed. For this purpose he must be provided with a knife having a good edge ; and it will greatly facili- tate his operations if the cook has previously taken care that the bones in all carcass-joints are properly divided. It is impossible for the most dexterous carver to proceed with ease or' comfort if this be ne- glected. In carving game or poultry for a large party, where many look for a share of the same deli- cacy, 'what is called “ making wings” must be avoid- ed, the first helpings cut the long way, and not made too lai-ge.

Turbot. — The thick part is the best. The Jins are fancied. Make an incision in the thickest part down to the bone, and take out slices with a fish-knife, helping part of the fins with each slice along with the appropriate sauce.

DIRECTIONS FOR CARVING.

39

Salmon is easily carved, whether crimped or boiled whole. At elegant tables, this fish is usually served on a napkin ; a slice of the thick, cut so as to preserve the beauty of the flakes, and a smaller one of the thin, with the appropriate sauce ; and a slice of lemon or cucumber is to be helped, if not objected to.

Fried Fish. — The thick part is reckoned the best. The fish are to be cut quite through, which is com- monly done by the cook for her own convenience. The choice is — Cf Shoulders or tail ”

Sirlobi of Beef. — This favourite joint is all prime. The carver may begin at either end, or in the middle. This last, however, is neither the most economical nor sightly method. If the meat is to be presented again cold, this deep trench — this “ forty mortal gashes on its side” — looks very ill, while it drains the joint of its juices. Many like the browned outside slice though dry ; but, if not chosen, it is to be laid aside, and, cut- ting down to the bone, a handsome slice is to be served with part of the soft fat delicately cut, gravy, and horseradish. The inside or English side may be pre- ferred by some guests ; the joint must, in that case, be turned over, and slices cut from thence.

Edge-Bone, or H Bone of Beef, the Scottish Heiick- Bane. — In. this and all pieces of boiled meat, the out- side, which becomes dry and hard in the salting and boiling, is to be laid aside, or sent away. This done, cut handsome smooth slices of the lean, and with each give a very little of the marrowy and firm fat, for which this dish is prized.

Rump of Beef is carved as the above, but horizon- tally, preserving a smooth finely-grained surface.

A Brisket of Beef is cut down to the bone the long way in rather thin slices, as the piece is fatty and gristly ; and all fat meat must be cut delicately thin.

Breast of Veal or Lamb. — Divide the gristly part from the ribs, — then divide both the other way. The choice is — “ Gristles or ribs”

Fillet of Veal. — This is usually, and always ought to be, stuffed in the flap. Cut it in delicate horizontal slices, and help either browned outside or inside, as is chosen, with a little of the fat, and a thin slice of the stuffing, some gravy, &c.

40

DIRECTIONS FOR CARVING.

Gigot. — This joint is familiar where veal is small. It is either cut in horizontal slices, or as a leg of mut- ton, but beginning nearer the broad end. Shoulder and loiti of veal are cut as mutton. The kidney fat of the loin is prized, and sometimes sliced at table and heated over a lamp.

Saddle of Mutton. — Cut thin slices lengthways, di- viding them if too long, and helping fat and lean to- gether. Some persons think that, besides being a more economical way of carving, the meat is more delicately-grained, and eats better, if a deep incision is made along the bone, and slices be taken crossways from thence.

Roasted Pig. — We could wish that the practice of having this dish carved by the cook were universal ; for, in this fastidious age, the sanguinary spectacle of an entire four-footed animal at table is any thing but acceptable. Like the larger poultry, pig is also very troublesome to the carver, who must have a sharp knife, with which the head is to be taken off in the first place ; then cut down the back from neck to rump ; afterwards remove the shoulder and leg on each side. The ribs are then to be divided into four portions, and the legs and shoulders cut in two. The ribs are, or rather were, esteemed the most delicate part of this dish ; now the neck of a well-roasted pig is the favourite morsel. The carver must use his dis- cretion in distributing ear and jaw, as far as these will go, and help stuffing and sauce more liberally.

Turkey. — Where the party is not very large, and the dishes numerous, a good many small delicate slices, with very thin portions of the stuffing, may be helped lengthways from the breast. If this is not sufficient, proceed as directed for a goose, page 44.

Hams are cut in three ways. You may begin at the hock, which is the most economical method ; in the middle, or at the broad end. The chief thing to be attended to after an incision is made, is the delicacy of the slices.

Tongue. — The best part is the thick, and the meat is most delicate when cut across in very thin slices. It is, however, more economical to cut it in thin slices the long way. Tongue and ham cannot, when cold, be too delicately cut.

DIRECTIONS FOR CARVING.

41

Cod's Head and Shoulders , if served without a sauce in the dish, which is the general mode, should be served on a napkin. If sufficiently boiled it is very easily carved. Let the back of the fish be placed to- wards the carver. Enter the silver fish-carver at a, and cut down to the bone in the direction ah, c d, and help from this opening right and left at convenience, taking care not to make a jagged surface by breaking the flakes. The gelatinous pieces about the neck and head are prized, and must be helped if asked for ; also small slices of the sound. The palate and tongue may be got at with a spoon if it be wished ; but these are rather the fantastic than prime parts. Some cut the fish long-ways ; but the above is the fairer mode.

Haunch of V enison. — Make an incision quite down to the bone, in the direction of the lines a b, to let the gravy flow. Let the carver then turn the dish towards himself, and cut down to the bone from c to d, thus forming, as it were, the Roman letter T. The most delicate slices lie to the left of the line c d, supposing the joint to lie endways to the carver, and the broad end of the haunch, e df next him. From the incision, slices, not too thick, may be cut, which, if too long, can be divided. A thinner and smaller slice of fat must be given with each, and also gravy. As the fat of venison freezes very

^ DIRECTIONS FOR CARVING.

rapidly, the more expeditiously the carver gets through his task the better ; or a dish with a spirit-lamp is sometimes brought to the table to keep the gravy, fat, &c. quite hot.

Haunch of Mutton is carved exactly as venison.

A boiled Gigot or Leg of Mutton. — A boiled gigot or leg is served as represented in the plate ; a roast leg is served with the other side uppermost, though they are carved nearly in the same manner, and indeed, whether boiled or roasted, the leg is often served with the same side uppermost. The most juicy part of this fa- vourite joint is about the middle or thick of the thigh. Let the shank lie to the carver’s left hand, and let him cut down to the bone, through the noix or kernel, called the Pope’s eye, in the direction a b. Though the most juicy part of the leg is here, some choose the dry knuckle, and others the fatty part about the chump ; or small slices that may be found along the back-bone ; even the tail of fat mutton is chosen by some.

Shoulder of Mutton.— This joint is served with the outside uppermost. Cut into the deepest part

DIRECTIONS FOR CARVING.

43

clown to the bone in a slanting line from a to b, and from this opening take slices of a proper thickness. If more helpings are wanted, some delicate slices may be cut out on each side of the ridge of the blade-bone, in the direction c d and ef. The most delicate slices are to be found in that part which, in the living animal, lay next to the back-bone ; they are to be cut out in rather thin slices, in the direction of the line g h. In almost all animals delicate fatty slices are to be found along the back-bone. Good fleshy slices full of juice, though not very delicate in the fibre, are to be got by turning the joint over, and cutting slantwise into the hollow part of the inside. So various are tastes, that some persons prefer the knuckle, though the driest and coarsest part of the animal. Some mo- dern carvers prefer cutting slices at once right down from the shank to the broad end.

Fore-Quarter of Lamb. — Separate the shoulder from the ribs, by passing a carving-knife, held near- ly horizontally, it! the direction abed. Take care not to make too broad a shoulder-flap, and thus leave the ribs bare. Some carvers merely make a slight incision into the skin, and tear off the shoulder flap. The shank, which must be twisted in pa- per, may be held by the carver if it is found con- venient. Squeeze a little juice of lemon or Seville orange over the parts separated, and sprinkle them with a little salt. They may also be laid together, and gently pressed down, to make the juice flow ; or have a little butter if deficient in juice. Next sepa- rate the gristles of the breast from the ribs, in the di- rection d f and the choice is, f ribs, gristle, or shoul- der ” though the ribs are esteemed the most delicate

44

DIRECTIONS FOR CARVING.

part. The shoulder is to be carved as directed for shoulder of mutton ; and if the joint is large, it will be found as convenient to put the shoulder aside on a plate.

A Goose. — The carver must cut thin nice slices in the lines a b, down to the breast-bone, helping round as he carves. If there be stuffing, the apron must be cut open in the circular line fig, and part of it may be served with each helping. If there be no stuffing, a glass of wine, a little orange-gravy, or vinegar, is poured into the body of the goose at the opening, which the carver, for this purpose, makes in the apron. Orange-gravy or red wine is also often poured over the sliced breast of goose or duck, before the slices are taken out. If the party be so numerous that the breast-slices are not sufficient, the carver must proceed to take off the right leg, for which purpose he must put his fork through the small end, press it close to the body, and, meanwhile, entering his knife at d , jerk the leg smartly back, and the joint will separate, when the leg may easily be cut off in the direction d e. The wing on the same side is next to be taken off. For this purpose, fix the* fork in the pinion, press it to the' body, and, entering the knife at c, separate the joint, and afterwards cut off the wing in the direction c d. Proceed in the same way to take off the other leg and wing. In helping a goose, the thigh, which is a favourite part, may be separated from the drumstick, and the fleshy part of the wing from the pinion. Fortunately for the carver, the breast-slices are in general found sufficient; as dis- membering an old goose or Turkey is one of the most laborious and awkward of his duties.

DIRECTIONS FOR CARVING.

45

A Fowl, with the Members on one Side cut off- This dish is managed m the same way, whether boil- ed or roasted. In a boiled fowl, the legs are bent in- wards, trussed within the apron, and skewered so till served ; in a roasted fowl they are left out and skewer- ed en long. The carver may remove the fowl from the dish to his own plate, particularly when there are two (as is usual) served in the same dish. The members and joints, as taken off, are to be placed in the dish, if not helped round as cut off, which is the best way, as the guests are not kept waiting, and the carver sees when he has enough cut. The carver must fix his fork in the breast, and take off slices from the breast on each side of the merry-thought, which are to be helped in the first place, or left till the whole is finished, as is chosen. Next separate the joint of the wing in the direction a b ; then separate the muscles, by fixing the fork in the pinion, and smartly jerking back the wing towards the leg. f Pass the Knife be- tween the body and leg, in the direction b d, and cut to the joint clear ; then, with the fork fixed, jerk the leg back, and the parts will give way. Turn over the fowl on your plate, and take off the other leg and wing ; next the merry-thought, as in the circular line f g. Take off the neck-bone, by putting in the knife atg; and having the fork well fixed, jerk it off from the part which adheres to the breast-bone. The members being thus disposed of, the breast must be divided from the body by cutting right through the ribs down to the rump on each side. This done, turn the back of the fowl upwards on your plate. Lay your knife firmly across it, as if to hold it down, and, with the fork fixed in the rump, give it a jerk, when it will easily divide across ; turn the rump from you,

46

DIRECTIONS FOR CARVING.

and cut off the side-bones, and the fowl is carved. What demands most attention, is to hit the joint of the wing, so as not to interfere with the neck-bone. The prime parts of a fowl, whether boiled or roasted, are the breast, merry-thought, wings, particularly a livered wing, and side-bones. Some dexterous carvers can take out a side-bone and leave on the leg and wing, which permits the fowl to be presented cold in good form.

A Pheasant . — Fix the fork in the breast, and cut slices in the lines a b. If more helpings are want- ed, take off the legs and wings, as directed in carv- ing a fowl, and be careful in taking off the wing to hit the exact point between it and the neck- bone. Next cut off the merry-thought in the line c d, and then divide the other parts exactly as a fowl. The prime bits are the same as in a fowl. The brains are fancied. It is an object of economy in carving game and poultry, which are often very high- priced, to cut off no more parts than are required bvl the guests.

Pigeons. — To cut them from top to bottom in the line erf is the fairest way, as the thigh is esteemed

DIRECTIONS FOR CARVING. 47

the best part, though some prefer the breast They may also be divided in the triangular line b a c. Ducklings, or very young spring chickens, are carved in this manner.

A Partridge as trussed for the Table. — A partridge is cut up as a fowl or pheasant. The prime parts are the same in them all, but the wing, and particularly the tip of the wing, the most dainty. It is almost need- less to mention, that though the plates shew the skewers, they must all be withdrawn before any dish is served.

A Hare. — While a hare continues to be sent to table as represented in the plate, the carver must enter his knife at g, if the animal be young, and cut fairly along the back-bone to h. Then enter his knife on the other side of the back, at an equal distance from it, and cut in a parallel line. The legs will easily be got off, and the shoulders in the circular line ef g. Divide the hare into three, or, if a large hare, four pieces, going right through the spine at the joints. The leg, which is too large for one helping, may be divided. The pieces may either be helped as cut off, or laid neatly in the dish till the carving is completed, when they are to be helped round, with stuffing and gravy, to each person. If the hare be old, the carver will succeed better by turning the dish towards him-

48

DIRECTIONS FOR CARVING.

self, and cutting off the legs, entering the knife about two inches below the back-bone, and trying to hit the joint (without which his task will not be easy), and jerking the joint open, as in carving a goose. A few nice slices will be got above the place at which he enters the knife, lying along the back-bone. The back may next be divided into three or four parts, and the fore-limbs cut off. To divide the head, cut it off, place it on a clean plate, and cut the upper from the under jaw. Next cut it down exactly through the middle. The ears and brains are fancied. Some care must be taken by papering and basting the ears to have them crisp. Before roasting, they should be singed inside with a hot poker.

Rabbits are carved like hare ; only, being much smaller, the head is not divided, and the back is only cut in two pieces.

N. B. Every elegant carver will try to cover the unsightly gashes he must make, in fish particularly, by throwing the garnishing over the wreck, or even a fold of the napkin on which the fish is served. Though the remark is somewhat out of place, we must here notice that, in ordinary circumstances, garnishing the ledges of dishes is rather losing ground. At highly-dressed dinners, garnished by thorough -bred professors, all sorts of ornament are expected. For public breakfasts, collations, and suppers, garnishings of coloured jellies, and of sauces iced and moulded in the French style, have peculiar beauty and fitness. And even at small quiet dinners, brain-cakes, forcemeat-balls, small fried fish, or oysters fried, sip- pets, small sausages, pastry -borders, and those of potato, or rice, are always appropriate when served with the respective dishes to which the best usages of cookery have attached them ; while the fried pars- ley, the spinage, or sorrel, or turnip, on which fricandeaux , tongue, or boiled mutton, &c. may be served, is a positive excellence, at al- most no additional expense ; but as it must ever be more convenient, it is also more agreeable, to see such things as sliced orange or lemon, beet, pickles, and scraped horseradish, placed on a small dish near the carver, than tossed awrv, soused in the gravy, or sloping the ledges of the assets. In this, as in everybranch of the art, good taste and discretion must mutually aid each other. There is one cheap and comfortable mode of imparting a look of fulness, finish, and neatness, in serving an otherwise insignificant dressed dish, des- tined to occupy a principal place, which merits more general adop- tion, namely, serving the dish on a larger one, round which a da-

mask napkin is neatly puffed, thus shewing an agreeable frame-work or border, of which a light paste bordering round the dish with the viands may form, as it were, the inner circle. In this manner a turtle course is sometimes served, where the shell is used as a dish.

OF BILLS OF FARE.

Tables should be like pictures to the sight,

Some dishes cast in shade, some spread in light ;

Some should be moved when broken, others last Through the whole treat, incentive to the taste.

King's Cookery.

As landmarks to the inexperienced housekeeper, we subjoin a few bills of fare, observing, at the same time, that these must, in every instance, be left to individual taste and discretion. Bills of fare may be varied in endless ways, — nor can any specific rules be given for selecting dishes for the table, which must depend wholly on fortune, fashion, the season of the year, local situation, and a variety of circumstances. Neat- ness and propriety alone are of universal obligation in the regulation of every table, from the humblest to the most splendid. To the credit of the age it may be remarked, that modern fashion inclines more to a few dishes, well selected and elegantly disposed, than to that heterogeneous accumulation of good things with which notable British housewives used to con- ceal their table-linen. The culinary tastes of our po- lite neighbours are imperceptibly undermining some points of our ancient national faith. At genteel tables, very rich puddings, cakes, and fat meat-pies, have lost ground. Creams, jellies, and preserved and cara- melled fruits or compotes, take their place. Fish is more simply cooked than it formerly was. Putrid game is no longer admired ; and the native flavour of all viands is more sedulously preserved by a better style of cookery.

The manner of laying out a fashionable table is nearly the same in all quarters of the united king- doms ; yet there are trifling local peculiarities to which the prudent housewife in middle life must attend. A centre-ornament, whether it be called a dormant , a plateau, an epcrgne, or a candelabra, is found so con- venient, and contributes so much to the good appear- ance of the table, that a fashionable dinner is now sel- dom set out without something of this kind.

50

OF BILLS OF FARE.

It may be assumed, that utility is the true princi- ple of beauty, at least in affairs of the table, and, above all, in the substantial Jirsi course. A very false or defective taste is, however, often shown in centre- ornaments. Strange ill-assorted nosegays, and mon- strous bouquets of artificial-flowers, begin to droop or look faded among those hot steams, which soon deprive even the more appropriate salad of its fresh and light appearance. Ornamental articles of family-plate, carved, chased, or merely plain, but highly-polished, can never be out of place, however old-fashioned, and are the only things of which this can be constantly affirmed. In the same manner we may assume, that in desserts, richly-cut and brightly- washed useful articles of glass can never cease to be or- namental ; though we would pause on the adoption of all alum or wax baskets, and fruits of this last tantaliz- ing substance, with many other things of the counter- feit kind. We are far, however, from proscribing the foliage and moss in which fruits are sometimes seen lightly bedded. These are next to the native dew, and the bloom is beautiful and appropriate. That sparkling imitation of frost-work, which is given to preserved fruits and other things, is also exceedingly beautiful, as are many of the trifles belonging to French and Italian confectionary. As we are disposed to give the Monks full credit for many of the best French dishes, and of our own antiquated preparations, so are the fair recluses of France and Italy entitled to the merit of much that is elegant in confectionary, of which they long had, and still have, tasteful exhibitions on holi- days. To their leisure and taste we owe caramelled and candied fruits, fruits en chemise, Chantilly and caramel- baskets, & c. &c. as well as the most delicate lace, needle-wrork, and cut paper. Linen well done up, and more cloths than one, with a scarlet baize between, give a table a clad comfortable look.

In all ranks, and at every table, one important art in housekeeping is to make what remains over from one day’s entertainment contribute to the elegance or plenty of the next day’s repasts. This is a principle understood by persons in the very highest ranks of society, and who maintain the most splendid and ex-

OF BILLS OF FARE.

51

pensive establishments. Their great town-dinners usually follow in rapid succession, one banquet form- ing, if not the basis, a useful auxiliary to the next en- tertainment. But as this has been elsewhere recom- mended to the attention of the reader, it is almost un- necessary to repeat here, that vegetables, ragouts, and soups, may be re- warmed ; and jellies and blancmange remoulded, with no deterioration of their qualities. Savoury or sweet patties, potted meats, croquets, ris- soles, vol-au-vents, fritters, tartlets, &c., may be served with almost no cost, where cookery is going forward on a large scale. In the French kitchen, a numerous class of culinary preparations, called entrees de desserte, or made-dishes of left things, are prepared even for grand entertainments.

At dinners of any pretension, it is understood that the first course shall consist of soups and fish, succeed- ed by boiled poultry, ham, or tongue, roasts, stews, &c. ; and of vegetables, with a few made-dishes, as ragouts, curries, hashes, cutlets, patties, fricandeaus, &c., in as great variety as the number of dishes permits ; as a jelly and a cream, a white and a brown, or a clear and a stew- soup. For the second course, roasted poultry or game at the top and bottom, with dressed vegetables, ome- lets, macaroni, jellies, creams, salads, preserved fruit, and all sorts of sweet things and pastry, are employ- ed,— endeavouring to give one article of each sort, as will be exemplified in the bills of fare subjoined. This is a more common arrangement than three courses, which are attended with so much additional trouble both to the guests and servants.

But whether the dinner be of two or three courses, it is managed nearly in the same way ; and for the ad- vantage of servants as well as of their employers, a few particulars may be detailed. In the centre, there is generally some ornamental article, as an epergne with flowers, real or artificial, or with a decorated salad. An ornament or plateau, containing essences, is equally appropriate. Two dishes of fish dressed in different ways, if suitable, should occupy the top and bottom ; and two soups, a white and a brown, or a mild and a high-seasoned, are best disposed on each side of the centre-piece : the fish- sauces are placed

52

OP BILLS OP PARE.

between the centre-piece and the dish of fish to which each is appropriate; and this, with the decanted wines drank during dinner, forms the first course. When there are rare French or Rhenish wines, they are placed in the original bottles (uncorked) in ornamented wine- vases, at the head and bottom of the table, — that is, be- tween the centre-piece and the top and bottom dishes; or if four kinds, they are ranged round the plateau.

The Second Course, when there are three, consists- of roasts and stews for the top and bottom, Turkey or fowls, or fricandeau and ham garnished, or tongue, for the sides ; with small made-dishes for the corners, served in covered dishes ; as palates, stewed giblets, eurrie of any kind, ragout, or fricassee of rabbits, stew- ed mushrooms, &c. &c. Two sauce-tureens, or glasses with pickles, or very small made-dishes, may be placed between the epergne and the top and bottom dishes ; vegetables on the side-table are handed round. If the epergne is taken away with this course, then a small tablecloth or overlay, which is often placed across, to keep the cloth neat for the third course, is also removed.

The Third Course consists of game, confectionary, the more delicate vegetables dressed in the French way, puddings, creams, jellies, &c.

Water-bottles, with rummers, are placed at proper intervals. Malt liquors and other common beverages are called for ; but where hock, champagne, &c. &c. are served, they are handed round between the courses. When the third course is cleared away, cheese, butter, a fresh salad, or sliced cucumber, are usually served ; and the finger-glasses, where these disagreeable things continue to be openly used, precede the dessert. At many tables, however, of the first fashion, it is customary merely to hand round quickly a glass vessel or two filled with simple, or simply perfumed tepid water, made by the addition of a little rose or lavender water, or a home-made strained infusion of rose leaves or lavender spikes. Into this water each guest may dip the corner of his napkin, and with this (only when needful) refresh his lips and the tips of his fingers. Polite foreigners cannot reconcile the use of finger- glasses with the boasted excessive delicacy of the do-

OF BILLS OF FARE.

53

mestic and personal habits of the English ; yet the custom is now partially adopted even on the conti- nent ; whence again some of our young fashionables and veteran men of travel have caught the filthy practice of eating with their fingers ; not merely sa- lads and cheese, but oysters, devils, macaroni, &c., in this digusting trick far exceeding their French and Italian masters ; what in foreigners is an unpleasant habit, being in their imitators bad taste, if not ill- breeding and effrontery.

The Dessert may consist merely of two dishes of fine fruit for the top and bottom ; common or dried fruits, filberts, &c. for the corners or sides, and a cake for the middle, with ice-pails in hot weather. Liqueurs are at this stage handed round ; and the wines usually drank after dinner are placed decanted on the table along with the dessert, and the ice-pails and plates removed as soon as the company finish their ice. Where there is preserved ginger, it follows the ices or is eaten to heighten to the palate the delicious coolness of the dessert wines. This may all be better understood by noting the following exact arrangement of what is considered a fashionable, though not sumptuous, din- ner of three courses and a dessert.

A FA SHI OX ABLE DIXXER OF THREE COURSES, WITH CHEESE-COURSE AXD DESSERT.

FIRST COURSE.

Turbot boiled.

O

G

Lobster Sauce.

O

C

Wine.

gป

Wine Vase.

‘o

$

a

S*

Epergnc.

s

a

to

•

Wine Vase.



Wine.

Fish Sauce.

B

Soles Fried.

54

OF BILLS OF FARE.

SECOND COURSE.

u

S3

Turkey roasted with Truffles. Sweetbreads. Stewed Mushrooms.

Wine.

o

'o

an

=

U

cj

3

o

Cutlets.

Wine Vase. Epergnc.

Wine Vase.

Venison Sauce. Haunch of Venison.

Currie in Rice.

33

o

o

o

a

S3

Wine.

.S

*

Patties.

Jelly.

-3

S3

13

-c

y

S3

o

Tartlets.

THIRD COURSE. Roasted Pigeons. Sauce Tureen.

Macaroni Pudding.

Wine Vase. Trifle ornamented. Wine Vase. Cranberry Tart. Sauce Tureen. Grouse roasted.

Bouchees des Dames.

x

o

Italian Cream.

OF BILLS OF FARE.

55

Directions for placing the Cheese, &c. after Dinner.*

u*

O

British Parmesan or Stilton.

2

Butter,

3

o

3

In forms, slices, or

^6

cS

o

a

m

n

4

S-4

CO

pats.

Parmesan rasped, and in a covered glass.

{Next come the Finger-glasses.')

THE DESSERT. Lemon Ice. Grapes.

Sugar Basin.

Cut Glasses.

Rose Souffle Cakes. Savoy Cake, on an elevated Stand. Wafers.

\

ฐy

%

\

Cut Glasses. Water Jug. Melon.

Raspberry Ice.t

*

* See another way of setting out a Cheese-Course, page 59 : or there may be two small dishes with butter on each side, and a silver bread-basket in the cen- tre, in which rusks or cheese-biscuits are served on a napkin, which should ever lie under bread.

+ Ice is also handed round, or served, before the dessert. This dessert may be made more full by a few small dishes of wafers, brandy-scrolls, or dried small fruit.

BILLS OF FARE

FOR

PLAIN FAMILY DINNERS.

DINNERS OF FIVE DISHES.

Pease Soup.

Potatoes browned Apple Dumpling, Mashed Turnip

below the Roast. or Plain Fritters. or Pickles.

Roast Shoulder of Mutton.

Haddocks baked.

Newmarket Pudding. Rice or Pickles.

Haricot, Currie Hash, or Grill,

Of the Mutton of the former day.

Knuckle of Veal Ragout, or -with Rice.

A Charlotte. Potatoes.

Roast of Pork or Pork Chops. — Sage Sauce.

Boiled Cod, with Oyster Sauce.

Potatoes. Barley Broth. Carrots or Turnips.

Scrag of Mutton,

with Caper Sauce, or Parsley and Butter.

Cod Currie, or a Fish-Pic , of the Fish of former day. Scalloped Oysters. Rice-Pudding. Mashed Potatoes.

Roast Ribs of Beef.

Potatoes.

Parsnips.

BILLS OF FARE.

57

Bouilli, with Onions.

Beef Cecils, of the

Marrow Bones. Soup of the Bouilli. Roast Ribs of the

former day.

Lamb Chops, with Potatoes.

Vegetables on Side. Table.

Giblet Soup.

(Remove— Fish in Brown Sauce.)

Stewed Celery. Fruit Pie. Spinage.

Fillet of Veal stuffed.

Boiled Fowl, or Fricandeau of Veal on Sorrel.

Currie of Dressed

Veal in Rice New England Pancakes. Pease Pudding Casserole. or Greens.

Pickled Pork or Salted Beef.

Crimped Cod.

Pigeons Ragout. Soup. Carrots and Turnips.

Small Round of Beef with Greens, or Breast of Beef a la Flamande.

Skate,

with Caper Sauce.

Cauliflower. Hotch-potch. Potatoes.

Loin of Veal roasted."

ป A loin of veal, which is a very common remove of fish or soup, is often sent from the table nearly or wholly untouched ; in which case it maybe ro- w-armed in the Dutch oven, or dressed in various ways, as a ragout, b/anquettes ,

58

BILLS OF FARE.

GOOD FAMILY-DINNERS OF SEVEN DISHES.*

Crimped Salmon,

Lobster Sauce.

Mashed Potatoes. Mince Pies or Rissoles.

Winter Hotch-potch.

{Remove — Apple-Pie .)

Oxford Dumplings. Pickles. Bubble and Squeak

Roast of Beef. of the Veal of the former day.

Irish Stew, or Haricot of Mutton.

Chickens. Mashed Potatoes.

Fritters.

Apple-Sauce. Tongue on Spinage,

or a Piece of Ham.

Stubble Goose.

Jole of Salmon.

Lobster -Sauce. ' Salad.

Onion -Soup.

( Remove — A Charlotte.)

Sliced Cucumber. Veal Sweetbreads.

Saddle of Mutton roasted.

Savoury Patties.

Macaroni.

Scotch Fish and Sauce.

Remove — Cutlets a Chingara.

Scalloped Potatoes. Apple-Puffs.

Marrow-Pudding.

Tartlets or Sweet Patties. Mashed Turnip.

Gigot of Mutton boiled, with Caper Sauce.

{Remove-— Roast. Ducks.)

* Dinners may be served in two courses where there are so many good dishes.

3

BILLS OF FARE.

59

SMALL DINNER IN COURSES, WITH DESSERT, &C- FIRST COURSE.

Mock Turtle-Soup.

Turbot

Oyster and Lobster , or Fennel Sauce , and Cucumber sliced thick ^ disposed either on the Table or Sideboard , the Fish , or Soup , with the Sauces, and Wines , forming the whole of the Course.

SECOND COURSE.

Pheasant.

Ducklings and Pease. Calves’ Brains.

Haunch of Mountain Mutton.

THIRD COURSE.

Macaroni.

Apricot Tart. Cream. Jelly.

Omelet Souffle.

CHEESE-COURSE.

Stilton.

Butter in Ice, or Moulded. Small Cheese-Biscuits,

Silver Bread Basket. or Sliced Roll.

A Cream Cheese, or grated Parmesan, in a covered cut Glass.

DINNERS OF TWO COURSES, FOUR AND FIVE,*

For Family -Dinners or Small Parties.

FIRST COUR8E.

Pike baked.

Dutch Sauce.

Stewed Celery. Mashed Turnips.

Caper-Sauce.

Roast Leg of Mutton.

+ Dinner.- here given in two may in general have the Bamc number of dishes served in three courses, if wished. Spirit-lamps of neat form sometimes very conveniently occupy the sidc.3, at a large dinner, or the corners, mfitt-ups. Devils, and hot moist zests, should always be served over lamps.

60

BILLS OP FARE.

SECOND COURSE.

Veal Cutlets in Vol-au-vent.

Young Pease. Ratafia Cream. Dressed Lobster.

Ducklings.

PLAIN DESSERT.*

Rennets.

Cut Rummer.

Walnuts. Water Jug. Spanish Nuts

Cut Rummer. „ or Olives.

Wine.

Pears.

FIRST COURSE.

Hare-Soup.

Remove— Fillets of Turbot.

Stewed Cucumber. Dressed Turnip.

Roast Pig.

SECOND COURSE.

Sweetbreads fricasseed.

Ginger Cream. Calf’s-Feet Jelly.

Roasted Pheasant, or Game of any kind.

FIRST COURSE.

Civet of Hare as Soup.

Stewed Giblets. Savoury Patties,

or Calves' Brains.

Breast of Mutton grilled.

Potatoes and Vegetables on the Side-Table.

* Zests put down after the Dessert, is removed , are hot Deviled Poultry and Game, Anchovy Toasts, Anchovies, Caviare, Olives, Deviled Biscuit, Ovsters, Grated Meat, &c. or alter a long interval, Itcre-supper Articles, as Salmis, Potted Meats, Potted Shrimps, &c.

BILLS OF FARE

61

SECOND COURSE.

Small Ham, glazed or plain.

Asparagus, Almond-Pudding,

with Butter Sauce. or Gateau de Riz.

Stewed Celery.

Small Turkey roasted.

DINNERS OF SEVEN DISHES — TWO COURSES. FIRST COURSE.

Oyster-Soup.

(. Remove — Fish.) *

Fricandeau, with Spin- age, or Sorrel, or To- mata Sauce.

Chicken-Pie.

Ducks in Ragout.

Tongue

on Mashed Turnip.

Portuguese

Mutton-Cutlets.

Stewed Rump of Beef.

SECOND COURSE.

Cranberry Tart.

Cauliflower in White Sauce.

Moor-Game.

Orange Sauce. Macaroni.

Lemon Cream.

Apricot Marmalade Tart.

Mint Sauce.

Fore-Quarter of Lamb roasted.

Veal-Cutlets.

Cod-Sounds.

FIRST COURSE.

Fish — Half a Turbot.

Sauce.

Chicken and Ham Patties.

Giblet-Soup.

Curried Rabbit in Sauce. Casserole of Rice.

Roast Goose.

• Sliced Cucumber (which is eaten with Salmon, Cod and also other vegetables.

, &c.) on the

Sideboard,

C

62

BILLS OF FARE.

SECOND COURSE.

Veal Sweetbreads.

Snowballs. Asparagus, with Butter.

Trifle, or Ornamented Cake.

Omelet.

Roasted Birds. FIRST COURSE.

Cheesecakes.

Mullagatawny Soup.

(Remove— Fish.)

\

Macaroni Pudding

. Sauce.

Savoury Patties,

Potato-Balls.

Plateau.

Sauce.

Currie of Chickens in Rice Casserole.

Roast Pig.

SECOND COURSE.

Green Peas.

Custards in Glasses.

Lobster Salad.

Plateau.

Lemon Pudding.

Cranberry Tart.

Omelet.

Cream in Glasses.

Ducklings,

DINNER OF NINE DISHES. FIRST COURSE.

Ox-Tail Soup.

Mashed Potatoes

Boiled Turkey Poult. Curried Fish.

Pickles.

Boiled Rice. Ham glazed- Brocoli-

Haunch of Mutton roasted.

BILLS OP FARE.

63

SECOND COURSE.*

Black Cock,

Small Cakes.

Wafers.

Calf’s-Feet Jelly.

French Beans.

Trifle.

Lobster Salad.

Ginger Cream.

Wafers.

Meringles.

Hashed Hare,

or Venison.

DINNERS OF ELEVEN DISHES.

FIRST COURSE.

White Soup, a la Reine.

Stewed Pigeons. (- Remove-Fish, ,)

Lamb Chops and Cucumbers.

Oyster Patties.

Tongue on Spinage. Plateau.

Boiled Chickens.

Lobster Patties.

Mutton Bumps and Kidneys, or Palates.

Sweetbreads grilled.

Mullagatawny Soup.

Remove — Loin of Veal , or other Roast.

*

SECOND COURSE.

Partridges roasted.

Wine Jelly. Dressed Lobster.

Small Pastry.

Stewed Mushrooms. Plateau. French Salad.

Small Pastry.

Prawns in Jelly. Coffee Cream.

Macaroni.

* If the party Is rather large, and the table long, the same number of ex- pensive dishes may do ; but they must be arranged down the middle, and at the sides, while a few trifling articles of confectionary fill up the corners.

64

BILLS OF FARE.

FIRST COURSE.

Crimped Salmon.

( Remove — Turkey.) Melted Butter.

Breast of Lamb, with Green Pease.

Chicken and Ham Patties.

Ox Palates.

Lobster Soup.

Plateau. Brown

Gravy Soup.

Turkey Giblets.

Oyster Patties.

Macaroni.

Lobster Sauce.

Dressed Cod.

(Remove— Stewed Brisket of Beef, with Vegetables or Onions.)

SECOND COURSE.

Veal Sweetbreads.

Apricot Charlotte. Small Pastry. Wine Jelly.

Sea Kale. Plateau. Asparagus, with Butter.

Coffee Cream. Small Pastry. Cabinet Pudding.

Woodcocks roasted.

DINNERS OF NINE DISHES AND ELEVEN.

FIRST COURSE.

Mock Turtle.

(Remove — Crimped Salmon.)

Babbit and Onions. Lobster Sauce. Scalloped Oysters.

Ham braised. Plateau. Turkey in White Sauce.

Potted Eels. Currant Jelly. Wine Sauce. Stewed Pigeons. Haunch of Venison, or of Mutton dressed as Parson’s Venison.

BILLS OF FARE.

65

Calf’s-Feet Jelly. Artichokes.

Almond Cheesecakes.

SECOND COURSE. Pheasant.

0

Preserved Cucumbers. Plateau.

Preserved Oranges. Wild Ducks.

( Remove — Ramakin .)

Open Tart of Apricot Marmalade.

Salad.

Italian Cream.

Bill of Fare for St Andrew's Day , Burns’ C lub , or other Scottish National Dinners.

FIRST COURSE.

Friar’s Chicken, or Brown Soup.

( Remove — Braised Turkey.')

Potted Game. Minced Collops.

Pigeon or Chicken Pie. Crimped Skate.

Tripe in white Fricassee.

Salt Caithness Goose, or Solan Goose.

Sheep’s-Head Broth.

(1. Remove — Tup's Head and Trotters .)

2. Remove — Haunch of Venison or Mutton , with Wine Sauce and Currant Jelly.

Brown Fricassee of Duck.

Salt Cod, with Egg Sauce.

Smoked Tongue.

SECOND COURSE.

Roast Fowls, with drappit Egg, or Lamb’s Head dressed.

Buttered Partuns.

Small Pastry.

Cdfr-Ket Jelly. . Eating Fosset,

1 m a China Punch Bowl.

Apple-Puddings in skins. Small Pastry.

Stewed Onions. Blancmange. Plum Damas Pie.

A Black Cock, or Three Ptarmigans.

66

BILLS OF FARE.

Long Talk once covered , with Removes. *

Cod's Head and Shoulders.

Melted Butter. Oyster Sauce.

Italian Cream. (Remove— Roast Turkey 4f Sausages.) Charlotte.

Macaroni Pudding. Grouse Pie.

Lobster Salad. Mashed Turnips.

Curried Chickens in Rice Casserole.

Mashed Potatoes.

Mullaga tawny. (Remove — Ham.)

Plum Pudding. (Rem0ve—Boikd Fowls.)

Green Pease. Stewed Pigeons.

French Salad. Savoury Patties.

Cauliflower. Ox Palates.

Sauce. Sauce.

Cranberry Tart. Salmon. Calfs-Feet Jelly.

(1. — Remove Round of Beef with Greens.)

(2. Remove — Roast of Veal.)

* Though a dinner divided into courses is to be recommended, both for ele- gance and comfort, there arc public occasions when convenience and economy make it necessary to place almost all the dishes at once. To arrange them so as best to distribute the several things served up, is all that a dinner of this sub- stantial kind admits of. The soups may be placed either at the top and bottom or at the sides of the table; though, when there are large dishes of fish, the former arrangement seems the more eligible. At a very long table four soups may be placed at the top, bottom, and sides, and the four comers be each fur- nished with a dish of fish ; in which case the stews, boils, and roasts, are to be placed in change for the soups. Such an arrangement will better ensure to each guest a ready supply. The French call this sort of dinner an Ambigu, and then they remove only the soups.

BILLS OF FARE

67

PUBLIC DINNER OF TWO COURSES, OF FROM THIRTY-FIVE TO FORTY DISHES, ARRANGED IN THE FRENCH STYLE.

FIRST COURSE.

Were this extended to double the number, the dishes are to be extended in the same manner, and large joints introduced accordingly ; and the centres mark- ed by the asterisks may have another remove according to circumstances, and different sauces may be added. This ought to be attended to throughout the courses.

Rice Soup.

Hot Pie. Remove — Turbot.

Lobster Sauce.

Veal Sweetbreads.

Vegetable Pie.

Beef Palates. Fricassee of Chicken. Veal Cutlets.

c.

3

O

73

to

a

'S

a.

73

a

o

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a

Cold Ham Pie.

Oyster Patties. Partridge Salmi.

d rt

i-3

% ^

Cj 3

o

Fowl Pie, or Chartreuse d'un * Salpifon de Volatile.

Truffles.

Chicken,

ฆwith Cucumbers.

Fillets of Mackerel, d la Maitre d' Hotel.

ai

r-t-

o

3

n

a*

a

a

I

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T

a — ! o

3

CO

o

c

3

Soles,

a /a ravigote.

Stewed Pigeons.

Mutton Cutlets, d la Soubise.

Cold Chicken Pie.

Fowl or

Capon Caper and Currant Jelly

aux huitres. Sauces.

Fillets of Partridges, Puddings,

d la Portugaise. de Richelieu au Veloute.

Patties. Cabbage Soup. Larks,

in Vol au Vent.

1. Remove Salmon. 2. Venison.

Mutton,

d le Ste. Menehould Duck Ragout. Pork Cutlets.

Mixed Ragodt.

* In arranging thirteen dishes upon one side, attention must be had to centres, which may be formed by larger or different shaped dishes, as well as with re- gard to their contents.

Calves Brains.

.68

BILLS OF FARE.

SECOND COURSE, OF FROM THIRTY-FIVE TO FORTY

COVERS.

Partridge Pie.

Spinage in Crust Border. Jelly of Oranges.

Removed by a Cake.

Chickens Green Pease,

with White Sauce. dressed. Smoked Tongue.

Cherry fritters.

Olives

Rabbits.

Stewed Lettuce, or

Laitues d I’ Espagnole.

D

1

D

era

s

2

o

o

Small Beans.

Smelts.

Small Biscuit.

Herbs.

Apples in Rice.

1

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3 3

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43 ai 3 Q- ฃ ฃ ฃ

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Tartlets.

Herbs.

Poached Eggs in Gravy.

Fried Soles.

Small Pease.

to

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o

O

p

PV

O

w

B

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o

Haricots, a la Lyonaise.

Small Pigeons. Ramakin.

Olives.

Stuffed Cucumbers.

Asparagus

Cauliflower with with Butter.

Butter.

Blancmange, Glazed Ham.

in small glasses.

Remove — Souffle.

Rice Fritters.

Artichokes. en Ca napes.

Mullet in Aspic Jelly.

BILLS OF FARE.

69

Nectarines.

DESSERT. Preserved Pine Apple. Preserved Oranges.

Cherries,

Olives.

en Compote .

us*

= 5

s* c 3

ฃ c

Cake Ornamented.

to 5 so

rq 2 5

n 2

ฃ S H

Olives.

7‘ 3 6

&.

Apples,

Peaches.

cm Compote.

Preserved Lemons.

Melon Preserved.

This dessert, which by some may be reckoned scanty, by others superfluous, and which we submit rather than recommend, may be at little expense enlarged by four small dishes, consisting of Ma- caroons, White Currants, Walnuts, Filberts, Wafers, &c. &c. nor does it preclude Ices, and Preserved Ginger.

DESSERT OF FRESH FRUIT.

Grapes.

Sugar.

Apricots.

Cream.

White Currants.

Almond Biscuits.

Sugar.

Macaroons.

Red Gooseberries.

Strawberries.

Nectarines.

70

SUPPERS.

SUPPERS.

The ingenuity of the genteel economist is as often taxed to contrive supper-things of scanty materials, as in arranging dinners, which admit of less tempor- izing. Economy, good taste, and neatness, can, how- ever, do much with slender means, where the chief organ to be propitiated is the eye ; for the lateness of modern dinner-hours has now, almost universally, changed suppers from a solid meal into a slight shewy refreshment.

It is said that ladies are the best critics in suppers, while gentlemen are better qualified to decide on the more substantial business of the dinner table. How- ever this may be, ladies are unquestionably more con- versant with the things on which the elegance of a supper depends, — namely, the beautiful shapes and arrangement of china, glass, linen, fruits, foliage, co- lours, lights, ornamental confectionary, and all the natural and artificial embellishments of the table. These articles, so beautiful in themselves, cannot fail, if gracefully disposed, to gratify the eye, however slender the repast with which they are intermixed.

When a formal supper is set out, the principal dishes are understood to be roasted game or poultry, cold meats sliced, ham, tongue, collared and potted things, grated beef, Dutch herring, kipper, highly- seasoned pies of game, &c. &c., with, occasionally, soups, — an addition to modern suppers which, after the heat and fatigue of a ball-room, or large party, is found peculiarly grateful and restorative. Minced white meats, lobsters, oysters, collared eels, and craw- fish, dressed in various forms ,* sago, rice, the more delicate vegetables, poached eggs, scalloped potatoes, or potatoes in balls, or as Westphalia cakes, are all suitable articles of the solid kind. To these we may add cakes, tarts, possets, creams, jellies in glasses or

SUPPERS.

71

shapes, custards, preserved or dried fruits, pancakes, fritters, puffs, tartlets, grated cheese, butter in little forms, sandwiches ; and the catalogue of the more sti- mulating dishes, as anchovy toasts, devils, Welsh, English, and Scotch rabbits, roasted onions, salma- gundi, smoked sausages sliced, and those other pre- parations which are best adapted to what among an- cient bon vivants was called the reresupper.

A supper-table should neither be too much crowd- ed, nor too much scattered and broken with minute dishes. Any larder moderately stored will furnish a few substantial articles for supper on an emergency. A few sweet things readily prepared, some small pat- ties, shell-fish, and fruits, will do the rest, if the effect of contrasted colours, flavours, and forms, be under- stood, and that light and graceful disposition of trifles, which is the chief art in setting off such entertain- ments.

French wines are lately become an article of ambi- tious display at fashionable suppers, even in families of the middle rank. Where they can be afforded in excellence and variety, nothing can be more appro- priate at a light, shewy, exhilarating repast.

DEJEUNERS A LA FOURCHETTE.

That change of manners which has introduced late dinners, and superseded hot suppers, has very much improved the modern breakfast. Besides the ordinary articles of eggs, broiled fish, beef, mutton, or goat hams, rein-deer and other tongues, sausages, potted meats, cold pies of game, &c. &c. a few stimulating hot dressed dishes are, by a sort of tacit prescription, set apart for the dejeuner a la fourchette of the gour- mand and the sportsman. Of this number are broiled kidneys, and calf's and lamb’s liver, with fine herbs, and mutton cutlets a. la Venetienne. Receipts for those stimulating preparations of poultry, game, &c. will be found under the proper heads. When the dejeuner a la fourchette is an entertainment for company, the ar- ticles provided, with the addition of tea, coffee, cho- colate, &c. do not materially differ from those of a fashionable supper. The following is an example : —

72

MARRIAGE, CHRISTENING, OR PUBLIC BREAKFAST,

a la Fourchette .

Potted Salmon decorated. Partridges. Perigord.

Preserved Ginger. Ginger Cream.

Tea Urn.

Lemon Calces.

Butter in Ice.

Caramel Basket of Bon-bons, containing Mottoes, &c.

Preserved Pine, Melon, or Cucumber.

Bouchees des Dames.

Ham in J elly. Potted Char.

Anchovy

Butter.

Strawberry Jelly. Meringles.

o

U

O

JS

ฆC

p

Ut

o

P

r+

CD

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a

3

n

o

n

Tartlets.

Almond Butter. Wino Jelly.

Potted Pigeons. Tongue in Jelly.

Preserved Oranges, or West India Fruits.

Caramel Basket, filled with Confectionary.

Butter in Ice.

Orange-flower Cakes. Coffee Urn.

Perfumed Biscuit.

Preserved Green Gages. Coffee Cream.

Potted Lobsters. Turkey in Jelly.

* N. B. Cream and Sugar in cut-glass jugs and dishes rt. - vc placed tn proper places. Game and Oyster Salads may make part of dishes, and venison is an appropriate luxury. Ice-pails may. if in hot weather, be placed on the Table. At such entertainments, the lighter Dessert Wines are used and also Liqueurs.

73

NOTICES OF THE PRINCIPAL MEATS; FISH; AND VEGE- TABLES, IN SEASON IN THE DIFFERENT MONTHS OF

THE YEAR.

JANUARY.

Beef and mutton, which are to be had good all the year round, are both prime in this month, though they begin to get dearer than in the fall of the year ; veal to be had good, but dear at this season ; house-lamb and pork generally both dear. Poultry.— Turkeys, geese, ducks, fowls, pullets, tame pigeons, wild ducks, hares and rabbits, plenty, the latter about the cheapest. Fish.— Turbot, hollibut, skate, cod, haddocks, soles, plaice, flounders, oysters ; prime turbot is now scarce ; lobsters and crabs hardly to be got at this time ; prawns plenty. Vegetables. — The same sorts of vegetables are in season, with little variation, from the beginning of * November till the end of February : they are Savoys, cabbage, and greens of all the sorts, Brussels sprouts, brocoli, sulphur-coloured and purple ; spinage, leeks, onions, beet-root, parsnips, turnips, celery, carrots, potatoes, cresses, parsley, cucumber, endive, and forced asparagus, and mushrooms. Fruits. — A variety of apples, pears, and filberts, walnuts, oranges, and all the dried fruits, now fresh and excellent.

FEBRUARY.

Meat the same as in January, but veal and house-lamb gene- rally rather cheaper. Fish the same, but cod and haddocks fallen off ; lobsters more plenty ; barbel and dace got. Fowls and Game the same, and spring chickens and ducklings in addition, but always enormously dear. Vegetables the same, with forced beans, and salad herbs.

MARCH.

Meat as in January, and grass-lamb ; house-lamb now cheaper ; and mountain-mutton, which begins to fall off about mid-winter, now not so prime, particularly in severe seasons ; veal gets cheaper. Poultry the same as last month’s, but no hares till September ; green geese, ducklings, tame pigeons, (cheaper) ; wild pigeons ; Moor-game goes out of season. Fish. — Salmon is now got, but dear, — indeed it is to be had in London almost the whole year round ; fish are often plenty about this time, in an open spring, but still plentier in April ; mackerel, shrimps, and prawns, are now seen. Vegetables. — Forced cucumbers, young turnips, and turnip

tops, spinage, brocoli, radishes, and forced salad herbs.

APRIL.

Meat of all kinds. — Veal and lamb get cheaper. Poultry same as last three months, but leverets towards the end of the month ; young fowls, with eggs, and turkey-poults, but extravagantly dear.

74 NOTICES OF THE PRINCIPAL MEATS, &C.

Vegetables same as the last months, with chervil and lettuce : ve- getables now begin to get cheaper. Fruit.-— -Green gooseberries and rhubarb for tarts.

MAY.

The same in meat as the preceding months, and about Whit- suntide buck- venison comes in season. Fish. — Turbot, lobster, trout, salmon, eels, and plenty of the smaller fish in favourable weather ; oysters go out of season till August, and cod is not liked from about Lady-day till Midsummer, or later. Vegetables of all kinds as before, with forced pease and early potatoes ; sea-kale, sa- ladings, and carrots, are now obtained of natural growth.

JUNE.

Meat of all kinds, and generally begins to get cheaper. Fish. — Salmon, turbot, skate, liollibut, lobsters, soles, eels, in high sea- son, and getting cheaper. Vegetables in great plenty and variety, and cheaper ; early cauliflower got, asparagus plenty, and about the cheapest towards the end of the month. Fruits in fine seasons are strawberries, early cherries, melons, and forced peaches and apricots ; also apples for tarts.

JULY.

Meat of all kinds. — Lamb and veal cheaper. Poultry of all kinds as before, and also plovers and wheat-ears. Leverets, turkey-poultss and ducklings, are now worth eating, and cheaper. Wild-ducke are often got about this time. Fish is now good of all kinds, save oysters ; and the rarer sorts, as turbot and salmon, are about the cheapest. Vegetables of all kinds good and plenty, as cauliflowers pease, and French and Windsor beans. Fruits. — All the small fruits at their best, also early plums, apricots, melons, cherries, and pine-apples.

AUGUST AND SEPTEMBER.

Meat of all kinds. — Mountain mutton now excellent. Grass- lamb growing coarse. Veal scarcer. Poultry as before, with hioor-game of all the kinds after the 12th August, and partridges arid hares from the beginning of September. Geese and ducks now full-grown. Fish. — Cod becomes good, — turbot goes rather out, as does salmon. Fresh-water fish now plenty, as pike, carp, perch, and trout. Herrings, which are in season from July till March, are now excellent. Fruits of all kinds plentiful, as peaches, plums, nectarines, grapes, melons, filberts, pears, apples : re- tarded small fruits still seen ; also quinces, morella cherries, and damsons. Mushrooms at the plentiest at this time, also cucumbers.

OCTOBER.

Meat as before, and doe-venison. Pasture-fed beef and mutton are probably at the best in this month. Poultry and game in all

NOTICES OF THE PRINCIPAL MEATS, &C.

75

variety, but young fowls get dearer. Pheasants now got, and generally wild pigeons, snipes, and wild-ducks, begin to appear. Fish. — Cod, haddocks, brill, tench, and all sorts of shell-fish. Oysters, which come in at London in August, and at Edinburgh in September, are now excellent. Vegetables. — Beans, brocoli, and cabbage of all kinds ; beet, onions, leeks, turnips, carrots, let- tuce, cresses, chardoons, endive, celery, skirrets, cucumbers, spin- age, and dried herbs ; asparagus gets rare. Fruits. — All sorts of apples and pears, nuts, walnuts, chesnuts, grapes, and retarded gooseberries.

NOVEMBER AND DECEMBER.

Meat. — Beef and mutton prime. House-lamb and vealv Suck- ing pig. Buck-venison goes out. Fisli , all good about this time. Salmon nearly out. Poultry gets very dear in large towns about this season, but is to be got of all kinds ; also woodcocks and snipes, mallards and sea-fowl.

It is, however, quite impossible rigidly to fix the seasons of pro- visions, and much less their price. Meat, generally speaking, is cheapest in the latter end of autumn, and clearest in spring. Beef is found prime all the year round, but small natural pasture fed beef is at the best in October, as is hill-mutton : both fall away in the winter, and are lean in spring. Veal is seen good from Christ- mas till Midsummer, and is cheapest about May and June. It is always rather dearer in proportion than lamb. House-lamb is less liable to variation, in fact, than other meat ; it is seldom cheap, but always very dear till after Christmas. Grass-lamb is one of the few things that is at its best when dearest. In July and August it becomes cheap but coarse. Pork, as it varies much in quality, also varies in price, from local situation. It is always dear in London. Poultry is found cheapest in great towns in the end of summer, and in remote places about Christmas, or before spring. Wild-fowl and sea-birds, like fish, depend wholly on the ฆsupply. Eggs are dearest just before Christmas, and cheapest about Easter. Vegetables, except perhaps young pease and small early salad herbs, are always best when cheapest, that is, in June, July, and August. They are often also cheap in spring, when the gardeners clear their grounds to receive fresh crops. Shalots and carrots to store, and beans, cabbage, and cucumbers to pickle, will be best bought in August and September. Onions, potatoes, and turnips, in October. Beef and mutton may be cured for winter- store, or for hams, with most advantage about the beginning of November, both from quality and price. Fruits ought also to be preserved when their several kinds are at the best and the cheapest, as pines, plums, and melons, about August; oranges in January, &c.

PART SECOND.

CHAPTER I.

BOILING.

O ! for some forty pounds of lovely beef In a Mediterranean sea of brewis.

Spanish Curate.

Boiling, though not the first invented, is certainly the easiest of all culinary processes ; and for this very reason, it is often the worst performed. After what has been said in the Introduction, we would disdain to waste words on the careless housewife or greasy Joan, who requires again to be told, that order, ar- rangement, thorough-going cleanliness, and neatness all but finical, is indispensable in this, as in every other branch of Cookery. Taking it for granted then, that the hearth is neatly swept, that the fire burns clear, that the pots and stew-pans, of cast-iron, are of proper size, clean, well-tinned, and fitted with close- fitting tinned lids, we proceed to a few general rules for boiling.

All meat, whether fresh or salted, smoked or dried, is best when put in with cold water. For fowls or white meats, the water may be a very little heated, and also for salted meat when there is danger of it freshening over much in coming to boil. Gradual heating softens, plumps, and whitens the meat, and, above all, facilitates the separation of the scum, on the removal of which the goodness, as well as beauty of boiled meat so much depends. Salt also facilitates the separation of the scum. Carefully watch when the

CHAP. I. BOILING. 77

first thick scum rises ; take the pot from the fire, if necessary, to remove the scum completely ; throw in a little cold water, which will check the boiling and throw off what scum remains ; — this is the may in mhich Soups, Gravies, and Sauces are best cleaned and rejined. When the pot must be eked, let it be with boiling wa- ter from a kettle. Milk and floured cloths as wrappers are often employed in boiling white meats and poul- try, to make them look whiter. The practice is bad ; the milk often curdles, and the flour clots ; and both fill up the pores and hang about the meat, which looks as if it had been poulticed. Soaking in cold or luke- warm water, according to circumstances, careful skim- ming, and slow boiling, especially at first, are better than any other method. No certain rule can be given for the length of time necessary to boil meat or fish. Dried tongues, for example, or mutton, goat, or veni- son hams, will take double the time or more to sim- mer which will boil a fresh leg of mutton ; and, again, a piece of pork, though a little salted, will take longer to boil than either veal or lamb. Of all meat the hind- quarter, from the solid and compact texture of the flesh, will require longer boiling or moistening than the fore-quarter. The state of the weather, so im- portant in roasting, less affects things that are boiled. As a general rule, liable, however, to many excep- tions, from 15 to 25 minutes of time, and a quart of water may be allowed to the pound of fresh meat ; and from 25 to 35 minutes for salted meat, with a fourth more water. But no length of boiling will ever make dried meats fit to be eaten, without suffi- cient previous soaking. This is emphatically true of goat and mutton hams, rein-deer tongues, dried fish, &c. Capital blunders are often performed in this de- partment, and provisions which excel all others for relishes, breakfasts, and luncheons, are made good for nothing but to try the temper, and break the teeth of the eater, who might as well diet upon “ spur leather whang.” Smoked and dried meats, and dried fish, require to be soaked from one to four or five days, changing the water often ; or, what is better, where there is a run of fresh water, steeping the meat in that.

78 CHAP. I. — BOILING.

When additional saltness is wanted, the meat may be wrapped in a cloth dipped in hot water, dusted with flour, and then covered with a layer of salt. ฃWe have but little faith in this method.^] Meat must have time to imbibe salt. Frequent rubbing and a warm tem- perature will hasten the process. In brief, well-tinned clean pots, — thick in the bottom to aid in maintaining an equal temperature, — a clear fire, well- washed or soaked viands, gentle boiling, and careful skimming, are all the rules that can be given to ensure well-dress- ed boiled dishes ; for the length of time must, in al- most every case, be determined by the size, the con- dition, and the nature of the provisions.

Observations. — What goes under the general name of pot-liquor, particularly that in which fresh meat or poultry has been boiled, may be applied to many useful purposes.

Professed cooks, and works which treat of Gastro- nomy, uniformly enter a protest against any sort of vegetable being boiled with meat except carrots, — a rule this which the Cleikum Club thought more ho- noured in the breach than in the observance. Watery vegetables, boiled in water and served in wateriness, find no favour in the French kitchen. Common sense, and, indeed, common practice, discards them.

There is an adaptation, a natural affinity, to borrow a learned phrase, between certain vegetables and roots and certain pieces and kinds of meat. A cook who would excel in the profession ought, day and night, to study this doctrine of coherence and natural affinity. Who but a fool would dissever from the round of salt- ed beef, the greens or cabbage which become part and parcel of it as soon as it reaches^the pot If, however, from reasons of economy, it is wished to preserve the liquor for other purposes, a quantity of it may be put into a separate vessel, and the greens boiled there. At any rate, the pot may have the top-fat taken off to enrich the water in which the greens are boiled, with- out any loss of pot-liquor for soup.

Salted Beef, with suitable roots and vegetables, is one of these cut-and-come-again family-dishes, which, from November till March, every sensible man hails with pleasure, whether on his own or his friends’

CHAP. I. — BOILING.

79

table. To dress it in the best manner is therefore well worth the attention of the cook, the economist, and the judicious epicure.

TO BOIL A ROUND OF BEEF WITH GREENS, &C.

A round or buttock of salted beef may either be boil- ed whole, divided into two, or cut into three pieces, according to the size of the meat, and the number of the guests or family. It is a common error of vanity to boil too much of a ham or round at once. If boiled whole, the bone may be cut out ; if divided, it is de- sirable to give each piece an equal proportion of the fat. Wash the meat, and, if over salt, soak it in one or more waters till it be sufficiently softened or fresh- ened. Skewer it up tightly, and of a good shape, wrapping the flap or tongue very firmly round. Bind it with broad strong tape or fillets of linen. The pot should be roomy, and the water must fully cover the meat. Heat very gradually ; take off the scum, of which a great deal will be thrown up, till no more rises, and throw in some cold water to refine the liquor if needful ,* cover the pot close, and boil slowly, but at an equal temperature, allowing about three hours to from 12 to 10 pounds, and from that to four and a half hours for a weightier piece. Turn the meat once or twice in the pot during the process. Put in the car- rot and turnip about two hours after the meat. If the liquor is to be afterwards used for soup, these roots in- stead of hurting will improve the flavour. Greens may be either boiled in the same pot, or better sepa- rately in some of the pot-liquor. When the meat is dished, take off, with a clean sponge, or a cloth moist- ened in the pot-liquor, any scum or films which, in spite of the most careful skimming, will often hang about salted meat; replace the skewer that holds the flap with a plated or silver one ; garnish with large sliced carrots, or with greens instead, and serve mashed turnip and greens in separate dishes.

Obs. — The dry outside slices are to be laid aside by the carver ; the meat must be cut in smooth, thin, horizontal slices, keeping the surface level. The soft fat eats best when the meat is warm, the firm fat

80

CHAP. I.; — BOILING.

when it is cold ; but the taste of the guest must be the carver’s guide. By good management this meat will in cold weather keep for a fortnight or more. Cover it with several folds of soft cloth, and over these place a dish-cover. Cut off a thin slice of the hard outside before it is again presented at table, or on the sideboard. If underdone, the meat, after keeping some time, may be put into boiling pot-liquor, and get from 15 to 35 minutes boiling. This receipt is equally applicable to every piece of salted beef, whether Ribs, Brisket, or Edge - bone, ( Scoltice Heuckbane,) only, as was said of fore-quarters, these pieces being less solid, require, in proportion to their weight, about a sixth less time in boiling. (

BEEF BOUILLI.

This is another plain family-dish, — boiled fresh beef; but as economy, good sense, and, what is the same thing, good taste, reject this mode of dressing beef but in conjunction with the soup, which forms the better part of it, we leave the Bouilli till we give it along with the Bouillon, though obliged for con- nexion’s sake to notice it here. See page 136.

TO BOIL LEG OF MUTTON WITH TURNIP.

A leg of mutton, — the gigot of the French and Scottish kitchen, — may be kept from two days to a week before boiling. The pipe, as it is technically called, must be cut out, and the mustiness which ga- thers on the surface, and in the folds and soft places, rubbed off occasionally. It is ’whitest when quite fresh, but most delicate when hung a few days in the larder, though not so long as to allow the juices to thicken, and the flavour to deteriorate. Hill wether mutton, from four to seven years old, is the best, whether for boiling or roasting. Choose it short in the shank, thick in the thigh, and of a pure healthy red. Chop off but a very small bit of the shank ; if too much is taken off, the juices will be drained by this conduit in the boiling.

If you wish to whiten the meat, blanch it for ten

CHAP. I. — BOILING.

81

minutes in warm water. Boil in an oval-shaped or roomy kettle, letting the water come very slowly to boil. Skim carefully. Boil carrots and turnip with the mutton, and the younger and more juicy they are the better they suit this joint. Be sure never to run a fork or any thing sharp into the meat, which would drain its juices. All meat ought to he well done, but a leg of mutton rather under than over, to look plump and retain its juices. About two hours will boil it of slow boiling. Garnish with slices of carrot. Pour caper -sauce over the meat, and serve mashed turnip or cauliflower in a separate dish ; some good country cooks serve the turnip as a mash, or puree, under the mutton, and as in carving the native juices are all caught by the vegetable sauce, the practice, though not general, is commendable ; but where it is follow- ed, the caper-sauce, if served at all, must be kept in a sauce-boat. If chickens or fowl are wanted for the same dinner, they will boil with great advantage along with the mutton, before the roots are put to it, or in some of the liquor in a separate pot.

Ohs. — This joint, above all others, should be boiled slowly to eat well. The liquor in which fresh mut- ton is boiled is very valuable for broth ; and it is a common, and not bad family-practice in Scotland, to make barley-broth at the same time the leg is boiled. The broth so made is, however, frequently thin and watery, the pot-liquor being in too great quantity ; so that before it can be properly boiled down the meat is spoiled. When broth is to be made, put in the barley at first ; lift out the meat after an hour and a half’s boiling ; cover it up to keep warm ; take the lid off the pot, and suffer the liquor to evaporate by rapid boiling, till what remains is strong and good, and the broth of a proper consistence. Cut some of the roots into small slices, and put these, with a head of celery sliced, or a little shred parsley, to the broth ; return the mutton, and boil gently for a half-hour longer. A gigot is an excellent and most economical joint, capable of being turned to many purposes. It may be dressed as chops, and the best balmy, mellow barley-broth may be made of what remains. It may also be roasted, or baked, or made into ham, or, if a

82

CHAP. I. — BOILING.

large gigot, a fillet may be roasted, and the knuckle used for barley or rice broth. In French cookery, pars- ley, onions, and a clove or two of garlic, are boiled with this favourite joint. It is then glazed (a work of worse than supererogation) and served on a Satice Espagnol. See also page 337-

TO BOIL NECK OF MUTTON, OR BACK RIBS.

Wash, trim, and simmer from three to five pounds of the neck, slowly for two hours, making broth at the same time, as in last receipt. Garnish Avith car- rot, or turnips cut in two ; and pour over the meat caper-sauce, or parsley and butter. Serve mashed turnip or cauliflower. Pouring the sauce over boiled dishes, besides improving their appearance, is to be preferred, because, in carving, the juices of the meat, the natural sauce, flow out and mingle with the pre- pared relish, “ each improving each.” But this can only be done when the taste of the company is under- stood, and the sauce in no danger of becoming cold.

This joint, in point of economy, comes next to the gigot. The scrag (Captain Booth’s favourite dish— vide Amelia ) or neck makes excellent barley or rice broth, or will stew. The ribs will do the same ; or make Chops, Currie, Haricot, or Pie.— See Made - Dishes of Mutton.

TO BOIL A LEG OF LAMB.

Lamb is seldom boiled in Scotland, and there is o-ood sense in the omission. It must be boiled slow- ly to look Avhite ; and is served with brocoli, spinage, or caulifloAver, according to the season. Garnish Avith sprigs of cauliflower. The loin may be cut in steaks and nicely fried, and served round the boiled meat Avith crisped parsley.— See Made-Dishes of Lamb, pages 300 and 339.

TO BOIL VEAL.

Veal plainly boiled is too insipid to be much re- lished for its own sake. But variety, economy, and veal broth or gravy, sanction this mode of cookery. Boiled veal looks detestable when slobbery and red-

CHAP. I. BOILING.

83

coloured, and, to prevent this, particular attention must be paid to the boiling. It is eat with bacon, or sausage, like fowls. Sauce — Parsley and butter, or onion-sauce of young onions. — See Made-Dishes of Veal, pages 283, 334.

TO BOIL VENISON.

A neck, and even a haunch, is sometimes boiled. Let it hang from three days to a week. Boil as mut- ton. It is eaten with turnip or cauliflower, with which garnish.* Sauce — Melted butter, and a little of any of the flavoured vinegars you choose. — See Vinegars and Venison Soup ; see also Civet de Ckevreuil, French Cookery, p. 332 — 3.

POULTRY.!'

As a house for the wayfarer, and the solitary chance- traveller, poultry was at all times a main article in the larder of the Cleikum, where great dinners and nu- merous dishes were seldom required. So plump, so white, so tender were the fowls, whether boiled or roasted, and the chickens, whether brandered or dressed as Friar s chicken, that Mr Touchwood, so tenacious on other points of the art, gave up this de- partment entirely to Meg herself, reserving only spine practical directions for curried fowls, and the feeding and fattening of young poultry, which will be found in another section of this erudite work.

“Take the fattest and youngest eerocks,” (yearlings,) said Meg, “ and the whitest, for a white skin is a good sign, whether of beast or body,” — looking gra-

* It is only in the hunting grounds of America that one could bear to hear of venison so scandalously used ; but when very plen- tiful it may be made into soup, which possesses the wild flavour so prized by leu hommes de bourne.

+ So little is the proper keeping of fowls previous to dressing attended to in country inns and families, that, warned by ex- perience, the arrival of a stranger is the signal for the whole poultry in some places to run off and burrow among the nettles, to eschew their fate for another day. The bounty of a penny sterling, which travellers have sometimes heard offered on the head of “ the old cock to make brandered chicken for the gentleman’s dinner,” is often earned by the galopin loitering about the inn door with the sweat of his brow, so knowing do those old stagers become P. T.

2

84

CHAP. I. — BOILING.

ciously to the young man, while the yellow Nabob made a gesture of impatience ; but Mrs Dods was so liable to the infirmity of descanting at large, not only of the St Ronan’s breed of hens, but on the bio- graphy of favourite individuals, and the guests that eat them, that the young man found it necessary to check her vein, and curtail her directions, by at least nine-tenths. — “ To boil poultry. Be careful in pick- ing, not to break the skin. Let the fowls hang from two to five days ; for the most delicate fowl will be tough and thready if too soon dressed. When to be used, draw, singe without blackening, and wash tho- roughly, passing a stream of water again and again through the inside. Boiled fowls must be very neat- ly trussed, as they have no aid from skewers ; and nothing can be more indecorous than to see unfortu- nates on a table —

WTiose dying limbs no decent hands composed !

Put them on with plenty of water, a little warmed. Having, as usual, skimmed very carefully, simmer by the side of the fire from twenty-five minutes to an hour, according to the age and size of the fowl. A small tureen of very good barley or rice broth, sea- soned with shred parsley or young onions, may be made at the same time, if a shank, or small chops of neck or ribs of mutton be added, which may be frugally served in the broth.”*

* Meg’s sauce was either the national “ drappit egg,” egg-sauce. parsley and butter, or, if the fowls were of a dark complexion, liver- sauce. , as a veil of their dinginess. T occhwood chose celery -sauce for fowls, and oyster-sauce for turkey ; the young man preferred lemon-sauce , but often joined the Nabob. The best sort of stuffing or forcemeat for poultry was the cause of many disputes. Meg stood out long for sweet stuffing for her turkeys, orthodox apple- sauce for her goose, and a sweet pudding in the belly of her sucking pig. After a feud which lasted three days, the belligerents came to a treaty on the old basis of the uti possidetis , though the best stuf- fing for boiled or roasted poultry was agreed to be, — “ Crumbs of stale bread, two parts ; suet, marrow, or fresh butter, one part ; a little parsley, boiled for a minute, and very finely shred; the quar- ter of a nutmeg grated, a tea-spoonful of lemon-peel grated, all-spice, and salt,— the whole to be worked up to a proper consistence, with two or three yolks of eggs well beat.” If for roasted or boiled tur- key, pickled oysters chopped, ham or tongue grated, and eschallot

CHAP. I. BOILING.

85

TO BOIL BACON.

Boil slowly for at least two hours. When ready to serve, strip off the rind, and dry the meat with a red- hot shovel, or in the oven. Strew bread-raspings over it.

TO BOIL A HAM.

A large ham is very seldom boiled all at once, but whether altogether, or in part, it must be treated in the same way. This kind of meat is so well adapted to salting, that though kept for years, it does not be- come so hard or tough as beef or mutton would do in half the time. The main point is the soaking, which the discretion of the cook must proportion to the hard- ness and saltness of the meat. If very old and dry, it will require from three to four days to soften and become mellow. Place it in a run of water, if you have the command of one, or in the trough of a pump- well. The night before it is boiled, pour lukewarm water over it, scrape it very well, trim off all rusty ill- looking bits. Put it in an oval fish-kettle with plenty of water. Let it soak for an hour or two before coming to the boil, — then quicken the boil, and skim. Let it sim- mer by the side of the fire for from two to five hours, according to the weight. When done, pull off the skin neatly, and keep it to cover the ham when set by

to taste may be added. Meg’s sweet stuffing was made by dis- carding the parsley, ham, oysters, and tongue, and substituting a large handful of currants, picked, washed, and dried, as for pud- dings.

A common and an approved smuggling way of boiling a pullet or howtowdie in Scotland, was in a well-cleaned haggis-bag, which must have preserved the juices much better than a cloth. In the days of Popery and good cheer, and they were certainly synonimous, though we do not quite subscribe to the opinion of Dr Redgill, that a Presbyterian country can never attain eminence in Gastrono- my— in those days of pater-nosters and venison-pasties, stoups of claret and oral confession, a pullet so treated, was, according to waggish legends, the secret regale provided for Mess John by his fair penitents — Vide Allan Ramsay’s “ Monk and Miller's Wife," “ Traditions of the Cleikum,” and “ Bughtrigg’s Wife’s receipt for ‘ Ane capon stewed in brewis.’ ” Butter, snred onions, and spice, were put into the bag along with the fowl, and formed the sauce, or else oysters with their liquor strained.

D

86

CHAP. I. — BOILING.

cold ; strew bread-raspings over it, and place it on a hot dish set over the pot before the fire, to brown and crisp. It will crisp easier if put in an oven to dry up the oozing fat. Twist writing paper neatly round the shank. Garnish with greens, or strew raspings in little heaps on the ledge of the dish ; or dish it over dressed Windsor beans.

Obs. — This will keep longer than a round of beef, and is an excellent and serviceable article at all hours of the day and night. When cold, keep as directed for a salted round of beef, using the skin instead of cloths. The outside slices pared off before the meat is served can be kept for culinary purposes. The liquor in which the ham was boiled may be strained ; and if you man- age to have fowls or a knuckle of veal dressed on the following day, the liquors may be rapidly boiled down together, with pepper, mace, shalot, and herbs, when the result will be a rich and highly-relishing grav}^. Or peas or carrot soup may be made of the mixed li- quors.— See Potted Meats, Peas Soup, Ham Sauce, and Sandwiches *

BOILED BACON OR PORK.

All pork to be boiled should lie in salt at least two days previous to dressing. Pork requires more boil-

* Jekyll was intolerably eloquent on ham sauce , and astound- ed even Touchwood by anecdotes of a grand gourmand , a man of ultra gout , who, pursuing the science as one of the fine arts, soaked his Westphalia hams in Rhinewine, and baked them in fresh wine, with aromatic spices. If ham is tolerably fresh, it will bake very well. It must be soaked as for boiling. The colour will be better than when boiled, and the flavour higher. But Mrs Dods, who detested that new and unnatural practice, said it was dried to a dan- der and Touchwood dropped th^poini, as he could not think of bestowing a libation of Rhinewine on a Porker of Westphalia ; anil distance from the metropolis made it impossible to procure Es- sence of Ham , a high-flavoured commodity sold at the London Eat- ing-Houses, which he not irrationally concluded, might make an admirable substitute for wine, and be afterwards applicable to every purpose for which Essence of Ham is used. The experiment is worth trying In France, hams are boiled wrapped in a cloth, and with carrots, onions, garlic, cloves, bay-leaves, parsley, thyme, and basil. When enough done, the cloth is tied more firmly, and when cool, the ham is dressed as above, and served on a napkin. The French also braise and roast hams, and have the Eatc de Jambon.

CHAP. I.*— BOILING.

87

ing than any other meat. Small pork is the most de- licate to boil fresh. Pork throws up a greasy scum during the whole process, which must be constantly removed. Serve with peas pudding, (see Puddings ,) or parsnips, boiled in the same pot.*

TO BOIL PARTRIDGES, PHEASANTS, SNIPES, WILD • DUCKS, AND OTHER GAME.

Boil as directed for chickens, or in fresh-mutton broth. For Partridges, Pheasants, &c. use the same sauces directed for them when roasted ; garnish with crisp parsley, slices of lemon, or green pickles.

Obs. — Though game of all sorts is occasionally boiled, the committee of the Cleikum did not patro- nize this mode of dressing, except for rabbits. Boiled rabbits, which must be neatly trussed, are best smo- thered with thick onion sauce, though sometimes a liver sauce is made thus : Boil and bruise the liver ; add veal gravy to some of the liquor in which the rabbits were boiled, thickened with flour, and a good piece of butter, and some parsley shred very fine. Season with mace and allspice, and garnish with sliced lemon. Onion sauce is also used for boiled goose and ducks, in preference to less piquant compositions. Rabbits will take a full hour of slow boiling ; birds according to their size.

TO BOIL TRIPE AND COW-HEELS.

Unless in country places, or where families kill their own beef, tripe is bought ready boiled at the

* Dr Redgill, professionally devoted to benevolence and Chris- tian charity, made a long oration on the value of pork liquor for soup to the poor ; charitable soup, economical soup, dealt out in copious libations to old women as often as very salt and very fat pork was boiled in the Doctor’s kitchen. The idea was nauseous to every other member of the committee. Touchwood asserted that

I even Cobbett, that enthusiast for hog’s flesh, disclaims pork broth. Redgill on this hard push brought forward his battle-horse, Dr Kitcheneh, in vain, — was left in a minority of one, and the hogs got their natural perquisite. The liquor of young pork not long in salt will, however, make tolerable peas-soup, to which a strong re- lish of celery and onion should be given.

88

CHAP. I. BOILING.

Tripe or Cow-Heel shops. It requires very long boiling — from six to nine hours of simmering by the fire-side, or, as is very good practice where kit- chen fires are gathered, it is left over the slow fire for a whole night. Tripe requires endless cleaning, and is best managed at a river side in the first instance. Afterwards, to assist in the cleaning and blanching, a piece of quicklime may be dissolved in the water in which it is scalded and scraped ; but tripe so blanched will become ill-coloured in the dressing. Tripe, like chickens, veal, &c. may be whitened by rubbing it with lemon-juice, where expense is no object. The scalding must be frequently repeated. When bought in the shops, choose it thick, fat, and white, and see that it be fresh. The best way of keeping tripe after it is boiled is to allow it to jelly in its own liquor. When to be dressed, pare off the fat and films, and wash it with warm water. Cut it into pieces about the size of small cutlets, and simmer in milk and water till it is quite soft and tender, and the sauce thickish. Peel and boil a dozen white firm button onions. Dish the tripe in a deep steak-dish or small tureen, and put the onions to it, taking off the surface-skin if they look black.* , _ Many persons prefer tripe boiled plainly in water, and served with onion sauce and mustard ; others boil it in veal broth, or put a fresh beef-bone to the water.f

* Dr Redgill to the above added a bit of butter rolled in flour, put into the sauce half an hour before it was taken off the fire, a large tea-spoonful of made mustard, or the same quantity of mush- room catsup, and the onions, previously parboiled, or fried in but- ter. This original variation was highly approved of.

ฆf In modern French cookery, tripe, .after being boiled and whiten- ed with lemon-juice, is cut in stripes and stewed in white sauce, or strong white broth, for four hours. 1 1 is then served either in a sauce a la Pouletie or in sauce Italienne blanche. In old Frencli cookery, the tripe, when boiled and cut in bits, was stewed in cullis with all sorts of herbs, onions, and chives, a glass of wine, and a little Tar- ragon. When the sauce was thickened, a little made mustard was added, and the whole strained and poured over the tripe.

The fat skimmings of Cow-heels and Cow -head are the best adapt- ed for frying or basting of all boiled fat. They indeed afford a very rich oil, which is sometimes even burned ; and the Perfumers draw largely upon them for some commodities of high name. Calves-feet jelly, so named, is made both of Cow-heels and Tripe ; indeed the former affords a much stronger and richer jelly than the article whose name it usurps. A glaze is made of Cow-heels.

CIIAP. II.- — ROASTING.

89

Cow-heels are generally cleaned before they are bought. They require from five to six hours boiling. Sauce, — melted butter, a tea-spoonful of made mus- tard, and a very little vinegar, — or parsley and but- ter.— See Potted Heel, Fried and Fricasseed Tripe, งc.

CHAPTER II.

ROASTING.

“ For what are your soups, your ragouts, and your sauce Compared to the Beef of old England —

And O the Old English Roast Beef l" *

No printed rules can make a good roaster. Practice and vigilant attention alone can produce that rara avis of the kitchen. In the French kitchen this is a department by itself. He who rules the roast at- tends to that alone.

No meat will roast to advantage that is not kept the exact length of time ; and this in every case must be determined by the weather and the age of the ani- mal. Two days of hot weather is equal to a week of cold in rendering meat fit for the spit.

Even in summer, by proper attention, meat will keep much longer than is generally supposed. Have the roast properly jointed, which saves much mortifi- cation to the carver, and much haggling and mang- ling of the meat. Let it be well washed with salt and

• In a voice between whistling and singing, accompanied by the flourish of the carving-knife, and an occasional rub against the steel, it was with the above appropriate stave our brisk old Nabob viewed with high satisfaction tne lordly sirloin, of a delicate pale-brown, frosted as if with seed pearls, a labour of love which had occupied him for five hours, and now smoked in savourincss on the board of the Committee. In the evening of the same day, and while the pro- cess was still fresh in his head, after sundry disputes with Dr Red- flitt on the undone and the overdone, the Nabob dictated some- thing like the above discourse on roasting.

90

CHAP. II. — ROASTING.

water, and dried ; and see that the spit be bright- ly clean ; or if not, scour with sand and water or Bath brick, and wipe with a clean cloth. If there is too much fat, some of it maybe cutoff for dripping or puddings. Cover the fat for the first hour with kitchen-paper, fastened on with twine.* * A good cook can manage to handle meat very little in the spitting and balancing. In many joints the spit will run along the side of the bone without piercing the flesh. Fix with screw skewers. If much handled, baste the spit- ted joint with salt and water, and dry the dripping- pan, suffering the meat to dry, which it will do in a few seconds by the heat of the fire, before basting with butter. If the meat is not accurately balanced, no horizontal spit will work well.t y

In roasting, the management of the fire is half the battle. Let the kitchen grate be thoroughly raked out in the morning. An hour before the roast is put down, make up a fire suited to the size of the joint ; let it be clear and glowing, and free of ashes and smoke in front. A backing of wetted cinders or small coal helps to throw forward and sustain an equal ra- diant heat in front. Place the meat at a due distance, that it may heat through without the outside becom- ing shrivelled and scorched. To prevent this, baste diligently for the first half hour. The larger the joint the greater must be the distance from the fire, so that it be not so much as to make the meat tough and sod- den by the slackness of the process. A radiant fire, due distance, and frequent basting, can alone ensure a well-roasted joint, of that fine amber colour, crisp, and lightly frothed, which speaks a language that all men understand. A quarter of an hour to the pound of meat is the time usually allowed for roasting, bearing

* Redgill insisted upon a warning post here, as the worthy man, in the eagerness of his appetite, had one day a large corking- pin fixed in his gullet, like a salmon hook, for a good half-hour, which some of Meg’s queans had used in skewering (new reading, securing ,) on the paper.

*t* A smoke or a wind-up-jack was considered the best by the Nabob ; but Yorkshire jacks, bottle jacks, Dutch ovens, and Gip- sy jacks, i. e. a nail and a string, and many other contrivances, may all be employed with success, if the fire be adapted to the pe- culiar construction of the implement.

CHAP. II. ROASTING.

91

in mind that fat meat takes longer than lean, and Pork and Veal longer than any other kinds of meat. But, as was said of boiling, this must in almost every case be determined by circumstances. Fillets and legs take longer than loins or breasts. A meat-screen, the state of the weather, the kind of fuel, and a thousand things, must be taken into account. A meat-screen con- tributes so much to good roasting, and is so generally useful, that something of the kind ought to find a place in every family that aspires to comfort. It saves fuel, keeps plates and dishes warm, or makes them so ; and, above all, by warding off draughts of air, preserves the atmosphere in the region of the spit in a state of equality.* Once, or, if the roast be very large, twice during the process, withdraw the spit and dripping- pan and stir the fire, clear away the ashes, and bring forward the clear burning coals, supplying their place with fresh fuel. When the meat is nearly done, which -will be known by the length of time, and by the smoke, in the language of the kitchen, “ drawing to the fire,” the paper is to be removed, and a little salt sprinkled lightly over the roast, and the spit so placed, that the ends of the roast may be browned. The meat must now be carefully basted, and may be

* There was no meat-screen in the Cleikum, Meg said, “ She had nae brow of sick new-fangled niceties ;” but the Nabob, who, like all men of genius, was handy and full of resource, contrived, with the help of Dr Redgill, to erect an immense old japan tea- tray upon stools and barrels. This he substituted till John His- lop broughtanew one from Edinburgh, for the which Jekyll had condescended to make a drawing, and which Mrs Dods, now quite reconciled, has used with great approbation ever since, declaring it the “ most comfortable, useful piece of furniture that ever a kitchen saw.”

In all departments of domestic life, save the management of kit- chen-fires, there is, at least, a decent show of attention to economy among servants. There the waste is wanton, wilful, and enormous, whether cooking be going forward or not. “ The waste of fuel,” says Count Rumford, “ which arises from making liquids boil un- “ necessarily, or when nothing more is necessary than merely to “ keep them boiling hot, is enormous. I have not a doubt, that half “ the fire used in kitchens, public and private, in the whole world, “ is wasted precisely in this manner.” To convince a regular cook, or even a kitchen-maid, that she docs not know how to manage her fires, is, we confess, ouite hopeless ; but surely something might be made of young girls Dy proper instruction in economizing an article of such serious consequence in all families.

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CIIAP. II. — ROASTING.

placed a little nearer to the fire, if the surface is not yet of a fine clear brown colour. The roast is then frothed, by dredging it lightly with well-dried flour shaken from a dredging-box, somewhat smaller in the holes than those generally employed.* Fresh butter makes the most delicate froth, but does not improve the flavour of the skin or the appearance of the gravy, which ought at this stage to be sparkling in the dripping-pan, bright, brown, and transparent as a Caledonian topaz.

Fashion and luxury have lately introduced stall-fed oxen and overgrown sheep, which are better fitted for the tallow-chandler than the cook. They are indeed good for nothing save to obtain premiums at Cattle- shews, and deluge dripping-pans with liquid fat. When meat of this description is to be dressed, it is an object of economy to save the superfluous fat, which makes so much of the weight. Besides what is cut off, the dripping-pan, during the first hour of roasting, may be emptied of its oily contents once or twice, and abundance remain for basting. Dripping put aside in this manner will be much fitter for all culinary purposes, whether for peas-soup, pie-crust, or for frying fish, than that which has acquired a highly empyreumatic taste, either from burning cin- ders, or from being exposed to the action of a fierce heat. This disagreeable flavour and the unsalutary qualities which it betokens, make an epicure of any delicacy of stomach reject dripping with abhorrence for any use except frying fish. The improved Cleikum dripping-pan, from a drawing by Wintkrblossom, was made of ample dimensions, and with high slop- ing ledges. It was furnished with a covered fountain, and a conduit to allow the superfluous dripping to be easily taken away. In the Cleikum kitchen the drip- ping was immediately clarified for future use. — See Clarified Dripping. If meat is at all of good quality, and roasted with care, it will afford a plentiful supply of delicious gravy, the natural and best sauce that can

• The calibre of Touchwood’s dredging-box and that of hi* pepper-box was precisely the same.

CHAP. II. ROASTING.

93

accompany it. To the gravy which has flowed from the meat, the Nabob, after repeated experiments, found, that the best addition was a very little boiling water (a large wine glass full) and salt, poured through the hole from which the spit is withdrawn, and gently laved on the browned outside under bits of the roast. To the gravy of venison and veal, when found scanty, which will sometimes be the case, the Committee ordered a little thin melted butter in pre- ference to drawn gravies. The assets for roasts should be furnished with a gravy-fountain, for comfort if not for elegance ; and the jelly gravy that flows from young meats, the very essence of meat, ought to be carefully preserved, as it forms the most delicate of all gravies to enrich sauces, ragouts, hashes, &c. Of this, veal gravy is the most delicate, and it is ac- cordingly in great requisition among all cooks ; but beef gravy is fit for almost all purposes. The Na- bob, in the course of his discursive readings, though he was more a practical man than one of research, discovered that many things have been anciently used for bastings which the simplicity of modern practice rejects. Sweet herbs and seeds pulverized, butter and claret, yolks of eggs, pounded biscuit and spice- ries, have all been employed. But these antique re- finements were all rejected except butter and claret, which, for venison, and all the dry meats that some- times go under that generic name, were used at the Cleikum with unanimous approbation. Much more did our Nabob, in the fulness of his heart and sto- mach on this day of his triumph, say on the subject of roasting in general ; and this his Essay roast in particular, which we must take the liberty to skip, and come at once to the receipts for roasting.

TO ROAST A SIRLOIN OP BEEF. F. S. T., ESQ.

Study the above discourse, and bear in mind that, next to broiling, roasting is the most difficult of all elementary culinary processes ; and when well done, is valued accordingly. Instruction may teach even a bungler to compound a tolerable made-dish, which, if faulty, may be improved, disguised, or altered.

d 2

94

CHAP. II. — ROASTING.

But -care alone and a little practice can make a dex- terous roaster.

Roast Beef is garnished with plenty of horse-rad- ish, finely scraped, and laid round the dish in light heaps, and served with Yorkshire pudding, or potato pudding.* The inside, or English side, as it is com- monly called in the northern division of the island, is by some esteemed the most delicate. To this the carver must attend, and also to the equitable distribu- tion of the fat. Cold roast beef is very generally liked; but it may be dressed warm in various ways. Slices may be warmed in a Dutch oven, and served with some of the gravy also warmed, and seasoned rather highly with pepper and salt, anchovy, shalot, or a tea-spoonful of eschalot vinegar. Cold beef may also be dressed as Olives, or as Fricassee, Cecils, Sanders, &c. — See Made Dishes of Beef.

N. B. — French cooks saw off the large bones, sprin- kle the Sirloin with olive oil, lay sliced onions and bay leaves over it, and leave it thus some days before roasting. — They serve it, when roasted, with sauce hackee, that is, chopped gherkins, mushrooms, capers, and an anchovy thrown into a brown sauce. Sirloin is, we think, better ordered at home.

TO ROAST RIBS OF BEEF. P. W. ESQ.

This piece of beef is garnished, and served with the same accompaniments as the Sirloin. Both the Ribs and the English side of a large Sirloin may be dressed in a more elaborate way as follows: — Cut out the ribs; beat the meat flat with a rolling-pin ; lay it to soak in vinegar and wine for a night ; cover it with a rich forcemeat, made of minced veal, suet, grated ham, lemon-peel, and mixed spices. Roll it tightly up, fix- ing with small skewers and tape, and roast, basting

* Dr Redgill, who relished a joke after the serious business of dinner was despatched, holding it au a maxim that a moderate laugh aided digestion, was wont to say, that Y orkshire pudding was the true Squire of Sir Loin, and horse-radish his brisk fiery Page, with- out which attendants he looked despoiled of his dignity and bearing. This pudding is nearly the same as the Panade with which it was the custom to baste roasts till they gathered a crust before the fire.

CHAP. II. ROASTING. 95

constantly with wine and butter. Froth with fresh butter, and serve with Venison Sauce. — See Sauces.

Obs. — A fillet of the loin roasted makes a handsome French dish, served with Tomata sauce, or some sub- stitute, as cucumber sauce.

TO ROAST A LEG OF MUTTON. — P. S. T. ESQ.

Mutton intended to be roasted may be kept longer than mutton for boiling, as the colour is of less im- portance. Cut out the pipe that runs along the back- bone, which taints so early ; wipe off the mustiness that gathers on the surface, and in the folds and doublings of the meat, and below the flap. This and every other piece of meat may be lightly dusted with flour, or with pepper or pounded ginger, which, by excluding the external air and keeping off flies, helps to preserve the meat, and can be taken off in the washing previous to roasting. A leg, a chine, a saddle, a loin, a breast, a shoulder, and the haunch or gigot, are the roasting pieces of mutton. Joint the roast well, what- ever be the piece. Most of the loose fat should be cut from the loin, which may be stuffed, and must be pa- pered to preserve the kidney-fat.

This roast requires a rather quick fire to concen- trate its juices, onion sauce, cucumber sauce, and cur- rant jelly, are ordered in some Cookery books to be served with roast mutton ; but a juicy leg of mutton requires no sauce save its own gravy.

N. B. — Potatoes browned in the dripping-pan, or a plain potato pudding placed below the dripping, were two favourite accompaniments to this dish at the Cleikum. Mashed turnip is another approved simple accompaniment.

TO ROAST A SUCKING FIG. BY DR REDGILL.

A Sucking Pig ! tin cochon de lait ! France and Eng- land, natural enemies on the relative merits of ragouts and roast beef, are in brotherhood here. The age on which every gourmand, whether insular or continental, has set his seal, is, from ten days to double that number. Unlike the ways of other flesh, in this delicate crea-

96

CHAP. II. — ROASTING.

ture — this ortolan with four feet, as a corresponding member called it — there is but one step between the gully of the butcher and the carver’s knife. In short, he must be killed ; but that done, the sooner he is roasted and eaten the better is he relished by those in the secret. The ordinary way, after he has received the coup de grace, is to take off the hair by scalding.* When cleaned from the hair, and the entrails taken out, the pig must be well washed in cold water. Cut off the feet at the first joint, loosening and leaving on the skin to turn neatly over. He is now ready for the stuffing. For this, take a handful of mild sage, and a couple of young onions parboiled ; chop these very fine, add a cupful of grated bread-crumbs, two ounces of good butter, and a high relish of pepper and salt.

* Dr Redgiel, though apt to be somewhat violent in his preju- dices, and entertaining a loyal and laudable hatred of Cobbett and all his ways, paused when Touchwood communicated to him the method which that demagogue — infallible in hog’s flesh, and un- equalled in bolting — recommends for removing tne hair of grown porkers ; “ and why not,” said the Nabob, “of sucklings “ The first method (scalding),” says Cobbett, “slackens the skin, opens all the pores of it, ar.d makes it loose and flabby, by drawing out the roots of the hair. The second (singeing) tightens the skin in every part, contracts all the sinews and veins, &c.” This is said in reference to bacon no doubt ; but it was for talent like Dr Red- Giui.’s to apply it to young pigs. In a sucking pig, in which crackling is all in all, this burning process is surely worthy of trial. The President, with a meanness of jealousy of which the good Doctor was incapable, where pig, of which he was himself to partake, was concerned, had indeed kept this important information secret till the scalded eleve of his rival was smoking in the platter; he then referred, with malicious triumph, to the singeing of sheep’ s head, reasoning on what a wersh , fusionless morsel it would make if scalded. The moisture which had overflowed the Doctor’s chops

as he viewed his savoury charge reposing, as might say,

“ in the crispness of his beauty,” was arrested in its course. JBut between a singed pig in prospect, and a scalded pig on the table ready roasted, sauce, crackling , stuffing, all alike inviting, the Doc- tor did not long hesitate. This was a young pig of twelve days old ; there were still six of the farrow remaining, ana, resolving to accept of his stomach’s good, even at the hands of a Cobbett, he avowed the intention of making the experiment on one of the others ; so that point will probably be ascertained in time for the next edition of this our manual.

N. B Every Cook should be made aware, that, by singeing chick-

ens and fowls, she not only removes the downy feathers, but gives firm- ness to the flesh, and tenacity to the skin ; and that the chickens, if for fricassee, broiling, &c., will cut up much better if well singed.

CHAP. II.— ROASTING. 97

Sew the slit neatly up, (this the Doctor did with his own hands,) and baste incessantly with the best fresh butter or salad oil, if you would have the crackling crisp, which is the true and only test of a well-roasted pig. Some cooks tie up the butter in a bit of muslin, and diligently rub the crackling with this ; others anoint that substance with a well-cleaned bunch of feathers, to keep it constantly moist. A pig-iron, or some ingenious substitute, must be placed in the centre of the grate part of the time, to prevent the middle regions of the animal from being scorched be- fore the extremities are enough done. For sauce — clear beef or veal gravy, with a squeeze of lemon, and, if approved, a little of the stuffing stirred into the sauce-tureen. Apple sauce and currant sauce are still served with roast pig ; but sweet sauces for animal food are every day losing favour. Even currant sauce and venison, which were heretofore considered one and indivisible, are now often seen disjoined. The taste of the age is decidedly for the pungent, the sharp, the piquant, and the acid. Another favourite sauce is the liver and brains, and a few sprigs of sage, chopped and boiled up in the gravy. In Scotland, where the pig is too often dished whole, the brains cannot be obtained to enrich the sauce, which, along with the trouble given to the carver, was considered by the Club a capital objection to this mode of dish- ing. In England the pig is generally cut off the spit down the middle on both sides ; the head is cut off and divided, and the jaws are stuck up on each side for ornament, instead of the pippin, which was wont of old to be stuck in the grinning chops of the sa- voury cherub. Roast pig, when not liked cold, should be cut into neat fillets, and warmed in a strained sauce made of thin melted butter, flour, sweet herbs, chop- ped mushrooms, and a bay -leaf, or in broth so season- ed.

For an excellent way of dressing pig, see Coclion en Galantine, French Cookery.

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CHAP. II.-— BOASTING-

TO ROAST A HAUNCH OR SHOULDER OF VENISON IN THE ENGLISH MODE, BY H. J. ESQ.*

The meat may be kept from' ten to twenty days by proper care, and by observing the precautions former- ly recommended for preserving mutton. When to be used, wash it, without much wetting, with a sponge dipped in lukewarm water. Unless venison is fat it is useless to roast it ; and in roasting, the main object is to preserve the fat. For this purpose, butter or rub over with salad oil a large sheet of kitchen paper, tie it over the fat, and butter it on the outside once more. Have ready rolled a coarse paste of flour and water, to the thickness of a half inch, on another sheet of paper, and with this cover the first paper. Tie the whole firmly on, and pour plenty of melted butter over the outside paper to prevent it from catching to the fire. Baste constantly, and keep up the fire, which must be a strong clear sirloin fire to penetrate through the incasements, and roast the haunch. Venison is rather preferred underdone than overdone, as its flesh is na- turally dry. A large haunch may be allowed from four to five hours, when wrapped in paste. A half

* Win terblosso m and Jekyli, both men of family and fashion, the former of whom had for forty years, by one means or other, contrived “ to sit at good men’s feasts,” took the lead here. “ Nothing,” said]J ekyll, “ can be more delicious than a fat buck from an English park, a “ hart of grease,” in the proper season. It is food for heroes and princes; but, with the good leave of our hostess, this “ doe or roe, or hart or hind” of the Caledonian forest, would please me fully better bounding on its native hills than smok- ing on this board, for the greater part of the year these wild ani- mals are as sinewy, lean, and dry as the stalkers who pursue them. Roast it will not, — this meagre hard meat. With all appliances to boot, it makes but indifferent pasty ; but after a long morning of shooting, or for a dejeuner d la fourchette, I have found a fricassee of it cleverly tossed up — what you Scots call venison collops, Mrs Dods,— very tolerable eating.”

“ And what you Englishers lick your lips after,” said Meg, not a little offended. “ I have had but little handling of English fallow deer, but as gude venishon, haunch and shouther, neck and brisket, has been roasted in my father’s kitchen as e’er coost horn or cloot in an English policy— set them up !” ,

“ For my own private eating,” said Touchwood, “ a leg of five-year-old heath wether mutton before all the venison in the world ; but on occasions of high festival, this aristocratic dish is indispensa- ble to the fools who preside and the knaves who partake— so about it, Captain. The dulce we leave to you and Winterblossom ; the utile is my own peculiar province.”

CHAP. II.— ROASTING.

99

hour before it is ready it must be carefully unswad- dled, placed nearer the fire, basted with fresh butter, and lightly dredged with flour, to brown and froth. For sauce, — Currant jelly melted in red wine, or the jelly roughed in a sweetmeat glass, is still usually serv- ed. A glass of claret, with three times that quanti- ty of gravy made of venison or mutton, and a small glassful of raspberry vinegar, all very hot, was the sharp sauce most relished by our Club ; or a plain sharp sauce made of white-wine vinegar and the finest lump-sugar, heated in a stone jar.

Obs. — This is the best mode of roasting venison where expense is not grudged. In some cases the paste may be dispensed with, — the paper will be suffi- cient. The shoulder, breast, and neck, are all roasted ; but the latter is much better dressed as a pasty ox- soup. — See also Pies.

At genuine small gourmand parties, as the venison fat freezes, it is not unusual to cut off small slices of fat and lean, and heat them in a silver dish over a spirit-lamp. Venison can thus be restored to perfec- tion.

TO ROAST RED DEER OR ROE, BY P. W. ESQ.*

Season the haunch highly, by rubbing it well with mixed spices. Soak it for six hours in claret, and a quarter pint of the best vinegar, or the fresh juice of three lemons ; turn it frequently, and baste with the liquor. Strain the liquor in which the venison was soaked ; add to it fresh butter melted, and with this baste the haunch during the whole time it is roasting. Fifteen minutes before the roast is drawn remove the paper, and froth and brown it as directed in other re- ceipts. For sauce, — Take the contents of the drip- ping-pan, which will be very rich and highly-flavour- ed; add a half pint of clear brown gravy, drawn from

• This was one of those original receipts on which our old Beau plumed himself not a little. This mode of dressing venison, he said, had been invented by the Master of the Kitchen to Mary of Guise, and had been ever since preserved a profound se- cret by the noble family of M , till the late Earl communicated

it to himself.

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CHAP. II. — ROASTING.

venison or full-aged heath mutton. Boil them up to- gether, skim, add a tea-spoonful of walnut catsup, and pour the same round the roast. Instead of the walnut catsup any of the flavoured vinegars most con- genial to venison, and to the taste of the Gastronome, may be substituted.* — See Made Dishes of Venison.

TO ROAST VEAL. P. S. T., ESQ.

The fillet, the loin, the shoulder,+ and the breast, are roasted ; the back ribs are best used for pie or cut- lets ; and the scrag should be either cut to pieces and stewed, and served in stew soup, or made into rice- broth. Stuff the flap of the fillet with forcemeat made as directed for boiled turkey, but with rather more lemon-peel ; sew in the stuffing. Some of it may be worked up with yolk of egg into the shape of pigeons’ eggs, parboiled, and fried and browned below the roast, drained, and served as a garnishing, or made into a small accompanying dish. J Be careful to brown the outside nicely, which can only be well done by attention to the state of the fire.ง

• After the third venison dinner, it was the opinion of the Club, that it is downright idiocy, a wanton and profligate sacrifice of the pa- late and the stomach to the vanity of the eye, to roast venison when it is not fat , while so many more nutritious and palatable modes of cookery may be employed.

•j- The noix , or large muscle bedded in firm fat near the neck, is the tid-bit of the Parisian epicure.

+ Forcemeat must be left in a great measure to the genius and invention of the Cook. Like spiceries and seasoning, it may, in the exercise of good discretion, be used ad libitum , bearing in mind, that it is intended to enrich and give piquance to the relish of the more insipid meats. Relishing ingredients of all kinds enter into the com- position of forcemeat, such as grated ham or beef, sausage, pickled oysters, caviare, anchovy, sweet herbs, .eschalot, mushrooms, truf- fles, and morells, curry powder, cayenne, &c. &c. “ Plodding

perseverance,” said Jekyll, “ may make agood roaster, and care- ful observance of rules, a tolerable compounder of a made-dish, but the true maker of forcemeat, like the true poet, must be born.”

S “ A bit of the brown” is esteemed the most delicate part of this roast. It was with this, liberally supplied from Mr Strahan’s veal, that the demagogue Wilkes not only overcame the preju- dices, but actually gained the heart of Dr Johnson, — a success which far outdoes that of Richard over Lady Anne. But then he helped a slice of the lemon or bitter orange, which formed the garnishing, along with the browned outside. Ever as you would gain the heart of a judicious epicure, garnish roast veal with slices of lemon.

CHAP. II. ROASTING.

101

A Loin is roasted and served in the very same way, only the kidney fat, which is so delicate, must be pa- pered, and the roast should be more constantly basted ; or the flap part may be rolled in and skewered firm, and the bones chopped off, to give the dish a hand- some shape. The Shoulder is often stuffed ; and the stuffing for this roast requires more suet, marrow, or butter, whichever is employed, than the forcemeat for the fillet. The breast must be roasted with the caul on till nearly enough done, which both preserves and enriches the meat.

TO ROAST LAMB.

Young lamb, and none other, is fit for the use of a gas- tronome of high gout, — a hobble-de-hoy between lamb and mutton being even coarser than a three months pig. Lamb, like pig, and indeed all young meat, should not be long kept, if the flavour, and juices are to be obtained in perfection ; time to cool is con- sidered quite sufficient by knowing gourmands. It is true, the fibre will be thready, but the flavour will be infinitely superior to that of lamb kept for days. Lamb is sometimes roasted in a side, or in a saddle. In roasting the hind quarter, the flap of the loin may be stuffed, using the superfluous fat for the forcemeat.* Sauce. — The gravy which flows from the meat, with about a wine glass full of boiling water and a little salt, run through the spit hole, and Mint Sauce. Serve

• This is an old Scottish practice, which Meg Dons called “ makin’ a pouch.” Dr Redgill, who patronized all receptacles for forcemeat, wheresoever placed, vowed that “ a hind-quarter of lamb should never again be roasted in his kitchen without a pouch." This protuberance must not be too large, else it might prove offen- sive to the eye, — an organ that ought to be diligently consulted in all matters connected with the table. “ Open the mouth, and shut the eyes,” the maxim of a great modem gastronome, had certainly, W interblossom said, been stolen from the luxurious picture of the Gude Wife of Auchtermuchty’s Sow : —

“ And aye sclio winked and aye scho drank.”

Both Touchwood and Redgill rebuked the old beau for this irreverent sally against an authority for which the latter entertained the most profound respect.

102

CHAP II. — ROASTING.

salad, spinagc, French beans, cauliflower, or green peas with lamb ; garnish with crisp parsley, or sprigs of cauliflower. The fore-quarter may be lightly jointed. Lamb must be well done. This and the shank or knuckle of all roasts, or of ham, ought to have a fringe, or plain piece of writ- ing paper, twisted neatly round it, as the bare stump looks most ungainly. When the shoulder is removed, the carver is expected to squeeze a lemon, or to sprin- kle a little salt over the ribs, or, if necessary, a little melted butter ; and to press the separated parts together to obtain gravy. N. B. — A friend, who admires French cookery, recommends a maitre d’ hotel sauce to be served under roast lamb.

TO ROAST PORK. — DR R.

Pork takes more of the fire than any other kind of meat. Choose it young, short in the shank, fine in the grain, and smooth but thick in the skin.* Cut a hole in the knuckle, widen it with the finger, and stuff with mild sage and onions parboiled and chop- ped fine, pepper, salt, grated crumbs, a piece of but- ter, a tea-spoonful of made mustard, and an egg to cement the whole. With a bunch of feathers rub the skin with salad or sweet oil, or with fresh butter tied up in a muslin rag. Do this frequently to prevent the crackling from blistering, and to make it crisp and brown. The crackling is often scored into dia- monds twenty minutes before the roast is done ; but unless it look hide-bound, and scorched or shrivelled, the scoring is as well omitted. The roast loin should, however, be scored in stripes, with advantage both to the eating and to the appearance. Some cooks add pulverized sage to the basting. We only recommend this in roasting the griskin. Pork requires a more pungent sauce than sucking pig ; yet apple sauce is still occasionally used. Onion saltce we like better, or sauce Robert; but confidently recommend Dr Redgill’s sauce for pork, goose, duck, or rabbit. —

* If pork is fed in styes, that which has fattened on potatoes and butter-milk we consider much better, both in flesh and flavour, than that which has been fed on drenches of barley meal and kitchen slops.

CHAP. II. ROASTING. 103

(See Sauces .) French beans or peas pudding are served with roast pork.

Obs. — Sham House Lamb, when the real is scarce and high-priced, is made by skinning a half-grown porker, and cutting it of a proper shapes — The Cleik- um Club countenanced no counterfeits.

TO ROAST TURKEY, FOWLS, AND GAME. M. D.

A turkey will keep a fortnight, a fowl a week. By care they will keep even longer; that is to say, if draw'n, hung in a cool dry air, wiped often, and sea- soned with pepper in the inside.* The sinews of the

* So dexterously and with such an air of conscious superiority did Mrs Dods carry herself, that, except for the new lights which had dawned upon Redgill in the composition of stuffings, and an affected dandy squeamishness which overcame the young Officer about the trussing, in this important branch of the art, the Club would, unquestioning, have submitted to her judgment as to an ora- cle ; but these causes produced open discontents, and —

“ I say sweet stuffing is an abomination for roast turkey,” cried Redgill, as the knife of Winterblossom gave to view Meg’s savoury composition, mottled with Zante currants, and frag- rant with what she termed “ a scrape o’ a nutmug,” — an immense grater furnished with this spicy fruit, being, instead of a lady’s es- sence-bottle, generally lodged in the depths and labyrinths of those strong blue cloth pockets, with scarlet waiting, of whose multifa- rious contents, Jekyll one day made a catalogue. “ Oysters! oysters !” cried Redgill, “ there is no other turkey stuffing worth the attention of a Christian eater.” — “Or Dinde aux Truffes et a la (troche,” said Touchwood, animated by the spirit of con- tradiction, and the ambition of displaying his science. “ A pound of fresh truffles chopped, the same quantity of rasped fat white ba- con. Soak the mixture in the stew-pan, with spiceries and a bay- leaf. Stuff the turkey, and give him three days to take the flavour ; covering him with slices of bacon : Or chestnuts,” continued he. “ Roast a quarter hundred and peel them ; — leave out ten or a dozen, pound in a mortar, with the liver parboiled, a quarter of a pound of ham, well grated or pounded, a little basil and parsley, mace, pepper, salt, our friend Meg’s nutmug , and a good piece of butter ; tie the bird at neck and vent : — roast him, and tell me how you like him. For sauce, the remaining chestnuts chopped and stirred in a thickened strong gravy, with a glass of old sherry or Madeira. Garnish with orange. This, Sir, is a turkey dressed for you ; or, better still, a roast turkey, with rolls of sausage fried, or sausage balls served with it, — “ an Alderman in chains,” as those waggish rogues, the London sturdy beggars, call it, — their favourite regale at the close of a prosperous day. ’ Redgill despised the chestnut receipt ; but turkey and sausage, the ambrosia of the hous-

104

CHAP. II. — ROASTING.

legs must be drawn, (those of fowls, pheasants, &c., should all be drawn, especially when they are old ;) press down the breast-bone even move than in a fowl, to make the bird look plump ; be careful in drawing, to preserve the liver whole, and not to break the gall-bag. For stuffing to fill the craw, take a break- fast cup full of stale bread finely grated, two ounces of minced beef suet, or marrow, a little parsley par- boiled and finely shred, a tea-spoonful of lemon-peel grated, a few sprigs of lemon thyme, a little nutmeg, pepper, and salt. Mix the whole well in a mortar, with a couple of eggs.* Do not stuff too full ; and

ing ken , Seemed worthy of an epicure’s serious investigation, and the next bird was ordered to be dressed beggar fashion.

“ And why. Dame,” said Jekyll, as thrown back in his chair he eyed the roasted turkey with a languid air of half-affected dis- gust— “ Why produce the unhappy bubbly-jock, with his head — forty mortal gashes upon it — tucked under his wing, while his giz- zard and liver, larger than life, grace his other fin ; this affair of dining, after all, has its betise. Or those rough-footed Scots,” pointing to a brace of moorfowl, “ in their spurs and pantaloons, with their pretty innocent heads tucked under their arms, like that of St Denis in the pictures of a book of miracles ; — nay, worse, 1

Srotest,” and he lifted up his eye-glass — “ here too are ducks, if I on’t mistake ; but indeed there is no mistaking — miserable am- phibia ! their saffron web-feet drawn up, and spread in such goodly sort as if “ in act to swim.” Our patrons, Drs Kitchener and Trussler, direct, that the feet be roasted delicately crisp, as some people are very fond of them.

“ Cut off the turkey’s head, Captain Jackall,” broke forth Meg, with indignant astonishment — “ A roasted turkey ! Do you tak’ us for born ignoramuses on this side of the border ” “ Cut off the heads,” responded Redgill, “of turkey and wild-fowl 1 Surely, my young friend, you forget yourself.” The Doctor, a loyal, hearty, dining Churchman, had seen since the beginning of the French Revolution, but too much of this “ off-with-his-head” spirit abroad. “ There was no knowing,” he said, “ where its de- vastations were to stop ; it began with anointed Kings” — “ And may safelyend with basted turkeys,” rejoined Jekyll, and he con- tinued, “ At all tOTiish tables, Mr Winterbi.ossom, though I do not pretend to think better of mankind than my neighbours, it would be but a well-bred stretch of faith, to take for granted that turkey was not goose, without such testimony as those bloody heads and feathered heels afford. Why, the panache of his owm tail- feathers, which my respected grandmother was wont to stick into the rump of her roasted pheasant, or even the surtout of his entire goodly plumage with which our ancestors invested the roast peacock, was not more barbarous than this absurd fashion.” Doud rose the clamour of cooks, scullions, and amateurs, as this new heresy was broached, and Jekyi.l, if not convinced, was at least silenced.

• Staffing for a turkey or hare, French fashion. Chop, and afterwards pound in a mortar, half a pound of beef-suet, equal bulk

CHAP. II. ROASTING.

105

with another egg work up what remains, into balls, to be fried and served with the turkey. To this stuf- fing, parboiled sausage meat maybe added, or grated ham, or oysters chopped. (The same stuffing is suit- able for a large fowl.) Paper the breast. Score the gizzard. Season it highly with pepper, salt, and cayenne, and dip in melted butter, and then in bread- crumbs ; cover the gizzard and liver with veal or lamb caul, or buttered paper, and roast them, fixing them under the pinion and basting liberally. A very large turkey will take nearly as long to roast as a sirloin. These are not the best, and are seldom seen in Ireland or Scotland. A moderate-sized turkey will take from an hour and a half to two hours. The fire must be clear and sharp ; dredge with flour when laid down. (Fresh butter is always best for basting ; but salted butter may be washed and drained.) Keep the tur- key far from the fire at first, that the stuffing and breast may be done through. Sauce — Bread sauce, with gravy in the dish, oyster sauce, gravy sauce, egg sauce. Hen turkeys are the most delicate, and the whitest ; they are consequently preferred for boil- ing. To Hash and Devil turkey. — See Made Dishes of Poultry, and French Cookery.

N.B. — A test of turkey, pheasant, fowl, &c. being ready for the spit, is their falling down when sus- pended in the larder by a few of the tail-feathers left for this experiment when the birds are picked.

TO ROAST A GOOSE.

A goose may, if well cleaned and seasoned inside, with pepper, keep in cold weather for a fortnight or more. Geese are in high perfection from Midsum- mer to Michaelmas. At that season they will improve by keeping in the larder for a week. In Scotland a

(but not weight,) of soaked bread-crumbs, lemon peel, parsley, and a sprig of thyme chopped, pepper, salt, two beat eggs, and a little milk, or broth. This makes an excellent stuffing. See also Quenell'.t French Cookery. French cooks are celebrated for their skill in forcemeat ; one half of their merit in this department consists in their patience at the mortar.

106

CHAP. II. — ROASTING.

goose is often rubbed with salt for ten days before roasting. Where they are rank this may be advisable, but not otherwise, as it dries the flesh. After the goose is carefully picked and singed, let it be well Avashed and dried with a cloth. Stuffing — Four well- sized onions, about half their Aveight of sage undried, and half the liver ; parboil slightly, and chop these very fine: Add a bit of butter, yolk of egg, the crumbs of a penny loaf, or an equal quantity of mashed potatoes, and season rather highly with pep- per and salt. With this stuff the goose.* Spit the goose ; fasten tightly at the neck and rump. Paper the breast, but remove the paper when it has swelled. A goose requires a brisk fire, Avell kept up ; and Avill take from tAVO hours to two and a half to roast. The breast must not be alloAved to sink. Apple sauce is by prescription served Avith goose, and this bird re- quires a drawn gravy in the dish, its own being often rank and oily.

Obs. — To apple sauce the Cleikum Club preferred onion sauce ; better still. Dr Rebgill’s sauce for roast pork, duck, or goose, and sauce Robert. — See Sauces. The sauce may either be poured into the goose by the carver making for this purpose a slit in the apron, or served in a tureen in thick melted butter. In Scot- land it is customary to garnish Avith slices of raAv onion, but the practice is on the wane. Green Geese are roasted in the same manner ; but for these young- lings the sage and onion is better omitted. Season high with pepper and salt, and put a piece of butter

* All stuffing containing bread-crumbs should be allowed room to swell, and indeed all forcemeat whatever, as it expands more or less in the dressing.

The livers of geese and poultry are esteemed a great delicacy by some gourmands ; and on the continent great pains are taken to pro- cure fat overgrown livers. The methods employed to produce this diseased state of the animals are as disgusting to rational taste as revolting to humanity. The geese are crammed with fat food, de- prived of drink, kept in an intolerably hot atmosphere, and fastened by the feet (we have heard of nailing) to the shelves of the fattening cribs. The celebrated Strasburg pies, which are esteemed so great a delicacy that they are often sent as presents to distant places, are enriched with these diseased livers, it is a mistake that these pies are wholly made of this artificial animal substance.

6

CHAP. II.— ROASTING.

107

into the inside as an interior basting. Froth and brown nicely. The gravy is preserved and served, but more gravy must generally be added. Gooseberry sauce, or Redgili/s sauce. — See Sauces. Garnish with grated crust of bread.* Salted geese are in some parts of

* In England the goose is sacred to St Michael; in Scotland, where dainties were not going every day,

“ ’Twas Christmas sent its savoury goose.”

The Michaelmas goose is said to owe its origin to Queen Elizabeth’s dining on one at the table of an English baronet on that day when she received tidings of the dispersion of the Spanish Armada, in commemoration of which she ordered the Goose to make its appear- ance every Michaelmas. In some places, particularly Caithness,

S:ese are cured and smoked, and are highly relishing. Smoked So- n geese are well known as contributing to the abundance of a Scottish breakfast, though too rank and fishy-flavoured for unprac- tised palates.

The goose has made some figure in the English history. The churlishness of the brave Richard Cceur de Lion, a sovereign distinguished for an insatiable appetite and vigorous digestion, in an affair of roast goose, was the true cause of his captivity in Ger- many. The King, disguised as a palmer, was returning to his own dominions, attended by Sir Fulk Doyle Y and Sir Thomas de Multon, “ Brothers in Arms,” and wearing the same privileged garb. They arrived in Almain, (Germany,) at the town of Car- pentras, where,

“ A goose they dight to their dinner,

In a tavern where they were.

King Richard the fire bet;

Thomas to him the spit set ;

Folk Doyley tempered the wood;

Dear a-bought they that good ;” —

for in came a Minstralle , or she-Minstrel, with offer of specimens of her art in return for a leg of the goose and a cup of the wine. Richard, who loved “ rich meats,” and cared little at this time for their usual accompaniment, “ minstrelsy,” —

“ — bade that she should go ;

That turned him to mickle woe. .

The Minstralle took in mind,

And said, ye are men unkind ;

And if I may, ye shall for -think Ye gave me neither meat nor drink !”

The lady, who was English, recognized the King, and denounced him to the King of Germany, who ordered the pilgrims into his presence, insulted Richard, “ said him shame,” called him tag- lard, probably for his affection for goose , and finally ordered him to a dungeon. But Richard, a true knightly eater, who, besides roast goose, liked to indulge in

“ Bread and wine,

Piment and clany good and fine ;

108

CHAP. II. ROASTING.

Ireland and Scotland served with a cabbage sauce or cabbage stewed in good broth. The French roast geese with chesnuts, as in the receipt for turkey, ( note , page 103.) The liver is chopped with the chestnuts, and both are fried together in lard before the goose is stuffed with them.*

TO ROAST DUCKS.

Keep ducks at least three days. If a pair are to be roasted, one may be stuffed as directed for a goose, with about half the quantity of stuffing; and, to suit all tastes, the other done plain, only seasoning with pepper and salt. From three quarters of an hour to a whole hour will roast them. Baste well, and dust lightly with flour to make them froth and look of a rich warm brown. Green peas are indissolubly allied to ducks. Sauce ,ซ — Apple sauce, onion, and sage sauce,

or Dr Redgidl’s sauce for goose, duck, & c. Wild Ducks are roasted in the same way, but made very crisp ; and as they are smaller, they take less time, from twenty-five minutes to half an hour. — Sauce, — Pdeydei/s sauce for wild fowl, or orange gravy sauce. — See Sauces.

Obs. — Some epicures prefer all wild fowl under- done, to have the flavour in perfection ; and to secure this, they eat it without sauce. All sorts of wild fowl require to be longer kept than your “ tame villatic fowl,” because they are drier in the flesh, for the same reasons that a city Alderman is more abounding in juices than a Backwoodsman, or Indian hunter. — See Hashed Duck, Made Dishes, c^c. The above receipt is applicable to Teal and Widgeons. l

Cranes and swans, and venison ;

Partridges, plovers, and heron, —

ฆwas neither dainty nor over-nice. At a pinch he could eat any thing, which on sundry emergencies stood him in great stead. 1Va.i and nuts, and tallow and grease mixed, carried him through one campaign, when the enemy thought to have starved out the English army and its cormorant commander. The courage and strength of Ri CHARD were always redoubled after dinner. It was then his greatest feats were performed. — Romance of Cai/r de Lion.

* Query Would not a young salted goose answer very well

dressed as duck in sour croute — P. T.

3

CHAP. II. ROASTING.

109

TO ROAST PHEASANTS AND PARTRIDGES.*

These birds are trussed in the same manner ; the craw is drawn out by a slit in the neck, the head is left on, and the legs of the partridge are tucked into each other.f Baste frequently, and dust with flour to

* Necessity and the vanity of producing at a dinner what was rare and far-travelled, must first have introduced the custom of over- keeping game, till in time it came to be considered as essential to its perfection that it be kept till putrid, and that what has not flavour may at least have/itweA It is at the same time indispensable that game be kept till tender. Game, as we have said before, must be longer kept than domestic fowls, to be in proper condition for the table. A great deal has been said on preserving provisions of late years, but we are afraid little has been done. W e are certain that very few of the practices recommended have been adopted, and that chiefly because when tried they were found wanting. Form, colour, and material may be preserved, but flavour, and even nutritious qua- lities, have fled before the pyroligneous acid, and the genius of Ap- pert ; and mummy partridges, and embalmed green peas, survive to please the eye and fill the table ; and this so far is highly desirable, but sadly disappoint the palate. Game, we speak not of giving pheasants and grouse to immortality, may be kept good a long time, by drawing, cropping, picking, and (without washing) rubbing with equal parts of salt, pounded loaf-sugar, and a little pepper. It is a great mistake to wet, much less to wash, any thing intended to be kept. Charcoal may also be employed to retard putrefaction. Lay a thin muslin cloth over the birds, and place lumps of charcoal on that. We have no faith in charcoal doing any good in the way of restoring what is much tainted, though this is confidently asserted. The knife applied to the w'orst parts, scraping and constantly re- moving the mustiness, and, when to be used, washing with vinegar and water is the preferable method. Game, when it is wished to be kept to grace a gala-day, besides the above precautions, may be par- boiled or par-Toasted. In short, dipped for five minutes in boiling water, or laid to the fire for seven minutes, which must be made to' touch all parts, inside as well as outside. Then dry thoroughly, and use salt, sugar, and pepper, as above. Before roasting cleanse from this seasoning, and season with a little fresh pepper. But the preservation of game depends as much on the sportsman as on the cook. A bird or hare much mangled by shot will taint far more quickly than one killed in “ a gentlemanly way,” and what has fallen into the water, than that which drops on land. For some seasons back the southern sportsmen, v'ho frequent the highland moors, have paid great attention to preserving and packing their game. Packing with hops is found to answer better than any other method yet employed, and is now very generally resorted to.

+ French cooks lay slices of lemon over the breasts of the part- ridges, on these slices of lard, and above all fasten paper. Dr Hunter recommends a stuffing of minced beef or veal for a cock- pheasant, the flesh of which is rather insipid to English palates. Phis may be more acceptable than the French practice of enriching these birds by larding.

E

no

CHAP. II. — ROASTING.

froth ; the fire must be brisk and clear. A partridge will take from twenty to twenty-five minutes; a pheasant from thirty to thirty-five. Make and butter a toast ; having pared off the outer crust, moisten it in hot water or broth, soak it in the dripping, and serve the pai*tridge on the toast. This is lighter than fried bread-crumbs, which some cooks use for these birds. Pheasants require gravy. It may be made of scrag of mutton, or knuckle of veal, but is better of beef, and best of all of game when that is in plenty. — See Brown Gravy Sauce, Bread, Sauce, or Rice Sauce.

Obs. — We do not recommend the ornament of the pheasant’s best tail-feather stuck in its tail, but such things are still heard of. Guinea and pea-fowl are dressed and served exactly as pheasants; and by a fic- tion of cookery, a fowl is converted into a pheasant when a brace cannot be procured.

TO ROAST WOODCOCKS, SNIPES, PLOVERS, RAILS, AND ORTOLANS.

Keep them till tender. They must not be drawn, as the intestines are considered a delicacy ; but this rule admits of exceptions. The proverb says, what is one man’s meat is another man’s poison. Tie them on a bird-spit, and lay them down to a clear brisk fire. Lay slices of toast in the dripping-pan, to catch the trail. These birds and moor-game require to be de- luged with butter in basting. Dish them on the toasts, pour clear brown beef gravy very hot into the dish, and set it on a hot table, or over steam or a chaf- ing-dish. These birds will take from twenty-five to thirty minutes, in proportion to the size. — Sauce, Pleydel’s sauce for wild-fowl. Garnish with slices of bitter orange, or lemon, and fried bread-crumbs.

Obs. — French cooks stuff woodcocks with chopped truffles, and either roast them, or dress them with fire under and over the pot.

TO ROAST GROUSE, BLACK COCK, AND PTARMIGAN.

Truss with the head under the wing. They require a sharp clear fire, must be well basted, and not over-

CHAP. II. ROASTING.

Ill

done. Serve on a toast soaked in the dripping-pan, and put brown beef gravy in the dish. In this and the above receipt we recommend plain melted butter to those who wish to retain the native flavour of the birds. — Rice Sauce, or PI ey del’s Sauce.

TO ROAST PIGEONS.

Let them be cropped and drawn as soon as killed, and wiped inside as well as possible. They will be ready for the spit in from twelve to forty-eight hours, according to the weather, and are in high season from June to November. If kept too long, they lose the flavour. When to be dressed, they must be very well washed in several waters. Stuff with parsley par- boiled and chopped, and about the size of a nutmeg of butter for each bird, a few bread-crumbs, and the liver chopped, if it is liked. Season rather highly with pepper and salt. Twenty to twenty-five minutes will roast them. Dust with flour, and froth with fresh butter. Parsley and butter, or plain melted but- ter, is served in the dish, and is more suitable for well-flavoured birds of all kinds, than meat gravy, which has so strong a predominating flavour of its own. — Bread sauce, Orange gravy sauce, or rice sauce. Serve with dressed French beans, or asparagus, or cucumber. Garnish with fried bread-crumbs, or slices of orange.

TO ROAST LARKS AND WHEAT-EARS.

When well cleaned, dip them in yolk of egg, and roll them in bread-crumbs. Put a small bit of butter in each bird. Spit on a lark-spit, and fasten that to the spit. Baste with plenty of good butter, which is most essential in roasting all the smaller birds. Strew sifted bread-crumbs over the birds as they roast. From twelve to fifteen minutes will do them. Serve fried bread-crumbs, and garnish with fried crumbs or crisp parsley.

Obs. — Some good cooks put a thin small slice of bacon between the birds when they are spitted.

112

CHAP. II. — ROASTING.

TO ROAST HARE, FAWN, OR KID.

A hare will keep from a fortnight to three weeks, if properly managed ; and is seldom fit for roasting be- fore eight days, though for soup it may be used near- ly as soon as killed. An old hare is never fit for roasting. A hare keeps best when not opened for some days ; and the vent and mouth may be tied, to prevent the air from hastening the process of putre- faction. When kept four days in this state, (if the object is to keep it as long as possible,) it may be paunched and skinned, and the heart and liver taken out and scalded. Wash and soak it in water when to be dressed, changing the water several times. Drip, dry, and truss it. Make a little slit in the neck, and every part where the blood has gathered, to let it out. A hare makes but a dry roast, so that a rich and re- lishing stuffing is a sine qua non when dressing it in this manner. For stuffing, take the grated crumbs of a penny-loaf, a quarter of a pound of beef-suet, or three ounces of marrow, a small quantity of parsley and eschalot, a boned anchovy, a tea-spoonful of grated lemon-peel, and the same quantity of nutmeg ; salt and pepper to taste, a little caj^enne, and the liver parboiled and chopped if in a sound state.* Mix the ingredients with the yolk of an egg, and a very little claret soaked in the crumbs. Put this in the belly, and sew it closely up.+ Baste well with plenty of butter for three quarters of an hour ; then drain the dripping-pan into a basin ; baste with cream and yolk of egg well beat, and flour lightly. It will take from an hour and a half to two hours. For sauce, venison sauce, or the drippings of the hare mixed with cream, or with claret, a squeeze of a lemon, some thin slices of bread, and a bit of fresh butter, boiled up with the skimmed dripping, and highly-seasoned; also currant-jelly. — See Hashed Hare, Hare Collops, Made Dishes of Hare, fyc.

• The liver of an animal is often tainted with disease when the animal is otherwise in perfect health. This will be known by the colour and state of the flesh. It is surely unnecessary to add, that an unsound liver is not a fit ingredient for stuffing.

ฆfi See also stuffing French fashion, note to page 104.

CHAP. II. ROASTING.

113

Obs. — In France a roasted hare is always larded, hut the French Seldom dress this dry animal this way of choice. For an excellent method of dressing hare, see Lievre en dcinbe, French Cookery.

By a fiction of cookery, the lean inside of a large sirloin is cut up, stuffed as a hare, skewered, tied with tape, fixed to the spit, and roasted. It requires to be highly seasoned, and in truth eats much better than most roasted hares. In country situations, a hare is often stuffed with mashed potato, grated ham, suet and onion, and highly seasoned with pepper and allspice ; nor, though a plain, is this a bad fashion.

A young Fawn is treated precisely as a hare, but must not be kept above a day. When somewhat grown, it may be roasted in quarters, or in a haunch or a saddle. Cover with veal or lamb caul in roast- ing, or slices of fat bacon, and baste well. Froth in the usual manner, and serve with venison sauce, and a good gravy in the dish. A Kid is roasted as a hare.

Obs. — These are all, at least hare and kid, very dry meats, and are better dressed, the former as soup or collops, the latter as collops or stew, or both, French fashion. A Rabbit, when large, may be stuffed and roasted as a hare ; when young, baste and dredge as in roasting poultry, and make a sauce of the chopped liver and chopped parsley, stirred into melted butter.*

r

BAKING.

The baker’s, or the family oven, may often be substitut- ed for the cook and the spit, with greater economy and convenience, and for some particular joints and kinds of viands, it is even more suitable. A baking dish ought to be in form of a trough, and at least six inches deep, that the meat may in fact stew in its own juices, as it gets little or no basting. But a pig must be baked in a shallow tin dish ; — the dripping-pan of a Bachelor’ s or Dutch oven will do very well. Prepare things to

• A hare’s ears are reckoned a dainty by some affected epicures ;

they must be singed and cleaned. The Cleikum Club held them in equal respect with duck’s feet.

114

CHAP. II. — ROASTING.

be baked as for roasting, but season more highly. A „ fillet of veal, if not very high fed, will bake as well as it will roast. The oven is equally suitable to a leg of pork, but a loin requires to be sweated in roast- ing— it is too greasy when baked. A pig, if not very old, and if the baker is careful to anoint the crack- ling as in roasting, bakes very well. His ears and tail must be put in buttered papers, if you would hope ever to see them return from the oven. Geese and ducks may be baked, if not old and rank; in which case they must be sweated before the fire, to overcome the flavour. A leg of mutton, with potatoes parboiled and peeled, and an onion shred, makes, when baked, an excellent plain family dish, the mucilage of the potatoes combines so kindly with the fat of the meat. The noble sirloin disdains to be cribbed in the oven ; but a rump of beef slightly salted for a few days, washed, highly seasoned, and baked with plenty of butter in a deep covered vessel, is esteemed a de- licacy.* A hare or rabbit may be baked, allowing plenty of butter in the dish, and putting a large piece or a rich stuffing into the inside of the animals. Her- rings, sprats, salmon, haddocks, and eels, may all be highly seasoned and baked with advantage. — See Potted Herrings. Bakers' ovens have one great draw- back • — they are accused of being sad suckers in, in- deed real sponges for gravy ; so that they often con- trive to indemnify their owners for the trouble saved to the cook. Besides, meat is seldom got in season from those wholesale receptacles for all manner of joints : and about the dinner hour, great dismay is often created by the face of the maid, —

“ Who comes with most terrible news from the baker,

That insolent sloven ! —

Who shut out the pasty when shutting his oven.”

Hams are often soaked and baked, where they are used in great quantity, and where the object is to cut thin.f

• The Cleikum Club did not prove this receipt.

•f- A few years since the proprietor of Vauxhall Gardens lost his celebrated carver of hams, when he advertised for a new operator in that department of harmless anatomy. One of notoriety applied,

115

CHAPTER III.

BROILING.

I have no dainties for ye, gentlemen,

Nor loads of meat to make the room smell of ’em ;

Only a dish to every man I dedicate.

Beaumont and Fletcher.

Broiling is the most delicate manual office the com- mon cook has to perform, and that which requires the most unremitting vigilance. She may turn her back on the stew-pun or the spit, but the gridiron can never be left with impunity.

A valuable and large portion of society is inter- ested in this culinary process. It is the simple mode of cookery best suited, and generally the most ac- ceptable, to the sickly fickle appetite of the invalid and valetudinarian. It is also recommended by com- fort and economy to solitary diners and small families, as by this means the least morsel of meat can be dressed hot as delicately as the largest quantity ; and few grown persons relish cold provisions if they could help themselves. The French are admired for their skill in blending flavours, heightening relishes, im- parting sapid qualities to what is dry or harsh, and givihg piquancy to what is naturally insipid. But, as a nation, they are more entitled to praise for that graduated scale of cookery which descends to the very lowest class of society, and gives comfort and relish even to the meal of the Parisian tub-woman. Every French man and woman is something of a cook. Hence the proverb, “ as many Frenchmen as many cooks.” This they owe chiefly to the scale of their uten-

when the worthy proprietor asked him how many acres he could cover with one fine ham ; upon which he replied, “ he did not stand upon an acre or two, more or less, but could cover the whole of his gardens with one ham upon which he was instantly hired, and told he was the very fellow for this establishment, and to cut away for the benefit of the concern and mankind at large.

To (/row a .shoulder or leg of mutton — This art is well known to the London bakers. Have a very small leg or shoulder ; change it upon a customer for one a little larger, and that upon another tor one better still, till by the dinner hour you have a neavy excellent joint in lieu of your original small one — P. T.

116

CHAP. III. — BROILING. '

sils, and the tiny furnaces and chafing-dishes, which enable them to deal in all manner of ways with the smallest bit of meat, while their contemporaries in London have too often but the one resource, — the Sun- day oven, — for the large expensive joint, which loses much of its weight and succulence in baking, and, at all events, must be eaten cold by the family till it is finished. Such families never see soup, roots, nor vegetables, save perhaps a few potatoes on the hot day. The cottage cookery of Scotland is much supe- rior to that of their neighbours, from their canny skill in the polage, and in the use of roots and vegetables; and this with no additional expense of fuel.

Broiling is not, however, the cookery of the cottage economist, and it is of broiling we now treat. The state of the fire is the primary consideration. It must be clear and radiant, consequently free of smoke. A fire nearly two-thirds burnt is best. The gridiron should rather be over long than too short, and ought to be so contrived that it can be placed at the dis- tance of three, four, five, or six inches above the fire. If a gridiron is well polished at first, there can be no good cause for the bars ever becoming black. Let it be always rubbed when put aside, not only bright on the top of the bars, but clear of soot and grease between them. The bars should be narrowest at top, that they may not intercept the heat of the fire. It is well to have one gridiron for fish, and another for poultry and steaks. The gridiron must be hot through, (which will take five minutes,) before any thing is put on it. It must then be rubbed with a piece of fresh suet, to prevent the meat from being branded, or sticking to the hot bars.

There is great convenience sometimes in the per- pendicular gridirons, and there is a trifling kind made double, of strong wire, with a hinge, which permits the steaks or fish to be turned by merely turning the implement, which, on the small scale of cookery, are very convenient.

TO BROIL BEEF-STEAKS. P. T., ESQ.

In England, the best steaks are cut from the middle of the rump. In Scotland and France, steaks which are

CHAP. III. BROILING. 117

thought more delicate are cut, like chops, from the sir- loin or spare rib, trimming off the superfluous fat and chopping away the bone.. This is the piece of meat usually cut up into steaks in the shops in Edinburgh and Glasgow, rump beef being used for minced collops and beef sausage. Beef for steaks must be killed for from three to five days, or more, to eat tender, but it does not require to be kept so long as beef to be roast- ed. Cut the steaks of equal thickness (about three quarters of an inch,) beat them out to a level — though much beating is not recommended, as it expresses the juices from the meat. Let them be from three to four inches in breadth, and from four to six in length. Sirloin steaks shape themselves. When the grid- iron is hot, rub the bars with suet, sprinkle a lit- tle salt over the fire, and lay on the steaks. Turn them frequently with steak-tongs, to do them equal- ly and keep in the juices. When the fat blazes and smokes very much, quickly remove the grid- iron for a second, till that is past. From ten to twelve minutes will do a steak. Have a hot dish, rubbed with shalot, placed by the side or over the fire, on the edge of the gridiron. When turning the steaks with the tongs, if there be on the top any gravy that would fall in turning, drop it quickly into this dish to preserve it. Steaks are generally preferred underdone. Sprinkle them with a little salt just before they are dished in the hot dish, in which a little sha- lot, finely shred, may be put, a bit of fflesh butter, and a tea-spoonful of catsup, if liked. Turn the steaks over with the tongs once or twice in the dish, to express the gravy. In Scotland, shred raw onion is still sometimes employed instead of shalot. Garnish with pickled red cabbage, or cucumber, or horse- radish scraped as for roast beef. Oyster sauce, Sha- lot sauce. Brown onion sauce, Shalot wine, Carach sauce, General's sauce, or Miser’s sauce. Those who enjoy a well-dressed beef-steak* discard all sauces save

• “ Ask a dozen healthy men under thirty,” said Touchwood “ what was the very best dinner they ever made in their lives, and

I bet from eight to ten of them answer, ‘ a beef-steak’ and’ give

you the history of this unique regale, generally found on a journey

ฃ 2 ’

118

CHAP. III. — BROILING.

the native juices of the meat, with the addition of pepper, salt, and a little minced shalot or onion.

a pedestrian tour, or fishing excursion. Yes, gentlemen, England may well pride herself on a bonne louche which her rival ex- hausts herself in vain endeavours to imitate, though she has never yet succeeded in even spelling its Christian name. The rum' -slick and bif-stick de mouton are not more unlike in orthography than in quality, to the juicy, delicately-browned, hot, tender rump-steak, which has immortalized the name of Dolly. But I am sorry to say, that beef-sicA:s, literally so, are too often met with even in our own island. 1 have calculated. Doctor, that in the cities of Lon- don, Dublin, Edinburgh, and Glasgow alone, upwards of sixty thousand young men dine on beef-steaks every day of the week, — students, apprentices, clerks, gentlemen of the press, and so forth. What a clattering of gridirons here ! Now if our receipt, by in- structing the thousands of slip-shod wenches who dress those messes, tends to keep said youths from taverns and ordinaries, true to the old sober habits of their country — home -dinners, 1 shall not think this page ill-bestowed, Dr Rejigill ; though you hint that too much space is occupied by simple elementary processes.” The Doc- tor assured his friend, that he neld no such opinion, and suggested, that the girls attending the national schools ought to be early ini- tiated into these mysteries, as in the admirable French institution at Ecouen, near Paris, which would be conferring a real kindness on those they were destined to serve in future life. Mr Cargill was startled from his silence by this proposal, which he put down with more energy of manner than he was in (lie habit of displaying ; and W inter blossom, who loved chat, and accordingly detested dis- quisition, cut the subject by breaking in, — “ No spot on earth once like the Old Flesh Market Close of Edinburgh, for a spare- rib steak ; and I believe it has not yet quite lost its ancient celebrity. I never ate one in perfection but there — and the old beau related, with much vivacity, the adventures of a night, in which he had accom- panied to this resort the eccentric Earl of K , and a party of Ca-

ledonian bon-vivants of the last age. “ But the receipt ” inquired Redgill, with gTa.ve earnestness, corresponding to the magnitude of the subject. “ O ! neither more nor less than that those taverns were and are kept by butchers’ wives, so that the primest of the meat found its way there. In the darksome den into which we dived

Luckie Middritt's of savoury memory — hungry customers

consumed beef-steaks by wholesale, at .all hours of the night and day, or rather of the perpetual night. The coal-fire always in prime condition, — and short way between the brander and the mouth, Doc- tor, served hot and hot , — no distance between the kitchen and the

hall ; before the collop-tongs had collasped in the hands of the cook, in rushed the red-legged waiting wench with the smoking wooden platter. Every man held his weapon ready and his teeth set : trencher after trencher followed. Ay ! thus it is to eat a steak in perfection. It can be known but once.” The Doctor compressed his lips, and sighed in accordance with this melancholy view of life. There were

times hours of crudities and evil digestion, — when the hand of a

child could stagger the strongest principles of his culinary belief. The vision of some three pounds of steaks, consumed at a country inn in Somersetshire, with all the vigour and relish of youthful appetite

CHAP. III. — BROILING.

119

BEEF-STEAKS WITH POTATOES.

An excellent French Dish.

Flatten and season with salt and mixed spices, neatly cut rump-steaks. Dip them in melted butter to keep in their native gravy whilst broiling. Have ready a very little finely-shred parsley, with butter, pepper and salt, in a hot dish. When the steaks are broiled, as directed in the last receipt, lay them on this, and quickly turn them over once or twice, and ar- range very hot fried potatoes around them.

TO BROIL MUTTON AND LAMB CHOPS, &C.

Mutton and Lamb Chops, Rabbit cut in quarters. Sweetbreads, and Kidneys, may all be broiled in the same way ; but particular care must be taken that the fat which drops from mutton does not smoke the chops, — to prevent which turn them frequently, and remove or hold the gridiron aslant while the smoke rises. Kidneys must be stretched on a skewer to prevent their curling with the heat. Each of these things may be higher dressed by dipping them in egg, and then in a mixture of bread-crumbs and sa- voury herbs, which may be strewed over them as they broil. Sauces for Mutton-chops the same as for beef-steaks. For Lamb, the Catsup is better omitted, and Cucumber Sauce, or Sauce Robert, substituted. Sweetbreads and Kidneys are better fried than broiled.

sharpened by exercise, rose between him and the well-replenished board that now courted his advances ; and the Doctor moralized on the vanity and nothingness of all sublunary pleasures, while he handed round the mock-turtle soup. “ No beef-steak, after all, emial to that of my friends the Abyssinians,” said Touchwood. T he Doctor anathematized the savage and bloody process, — “ Nor any receipt to that of Macbeth,” said Winterblossom — “ not he of the hotel, but of Shakspeare, Doctor and he spouted

“ If it were done, when ’tis done.

Then ’twere well that it were done quickly.”

“ Stolen from the New Monthly ,” said Jekyli, only half-aside : and the Doctor, more than ever convinced that little assistance for the great work could be obtained cither from the young man or the flighty old beau, gave himself in seriousness to the scnous business of dining.

o

a

120

CIIAP. III. — BROILING.

TO BROIL PORK-CHOPS.

Pork-chops are cut from the neck or loin, and re- quire a great deal of the fire. They must be served broiling hot, and a little gravy, with a tea-spoonful of made mustard, and a little dry sage pulverized may be added. Redgill sauce possesses still more gusto for pork-eaters.* *

* Pork-chops — It is related, that Fuseli, the celebated art- ist, when he wished to summon Nightmare, and bid her sit for her picture, or any other grotesque or horrible personations, wont to prime himself for the feat by supping on about three pounds of half- dressed pork-chops.

Though that accommodating Prince, Richard Cceur de Lion, could, as has been seen, eat any thing, all being fish that came in the net when he was hungry, he had, like other epicures, his favourite dish, and this was Porlcijied Saracen , curried. On recovering in Syria from an ague, his first violent longing was for pork, which is said to approach nearer to human flesh than any other sort of meat. Pork is indeed a “ passionate” food. It tolerates no medium. It must be idolized or detested, whether as flitch or gammon, souse or sausage, brawn or griskin. In Syria, where swine’s flesh is abhorred, it was not easy to satisfy the longing of the King. But no man durst tell him that pork could not be got for love or money ; and in this extremity an old Knight, so much of a courtier as to know that a King’s longings are not to be crossed with impunity, counselled thus : —

“ Take a Saracen, young and fat ;

In haste let the thief be slain.

Opened, and his skin off flayn ;

And sodden, full hastily,

With powder and with spicery,

And with saffron of good colour.

• * * * • •

“ When he ( the King) has a good taste.

And eaten well a good repast.

And supped of the brewis a sup,

Slept after, and swet a drop,

Through Godis help and my counsail Soon he shall be fresh and hail.”

As the old Knight counselled it was done. Richard supped the broth and ate the flesh of the Saracen faster than his carver could supply him, drank wine, slept, and on waking felt appetized, and called for

“ The head of that ilk swine That I of ate.”

The cook was, it may be supposed, in great consternation at this demand, but was soon relieved by the good humour of his royal master.

“ The swarte vis when the King seetli,

His black beard and white teeth,

CHAP. III. BROILING.

121

B. — We would, unless the fire is most tempt- ingly radiant, and the cook dexterous, recommend that pork-chops be dressed in the Dutch oven before a brisk fire, which will prevent their becoming black, and having the smeary appearance which those dressed on the gridiron too often have.

TO BROIL CHICKENS AND PIGEONS. — P. T.

A broiled fowl or pigeon is thought lighter than one roasted, and is more expeditiously cooked. It is there- fore preferred for the sick, or the hungry and hasty. Singe, as directed in the note, page 96. Pick and trussit ; wash it, and cut down the back ; season the inside with pepper and salt, and place that side on a gridiron pre- viously heated, and put at a greater ^distance from the fire than for a steak. This will take a full half-hour to cook perfectly. The birds should occasionally betaken off the fire, and rubbed with butter tied in a muslin rag. Particular care must be given to keep every broil- ed dish warm, as the smallness of the articles exposes them more to the action of cold air than meat cooked in larger quantities. Place your chickens or pigeons in a hot dish. F or chickens, parsley and butter, or gravy and mushrooms, or sauce a la tartare. Garnish with slices of lemon ; and the liver and gizzard (the latter scored) highly seasoned with pepper and salt, and broiled. For pigeons — the sauce is melted butter, flavoured with mushroom catsup, or parsley and but- ter in the dish. Pigeons may be broiled without splitting. Truss as for boiling, and flatten the breast- bone. Stuff each pigeon with a bit of butter rolled in

How hislippes grinned wide,

“ What devil is this ” the King cried.

And ’gan to laugh as he were wode,

What ! is Saracen’s flesh thus good

That, never erst, I nought wist !

By Godes death, and his up-rist,

Shall we never die for default,

While we may in any assault,

Slee Saracens, the flesh may take,

And seethen, rosten, stew and bake.”

Romance of Richard Ccaur de Lion.

122

CHAP. IV — FRYING.

chopped parsley, and season pretty high with pep- per and salt. Tie them close at both ends, and turn them frequently over a clear fire, that they may be nicely browned and equally done ; or they may be rubbed with egg, and afterwards rolled in bread- crumbs and chopped parsley, and dredged with this mixture while broiling.

Obs. — Pigeons are not so light, but more savoury when broiled whole. When a chicken is broiled for an invalid it may be proper to skin it, as the skin is the most tough and indigestible part of the bird; and to use as little butter as possible. It will some- times be more convenient to dress them as directed for partridges, in the next receipt.

TO BROIL PARTRIDGES.

Having prepared them, make them firm in the fry- ing-pan, turning them once. Finish on the gridiron ; and serve them in a hot dish with Poor man’s sauce.

CHAPTER IV.

OF FRYING.

The Cockney loves the kettle’s Song,

The Bagpipe’s drone the Highland Man,

But commend me to the hum and hiss

Of the reeking Frying-pan. ,

• Battery Rhymes.

This, like broiling, is a very convenient mode of cookery to those who wish to unite comfort with eco- nomy ; and, certain things premised, it is not difficult of management. The fat, be it lard, oil, butter, drip- ping, or top-fat, must not be stale, much less rancid ; the fire must not be smoky, and the frying-pan ought to be thicker in the bottom than frying-pans are usually made. Fresh butter, clarified from all foreign

CHAP. IV. FRYING.

123

substances, pure “ British oil,” is the most delicate substance in which meat can be fried, as it communi- cates no predominating taste. Oil, lard, or, what an- swers equally well, clarified fresh suet or dripping, (the “ kitchen-fee” of the Cleikum,) are better adapted than butter for fish, eggs, potatoes, or any thing watery. Fritters and sweet things must have either good butter or good lard or oil. The fat must be in plenty in the frying-pan. The fire must not be too fierce, nor yet too slack, as fat is susceptible of that intense degree of heat which will scorch whatever is placed in it before the substance to be fried could be heated through ; and, on the other hand, if not hot enough, the fry will be merely sodden in fat, broiled and not fried. If fish, they would be limber, apt to break, of a bad colour, and have no crispness. Fish are far more difficult to fry than meat, from the soft- ness of the fibre. They consequently require a great- er degree of attention. Have an oval-shaped frying- pan for fish, as this form requires much less of the frying material than a round one. When butter for frying is clarified, it is not nearly so apt to burn, which effect is commonly produced by the water or milk it contains. Ascertain the degree of heat of the fat, by throwing a bit of bread into it, as you try the heat of an oven by a bit of wet paste placed in it. Fat that has fried veal-cutlets, lamb-steaks. &c. may be used afterwards, if allowed to settle, and poured clean from the sediment; but what is used for fish would spoil any sort of meat. Fat becomes richer from having meat fried in it, and if carefully taken up, may be used repeatedly.*

TO CLARIFY BUTTER FOR POTTING OR FRYING, AND SUET AND DRIPPING FOR FRYING.

Cut the butter in slices ; put it into a jar, which set in a pan of boiling water ; let it melt and heat. Skim it, take it out, and when it has cooled a little, pour it

* A test of the proper degree of heat for frying fish Dip the

tail into boiling dripping, or whatever material is used, and if it be crisp at once, tne material is ready.

124

CHAP. IV.-— PRYING.

gently off, holding back the milky sediment which will have subsided. Mutton and beef suet and lard may be roughly chopped, have all the skin and fibrous parts taken out, and either be very gradually melted over a slow fire, or before the fire in a Dutch oven, taking away the fat as it drops. In this last process there is less danger of the fat acquiring a burnt taste than when melted into tallow over the fire. Strain the fat and keep back the sediment. Dripping and melted suet* are used for pie-crust, for basting and soups, as well as for frying. Their suitableness for all these purposes depends, in a great measure, on the way in which they have been melted and preserved. When dripping is to be kept for soup it may be seasoned, not otherwise. It may be very highly purified by twice clarifying.

TO MELT LARD.

Either melt it as in last receipt, or skin, beat, and boil the caul slowly, and lay it in a little water, working it with the hand. When it will easily break with the fingers, let it cool, and rub it through a search. Keep in bladders in a cool place. Another way, — Melt the lard in a stone jar set in boiling water ; pour it care- fully from the sediment, and keep it in bladders or small jars.

TO FRY STEAKS. DR R.

Fry in butter pieces cut of the same size as for broil- ing. Fry them of a fine brown. The pan may be covered after the steaks are browned, which will ren- der them more juicy. When done, place them in a hot dish by the fire ; add to the gravy in the pan a small glass of red wine, a small anchovy boned, pepper, salt, and a minced shalot. Give it a boil up, and pour it over the steaks, which, like every fry and broil, must be eaten hot ; or fried steaks may be eaten with

* For an excellent way of using beef suet, see Paste of Beef j Suet for Meat Pies , &c.

CHAP. IV. FRYING.

125

brown gravy or onion sauce,, served very hot along with them. Garnish with pickles or scraped horse- radish.* The wine may be omitted.

SCOTCH BEEF COLLOPS WITH ONIONS. fa. D.

Cut the meat rather thinner than for broiling ; make the butter hot, and place the collops in the pan, with about the proportion of a couple of middle-sized onions sliced to each half-pound. If the butter be salt, pepper is used, but no additional salt. Cover the pan with a close lid, or a plate reversed. When done, the collops may be drawn aside, and a little walnut catsup and boiling water added to the onion gravy sauce in the pan. Dish, and serve hot.f

TO FRY VEAL CUTLETS.

Cut slices about half an inch thick from the fillet, back-ribs, or loin. If not equally cut, level them with the cleaver. Have plenty of fresh butter hot to fry them in, not dripping, which is unsuitable to white meat. Keep the pan at a good distance from the fire, if the cutlets be any thing thick ; when browned on both sides of a light golden-tinged brown, the pan may be held higher above the fire and covered. Have ready some gravy made thus : A quarter pound skins, bones, or trimmings of the cutlets, a blade of mace, the head of a young onion, a sprig of parsley, a good bit of lemon-peel, six white pepper-corns, a bay-leaf, if the flavour is liked, and a pint of water, which may boil down one-half ; add fresh butter, the size of a large walnut, rolled in flour. When this gravy is well thickened, strain, boil again, and pour hot over the cutlets, which must be served very hot. This

* Epicures of the modern school begin to dislike the flavour of anchovy in meat-dishes, reserving it for fish. It is certainly, though a high, not a delicate relish.

+ This national dish possessed rather too much gusto for Jekyll; but the Doctor admired it exceedingly, and even suggested that, in- dependently of the collops, this was an excellent method of preparing onion gravy, which only required the addition of a little retl wine and lemon-juice, to those who like an acid relish, to be complete.

I

126

CHAP. IV. FRYING.

sauce may be made brown, by the addition of a little walnut or mushroom catsup. Veal cutlets may also be more highly dressed by dipping the slices in beat egg, and then strewing over them a mixture of bread- crumbs, parsley, and lemon-peel, chopped very fine, and a scrape of nutmeg. They must be fried in plenty of butter, and more of the mixture may be strewed over them in the pan. When the cutlets are done, place them before the fire in a hot dish covered, and to the gravy in the pan add veal broth or gravy, and a few little bits of butter separately rolled in flour; let it boil and thicken ; add a little lemon-juice and white pepper, skim the sauce, and pour it over the cutlets. Where the flavour of lemon thyme is liked, a sprig of it makes a grateful addition to sauce for cutlets. See, for other ways of dressing cutlets, French Cookery. A majority of the Club preferred cutlets as in the first receipt. For Scotch collops, see Made Dishes of Veal.

Lamb or Mutton Chops are fried in same manner, whether plain or egged, rolled in bread-crumbs,* and garnished with slices of lemon, of crisped parsley. Pork-chops may be fried as above, dipping them af- ter they are eggedt in a mixture of chopped onion, sage, and bread-crumbs.

Obs. — Care should be taken to have all chops, steaks, and cutlets of a good shape, neatly trimmed, and beat of equal thickness when not cut equally.

TO FRY FRESH SAUSAGES. DR R.

Whether pork, veal, or beef sausages, they are best fried in the same way, viz. very slowly, that they may heat to the heart without bursting. Sausages ought to be dressed quite fresh, especially those that

• To prepare bread-crumbs Put the grated crumb of stale bread

into a slow oven ; then beat it well in a mortar, and sift and keep for use. It will keep for some time.

+ “ To egg,” to smear with beat egg, or dip in egg, is an ap- proved kitchen verb, which Touchwood derived from the Scotch phrase, to “ egg up,” or “ egg on,” incite , urge, or stimulate the appetite. Dr Redgill had grave doubts as to this etymology. “ To onion” is another buttery verb, which deserves to be more ge- nerally known.

CHAP. IV. — FRYING.

127

are bought at cooks’ shops, where it is the practice to put the crumb of fresh roll soaked in a certain pro- portion of water into them, which immediately fer- ments and turns the sausage meat sour. Very little butter or lard is required to fry pork or beef sau- sage ; veal must have more. If in danger of bursting they may be pricked with a darning-needle; but if gradually heated, unless they are fermenting, this pre- caution will not be necessary. They must be drained from the fat, laid on a dish before the fire, and dredged with flour to froth them.

Ohs. — Sausages were wont to be fried with apples pared, cored, and quartered, and garnished and serv- ed -with the same : the practice is nearly obsolete. Poached eggs and fried bread, mashed, roasted, or scalloped potatoes are more suitable to this rich and savoury commodity. With turkey , fowl, or veal, sau- sage is often more acceptable than even tongue or ham. To make sausages see the Index ; also to fry Fritters , Omelet, &c.

TO FRY EGGS WITH BACON OR SAUSAGE. — P. T.

But for this homely dish many an honest traveller would go without his dinner. The general fault is, that the bacon is too hard, and cannot be cut into pro- per slices ; to steep the slices even for a few minutes in lukewarm water would tend to remedy this defect ; they must then be dried in the folds of a cloth. The colour of eggs is very easily hurt, so be sure that the frying-pan is delicately clean. This in all cases is best known, by melting a little fat in it, pouring it out, and wiping hard while the pan is still hot. Let the bacon be nearly fried, draw it aside, and if the fat look in the least dark or burnt, pour it off, and, if nice cookery is wanted, let fresh material get hot before the eggs are broken and gently slipt in. Pour boil- ing fat over them with an iron tinned spoon. When done on the under side, dish the bacon in a hot dish, and either turn or hold the pan before the fire a mi- nute, to take the raw off the upper side of the eggs. Trim them as they lie in the pan ; take them up with a slice, and drain the grease off, before dishing them

128

CHAP. IV. PRYING.

with the bacon, by holding them above the pan for a few seconds. They are dished either on the slices of bacon, or laid in the dish, with the bacon placed neat- ly round them.

TO FRY HERBS FOR BACON AND EGGS, OR CALF’S

LIVER.

Take two handfuls of spinage, a bunch of parsley, and a few chives or young onions. Pick, cut, wash, drain, and stew them slowly in a very little broth and butter, taking care they do not burn.

TO FRY SWEETBREADS. II. J., ESQ.

Let the sweetbreads be slightly parboiled when they come from the butcher. When to be dressed cut them in oblong slices, and either flour and fry them plain in butter, or egg them, roll in bread-crumbs, and a sea- soning of lemon-peel, pepper, and a sprig of basil chopped. Garnish with crisped parsley ; anchovy sauce, or melted butter, and a small tea-spoonful of walnut or mushroom catsup stirred into it. Serve small slices of crisped bacon, or slices of sausage done in a cheese-toaster or Dutch oven before the fire. For Sweetbreads, see French Cookery.

TO FRY LAMB’S LIVER. MRS DODS.

Cut it into long thin slices. Soak in water, dry in a cloth, and flour them. Fry of a fine rich brown, in plenty of fresh butter. Shalot, or young onion, and pepper, may be added to the fry. Serve with a little hot gravy and stewed cucumber’s, or cucumber-sauce. Garnish with fried parsley.

Ohs. — The liver of a young animal is seldom un- sound. When it is found either livid, black, or lumpy, it is surely unnecessary to notice, that, whether for sauce, stuffing, or frying, it is alike to be rejected.

TO FRY calf's LIVER AND BACON. — DR R.

Calf’s liver is fried as above ; when nearly done, or

CHAP. IV. FRYING.

129

in a separate pan, dress the bacon. Dish with a slice of bacon laid on a slice of liver ; or they may be dish- ed separately. Serve a little thickened gravy, with a squeeze of lemon. Garnish with crisp parsley.

TO FRY VENISON COLLOPS. P. W., ESQ.

Cut oblong slices from the haunch, or slices neatly trimmed from the neck or loin. Have a gravy drawn from the bones and trimmings, ready thickened with butter rolled in lightly-browned flour. Strain into a small stew-pan, boil, and add a squeeze of lemon or orange, and a small glass of claret.* Pepper, to taste, a salt-spoonful of salt, the size of a pin’s head of cay- enne, and a scrape of nutmeg. Fry and dish the col- lops hot, and pour the sauce over them. A still high- er gout may be imparted to this sauce by eschalot wine, basil wine, or Tarragon vinegar, chosen as may suit the taste of the eater. If those flavours are not liked, some old venison-eaters may relish a very little pounded fine sugar in the gravy, and currant- jelly may be served in a sweetmeat-glass. Garnish with fried crumbs. This is a very excellent way of dress- ing venison, particularly when it is not fat enough to roast well. — Venison Minced Collops, see National Dishes.

TO FRY TRIPE.

It must be boiled till tender, cut in pieces not too large, and dipped in a batter made of flour and eggs, with a little salt and minced onion, and fried of a rich light-brown. — White Onion sauce.

Obs — Cow Heel is cut into neat pieces, egged, rolled in crumbs, fried, and served in the same man- ner. The Cleikum Club were not partial to these fries. They to a man preferred boiled tripe, or tripe fricasseed with a white sauce. — See Made Dishes, Potted Heel, fyc. fyc.

* Claret, of all the red wines, is best adapted to the use of the cook : for higher flavour, Burgundy is preferred.

130 CHAP. V. BROTHS, SOUPS, AND GRAVIES.

TO PRY PARSLEY, HERBS, BREAD-CRUMBS, &C.

Have the frying-pan well filled with very hot drip- ping or lard. Have young parsley nicely picked and washed, drained, and then rubbed lightly between the folds of a cloth to dry. It must be quickly fried to get crisp. The moment it is done lift it with a slice, and place it before the fire on a sieve reversed, to drain and become more crisp ; or it may be crisped in a Dutch oven before the fire. This is used for gar- nishing lamb-chops, liver, or any thing to which the flavour of parsley is suitable. See Dried Herbs. Bread-crumbs are fried and drained in the same man- ner, taking care that the fat is perfect] 3^ clear and trans- parent, and that the bread is not burned. Sippets may be cut in the form of stars, the Maltese cross, triangles, diamonds, paper-kites, cocks’-combs, &c. &c., and nicely fried and drained before the fire to serve for garnishings. Fried bread is a most useful thing for this purpose, as it never fails to be eaten with the dish it is employed to ornament.

CHAPTER V.

BROTHS, SOUPS, AND GRAVIES.

C’est la soupe qui fait le Soldat.

French Proverb.

Soup has been termed the vestibule to a banquet. We call it the only true foundation to the principal repast of the day, whether it be a Cottage or a Cabinet dinner. With this belief we hold as maxims, that the French take the lead of all European people in soups and broths, that the Scotch rank second, the Welsh next, and that the English, as a nation, are at the very

CHAP. V. — BROTHS, SOUPS, AND GRAVIES. 131

bottom of the scale ; and farther, that if soup be the foundation of a good dinner, it is equally true that beef is the only foundation of good soup. Whether brown or white, plain or rich, the basis must still be beef, — fresh-killed, juicy young beef, and soft pure ฆwater.* * The essential qualities of soup are, that it be

* “ We of Scotland,” said Winterbi,ossom, “ probably owe our superiority in this department to our long and close alliance with that nation which has ever been the most profoundly skilled in the mysteries of the soup-pot. That Scotland is indebted to France for even the slender proficiency she has attained in cookery, is abun- dantly evident from the culinary phraseology of the nation. Kitchen — cuisine — the word with us comprehends every kind of viand or pre- : paration which may add to the relish of the coarse cake, and decoc- tion of oatmeal and coleworts, which formed the siaple of the daily meal. A peasant’s butter, cheese, fish, meat, and so forth, all are

ฆ ‘ kitchen.' Then we have the hachi — the soup Lorraine , the veal . Flory — or Florentine pie — our broche and turnbroche , and the culi- nary adage, ‘ hunger is gude kitchen.' " — “ If you go on at this

r rate, you will soon reduce your nation to their original brose and i haggis,” said Jekyll, “ for you recollect their skill in cabbage and coleworts is attributed to Cromwell’s soldiers.” — “ Little or muckle,”

: put in Mrs Dods, a true-bred border Scot, who would not yield an i inch of the kitchen floor to France or England, “ we mak’ as gude use o’ what little skill is accorded to us, it’s like. I have heard them - say that should know, and that’s the Nawbob himsel there, that : there is thousands upon thousands o’ hooses in Lunon whar they

ฆ ne’er saw a broth-trencher, let a be a pot o’ fat kale : — cauld, com- t fortless, wasterfu’, gude-for-naething gangings on for man, wife,

and wean. Their roast joint, — set them up! — scouthered to a cinder : in a baxter’s o’en, — a hunger and a burst, — dear bought at first, and a short outcome fora working man’s family ; by’s twa or three pots fu’ o’ gude barley-broth.”

“ Even too true, Luckie,” interrupted the Nabob ; “ this must be cared for. The Scots may and do fail in a grand dinner, Doctor, — no doubt of it ; but as a nation they manage better than most of their neighbours, — three hot meals of broth and meat for about the price of one roasting joint perhaps. Then second day’s kail, — said I right, dame — something to warm up for the gudeman and

• the bairns.”

“ And gude enough too,” replied Meg ; “ sae ve need not cast up puir Scotland, Captain Jaykii.e. ‘ Let ilka n errin’ hing by its ain head,’ as the by- word gangs. We may be easy put by; and the Gude forbid we were belly-gods and pock-pudain Eppycur- ryeans ; though at a Christening, or a Kirn, or on a Sacrament Monday, we may like a bit roast as weel as our nice-gabbit neigh- bours.”— “ Ay, thus it is to clip and crib the gluttonizing joys of honest John Bull, ‘ to some high festival of once a year,’ ” said Jekvll. “ Call you a wholesome nutritious soup four times a week, clipping the gormandizing joys of John Bull” cried the

Nabob, “ instead of his Sunday roast and dilution of porter : no,

Sir, soup is the best as well as the most economical fare a mechanic’s

132 CHAP. V.— -BROTHS, SOUPS, AND GRAVIES.

nourishing and restorative. It is the food of child- hood and extreme old age, of the declining and the debilitated, for whom the soup-pot performs half the offices of the digestive organs. With these invigorat- ing and salutiferous qualities, the mildest, the richest, and the most poignant relishes may be combined, by the judicious employment of the numerous ingredients which go to the composition of soups. The capital de- fect of soups is generally not so much the want of meat as of the time necessary to the due concoction of a rich fluid composed of so many ingredients. These defects it is vainly attempted to conceal by the ex- cessive use of pepper and herbs. The following ele- mentary rules, from the French of the chemist Par- mentier, were assumed by the Club as practical di- rections to the cook.

RULES FOR MAKING NOURISHING BROTH.

I. Sound healthful viands.

II. Vessels of earthenware in preference to those of metal, as a less degree of heat keeps them boiling ; and once heated, a few hot cinders will maintain that slight degree of ebullition which is wanted.

III. Double the weight of water to that of the meat

used.

IV. A sufficient quantity of common salt to facili-

tate the separation of the blood and slime that coagulates under the form of scum.

family can consume. But I will give him a thousand other prepa- rations.”

“ Besides the elegant variety of Mr George Rose’s salt-her- ring, and Corbett’s toujours fat — very fat — bacon,” said Je- kyll, who scented a long prosing harangue and wished to cut it. “ But let Mrs Dons proceed with her discourse.”

“ My discourse ” retorted Meg, “ I’m neither minister nor pre- - centor, Captain Jaykii.l ; but I have een in my head.” “ Ay, and brains too,” replied Toucmvoop. “ Weel a weel,” cried the Landlady, greatly mollified, “ be it sae; and let the Cnglish- ers stech till they burst for what Meg Dods cares. What's in their wame is no in their testament.” But here the Doctor called the party to order, and resumed the real business of the day, — Gravy Soup.

€HAP. V. BROTHS, SOUPS, AND GRAVIES. 133

V. In the early stage of the process such a de- gree of heat as will throw off the whole scum.

VI. A lower, but an equal temperature, that the soup may simmer gently till the substances employed, whether nutritive, colouring, or flavouring, are perfectly combined with the water, according to their several degrees of solubility.

In addition to these rules, use the softest water that can be obtained, let the cook read the observations prefixed to the Chapter on Boiling, and attend to the following hints : Some soups are very good when made the day before they are to be eaten, as the top-fat can be removed in a cake, and they attain more complete consistence, ( Scottice lithiness,) without losing their flavour, but they need not be seasoned till wanted ; and should then be slowly heated to the boiling point: if permitted to boil, some soups will lose part of their t flavour ; and of soups with meat, the meat will harden. Excellent judges differ on this point. Many think . every hot preparation best when fresh cooked, and soups of the number. Of this kind are brown soup, :hare soup, soup of game of any kind, giblet soup, and .generally all soups made of the meat of animals of mature growth. Soups into which vegetables and young meats enter in any quantity, are best when •fresh made, as those things have a strong tendency to •ferment. This also holds of veal and fish soups. This tendency can be checked by boiling them up, or changing the vessels. In re-warming all previous- y-made soups, broths, sauces, and gravies, if they can- dot be heated completely by the vessel containing t:hem being plunged into a stew-pan of boiling water, ! (particular care must betaken that they are not smoked. The fire must be clear and the lids close; for things r-e- warmed are much more liable to be smoked than ! luring their first preparation. Soups, gravies, &c. are i )est kept in unglazecl earthen or stone vessels. They nust not be covered up till quite cold ; and when cold und covered, vegetable soups, &c. may be plunged into

F

134 CHAP. V. — BROTHS, SOUPS, AND GRAVIES.

a trough or large vessel of spring water.* When soup is to be warmed, take up the cake of fat which settles on the top, and hold back the lees and sediment. Strain before you set it away. Give all soup ample time in the making. Four to six hours is not too 'much ; but the finer flavouring ingredients for soups, gravies, or a made-dish, need not be added, but for the length of time necessary to blend the various zests into one harmonious relish, without exposing them to that degree of continued heat which drives off their subtle essence. This observation is peculiarly applic- able to catsups, aromatic spices, wines, flavouring vinegars, lemon and orange juice, &c. ; and a much smaller quantity of these costly ingredients would answer the purpose if this were attended to. In certain cases it is proper to put in the half of these ingredients at an early stage of the process, that the flavour may be intimately blended with the prepa- ration ; adding what remains to give piquance near the conclusion. In all English books on cookery there is too much wine ordered for soups, and sometimes too little meat. The former error is less dangerous, as what is levied from the cellar does not always find its way to the soup-pot. All roots, bread-raspings, barley, and meal, for plain common soups, ought to be put in as soon as the pot is skimmed, when the roots are merely intended to thicken and flavour the soup. When to be cut in pieces and served in the broth, an hour’s boiling is fully enough for carrot, turnip, onions, &c. Many things are used to thicken and give consistence to common soups and sauces. The best perhaps is fine toasted oatmeal, potato mucil- age, or bread not too stale. When the soup or gravy is too much boiled in, the waste must be supplied with boiluig water or broth ; and though we strenuously re- commend, in general, close-covered pots, yet when the soup is watery and weak the lid may be taken off till the watery particles evaporate ; for thickening gives consistence, but not strength. It facilitates the ope- ration, if meat for soup or gravy be cut into pieces of

* Where there is no ice-house this is a good way to keep cream or milk sweet.

CHAP. V. BROTHS, SOUPS, AND GRAVIES. 135

about a half-pound each ; and improves both the fla- vour and colour, if the meat, onions, and carrots be stewed at the bottom of the soup-pot or digester, be- fore the water is added to it, with a bit of butter to prevent burning.* The only objection is, that by these means the separation and removal of the scum is not so complete as is necessary to the rock-crystal transparency of clear soups. Broth made of fat meat may have a larger proportion of greens, leeks, cab- bage, or whatever green vegetable is used, than leaner meat. The best plain browning for soups, sauces, gra- vies, &c., is red wine, soy, or mushroom or walnut cat- sup. Where these are not admissible, use toasLs of bread well browned; browned jiour or browned oat- meal where thickening is required, the meat browned in the pot, before putting it in the water, and the onions fried a fine deep brown. — (See Browning for Soups and Made Dishes.) To improve the colour, many cooks sacrifice the flavour of their soups. Burnt meat or bones, burnt sugar or treacle, are all condemned by us. The cook is entreated to bear in mind, that the elegance of all brown soups consists in transparency, united with richness and flavour; of white soups, and fish and vegetable soups, in the goodness of the desired colour and fullness on the palate.

Soup may be made in an infinity of ways. There is no end to the combinations of meat, game, fish, herbs, roots, spices, and mucilage, with water ; but the basis of the best soup is, as we have said, beef, — fresh, full of juices, young, succulent, and not too fat, — the lean parts of a fat animal. For this primary soup we give the following tried and approved re- ceipt : —

" To this previous drawing out of the juices without much or any water, we are inclined to attribute much of the superiority of French soups. Some cooks, to regulate the flavour of soups more exactly, boil the roots, herbs, and vegetables separately to a mash, and then squeeze them and add the juice, till the desired flavour is obtained.

136 CHAP. V. — BROTHS, SOUPS, AND GRAVIES.

FLAIX STOCK BROTH, OR PRIMARY SOUP,

The basis of many Soups and Sauces.

I.\ large families, or if the cook is to have a large dinner, let her, on the previous day, prepare the Stock Broth. — To every pound of fresh juicy beef, or a shin broken, allow a quart of soft water, and to this add any trimmings of lean mutton, veal, poultry, or game, which the larder affords. An old fowl, a ‘ rabbit, or a knuckle of veal, are excellent additions, and -with them less meat will serve. When the broth is rendered pellucid by boiling, skimming, and clear- ing, as directed in the observations on boiling, put to it three or four carrots, two turnips, four large onions, four cloves, some good leeks, a faggot of herbs, if you like their flavour, and a head or two of celery.* Let the soup stew slowly by the fire for from four to six hours, according to the quantity. If left too long on the fire, the flavour of the vegetables will become too powerful, and the colour will spoil, and the broth be- come ropy. When done, let it settle, skim off the fat, (which will be useful for moistening braises, enrich- ing vegetables, &c.), pour it from the sediment, strain it through a fine search, and set it by for use.

Obs. — As our object is to unite judicious economy with good cookery, it is proper to mention, that each of the material ingredientsof the Stock-pot may be turned to good account. The beef may be served as a bouilli, as directed for that dish, by taking it up when just enough done, and placing it in a stew-pan, with a few ladlefuls of the top of the broth, to serve as a sauce. If a fowl is boiled, let it it be trussed before boiling, and it may be served with rice, or a suitable sauce, — so may a knuckle of veal, a rabbit with onions, or a brace of partridges with sauce. In large private es- tablishments, where broth for soups and sauces is con- stantlv required, these articles, of which Stock is best formed, may be served at the different tables, or on

• There are, however, some purposes for which broth is wanted to which this quantity and kino ot vegetables may be unsuitable, and this is left to the judgment of the cook.

CHAP. V. — BROTHS, SOUPS, AND GRAVIES. 137

different days.* The Stock being made, the cook is now in possession of a floating capital subservient to many purposes.

second stock, the Consomme of the French Kitchen.

This is the same thing, only stronger than the former broth. Take a large old fowl, or a cock, a large knuckle, or a good piece of the leg of veal, a piece of rump-beef, and any game you have to spare ; moisten this meat with Stock Broth, and let it boil up quickly till the jelly is drawn ; then add more broth or hot water, skim, season with a carrot, two or three onions, two cloves, and some parsley, leeks, and a head of celery. Let the respective articles only boil till enough done for the table, for they are by no means to be lost ; skim and carefully strain this consomme through a gauze search. N. B. — Ham is often order- ed for these Stock Broths ; but unless for gravies to enrich ragouts or to make sauces, it is seldom employ- ed. Indeed, it is more suitable to savoury gravies than to broth of which soups are to be made.

RICH HIGH-FLAVOURED STOCK.

Line a well-tinned stew-pan with slices of good ham, over this place slices of veal from the thick of the knuckle, and a fowl or brace of game cut to pieces. When the meat has been sweated over a slow fire till the juices have formed a glaze, moisten the whole with a quart and a half of good broth, and season with chopped mushrooms, parsley, green onions, a blade of mace and two cloves ; skim, and let this stew ; thicken it with white or brown thickening, and keep for use.

strong stock, the Grande Consomm& of the French

Kitchen.

Make this exactly as Second Stock, but use more veal and poultry and less beef, if convenient. This

• For hotels, regimental messes, &c., these hints are valuable ; for each of these things, besides causing no loss, will actually he more rich than if cooked separately.

J38 CHAP. V. — BROTHS, SOUPS, AND GRAVIES.

is the basis of many French sauces, and of clear gravy soups.*

clear gravy soup, the basis of many Soups.

Have eight pounds of a shin of beef chopped across in two places, and a knuckle of veal or a scrag and some shanks of mutton, with any fresh trimming the larder can furnish, and apiece of ham, if the ham fla- vour is admired. Heat and rub hard a nicely-tinned stew-pot ; melt in it some butter, or rub it with mar- row. Let the meat, with a slice of carrot, a head of celery, onions, the white part of two leeks, and a turnip sliced, catch, but not burn, over a rather quick fire ; then add four quarts or better of soft water. Carefully skim, as formerly directed. When it is once skimmed, throw in a pint of cold water to refresh it, and take off what more scum is detached till it become quite limpid. Let the stew-pot simmer slowly by the fire for four hours without stirring it any more from the bottom, till all the strength is obtained, but not so long as to cause the soup to become ropy. Let it settle on the hearth ; skim off the fat, and strain gently what flows freely through a fine search.

Obs. — This clear soup, for it must be very clear, is served under many different names ; as vermicelli, with this grain separately boiled and put to it; carrot-soup, with carrots cut in straws ; turnip-soup, with turnips scooped ; celery-soup , asparagus-soup, green peas-soup, &c. by adding the ingredient which gives the name. N. B. — All these additions must be separately cooked.

* French cookery is imagined to be a very complicated affair. It is, in fact, more easily understood than our own, because its princi- ples are more fixed, and its language more scientific. The Beauvil- lerean, the Udean and Vitryean systems, are laid down as clearly as the Linnean. Modern French professors have a few grand sounding names which they bestow on elementary gravies and sauces, as Espaqnole , grande Espagnolc , Espagnole tr aval lie, Italienne blanche , Italienne rousse, &c. ; and these, once defined and properly understood, remain ever the same. Our sauces, like opr native melodies, are so overlaid with everybody’s variations, that it is diffi- cult for the most correct car, or the most discriminating palate to re- cognize them. And with all our culinary deficiencies, our cookery- books, give double the number of transmogrified and unintelligible receipts that are to be found in the best French systems Of their comparative value I do not judge. — H. J.

CHAP. V. BROTHS, SOUPS, AND GRAVIES. 139

When all or the greater part of these vegetables, stew- ed, and carefully rubbed through a tammy cloth, are added to this strong gravy soup, you have exactly the French cressi soup. A good French cook would, how- ever, after chopping the roots, &c. stew them in top- fat, or with butter. Sippets are requisite to the ff Potage a la Cressi”

french brown soup, or La Brunoise.

To clear gravy-soup put carrots and turnips cut in dice and straws, and fried and drained if young, but if old blanched. Soak toasted sippets in a basin of broth, and slip them into the tureen when the soup is dished, lest they crumble down and destroy the bright clearness of the soup. This is proper whenever bread is used. Skim off the film of fat from the tureen, and serve.

Obs. — Cut the leeks and celery in lozenges, the turnips and carrots in ribbands, and you have Julienne soup.

N. B. — If gravy-soup is not sufficiently clear, it may be improved by the whites of two or three eggs, well whisked, being boiled up with it before it is strained a second time. But careful cookery is much better than this process of refining any soup.

THE OLD SCOTCH BROWN SOUP.

Make the Stock as directed for clear gravy-soup, but brown the meat a little more, and when ready, put to it a pound of rump-steaks, cut very small and nicely browned in the frying-pan, but drained from the fry- ing fat. Simmer the steaks in the soup for an hour ; strain it ; add a small glassful of catsup, with salt, pepper, and cayenne ; slip toasted sippets into the tureen, and skimming off the filmy fat, serve the soup.

plain white soups, or Stock for several kinds, — the French Blond de Veau.

Have a large knuckle of veal broken, and to this put any poultry trimmings you have, and a few slices of lean ham, a carrot, three onions, and a blade of mace. Moisten these (when laid in a nice stew-pan, over

140 CHAP. V. — BROTHS, SOUPS, AND GRAVIES.

which butter is rubbed), with a little good broth or water. When the jelly is drawn out, and the meat tinged a little, prick it all over with a sharp knife to let the juices flow, and add more clear broth or water till you have enough. Add a bunch of parsley and onions and white peppercorns ; boil and skim, and when the soup is ready, skim and carefully strain it. Rice or vermicelli is put to this soup, or, if a white colour is wished, thicken with arrow-root, and add, be- fore serving, a pint of sweet cream first brought to boil, which will prevent it from curdling. N. B. — Always boil cream before putting it to any soup or sauce, and stir till it boil.

the old scotch white soup, or Soupe d la Reine.

Take a large knuckle of the whitest veal, well broken and soaked, a white fowl skinned, or two chickens, a quarter-pound of well- coloured, lean, undressed ba- con, lemon-thyme, onions, carrot, celery, and a white turnip, a few white peppercorns, and two blades of mace. Boil for about two hours ; skim repeatedly and carefully during that time. When the stock is well tasted, strain it off. It will form a jelly. When to be used, take off the surface-fat, clear off the sedi- ment, and put the jelly into a tin saucepan, or a stew- pan freshly tinned; boil for a half-hour, and serve on a couple of rounds of a small French roll ; or macaroni, previously soaked, and stewed in the soup till perfectly soft ; or vermicelli. This is plain white soup. It is raised to Lorraine soup as follows: — Take a half- pound of sweet almonds blanched, (that is, scalded, and the husks rubbed off,) the hard-boiled yolks of three eggs, and the skinned breast and white parts of a cold roast fowl ; beat the almonds to a paste in a mortar, with a little water to prevent their oiling ; mince very finely the fowl and eggs, and some bread- crumbs. Add to this hash an English pint or more of the stock, lemon-peel, and a scrape of nutmeg; bring it to boil, and put to it a pint of good sweet cream, and the rest of the stock. Let it be for a con- siderable time on the very eve of boiling, that it may thicken, but take care it does not boil, lest the cream curdle. Strain through a sieve.

CHAP. V. BROTHS, SOUPS; AND GRAVIES. 141

potage A LA reinE; the fashionable White Soup.

Take a couple of large or three small fat pullets ; clean and skin them : take also two pounds or more of veal cut into pieces ; put these together into a very nicely-tinned stew-pan, with parsley; and moisten them with boiling veal-broth. Let this stew softly for an hour ; then soak in the broth the soft part of a penny-loaf ; cut the flesh off the breasts and wings of the chickens ; chop and pound it in a mortar with the hard yolks of four eggs, the soaked crumbs; ten sweet almonds and three bitter, all blanched. Rub the compound into the soup ; strain the whole, and add a quart of sweet cream brought to boil by itself. Cow- Heel or Calf’s-Feet will make a good white soup.

PLAIN ONION-SOUP.

Chop a dozen large onions singly, and stew them in a small stew-pan with butter ; stir them about with a wooden spoon ; let them cook very gradually and not get brown. Put to this some very strong stock-broth, well seasoned ; add pepper, cayenne, and salt, and, if nicer cooking is wanted, strain the soup, and put to it a pint of boiling cream.

high-flavoured onion-soup.

Have a proper quantity of well-seasoned clear brown gravy-soup, in which a double proportion of onions has been boiled. To this, when strained, put a do- zen middle-sized onions, sliced and nicely fried ; let those stew gently in the soup, but not to crumble the slices.; season with pepper and cayenne, and serve with toasted sippets in the tureen. Button-onions cooked as for garnishing bouilli. Sec. may be used instead of large ones fried ; and for those who like a full-tasted soup, this may be thickened with potato- flour, or the pulp of peas. It must be simmered till the onions, both in substance and flavour, are blended (ready to melt away) with the soup. When very young mild onions are used, more weight must be allowed to obtain the same flavour.

F 2

142 CHAP. V. — BROTHS, SOUPS, AND GRAVIES.

Obs. — The gusto may be heightened and the fla- vours varied to suit the palate of the consumer. Curry-powder was a favourite addition of the Nabob, and also a spice of ginger, which made a sort of imi- tation Mullagatawny, nothing inferior to the original, at least to those who dislikeybr/c-soups and stew-soups. Dr Redgilu heightened the flavour of his onion-soup with mushroom catsup, or eschalot. As the taste for onions,* like that for olives and peppers, increases with age, we do not fix the precise quantity to be used, but merely give the medium in the above re- ceipt. Some cooks thicken onion-soup with the yolk of two or three eggs well beat and stirred into the soup when it is dished, or with cream, as in last receipt ; but we see no use for this liaison, as French professors term it, in a high-flavoured onion-soup.

ONION SOUP MAIGRE.

Chop and fry in clarified butter a dozen large onions, two heads of celery, a large carrot, and a turnip. Pulp the roots through a tammy-cloth, and put them to two quarts of boiling water thickened with six ounces of butter kneaded up with potato-flour, and sea-

* Onions are supposed to possess a considerable quantity of nou- rishment. It is even asserted, that no substance of only equal size affords so much. This is at least doubtful. Onions in their raw state are much relished by some persons, while others find them wholly indigestible ; when dressed they are very generally accept- able in soup or sauce. They used to form the favourite bon-bons of ฆthe highlander, “ who, with a few of these and an oat-cake, would,” says Sir John Sincalik, “ travel an incredible distance, and live for days without other food.” The Egyptians adored the onion nearly as much as the ox ; and the Spaniards have the same fondness for this pungent root, whether to give savour to their rich dishes, or to relish the crust from the wallet, and the draught from the brook, which forms the. gay repast of the poor and light-hearted sojourners one likes so much to meet with in the Spanish novels. The Scotch peasants season their chappit potatoes with shred onion, and some- times their brosc ; and the grave and high authority of Mrs Han- nah More recommends “ an onion from their own garden, which makes every thing savoury and costs nothing” to the poor of Eng- land. “ Soupe k 1’oignon” is thought highly restorative by the French. It is considered peculiarly grateful, and gently stimulating to the stomach, after hard drinking or night-watching, and holds among soups the place that champagne, soda-water, or giDgeT-beer, does among liquors.

CHAP. V. — BROTHS, SOUPS, AND GRAVIES. 143

soned with mace and white peppercorns. The crumbs of two penny-loaves may be boiled in the water instead of the potato-flour, but it must then be strained. Add bread-sippets fried, and thicken with the beat yolk of four eggs.

potage A la clermont, an elegant Onion-soup.

Fry a dozen small silver onions cut in rings of a nice golden tinge, and drain them ; cook them lightly in broth, and stew them for twenty minutes in clear gravy-broth coloured with veal-gravy, which is the best known material for colouring soups or sauces. Serve with boiled sippets previously soaked in a little broth.

vegetable soups, or Potage Print anier .*

Under this head, which in the French kitchen com- prehends a variety of soups, the Scotch nettle-kail and pan-kail might be included, and also the Welsh leek- porridge when made maigre. This class of mild, healthful, and even elegant soups are not necessarily maigre. The main object of the cook is to have them of a fine clear colour, which is obtained by the ex- pressed juice of spinage, parsley, green onions, or peas-shell liquor, using the colouring ingredient most suitable to the nature of the soup. Vegetable soups require a good deal of pepper, and are improved by a spice of cayenne. They will not keep for any time. If the vegetables are bitter, a bit of sugar will correct that flavour.

green peas-soup, Maigre.

Have fully three pints of green marrowy peas. Un- less the peas are all young and sweet, separate the old from the young. Melt half a pound of fresh butter

• These maigre vernal compositions found little favour in the eyes of the elder members of the Clcjkum Club, who thought them only fit for sickly girls and young Cockney poets. They, however, af- ford an elegant and wholesome variety.

144 CHAP. V. — BROTHS, SOUPS, AND GRAVIES.

in a stew-pan, put to it four Imperial pints of boiling water, a slice of bread, a quart of shelled peas, some roughly-chopped green onions, spinage, and green lettuce, salt, and two dozen grains of black and Ja- maica pepper. Stew till the peas will pulp back into the liquor from which they were strained, or they may be pounded in a mortar. To this add a pint or more of young peas, the heart of a lettuce chopped, and, if approved, a sliced cucumber, first sprinkling the slices with salt and draining them. If the soup is thought too thin add rice- flour ; if too maigre, allow more but- ter ; if not green enough, add a little spinage chopped, or a quarter pint of very green spinage liquor, made by parboiling and squeezing the vegetable. Stew for half an hour, but do not let the soup boil, or the green colour will deaden and become a tawny yellow. Green shred mint in a very small quantity may be added to flavour the soup, five minutes before it is dished, with dice of fried bread.

Obs. — This summer soup may be made from the liquor in which chickens, fowls, veal, mutton, or lamb has been boiled. If the peas are not quite young and sweet, a little sugar may be employed, and conse- quently less salt.

GREEN ASPARAGUS- SOUP.

Make this as green peas-soup. Slice and pulp a part of the asparagus ; put the other, cut into nice points, and dressed into the strained soup before serving ; or fried bread cut into dice.

AN EXCELLENT 80UP MAIGRE.

Melt a half-pound of butter very slowly, and put to it four onions sliced, a head of celery, and a carrot and turnip cut down. When the vegetables have fried in the butter for a quarter of an hour, and are browned on all sides, put to them nearly four quarts of boiling water, and a pint and a half of young peas, with plenty of unground black and Jamaica pepper. When the vegetables are quite tender, let the soup stand to clear from the sediment, and strain it into a clean stew-pan.

CHAP. V. BROTHS, SOUPS, AND GRAVIES. 145

If not yet sufficiently transparent, let it stand an hour, and turn it carefully over. When it boils, put to it three onions shred, or five young ones, a head of ce- lery cut in bits, carrots sliced, and cut as wheels or stars, and turnips scooped of the size of pigeons’ eggs, or turnip-radishes. When the vegetables are enough done without the soup getting ropy from their disso- lution, the soup is finished. This and all vegetable soups are the better of a spice of cayenne.

THE BEST PEAS-SOUP.

To a pound and a half of split* peas 3 floated to sepa- rate the bad ones, and, if very old, soaked for two hours in a quart of lukewarm water in the soup- pot, add three quarts of very soft water, and three pounds of shin beef, or of any sinewy lean gelatinous piece ; or trimmings of meat or poultry, a slice of ba- con, or a shank of either a bacon or a mutton ham scalded (the root of a tongue salted a little, and well soaked to draw out all the slime, does very well), a couple of well-sized carrots, two turnips, and four large or six smaller onions. When this has been skimmed, and has simmered slowly for about an hour and a half, taking care that it does not stick to the bottom of the pot, (Scottice “ sit on,”) add another quart of boiling water, or fresh liquor in which poul- try or meat has been boiled. Simmer again till the peas are completely dissolved. Pour the soup into a coarse hair sieve, which set over an earthen pan or stew-pot, and pulp the peas through with a wooden, or tinned iron spoon, taking back the strained soup to moisten what remains of the peas, till the whole mash is pulped through. Add salt, white pepper in fine powder, and the onions well pulped to the strained soup, a head of fresh celery shred roughly, or a des- sert-spoonful of the seed (which communicates the

• Whole peas are often sweeter and better than those which are split, but they must be longer soaked. In country families that study economy, peas of the black kind are often shelled at the mill, and used as white boilers. The colour is not so line, but the soup is equally good, if not better.

146 CHAP. V. — BROTHS, SOUPS, AND GRAVIES.

flavour in a strong degree), tied up in a bit of muslin rag, which must be lifted out before the soup is dish- ed. Simmer it for a half-hour or three quarters, if too thin. Pour it into the tureen, and throw in toast- ed bread cut into dice or diamonds. Carefully re- move the film or fat veil which gathers on the surface when in the tureen, and stir up the soup the moment before it goes to the table. Butter may be used to enrich this soup, and toasted oatmeal to thicken it, mixing the oatmeal like starch, and carefully keeping back the grits.

Obs. — This, though neither the most expensive nor elegant of soups, is a favourite family-dish in cold weather, — that is, nine months of the year, — and is re- commended at once by economy and excellence. It can be made of an inferior sort of any thing that is wholesome. A rump-bone, the bones of meat used for pies, trimmings of a roast, &c., are all excellent. Roast-beef bones, if not stale, nor charred and im- pregnated with empyreuma, and fresh dripping, an- swer very well ; also the liquor in which salt meat is boiled — or part of it — with the exception of that of fat old pork, which, save in cases of stern necessity, cannot be tolerated by us. When peas-soup is made of shreds and patches of meat, more onion or celery seed and spice may be used to overcome the flavour of whatever constitutes the basis of the soup. A very convenient way of making a common peas-soup is, to have peas-pudding boiled, ready to mix with the liquor in which meat or fowls are dressed. The above seasonings are then to be added, and the soup may be enriched with butter, or clarified fresh drip- ping and thickened with potato7flour or oatmeal, as above directed, and finished in a half-hour. Dried mint or dried parsley is sometimes rubbed into this soup. Withholding* the onions and celery, and sub- stituting asparagus points, makes this soup an excel- lent asparagus- soup.

* By the addition of Curry Powder, Dr Hunter, the author of Culina, makes Curry Peas-Souv. Dr Redgii.l added square bits of fried bacon, cayenne, fried onions or cucumber, and concoct- ed a soup of the Composite Order, which, in compliment to the in- ventor, was named by the Club Bedo ill’s Peas-Soup Haul Gout.

CHAP. V. — BROTHS, SOUPS, AND GRAVIES. 147

TO GRILL CRUSTS FOR SOUPS.

Put the cut crusts upon a small wire gridiron over hot cinders to crisp. When done, wet the inside with top-fat, and sprinkle a little salt over them, and put them into the tureen.

N. B. — If you put bread into boiling soup, it will swell, crumble, and spoil the appearance of the soup.

POTATO-SOUP.

This cheap and generally acceptable soup may be made of the same materials as Peas-Soup, or of any liquor in which meat has been boiled, or roast-beef bones, &c. ; a hock of ham, or a shank of mutton- ham, or any thing of this kind, may be advantageous- ly used to flavour and enrich it. Season with onions, celery, or parsley, and either thicken with mashed potatoes, or suffer the potatoes, previously pared and parboiled, to fall to a mash in the soup.

N. B. — Where small families kill a sheep now and then for winter-store, what is salted, though it would not make even tolerable broth, will make a very pa- latable potato-soup with any of the above season- ings. Red-herrings are often recommended to flavour cheap soups ; we do not admire them.

SOUP AND STEW,

OR MOUTHFUL SOUPS.

By the above names the reader is to understand all soups in which meat, fowl, or fish, cut in mouthfuls, is dressed and served. Such, for example, are Mock Turtle-Soup, Lobster-Soup, Oyster-Soup, &c. This is a division which we think was wanted in books that treat of the culinary art ; as the greatest discove- ries which have been made in the English kitchen within the last twenty years are unquestionably in

148 CHAP. V.— - “BROTHS, SOUPS, AND GRAVIES.

this favourite class of glutinous soups. This class, be it noticed, comprehends not only the oriental Mulla- gatawny and the oleaginous Ox-rump, but even the spicy and luscious Turtle.*

MULLAGATAWNY-SOUP.

Mullagatawny differs little, save in the curry pow- der or other seasonings, from the excellent Scotch dish, “ Stewed Knuckle of Veal.” Break and wash a knuckle of good veal, and put it to boil in nearly three quarts of water, with a quarter-ounce of black and Jamaica peppercorns. Place wooden or tinned skewers in the bottom of the stew-pan, to prevent the meat from sticking to it. Put a few slices of bacon, if the flavour and oily qualities of this meat are admired. Skim this stock carefully when it comes to boil, and let it simmer an hour and a half before straining it off. Cut three pounds of breast of veal into small bits, add- ing the trimmings, bones, and gristles of the breast to the water in which the knuckle is put to boil. Fry the bits of veal and six sliced onions in a deep stew- pan, of a delicate brown. Put the strained stock to them ; skim carefully, and when the soup and meat have simmered three quarters of an hour, mix two dessert-spoonfuls of curry powder, and the same quan- tity of lightly-browned flour, to a smooth batter, with salt and cayenne to taste, and add these to the soup, and stew and simmer till the meat is quite tender.

Obs. — This soup may be made of fowls cut in pieces, or of rabbits ; but is best when made of well-fed veal. For East Indian palates, eschalots, mace, and ginger.

• We give no receipt for dressing Turtle, an affair on which a volume might be written, so complicated and various are the processes. Rousseau tells of a German who composed a whole volume on the zest of a lemon. What then might not be said on that which comprehends all zests, — “ the Sovereign of Sa- vouriness,” the Olio compounded “ of every creature's best” As none but thorough-bred men of science are ever intrusted with dressing a Turtle, the Cleikum Club did not presume to instruct them, and thought the receipts found in cookery-books for this article merely so many make-bulks. Female cooks are good enough in their own way ; but no woman ever yet succeeded in writing an Epic or dressing a Turtle. — P. T.

CHAP. V. BROTHS, SOUPS, AND GRAVIES. 149

may be employed, but the quantity must be left to the discretion of the cook. — See Mullagatamny, as made in India ( National Dishes ).

MOCK TURTLE-SOUP.

Procure the head of a middle-sized, well-fed cow- calf, with the skin on; scald it, split and take out the brains and the gristles and bones of the nose, blanch it well in several waters, to draw out the slime and blood. Place it in a stew-pan, and cover it with cold water ; boil it, and skim without intermission while any scum continues to arise. When the head has boiled gently for three quarters of an hour take it out, and as soon as cold enough to cut, carve it into small neat pieces, in the shape of diamonds, dice, tri- angles, &c. Peel the tongue, and cut it into cubes of an inch thick. Meanwhile, put the broken bones and trimmings of the head into your stock-pot, with a large knuckle of veal well broken, and three or four pounds of a shin of beef well soaked. Let this boil slowly, having carefully skimmed it, for at least four hours, and take care it does not stick to the bottom of the pot ; then strain for future use, and lay aside a quart of this stock for gravy. Thus much may be done the evening before the soup is wanted. When the soup is to be made, take off the cake of fat which will have formed on the top, and put the stock, hold- ing back the sediment, into a large stew-pan. If the stock is good it will now be a jelly, or nearly so. When it is again skimmed, put to it a dozen onions -sliced, and browned in the frying-pan, with a half- dozen sprigs of fresh mild sage, also chopped and fried. Thicken the soup with butter kneaded in browned ' flour, or with brown roux ; and season highly with .ground black and Jamaica pepper, a little cayenne, ttwo blades of mace, a shalot, four leaves of fresh ba- sil, and the paring of one large or two small lemons. When the soup is strong and well-coloured, strain it through a hair sieve very gently into a fresh stew- ipan, and put the hash of the head to it. Add wine when it is nearly finished, in the proportion of a half-

150 CHAP. V. — BROTHS, SOUPS, AND GRAVIES.

glassful to the quart.* When to be dished, slip in two dozen of small force-meat balls, made of veal or veal-kidney, minced parsley, crumbs, and the season- ings directed for Quenelles ( See French cookery,) and fried and drained, also hard-boiled yolks of eggs or egg-balls, and the juice of two lemons squeezed through a strainer.

Obs. — A small piece of bacon used to be put into the stock-pot; and a faggot of sweet herbs, and mushrooms are still often added to the soup. The imitation of the real Turtle- soup was also thought nearer when the soup abounded in pieces of the fat double tripe, gristly bits of veal or veal sweetbread parboiled, or the belly- piece of pickled pork, cut in mouthfuls, the soft part of oysters, pickled tongue parboiled and cut down, the meat of lobsters, & c. These cloying substances are now very generally discarded. Simplicity is the taste of the day, though much is left to the discretion of the cook in the making of Mock Turtle, and all soups of the Composite order. The quantity made by the above directions is fully more than will be wanted for any dinner, as it will fill two tureens ; but part of the stock may be laid aside for gravy or sauces ; and if there is too much hash, some of it may be highly seasoned and dressed as a ragout or pie. Mock Turtle may be greened, if that is wished, by stewing a large handful of chopped green herbs, such as parsley, young onions, &c. in butter, and putting some of the soup to them ; then rubbing this liquor through a sieve, and putting it to the soup.

A CHEAPER AND VERY EXCELLENT MOCK TURTLE SOUP.

This imitation is made of calf’s-feet and cow-heels gently stewed, the broth strained, and the meat cut down and put to it, with a seasoning of white pepper, allspice, onion, cayenne, a little mushroom or walnut catsup, a squeeze of lemon, and a glass of Madeira.

* Madeira or Sherry are the wines commonly employed ; but Burgundy or Claret may be used, if more depth of colour is wanted.

CHAP. V. — BROTHS, SOUPS, AND GRAVIES. 151

Or the wine and expensive seasonings may be with- held, and the soup be very good without them.

EGG-BALLS FOR MOCK TURTLE-SOUP.

Pound a sufficient quantity of the yolks of hard-boiled eggs in a mortar, with as much raw yolk and flour as will bind the composition. Add salt, and make up in the form of balls the size of a marble.

BAKED MOCK TURTLE-SOUP.

This is easily prepared, and generally liked. Put a broken knuckle of veal, or the gristly ends of two knuckles, in a deep earthen pan, with two cow-heels, the half of a calf’s-head broken, four onions, a dozen of peppercorns, three blades of mace, and a few sprigs of lemon-thyme, a shalot, or any other flavour- ing substance that is best relished by those for whom the soup is prepared. Fill up the dish with water or weak broth ; tie several folds of paper round the mouth of it, and set it in an oven for upwards of two hours. When it is cold take off the fat from the jel- ly, cut the meat into mouthfuls, and stew it up with the jelly till perfectly tender. Wine, spiceries, cat- sup, force-meat balls, or whatever is approved of, may be added, if a soup of haut gout be wanted ; or it may be seasoned with a little mushroom catsup, and served plain.*

SCOTCH HARE, OR PARTRIDGE-SOUP.

Make a clear strong soup of from three to four pounds of lean beef cut in pieces, or a shin, with the trim- mings of the hare, a couple of carrots and turnips, a half-dozen onions, a quarter-ounce of black and Ja- maica peppercorns, and a faggot of sweet herbs.

* The French often make their Mock Turtle-Soup Stock of the trimmings of fish and mutton-shanks, &c., using pieces full of jelly. They clarify the stock, and boil it so much down that, when cool, it will bear the Madeira on its surface. They cook the parboiled head in white sauce, and then proceed as above directed, only using more hard-boiled yolks of eggs.

]52 CHAP. V.— -BROTHS, SOUPS, AND GRAVIES.

Cut the hare (or two or three partridges) into small neat pieces.* Wash the pieces, and save the wash- ings, with all the blood, which must be all carefully strained through a fine sieve and added to the stock, as they contain much of the flavour of the hare. Flat- ten and season the hare-steaks ; dredge them with flour ; brown them lightly in a frying-pan, and put them to the strained stock, — or merely season and add them with onions without frying. Let the soup stew very slowly for an hour and a half at least. Put in the strained blood, and keep the soup for some time at the point of boiling ; but do not let it boil through or the blood will curdle. This soup may be thickened with butter kneaded up in browned flour, or with potatoes mashed, or potato mucilage. Or the fleshy parts of the hare, previously boiled in stock, may be pounded in a mortar with the onions to thicken the soup. Skim it again when nearly finish- ed ; put to it a glassful of mushroom catsup and a point of cayenne. Serve with the hare-steaks in the tureen.

Obs. — Red wine, in the proportion of a quarter-pint to a tureen of soup, is reckoned an improvement by some gourmands ; and those of the old school still like a large spoonful of currant-jelly dissolved in the soup. Hare-Soup may be made by cutting down the ingre- dients and placing them in an earthen jar, in a kettle of boiling water for four hours, and then managing as above. Cold roast hare, not overdone, cut to pieces and stewed for an hour in good and highly-seasoned broth, will make an excellent, but not a highly-fla- voured Hare-Soup. — See Civet of Hare ( French Cook- ery'). Cold roast hare, game, or veal, will all of them, if cut down, and slowly stewed for an hour in broth, or boiling water thickened with brown flour kneaded in butter, and rather highly-seasoned with onion, pep- per, and cayenne, make a very palatable Steiv-Soup. Many prefer this mode of re-dressing cold meat to either hashing or fricasseeing. The burnt outsides.

* You may lay aside as much of the fleshy part of a good hare as will make a handsome dish of hare-cakes, or collops, or force-meat balls for the soup.

CHAP. V.‘ — BROTHS, SOUPS, AND GRAVIES. 153

skins, and every thing unfit for the tureen, should be trimmed away ; or, if boiled in the soup, it must be strained before the cold meat to be served is added.

A MORE MODERN HARE-SOUP.

Cut down the hare into nice pieces, and stew them with four onions, stuck with four cloves, four blades of mace, a bay-leaf or two, a faggot of parsley, with two or three sprigs of basil, thyme, and marjoram. Simmer slowly in a little strong stock-broth, and when the juices are well drawn out, put more, till the whole quantity required is in. Simmer for another hour at least, and strain the soup. Take the best of the meat from the bones, pound it, moistening with a little of the soup. Pound also some soaked crumb of bread, or the dry mealy part of potatoes, and put this to the soup, which must now be seasoned to your taste with pepper, salt, cayenne, and catsup ; or, keep the best pieces, if the hare be large, to serve whole in the tu- reen, cut into mouthfuls, and pound the others, which will make the soup have quite enough of consistence. The best pieces to serve are the fillets along the back-bone, which need not be boiled quite so long as the other parts, if to be thus used.

PIGEON-SOUP, OR GAME-SOUP.

Make a clear gravy stock of four pounds of lean beef, or scrag and shanks of mutton, two turnips, two onions, and four quarts of water boiled down to three. Put to this stock the gizzards, crops, and livers of four or five pigeons or partridges. The birds must be neatly trussed as for boiling, seasoned inside with ground white pepper and salt, and flattened on the breast. Dredge them with flour, and brown them nicely in a frying-pan. Thicken the stock with but- ter kneaded in browned flour ; strain and season it with white pepper, salt, and a little mace, and let the pigeons stew in it for twenty-five minutes, taking off the scum as it rises. Throw a few toasted sippets into the tureen before dishing the soup.

154 CHAP. V. — BROTHS, SOUPS, AND GRAVIES.

AN EXCELLENT GAME-SOUP, OR VENISON-SOUP.

This soup is made of all sorts of black or red game, or of venison or rabbits. Skin the birds, carve them neatly, and fry the pieces with a few slices of ham, sliced onions, carrots, and parsnips, a little of each. Drain and stew this meat gently for an hour in good fresh veal or beef stock-broth, with a head of celery cut in nice bits, a little minced parsley, and what seasoning you require. Very small steaks of venison may be fried as the birds and stewed in broth ; but if the stock is made of any venison trimmings, it will be an advantage both in flavour and strength.

Obs. — Jamaica pepper and cloves are suitable sea- sonings, and celery, from its nutty flavour, is the pro- per vegetable for game-soups.

OX-HEAD-SOUP, CALLED HESSIAN SOUP, AND RAGOUT.

Clean, rub with salt, and afterwards soak in salt and lukewarm water for four hours, the half of a fat bul- lock’s head and the root of a tongue, or a cow-heel. Wash them, and break and put them into a large pot with seven quarts of water and a spoonful of salt. Skim very carefully, and retard the boiling by throvr- ing in a quart of cold water, w^hich will throw up more scum. When the meat is tender, but not over- done, take it out and strain the broth. When cold take off the cake of fat, and the oil below it, and put to the remaining soup a pound of white or grey sheeled peas. When it has boiled an hour, add, (rough- ly cut,) six or eight potatoes, six carrots, four turnips, half a dozen onions, a bunch of parsley, and a dessert- spoonful of celery-seed tied up in a bit of rag ; season with pepper and salt, and boil till the vege- tables are tender. This makes a very excellent broth, nutritious and palatable, and the meat may either be served in it or as a ragout. But a little more trouble fits this dish to appear at any family-dinner, and en- titles it to the appellation of Hessian Soup and Ra- gout. When the peas and vegetables in the soup, as

3

CHAP. V. — BROTHS, SOUPS, AND GRAVIES. 155

above described, are soft enough to pulp, strain it, and rub them through a sieve to the soup, which will now be nearly of the consistence of thin peas-soup. If not thickened enough, add rice-flour well mixed, or potato-mucilage, and heat the soup, adding white pepper and cayenne to taste, and a head of celery sliced. The ragout or hash is made by cutting into mouthfuls the best parts of the head and root of the tongue, or cow-heel, seasoning high with mixed spices, a little wralnut-catsup, and a tea-spoonful of made mustard, with a pint and a half of the clear stock of the head, saved for this purpose when the soup is strained.

Obs. — Soy, forcemeat-balls, wine, &c., are all or- dered for this ragout in some approved books of cook- ery ; but we consider such expensive ingredients quite out of place in a preparation which is cheap, good, and savoury, but never can be elegant. The meat of the head and root that remains may be eat as a plain stew, or added to the soup, or potted, in the Scotch fashion.

calf’s-head-soup.

The half of a large head may be rubbed with salt, soaked for some hours, and, when thoroughly clean, put on with as much fresh water or fresh pot-liquor as will cover it, and with an onion and some parsley. When well skimmed and boiled for an hour, take out the head and strain the soup. Cut the head in nice mouthfuls and dress it as ragout, or put it to the soup. Season with white pepper and mace.

Obs. — This and the above dish are said to be great favourites with the masters and mistresses of boarding- schools. The heads and internal parts of animals spoil sooner than the joints; it is therefore important to buy them very fresh. Indeed, all meat for soups ought to be as fresh as possible.

156 CHAP. V. BROTHS, SOUPS, AND GRAVIES.

A PEPPER-POT.*

This is now understood to be a sort of clear -larder, Saturday’s dinner-dish, composed of every sort of shreds and patches. It ought properly, if fine cook- ery is attempted, to be an Olio, composed of a due ad- mixture of meat, fish, fowl, vegetables, and roots. To three quarts of water put a couple of pounds of whatever vegetables are plentiful (a good proportion being onions), and a couple of pounds of mutton-scrag cut into three or four pieces ; or a fowl, or veal, or a piece of lean bacon, and a little rice. Skim it ; and, when nearly finished, add the meat of a lobster or crab, cut in bits, or the soft part of a few oysters, or hard-boiled yolks of eggs. Take off all the fat that rises, and season highly with pepper and cayenne. Serve in a tureen.

knuckle of veal soup, an excellent Scotch Soup.

Take a large knuckle, or, if small, add a piece of the scrag. Wash it, and break the bones ; place skew- ers in the stew-pan to keep the knuckle from sticking ; cover it with water and no more ; put in a head of ce- lery, a sprig of lemon-thyme, three onions, a carrot, a turnip, and two dozen black and Jamaica peppercorns, simmer till the knuckle is tender. Strain the soup. Cut the gristly parts of the knuckle and all that is good, into mouthfuls, and put to it a seasoning of white pepper and mace in powder, and rice-flour to thicken if it is wished. This soup may be made with rice or vermicelli ; or the stewed uncut knuckle may be served in the soup ; for many like to pick the gristles, a tf pleasing toil,” instead of having the meat cut for them by the cook.

Obs. — Some gourmands admire veal stew-soup made of Staggering-Bob, — that is an infant calf, whose bones are still gristle, and his flesh a jelly. The breast, knuckle, and shoulder-blade, are best for this purpose.

* “ Where every thing that every soldier got, Fowl, bacon, cabbage, mutton, and what not Was thrown into one Bank, and went to pot.”

CHAP. V. — BROTHS, SOUPS, AND GRAVIES. 157

and the soup is, when finished, thickened with the yolks of three eggs, and seasoned with mace.

GIBLET-SOUP.'*

Take from two to three pounds of coarse beef, or shanks and scrag of mutton, or knuckle of veal, or a part of each, as may be found most convenient ; a small faggot of sweet herbs, carrots, turnips, and a little parsley; a quarter-ounce of black or Jamaica peppercorns, and four quarts of water. When this has simmered for an hour, put to it two pair of goose- giblets, or four pair of duck-giblets, scalded and cleaned, and browned in the frying-pan, if you choose, with minced onion. When the giblets are delicately tender, but not soft and insipid, take them up, and cut them into large mouthfuls. The soup must now be thickened with butter kneaded in a large spoonful of flour, or with the top-fat gradually mixed with flour, and strained into a fresh stew-pan, into which put the giblets. Boil and skim, and season with a large spoonful of mushroom catsup, salt, and a little cayenne. Serve with the cut giblets in the tureen. Beans, lettuce, and celery, separately boiled, may be added.

OX-RUMP, OR OX-TAIL SOUP.

Two tails, or if small, three will make a large tureen of soup. Let the butcher divide them at the joints. Rub them with salt, and soak them in lukewarm water. Place the tails in a stew-pan, with four onions

* This was one of those pretending dishes of which Mrs Dons emphatically said, “ boil stanes in butter, and the broo will be guae.” W hen plainly made, as directed in the above receipt, it af- fords an agreeable variety for a family-dinner, and is an economical way of using what might be otherwise wasted, which is always com- mendable. Wine is ordered for giblet-soup in the most approved cookery-books ; and we have no wish to restrain the fancies of a gourmet, however extravagant ; but Mrs Hods strongly protested against bestowing Madeira on goosehorns and pinions. French cooks dress giblets as an haricot, wrapping them in layers of bacon, in which they are stewed. When done and drained, the sauce is skimmed and poured over them.

G

158 CHAP. V. BROTHS, SOUPS, AND GRAVIES.

or more, a bunch of parsley, two dozen of Jamaica and black pepper corns, a turnip sliced, and three quarts of water. When the meat is tender, lift it out, and cut it into small mouthfuls. Thicken the soup with a little browned flour, rubbed up with a ladleful of the top-fat ; strain it into a fresh stew-pan, put in the cut meat, boil it up, and skim it, and finish with a spoonful of mushroom catsup, and pepper to taste.

Obs. — Ox-tails make a very excellent onion-soup, by adding to it, when strained, a dozen fried onions, and thickening it with potato-flour.*

poacher’s soup,

I

Or Soupe a la Meg Merrilies.

This savoury and highly-relishing new stew soup, may be made of any or every thing known by the name of game. Take from two to four pounds of the trimmings or coarse parts of venison, shin of beef, or shanks or lean scrag of good mutton. Break the bones, and boil this with a couple of carrots and turnips, four - onions, a bunch of parsley, and a quarter-ounce of peppercorns, the larger proportion Jamaica pepper. Strain this stock when it has boiled for three hours. Cut down and skin a black-cock, or wood-cock, a pheasant, half a hare, or a rabbit, a brace of partridges or grouse, or one of each, (which ever is obtained most easily,) and season the pieces with mixed spices. These may be floured and browned in the frying-pan ; but as this is a process dictated by the eye as much as the palate, it is not necessary in making this soup. Put the game to the strained stock, with a dozen of small onions, a couple of heads of celery sliced, half a dozen peeled potatoes, and when it boils, a small white cabbage quartered, black pepper, allspice, and salt, to taste. Let the soup simmer till the game is tender,

* The Dtfabob who, from poking his nose every where, had got, by one means or other, a great deal of useless, and some useful in- formation, gave a receipt for an economical soup of this kind, made of the trimmings of meat which tanners’ workmen collect from the fresh hides brought to tan-yards. These trimmings are found about the cars, lips, and tails.

CHAP. V. BROTHS, SOUPS, AND GRAVIES. 159

but not overdone ; and lest it should, the vegetables may be put in half an hour before the meat.

Obs. — This soup may be coloured and flavoured with wine and two spoonfuls of mushroom catsup, and enriched Avith forcemeat-balls.* Soups in which catsup is mixed should not be salted till that ingre- dient is added, as catsup contains so much salt itself.f

* The Club were at variance on the above original receipts. Jekylt. declared for the simple racy flavour of the plain sylvan cheer; Winterblossoji liked the addition of forcemeat-balls and catsup ; and the Doctor — hovering hetween the tureens, like Macheath between his rival charmers, — laid his ears deeply in both, but when compelled to decide, from an habitual reverence to soups that be, voted for the plain soup as originally swallowed with so much unction by Dominie Sampson.

ฆf Stew Soups, &c., when not made cloyingly rich nor over- seasoned, as they always are by those whose trade it is to compound cordials to stimulate and pamper palled appetites and indurated pa- lates, is, for common and general purposes, the most easy, whole- some, and nutritious form in which food can be prepared. It is that combination of fluids and solids, animal and vegetable substances, with condiments, which forms the mixture best fitted to the human stomach, and the best calculated to promote health and impart strength. The prejudice which exists in England against soups as not promotive ot strength ought to give way before Stew Soups. It has been gravely contended of late, that human life cannot be -supported on soups, however rich, without solid animal food; and experiments are quoted where a dog kept on the richest soup died, while another which was fed on meat boiled to chips, and water, re- tained health and strength. To these experiments may be opposed the living example of the poor of Ireland and Scotland, who hardly ever see animal food in any form, and yet enjoy health and strength. “ The greatest heroes of antiquity,” says Sir John Sinclair, “ lived on broth.” The liquor in which their mutton or venison was boiled, thickened with a little oatmeal, and seasoned perhaps with a few wild herbs, formed the morning tea and coffee in the hall of the Chieftain, before the introduction of these costly foreign com- modities. It is impossible to say on what men will not live, and enjoy health too ; — shell-fish, Iceland moss, mushrooms, snails, and an endless variety of substances, have been known to sustain life and health, — not to mention fricassees of old shoes and leather breeches, to which shipwrecked mariners have often had recourse. Our readers cannot have forgotten Sir Bevis of Ilampdoun in his dungeon, of whom —

“ Rats and mice and such small deer,

“ Was the food for full seven year.”

This to be sure is solid animal food, and favours the theory of the modern experimenters; but, again, we have Dr Franklin’s old ca- tholic lady, who lived solely on water-gruel, and yet enjoyed health. There has lately started up in England, we arc told, a new-fangled religious sect, who, from an absurd reading of the commandment

160 CHAP. V. BROTHS; SOUPS; AND GRAVIES.

CHEAP RICE AND MEAT SOUP.

Boil from three to four pounds of a good ox-cheek, very well soaked and cleaned, in three quarts of water, with four onions, and a small faggot of pot-herbs. Strain it ; cut the meat in small pieces, and stew with six ounces of rice, adding pepper and salt. This cheap stew-soup may be seasoned with curry powder or mace ; or made after a finer fashion with knuckle of veal, or two cow-heels.

FISH SOUPS.

This delicate and elegant description of soups has gained on the favour of the gormandizing world very rapidly within the last few years. Cray-fish was the favourite bonne bonche of past generations. Oyster and lobster soups are more admired in our day.

The basis of fish-soups, — the stock, as it is techni- cally called, — may either be made of fish or meat. The former is perhaps the more elegant, and is be- sides suited to maigre days ; the latter is supposed to be the more rich and nourishing. Beef, veal, or the lean of mutton, may all be used for fish-stock. When made of fish, a skate, a cod’s head, haddocks, whit- ings, eels, gudgeons, flounders, and other white fish, are used, and also the heads, fins, and trimmings of the fish which are to be dressed. As fish-stock soon

“ Thou shalt not kill,” renounce the use of animal food, and enjoy high health on their vegetable regimen. It is indeed high presump- tion to limit the powers of the human stomach, in assimilating and turning to healthful chyle, whatever is, in discretion, and without violent and sudden change, submitted to its action. Of this im- portant organ, “ the master of the family,” it holds as strongly as of the palate, that “ what is one man’s meat is another man’s poison

Chaquc pays chaque continue.

The Tartar feeds on horse flesh, the Chinese on dog’s, the Green- lander on fish garbage, with the luxurious sauce of train-oil. The Frenchman and German feed on frogs and snails, and the ancients valued assafoetida as much as the moderns do curry-powder, or Bur- gess, fish-sauce.

CHAP. V. BROTHS, SOUPS, AND GRAVIES. 161

becomes sour, it should not be made till it is to be used. Boil the fish of which you make the stock, in two quarts of water, with a couple of onions, a piece of lemon-peel, and a faggot of sweet herbs. Skim the liquor carefully, and strain it. If the fish-soup is to be brown, the fish which makes the stock may be browned in the frying-pan before boiling, and catsup is generally put to brown fish-soup.

LOBSTER-SOUP.

Have three middle-sized, or five small lobsters, — hens if possible, — ready boiled, and five pints of good veal-gravy, though beef or mutton stock will answer very well. Break off and bruise in a mortar, the small claws and fins, with an anchovy, apiece of lemon-peel, and a couple of scalded onions. Put these to the stock, and simmer till you have obtained all the strength and flavour they contain. Strain all the stock. Split the tail, crack without mangling the great claws, and take out the meat, cutting it into small pieces. Pick the fish from the chine, and take part of the coral, the soft part of a few oysters, an anchovy, a quarter of a nutmeg, a blade of mace, a little cayenne, and a tea-spoonful of lemon-peel grated. Put these in a mortar ; beat them, and with the yolks of two eggs and a very little flour, make a dozen or more small forcemeat-balls for the soup. Next bruise the spawn in the mortar, with a little floui*, and rubbing it through a sieve, put this with the meat of the claws and tail, and the coral left from the forcemeat, into the soup. Fry the forcemeat-balls, or brown them in a Dutch oven, and put them also to the soup, which may simmer for a quarter of an hour, but must not boil. Test the balls: — or they may be omitted, and the meat cut in nice bits, put to the strained soup. Foreign substances are sometimes employed to height- en the vermilion tint of this soup, but we do not re- commend the practice. Squeeze the juice of a lemon or Seville orange through a strainer into the tureen, and serve the soup, lifting it carefully. Some cooks put a glass of Madeira to this soup.

Ohs — This soup is sometimes partly made of sweet

162 CHAP. V. BROTHS, SOUPS, AND GRAVIES.

cream, or milk thickened with rice-flour and butter, instead of stuck ; but the mixture of milk with fish or meat is less relished every day, and even yolks of eggs, between which and animal substances there is a closer affinity, do not gain ground. Wine is a good deal employed by the French in the composition of fish- soups, and the rough and dry wines suit some tastes better than cream. In like manner mild ale or beer is sometimes employed in this country. A clear gravy of cow-heels makes an admirable basis for fish-soups, and is believed to be employed by those who deal largely in these compositions in great towns.

OYSTER-SOUP.

Have two quarts of a good strong clear stock, whe- ther of fish or meat, but we prefer veal. Add to it the hard-boiled jmlks of six eggs, and the hard part of a quart of fresh juicy oysters, previously well pounded in a mortar. Simmer for a half-hour, and strain it into a fresh stew-pan, in which have the oysters cleared of the beards, and very nicely wash- ed from shells and sand. Season with mace and cayenne, and let the oysters simmer for eight minutes, when the yolks of three eggs well beat may be stir- red into a little of the soup, and gradually mixed with the whole quantity, drawing aside the stew-pan, and constantly stirring, lest they curdle. When smooth and thick, serve in a tureen, and still stir the soup for a minute, to prevent curdling. Any other flavour that is relished may be given to this luscious soup.

ANOTHER OYSTER-'SOUP.

After bearding the oysters, dip them in beat egg, dust them with flour ; run them on fine wire skewers, and fry and drain them. Place them in the tureen, and pour the soup over them- The beards, nut (or hard part,) and all the oyster-liquor saved, must be put to the soup, and boiled a little before it is strained.

Obs. — This soup may be thickened with the beat yolks of three eggs ; or have a half-pint of boiling cream put to it before it is served.

CHAP, V. BROTHS, SOUPS, AND GRAVIES. 163

CRAY-FISH SOUP.

Make two quarts of fish-stock, in which boil a bunch of parsley, two onions, and two dozen of black and Jamaica peppercorns. For this have from two to three pounds of fish, fins, heads, &c., but all fresh. Boil to a mash, and strain the liquor till clear. Pick from four to five dozen of cray-fish, and stew till de- licately done, adding a little cayenne, and the spawn of a boiled lobster pounded, and stirred into the soup, which it will both thicken and enrich.

Obs. — Soups are madeof muscles, cockles, and prawns. They all require good stock, plenty of pepper, and careful washing and picking. — As much of the flavour of delicate shell-fish is lost in washing them free of sand, the washings may be kept, strained repeatedly, and put to the stock.

FORCEMEAT FOR FISH-SOUPS, OR FOR STEWS OF FISH.

Beat the flesh and soft parts of a boiled lobster in a mortar, with a boned anchovy, the yolks of three eggs hard boiled, and a head of boiled celery chopped. Put to this a handful of bread-crumbs, cayenne, mace, a spoonful of mushroom catsup, a quarter-pound of melted butter, a large spoonful of oyster-liquor, or some oyster-pickle, and two or more eggs well beaten, to cement the composition. Mix it well, and form into egg-shaped balls, which fry or brown in a Dutch oven ; or the fish that makes the stock may be pound- ed for forcemeat.

EEL-SOUP.

Take two pounds of eels, two quarts of water, a crust of bread, six blades of mace, two onions, a few corns of whole pepper, and a bundle of sweet herbs ; cut and boil them till half the liquor is wasted, then strain it, and serve it up with toasted bread. This may make both a ragout and a soup.

It may be made stronger by boiling it longer, or using broth instead of water. — See Fish and Sauce, National Dishes, also Fish Turtle.

164 CHAP. V. BROTHS, SOUPS, AND GRAVIES.

SCOTCH BARLEY-BROTH, WITH BOILED MUTTON OR

BOUILLI.

To from three to six pounds of beef or mutton, ac- cording to the quantity of broth wanted, put cold water in the proportion of a quart to the pound, a quarter-pound of pearl-barley, or more or less, as may suit the meat and the water, and a spoonful of salt, unless the meat is already slightly salted. To this put a large cupful of white peas, or sheeled grey peas, unless in the season when old green peas are to be had cheap, a double quantity of which must be put in with the other vegetables. Skim very carefully as long as any scum rises ; then draAV aside the pot, and let the broth boil slowly for an hour, at which time put to it two young carrots and turnips cut in dices, and two or three onions sliced. A quarter of an hour before the broth is ready, add a little parsley picked and chopped, — or the white part of three leeks may be used instead of onions, and a head of celery sliced instead of the parsley seasoning ; but celery requires longer boiling. For beef-broth a small quantity of greens roughly shred, and four or five leeks cut in two-inch lengths, are better suited than turnip, car- rot, and parsley, which are more adapted to mutton. If there is danger of the meat being overdone before the broth is properly lithed, it may be taken up, co- vered for a half-hour, and returned into the pot to heat through before it is dished. Garnish with car- rot and turnip boiled in the broth, and divided ; or pour over the meat caper-sauce, parsley and butter, or a sauce made of pickled cucumbers, or nasturtiums heated in melted butter, or in a little clear broth, with a tea-spoonful of made mustard and 'another of vinegar. Minced parsley, parboiled for a minute, may also be strewed overboiled beef, — or a sprinkling of boiled car- rots cut in small dice. Serve the broth in a tureen, re- moving any film of fat that may gather upon the surface.

Ohs. — The pieces of fresh beef best adapted for barley-broth are the shin, the brisket, the flank, and the veiny piece, — of mutton, the neck, the shoulder, and the leg. In some parts of the “ land of kail,7’ broth made of fresh beef would scarcely be tolerated, — the meat not at all ; and unquestionably the brisket

CHAP. V. BROTHS, SOUPS, AND GRAVIES. 165

or flank, when salted for a week, makes excellent broth, while the meat eats much better. An econo- mical way of managing where beef is salted for win- ter-provision, is to boil a piece of fresh and a piece of salt meat together, by which method the broth is not grouty nor yet over salt, which it will be when made wholly of salt meat. Turkey beans, stripped of their blackening outer husk, are admirably adapted for lilhing barley-broth.* Barley is very apt to spoil. It becomes mity, and, what is worse, this fault is not easily detected. Barley should, if good, no more be washed than flour ; but then it must be sound if we would avoid the glary, ropy decoctions which are sometimes seen on tables where better things might be expected. The quality of flour used in cookery ought also to be attended to. When ex- posed to air and damp, it becomes musty much sooner than is generally known. English books of cookery order a sauce for meat boiled in broth, of red wine, mushroom catsup, and gravy with cut pickles — a piece of extravagance completely at variance with the cha- racter and properties of the better part of the dish, — namely, the bland balsamic barley-broth of Scotland. But if a fine name is admired, use the French sauce hackee. For cheap and excellent soups and broths, see National Dishes.

MILK-SOUP.

Boil two quarts of milk, with a little salt, a stick of cinnamon, and a little sugar ; lay thin slices of toast- ed bread in a dish ; pour over a little of the milk to soak them, and keep them hot upon a stove ; take care it does not burn. When the soup is ready to serve, beat up the yolks of five or six eggs, and add them to the milk. Stir it over the fire till it thickens ; then take it off lest it should curdle, and put it in the dish upon the bread.

• Mrs Dods, with her usual sagacity, stated, and it must be owned, with greatplausibility of reasoning, that one capital defect of broth cooked by Englishers and other unqualified persons, is pro- duced nine times out of the ten by the bad quality of the barley often used in England.

G 2

166 CHAP. y. — BROTHS, SOUPS, AND GRAVIES.

Obs. — This makes the Polage de Lait of French cookery, by the addition of a quarter of a pound of sweet almonds with a few bitter ones blanched, pounded, and sifted.

PORTABLE SOUP.

This soup is best made of shin of beef, but knuckle of veal or cow-heels may be used in a small proportion. Have from ten to twenty pounds of shin of good fresh- killed beef, well broken, and from five to ten of knuckle of veal. Place this in a digester, or close-covered pot, and cover it with water. It must heat very gradually, that the fibres of the meat may have time to soften and swell ; skim it carefully ; retard the boil with a little cold water, and skim till no more scum rises. No roots nor vegetables are boiled with this soup ; for although they might improve the flavour, they would both prevent, in some degree, the jelly from forming, and make it more difficult to preserve after- wards. The digester may be allowed to remain by the kitchen fire all night, if a fire is kept up ; and at any rate the soup will require from ten to twelve hours very slow boiling. Strain the broth from the meat, which will be boiled to a glue. When the soup has stood to be perfectly cold, take off the fat carefully, and in pouring it out, hold back not merely the sedi- ment, but all that looks muddy. Pour it once more through a sieve, into a thick-bottomed cast-metal stew- pan, well tinned, or into a double-bottomed tin pan ; with a quarter-ounce of black peppercorns. Let the fire be clear and brisk, and let the soup boil quickly, which is necessary to drive off the watery particles. Ten minutes’ brisk boiling will do more in reducing this soup, or any jelly to be kept, to the proper con- sistence, than twenty of a slower ebullition. Take off any scum that rises, and when the soup begins to thicken and get gluey, and the quantity is much di- minished, it will be safe to pour it into a pan of much less diameter, for fear of burning. Put a little of it in the- bottom of a saucer, which may be floated in cold water, or set in a draught of air. If this sets into a strong jelly, it is enough ; if not, boil it briskly for

2

CHAP. V. — BROTHS, SOUPS, AND GRAVIES. 167

a few minutes, still trying if it is ready, by putting a little to cool.

This soup is preserved in various ways ; the best way, when for family consumption, is to put it into very shallow jelly-pots, to be covered up when cool. But it will be more conveniently kept on a voyage if poured out on a flat asset into tablets, which may be divided, when cold, with a paste-runner, and when thoroughly dried, packed for use, in bladder or lea- ther, and kept in a dry place. When the soup is to be used as such, to a pint of boiling water, to which parsley, or young onion, or any flavour that is re- lished, is given by previous boiling, add a little ground pepper and salt, and from an ounce to an ounce and a half of the portable soup. Boil for a few minutes, and serve with toasted bread. A drop or two of catsup will improve the flavour.

N. B. — An excellent portable- soup is made of neats’- feet alone. The bones must be broken, and the oil carefully removed. French cooks that study economy often use ox-heels in making stock for soup, jellies, both sweet and savoury, and also for sauces. Livers are also employed, and are sliced, fried, and stewed for stock to ox-tail or Mullagawtany soup.

SPRING FRUIT-SOUPS.

These are made of gourds, peeled rhubarb, &c. &c. They may either be made of cream, milk, or of good clear gravy; and seasoned to the taste of the eater.

Peel, clean, and blanch a bundle of sticks of rhubarb, cut them in three-inch lengths, and put them to a couple of quarts of good veal or beef gravy, with two or three onions, a few thin slices of bread, crust and crumb together, and salt and cayenne. Skim off all the fat and scum ; simmer till tender'; strain and serve on toasted sippets. This soup may also be made with a half-pound of butter kneaded in a little flour.

N. B. — For a variety of other fashionable soups, see French Cookery.

168

CHAPTER VI.

FISH.

“ Passion o’ me ! How I run on !

Here’s that, that should he thought upon ;

The business of the Kitchen’s great.

And it is fit that men should eat,

Nor was it e’er denied.” -

Sir John Suckling.

TO BOIL SALMON.*

There are many excellent ways of dressing this fa- vourite fish, but perhaps none equal to plain boiling when well performed. Scale and clean the fish with- out unnecessary washing or handling, and without cutting it too much open. Have a roomy and well- scoured fish-kettle, and if the salmon be large and

* This monarch of the British rivers is in season in some part of the three kingdoms for the whole year, so that, however the price may vary, the London market — the point which attracts all salmon speculators, — is seldom without a supply. The fishing of the river Ness, which the fish visit very early, is opened so soon as the month of December ; the Severn fishery even in November ; and from that time some fishery is opened every week, till in April the whole are in operation. The salmon of the Thames is that which is most es- teemed in London ; that of the Tay is the favourite with the inha- bitants of the northern metropolis, — probably in both cases, because the fish from those rivers are brought in greater perfection to the re- spective markets than those of the more distant rivers. We have ever remarked, that the salmon of a man’s native stream, or of the river of his native province, is to him the best flavoured. Among other marks of degenerate times, is the decrease of salmon in our rivers, and it is perhaps the only one that is undeniable. This fish at one time was so common an article of food, that stipulations were made by hired servants against having it above three times a week for their kitchen ; and the same conditions were observed in inden- turing apprentices in Newcastle, Perth, and many other towns. Since Mr Dempster’s discovery, and packing salmon in ice, there has been found no occasion for the enforcement of the clause against

9

CHAP. VI. FISH.

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thick, when you have placed it on the strainer and in the kettle, fill up and amply cover it with cold spring water, that it may heat gradually. Throw in a hand- ful of salt. If a jole or quarter is boiled, it may be put in with warm water. In both cases take off the scum carefully, and let the fish boil slowly, allowing twelve minutes to the pound ; but it is even more difficult to fix the time fish should boil than the length of time that meat requires. Experience, and those symptoms which the eye of a practised cook alone can discern, must fix the point, and nothing is more disgusting and unwholesome than underdone fish. The minute the boiling of any fish is complet- ed, the fish-strainer must be lifted and rested across the pan, to drain the fish.* * Throw a soft cloth or flannel in several folds over it. It would become soft

salmon-eating in apprentices’ indentures. The preservation of this source of wealth and luxury is still an object of legislative in- vestigation, and we doubt not that a subject coming home so im- mediately “ to men’s business and stomachs,” will meet with all the attention it merits. The destruction of the fry is the chief evil. We have known instances in which whole cart-loads of whitlings, or sal- mon-fry, have been used as manure. The poor of London, which draws into its enormous maw all the fish of the kingdoms, alone en- joy this luxury, though it must be confessed not in the best state. The introduction of steam-boats has had an influence on the supply in great towns. During the last seasons, a great deal was exported by the steam-boats from Ireland to Scotland and Liverpool, and in the present year the exportation is still greater. The salmon in its first year, as grilse , never brings above half the price of full-grown fish. These are seldom sent to London, though in Paris, where cookery if not more rich than in London, is thought more refined, the trout, from its superior delicacy, is more prized than the ripe salmon. We ought to inform our gourmet readers that a fish boiled in the pickling-kettle, where perhaps some dozens of cut fish are preparing for tne London market, is superbly done — meltingly rich, and of incomparable flavour. Such a thing is to be procured only at the fishing-stations, at which it is to be remarked, assizes and presbyteries are always held.

* If meat is ready before the company assemble, take up the dish as directed above in boiling fish, and it will be kept in good season. Have all the dish-covers warmed inside at all times, and the assets well heated. Put a hot cover over the meat, and some folds of flannel over that. If you have a Bain marie , which is a most useful article, or some substitute, you will be at no loss, though the above may tolerably well supply its place — sauces set on a hot table would soon lose both flavour and quality.

The Bain marie is a flat vessel containing boiling water ; you put all your stew-pans into the water, and keep that water always very hot,

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if permitted to soak in the hot water. Dish on a hot fish-plate, or use a napkin. Besides the essences to be used at discretion, which are now found on every sideboard of any pretensions, shrimp, ancho- vy, and lobster sauce, are served with salmon ; also plain melted butter ; and where the fish is got fresh, and served in what is esteemed by some the greatest perfection, — crisp, curdy, and creamy, — it is the prac- tice to send in a sauce-tureen of the plain liquor in which it was boiled. Fennel and butter are still heard of for salmon, but are nearly obsolete. Garnish with a fringe of curled parsley and slices of lemon. The carver must help a slice of the thick part with a smaller one of the thin, which is the fattest, and the best-liked by those in the secret. Dressed cucumber is often served with salmon, and indeed with all boiled fish.

TO BOIL SALMON CRIMP.

This makes a very handsome dish, and is the wTay in which salmon is usually dressed in the places near the fisheries, where the fish is obtained quick, and also at the most fashionable English tables. The fish must be cleaned and scaled without cutting up the breast. Cut off the head, with about two inches of the neck ; and the tail, with the same quantity of fish along with it. Cut as many circular fillets of the salmon as you wish for, (according to the size of the fish and the number of the company,) of about three or four inches thick ; — the opening of these slices whence the en-

but it must not boil. The effect of this bain marie is to keep every thing warm, without altering either the auantity or the quality, par- ticularly the quality. When I had the honour of serving a noble- man in this country, who kept a very extensive hunting establish- ment, and the hour of dinner was consequently uncertain, I was in the habit of using the bain marie as a certain means of preserving the flavour of all my dishes. If you keep your sauce, or broth, or soup, by the fire-side, the sou]) reduces and becomes too strong, and the sauce thickens as well as reduces.

It is necessary to observe, that this is the best manner of warming turtle-soup, as the thick part is always at the bottom of the stew- pan ; this method prevents it from burning, and keeps it always good. — Ude'e French Cookery.

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trails have been taken must be well cleaned from the blood, &c. Throw the whole into cold water made brackish with salt. Place the head and tail on the strainer, and put them in a fish-kettle of boiling water, with a little salt and vinegar; let them boil five minutes ; lift the strainer, and lay on the slices ; take off whatever scum arises, for it is very easy to injure the colour of fresh salmon. Boil from fifteen to twenty minutes. Place the head and tail on end, in the mid- dle of the fish-plate, and lay the circular slices neatly round them. Sauce and garnishing as in the last re- ceipt.

TO GRILL FRESH SALMON.

This mode of dressing, though unsuitable for a large dinner where salmon makes a principal dish, is the way in which the solitary gourmet best relishes this luxury. Split the salmon and take out the bone without mangling the fish. Cut fillets of from three to four inches in breadth. Dry them in the folds of a cloth, but do not beat or press them. Have a clear beef-steak fire, and a bright-barred gridiron, rubbed with a bit of mutton-suet to prevent the fish from stick- ing ; turn with steak-stongs ; the slices if not dry may be dusted w ith flour. This like all broils, must be served hot. The slices may be wrapped in the folds of a hot napkin. — Anchovy or Shrimp sauce.

Obs.‘ — French cooks first marinade, i. e. steep the slices in oil, seasonings and shred fine herbs; baste them while on the gridiron with the marinade-liquor; take off the skin before serving, and serve dressed cucum- ber or caper-sauce. This is good practice.

TO BAKE SALMON.

Place the fish in a deep pan, and stick plenty of bits of butter over it. Season it with allspice, mace, and salt, and rub a little of the seasonings on the inside. It must be basted occasionally with what collects in the baking-pan. If the fish is small, or a grilse, it may be skewered, with the tail turned round to the mouth. A baked salmon, if not too oily, makes a hand-

CHAP. VI. — FISH.

J72

some dish, and eats well cold. — Garnishing and sauce as for boiled salmon.

Obs. — Many persons think salmon not only lighter but of finer flavour cold than hot. It is, at any rate, too expensive and too good to be lost. Place what is left in a deep dish, with a close cover. To a quart of the liquor in which the fish was boiled put half an ounce of black pepper and allspice in grains, half a pint of the best vinegar, and a tea-spoonful of salt. Boil this with a bay-leaf or two, and a sprig of lemon- thyme. When cold pour it over the salmon, which must be kept covered. This pickle will keep the fish good for some days ; but if it be necessary to keep it longer, boil up the pickle afresh, adding more vinegar and spice, and when cold pour it again on the fish.*

TO KIPPER SALMON.

The fish must be cut up, cleaned, and scaled, but not washed, and have the bone taken neatly out. Rub with equal proportions of salt and Brazil, or fine raw sugar, with a little saltpetre. Let the fish lie for two days, pressing it with a board on which weights are placed ; then hang it up, or, what is much better, smoke it. Lest the folds gather mustiness and spoil, it is a good plan, when the fish is hung, to stretch it open with pieces of stick, that it may dry equally. Peppers in powder may be added to the salt. This forms a favourite addition to a Scotch breakfast, and nothing indeed can be more relishing than new kip- per, though it soon hardens, when the French mode of dressing grilled salmon may be used with great advantage. It is uniformly dressed by cutting it into slices and broiling. If long hung the slices may be soaked in water a quarter of an hour, which will sof- ten and improve the quality of the fish. If the fish

ป N. B. Very fresh salmon is in most places so expensive an

article of luxury, that rarity alone has given it a factitious value with many persons ; for the fish is in reality much more delicate and sapid when ripened for a day or even more. The same thing holds of turbot and cod, though they too are prized for that crimp harsh freshness, which is in truth no recommendation in the eating, and often a drain on the purse. — P. T.

CHAP. VI. FISH. 173

is very large and rich it may be rubbed with salt, and drained for a day before it get the final salting.

TO POT SALMON.

Split, scale, and clean, by wiping, for water must not touch it ; rub with salt, drain off the moisture, and season the salmon with pounded mace, cloves, and black and Jamaica pepper. Cut it into neat pieces ; lay them in a pan, and cover them with melt- ed butter. Bake it, drain from the fat, and put the pieces into potting-cans, which must be covered with clarified butter.

TO COLLAR SALMON.

Split, scale, and bone as much of the fish as will make a handsome collar of about six inches diameter. Season it highly with beaten mace, cloves, pepper, and salt, and having rolled it firmly up and bandaged it, bake it with vinegar and butter, or simmer in vi- negar and water. Serve with melted butter and an- chovy-sauce. The liquor in which the collar was boiled or baked may be boiled up with salt, vinegar, and a few bay-leaves, and put over the fish to preserve it. Salmon Cutlets. — French cooks dress slices of fresh salmon as cutlets en papillote, by seasoning with mixed spices, dipping in salad-oil, and broiling. Mus- tard is considered by knowing gourmands an improve- ment to salmon when more than ripe.

baked salmon-trout, a hatidsome Disk.

A trout of from two to four pounds will make this dish. Having cleaned and scaled it without cutting it much up, stuff with fish forcemeat, (see force- meats), and fix its tail in the mouth. Pour over it a marinade made thus : Boil in vinegar and a good piece of butter chopped carrots, onions, shalots, with peppercorns, a bunch of parsley, a sprig of thyme, a bay-leaf, basil, cloves, and allspice in grains. Baste with this frequently ; when done, drain off the liquor, and keep the fish hot while you boil it down ; moisten

174

CHAP. VI. FISH.

with a piece of butter rolled in flour, season with a little essence of anchovies, pepper, cayenne, and the squeeze of a lemon. Serve the trout with this sauce round it.

TO BOIL TURBOT.*

A fish of the middle size is the best. Choose the turbot thick in the belly, which should be of a cream- coloured white, and springy under the slightest pres- sure of the finger. Unless upon occasions of state, part of this large high-priced fish may be kept by sprink- ling a little salt over it, and hanging it in a cool dry place. When to be boiled soak the fish in salt and water, to draw olf the slime incidental to all flat fish. When thoroughly clean, score the skin of the back deeply to prevent the belly from cracking when the fish begins to swell in heating ; and this done, place it on the fish-strainer Avith the back undermost. The tur- bot-kettle must be roomy and nicely clean, as the colour of fish is even more easily injured than that of meat. It may be rubbed with lemon to Avhiten it.+ Cover it with cold Avater, into Avhich throAV a handful of salt, which will both improve the flavour of the fish and help to separate the slime and scum. Do not let the fish-kettle come too fast to boil ; skim very care- fully, and this done, draw aside the kettle, and alloAv it to simmer for from twenty-five to thirty minutes, Avith- out that violent degree of ebullition which Avould crack the skin and spoil the look of the fish. Some

ฎ This pontifical fish is found of excellent quality in many parts of the British seas, and also on the Irish coast ; but what are still esteemed the best are caught off the Dutch coast, and brought alive to London in well-boats. This fish is in season, like the haddock, from the time it has had a “ leap in the May flood” till Michaelmas. The hollibut, which often in Scotland usurps the name of turbot, is in reality a handsomer-lookingj fish, and excellent of its kind, but not equal in richness, and far interior in flavour to the genuine Dan- nock Fluke of Mr Jonathan Oldbuck. Miss Edgeworth re- lates an anecdote of a Bishop, and we doubt not that he came to be an Archbishop, who, descending to his kitchen to superintend the dressing of a turbot, and finding that his cook had stupidly cut away tire fins, set about sewing them on again with his own Episcopal fingers. This man knew the value of turbot.

• * French cooks sometimes boil turbot in milk and water.

CHAP. VI. FISH.

W

cooks, to have the colour fine, and to prevent the skin

[from cracking, wrap a cloth round it, which is fasten- ed under the strainer. For sauces, anchovy, lobster, shrimp-sauce, or any of the fish-sauces stirred into plain melted butter, may be served in one tureen, and melted butter in another ; but lobster-sauce is the fa- vourite sauce. Garnish with curled parsley, slices of lemon, or horseradish nicely scraped ; covering the cracks, if unfortunately there should be any, with the garnish and a little lobster-coral. These ornaments may be interspersed with fried sprats, or very small flounders fried. Small turbot makes a very delicate dish, cut in slices and fried, drained from the frying fat, and with- out breaking, simmered for five minutes in a sauce made of thin melted butter, a few pickled oysters chopped, or a boned anchovy, a tea-spoonful of wal- nut-pickle, and a dessert-spoonful of mushroom-catsup. Take up the fish with a slice, lay it neatly in the dish, and having skimmed, pour the sauce over it. A glass of claret or port-Avine is a great addition to this sauce. Garnish with slices of lemon.

Ohs. — Cold fish of any kind may be cut in neat pieces, and heated up in a Avhite sauce ; or soused, by placing it handsomely on the dish in slices, and pour- ing over it any of the flavoured vinegars you choose, or pepper and plain vinegar. If any lobster-sauce is left, it Avi. I be found most useful in dressing the left turbot afresh. The French make many entrees de des- serte of this fish by cutting it into fillets or dice, stew- ing it in a Avhite sauce, and serving in a vol-au-vent, or dish with an ornamented border made of fried bread cut into diamonds.

AN EXCELLENT WAY TO DRESS A SMALL DISH OF TURBOT.

When the fish is cleaned, take off the skin gently, (many like the skin,) and cut the fillets across with a sharp knife. Dip the fillets in beat eggs, then in crumbs, minced parsley, and more seasonings. Dip twice. Place the fillets in a deep dish stuck round with butter, and bake them in a moderate oven, bast- ing from time to time with butter. Have ready a

CHAP. VI. FISH.

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lobster-sauce made with strong veal-broth, with cay- enne and nutmeg and salt ; thicken with brown roux, letting the lobster meat stew in it first; dish the baked fillets in a hot dish, and pour the sauce over them. Garnish with slices of lemon and curled parsley.

Obs. — Where the party is not very large, this is a very excellent way of dressing this expensive fish. Fillets of the tail will make a good dish, and allow plenty of an ordinary-sized fish for boiling on another day. Many persons admire the above more than boiled turbot.

TO DRESS A cod’s HEAD AND SHOULDERS,* SCOTCH

FASHION.

This was a great affair in its day. It is still a formid- able, nay even a respectable-looking dish, with a kind of bulky magnificence which appears imposing at the head of a long board. Have a quart of good stock ready for the sauce, made of lean beef or veal, with onion, carrot, and turnip. Rub the fish with salt over night, taking off the scales, but do not wash it. When to be dressed wash it clean, then quickly dash boiling water over the upper side, and with a blunt knife take off the slime which w'ill ooze out, taking great care not to break the skin. Do the same to the other side of the fish ; then place it on the strainer, wipe it clean, and plunge it into a turbot-kettle of boiling water, with a handful of salt and a half-pint of vinegar. It must be entirely covered, and will take from thirty to forty minutes slow boiling. Set it to drain, slide it carefully on a deep dish, and glaze with yolks of eggs, over which strew fine bread-crumbs,

* Cod is in high perfection about Christmas. It comes into sea- son about Michaelmas, when the other large fish are going out. The Dogger-Bank cod are the most esteemed in the London market, but very excellent fish are now sent from Orkney, and many parts of our own coast. Cod of very good quality are salted in the Hebrides, and a little has been done in Ireland ; but the great continental supply of salted fish still comes from Newfoundland. The best cod are such as, with good size and shape, have yellow spots upon a very pure skin. Many persons prefer salt Ling to cod ; the Tusk is much superior to either of them, but is found in very small quantities.

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grated lemon-peel, pepper, and salt. Stick numerous bits of butter over the fish, and set it before a clear fire, strewing more crumbs, lemon-peel, and minced parsley over it, and basting with the butter. In the meanwhile thicken the stock with butter kneaded in flour, and strain it, adding to it half a hundred oysters nicely picked and bearded, and a glassful of their li- quor, two glasses of Madeira or sherry, the juice of a lemon, and the hard meat of a boiled lobster cut down, the soft part pounded. Boil this sauce for five mi- nutes, and skim it well ; wipe clean the edges of the dish in which the fish is crisping, and pour the half of the sauce around it, serving the rest in a tureen. Garnish with fried oysters, small fried flounders, and pickled samphire, or slices of lemon. Cod’s head is dressed with brown sauce, by browning the stock with butter nicely browned, and adding a little mushroom- catsup. This sauce is generally made more 'piquant than the white, by the addition of a few boned ancho- vies.

Obs, — This Scotch mode of dressing cod is neai’ly the same as the French Cabillaud a la Sabite Mene- hoult ; only the cod is then stuffed with either a meat or fish forcemeat. It may be parboiled and finished in the oven with the above sauce.

TO BOIL COD.

Cut off the tail, which would be useless before the other part is enough done. Rub well with salt inside, without washing ; let it lie from one to two days, and wash and boil slowly in plenty of water, with a hand- ful of salt. Drain the fish, serve it on a napkin, and garnish with the boiled roe and liver, or small floun- ders or whitings nicely fried, or parsley. The tail cut may lie in salt for a few days, and be boiled and served with egg-sauce, or parsnips mashed with butter and cream ; or it may be broiled fresh, or fried in fillets or slices, and served with oyster or shrimp sauce; or a sauce made of half a pint of veal-gravy, a glass of red wine, a boned anchovy chopped, white pepper and salt, and a few pickled oysters, and thickened with a little flour kneaded in butter. Boil up and skim

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the sauce ; place the slices neatly on the dish, and pour it around them.

Obs. — Cod when well boiled should be very white. The French make entrees de desserte of cold cod as of turbot, and serve them in the same manner.

TO BROIL COD-SOUNDS.

Clean and scald them with very hot water, and rub them with salt. Take off the sloughy coat, parboil them, then flour and broil till enough done. Dish them, and pour a sauce made of browned gravy, pep- per, cayenne, salt, a little butter kneaded in browned flour, a tea-spoonful of made mustard, and one of soy. Cod-sounds are dressed as ragout, by boiling as above, and stewing in clear gravy, adding a little cream and butter kneaded in flour, with a seasoning of lemon-peel, nutmeg, and mace.

BOILED COD CURRIED.

A large fish that domes in fine flakes is best. Fry the pieces in butter, with plenty of sliced onions, of a fine brown, and stew them in a little white gravy, thickened with butter rolled in flour, about a glass- ful of rich cream, and large dessert-spoonful of curry-

Cream for curries is, wre think, the better of being a little turned , that is, thick and sourish, but not clotted. Good butter-milk makes an excellent substitute for cream in this and all common made- dishes.

powder

Obs.-

CABEACHED cod.

Cut the tail part of the fish into slices, and upon them put some white pepper and salt. 1 hen fry in sweet oil. Take the slices from the pan, and lay them on a plate to cool. When cold, put them into a pickle made of good vinegar, in which some white peppei- corns, a few jj^)ves, a little mace, and some salt had been boiled. When cold, mix with the pickle a tea- cupful of oil. Put the fish into a pot, and between

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every piece put a few slices of onion, and keep the whole well covered with the pickle. In the same manner salmon may be cabeached ; but if taken fresh out of the water, it is liable to break, which it will not do after being kept a few days.

Obs. — Escabeche, in Spanish, signifies * Fish-Pic- kle/ In the seaports of Spain, they escabeche their fish, which they send inland as presents to their friends. The preparation is similar to the dish here mentioned, with the addition of a large portion of garlic and bay- leaves. The Spaniards eat it with ginger and salad, and sometimes stew it lightly. — Dr Hunter.

TO DRESS SALT COD, LING, TUSK, &C.

The fish must be soaked for a length of time corre- sponding to its dryness and the hardness it has ac- quired. Soak it in cold water for a night ; that done, if still hard, beat it well with a paste-roller, or brush it with a hard brush, and soak it in lukewarm water. Let it come very slowly to boil. When it has sim- mered for an hour and a half by the side of the fire, take up the pieces ; clean off the tough filmy skin, and trim them neatly from bones, &c. Place them in the stew-pan, or on the strainer, and pour boiling water over them, which will both freshen and soften the fish. Never allow the fish to boil till it is almost ready. Serve with egg-sauce, or parsnips mashed Avith plenty of butter. Mashed potatoes are also served with salt fish, and mustard must never be for- gotten. Garnish with hard-boiled eggs in circular slices, yolks and white.

Obs. — At sea, salt fish is dressed after a very pala- table, if not refined fashion, by pulling it, when boiled, into flakes, and beating it up with mashed potatoes and butter. In New England, where the management of dry cod is very well understood, it is alternately soaked and laid on a table till sufficient- ly softened, which is thought a better method than continual soaking.

180

CHAP. VI.' — FISII.

TO DRESS STURGEON.

This fish does not eat well boiled. It may be roasted, or baked, basting with plenty of butter, and serving with a rich gravy relished with anchovy, wine, and juice of lemon ; or with any of the flavoured vinegars. Slices of sturgeon are egged, dipped in bread-crumbs, seasonings, and chopped parsley, and broiled en pa- pillole. Sauce, — oyster or lobster sauce, or melted butter, with a little soy and essence of anchovy. A nonsensical imitation of pickled sturgeon is made of a large turkey, boned and stewed in a rich pickle made of a quart of port wine vinegar, a pint of Rhenish wine, salt and spices.

TEASED SKATE.

From Dr Hunter s Culina.

Take the dried wing of a skate, and after stripping off the skin, cut it into lengths of about one inch in breadth. Put the fish, so prepared, into water, and boil for the space of twenty minutes ; after which let it be put into the oven, where it should remain a quar- ter of an hour, during which time it will become so tender as to permit, the bones to be drawn out. The flesh being now detached from the bones, it should be put into a cloth, and well rubbed with the hands till it puts on a woolly appearance, which it will soon do. Take a saucepan, and in it reduce about half a pound of butter into oil, when the teased fish should be put into it, and kept stirring for the space of fifteen minutes. When sufficiently heated, serve up.

Ohs. — Skate, so prepared, may be eaten as salt fish, with egg-sauce, mashed potatoes, or parsnips. The whole wing of a skate will require half a pound of butter when put into the saucepan. It is a good- looking dish, and prepared at a small expense, the whole wing not exceeding five-pence in value. [^It im- proves this dish to stir potato-pudding in it, or to serve it in a dish with an edging, or casserole of mashed potatoes.]]

CHAP. VI. FISH.

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TO BOIL SKATE.*

If to be crimp, boil it quite fresh ; — if liked tender and sapid, it may hang from one to three days in cool weather. Sauce, — melted butter, or lobster or ca- per-sauce. Skate fries very well when cut in thin slices, and dipped in egg and bread-crumbs ; and eats well cold, with mustard, pepper, and vinegar. It is also very good parboiled, and then grilled in slices.

ANOTHER WAY.

Make a braise of the trimmings of the skate, parsley, onions, a clove of garlic, a sprig of basil, and a half- pint of vinegar. When this is cooked put in the skate, let it just boil, and leave it twelve minutes covered with a cloth and the lid ; put also in the liver. Dish on a napkin. Make a sauce with the brown meat nicely minced, and some of the braise-liquor. Garnish with the liver — Caper-Sauce. Skate is also served with onion-sauce.

TO CRIMP SKATE.

Clean, skin, and cut the fish into fillets, which must be tied with tape to keep them round. Boil these quickly in water made brackish with salt, — drain the slices, — loose the tapes, — and serve with caper-sauce, or parsley and butter.

• Skate differs more in quality than pcffiaps any other fish. It should be broad and thick, and of a creamy whiteness. We have, however, seen a small kind of skate which is caught along the north- east coast of Scotland, of a leaden-blue colour, called by fishermen the dun skate, which is more delicate than any other kind we have met with. In places where this fish is a great part of the food of the common people, it is best relished when it is hung till dry, by which time it has acquired so strong a smell of ammonia as to be intoler- able to the uninitiated. Tins fish, in those primitive days when as yet mock-turtle was not, wont to be esteemea, when eaten cold with mustard and vinegar, a grand regale by those sober citizens of Edin- burgh, who repaired on nolidays to the fishing-hamlets around the city. It is thought to eat like lobster, — by persons of lively imagi- nation. Skate is said, when out of season, to produce cholera and other violent diseases. The same thing is alleged of salmon in the state of foul or “ black fish and there is no question but that fish undergoes some change at particular seasons, which renders it for the time exceedingly improper for food. There are many instances of seamen dying in consequence of eating dolphin. It is said that ac- cidents of this nature may be avoided by the simple test of putting a piece of silver into the fish-kettle. If it blacken, the fish should be considered dangerous, if not absolutely poisonous. — P. S. T.

II

182

CHAP. VI. — FISH.

Obs. — The French stew this fish in a marinade of vinegar, salt, pepper, onions, bay-leaves, & c. ; and after skinning, serve it with caper-sauce, or cucum- bers.

HADDOCKS IN BROWN SAUCE,

An excellent Scotch Dish.

Clean, cut off the heads, tails and fins, and skin from six to eight well-sized haddocks. Take the heads, tails, and trimmings, with two or three fish cut down, and boil them in a quart of water or broth, with a couple of onions, some sweet herbs, and a piece of lemon-peel; thicken with plenty of browned butter and flour, and season highly with mixed spices and mushroom-catsup; strain the sauce, and when it boils and is skimmed put in the fish cut into neat pieces, and, if you choose, previously browned in the frying- pan. If there be too little sauce, add some good beef- gravy ; put in a quarter-hundred of oysters and a glass of their liquor, or some muscles, and a little wine. Take out the fish, when ready, with a slice, and pour the sauce, which should be brown, smooth, and thick, around them.

Obs. — Haddocks may be stuffed with a fish-force- meat, and boiled in a sauce, as directed above. Some of the forcemeat may be made into balls for garnish- ing. Haddocks may also be stuffed, egged, and strew- ed with fine bread-crumbs, minced parsley, &c., and baked, basting them well with butter. Serve in a white sauce made of a pound or more of good veal, onions, and parsley, and thickened with plenty of butter kneaded in flour. Strain, and add a glass of white wine, the juice of a lerqon, white pepper in fine powder, a quarter-hundred of pickled oysters, and a spoonful of the liquor. Pour the skimmed sauce over the fire. Garnish with sliced lemon and pickled samphire. This makes a very handsome Scotch dish. Whitings are dressed as above, with a white sauce, and codlings with a brown sauce. For Crappit Heads see National Dishes. Had- docks and codlings may also be dressed in a sauce made of two bottles of clear small beer poured over a

CHAP. VI. — FISH.

183

half-pound of butter, nicely browned and dredged with flour, oysters, and a little of their liquor, mush- room-catsup, spices, and vinegar. Boil the fish in this strained sauce, and serve in a soup-dish.

HADDOCKS BAKED,

A good Family Dish.

Clean and season three or four rather large haddocks, place them neatly on a flat dish, with a border of mashed potatoes neatly marked. Glaze with an egg, and place bits of butter here and there over the fish, and a piece inside of each. Garnish ^yith potato- balls, and bake for a half-hour. Pour a little melted butter and catsup over the dish.

TO FRY HADDOCKS, SOLES, TROUT, PERCH, TENCH, WHITINGS, FLOUNDERS, &C.*

Clean and skin the haddocks. [[Whitings and flounders are not skinned by French or Scotch cooks.] If the haddocks are too large, cut them in two or three pieces, — or split them. When the fish are dried, either rub them with flour, or, if to be higher dressed, rub off the flour, and with a paste-brush wash them over with beat egg; strew finely-grated bread over them, and fry in a deep pan in plenty of clarified dripping or lard, heated to such a degree that it may neither scorch the fish nor yet stew them. Turn and lift them carefully, and keep them hot by the fire, on paper, to absorb the fat, till the whole are finished. Garnish with fried oysters, or a few sprigs of curled parsley and sliced lemon, and serve very hot, with shrimp- sauce, if any is used. If the fish are not cut down

1

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i

• It is not easy to know the delicate whiting at times from the coarse codling : — the codling has a heard — the whiting is smooth, flounders differ much in quality ; — there is a coarse kind of floun- der, with bright scarlet star-like snots, which in reality looks better than the sober-coated grey-back , though it is of a very inferior qua- lity. This is a surer test than the thickness or firmness of the fish. Haddocks are in season from Whitsuntide to CJiristmas, and floun- ders about the same time. Herrings are never long out of season, though the quality falls off at times.

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CHAP. VI. — FISH.

they may be slit in the back, or lightly scored ; — the same fat will do more than once, if strained. Whit- ings and small haddocks may have the tail skewered in the mouth. French cooks, and some English ones serve fried fish on a napkin. In Scotland, herrings are often dipped in oatmeal, and fried in plenty of dripping, with sliced onions. In France mustard is served with fresh herrings, and the practice is com- mendable. All these fish are occasionally broiled either split ( Scottice speldered) or whole. Wipe them very dry, dust them with flour, and broil over a clear moderate fire. Haddocks salted and hung for a day, or split and boned, are very good when broiled. Skin them, dust them with flour, lay them on the gridiron, and, if not split, put the opened part downmost. Turn them a few minutes on both sides, and they are done. Serve with cold fresh butter. Finnans, and Findhorn haddocks, are skinned and dressed as above. They may be taken from the gridiron when just done, dipped in hot water if dry or hard, and wrapped in a cloth to moisten. Serve wrapped up in a napkin.

Obs. — An imitation of the Finnan haddock is now made by salting for a few hours, splitting, and wet- ting the fish with pyroligneous acid, and hanging them to dry. Broiled haddocks, whether fresh or reisted, or as Finnans, are held in great esteem by those who relish a good breakfast. The latter com- modity is now regularly forwarded from Aberdeen to Edinburgh and London by the mail-coach. They may be very well dressed on a heater before the fire, or in a Dutch oven, and are equally fit for breakfast or sup- per.

TO DRESS SLICES OF HOLIBUT, LING, OR TUSK,

For a Maigre Dish.

Fry the slices in butter, and stew them in a little fish-stock seasoned with parsley and celery. Add a piece of butter rolled in flour, white pepper, mace, a little lemon-peel, and a squeeze of lemon-juice.

CHAP. VI. — FISH.

185

HERRINGS AND MACKEREL.

When boiled, serve them with butter and mustard. They may be broiled either split or whole, sprinkled with herbs, chopped crumbs, and seasoned with pep- per and salt ; or collared, by splitting them, taking out the bones, seasoning with mixed spices, rolling up and baking them in a slow oven. Herrings are very good potted, and will keep a week without any expense of butter. Clean, and season them highly with salt and mixed spices. Pack them neatly, heads atid thraws, in a deep dish filled up with vinegar, and a little butter stuck over them. Tie them closely up with several folds of paper, and bake them. They eat very well cold, or will warm up in the liquor. For pickling highly, bay-leaves, more vinegar and spices may be employed, and the fish may be either baked or boiled ; — boil up the pickle, and when cold pour it over them.

TO STEW TROUT, CARP, OR PERCH.

Clean the fish very well ; if large, they may be divid- ed, or split. Rub them inside with salt and mixed spices. Lay them in the stew-pan, and put in nearly as much good gravy as will cover them, with a cou- ple of onions and a few cloves stuck in them, some Jamaica and black peppercorns, and a bit of mace; and when the fish have stewed a few minutes, a couple of glasses of claret or Rhenish, a boned anchovy, the juice of a lemon, and a little cayenne. Take up the fish carefully when ready, and keep them hot. Thicken the sauce with butter kneaded in browned flour ; add a little mushroom-catsup and a few pickled oysters, if approved, — the sauce, though less piquant, is more delicate without catsup. Having skimmed and strained, pour it over the fish.

Ohs. — In the French kitchen fish is sometimes stewed with wine, spiceries, and butter, and no meat- gravy is used. The dry austere wines are the best adapted for this purpose. The sauce is thickened with bread boiled in it. These fish may all be boiled plain, and served with finely-minced parsley and butter, or

186

CHAP. VI. — FISH.

fennel, or chervil and butter, or equal parts of each. — See Sauces. The fish may be browned previously ; but we conceive the flavour better when they are at once put to stew in the sauce. In England fish is sometimes stewed in cider instead of wine, seasoning with cayenne, shalot, or onion.

TO STEW SOLES, EELS, LAMPREYS, AND FILLETS OF TURBOT, HOLIBUT, WHITINGS, COD, &C.

Clean and trim the fish. Eels must be cut in from three to four inch lengths, and rubbed with salt be- fore skinning, to draw out the slime. Wash them very well. The other kinds of fish must be cut into larger pieces ; the pieces may be dipped in egg, rolled in grated crumbs, and browned before they are put into the stew-pan. Ilave a pint and a half of good clear beef-gravy, in which two onions, a carrot, and a few pot herbs have been boiled. Stew the fish in this gravy very gently, giving a quarter of an hour to the harder sorts, and about ten minutes to whitings or eels. Lift out the pieces, and keep them hot. Skim the sauce, and thicken it with browned flour, or rice- flour ; add a small glass of red wine, and a large spoonful of mushroom-catsup; give it a minute’s boil- ing, and strain it over the stewed fish. Stewed fish may be dressed for maigre days in the French manner, making the stock strong, either with fish or butter, or part of both, and using more herbs or seasonings. Lampreys and codlings are the better of having an an- chovy and some made mustard added to the above sauce. Serve with scraped horseradish, sippets of bread, or fried parsley.

TO FRY EELS.*

Skin and clean them, rub them with salt, and wash them in several waters. Cut them in four-inch lengths.

* The freshness of an eel is known by its vivacity of motion ; and its quality by the colour of the skin. The best kind— the silver eel, — is that found in the clearest waters. The dingy yellow, and the deep sallow-green, are very inferior to the coppery brown-backed

CHAP. VI. FISH.

187

and, having rubbed them with salt and mixed spices, dip them in beat egg, and roll in crumbs. Fry in plenty of boiling lard, drain from the fat on a sieve before the fire, and serve with chervil, or parsley and butter, or melted butter, or melted butter sharpened with vinegar or lemon-juice.

N. B. — The fat in which eels are fried does not an- swer well for frying other fish.

TO COLLAR EELS.

Bone without flaying a large eel. Season it highly, by rubbing with mixed spices finely pounded, chop- ped parsley, sage, and a sprig of lemon-thyme. Roll up and bind the collar with tape, and boil it in salt and water till tender. It may be served whole with a sharp sauce, or cut in slices. It will keep in a pickle of the liquor it was boiled in, adding salt and vinegar. Eels may be stewed as carp, but are rather a luscious dish.

TO SPITCHCOCK EELS.

Clean them well, and rub with salt and skin them. Slit open the belly and take out the bone. Wash and dry them, cut in pieces about four inches long, dredge with flour, which wipe off, that they may be quite dry. Dip them in a thick batter made of melted but- ter, yolk of eggs, with a little minced parsley, sage, and a very little shalot, pepper, and salt. Roll the pieces in fine grated bread-crumbs, or biscuit pound- ed. Dip them and roll them again, and broil on a

eel, and even to the bronze-coloured. Fresh-water fish of all kinds are best when found in clear streams. The natives of turbid slug- gish streams are even considered more difficult of digestion. This is said to be peculiarly the case with salmon.

The cruelty inflicted on eels is proverbial. Instead of skinning and cutting alive, a humane method of putting them to death is recommended by Dr Kitchener, which deserves to be generally known. With a sharp-nointed skewer pierce the spinal marrow through the back part or the skull, when life will instantly cease. A modem French cook gives the following receipt : — “ Take live eels, throw them into the fire, and as they are twisting about on all sides, lay hold of them with a towel in your hand and skin them !”

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CHAP. VI. — PISH.

clear fire of a fine light-brown. The eels may be dip4 ped and broiled whole if they are not too large, or roasted in a Dutch oven. Serve either anchovy-sauce or melted butter with any of the flavoured vinegars. Garnish with crisped parsley. Eels are by many gourmands preferred when boiled plain, strewing dried parsley and sage pulverized over them, and serving with them plain melted butter sharpened with lemon- juice. See also Remoulade Sauce.

TO FRY SPRATS, SMELTS, AND OTHER SMALL FISH.

Clean them well, and when wiped dry, rub them with flour to absorb any moisture that remains. Dip them in beat egg, and then in bread-crumbs rubbed through a colander. Fry them in plenty of oil, lard, or clarified dripping, making it quite hot. Take care in turning not to break them. If wanted very nice they may be twice dipt in egg and crumbs, or in biscuit-powder. Lay them on a sieve reversed, to drain the fat from them. These delicate fish may also be stewed in wine, with a little vinegar and plenty of spice, or in cider. Garnish with fried parsley and lemon sliced.

to broil sprats, smelts, &c.

Run a long bird-skewer or a common knitting-needle through the eyes. Dust them with flour, and have a hot gridiron rubbed with mutton-suet or chalk, and a clear fire. Serve them hot. The fish will pickle, or bake, and eat cold very well. Bake them with but- ter, a high seasoning of mixed spices and vinegar. They will keep for a week.

Ohs. — Imitation- Anchovies may be made with sprats cured in a strong pickle of bay and common salt, and sal prunella, sugar, pounded pepper, with a little co- chineal to colour them. In Scotland, sprats, gar- vock3, &c. and herrings, are roasted on the girdle which toasts the family bread, and this plan answers very well in cottage economy.

CHAP. VI.— FISH.

189

TO DRESS RED HERRINGS AND BUFFED PICKLED HER- RINGS.

Skin, open, and trim red herrings. If old and hard, pour some hot small beer over them, and let them steep a half-hour. Broil them over a clear fire at a considerable distance, or before the fire; rub them with good oil or fresh butter while broiling, and rub on a little more when they are served. Serve them very hot with cold butter, or melted butter and mus- tard, and mashed potatoes or parsnips. Steep pickled herrings from one to two days and nights, changing the water if they be very salt. Hang them up on a stick pushed through the eyes, and broil them when wanted. These are called buffed herrings in Scotland, and are used at breakfast or supper.

PICKLED HERRINGS A FRENCH WAY.

Wash the herrings ; cut off the heads and tips of the tails ; skin them ; steep them in lukewarm milk and water, and dry and broil them ; dish with slices of raw onions and rennets, and serve with oil.

TO STUFF AND BAKE CARP, PIKE,* AND HADDOCKS.

Having scaled and cleaned the fish without cutting open much of the breast, stuff them with a maigre

• Receipt for Dressing a Pike by Isaac Walton “ Firstopen

your pike at the gills, and, if need be, cut also a little slit towards the belly. Out of these take his guts, and keep his liver, which you are to shred very small, with thyme, sweet marjoram, and a little winter-savory ; to these put some pickled oysters, and some ancho- vies, two or three, both these last whole, for the anchovies will melt, and the oysters should not ; to these you must add also a pound of sweet butter, which you are to mix with the herbs that are shred, and let them all be well salted. If the pike be more than a yard long, then you may put into these herbs more than a pound, or if he be less, then less butter will suffice : these, being thus mixed, with a blade or two of mace, must be put into the pike’s belly ; and then his belly so sewed up as to keep all the butter in his belly if it be possible ; if not, then as much as you possibly can. But take not off the scales. Then you are to thrust the spit through his mouth, out at his tail. And then take four or five or six split sticks, or

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CHAP. VI. — FISH.

foi*cemeat made thus : Beat yolks of egg s, a few oys- ters bearded and chopped, and two boned anchovies, pounded biscuit, or bread grated, minced parsley, and a bit of shalot or an onion, mace pounded, black pep- per, allspice, and salt. Mix these in the proper pro- portions, and having beat a good piece of butter in a stew-pan, stir them over the fire till of the consistence of a good thick batter, adding more biscuit-powder or flour if necessary. Fill the fish and sew up the slit. Bake them in a moderate oven, basting with plenty of butter, and sticking butter all over them. Serve pike with anchovy-sauce, and carp with the following sauce : — Take up the fish on a hot plate ; thicken the liquor in which it was baked with butter rolled in flour, boiling it for a few minutes with a faggot of parsley, a few leaves of basil, a sprig of lemon-thyme, and a very little marjoram. Strain and add to the sauce a tea-spoonful of made mustard, and one of Chili vinegar, a glass of red wine, and a little soy, with mace, pepper, and salt to taste. Pour a little of this over the carp, and serve the rest in a tureen. Garnish with curled parsley and slices of lemon, or parsley and scraped horseradish.

Obs. — A highly-relishing forcemeat for the above may be made of scraped ham or tongue, or bacon fried

very Ain laths, and a convenient quantity of tape or filleting ; these laths are to be tied round about the pike’s body from his head to his tail, and the tape tied somewhat thick, to prevent his breaking or falling off from the spit. Let him be roasted very lei- surely, and often basted with claret wine and anchovies and butter mixed together and also with what moisture falls from him into the pan. When you have roasted him sufficiently, you are to hold un- der him, when you unwind or cut the tape that ties him, such a dish as you purpose to eat him out of, and let him fall into it with the sauce that is roasted in his belly, and by this means the pike will be kept unbroken and complete. Then, to the sauce which was within, and also that sauce in the pan, you are to add a fit quantity of the best butter, and to squeeze the juice of three or four oranges. Lastly, you may either put it into the pike, with the oysters, two cloves of garlick, and take it whole out when the pike is cut off the spit ; or, to give the sauce ahogoo (hautaout), let the dish into which you let the pike fall be rubbed with it ; the using or not using of this garlick is left to your discretion.

“ This dish of meat is too good for any but anglers or very honest men ; and I trust you will prove both, and therefore 1 have trusted you with this secret.”

CHAP. VI. FISH.

191

and cut in little bits, with suet or marrow, shalot, cayenne, salt, a chopped anchovy, bread-crumbs, a little walnut or oyster-liquor, with egg to bind the composition. The meat of a lobster may be substi- tuted for the ham or fried bacon.

TO DRESS PLAICE.

Clean, and without washing wipe the fish, and rub it with salt. When it has lain from six hours to a day wash it, wipe it very dry, and rub with flour to absorb all the remaining damp. When the flour is rubbed off, brush it over with beat eggs, and dip it in bread- crumbs, with a little finely-minced parsley. Fry it in plenty of lard or good dripping, and when drained from the fat, serve with fried parsley and anchovy- sauce, or melted butter sharpened with the juice of a lemon or Seville orange.

TO DRESS PIPERS.

Clean a very fresh fish without cutting it open too much. Stuff it with a forcemeat of four ounces of shred suet, and a large breakfast-cupful of bread- crumbs, mixed with two eggs, chopped parsley, pep- per, salt, and a little cayenne. Sew in this stuffing, skewer the tail into the mouth ; flour, egg, and crumb the fish ; bake it in a hot oven ; drain it and serve with Dutch sauce.

TO DRESS RED MULLET.

Clean and bake or boil the fish. Serve it with lob- ster-sauce.

Obs. — French cooks do not gut this fish. It is mere- ly washed, wrapped in buttered paper, and baked to preserve the delicacy of its native flavour.

FISH-TURTLE, A FAVOURITE DISH.

Fry slices of fresh codling or large haddock, and drain them. Parboil, skin, and cut into squares a piece of good skate. Have ready some cow-heel, beef

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CHAP. VI. — FISH.

or veal gravy broth highly seasoned with pepper, cay- enne, and catsup, and thickened with butter rolled in flour. Stew the fish in this with the meat of a lob- ster, and a few oysters in their juice. Season with es- sence of anchovy, and a little wine if you like.

TO CURRIE HADDOCKS, CODLINGS, OR WHITINGS.

Have a quart of good beef or veal stock, in which a carrot or turnip and two onions have been boiled. Thicken it with butter kneaded in lightly-browned flour. Having cleaned, skinned, and boned the fish, cut them in neat bits of about three inches in length. Rub them with flour, and fry them of a fine golden- brown in good butter. Drain them, and mix very smoothly with a little of the stock from a dessert- spoonful to a table-spoonful of currie-powder, two onions beaten in a mortar, and a large quarter-pint of good thick cream, if a little sour so much the better. Stew the fish very slowly in the stock till they are tender, which will not take long. Place the pieces neatly in the dish, the largest in the centre, and hav- ing skimmed the currie-sauce, pour it over them.

Obs. — This has become a favourite way of dressing fish, though it finds no place in any book of cookery. It is cheap, convenient, and even elegant. Instead, however, of using currie-powder as obtained in shops, we would advise every cook to keep the several ingre- dients, each good of its kind, in well-stopped vials, and to mix them when they are wanted, suiting the quantities of the various ingredients to the nature of the dish. Fish, for example, requires more acid than fowl. Some people like a great deal of cayenne, others detest the taste and smell of turmeric, and some are all for ginger. To use currie-powder mixed in the same proportions for every sort of viand and of taste may do very well for those who entertain a mysterious ve- neration for the oriental characters inscribed on the packages, but will not suit a gourmand of any know- ledge or experience. Prawns, oysters, or muscles, may be added to the currie.

CHAP. VI. — FISH.

193

WATER SOUCHY.

Eels, gudgeons, whitings, flounders, &c. are all em- ployed for this dish. Whichever sort of fish you use, clean them well, taking out the gills, eyes, &c. Cut them in neat small pieces. Have a little good fish- stock made of the heads and fins, and seasoned with onion, parsley, a bit of lemon-peel, pepper, and salt. Strain and skim it, and stew the cut fish in it for eight or ten minutes. Put in a little catsup, skim, and serve it in a soup-dish. A bay-leaf may be boiled in the stock, and the souchy may be flavoured with essence of anchovy, shalot, or any flavouring ingredient that is approved.

Obs. — This is esteemed a very wholesome prepa- ration. It ought to have no butter.

RICH FISH-PIE, — A MAIGRE DISH.

Clean and nicely trim either soles, trout, salmon, tur- bot, whichever is intended for the pie, and cut them into handsome fillets. Season the fillets inside with pepper, cayenne, mace, and salt. They may either be turned round or laid flat in the pie-dish, packing them neatly. If to be made very rich, the dish may be lined with fish-forcemeat. Put bits of butter be- low and above the fish, and strew in, if to be very rich, chopped shrimps or prawns, or the soft part of oysters, or lobster-meat. Make and season nearly a pint of stock of the heads and trimmings ; thicken and strain it over the fish, and cover the dish with a good puff-paste. It will require less cooking than a meat-pie of the same size.

LOBSTER-PIE, — A MAIGRE DISH.

Parboil two good lobsters ; take out all that is good of the meat, and cut it in bits, and place it in a small pie-dish. Beat the spawn and shells, and stew them in water, with a blade or two of mace, and a little good vinegar. Strain this over the lobster-meat, and

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CHAP. VI. — FISH.

cover with a light paste. A little soy, wine, cayenne, and catsup will make this pie more relishing.

Obs. — Some knowing gourmands have those pies made of alternate layers of lobster and oyster-meat, and bread-crumbs, with balls of pounded oysters, and lobster-coral and essence of anchovies.

AN EEL, MACKEREL, OR HERRING PIE.

Skin and clean the fish, cut them in handsome pieces, and season highly with pepper, allspice, and salt ; stick bits of butter about the fish, and put a little vin- egar in the dish. Cover it with a common crust.

Obs. — The Club did not approve of this dish when covered with crust. It may have an edging.

A SAVOURY SHRIMP OR PRAWN PIE MAIGRE.

Have as many well-cleaned shrimps or prawns as will nearly fill the pie-dish. Season with pounded mace, cloves, a little cayenne and Chili vinegar. Put some butter in the dish, and cover with a light puff-paste. Less than three quarters of an hour will bake them.

AN EXCELLENT SALT-FISH PIE MAIGRE.

This may be made of either cod or haddocks salted, but not too dry. Steep and boil the fish. Trim away all skins, bones, and fins, and cut them into thin handsome pieces. Boil hard, and peel half a dozen eggs, and slice them thin ; do the same with as many well-sized onions. Have plenty of parboiled potatoes sliced. Place some bits of butter and a layer of potatoes in the bottom of a large pie- dish, then fish, then egg s, then 'onions, and again but- ter, thus filling up the dish, shaking pepper over every separate layer, and putting butter over each. Make a sauce of chopped hard-boiled yolks of eggs, melted butter, a little made mustard, and essence of anchovy, or soy, and pour it over the pie. Cover it with a puff- paste, or mashed potatoes, scolloped round the edge, and glazed with eggs. This pie will not require much of the oven.

CHAP. VI. FISH. 195

Obs. — Pies may be made of perch, mackerel, her- rings, soles, flounders, haddocks, &c. The tough or oily fish must be previously skinned. Fish-pies may be baked open.

A RICH FISH-PIE.

Three middling-sized haddocks, mackerels, or soles, will make a pie. They may be stuffed, well -seasoned, and laid in an oval flat dish, with a puff-paste border, or an edging of mashed potatoes neatly marked. Stick plenty of butter over them, or glaze, and cover with bread-crumbs. Balls of fish-forcemeat, or yolks of hard-boiled eggs, may be employed, to enrich the dish, or for plain dinners, potato-balls. If wanted very high-dressed, the fish may be laid on forcemeat, and have a rich sauce poured hot over them when baked.

SAUCES FOR PIES OF FRESH FISH.

Take a quarter-pint of the best vinegar, the same quantity of white wine, a large spoonful of oyster-li- quor, and another of catsup, with two anchovies boned and chopped Boil this sauce for two minutes, and, skimming it, pour it through a funnel hot into the pie w’hen to be served. Another. — Take a half-pint of good thick cream, a dessert-spoonful of soy, two an- chovies boned and chopped, and a bit of butter rolled in browned flour. Boil it up in a small saucepan, and pour it hot into the pie.

TO BOIL LOBSTERS AND CRABS.

Choose lobsters and crabs by their weight and alert- ness, and fresh smell. The tail of the lobster, when fresh, will be stiff and springy ; and so will the claws of the crab.* Fill a large pot with water, and make

* Lobsters and crabs are in season from March till October ; so that they supply the place of oysters, which come in about the time lobsters go out of season. Lobsters are held in great esteem by gastro- logers for the firmness, purity, and flavour of their flesh. When they find refuge in the rocky fastnesses of the deep from the rapacity

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CHAP. VI. — PISH.

it brackish with salt, (on the coast sea- water is used ;) brush and put in the lobsters. Take off the scum, of which a great deal will be thrown up, and let them boil from thirty to fifty minutes, according to the size. If boiled too long the flesh will get thready and coarse ; if not long enough, the spawn will not have a fine colour. Wipe the lobsters with a damp cloth, then rub the shell with butter, and wipe it off again. Break off the great claws, and crack them at the joints without mangling. Split down the tail, and place them neatly on the dish, serving the following sauce : The hard yolks of two eggs pounded in a mortar with a little vinegar, and the soft spawn of the lobster. When beaten quite smooth, mix this with a large spoonful of salad-oil and a glassful of the best vine- gar, a tea-spoonful of made mustard, and a little cay- enne and salt. For crabs, the same sauce.

TO POT LOBSTERS AND CRABS FOR SANDWICHES, DEVILED BISCUIT, &C.

Parboil the fish ; crack the claws, &c. and pick out the meat. If for sandwiches, beat it in a mortar with pounded mace, white pepper, cayenne, nutmeg, and salt. If to keep for eating, or for a cold relish, mix the meat neatly cut in small bits, and the coral and

of sharks and fishermen, they sometimes attain an immense size, and have been found from eighteen inches to upwards of two feet, in length. Apicius, who ought to be the patron saint of epicures, made a voyage to the coast of Africa on hearing that lobsters of an unusuallylarge size were to be found there, and, after encountering much distress at sea, met with a disappointment. Very large lobsters are at present found on the coasts of Orkney. Some naturalists affirm (Oeaus Mag- nus and Gesner,) that in the Indian seas, and on the wild shores of Norway, lobsters have been found twelve feet in length, and six in breadth, which seize mariners in their terrible embrace, and, drag- ging them into their caverns, devour them. However this may be, the lobsters and crabs for being devoured are best when of the mid- dle size, and when found on reefs or very rocky shores. They are found on many parts of the British coasts, and during the summer months there is generally a plentiful supply in the London market. In places where crabs are good and plentiful, a very pretty supper- plate is made of a few pairs of the thumbs ; and an excellent sub- stitute for lobster-sauce is made of them, particularly of the small delicate species known by the provincial name of Cavies. The age of shell-fish may be known as that of a tree is by the bark, from tnc roughness and incrustations which gather upon the surface.

CHAP. VI. FISH.

197

the spawn in a regular manner in layers or alternate pieces, so that when sliced it may have that marbled appearance, that look of mosaic work which so much commends the taste of the cook. Press the layers into a potting-can, and bake with butter in a slow oven for about a half-hour. When cold, take off the butter, pack the meat in small potting-cans, and pour clari- fied butter over it.

Obs. — What is left of this butter will be very re- lishing for sauces. Potted lobster may be dressed as a fricassee in a Bechamel or cream sauce, or eaten cold. Lobsters for sauce when the fish are out of season, may be well preserved in this way.

LOBSTER HAUT GOUT. — H. JEKYLL, ESQ.

Pick the firm meat from a parboiled lobster or two, and take also the inside, if not thin and watery. Sea- son highly with white pepper, cayenne, pounded mace and cloves, nutmeg, and salt. Take a little well-flavoured gravy — for example the jelly of roast veal, a few tiny bits of butter, a spoonful of soy or walnut- cats up, or of any favourite-flavoured vinegar, and a spoonful of red wine. Stew the cut lobster in 1 this sauce for a few minutes.

Obs. — This is one of those delicate messes which the gourmet loves to cook for himself in a silver dish held over a spirit-lamp, or in a silver stew-pan ; the prepa- ration of the morsel being to him the better part of it.

TO ROAST A LOBSTER.

When parboiled, rub it with plenty of butter, and lay it in a Dutch oven or before the fire; baste it till it froth ; dredge lightly with flour, and baste again.

TO BUTTER LOBSTERS.

Warm the meat cut into nice bits, in a little good brown gravy. Season with spices, nutmeg, and salt, and thicken with butter kneaded in browned flour ; or dress them white in clear gravy and a little cream, seasoning with white pepper and salt. Prawns and

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CHAP. VI. PISH.

shrimps may be buttered in the same way, either in white or brown sauce, and served on toasted sippets.

FRICASSEED LOBSTER, AN ELEGANT DISH.

Dress the lobster the same as in the former receipt, but use more veal-gravy, a little cream, and the beat yolk of an egg. Dish the fricassee in the middle of a small dish, and place the claws and tail neatly round it; garnish with pickled beet-root and sliced pickled cucumber.

LOBSTER IN THE FRENCH MODE.

Cut the meat in small dice. Stew it in a little rich sauce for a few minutes, and serve it in the shell, which must be nicely cleaned. Strew it twice over with sifted crumbs, and brown with a salamander.

TO DRESS CRABS HOT AND COLD ; OR THE SCOTCH PARTON-PIE.

Pick the meat out of the claws and body ; clean the shell nicely, and return the meat into it, first season- ed with salt, white pepper, and nutmeg ; and with a few bits of fresh butter, and some bread-crumbs. A small glass of vinegar, beat and heated up with a little made mustard, may be added, and a small quantity of salad-oil substituted for the butter. Brown the meat when laid in the shell with a salamander. To Dress Crabs cold. — Pick out all the meat, and, mixing it well with a tea-spoonful of salad-oil, cayenne, white pep- per, and salt, serve it in the shell.

Obs. — The shell of one crab will contain the meat of two. The meat may be cut in fillets for variety, the small claws disposed neatly round the dish, and the contents of the body pounded, rubbed through a sieve, and stewed in a little gravy.

PRAWNS OR CRAY-FISH, — AN ORNAMENTAL DISH.

Make a savoury jelly of calf’s-feet or a cow-heel, a

CHAP. VI. FISH.

199

piece of skate, or trimmings of turbot, horseradish, lemon-peel, an onion, and a piece of lean bacon. When boiled to a jelly, strain it, and when cold take off the fat, keep back the sediment, and boil it up with a glass of white wine, the juice of a lemon, and the whisked whites of four eggs. Do not disturb it by stirring. When boiled, let it settle twenty mi- nutes, and run it through a jelly-bag. Pour some of the jelly into a deep dish; when it has firmed, put in the cray-fish with their backs downwards, fill up the dish with the jelly, and when cold, turn the whole out. This jelly may be poured over any sort of cold fish.

Obs. — A lobster in savoury jelly was one of the fantastic dishes of the old school of cookery. The process was very elaborate, and it seldom succeeded entirely ; either a horn was broken or awry, or a claw snapt, or a fracture of the tail took place, to the utter discomfiture of the cook and mortification of the hostess.

MOCK CAVIARE.

Bone a few anchovies and chop them, then pound them in a mortar with some dried parsley, a clove of garlic, a little cayenne, salt, lemon-juice, and a very little salad-oil. Serve on toasted bread or biscuit.

A SALMAGUNDI.

Wash and cut open at the breast two large Dutch or Lochfine pickled herrings; take themeat from the bones without breaking the skin, and keep on the head, tail, fins, &c. Mince the fish with the breast of a cold roast chicken skinned, a couple of hard-boiled yolks of eggs, an onion, a boned anchovy, and a little grated ham or tongue. Season with salad-oil, vinegar, cay- enne, and salt, and fill up the herring-skins so that they may look plump and well-shaped. Garnish with scraped horseradish, and serve mustard with the dish.

Obs. — An ornamental Salmagundi was another of the frippery dishes of former times. This edifice was raised on a china bowl reversed, and placed in the

200

CHAP. VI. — PISH.

middle of a dish, crowned with what, by the courte- sy of the kitchen, was called a pine apple made of fresh butter. Around were laid, stratum above stra- tum, chopped eggs, minced herring and veal, rasped meat, and minced parsley ; the whole surmounted by a triumphal arch of herring-bones, and adorned with a garnishing of barberries and samphire.

TO STEW OYSTERS.*

Plump juicy oysters alone will stew to advantage. When opened, pick them out, beard and wash them in their own liquor, and strain it repeatedly. Put it into a silver or block-tin saucepan with a bit of mace, and

• Oysters are conceitedly said to be in season in every month of the year that has an r in its name, beginning with September and ending with April ; but the season in many places extends from Au- gust to May. Every city has its favourite oyster-bank. In London the Colchester and Milton oysters are held in most esteem. Edin- burgh has her “ whiskered pandores,” and latterly Aberdour oys- ters ; and Dublin the Carlingford and “ Powldoodies of Burran.” For the convenience of obtaining a ready supply of oysters, they are often transported from their original beds, and laid down on other places of the coast ; but these exiles are seldom found in such perfec- tion as those which are called natives , that is, such as have never been rudely torn from their native homes, and sent on voyages of profit. Oysters, when just dredged, may be so packed in small bar- rels as to keep good for a week or ten days, and in this state they are sent to distant places. Oysters may be dropped out of the shell into a bottle, and kept in their juice for a little time by corking the bot- tle closely. They may also be preserved good for some time by feeding ; and custom, which brings gourmands to admire game most when in a state of putridity, has taught them to relish the flavour of stale oysters better than those recently taken from the beds. The fresher oysters are they are the better ; but when to be kept, lay them bottom downwards in a tub, or any vessel suited to the quantity to be preserved, and cover them with water in which a good deal of salt is dissolved. In this manner Apicius sent oysters to Tiberius when he was in Parthia. Change the water, every twelve hours. Most cooks direct that this delicate animal should be fed with oatmeal or flour sprinkled in the water ; and others, on the principle which leads a mother of the parish of St Giles to give her new-born dar- ling a drop of gin, are for feeding them with white wine and bread- crumbs ! It is said by those wno have the charge of fish-ponds, “ that fish will eat nothing but what comes out of the sea now, though we are not perfectly convinced of this fact, we can at least believe that salt-water gruel is not over well suited to the delicate sto- mach of an oyster. Those large fat oysters called Pandores, which are so much prized in Edinburgh, are said to owe their superior ex- cellence to the brackish contents of the pans of the adjacent salt-works of Prestonpans flowing out upon the beds, — a subject this worthy

CHAP. VI. — FISH.

201

lemon-peel, and a few white peppercorns, a little butter kneaded in flour, and a glass of sweet cream, or

the serious investigation of the oyster-amateur, who may here re- ceive some excellent hints for fattening and improving the quality of his favourite morsel. We have great doubts on this point.

Shell-fish, and the oyster above all, have long been esteemed high- ly restorative and easy of digestion ; they are therefore recommend- ed for the food of the delicate and declining, and of those whose di-

festive powers have been impaired by excess. When eaten for ealth, an oyster is best swallowed with its own liquor the moment the shell is opened ; or, if found too cold for the stomach, a sprink- ling of black pepper may be allowed. Vinegar counteracts the effect of eating oysters to enrich the blood or render it more balsamic, and ought therefore to be avoided by the declining. As there are no rea- sonable bounds to oyster-eating, it may be useful to notice here, that when too many of these or other shell-fish are swallowed, the un-

leasant feeling may be removed by drinking half a pint of hot milk.

ionsumptive persons are recommended to use hot milk after their oysters at all times.

“ Oysters,” says the learned author of Tabella Cibaria , “ were not common at Rome, and consequently fetched there a very high price; yet Macrobitjs assures us, that the Roman Pontiffs never failed to have them every day on their tables. From the fourth century to the reign of Louis XIV. they were nearly forgotten, but they soon came again into vogue, and from that time have kept up their repu- tation. Gastronomers, we know, can swallow from three to four do- zen before dinner, and then sit down and eat, and perhaps better than if they had abstained from them. They clear the stomach of acci- dental phlegm, increase the gastric juices, and by their natural cool- ness, condense the air which may be fixed in the organs of digestion. When good they are wholesome, but poisonous when bad.” “ The Athenians held oysters in great esteem,” says the same learned au- thority on the matters of the table ; and we may add, that in the mo- dern Athens they are held in equal regard.

The principal taverns of the Old City used to be called Oyster Ta- verns, in honour of this favourite viand ; and this name is still kept up by some modern places of genial resort. “ How many celebrated wits and bon vivants , now auite chop-fallen,” said W interblossom, “ have dived into the dark defiles of closes and wynds in pursuit of this delicacy, and of the wine, the wit, the song, that gave it zest. I have heard my learned and facetious friend, the late Provost Creech — for it was rather out of my day — say, that before public amuse- ments were much known in our Presbyterian capital, an oyster-p/ojr, which always included music and a little dance, was the delight of the young fashionables of both sexes.”

The municipal authorities were wont to pay considerable attention to “ the feast of shells,” both as regarded the supply and the price, — and for aught we know, they may do so still. At the commence- ment of the dredging season, a voyage was boldly undertaken to the oyster-beds in the frith of Forth by the public functionaries, with something of the solemnity of th Doge of Venice wedding his Adriatic bride. Even the plodding fishermen of our bleak coasts seem to catch inspiration from this delicate creature. Instead of the whisky-inspiration which supports them in dragging the herring-

202

CHAP. VI. — FISH.

of Champagne or Madeira, if for a high relish ; in which case a very little minced shalot or onion and cayenne may be added. Cover and simmer the oys- ters very gently for five minutes, lift them with a sil- ver spoon into a deep hot dish, with toasted sippets in it, and strain the sauce over them.

Obs. — A sort of deviled stew is made by adding more seasonings and grated Parmesan cheese. If it be true that all fish require silver knives and forks, this holds peculiarly of oysters. A genuine oyster-eater rejects all additions, — wine, shalot, &c., are alike obnoxious to his taste.

nets, or throwing the cod-lines, like the fishermen of Sicilian seas, they

“ Sing to charm the spirits of the deep ,”

as they troll the dredging-nets. There is indeed a poetical notion that the oyster, among his other gentle qualities, is inclined to min- strelsy—

“ The Herring loves the merry moonlight,

The Mackerel loves the wind,

But the Oyster loves the dredging-sang,

For he comes of gentle kind.”

The Nabob, emulous of the well-earned fame of Dr Kitcheneh, who has set the ancient duet between Bubble and Squeak, with pro- per accompaniments, wished to embellish this volume with the music of tire “ Dredging. Song,” and the shrilling recitative of the oyster- wives, — those Maids of Honour to the “ Empress of the North,” who, for miles off, are heard when September evenings begin to shor- ten— cuckoos of autumn — harbingers of winter — screaming around “ her mountain throne” — drowning the summer “ babble of green trees,” and bringing back the genial associations of “ rousing nights,” merry tavern -suppers, and “ a quarter of a hundred after the play.” There is perhaps no spot on earth where oysters are enjoyed in such perfection as at the head of the Old Fish Market Close of Edin- burgh, once, alas the change ! the cynosure of all the taverns, fish- creels, and booksellers’ shops of that learned city : the place where eating, learning, and law sat enthroned side by side. Here, on any evening from October till 3 1 arch, the oyster -gourmand took his so- litary stand, and enjoyed his delicious regale in its utmost earthly perfection, — swallowed alive with its own gravy the moment it was opened by the fish-wife, who operated on the shell with a dexterity or manipulation, a rapidity of fingering which no piano-forte-player we ever saw could compare with, — nothing indeed could be com- pared with it, except the eager vorachy of those genuine lovers of the oyster, to whom these piscatory Hebes ministered — Genuine oyster- eaters still haunt this favourite spot. l)r Redgile resolved to visit it on the first night of his sojourn in Edinburgh. — Edit.

3

CHAP. VI. FISH.

203

TO SCALLOP OYSTERS.

Having stewed the oysters, as above directed, for two or three minutes in their own juice, have some bread- crumbs moistened with their liquor, a good piece of melted butter, and a little wine. Place some of this in scallop- shapes, and cover with a layer of oysters, then more moistened bread-crumbs and oysters, and finish with the bread-crumbs mixed with a little grated lemon-peel and finely-shred parsley. Put some bits of butter over the whole, and brown before the fire, or in a Dutch oven.

TO GRILL OYSTERS.

Blanch them in a stew-pan in their own strained juice. Wash them out of this, and in another stew- pan give them a toss with a bit of fresh butter and a little chopped parsley ; but do not let them boil. Place them in their own shells, previously well clean- ed, and put some bits of butter over them. Place the shells on the gridiron; two minutes will do them. Nutmeg is added sometimes, both to scalloped and I grilled oysters, but we do not approve of it.

TO BROWN OYSTERS IN THEIR OWN JUICE,

A Scotch Preparation.

Wash them in their juice, and dip them one by one in yolk ofeggbeatup with a very little flour, pepper, and salt. Brown a good piece of butter in the frying- pan, and brown the oysters nicely over a quick fire ; draw them aside, and pour their juice strained into the pan ; thicken it with a very little flour kneaded in butter, and when it boils stir the oysters among it for a few minutes. This answers for brown sauce to cod’s- head and shoulders, calf’s-head, &c. ; but when to be served as a stew it may have a little catsup, bread- crumbs, and minced parsley added to it. Serve in a hot hash-dish on toasted sippets. Lemon-peel, and chopped parsley will be an improvement. Muscles may be dressed in the same way.

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CHAP. VI. — FISH

TO PICKLE OYSTERS

Wash the largest fat native oysters that you can get in their own liquor. Strain it, and to every pint of it put a glass of white wine, mace, nutmeg, a good many white peppercorns, and a little salt, if neces- sary. Simmer the oysters for four or five minutes ; but never let them boil, as they will harden. Put them in glass or stone jars. Put vinegar in the pro- portion of a glass to the pint to the liquor, and boil it up. Skim the pickle and pour it over the oysters, and when cold, cover them and tie them close up with blad- der. The pickle-liquor may be boiled up occasional- ly and suffered to cool, which will tend to preserve the oysters : a spoonful of it will be a great addition to any hash or common ragout.

Simmer them in their own strained liquor for three minutes ; drain them ; take off the beards, and, dip- ping in a batter of egg, flour, and white pepper, fry them in lard or butter of a golden brown. The above is the same as oyster -fritters, only the fritter batter must be stiffer, and highly-seasoned with mace, nutmeg, and lemon-peel. Oyster-loaves, a fantastic dish, is made as oyster-patties, using the little rolls made for this purpose instead of patty-pans. — See Patties and Oyster-Sauce, Preserved Oysters.*

* Fish is a favourite food with the rich and luxurious, but it is not thought to possess much nourishment, though late experiments of men of science in France go far to overturn this opinion. When it is wished rapidly to reduce the weight of jockeys at Newmarket, they are kept on fish. Fish is considered more easy of digestion than flesh, though we are disposed to question the statement. Shell- fish, including turtle, from approaching to the nature of animal jelly, are the most nutritious, but not always the most easily digested. Salmon and salmon-trout, turbot, and sturgeon, are all nutri- tious, but heavy ; and eels are nourishing, but very difficult of digestion. Salt-water fish are considered more wholesome than the fish of streams, and those which frequent rocky or gravelly places, than the fish of slimy lakes and muddy pools. White fish are more easily digested than those of -more richness and flavour, such as salmon and herring, and, if less fat, are at least as nutritious. Pike, the water-wolf, is firm in the texture, a well-flavoured and

TO FRY OYSTERS TO GARNISH FISH

7

CHAP. VI. PISH.

205

TO STEW MUSCLES FOB FISH-SAUCE.

Do them as oysters, with pepper, butter, and a little vinegar.

TO MAKE STORE FISH-SAUCE.*

To an English pint of red port (Burgundy or claret is better,) add fifteen anchovies, chopped and prepared by steeping in vinegar in a close-covered vessel for a week; add to this a stick of horseradish scraped, two onions, and a handful of parsley chopped, a des- sert-spoonful of lemon-thyme stripped of the stalks, two bay-leaves, a nutmeg, and six blades of mace

wholesome, though not a favourite fish. Carp and tench are consi- dered wholesome. Whitings, flounders, and soles, being of a moist juicy nature, are light, and very easy of digestion. There seems, according to Sir John Sinclair, to be a general understanding among mankind, that fish ought to be eaten with butter and acids. “ Fisn and milk,” says the same authority, “ are seldom conjoined.” Salmon and a dram, he ought to have added, are never separated. “ Fish,” says Sir John, “ do not agree with vegetables, except the potato.” Here he is wrong ; the people in Orkney and Shetland, who live a great deal both on fresh and salt fish, consume cabbage in large quantities with it, and are entirely free from the scurvy, and those cutaneous diseases which overrun the people of the Hebrides who raise no vegetables. “ Among all fish,” says Lynch’s Guide to Health, “ whether of sea or river, the middle-sized are the best ; also those that have not hard and dry flesh, that are crisp and ten- der, and have many scales and fins.” The meat of the turtle, the sea-turtle, is considered not only as a high -flavoured expensive de- licacy, but as salubrious and highly nutritious, though those sickly half-dead animals, which are spiced and drugged for city-banquets, may not possess those qualities. Fish were held in such esteem by the ancients, that persons constantly rode post with live fish to Rome.

Note by Dr Redgill — “ It is strongly recommended to those who may , like me, have the misfortune to swallow a fish-bone, to take four grains of tartar emetic dissolved in warm, water , and immediately afterwards the beat whites of four eggs. This mess will instantly coagulate , and will probably bring the bone from the throat or stomach. The bones of pike , which are sharp and pronged , and so very hard that they will not dissolve in the stomach , ought to be watchfully avoided .”

• N. B The Cleikum Club were favoured with this and the

following original receipt from an intelligent Highland lady, who has contributed several valuable original receipts to this volume. This sauce boasts neither the name of Burgess nor Harvey, but we would advise those who wish to combine economy with what is healthful and elegant, to make a fair trial of it.

I

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CHAP. VI. — FISH.

roughly pounded, nine cloves, and a small dessert- spoonful of black pepper bruised. Pour over these ingredients a large half-pint of port wine vinegar, and simmer slowly in a silver or new block-tin saucepan, or earthen pipkin, till the bones of the anchovies are dissolved. Add a few grains of cochineal if the colour is not good. Strain the liquor through a hair- sieve, and, when cold, bottle it for use, securing the vials well with corks and. leatherWhen to be used shake the vials before pouring out the sauce ; — two table- spoonfuls will impart a high flavour to four ounces of beat butter, in which it must be simmered for a minute before it is served.

.TO REFRESH RUSTY ANCHOVIES, AND TURN THE LIQUOR TO ACCOUNT.

Pick out all the best anchovies of your parcel, and pack them in a fresh glass jar, strewing a little bole- armeniac and salt between the layers ; cork and cover them over very close. Put the refuse into a clean saucepan, with a tea- spoonful of salt to every half- pint, four cloves of garlic peeled and chopped, a des- sert-spoonful of black pepper and another of ginger, and cloves in equal proportion, — all bruised. Add a pint of oysters with their liquor, or muscles and cockles in the same quantity, and boil till the bones of the anchovies are dissolved. Strain the liquor, and give it a boil up with a half-pint of claret and a glass of good vinegar. When cold, pour it into small bottles, and use, as catsup, to flavour hashes, fish-pies, or made-dishes. It is a high though cheap relish, and will go far in flavouring.

CHAP. VII VEGETABLES AND ROOTS.

207

CHAPTER VII.

VEGETABLES AND ROOTS.

The earth hath roots ;

*****

The bounteous huswife Nature, on each bush Lays her full mess before ye

****’**

Fat Coleworts and comforting Pursline,

Cold Lettuce and refreshing ilosemarine.

Spenser.

Vegetables are at their best when just on the eve of being ripe, in their natural season, and when their growth has neither been retarded, nor forced on by artificial means. The vanity, and it is no better, which spurs on people to load their tables with flavourless, colourless, immature vegetables, is ever punished by the expense and disappointment it occasions. Much, however, has been judiciously done of late years, both to improve the quality and to spread the cultivation of vegetables. Where a turnip, a cabbage, or a leek, was twenty years ago the only vegetable luxury found on a country gentleman’s table, we now see a regular succession of not merely brocoli, cauliflower, and peas, but the more recondite asparagus, sea-kale, endive, and artichoke, with an abundance of small saladings. The vegetable-markets of most towns have within the same period undergone a wonderful improvement. The number and quantity of articles are more than doubled, and the price, except for early vegetables, has diminished at least a half; so that this healthful and harmless luxury is now within the reach of all classes. But vegetables of the more delicate species are still comparatively such recent acquaintances, that, even at tables otherwise elegantly appointed, they are seldom seen perfectly well dressed, at least in so far as regards colour. That homely chemistry, which does not disdain to descend to the kitchen, has indeed con- siderably assisted the cook of late in this department.

203 CHAP. VII. — VEGETABLES AND ROOTS.

A few general observations will, if attended to, supply the place of long or often-repeated directions for dress- ing vegetables. Unlike animal substances, vegetables can never be dressed too fresh, though some kinds, such as French beans and artichokes, will keep a few days. They must, after being carefully cleared from insects and decayed leaves, or other spoiled parts, be washed in plenty of water ; they cannot be too much washed. Let them lie in salt and water, head down- wards, till they are put to boil. This simple method will bring out every insect that may lurk in the leaves. To preserve their beauty, they must be boiled alone, in a perfectly clean and well-tinned vessel, and in abundance of soft water. A tea-spoonful of salt of wormwood, or a bit of pearl-ashes or soda of the size of a nutmeg, will not only preserve the green colour, but contribute to the tenderness of cabbage, savoys,* &c. Put in all vegetables with soft boiling water and plenty of salt ; with hard water the colour will keep better, but the quality will not improve. Make them boil fast, and do not cover the vessel if you de- sire to preserve their fine colour. In a former section it was recommended to boil several sorts of vegetables and roots with the meat, when salted, with which they are to be served ; and this, though it may injure the colour, will certainly improve the quality, — a point of greater importance. All vegetables should be enough boiled. The cook's rule of having them crisp is as inimical to health as offensive to the palate. If boiled quickly, which they ought to be, vegetables are ready when they begin to sink in the boiling water, and they will spoil every instant after that. Meat may wait a little, but vegetables will not.

BROCOLI AND CAULIFLOWER.

Choose those vegetables close, compact, of a good colour, and from five to eight inches in diameter ; strip off the outside leaves, and trim away the tops of the inner leaves ; cut off the stalk at the bottom, and pare away the outer husky skin from the branches.

*

We know that the Romans used nitre in boiling vegetables.

CHAP. VII. VEGETABLES AND ROOTS. 209

Having washed, lay them, head downwards, in a pan of cold water and salt, which will bring out all in- sects, and boil them on a strainer in plenty of boiling water, with a little salt ; some cooks add a bit of su- gar. Skim the water well : from ten minutes to twenty will boil them. When the stalks are nearly tender they are ready. If some heads are larger than others, put in the large ones first.

Obs. — Brocoli is sometimes served at supper, like asparagus, on a toast. Melted butter is usually sent to table wfith both brocoli and cauliflower. Cauli- flower is very nicely dressed for a second course by pulling it into handsome branches, parboiling them, and then stewing a few minutes in a sauce of white broth, seasoned with mace, white pepper, and salt, and thickened with a little sweet cream, and a bit of butter kneaded in flour.

TO DRESS ASPARAGUS AND SEA-KALE.

Scrape the stalks of asparagus nicely clean ; throw them into cold water ; tie them up in bundles of about three inches thick, with tape or rushes ; cut these bundles of equal lengths, leaving about an inch of stalk, and put them into a stewpan of quick-boiling water, with salt. Notice when the stalks are tender, and take them up before they lose their flavour or com- plexion. Have ready, nicely toasted, a slice of a large round loaf ; dip it for a few seconds into hot water, and, laying it in the middle of the dish, serve the as- paragus upon it with the heads inward. Serve beat butter in a boat. The same receipt is applicable to sea-kale, except that no bread is served with it.*

TO BOIL ARTICHOKES.

Strip off the coarse outer leaves, and cut off the stalks. Steep and wash them in plenty of cold water, and boil

• So well was the cultivation of vegetables understood by the Romans, that at Tavema asparagus were raised for the tables of the great, of which three weighed a pound. Nettle-tops, elder-buds, and diver, were among their pot-herbs.

210 CHAP. VII. VEGETABLES AND ROOTS.

them with the tops downwards, keeping up the boil, and adding boiling water, when wanted, for from two to three hours ; try a leaf, and if it draw out easily they are done. Drain them, and serve with melted butter in small cups, a very little in each, or with melted butter in a sauce-boat. Artichoke bottoms, if dry, may be soaked, and then stewed in clear broth, and served with a relishing forcemeat laid in each; or they may be boiled in milk and water, and served with cream-sauce. They are frequently used to enrich ra- gouts, turtle-soups, pies, &c.

JERUSALEM ARTICHOKES

May either be boiled plain, taken up the moment they are done, and served with melted butter poured over them, or cooked with a rich white or brown sauce.

TO BOIL GREEN PEAS.

Peas should not be gathered, or, at any rate, not shelled, till they are to be used. When the water boils put them in with a little salt and a bit of sugar; skim it, and let them boil quickly for from fifteen to twenty-five minutes, trying when they are ready. Drain them, and put a few bits of fresh butter in the dish, turning them lightly over Avith a silver spoon till they are buttered. Boil a few sprigs of fresh mint by themselves ; chop them fine, and lay in little heaps round the edge of the dish.

Obs. — Some persons like the flavour of mint boiled with the peas. Buttered peas are rather going out of vogue, but buttering is a good old commendable cus- tom. Dr Kitchener allows “ a peck of peas to two hearty pea-eaters.” At this rate peas for a large party would occupy a tolerable space on a modern table. We would, however, allow a peck of young peas to six or eight persons. Peas are stewed in good white broth, with sliced lettuce and onion, or with sliced cucum- ber. Thicken the broth with butter kneaded in flour ; season with white pepper and salt, and a sprig of mint, to be taken out before the stew is dished.

CHAP. VII. VEGETABLES AND BOOTS.

211

WINDSOR BEANS.

Boil them in plenty of water with salt. Serve with or under bacon or pickled pork. Garnish with chopped parsley, or serve parsley and butter.

FRENCH BEANS.

Cut off the stalks, and strip off the strings. If the beans are old, cut them in two slantwise. Lay them in a weak pickle of salt and water for a half-hour. Put them into water that boils quickly, and when done, which will be best known by trying them, drain them, and serve with melted butter.

Obs. — When old and large they are best split as well as cut aslant.

TO BOIL CABBAGE, GREENS, SAVOYS, AND BRUSSELS

SPROUTS.

Strip off the coarse outer leaves, and pate off the coarse husk from the branch-stalks ; cut off the stem close to the bottom ; wash them thoroughly, and put them on with plenty of boiling water in an open pot, and a little salt of wormwood, or a bit of soda. Divide half-grown cabbages, and quarter large ones. See that they be well covered with boiling water. They will take from fifteen minutes to an hour, or more, according to the age. Brussels cabbage are boiled as above, and arranged in the dish as asparagus. The French serve a white sauce, and send up a cruet of oil with these small cabbages. — See Bubble and Squeak, Boiled Beef and Greens.

SPINAGE FOR A SECOND COURSE.

This delicate vegetable requires very careful pick- ing and washing. When perfectly clean, put it to plenty of boiling water and salt, and boil very quick- ly, pressing it down with a wooden spoon ; — ten mi- nutes will boil it. Drain it and squeeze it dry, and throw it into cold water to preserve the colour green.

212 CHAP. Vi I. •—‘VEGETABLES AND BOOTS.

Put a piece of fresh butter and a little salt in the stew- pan, and, returning the spinage well squeezed, beat it fine. Spread it level on the dish, and scallop with a spoon, or score it in the form of diamonds or sip- pets, or press it in a leaf-shaped mould, and turn it out. Cream, the squeeze of a lemon, and mace, are added by some cooks ; or a little rich bland gravy, if to be served under a tongue, fricandeau, or breast of lamb. Spinage is often served with poached eggs. It is then boiled, pressed, beat up with butter and seasonings, and cut in the form of sippets, with an egg served on each : — it makes a pretty supper-dish. Tender young spinage, without any redundancy of vegetable blood or bile in it, may be boiled in a close vessel, with no more water than what hangs about the leaves when washed ; but it is seldom so free of bitterness as when boiled in water ; and we can see no good reason for the omission.

TURNIPS.

Pare off all that would be hard, woody, and stringy when boiled. Boil them in plenty of water, for from three-quarters of an hour to nearly two hours, accord- ing to the age and size. Drain and serve them whole, or, if too large, divided. A bit of the green top shoot is left on young turnips and on Swedish turnips. Swedish turnip-tops are very delicate greens when young.

TO DRESS TURNIPS

For the Second Course, — a French Mode.

Cut them into cubes, oblong forms, &c., or scoop them out as balls, pears, peaches, -plums, See., and, after boiling in salt and water with a piece of butter, dress them in melted butter, and season with nutmeg.

Obs. — They are useful to fill up a table when other vegetables are not to be got.

TO MASH TURNIPS.

When the turnips are boiled as above directed.

CHAP. VII. VEGETABLES AND ROOTS. 213

drain them, and mash them with a wooden spoon through a colander. Return them into the stewpan to warm, with a piece of fresh butter, white pepper, and salt. When mixed well with the butter, place them neatly in the dish, and mark in diamonds or sippets.

Obs. — Mrs Dods put a little powdered ginger to her mashed turnips, which were studiously chosen of the yellow, sweet, juicy sort, for which Scotland is cele- brated,— that kind which, in our days of semi-bar- barism, were served raw, as a delicate whet before dinner, as turnips are in Russia at the present day. Mashed turnips to be eaten with boiled fowl or veal, or the more insipid meats, are considerably improved by the Cleikum seasoning of ginger, which, besides, corrects the flatulent properties of this esculent. Yel- low turnips, mashed and eaten with milk, are recom- mended in scurvy and consumption. A small pro- portion of turnips answers very well mashed with po- tatoes : they must be boiled for a good while before the potatoes are put in. They eat well with boiled or roasted mutton.

CARROTS AND PARSNIPS.

These roots, if old, require long boiling. Wash young carrots, and scrub them with a hard brush. Old ones must be scraped lightly, and when boiled, have the peel rubbed off with a coarse towel. They are served with boiled mutton or beef, whether fresh or salted. If large, they may be sliced, either length- ways or across.

Obs.~ Some persons like cold carrot with cold beef ; but they taste sweet and mawkish. Parsnips may either be mashed with butter or cream, served whole, or, if large, quartered. Turnips, carrots, and parsnips, will all warm up very well in a vessel plung- ed in boiling water.

CARROTS THE FLEMISH WAY.

Prepare (after boiling) in nice forms, as stars, wheels, &c., and stew them in melted butter, with minced parsley, young onions, salt and pepper.

i 2

214 CHAP. VII. — VEGETABLES AND ROOTS.

BEET-ROOTS.

Though chiefly used in winter salads, or for pickling, beet-roots may be dressed as parsnips, and served as a garnishing for boiled beef, or with salt fish. Wash, and, without touching with the knife, boil them whole, or bake them. If broken, the colour will fly. Par- boiled beet-root may be sliced, and stewed with small onions in a little cream or gravy, with seasonings and a spoonful of vinegar. Dish the slices of beet-root with the small onions round them. Beet-root, besides being wholesome and palatable, is exceedingly orna- mental in salads, and for garnishing, and makes a cheap and beautiful common pickle.

TO STEW AND ROAST ONIONS.

Scald and peel a dozen middle-sized, or four or five large Spanish onions. If old and acrid, parboil them, and stew very slowly for nearly an hour in good broth, with white pepper and salt ; thicken the sauce with a little butter kneaded in flour, and, dishing the onions in a small hash-dish, pour it over them. A little mushroom-catsup may be added. Onions are roasted before the fire in their skins, peeled, and served with cold butter and salt. They are eaten either alone or with roasted potatoes, or with red or pickled herrings. In the latter case, we would re- commend mustard as well as butter.

Obs. — Stewed and roasted onions used to be a fa- vourite supper-dish in Scotland, and were reckoned medicinal. The onions were stewed (after boiling) in a butter-sauce, to which cream was put, — the sauce blanche of France.* Onions may be farced.

* k‘ We now,” said Touchwood, “ rarely see a dish of onions, yet I have much to say in behalf of this homely patriarchal relishf which is of such immense consequence in giving gusto to the food o, those who cannot reach the costly compound essences that are gra- dually subverting it in the kitchens of the rich. In the early part of the last century Swift sung—

“ There is, in every Cook’s opinion,

“ No savoury dish without an onion

CHAP. VII. — VEGETABLES AND ROOTS.

215

VEGETABLE CURRIE.

Boil, strain, and mash, greens or cabbage, stew them in batter, with currie-powder, to taste, rubbed down in vinegar, salt, and pepper. A currie of spinage is made by the addition of vinegar or sorrel, also onions. The sauce is veal gravy or butter, and either bits of meat, or if maigre, prawns, cockles, or oysters, are added to the stew.

TO STEW CUCUMBERS AND CELERY.

Pare the cucumbers, and cut them in thin slices ; or, if small, divide them the long way. Slice some onions in the proportion of one to every two cucum- bers. Stew these in a little good broth, or in melted butter, with cayenne, peppei', and salt. Thicken the sauce with a bit of butter kneaded in flour, and, after dishing the cucumbers, skim it, and pour it over them. To cook stewed celery, clean and cut the heads (the younger the more delicate) in three-inch lengths. Stew them till tender in a little butter. Thicken the sauce with a good piece of butter rolled in flour, add a quarter-pint of sweet cream, and season with pepper, mace, and salt.

and added, for the benefit of youthful gourmands, —

“ But lest your kissing should be spoil’d,

“ The onion must be thoroughly boil d,” —

a precaution of no great moment, however, as the period when a man begins to pay much attention to palatic enjoyments is nearly about the same at which the taint of his breath becomes an affair of small concernment either to himself or others. It may be remarked by the way, that one sign of the precocity of the youth of the age, is their beginning to talk of the business of the table at the years when their fathers were still upon their bread and milk.” — “ But return we to ouronion,” said Jekyll to the Nabob, after delivering this note. “ Well, Sir — and what has consigned this prime root to Parisian restaurateurs and London soup-brewers, who are still cunning enough in their art to employ its savoury, cordial, and sti- mulating qualities, but this same pouncet-box dread of the manly scent of a garlick breath, — another root by the way most vilely ne- glected ‘ Of all plants,’ says Sir William Temple, ‘ garlick affords the most nourishment, and supplies the best spirits to those who eat little flesh.’ It clears phlegm, dissipates cold slimy hu- mours.”— “ Faugh !” interrupted tne cornet emphatically ; and he continued, — ฆ“ What a manly odoriferous fellow your friend the Bonassus must be, Doctor, who consumes a bushel of onions a day, they assure me.”

216

CHAP. VII.— VEGETABLES AND ROOTS.

The French put grated nutmeg or minced parsley to stews of cucumber, and thicken the sauce with beat yolks of eggs. Nutmeg is indeed a very suitable con- diment with this watery vegetable, so is cayenne.

Obs. — Stewed cucumbers are frequently served with lamb-steaks, mutton-chops, or rump-steaks, and with mutton-rumps and kidneys. Some cooks brown the cucumbers and onions before stewing. These vege- table stews may be made into the sauces bearing their respective names, by cutting the celery in smaller bits, and by stewing the cucumber to a mash, and pressing it through a fine sieve.

TO STEW RED CABBAGE.

Wash, pick, and shred what will fill a large pint- basin. Melt some butter in a saucepan, and put in the cabbage with only the water that hangs about it, pepper, cayenne, salt, and an onion sliced. Stew this, keeping the saucepan close covered ; and when just ready, add a glass of vinegar, which may just boil U]3. French cooks add a bay-leaf and two cloves stuck in an onion. Fried sausages are served on this preparation ; or it may be served with bouilli*

TO STEW SORREL FOR ROASTS OF VEAL, LAMB, FRI- CANDEAUS, &C.

Wash and simmer it in an unglazed earthen or stone jar very slowly, and beat it up with a bit of butter, or a little salad-oil. Add cayenne, pepper, and salt.

* The cabbage tribe has ever been a first-rate favourite with writers on diet, whether ancient or modern. V olumes have been composed, not merely in praise of the demulcent cauliflower and brocoli, but of the common white and red cabbage. Besides their use in soups, and in correcting the putrescent qualities of animal food, they are said to be correctives of the consequences of excess in wine. Ahbuthnot says, the juice of red cabbage baked is, with the addition of honey, an excellent pectoral ; and red cabbage stewed in veal-broth, with calf’s lights and pistachios, is, on the continent, esteemed a specific in consumption, — a malady, by the way, for which a remedy has been discovered in chickens, oysters, jellies, fruits, and every favourite aliment, — in short, in whatever the dis- coverer fancies he himself could thrive and live for ever. These dis- coveries are, we take it, generally made on the principle of the Irish corpse-howl or Ullaloo,—

“ Why did you die Why did you die

“ Had you not plenty of butter-milk and potatoes

I

CHAP. VII. VEGETABLES AND ROOTS. 217

MUSHROOMS. v

So many fatal accidents happen every season from the use of poisonous mushrooms, and it is so difficult to distinguish between the edible kinds and those that are deleterious, that we would advise our readers either to eat none that they have not examined for themselves, or to be contented with what are raised in artificial beds, though the flavour of these are as decidedly inferior to that of the wild mushrooms as a coop-fed chicken is to the heath-cock.*

• Naturalists enumerate nearly 500 kinds of mushrooms found in England alone, and of these there are perhaps not ten sorts as- certained to be fit for human food. Mushrooms with coarse bread form the chief sustenance of the inhabitants of several of the Rus- sian provinces, during a considerable part of the year. They are indeed freely eaten everywhere on the continent, where their pro- perties seem to be better understood than in England. In Russia they are salted, dried, or dressed fresh, and eaten with olive-oil by the better orders, while the poorer classes use hemp-oil. They are also broiled, roasted in the ashes, stewed, and fried, served with meat, chopped with potatoes, turnips, carrots, &c. and form a relishing ingredient in ragouts and sauces. The following is a tolerably ac- curate description of the wholesome, or, we should rather say, the unsuspected sorts ; for, notwithstanding this extensive Russian prac- tice, we question whether mushrooms in substance are ever salu- brious. “ The eatable mushrooms first appear very small, and of a round form, on a little stalk. They grow very fast, and the upper part and stalk are white ; as the size increases, the under part gra- dually opens, and shews a fringy fur, of a very fine salmon-colour, which continues more or less till the mushroom is a tolerable size, and then turns to a dark-brown. These marks should be attended to : and, likewise, whether the skin can be easily parted from the edges and middle. Those which have a white or yellow fur should be carefully avoided, though many of them have the same smell, but not so strong as the right sort.” The most delicate mush- rooms are those found on old close-cropt pastures, or open downs by the sea-shore, where cattle browse. The season in England is, in good years, from about the end of August till October. In Scotland it is a few days later. Mushrooms of good quality are plentiful in Ireland. It is of that country Bacon said long ago, “ By the favour of the king, Ireland is the soil where mushrooms and uvstart weeds spring up in a night, and do chiefly prosper.”

Picking this delicious and singular food forms an agreeable rural amusement ; and the ladies, or idle gentlemen of any family, may easily in their walks gather edible mushrooms for pickling, catsup, powder, and dressing fresh. The ancients, who were delicate In their eating, prepared their own mushrooms with an amber or silver knife. — P. S. T.

The following test of the qualities of mushrooms is given, though

218 CHAP. VII. — VEGETABLES AND ROOTS.

Mushrooms are safest when pickled or made into catsup, because they are then used only in small quan- tities, and their pernicious properties are also correct- ed by the acids and spices employed to preserve them. When good, they approach nearer to animal substances than any plant whatever, both in their texture, fla- vour, and the gravy with which they abound. Skil- ful cooks have been known to impose a ragout of mushrooms for a meat ragout, even on practised epi- cui*es ; nor do we know any one flavouring ingredi- ent that the cook could less spare than mushroom- catsup. We by no means, therefore, wish to proscribe this delicacy, but to caution our readers not merely against those of suspicious quality, but also against consuming many at once, however temptingly they may be dressed.

to stew or ragout mushrooms in White or Brown

Sauce.

Gather the largest button-mushrooms, or the smallest flaps. Trim away all that is mouldy or spoiled, and stew them in their own gravy, in a silver or earthen vessel, with a small quantity of water to prevent burning. When nearly done, put in a large spoonful of sweet cream, a bit of butter rolled in flour, cayenne, white pepper, and salt. Lemon-juice is employed to whiten them. The French thicken this ragout with beat yolks of egg ; and this is good practice. — Mushrooms are stewed brown in good brown gravy, thickened and seasoned as above, with the addition of a little nutmeg. A piece of ham may be put to a brown ragout, and also veal and herbs.

to grill mushrooms, or Mushrooms a la Bordelais.

Choose large, firm, fresh-gathered flaps. Skin them, and score the under side. Put them into an earthen

we do not vouch for its accuracy : — Boil a peeled onion with the mushrooms ; if it remain white, they are safe ; if it become black or livid, there are bad ones among them. It is said, if the water in whicn mushrooms are steeped, or the broken parts of them be pour- ed upon an old bed, innumerable young ones will spring up.

CHAP. VII. — VEGETABLES AND ROOTS. 219

dish, and baste them with oil or melted butter, and strew pepper and salt over them. When they have been steeped in this marinade for an hour or more, broil them on both sides over a clear fire, and serve them with a sauce of oil or melted butter, minced pars- ley, young onions, a little garlick, and the juice of a lemon poured hot over them ; or they may be done in the oven, and a sauce drawn from the trimmings and stalks.

POTATOES.

Some humorous writer pities those people who lived before the publication of the Scottish Novels and the introduction of potatoes, — that root of superlative ex- cellence and unbounded utility, which takes its ho- noured place on every dining stool or table in the three kingdoms, and goes far to equalize the dining enjoyments of every grade of society.

There are a great many varieties of potatoes, and fully as many ways of cooking them ; but when all are tried, as the old yellow mealy kidney is the best potato, so is simple boiling the best mode of prepara- tion. Count Rumford, Sir John Sinclair, and other writers upon economics, have multiplied re- ceipts for dressing this valuable production ; but we would ad vise such of our readers as are potato-fanciers, rather to follow the practice adopted in the cabins or cottages in their neighbourhood, than any printed for- mula whatever. Potatoes are rarely seen in their ut- most perfection save in such situations, when just ripe and freshly dug they are well washed and scrub- bed, suited in size, and boiled in hot-haste, with scanty water, and abundance of salt, and in a vessel to which poverty, luckily for the quality of the potatoes, denies a close-fitting lid. As soon as they are ready, the water is poured off ; a few minutes more of the fire evaporates all moisture, and completes the cooking ; and there they lie, smoking hot, mealy, and flaky, bursting from their coats in such guise as potatoes are seldom seen on the tables of opulence. We take it for granted that these potatoes are of the dry fari- naceous kinds known in Scotland and Ireland, and

220 CHAP. VII. — VEGETABLES AND ROOTS.

not those cheesy, waxy roots which habit has brought the inhabitants of London to relish. Steaming is re- commended for potatoes by theoretical writers upon the subjects of the kitchen, and certainly, where po- tatoes must be cooked on a large scale, it is very con- venient ; but, so far as our experience goes, we will venture to affirm, that the crude, rank, deleterious juice, which makes potatoes so unfit for food in their raw state, is never so quickly nor so effectually ex- tracted as by rapid uncovered boiling. Potatoes ought to be eaten as soon as they are dressed. If they must stand, let it be by the fire, in the sauce- pan, and only partially covered, that the steams may escape as they arise. A piece of coarse calico or flan- nel kept for this purpose should be laid over the po- tatoes in folds, and the cover over this. This will not only absorb the moisture, but keep them hot a long while. Young potatoes ought always to be served in their skins ; — very little boiling will dress them, and they are best when boiled with boiling water poured over them. Young watery immature potatoes are unsafe food if taken in any quantity. After the beginning of April potatoes should be peel- ed and soaked in water for a short time before they are boiled, or they may be mashed.

Roasted Potatoes. — This, next to boiling, is the best mode of cooking this root. Let them be large, of equal size, and well washed and scrubbed ; for the browned skin of a roasted potato is the better part of it. They must be slowly done before the fire, or in an oven or Dutch oven, or buried in wood or turf ashes. Serve them with cold salt butter scooped, and roasted onion. See Potatoes Roasted under Mutton.

Potatoes are Fried or Broiled after being boil- ed, peeled, and sliced cold. Broil on a clear fire, and fry in plenty of good clear beef-dripping. They may be dressed as -potato-fritters, by flouring the slices, dipping them in egg and crumbs, and frying. They form a great addition to sausages, and pickled or red herrings, with which they may be served. Large potatoes, cut neatly in ringlet-slices and browned, form a suitable garnish to sausages, pork-chops, &c. The French fry sliced potatoes in goose-dripping,

CHAP. VII. VEGETABLES AND HOOTS. 221

which has a very high relish ; and before serving, drain them on a towel before the fire.

TO MASH POTATOES.*

Those who are more solicitous about the appearance of their tables than the quality of the dishes, have their potatoes mashed all the year round. Wash and skin them, cut out all the eyes and specks, boil them with plenty of salt, pour off the water, and put them over the fire to dry for a minute ; put in some butter, salt, and a little milk (the less the better, unless they are to be eaten with milk, as it makes them tough and doughy). Mash them smooth with the Scottish imple- ment called a potato-beetle , or with a rolling-pin, and dish them neatly ; score in diamonds or sippets, and brown them before the fire. After the month of March potatoes ought always to be pared before boil- ing, whether they are to be mashed or served whole.

Mashed Potatoes may be pressed into patty-pans previously buttered, and turned out and browned ; or put into stoneware, scallop-shell shapes, glazed with eggs, and browned before the fire, sticking a few bits of butter upon them. A few of these make a pretty supper- dish.

Potato-Balls is another form into which mashed potatoes may be converted. Roll them up with yolk of egg and a little flour, and fry them in good drip- ping, or brown them.

Potatoes dressed in a French Mode, for Nursery Pinners, fyc. — Stir new milk with pounded potatoes till the mixture is as thin as good cream. Boil with butter, pepper, and salt, for twenty minutes.

Potato-Balls Ragout are also made of mashed po- tatoes, adding grated ham or tongue, minced parsley

• There is an admirable receipt for gusty chappit ( i. e. mashed) potatoes in an early volume of Blackwood’s Magazine, — the work which, in the mysteries of Comus, takes the lead of all the periodicals of the day. The receipt to which we allude is after the practice of the pastoral inhabitants of Ettrick, Yarrow, and Teviotdale. Before calling the potato -beetle into operation, salt, pepper, and an onion , finely shred, are sprinkled over the potatoes, with a dash of sweet milk. The onion is the bonne bouche.

222 CHAP. VII. — VEGETABLES AND ROOTS.

and onion, pepper, salt, a bit of butter, and a little of any flavouring ingredient that is suited to the dish they are to accompany. Small rogcwAballs form an agreeable addition to open fish-pies, or make a neat supper-plate.

Westphalia Loaves for a Supper-Disli, or to eat with Veal, Sj'c. — Grate four ounces of good lean ham, and mix it with a pound of good potatoes, mashed with butter. Add salt, pepper, and two eggs, to bind the ingredients. Mould this into small loaves, or shape it in patty-pans, and fry and serve in a brown gravy, or alone.

To restore frosted Potatoes. — This is partially done by steeping potatoes, or any other frosted vegetable, in cold water till thawed. A better and more effectual method has been discovered by a Cumberland gentle- man. This remedy is simply to allow the potatoes to remain in the confined pits after a severe frost till the mild weather has set in for some weeks, and allowed them to recover gradually. If once exposed to the atmospheric air, no art will recover frosted potatoes.

A Potato-Collar, rolled handsomely up, scored in diagonal lines, and nicely browned, makes a handsome potato-dish. Garnish it with potato-balls around it, and a brown onion gravy- sauce, or plain melted but- ter, which we would recommend in place of the wine- sauce ordered by cooks.

A Potato-Pie, made of sliced potatoes and onions, butter, pepper, and salt, is a good nursery or cottage dish, but a temptation and a trial to the gourmand’s temper, and an affront to the cook’s puff-paste, when covered and served up as a savoury pie.

Obs. — There are many other approved ways of dressing this chief of esculent roots, either alone or in conjunction with other viands, such as Irish stew, salt- fish-pie, Sec. ; and we may mention one or two of them : — In some parts of Ireland, and in the Highlands and Islands of Scotland, where Finnan haddocks, pickled herrings, and dried meats, are regularly served at breakfast, mashed potatoes, become firm from standing from the dinner or supper of the previous day, are cut in oblong slices, browned on the grid- iron, and to eat with fish, form a substitute for bread

CHAP. VII. VEGETABLES AND ROOTS. 223

more acceptable than the principal. In the same si- tuations, a proportion of hot mashed potatoes is knead- ed up with flour or barley-meal, and, when served hot, makes very palatable breakfast-cakes. A cheap and delicious mess is furnished in summer to those heal- thy and happy children educated in what are called the Maiden Hospitals of Edinburgh. Good potatoes, boiled, peeled, and roughly broken, are boiled up with sweet milk, and a small proportion of butter.

Calecannon , an Irish dish, is made by boiling and mashing greens, young cabbage, or spinage, and mix- ing them with mashed potatoes, butter, pepper, and salt, pressing it into a buttered shape to be turned out, or dishing It like mashed potatoes, &c. In this dish two-thirds should be potato. Plain Cale- cannon is made in cottages with infinitely less cere- mony, and it is quite as good- Boil the vegetables till nearly done; put the peeled raw potatoes to them ; drain them from the water when done, and with pep- per, salt, a shred onion, and a good piece of butter or dripping, beat them up together.

Potato-Mucilage, or Starch, is another usual form of this root for culinary purposes. It is often substi- tuted for arrow-root on common occasions, and is used by many cooks in preference to flour for thicken- ing butter, soups, and sauces. It makes pancakes, and is even prized by nice housewives for pastry, from the purity of colour which may be imparted to it by repeated blanching.

Potato-Starch. — Grate down peeled and nicely- washed raw potatoes into a large dish filled with water. When the starch has subsided, pour the water gently off, and put on fresh water. When this is sufficiently blanched, take up the cake of starch, which will have formed at the bottom, and dry it for future use.

OF SALADS.

Salad herbs are cooling and refreshing. They cor- rect the putrescent tendency of animal food, and are thought antiscorbutic. Salads are at any rate a harm- less luxury where they agree with the stomach ; and

224 CHAP. VII. — VEGETABLES AND ROOTS.

though they afford little nourishment of themselves, they make a pleasant addition to other aliments, and a graceful appearance on the dinner-table. Lettuce, of the different sorts, or salad, as it is often called, is the principal ingredient in those vegetable messes. It should be carefully blanched and eat young ; when old, its juices become acrimonious and hurtful. Let- tuce possesses soporific powers, and is recommended as a supper-article to bad sleepers. Radishes, when young, are juicy and cooling, but a very few days change their nature, and they become woody and acrid; when not very young, they ought to be scraped. Cress and mustard are cordial and grateful, and of an agreeable pungency; and celery, when young and properly blanched, by its peculiar nutty flavour, con- tributes much to what Evylyn calls the “ harmony in the composure of a sallet.” A variety of other herbs mingle in full well-selected salads, such as sor- rel, young onions, cucumber, tomatas, endive, &c. Many wild herbs were formerly employed, and are still used on the continent and in America, as salad- ings. As this is quite a delicate, jaunty branch of the culinary art, we would recommend that young ladies residing in the country should gather their own salad herbs, and dress salads for their families, which will give a better chance of a duty being well done, which, in the hurry of the stewpan, the spit, and the stove, the poor distracted cook must often perform with haste and slovenliness. Never make a salad till near the dinner-hour, as it will flatten and lose its light appearance by standing.

AN ENGLISH SALAD AND SALAD-SAUCE.

Let the herbs be fresh gathered, nicely trimmed and picked, and repeatedly washed in salt and water. Drain and cut them. Just before dinner is served, rub the yolks of two hard-boiled eggs very smooth on a soup-plate, with a little very rich cream. When well mixed, add a tea-spoonful of made mustard and a lit- tle salt, a spoonful of olive-oil, one of oiled butter, or two of sour cream may be substituted, and when this is mixed smooth, put in as much vinegar as will

CHAP. VII. — VEGETABLES AND ROOTS. 225

give the proper degree of acidity to the sauce, — about two large spoonfuls ; add a little pounded lump-sugar if the flavour is liked. Put this sauce in the dish, and lay the cut herbs lightly over it ; or mix them well with it, and garnish with beet-root sliced and marked, rings of the white of the eggs, young ra- dishes, &c. Onions may be served separately on a small dish. Some knowing persons like grated Par- mesan put to their salad and sauce.

Lobster-Salad. — This is become a fashionable sa- lad. The coral of the lobster is cut, and tastefully disposed among the white and green vegetables, so as best to contrast the colours, — and it also improves the sauce. — See French Cookery.

A French Salad. — Three hours before dinner, bone and chop two anchovies, mince a small shalot, and some young cress or parsley. Mix these well in a salad-bowl, and a spoonful of olive-oil, two of vine- gar, pepper at discretion, and a little made mustard. To this sauce put very thin small slices of cold roast meat, or minced breast of cold chicken, or lobster meat, as also veal-gravy ; toss them about in the sauce, and let them soak in it. Garnish with curled parsley, boiled white of eggs, or beet-root. Almonds, capers, pickled fruits, or fish, grated cheese of high flavour, and many things of a piquant nature, were formerly mixed with salads, and are still used abroad in their composition.

Obs. — Salads are likewise compounded of cold sal- mon, soles, skate, and trout; but these Gothic mixtures are seldom or never touched.

Boiled Salad. — This, if less agreeable, is more safe than crude vegetables, however they may be com- pounded. The sauce may be the same as for English salad, but the vegetables are previously dressed. It is made of celery, French beans, or cauliflowers. Sprinkle some chopped raw lettuce or endive over it. The jelly of roast veal or lamb blends well with sa- lads instead of oil or cream, and is preferred by many persons. Salad-sauce may be rendered more poig- nant by the addition of cayenne, minced onion, or shalot, and any of the herb-flavoured vinegars.

22G CHAP. VII. — VEGETABLES AND ROOTS.

A WINTER SALAD.

The basis of this is the same as any other salad, with the substitution of endive, celery, and beet-root pickle, also pickled red cabbage.

Obs. — A very pretty winter salad may be arranged by contrasting the colours, garnishing with the beet- root in slices, and the red cabbage and white celery cut in delicate straws.

to preserve roots and vegetables.

Potatoes are of most consequence. Choose them of the middle-size, fresh from the mould, or the store- pit. Yellow kidneys are for the earlier part of the season ; and red or calico potatoes for the spring months, as these keep best late in the year. Keep them in a cellar below ground, where the temperature is pretty equal, and never very low, and defend them well from frost and currents of air with straw or mats. In spring, have them turned over, and the growths carefully picked away, which process must be again repeated later in the season. Keep carrots and turnips, parsnips, and beet-roots, with their native mould about them, in dry sand : onions are best pre- served strung, or the small ones in nets, in a cool but not a damp place. Use the thick-necked spongy ones first ; they may have the germ taken out, with a lard- - ing-pin, and then be strung up, or they may be kiln-dried. Parsley may be picked, and dried by tying it in bundles to a rope, or drying it in a cool oven ; and so may other herbs. French beans will keep by salting and closing them up, and soaking them before they are dressed ; but they lose a good deal of their flavour and colour. Cucumbers, kidney- beans, endive, &c., may be parboiled and kept closed up in strong pickle ; soaking them to freshen them before they are dressed. Green peas are shelled, scalded repeatedly, drained, dried in cloths, spread on plates, and put in a cool oven, and afterwards hung up in paper-bags to harden ; soak them before they

CHAP. Vll. VEGETABLES AND ROOTS. 227

are used. After all this trouble they are but the ghosts of green peas. They may also be scalded, bot- tled., covered with clarified butter, corked up, and the corks dipped in rosin ; but nothing will preserve the sweet flavour and marrowy substance of the young pea. Cabbages, lettuce, greens, endive, leeks, cauli- flower, & c., if carefully removed in dry weather from the ground, without injuring the roots too much, and laid in a cold cellar, or on a stone floor, covering the roots with earth or sand, will keep through the win- ter, even when the frost might destroy them if left in the garden; and this we conceive the best mode of preservation.

TO STORE FRUITS OF DIFFERENT KINDS.

This art is now so well understood, that in spring and early summer, apples, and even pears, are seen as plump and fresh as in the autumn when they were gathered.

Gather the fruits when just ready to drop off easily, but not over-ripe — do not bruise the fruit in gather- ing— lay it to sweat for a week in heaps, covered with mats, flannels, &c. Wipe each apple or pear, one by one, and place them in glazed stone-ware gal- lon jars, bedded in fine sifted sand, dried in an oven ; fill up the jars with sand. Pack each sort by itself, label the jars and close them, and keep them in an airy loft, but protect from frost by covering them with a thick linen cloth.

N. B. — Eggs, fruit, and other things packed in straw acquire a very musty flavour. This, which is called being strarv-iasled, may be avoided by using dried fern for packing.

223

CHAPTER VIII.

SAUCE S, ESSENCES, AND CONDIMENTS.

“ Elements ! each other greeting,

“ Gifts and Powers attend your meeting !”

Pirate.

“ It is the duty of a good sauce,” says one of the most recondite of modern gastrologers, the Editor of the Al- manack des Gourmands , “ to insinuate itself all round the maxillary glands, and call into activity each ra- mification of the palatic organs. If it be not relishing , it is incapable of producing this effect, and if too pi- quant, it will deaden instead of exciting those titilla- tions of tongue and vibrations of palate, which can only be produced by the most accomplished philoso- phers of the mouth on the well-trained palate of the refined gourmet.” This, we think, is a tolerably cor- rect definition of what a well-compounded sauce ought to be.

The French, among our other insular distinctions, speak of us as a nation “ with twenty religions and only one sauce,” — parsley and butter, by the way, is this national relish, — and unquestionably English cookery, like English manners, has ever been much simpler than that of our neighbours. Modern cook- ery too, like modern dress, is stripped of many of its original tag-rag fripperies. We have laid aside lace and embroidery, save upon occasions of high ce- remonial, and, at the same time, all omne-gatherum compound sauces and ragouts, with a smack of every thing. Yet the human form and the human palate have not lost by this revolution. The harmonies of flavours, the affinities and coherence of tastes, and the art of blending and of opposing relishes, were never so well understood as now ; for the modern kitchen 9

CHAP. VIII. SAUCES, ESSENCES, &C. 229

•still affords, in sufficient variety, the sharp, the pun- gent, the sweet, the acid, the spicy, the aromatic, and the nutty flavours, of which to compound mild, sa- voury, or piquant sauces, though a host of ingredients are laid aside.

The elegance of a table, as opposed to mere lum- bering sumptuousness, or vulgar luxury, is perhaps best discovered in the adaptation of the sauces to the meats served, and in their proper preparation and at- tractive appearance. Plain Sauces ought to have, as their name imports, a decided character ; so ought the •sweet and the savoury. All Sauces should he served hoi , — a matter too often neglected in the hurry of dish- ing and serving dinner. Sauces with which cream and eggs are mixed must be diligently stirred after these ingredients are added, to prevent their curdling, and suffered to warm through, but not to boil. The •same care must be taken in mixing capers and all acid pickles in sauce. Though it is wilful waste to put wine, catsup, lemon-juice, aromatic spices, and other t expensive ingredients, into sauces for more than the ' time necessary to extract the flavour, yet, on the other hand, these things must be infused or boiled long enough to be properly blended, both in substance and flavour, with the basis of the sauce. The previous concoction must also be duly attended to, whether at the mincing-board, in the mortar, or saucepan. As a general rule, brown sauces should be thinner than white. Cream should be boiled before mixing.

The receipts we have given in this important branch of the art are ample, various, and circumstantial, and have been diligently considered. We do not, however, pretend, either in this chapter or any other, to fix the precise quantities of ingredients ; but we have tried to hit the medium, as far as was possible in a matter where men differ so widely and intolerantly, that —

“ The very dish one relishes the best,

“ Is tasteless or abomination to the rest.”

The basis, or, more correctly, the vehicle of most English sauces, is butter, whether melted, oiled, browned, or burnt ; or gravy, clear, brown, or thickened; also water, milk, cream, and wine, or some

K

230

CHAP. VIII. SAUCES, ESSENCES, &C.

substitute. A numerous class of sauces is composed of vegetables and green fruits, another of shell-fish, and a third of meat. There are still other sauces com- pounded of an admixture of all these ingredients. It will simplify arrangement to take these in regular order ; though the philosophers of the kitchen, it must be owned, shake themselves tolerably free of the tram- mels of system.

TO MELT BUTTER PLAIN, Or for Sauces.

Break the butter in small bits, and put it into a small saucepan, (kept for this and other delicate uses,) with cream, sweet milk, or water, or a mixture of either, in the proportion of a small spoonful to the ounce of butter. Dredge a little flour or potato-mucilage over it, and, holding the vessel over the fire, toss it quickly round, till the butter melts into the consistence of a very thick cream. Let it boil up and no more. This is the French sauce blanche.

Obs. — A spoonful of catsup, and a little vinegar fla- voured or plain, converts this extempore into a good fish-sauce ; — a tea-spoonful of mustard, where suit- able, will heighten the relish.

Butter will, from its bad quality, sometimes run to oil in spite of the most vigilant cook. In this case it is the practice to put a little cold water to it, and to pour it rapidly backwards and forwards from the saucepan into a basin, which will partially restore it. Melted butter to be mixed with flavoured vinegars, catsups, and thin essences, should be made very thick, and melted with water and flour only, as milk is apt to coagulate ; and the vinegars, capers, pickles, &c., must be carefully stirred in, just before the sauce is served, to prevent it from curdling. Butter, on the contrary, into which minced egg, or herbs which thicken, are to be stirred, should be thin when melt- ed, as the other ingredients will thicken it. — To cla- rify Butter, see page 123.

Oiled Butter. — Set the saucepan over a slow fire, or at the side of it, and it will oil of itself. Let it settle, and pour it from the milky sediment.

To brown or burn Blitter. — Put a large piece of butter into a small frying-pan, and toss it round over

231

CHAP. VIII. SAUCES, ESSENCES, &C.

a brisk fire till it becomes brown. Skim it, dredge in lightly-browned flour, and stir it briskly round with an iron spoon, till it boils and is smooth. A little vinegar or lemon-juice, with cayenne, &c., makes this a good plain fish-sauce.

TO MELT BUTTER WITH CREAM.

Let a half-pound of butter well broken melt in a glass- ful of sweet cream. This is used for lobster or oyster sauces, for turbot, turkey, &c. when the sauce is to be presented in the very highest style of cookery.

ROUX,* BROWN AND WHITE, TO THICKEN SAUCES, &C.

White Roux. — Melt some good butter slowly, and stir into it, over embers, the best sifted flour, till it is as thick as a thin but firm paste. Stir it over the slow fire for a quarter of an hour, but do not let it get brown.

Brown Roux. — Melt what quantity of butter you like, very slowly. Stir into this browned flour, till of a proper consistence. Small cooking will make the Roux if the flour is browned previously ; and this will prevent the danger of the empyreumatic flavour, which, by the common methods, and even this French method, is inseparable from browning made of but- ter, t Pour the Roux into an earthen dish, and keep it for use. It will keep a long while, but we conceive the method of having the flour browned better, as it will keep for ever.

* This thickening, or roux , as the French term it, comes in place of our extempore butter kneaded in flour, and of our hastily-made browning — “ a wretched resource,” of which the mere name drives a French cook in England au desespoir. Jesting apart, the pre-

Sared roux is certainly superior to our insular, off-hand, kneaded our, which often communicates a musty flavour, at any rate a taste of flour to the sauce thickened. We gladly and gratefully adopt the French Roux. — P. T.

+ We find no account of this simple and useful preparation in the many volumes of cookery which we have perused, though it highly merits the attention of the cook. Where browning ox brown thickening is required for any dish, browned flour may be employed with much advantage. It is easily prepared by laying a quantity of flour on a plate, and placing it in an oven, or before the fire, till it takes the shade desired ; for it may be of any tint, from that of cinnamon to the deepness of coffee. Turn it occasionally, that it may colour equally.

232

CHAP. VIII. SAUCES, ESSENCES, &C.

Brown Thickening for Sauces, Ragouts, %• c., another Way. — To make thickening properly is one of the most delicate offices of the cook, and a sort of test of skill. We have heard that the button-hole of a white waistcoat is what shews the accomplished tailor ; and we know that in our burghs a young member of the worshipful craft of baxters cannot attain burghal honours till he has proved his skill by a sey-pud- din,” pried and approved by the elder brethren. Thickening holds the same distinguished rank in the higher mystery of which we treat. Throw slices of clarified or good fresh butter into a shallow frying- pan ; toss it about briskly till it become of a fine amber colour ; skim off the frothy bubbles that float on the surface, and from a dredging-box shake in slightly-browned flour, stirring the composition brisk- ly and incessantly, till it become perfectly smooth, and of the consistence of a thick batter. It must be stirred for at least fifteen minutes. Thickening is best when recently made ; but it will keep for ten days if poured into small jars, and the surface not bro- ken. Put a little of the cullis to it, and mix by de- grees, as if making mustard, till they are thoroughly incorporated. A dessert- spoonful will thicken a sauce- tureen of gravy. In spite of the most vigilant atten- tion, particles of fatty and other matters will some- times, to the great mortification of the cook, be seen floating in the sauce. To remove this, throw a glass- ful of lukewarm water into the thickened sauce, and set the saucepan on the hearth, which will drive those crude particles to the top, when they can be re- moved, and the cook, in serving up a transparent sauce, reap the reward of her toils. This mode of re- fining may also be employed for soups and white sauces ; but be it remembered^ that the watery ordeal, while it contributes to the beauty, injures the flavour of those gusty compositions. — P. T.

THE BEST BEEF-GRAVY, OR JUS DE BCEUF, a Basis for

many Sauces.

For strong gravy we would once more recommend, in place of all other parts of the animal, the lean and

233

CHAP. VIII. — SAUCES, ESSENCES, &C.

juicy. The gelatinous pieces are better adapted for soup than gravy, which is, in fact, the concentrated extract of beef. Ox-kidney is often employed from motives of economy : it makes a high-flavoured and rich-coloured, but not a very delicate gravy. Cut the beef, from four to eight pounds, according to the degree of strength and the quantity wanted, into thin slices ; score them roughly, and placing a thick slice of lean undressed bacon, in a thick-bot- tomed stew-pot, lay the meat over it, with a few bits of butter, or a cupful of fresh gravy. Slice over this a carrot, a couple of onions, a little shalot, a head of celery, and, if a high-flavoured gravy for ragouts be wanted, a couple of bay-leaves, and a bundle of sweet herbs of suitable size. Let the stew-pot be deep and very close-covered. Set it over a sharp fire to catch and brown, and shake it occasionally, to prevent the meat from sticking. When the meat is browned on both sides, and the juices partially drawn out, which will take about half an hour, put in the proper quan- tity of boiling water, allowing a little for waste. Skim it w*ell, — check the boil with cold water, and skim it again and again if needful, — wipe the edges of the stew-pot and lid, and, covering close, let the gravy simmer for three hours by the fire. Strain into an earthen or stone vessel, and keep in a dry cool place.

savoury brown gravy, for brown Sauces, Ragouts , and Fricassees.

This brown savoury gravy, or elementary brown sauce, we conceive equivalent to the grand Espagnole or Italienne rousse of the French kitchen, for every useful purpose. Line the stewpan with slices of ham or bacon, or in their place, four or five pounds of a fillet of veal cut in slices, and moisten it with a ladle- ful or two of good broth, with two carrots and two onions, or double the number, if you for future pur- poses wish this flavour. The juices will soon form a glaze. Take the stewpan off the fire, and prick the meat all over, to obtain all the juices; moisten with any broth you have of gelatinous meat, as poultry, game , rabbits ; season with a faggot of herbs, (pars

234 CHAP. VIII. — SAUCES^ ESSENCES, &C.

ley and young onions especially) and mushrooms, if you have them ; to this add (according to your own judgment) two cloves, a bay-leaf, a bit of garlic, and a head of celery. When ready, allow this or any gravy to settle a few minutes before straining. This gravy may be very conveniently made jugged. Cut down all the ingredients, and put them in a jar ; cover it close, and set it in an oven or over a stove for a half-hour ; add the boiling water, and let the preparation stove slowly till wanted. This gravy may be varied and enriched in many ways, by the addi- tion of red wines, flavoured vinegars, shalot, tarragon, mushrooms, curry-powder, truffles and morells, arti- choke-bottoms, anchovy, pickled oysters; in short, whatever is best fitted to improve and heighten the relish of the dish it is to accompany. Thicken with brown thickening when wanted.

N. B. — Shalot, a lemon sliced, a bay-leaf, two cloves, and a gill of eating-oil, stewed in a ladleful of the above gravy, with pepper, cayenne, and a glass of white wine, make the Italienne rousse, or the Ita- lienne blanche, by using a white instead of a brown sauce.

white gravy-sauce, the French Veloute, or white Cul- lis, the Basis of white Sauces for Vegetables, white Fricassees, fyc.

Put a good piece of the best end of a knuckle of veal into a very well-tinned stewpan, with some good ham, some beef cut to pieces, and whatever trimmings of game or poultry the larder affords. Moisten this with strong broth, put to it three carrots and four onions, parsley, and thyme, some chopped mushroom, but no lemon or acid of any kind. Let the meat sweat, but not brown, and prick it to let the juices flow. When the knuckle is done 'well enough to be served at table, skim the sauce ; strain through a lawn sieve ; boil it again till well reduced, and add to it, on the fire, as much roux blanche , or white thickening, ready prepared, as will make it of a proper consis- tence, rather thick than otherwise, as it can easily be thinned. Now skim it, and boil it once more, stirring

CHAP. VIII. SAUCES, ESSENCES, &C. 235

it, and lifting it in a spoon, and letting it fall con- tinually, to make it smooth and fine ; do this till it cool.

iV. B. — M. Ude, a French professor, substitutes cream for butter in this sauce, and says it is a great improvement. In appearance it certainly must be so.

to thicken butter to keep for Peas, Vegetables,

Salads, fyc.

Cover the bottom of a wide stewpan with water. Put to it ten ounces of butter, and let it gradually melt. Take the stewpan off the fire, and toss it round till the butter becomes smooth. When to be used, heat it in your melting-pan. This and oiled but- ter answer well for salads to those who dislike oil.

Parsley and Butter. — Pick and wash the parsley ; tie it up in a bundle, and boil it for five minutes if young, or seven if old or preserved ; drain it, and, cutting off the stalks, mince the leaves very fine, and stir about a table-spoonful into three ounces of melt- ed butter. This simple English sauce is used for a variety of dishes.

Fennel and Butter, Basil, Burnet, Chervil, Tar- ragon, Cress, and Butter, may all be prepared for sauce, according to this receipt.

Obs. — Tarragon, basil, chervil, rocambole, and bur- net, used as parsley and butter, give -dishes a smack of foreign cookery. We would recommend a very cautious use of burnet and tarragon, unless the taste of those for whom the sauces are prepared be previ- ously ascertained. Less of these high-flavoured herbs must be employed than of parsley ; and it is a good method always to mix a little of this herb with fennel, which is too powerful by itself. Celery or parsley seeds boiled in the water in which butter is melted will give their flavour when the fresh vegetables can- not be got. The flavour of these herbs, where acids are admissible in the sauce, may be communicated in a more elegant form to melted butter by the vinegars with which they are tinctured.

Onion-Sauce. — Peel and throw a dozen of onions into salt and water to prevent their blackening. Boil

235

CHAP. VIII. — SAUCES, ESSENCES, &C.

them in plenty of water, and, if they are very acrid, change the water ; chop them fine, and with a wooden spoon press them through a sieve ; stir them into thin melted butter, and heat up the sauce, or roast them.

Obs. — For tripe, made mustard may be mixed with this sauce, — for smothering rabbits, boiled ducks, &c. cream may be added. Some cooks use veal or clear beef gravy instead of melted butter, and others mash a turnip or apple along with the onions where the fla- vour is thought too strong. Young onions, when very small, may be served whole in the sauce. The French make onion-sauce of cream, and season with nutmeg.

Brown Onion-Sauce. — This is a highly-relishing sauce, suitable to many different dishes, and a gene- ral favourite with thorough-bred gourmands. Slice large mild Spanish onions, brown them in butter over a slow fire, add good brown gravy, pepper, salt, cay- enne, and a bit of butter rolled in brown flour. Skim this, and put in a half-glass of Burgundy, claret, or port, the same quantity of mushroom-catsup ; or, if more suitable to the dish the sauce is to accompany, a dessert-spoonful of walnut-pickle, or shalot- vinegar, to give piquance. Also essence of ham.

Obs. — This standard sauce is susceptible of many va- riations. It may be flavoured with any pungent vine- gar, rendered more poignant by a little minced shalot, onion, or made mustard ; or more mild by using ce- lery, turnip, or cucumber, instead of one-half of the onions.

to dress onions for garnishing Bouilli, $c.

Top and tail small firm silver onions ; blanch and peel them ; stew them in good broth till they look clear and pulpy.

Obs. — If to be browned, do not blanch, but fry them. If for garnishing bouilli, use larger onions; put fire over the stewpan, and let them fall to a glaze. Pour a little broth into the pan to float the glaze, which must be poured over the beef. If the onions are not very mild, put a bit of sugar to the broth.

Sage and Onion Sauce. — Chop together a couple of onions and eight sprigs of sage ; stew them in water

CHAP. VIII. SAUCES, ESSENCES, &C. 237

with salt, and in a few minutes add bread-crumbs ; drain off a little of the water when they are tender, and stir in melted butter, pepper, and, if for goose- stuffing, a little flour, or more crumbs.

Shalot-Sauce. — Chop of shalot what will fill a des- sert-spoon ; give this a scald with hot water in a saucepan, drain and add a half-pint of good gravy or melted butter, pepper, and salt, and, when done, a large spoonful of vinegar. The shalots may be stewed in mutton-broth, with a little butter rolled in flour, and some vinegar, and served with boiled mutton. Shalot-sauce may be made as directed in the receipt for parsley and butter, by merely stirring a little shalot-vinegar, or shalot-wine, into melted but- ter, with salt ; and for roast meat or poultry this is more elegant than sauce of the chopped root. Carrier- sauce for mutton is made by boiling chopped shalots in gravy, sharpened with vinegar, and seasoned with pepper and salt. Shalot enters largely into the com- position of most of the high-flavoured compound sauces.

Garlic-Sauce. — Make this with a spoonful of garlic- vinegar stirred into a half-pint of melted butter ; or chop and pound in a mortar two cloves of garlic with a bit of butter, or a very little oil, and, rubbing the paste through a sieve, simmer it in the butter.

Spanish Garlic-Sauce. — Slice a pound of gravy- beef and a quarter-pound of ham into thin bits, and lay them in a small stewpan, with four cloves of garlic, a carrot sliced, and a bit of butter ; brown these over a very slow fire, turning them to draw out their juices. When browned, put in a quart of clear broth, a faggot of herbs, a little butter rolled in brown flour, four bruised cloves, and a little cayenne; let this simmer for a longtime; skim off the fat, and strain the gravy, which should be reduced to nearly a pint.

Obs. — This is rather an overpowering sauce for English palates, but it is very much relished abroad.*

* The invention of the following garlic-sauce is attributed to Mr Michael Kelly, a musical composer of some celebrity, and

possessed of some skill, it appears, in tne “ Harmonies of Meats.”

For boiled tripe, cow-heels, or calf’s-head, take a spoonful of gar -

K 2

238 , CHAP. VIII. — SAUCES^ ESSENCES; &C.

MUSHROOM-SAUCE; WHITE ,for Fowls, Veal, Rabbits , SfC.

Wash and pick a large breakfast-cupful of small but- ton-mushrooms ; take off the leathery skin; and stew them in veal-gravy, with pepper, cayenne, mace, nut- meg, salt, and a piece of butter rolled in a good deal of flour or arrow-root to thicken, as the abounding gravy of the mushrooms makes them take a good deal of thickening. Stew till tender, stirring them now and then, and pour the sauce over the fowls. Those who like a high relish of mushroom may add a spoon- ful of mushroom-gravy, drawn by salting a few for a night, or a little mushroom-powder.

Obs. — The mushrooms may be stewed in thin cream, and seasoned and thickened as above. Mush- rooms pickled white may supply the place of the fresh for this sauce. Lay them in milk for a little, and add some catsup to the sauce if you do not regard the colour. — See French Mushroom- Sauce.

celery-sauce, white, for boiled Fowls, Turkey, fyc.

Wash, pare, and cut down in thin slices, about two inches long, a head of celery, the younger the better. Blanch or boil it till tender in weak broth or water, and season with pounded mace, nutmeg, grated white pepper, and salt. Thicken it with a good piece of butter kneaded in flour. The juice of a lemon is a great improvement, or, for less delicate purposes, a little lemon-pickle.

Obs . — French cooks stew the celery with suet or fat bacon, and use very little seasoning, which they justly think is unsuitable to celery.

Brown Celery-Sauce. — Stewr and season as in the last receipt, thicken with browned flour, and add a glass of red wine and a spoonful of catsup.

lie-vinegar and a tea-spoonful of made mustard, brown sugar, and black pepper, stir these into a half-pint of oiled butter.

CHAP. VIII. SAUCES, ESSENCES, &C.

239

mint-sauce for hot or cold Roast Lamb.

Wash a small quantity of young mint ; pick off the leaves, and mince them very fine, and mix them in the • sauce-boat, with grated sugar and good vinegar to taste.

cucumber-sauce. — See Stewed Cucumbers.

Sorrel-Sauce. — Stew two handfuls of blanched sor- rel very slowly, with a good bit of butter oiled. Sea- son it with pepper, salt, and cayenne ; add a little strong gravy, and beat it well. Make it very hot, and serve below lamb, veal, sweetbreads, &c.

Tomata-Sauce. — Take from ten to fifteen ripe to- matas, according to the size and quality ; put them into a jar, and set it in a cool oven. When they are soft, take off the skins, pick out the seeds, and mix the pulp with a capsicum, a clove of garlic, and a very little vinegar, ginger, cayenne, white pepper, and salt ; pulp this through a sieve, and simmer it for a few minutes.

Obs. — In this sauce French cooks steAv an onion, a piece of ham, a sprig of thyme, and a bay-leaf, and use top-fat, or a rich cullis, to moisten the ingredients.

Apple-Sauce. — Pare, core, and slice four or five juicy baking apples, and roast or boil them in a sauce- pan, with a little water to keep them from burning, and a bit of lemon-peel and sugar to taste. Let them stew very slowly, taking care they do not burn, and when quite soft, pour off the moisture, and beat them up with pounded sugar to taste, and a small bit of butter. Bread may be added.

Gooseberry-Sauce. — Clip away the tops and tails of a breakfast-cupful of small green gooseberries ; scald them, drain them, and stir them into melted butter, with a little sorrel-juice or vinegar. A little ginger may be added, or the scalded gooseberries may be served mashed with sugar and seasonings.

Caper-Sauce. — Take two table-spoonfuls of capers and a little vinegar. Mince the one-half, and stir the whole of them into a half-pint of melted butter, or of

240 CHAP. VIII.' — SAUCES, ESSENCES, &C.

strong thickened gravy. To prevent the butter from oiling, stir the sauce for some time. When wanted very poignant, lemon-juice may be added to this simple and tasteful sauce, or it may be flavoured with the tarragon or burnet vinegar, instead of plain vinegar. If for fish, as skate, &c. a little essence of anchovy will be found an improvement, with pepper and salt to taste.

Mock Caper-Sauce is made of gherkins or na- sturtiums cut in bits, with lemon-juice and melted butter.

Vinegaret for cold. Meat or Fowl. — Chop young mint, parsley, and shalot together, and mix them up with salt, oil, and good vinegar.

Sauce d. la Tartar. — Add to vinegaret chervil and tarragon, with a little made mustard.

Lemon- Sauce. — Pare a lemon, taking off all the white part ; cut it in thick slices, pick out the seeds, and on a plate cut the slices into dice, and mix them with melted butter, taking care to stir it up lest it oil .

Miser’s Sauce. — Chop two onions, and mix them with pepper, salt, vinegar, and a little melted butter. When made with oil and young onions, add a little parsley and scraped horseradish.

Poor Man’s Sauce, to serve with Turkey Poults or grilled Birds, — a French Sauce. — Mince a little pars- ley and a few shalots. Stew this in broth or wrater, and add vinegar and peppercorns.

Carach-Sauce. — Mix pounded garlic, cayenne, soy, and walnut-pickle in good vinegar.

Bread-Sauce. — Put grated crumbs into a small saucepan, and pour a little of the liquor in which mutton, veal, or fowls was boiled over this. When it has soaked, simmer with a sliced onion, white pep- percorns, salt, and mace; take out the onion and peppercorns, and add melted butter or cream.

Rice-Sauce. — Stew two ounces of rice in milk, with an onion, white peppercorns, and a little salt. Take out the peppercorns and onions, and rub the rice through a colander. Heat this up with more milk or cream, and flavour it to taste. This looks whiter, but it is not so light as bread-sauce. Butter may be put to it.

CHAP. VIII. — SAUCES, ESSENCES, &C.

241

SAUCES FOR POULTRY AND GAME.

Most of the common sauces for poultry have already been described. These are principally egg-sauce, bread-sauce, rice-sauce, lemon-sauce, celery-sauce, gooseberry-sauce, &c. &c. ; but a few of the more rich and elegant still remain to be described.

Pleydel’s Sauce for Game , or Orange Gravy. — A . half-pint of claret, and the same quantity of good brown gravy, see page 1 10. — Make the gravy boil, put the wine to it, with pepper, salt, cayenne, and the juice of two Seville oranges, or one orange and a lemon. Let them simmer for a few minutes, and pouring some over the game, serve the rest very hot in a sauce-boat.

Obs. — This makes an elegant sauce for any sort of fowl. A French cook would use the thin rind or zest of lemon and less of the juice.

Pleydel’s Sauce for Wild Duck, Teal, Widgeons, $fc. — To a large quarter-pint of savoury brown gravy, put a glass of claret or port, pepper, salt, cayenne, and a dessert-spoonful of finely-shred shalot. Make this hot, and pour it over the ducks.

Obs. — In making this sauce for the oily, rank, and fishy-tasted water-fowl, made mustard may be added, and a higher seasoning of shalot and onion, with wal- nut-pickle, or a little essence of anchovy. Wild geese, solan geese, mallards, &c. require a very pun- gent sauce.

Dr Hunter’s Sauce for cold Partridge, or cold Meat of any kind.' — Beat up the yolk of a hard egg with oil and vinegar ; add a little anchovy-liquor, some cayenne pepper, salt, parsley, and shalot, both

[chopped small.

Obs. — This is a good extemporaneous sauce, and of small price. It is excellent for cold lobster.

Redgill’s Sauce for Stubble Goose, roasted Pork, or Pork Chops, also called Dr Hunter’s Sauce.- — Make a quarter-pint, or rather more, of savoury brown gravy, or melted butter very hot ; thicken it with a little browned flour, and put to it a large glass of claret or port wine, a large tea-spoonful of made mus-

242

CHAP. VIII,' — SAUCES, ESSENCES, &C.

tard, a little salt, pepper, and cayenne. Simmer it a few minutes, and serve it very hot.

Obs. — The wine may be supplied by mushroom or walnut pickle occasionally, and a little chopped green sage may be added. Hard yolks of eggs rubbed smooth make a good variety of the above.

Sauce Robert, for Pork Cutlets or Geese. — Brown four or five onions very finely shred, in a small sauce- pan, with a good piece of butter. When of a fine rich brown, mix in a table-spoonful of browned flour, one of mushroom-catsup, and another of red wine, with a half-pint of broth, a salt-spoonful of pepper, and one of salt, and a tea-spoonful of made mustard, with the juice of a lemon, or a dessert-spoonful of Chili vinegar.

Obs. — This sauce is named after the inventor, as we say, cutlets Maintenon, or Sandwiches. It is a very favourite sauce. Tarragon vinegar will give it the flavour of the French kitchen, which to some gour- mands may be a recommendation even as an accom- paniment to English fare. This sauce is eaten with rump-steaks, whether stewed or broiled. Pour it hot over them, and garnish with scraped horseradish, or fried parsley.

cheap white sauce, for fricasseed Rabbits, Fowls, Veal, Whitings, tf'c.

/

To a half-^pint of the liquor in which fowls, veal, or trimmings of these have been boiled, put a bit of lemon-peel, an onion sliced, a few white peppercorns, a little pounded mace and nutmeg, and a small bunch of lemon-thyme, basil, and parsley. When the sauce is well-flavoured, strain it, add a little rich cream, a bit of butter rolled in flour, and; last of all, a squeeze of lemon, taking care to stir the sauce lest the cream curdle. Pour it over the fricassee.

Lemon and Liver Sauce for FojvIs. — Parboil the liver, having first washed and scored it ; mince it very fine. Pare a lemon very thin, as if for punch ; take off the white part, and cut the lemon into small dice, picking out the seeds. Mince about a fourth part of the peel very fine, and put these ingredients, with a

CHAP. VIII. SAUCES, ESSENCES, &C. 243

little salt, to a half-pint of melted butter. Let them heat up, but not boil, lest the butter oil.

Obs. — Liver and parsley sazice is a good common sauce, and is made by parboiling the parsley and liver, and, after they are minced, stirring them in melted butter.

The Marquis’s Sauce for Wild Fowls. — A glass of claret, a spoonful of catsup, the same of lemon-juice, a minced shalot, a few thin slices of lemon-rind, four grains of the best cayenne pepper, two blades of mace pounded, and a large spoonful of the essence sold at the shops under the name of Sauce d la Russe. Sim- mer these ingredients for a few minutes, and then strain them to the gravy which comes from the wild fowl in roasting. Place the fowl on a dish heated by a lamp, and cut it up, so that the gravy as it flows out may simmer with the sauce.

Obs. — The above preparation is very much admir- ed. The gravy of wild fowl is often scanty ; but but- ter, or even meat-gravy, would hurt the wild flavour a little. Game-gravy may, however, be made by par- roasting, and then stewing a partridge, by those who hesitate at no expense in the gratification of the palate. This essence of game, French artists procure by slow- ly stewing the cut birds in a vessel closely covered, till they yield a strong consomme.

VENISON-SAUCES.

Venison may have a sweet, a sharp, or a savoury sauce. Sharp Sauce. — A quarter-pound of the best loaf-sugar, or white candy, dissolved in a half-pint of Champagne vinegar, and carefully skimmed. Sweet Sauce. — Melt some white or red currant-jelly with a glass of white or red wine, whichever suits best in co- lour ; or serve jelly unmelted in a small sweetmeat- glass. This sauce answers well for hare, fawn, or kid. Gravy for Venison. — Make a pint of gravy of trim- mings of venison, or shanks of mutton. Broil the meat on a quick fire till it is browned, then stew it slowly. Skim, strain, and serve the gravy, adding a little salt and a tea-spoonful of walnut-pickle. Savoury Venison Sauces , see page 99.

244

CHAP. VIII. — SAUCES, ESSENCES, &C.

turtle store-sauce, to flavour Ragouts , Hashes, savoury P allies, Soups, Pies, fyc.

A quarter-pint of strong mushroom-catsup, the same of basil-wine and of shalot-wine, a large glass- ful of the essence of anchovies, an ounce of lemon- peel sliced thin, concrete of lemon one drachm, and the same quantity of the best cayenne. Infuse for ten days, strain off and bottle the essence, which is very powerful.

turtle-sauce, for Calf’s Head or Feet, stewed Knuckle of Veal, Gristles, fyc. fyc.

% ~

To a pint of beef or veal gravy add two spoonfuls of the turtle store-sauce, and a little essence of anchovy.

store-sauce, to flavour the Gravy of Steaks, Chops, or roast Meat.

Infuse in a half-pint of walnut-pickle, and the same quantity of mushroom or oyster catsup, a half-ounce of Jamaica pepper in fine powder, with four grains of cayenne, half an ounce of scraped horseradish, and the same weight of minced shalot. Let these ingre- dients steep ten days, and strain and bottle them. A spoonful of essence of anchovy may be added, or a little bruised mustard-seed.

Obs. — This is a cheap and high-flavoured relish, and will be found useful at all times for seasoning either melted butter or the gravy that flows from chops, steaks, &c.

currie-sauce.

This sauce is plainly made by mixing currie-powder with melted butter. It is more generally relished if mixed in white onion-sauce ; or, if wanted of high flavour, with brown onion gravy-sauce. When liked more piquant. Chili vinegar may be added to the sauce.

Obs. — Imitations of the Indian currie-powder are

245

CHAP. VIII. — SAUCES, ESSENCES, &C.

frequently attempted, and succeed as far as is possible, considering that some of the seeds and spices are used green in compounding the genuine powder, and that in this country they are necessarily all dried. French cooks use saffron to colour currie-sauce, boiling the saffron, and rubbing it through a search. Where a bright colour is desirable, a tincture of saffron is less offensive than an over- dose of turmeric. Saffron is often used to colour cakes, puddings, &c. ; but should be used with caution.

a cheap general sauce for Hashes of Beef and

Mutton.

Make a gravy from the broken bones, gristles, and other trimmings laid aside when you cut down the meat. In this boil two onions, a faggot of parsley, or a little of the seed, a head of celery, or a little seed, a few sprigs of herbs, and a tea-spoonful of black and Jamaica peppercorns. Thicken this gravy with browned flour, and season with any thing convenient and economical that can be spared ; for hash, though it may be good and savoury, is understood to be a frugal dish. Pickle-liquor, whether of onions, mush- rooms, oysters, or walnuts, will answer very well ; so will a little catsup, or shalot-vinegar ; or a little currie-powder will cheaply give that favourite flavour to the hash. A few chopped pickled walnuts, nastur- tiums, or gherkins, are employed by some cooks, though we cannot recommend hard cut pickles in any made dish. They immediately lose their flavour when mixed with the sauce, and cause a “ sharp encounter” of the teeth, which is far from desirable. — See Hashes.

•

white hash-sauce, for Veal roasted or minced, or

for Fowls.

Take the bones, gristles, and white trimmings of the meat, and stew them in clear weak broth or water, a small onion, and a good piece of thinly-sliced lemon- peel, salt, a blade of mace, or a few white peppercorns. Thicken the gravy with flour or potato-starch rolled in butter, and when it is boiled quite smooth, let it

246 CHAP. VIII. — SAUCES, ESSENCES, &C.

settle, and strain it. A good squeeze of lemon, and a little fresh lemon-grate is the only additional season- ing we could recommend ; a spoonful of good cream may be added ; and for fowls, a little more mace and less acid. This may be made a currie-hash , by add- ing a small dessert-spoonful of currie-powder, and withholding the lemon grate and peel.

Bechamel, or White Sauce. — Cut two pounds of the lean of a breast or knuckle of white veal, and a quar- ter-pound of lean fresh bacon, into small bits. Melt some butter in a well-tinned deep stewpan, and put in the meat to draw a little, and to whiten, not to brown. Mix two spoonfuls of white potato-starch or rice-flour very smooth with fair water, and then put in a quart of clear broth made of veal, or as much pure water or milk. Let this stew very gently with the meat over a chafing-dish, or by the side of the fire, for an hour and a half, having first seasoned it with a tea-spoonful of white peppercorns, an onion, and a few sprigs of parsley, lemon-thyme, and a bit of lemon- peel. Let the sauce settle, strain it, and stir in rich sweet cream. Bring it to boil, and strain it once more.

Obs. — A cheaper white sauce to pour over boiled fowls may be made of broth and sweet milk, thicken- ed and seasoned as above, and the yolk of an egg well beat stirred briskly into it when just ready. A few mushrooms will improve this sauce if for fowls. The Bechamel, before the cream is added, is white cullis, fit for white ragouts, fricassees, and hashes of veal. It is also a rich basis for all savoury white sauces, and for dressed vegetables.

custard-sauce for Rice , Bread, Sago, or Custard Puddings, or Fruit Pies.

Stir a pint of sweet cream in a very clean saucepan till it comes to boil. Mix in the beat yolks of two eggs with a drop of cold cream, and some fine-pounded sugar put to it ; pour backwards and forwards from the saucepan to a basin to prevent curdling, and let it just come to the eve of boiling, constantly stirring it. Serve the sauce in a china basin, and grate a little nutmeg on the top of it. Butter and flour may be added.

CHAP. VIII.— -SAUCES., ESSENCES, &C. 247

Sauce for a Plum or Ma rrow Pudding. — A glass of white wine, a half-glass of brandy or old rum, or rum- shrub, pounded sugar to taste, the grate of a lemon, and a little cinnamon, stirred into a little thickened melted butter ; sprinkle a little cinnamon on the top.

pudding-sauce, — A Store-Sauce.

•

A pint of canary, sherry, or Madeira, a quarter-pint of old rum (pine-apple is best), or of good brandy ; a quarter-pint of Curajjoa, a half-ounce of good lemon- peel, the same quantity of Seville orange-peel, and half an ounce of mace. Infuse this for ten days, shaking the bottle every day. Strain it, and add a half-pint of rich clarified syrup. Bottle for use. This may be mixed with wine, cream, thin syrup, eau sucre, &c. for a sauce to puddings and sweet made-dishes.

essence or ham, — or Ham-Sauce.

This may be bought in London and other large cities. In country situations, a highly-flavoured gravy, which makes a great improvement to other gravies, may be made by breaking ham-bones to pieces, and cutting doAvn all the good pickings left on them. Let this just catch over a slow fire for a quarter of an hour, adding butter or meat-gravy (jelly-gravy if you have it), and stirring it lest the meat and bones burn. When the ham has been treated in this way some time, add broth, a bundle of sweet herbs, and onion and peppercorns ; strain it for use.

Obs. — A few receipts for Sauces will be found along with the receipts for the dishes they are to accompany. Gravy-sauce for roast-meat, pages 97 and 99. Sauce for tripe and cow-heel, page 88. Sauce for a pig, page 97- Sauce for pork-chops, page 120.

248

CHAP. VIII. — SAUCES, ESSENCES, &C-

SAUCES OF SHELL-FISH, AND FISH SAUCES.

LOBSTER SAUCE, OR CRAB SAUCE, for Turbot, SfC.

For sauce you must have a Acre-lobster, fresh (alive if possible), and full of spawn. When boiled, pound the spawn and coral with a bit of butter, or a very little oil. Rub this through a sieve into a sufficient quantity of melted butter, and mix it smooth. Cut the meat of the tail, &c. into small dice, and put these to the sauce, which may be heated up, but not boiled. This sauce is rendered more piquant by anchovies pounded, catsup, spices, walnut or lemon-pickles, &c. ; but for fresh fish it is certainly better unmixed with overpowering foreign flavours. Besides, these addi- tions can be made extempore at table.

Crab Sauce is made nearly as above. Pick the meat from the great and small claws, and a little of the soft inside when not watery ; stir this into melted butter.*

Obs. — Lobsters for sauce may be preserved potted ; and the live spawn may be kept in brine, or in an ice- house.— Sauces for Lobsters, page 197- A sprinkling of the red coral rubbed through a sieve makes a pret- ty garnish to turbot, holibut, or other white fish.

Sauce a V Aur ore. — This kind of lobster-sauce is made of the spawn only. Pound the spawn with butter ; rub it through a coarse sieve, and thin it with a little clear broth ; season it with salt, pepper, and lemon-juice.

Obs. — This is served in France with trout or soles.

Oyster- Sauce, for boiled Turkey, Fish, SfC. — Open the oysters when you are just ready to make the sauce ; save their liquor, strain it, and put it to them, and give them a scald in it, and a soft boil. Pour them into a basin, and, after picking and beard- ing them one by one, return them into a stewpan, in which there must be in the proportion of half a pint

* The inside meat of the small crabs, or cavies, make most deli- cate sauce, inferior only in name to lobster-sauce — P. T.

CHAP. VIII. — SAUCES, ESSENCES, &C. 249

of very thick melted butter to two dozen of oysters, or to eighteen large cut ones. Strain the liquor over them, and, letting them come to boil, set them by the side of the fire that they may become tender, for quick boiling hardens oysters. When ready, stir in a little cream. A squeeze of lemon-juice is a simple and tasteful addition. Some cooks add mace, nut- meg, anchovy, &c. when a piquanie sauce is wanted.

Obs. — In oyster-sauce, it is a frequent and good practice, both from reasons of economy and palatic motives, to serve the oysters in one sauce-tureen, and melted butter in another. The quantities can then be mixed on the plate of each guest, and the oysters left be afterwards grilled, scalloped, &c. French cooks put flour and milk to oyster-sauce, and very little butter. Our English oyster-sauce is much superior.

Shrimp-Sauce and Cockle-Sauce. — Shell them care- fully, wash them carefully, and boil them in very thick melted butter for a minute. A squeeze of le- mon is the only addition we can recommend for shrimps, though various pungent flavours are often added to this simple sauce.

Anchovy- Sauce. — Bone and pound four anchovies very smooth with a bit of butter ; stir this into thick melted butter, in the proportion of three anchovies to the half-pint, or melt them in vinegar or wine.

Obs. — This is a sauce which ought to be piquant ; the cook is therefore at liberty to make whatever additions she pleases ; — cayenne, soy, essence of an- chovy, lemon-pickle, horseradish, mustard, shalot, nasturtiums, vinegars ; in short, the whole circle of the pungent and sharp flavours may be pressed into the service. When a compound or double-relish sauce is to be made, we would recommend brown gravy-sauce, for the basis instead of plain melted butter. — To re- fresh Anchovies, see page 206.

Liver-Sauce for Fish. — Boil the liver by itself ; take away all fibres and black parts that attach to it, and pound it in a mortar. Boil it up in thin melted but- ter with cayenne, and sharpen with lemon-juice, or lemon cut in dice. If a higher gout is wanted, add soy, essence of anchovy, or catsup, instead of lemon - juice.

250 CHAP. VIII. — SAUCES; ESSENCES; &C.

A plain Sauce for Fish. — Melt some butter in wa- ter and vinegar; add the liver boiled and chopped; and thicken with the yolk of an egg and flour. Mus- tard; a tea-spoonful of catsup or walnut-pickle; is a cheap pungent addition to the above.

Egg Sauce for salt Fish, roasted Poultry, fyc. — Boil three or four eggs for a quarter of an hour. Dip them in cold water; and roll them quickly under your hand to make the shell come easily off. Cut the yolks by themselves into little half-inch cubes; and cut the white of one egg in the same manner. Stir first the white and then the yolk into thinnish melted butter in the tureen. — For Sauces to Fish-Pies, see page 195.

Mackerel Roe Sauce. — Boil two or three soft roes ; take away the filaments that hang about them; and bruise them with the yolk of an egg. Stir this into a little thin parsley, or fennel and butter, and add a little vinegar, or walnut-pickle, with pepper and salt.

Admiral's Sauce. — Chop an anchovy, a dozen ca- pers, and four or five shalots or rocamboles ; simmer them in melted butter till the anchovy dissolves ; sea- son with pepper and salt ; and when ready, add the juice of a lemon, and grated nutmeg.

Grill Sauce. — Thicken some good brown gravy with butter and browned flour to the consistence of a batter ; add to it a spoonful of walnut-catsup, the juice of a lemon, a tea-spoonful of made mustard, and a dozen chopped capers, a tea-spoonful of the essence of anchovies, a bit of shalot finely minced, a few grains of cayenne, and a tea-spoonful of grated rind of lemon. Simmer these ingredients for a few minutes, and pouring a little over the grill, serve the rest in a tu- reen. This compound piquant .sauce will suit several kinds of white fish, such as skate, holibut, &c. to those who like a highly-stimulating relish. It is ap- propriate to Devils of all orders.

Dutch Fish-Sauce. — Equal quantities of water and vinegar, boiled, seasoned, and thickened with beat yolk of egg, and sharpened with a good squeeze of lemon ; do not beat it after the egg is added, or it will curdle. Stew it well, but it must not boil.

An excellent Store English Fish-Sauce. — A half-pint

3

CHAP. VIII. SAUCES, ESSENCES, &C. 251

oi claret or red port, a half-pint of mountain or Rhenish, and another of walnut-catsup, a large glass- ful of walnut-pickle, the grate and juice of two le- mons, a dozen well-flavoured mellow anchovies pound- ed and dissolved by the side of the fire, three shalots chopped, a good relish of cayenne, four large spoon- fuls of scraped horseradish, a few blades of mace, and a dessert-spoonful of mustard, rubbed down with the anchovy-liquor, of which the more you have the better. Boil this composition slowly for a few mi- nutes, mixing in the ingredients according to the de- licacy of their flavour and their solubility. Bottle it when cold in small bottles ; cork them well, and dip in rosin. This is an expensive but a very rich fish- sauce. It may be made with water in which herbs may be previously boiled, and vinegar substituted for wine. It will keep longer if, instead of fresh lemon- rind and juice, citric-acid and lemon-peel are used. A tea-spoonful of the above will convert two ounces of melted butter into a well-flavoured extemporaneous sauce ; or it may be mixed on the plate like essence of anchovy, soy, &c.

The General’s Sauce, a Store-Sauce for Fish or Meat. — Chop six shalots, a clove of garlic, with two bay-leaves, a few sprigs of lemon-thyme and leaves of basil, with a few bits of the peel of a Seville orange. Bruise a quarter of an ounce of mace and cloves, a half-ounce of long pepper, and add two ounces of salt, a quarter-pint of vinegar, and a pint of Madeira, with a half-glass of verjuice, and the juice of two lemons. Infuse these ingredients in a stone jar, very closely stopped, and let it stand over embers, or by the side of the fire, or in a bain-marie for a night. Pour it quietly from the lees, and strain it, and bottle as other essences. This is a high compound relish, and must be used in moderation with gravy or melted butter. 10

Dr Redgill’s Sauce Piquanle, for Fish or cold Meat. — Pound a large spoonful of scraped horse- radish, four shalots, a clove of garlic, a drachm of mustard, and one of celery-seed, with salt and a high relish of cayenne, Jamaica and black pepper. When well pounded, mix with these ingredients a half-pint

252

CHAP. VIII — SAUCES, ESSENCES, &C.

of cucumber- vinegar, a quarter-pint of shalot, and ti, same quantity of horseradish-vinegar. Let these in- fuse in a close-stopped jar by the fire for a few days, and strain and bottle in small vials for use.

Quin’s* Fish-Sauce , a Store-Sauce. — Two glasses of claret and two of walnut-pickle, with four of mush- room-catsup ; six pounded anchovies Avith their pickle, and six shalots pounded; a half-glass of soy, black and cayenne pepper. Let this simmer slowly by the side of the fire till the bones of the anchovies dissolve. Strain it off, and when cold bottle for use.t

'* Had this great man lived now, he would, we think, instead of so much heavy catsup and coarse walnut-pickle, have adopted some delicately-flavoured vinegar as a substitute for about the one- half of these ingredients, — such as eschalot or burnet-vinegar, or even fiery horseradish -tincture. As a mere untravelled practical Englishman, and, moreover, of the old school, Quin, no doubt, ranks high in the lists of gastronomy ; but he is completely distanc- ed by many moderns, both in love for and knowledge of the science. Among the most noted of the moderns we beg to introduce our readers to Mr Rogerson, an enthusiast and a martyr. He, as may be presumed, tvas educated at that University where the rudi- ments of palatic science are the most thoroughly impressed on the ductile organs of youth. His father, a gentleman of Gloucestershire, sent him abroad to make the grand tour, upon which journey, says our informant, young Rogerson attended to nothing but the va- rious modes of cookery, and methods of eating and drinking luxuri- ously. Before his return his father died, and he entered into the possession of a very large monied fortune, and a small landed estate. He was now able to look over his notes of epicurism, and to discover where the most exquisite dishes were to be had, and the best cooks

Erocured. He had no other servants in his house than men cooks : is butler, footman, housekeeper, coachman, and grooms, were all cooks, fie had three Italian cooks, one from Florence, another from Sienna, and a third from Viterbo, for dressing one dish, the doccr piccante of Florence. He had a messenger constantly on the road between Brittany and London, to bring him the eggs of a certain sort of plover, found near St Maloes. He has eaten a single dinner at the expense of fifty-eight pounds, though himself only sat down to it, and there were but two dishes. He counted the minutes between meals, and seemed totally absorbed in the idea, or in the action of eating, yet his stomach was very small : it was the exquisite flavour alone that he sought. In nine years he found his table dreadfully abridged by the ruin of his fortune, and himself hastening to pover- ty. This made him melancholy, and brought on disease, when totally ruined (having spent near ฃ150,000), a friend gave him a guinea to keep him from starving ; and he was found in a garret soon after roasting an ortolan with his own hands. We regret to add, that a few days afterwards this extraordinary youth shot him- self. We hope that his notes are not lost to the dining world.

+ Gastronomers will feel a natural desire to know what was con- sidered the “ best universal sauce in the world” in the boon days

253

CHAP. VIII. — SAUCES, ESSENCES, &C.

Dr Kitchener’s Fish Sauce Superlative, a Store Sauce. — A pint of claret, a pint of mushroom-catsup, and half a pint of walnut-pickle ; four ounces of pounded anchovy, an ounce of fresh lemon-peel pared thin, and the same quantity of shalot and scraped horseradish; an ounce of black pepper and allspice, and a drachm of cayenne, or three of currie-powder, with a drachm of celery-seed. Infuse these in a wide- mouthed bottle closely stopped for a fortnight, and shake the mixture every day, then strain and bottle it for use. A large spoonful of this stirred into a quarter-pint of thickened melted butter “ makes," says the Doctor, “ an admirable extemporaneous sauce.”* *

Ohs. — This will be found more expensive than the fish-sauce of Harvey or Burgess; the composition of which, so far as such high mysteries are accessible to ordinary mortals, is not materially different from the above, or from the piquant fish-sauces for which we have given receipts, save that more anchovies, and probably fewer expensive seasonings and less wine are employed. The extensive sales, and the complete apparatus of these sauce-chemists, enable them to sell compound essences cheaper than they could be pre- pared in any private family.

We have been rather diffuse on the subject of sauces for fish, in the persuasion that this aliment, from its insipidity and softness of texture, requii'es savoury

of Charles II., at least what was accounted such by the Duke of Y ork, who was instructed to prepare it by the Spanish ambassador. It consisted of parsley, and a dry toast pounded in a mortar with vine-

far, salt, and pepper. The modern English would no more relish his Loyal Highness’ taste in condiments than in religion. A fashion- able or Cabinet dinner of the same period consisted of “ a dish of marrow-bones, a leg of mutton, a dish of fowl, three pullets, and a dozen larks, all in a dish ; a great tart, a neat’s tongue, a dish of anchovies, a dish of prawns, and cheese.” At the same period, a supper -dish, when the King supped with his mistress, Lady Cas- tlemaine, was “ a chine of beef roasted.”

* The above sauce was analyzed with great care by the Cleikum Club at sundry sittings. Redgiei. approved of it in toto, the Nabob suggested a little more cayenne, and Jekyee more wine and less catsup, with the substitution of lemon-pickle for walnut pickle.

L

254

CHAP. Vlir. — SAUCES, ESSENCES, &C.

and stimulating accompaniments more than any other kind of food.*

STUFFING AND FORCEMEAT.

Receipts for these are given for the convenience of the cook along with the dishes for which they are employed. See pages 96, 100, 104, 106, 112, &c. ; and fish-forcemeat, p. 182, 189.

anchovy butter, — for Anchovy Toasts, Deviled Biscuit, Sfc.

Bone, wash, and pound fresh mellow anchovies in a mortar, and pressing into small potting-cans, cover them with clarified butter. If for deviled biscuit, a little cayenne may be added.

anchovy-powder, for flavouring Sauces, or sprink- ling on Anchovy Toasts or Sandwiches .

Pound the fish in a mortar, rub them through a hair sieve, and make them into thin cakes, with flour and a little flour of mustard. Toast the cakes very dry, rub to poAvder, and keep in well-stopt bottles.

Obs. — Instead of flour of mustard, citric acid and grated dry lemon-peel may be added when the an- chovy-cakes are baked.

Mushroom-Powder. — Peel large fleshy button-mush- rooms, and cut off the stems ; spread them on plates, and dry them in a slow oven. When thoroughly dry, pound them with a little cayenne and pounded mace. Bottle, and keep this in a dry place.

Obs.—1 The dried mushrooms may be be kept hung up in paper-bags without pounding. A tea-spoonful of powder will give the mushroom-flavour to a tureen of soup, or to sauce for poultry, ragouts, hashes, &c. when mushrooms cannot be obtained.

Essence of Cayenne. — Steep half an ounce of good

* Though so many receipts are given for store-sauces, we do not, when proper sauces can be obtained fresh, recommend them either for taste or economy.

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CHAP- VIII. SAUCES, ESSENCES, &C.

j cayenne in a half-pint of strong spirits for a fortnight, and strain and bottle it for use.

Essence of Lemon and Seville Orange Peel. — Rub lumps of sugar on the lemon or orange till the lumps are saturated with the yellow rind. Scrape off what is saturated, and repeat the process till all the rind is got off. Press the sugar down close, and cover it up.

Obs. — Essence of Seville Orange makes a most fra- grant and grateful seasoning to custard, rice, or batter puddings. Qidntessence of lemon or orange peel is made by mixing one drachm of the essential oil of these fruits with a large glassful of rectified spirits, or spirit of wine, and is very convenient when fresh lemons are not to be obtained, though not equal to the fresh fruit either in fragrance or flavour. The oil must be very gradually mixed. Tincture of lemon-peel may be very economically made when lemon-juice is want- ed, by paring the peel off very nicely, and preserving it in brandy. The bottle must be very closely stop- ped, as the flavour of lemon is exceedingly volatile. Essence of Allspice may be made as that of lemon, and so may essence of cloves and mace.

Essence of Ginger. — Infuse three ounces of well- bruised fresh ginger, and an ounce of lemon-peel sliced thin, in a pint and a half of strong rectified spirits. Let it be closely stopped, and shaken every day. This preparation is very cordial and grateful.

Tinctures of Cloves, Nutmeg, Allspice, Cinnamon, งc. may be all prepared by infusing a sufficient quan- tity of the aromatics in strong spirits. They may be converted into plain useful liqueurs by the addition of fine sugar ; but they must then be carefully filtered.

MIXED SPICES AND SEASONINGS.

Cook’s Pepper. — Dry, and pound or grind to a fine powder, an ounce of ginger; and of nutmeg, black and Jamaica pepper, and cinnamon, half an ounce each, with a dozen of cloves. Bottle these in separate vials labelled and well corked, and mix in proper propor- tions with common salt when wanted.

N. B. — French cooks keep their seasonings mixed and even pound them together, not from convenience,

2

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but to blend the flavours intimately, and much may be said for this practice.

cook’s seasonings for White Sauces and Fricassees.

White pepper, nutmeg, mace, and lemon-grate pounded and mixed.

HOUSEHOLD VINEGARS.

Vinegar is an article perpetually wanted for various purposes in almost every family, and, compared with the first cost of the materials, it is a very expensive one. Though we are not perfectly convinced that the labour of the still-room is at all times what economists would call productive labour, we think that vinegar for or- dinary purposes may always be manufactured at home, as it is easily managed on a small scale, may be made of things that would otherwise be lost, and gives little trouble.

Sugar Vinegar. — To every gallon of water put two pounds of coarse raw sugar. Boil and skim this. Put it to cool in a tub, and when sufficiently cold, add to it a slice of bread soaked in fresh yeast. Barrel it in a week, and set in the sun in summer, or by the fire in winter, for six months without stopping the bung- hole ; but cover it with a plate to keep out insects.

Cider Vinegar. — Put a pound of white sugar to the gallon of cider, and, jumbling them well together, let them ferment for four months, and a strong and well- coloured vinegar will be the result.

Gooseberry Vinegar. — To every quart of bruised ripe white or green gooseberries put three quarts of spring water. Stir them well with the water, and let them steep for 48 hours, repeating the stirring. Strain through a flannel-bag, and put two pounds of white pounded sugar to every gallon of liquor. Put it into a barrel with a toast soaked in yeast, leaving the bung-hole as directed above. Keep the barrel in a warm place. White currants or raspberries make an excellent vinegar by following the same receipt. Pick the currants from the stalks.

CHAP. VIII. SAUCES, ESSENCES, &C. 257

Vinegar of Wine Lees .ฆ — Boil the wine-lees quickly for half an hour, skimming it well. Cask it and add some chervil to it. Stop the cask, and in a month it will be fit for use.

Verjuice . — Gather some ripe crab-apples, and lay them in a heap to sweat ; then throw away the stalks and decayed fruit, and having mashed the apples ex- press the juice. A cider or wine press will be useful for this purpose. Strain it, and in a month it will be ready. It is the best simple substitute for lemon- juice that can be found, and answers still better in place of sorrel. The French, for many dishes, pre- fer verjuice to lemon. It is even used by great eco- nomists in preparing lemonade.

Ohs. — It is said that good vinegar may be made in an hour, by steeping green brambleberries in wine. Sour wine will, we have no doubt, be thus made at double the expense of good vinegar ; so that this ex- periment has nothing to recommend it.

Allegar. — This is often made of stale beer, but is best when made of fresh worts, fermented with sour yeast, and set in the sun till the acetous fermentation takes place.

Raisin Vinegar. — After making raisin-wine lay the refuse in a heap to ferment. Add water in the pro- portion of a gallon to the pound of raisins and half- pound of sugar. Put yeast to the liquor when strain- ed.

Obs. — Vinegar makes much more readily if put into a vinegar-cask. A common vinegar may be made of several other things, but the best sorts of vi- negar, champagne and red wine vinegar, must be bought. Ash-leaf vinegar, or crystal acid, is a very clear and beautiful colourless liquid, but it is reckon- ed unwholesome. It is, in short, the pyroligneous acid.

FLAVOURED VINEGARS.

These are a cheap and agreeable addition to sauces,

[hashes, and ragouts, and have the convenience of be- ing always at hand, at seasons when herbs are either very costly or not to be procured.

Chili Vinegar, called Pepper Vinegar. — Infuse a

255 CHAP. VIII. — SAUCES, ESSENCES, &C.

hundred red chilies, fresh gathered, in a quart of the best white- wine vinegar for ten days or more, shaking the bottle occasionally. A half-ounce of genuine cayenne will answer the same purpose. This makes an excellent and cheap addition to plain melted butter for fish, &c.

Eschalot Vinegar. — Clean, peel, and bruise four ounces of shalots at the season when they are ripe without having become acrid. Steep them in a quart of the best vinegar.

Garlic Vinegar. — The same as above, but only half the quantity of chopped garlic.

Celery or Cress Vinegar. — Pound a half-ounce of celery or cress-seed, and steep it for ten days in a quart of vinegar. Strain and bottle.

Cucumber Vinegar. — Pare and slice ten large cu- cumbers, and steep them in three pints of the best vi- negar for a few days. Strain and bottle it.

Obs. — Vinegar of nearly the same flavour may be more cheaply prepared with burnet.

Tarragon Vinegar. — Gather the leaves of tarragon on a dry sunny day ; pick them from the stalks, and filling up a narrow-necked stone-jar, pour the best vinegar over them till the jar is full. Let them infuse for ten days, then strain and bottle the tincture. Basil Vinegar is made precisely as the above. The French add cloves and lemon-rind : we admire this addition.

Horseradish Vinegar. — Pour a quart of the best and strongest vinegar boiling hot on three ounces of scraped horseradish, an ounce of minced shalot, two drachms of black pepper, and a drachm of cayenne. Strain it in four days, and serve it in a cruet along with cold beef. It will make an excellent economical addition to the gravy of chops, steaks, &c.

Camp Vinegar.— Six chopped anchovies, four spoonfuls of walnut-catsup, two of soy, and a clove of garlic chopped very fine. Steep these for a fortnight in a pint of white-wine vinegar, and strain and bottle for use.

Obs — This is more properly a sm/cethan a vinegar, as with butter or gravy it supplies the place of a store-sauce for either meat or fish.

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CHAP. VIII. SAUCES, ESSENCES, &C.

Currie Vinegar may be made by steeping currie- powder, in the proportion of two ounces to the quart in the best vinegar, and straining and filtering for use.

Raspberry Vinegar. — Pour on fresh-gathered rasp- berries, put into a large stone or china dish, the best champagne vinegar, in the proportion of a bottle to two quarts of fruit. Next day pour off the liquor, and pour a little more vinegar over the fruit ; but where the fruit is plenty and cheap, you need not mind expressing the juice too carefully ; strain' through a sieve, but do not bruise the fruit. To every pint of the vinegar and juice which are now blended, allow a full pound of good refined sugar. Break it in pieces, and dissolve it in the juice. Place the whole in a stone-jar, (not a glazed earthen one,) and put the jar covered in a kettle of boiling water for an hour ; take off what scum arises ; when cool, bottle the vinegar for use. This is an exceedingly pleasant beverage in hot weather.- Two spoonfuls mixed with water make a delicious draught ; but the large quantity of acid which it contains may in some cases render it an im- proper one.

ROSE VINEGAR FOR SALADS, OR FOR THE TOILETTE.

Put a quarter a pound of rose-leaves to four pints of good vinegar, and some roots of the Florence lily. Infuse till a fine tincture is obtained, and strain off the infusion.

LAVENDER VINEGAR FOR THE TOILETTE, A FRENCH

PREPARATION.

To every pint of the best champagne vinegar put half an ounce of fresh lavender-flowers, and the thin rind of a lemon. Infuse for twenty-four hours in a stone- jar, then take the jar and set it over hot embers to di- gest for ten or twelve hours. Filter and bottle it, dip- ping the corks in wax.

HERB WINES, &C.

Wines may be impregnated with the flavour of roots •

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CHAP. VIII. — SAUCES, ESSENCES, &C.

and herbs in the same manner as vinegar, and this generous fluid even extracts more of the flavour. The proportions for Eschalot wine, Tarragon wine, Basil wine, &c. are the same as when these herbs are steeped in strong vinegar.

MUSTARD.

Mustard is best when nearly fresh made. It is pre- pared in a variety of ways ; plain with soup, or boiling water ; mild with milk or cream, or with the addi- tion of a little sugar ; pungent, with water in which garlic, horseradish, &c. is boiled ; it is also prepared with the flavoured vinegars,with cayenne, with catsup, and even with spirits.

Common Mustard. — Mix by degrees the best Dur- ham mustard with boiling water and a little salt, rub- bing a long time till it be perfectly smooth. The less made at a time the better ; but it will keep for some days in a small jar closely stopt.

Mild Mustard. — Mix as above, buf-twe hot milk or cream instead of water, and sugar for the salt.

Imitation of Patent Mustard. — Scrape a cupful of horseradish, and chop a half-clove of garlic. Infuse this with salt enough to make the water brackish in a quart of boiling water. Let it stand for a night ; strain and mix with it the best mustard-flour, leaving- the mustard rather thick. Keep it close-stopped in small jars.

catsups and mushroom-catsup.

Mushroom catsup is the most esteemed of this class of preparations. Large flap mushrooms, which con- tain a great deal of juice, and do not answer for pick- ling or stewing, are best adapted to making catsup. Let the mushrooms be wholesome, (see page 217 ) Without washing them, pick off whatever looks dirty or corrupted, and breaking in pieces, lay them in an earthen jar, strewing salt about them. Throw a folded cloth over the jar, and set it by the fire, or in a very cool oven. Let it remain thus for twenty-four hours or more, and then strain off the liquor into a clean saucepan, j To every quart of boiled liquor put a halt-

CHAP. VIII. SAUCES, ESSENCES, &C. 261

ounce of black peppercorns, a quarter-ounce of allspice, a half-ounce of fresh sliced ginger, two or three blades of mace, and a few cloves.* Boil the liquor on a quick fire for fifteen minutes ; or, if it be wished very strong, boil the catsup till it is nearly half reduced, adding the spices after it has boiled a full half-hour. Let it settle on the lees, and, pouring it carefully off, bottle what is clear by itself, and the sediment, after strain- ing, in separate bottles, as it will answer very well for hare-soup, game-soup, &c. Dip the cork of the bot- tles in bottle-rosin. Cayenne and nutmeg may be added to the other spiceries if a very delicate relish is wanted; or all the seasonings may be withheld save the black pepper and salt, of which catsups to make them keep well require a good deal. The longer it boils the better it will keep. In France, glaze is put to mushroom-catsup, and the whole is boiled till it be nearly a glaze ; in this state it keeps good for yearง. Saices, fyc. ought to be kept with the bottle lying on the side, as the cork is best preserved in this manner.^ It is a general fault with bought catsups, sauce&i fyc. that the bottles ai'e not quite full. A space is left, which, being filled with air, hastens the decay of the contents of the bottle. These things ought to be bottled in very small quantities, as a bot- tle once opened soon spoils. When a bottle of capers or pickles is opened, it must be filled up with good vinegar, scalded and cooled. Anchovies, bay-leaves, and cayenne pepper, are all put to catsup.

WALNUT-CATSUP.

Gather the walnuts green. Prick them with a bod- kin, and throw them into a tub with a large handful of salt and some water, which will greatly assist in drawing out their liquor. Mash them well with a potato -beetle or rolling-pin, and repeat this every day for four days. The rind will now be soft. Pour scalding water, with salt, over the walnuts, and raise the tub on edge that the walnut-liquor may flow away from the shells. Take it up as it gathers into another vessel, and still repeat the mashing ; or pound the walnuts in a mortar, and pour some allegar over them,

l 2

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CHAP. VIII. — SAUCES, ESSENCES, &C.

which wiil extract all the remaining juice. To every quart of the walnut-liquor, when boiled and skimmed, put an ounce of bruised ginger, an ounce of Jamaica and black pepper, a quarter-ounce of cloves, the same of long pepper and nutmegs. Boil the liquor in a close vessel for three-quarters of an hour, and when cold, bottle the catsup, putting equal proportions of the spices into each bottle.

Obs. — Anchovies, garlick, cayenne, &c. are some- times put to this catsup ; but we think this a bad me- thod, as these flavours may render it unsuitable for some dishes, and can be added extempore when they are required.

Cucumber Catsup. — Take large old cucumbers and pave them, cut them in slices, and break them to a mash, which must be sprinkled with salt and covered with a cloth. Keep in all the seeds. Next day, set the vessel aslant to drain off the juice, and do this till no more can be obtained. Strain it, and boil it up with a seasoning of white pepper, sliced ginger, black pepper, sliced shalot, and a little horseradish. When cold, pick out the shalot and horseradish, and bottle the catsup, which is an excellent preparation for flavouring sauces for boiled fowls, dishes of veal, rabbits, or the more insipid meats.

Oyster, Cockle, and Muscle Catsup. — Wash in their own liquor, and pound in a mortar fat newly-opened native oysters. To every pint of the pounded oysters and their strained liquor, add a pint of white wine, and boil this up and skim it ; then to every quart of this catsup add a tea-spoonful of white pepper, a salt- spoonful of pounded mace, some cayenne, with salt to taste. Let it boil up to blend the spices, and then rub the catsup through a sieve into a clean vessel. When cold, bottle it, and stop the bottles with corks dipped in bottle-rosin. Cockle-Catsup is made as above ; but as this has less flavour naturally, and is seldom used but for fish, a few pounded anchovies may be added to it.

Sugar Catsup, or Browning. — Pound, very finely, six ounces of the best refined sugar, (Hamburgh loaves), and put it into a small and very clean frying- pan, with an ounce and a half of fresh butter. As

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CHAP. VIII. — SAUCE S, ESSENCES, &C.

they dissolve mix them well with a spatula or wooden spoon, and withdraw the pan from the fire when the fluid begins to boil violently, and keep it thus till it has acquired the rich dark-brown colour wanted. It may either be seasoned with pepper, salt, cloves, cat- sup, &c. or not, and is perhaps as generally useful plain. When cold, skim the browning, and bottle it for use.

Obs. — It is very difficult, nay almost impossible, to prepare browning free of an empyreumatic flavour, which is necessarily communicated to the dish that is coloured with it. Where sauces can be coloured with the catsup, browned flour, and wine, which may be employed, it is much better to avoid the use of brown- ing ; and soup may always be made of a sufficiently rich colour by previously browning the meat and onions, and by using toasted bread ; for there is no brown soup into which one or other of these things does not enter. Many cooks boil onion-skins, which contain a yellow dye, to colour soups ; and it is a common, but slovenly practice, where browning is wanted in a hurry, to melt a knob of sugar between the hot bowls of tongs, and drop it into a little soup. This, on an emergency, may be useful, but the neces- sity ought to be avoided. The refuse of mushroom or walnut catsup boiled in brine, with a bit of Spa- nish juice, onion-skins, and burnt toasts, make a good but coarse browning.

PICKLES.

These are an important class of culinary prepara- tions, and one about which the cook and notable housewife make no little bustle, and feel no small pride. Pickles are chiefly intended for a relishing accompaniment to many sorts of made-dishes and sauces, though a few of them are merely ornamental as garnishings.

The only general rules that can be given for the proper and safe preparation of pickles are, to have Kound vegetables, not over ripe, and gathered on a dry day. Let the things to be pickled be carefully

264 CHAP. VIII. — SAUCES, ESSENCES, &C.

trimmed and wiped, washing only such things as are to be steeped or parboiled previous to pickling. It is miserable economy to employ bad vinegar for pick- ling, or bad sugar for preserving, or to use either in stinted quantities, — as both the syrup in which fruits are preserved, and the vinegar of pickles, are after- wards very serviceable to the cook. Pickle-liquor can be at all times conveniently disposed of in sea- soning gravies or sauces, or as an accompaniment to cold meat ; — the pickle of cucumbers, walnuts, mush- rooms, and onions, is especially useful. The vinegar used for pickles ought to be made scalding hot, as ram vinegar is apt to become ropy and thick ; but remember that no fermented liquor can be boiled without great loss of strength. The spiceries used in pickling are so well bestowed that we give no rule for the quantity, except that it should not be so great as to overcome the natural flavour of the article pick- led ; for pickles, like every thing else, should be what their name imports, — either onion or cucumber , &c. and not a hodge-podge of conflicting flavours. Pickles are most safely prepared in stone-vessels ; but they must, at all events, be kept in small glass or stone jars well stopped, and the corks or bungs wrapped round with bladder or leather, with an upper cover- ing of the same, if they are to be long kept. ; or let them be dipped in bottle-rosin. The corks or bungs may be left rather loose for two days, and the jars fill- ed up to the neck with scalded vinegar before being finally closed, as a great deal of the liquor will be ab- sorbed at first by the pickles. When the pickles are used, boil up the liquor with a little salt and fresh spice, and bottle and cork it for future use, either as a sauce, or to pickle nasturtiums and gherkins, where a fine colour is no object. To have green pickles of a bright green, and yet safe, is no easy matter ; and we are glad to observe, that there is now at the most re- fined tables a wholesome distrust of pickles of too brilliant a green. It is, however, very possible to preserve the colour tolerably good, and yet prepare the pickles safely, by keeping them for a length of time exposed to the steams of vinegar. Potato-plums, elder-flowers in the bud, and several other tilings, are

CHAP. VIII. — SAUCES, ESSENCES, &C. 265

pickled besides the vegetables in common use ; and there is little doubt but that many other vegetable productions might answer equally well if spiced and steeped in vinegar.

To pickle Cucumbers. — Lay fifty firm, young, and very small- sized cucumbers on flat dishes, having- first rubbed them with salt. Keep them covered, and look at them and turn them occasionally for eight or ten days, and then having carefully drained them, put them in a jar in which vine-leaves or cabbage-leaves are laid, and, pouring two quarts of scalding vinegar over them, cover them with more leaves, and keep them covered by the fire. Next day pour off the vinegar, boil it up, and put it hot over the cucumbers, again covering them with fresh leaves above and be- low. A little pounded alum will improve the colour ; but if it be not good enough, scald them once more by placing the jar in a pan of boiling water, or on a hot hearth. When the colour is decently good, for it will never be very brilliant, boil up the vinegar once more with a half-ounce of white pepper, the same of ginger, two drachms of cloves, and a bruised nutmeg. Boil the spices for a few minutes with the vinegar, and when cold, bottle them according to the general directions in the preceding page.

Ohs. — A French cook would add a seasoning of tarragon, fennel, and garlic.

French beans, gherkins, Indian cress, samphire, and other green pickles, are all to be managed as in the above receipt for cucumbers.

Cucumbers and Onions pickled. — Pare and slice cu- cumbers, picking out the seeds ; and peel and slice large onions in thick slices. Sprinkle salt over them, and drain for a night, then put them into a stone-jar, and pour scalding vinegar over them. Close the jar, and set it by the fire. Scald them by placing the jar over a hot hearth, and repeat this till they become of a tolerable colour ; then boil up the vinegar with spiceries, as in last receipt.

To pickle Walnuts Green. — Gather the walnuts be- fore they are fully ripe, and while the shells are still tender. Lay them in a strong pickle of salt and wa- ter for nine days, changing the brine twice in that

266 CHAP. VIII. — SAUCES, ESSENCES, &C.

time. Keep a board floating over them, for if they are exposed to the air they will turn black. Drain them, and run a bodkin or large pin into each walnut in se- veral places. Lay plenty of vine-leaves or cabbage- leaves in the bottom of a pan. Place the walnuts in these, and cover them with more leaves ; fill the ves- sel with water, and give them a scald ; let them stand to cool, and repeat this several times, pouring off the blackened water, and supplying its place with scalding water. When the husks become soft, scrape them off with a knife as quickly as possible ; and, rubbing the walnuts smooth with flannel, throw them into a vessel of hot water. Boil for three minutes a quart of the best vinegar for every fifty walnuts, with white pep- per, salt, ginger, cloves, and cayenne. Dry the wal- nuts in a cloth, and pour the liquor over them. Wal- nuts are pickled blac/c in an easier manner, by merely steeping for twelve days in strong brine, renewed every three days, rubbing them smooth and dry, and pouring boiling vinegar over them, with a seasoning of pepper, horseradish, garlic, and mustard-seed.

To pickle Mushrooms. — Choose small white button- mushrooms, and rub them with flannel or sponge dipped in a little salt. Put them into a stone-jar, with some mace, ginger, pepper, and salt, and let them stew in their own juices over a slow fire, shak- ing them well, but not breaking them. Let them re- main over the fire till they are almost dry, but take care they do not burn. When the liquor is all imbib- ed by the mushrooms, or gone off in vapour, put in as much hot vinegar as will cover them, and let them just come to boil. When cold, bottle them in jars, and after a week fill up with vinegar, first scalded and then cooled, and pour a little oil into the bottles, which will greatly aid in excluding the air. Cork the bottles, wrapping bladder or leather round the corks, and dip what is to be long kept in bottle-rosin.

To pickle Onions. — Choose small sound silver onions, as equal in size as may be. Top and tail them, but do not pare the tops very close, as the air softens and spoils the onions. Scald them with brine. Repeat this on the second day, and when cold, peel the onions as quickly as possible, throwing them into

CHAP. VIII. — SAUCES, ESSENCES, &C. 267

vinegar as they are done, to prevent their blackening. Boil vinegar enough to cover them, with sliced ginger, black and white pepper and mace ; when cooled a little, pour it over the onions. Cork them well, as directed for other pickles.

Obs. — Some cooks peel and scald the onions, a few at a time, take them up as soon as they look transpa- rent, and dry them in the folds of a cloth, covering them carefully to exclude the air.*

Red Cabbage. — A firm, deep, purple, middle-sized cabbage is best for pickling. Strip off the outer leaves, cut out the stalk, and, dividing the cabbage, cut it down into slices of the breadth of narrow straws. Sprinkle salt over it, and let it lie for a day ; then drain it very dry, and pour over it a pickle of boiling vinegar, seasoned with black and Jamaica peppers and ginger. Cover the jar to keep in the hot steams, and when cold, close it up.

Obs. — A few mild onions sliced is thought an im- provement to this pickle. The onion takes the beau- tiful tinge of the cabbage, and repays

“ The grace it borrows with the strength it lends.”

Beet-Root. — Wash the beet-roots, but take care not to break the skin or the fibres which hang about it, else the colour will fly. Boil softly for an hour, or more if they are large, or bake them, and as soon as they are cold enough to be handled, peel them, and, cutting them into slices, put them into ajar, and have ready to pour over them cold vinegar, in which black and Jamaica pepper, ginger, cloves, and a little cay- enne have been previously boiled.

* In the youthful days of Mrs Dods onions were pickled in their skins, tops, and tails, and only peeled when to be served at table. The flavour was then very little different from that of a raw onion. We have been favoured, by an ingenious and accurate observer, with the following receipt for the cultivation of onions of the best quality and largest size : — “ In poor soils, sow the seeds of Portuguese onions in March. In autumn the bulbs will be about the size of a hazel-nut ; take them carefully up, and spread them on a floor to dry, and protect them from frost during the winter. In spring pre- pare a rich light soil, in which plant out these bulbs in regular rows, leaving full three inches every way between each bulb. They will increase to a large circumference, and be solid and of good quality.”

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CHAP. VIII SAUCES, ESSENCES, &C.

Obs. — A few slices of beet- root make a pretty Jill- up dish for any odd corner on a table, and a very ele- gant garnish, particularly if contrasted with the bril- liant emerald green of pickled samphire. The slices, when to be used, may be cut in the form of leaves, flowers, or nicked round the edges ; a few small sil- ver onions, and turnips scooped out to the size of marbles, will take the rich tinge of this pickle, form an ornamental variety with the beet-root, and cost nothing. Cochineal will improve the colour.

Indian Pickle, or Piccalilli. — This is a general hodge-podge pickle of all the common green and white pickles to which the currie flavour and tawny currie tinge is given. Prepare the pickle-liquor thus : — To every two quarts of the best vinegar put an ounce and a half of white ginger scraped and sliced, the same of long pepper, two ounces of peeled shalots, one of peeled garlic, an ounce and a half of salt, an ounce of turmeric, a little cayenne, and some flour of mustard. Let this infuse in a close jar set in a warm place for a week ; and, in the meanwhile, have ready a white cabbage sliced, cauliflowers cut in neat branches, white turnip-radishes, young French beans, sliced cucumbers, button- on ions, and codling apples, a large carrot cut in round slices, nicked round the edges. Sprinkle all these things with plenty of salt, mixing it well with them in a large earthen vessel, or pouring scalding brine over them. Let them lie for four days, turning them over, and then take them up, wash them in vinegar, and dry them carefully with a cloth, and afterwards lay them on sieves be- fore the fire, turning them over till thoroughly dried. Next day place them either in a large stone-jar, or in smaller jars, and pour the cooled pickle over them. The jars must be well stopped. ฆ

Obs. — This pickle keeps a long time, and for the first two years will even improve by the keeping. These vegetables do not come in all together, but they may be prepared as for pickling, and added to the general pickle as they come into season. This pickle looks more attractive if the French beans, small whole cucumbers, or melons, are greened be- fore they are put to it, as directed in other receipts.

CHAP. VIII. — SAUCES, ESSENCES, &C. 269

When the melons or cucumbers are greened, cut a slit in the side, and scrape out the seeds. Shoots of green elder are also put to this pickle, in imitation of the Bamboo of the genuine Mango pickle. Instead of being laid in salt, the vegetables may be parboiled in very strong brine, by which means the pickle will be soon ready, but the colour and crispness will be injured, though, on the whole, both for ease of prepa- ration and safety in eating, we think parboiling the preferable method.

To salt Vegetables. — French beans, artichokes, samphire, and olives, may be kept for a long time in a strong brine, taking care that they are kept com- pletely covered.

Barberries. — Gather fine full clusters before they are quite ripe. Pick away the dead leaves and in- jured berries, and keep the clusters in salt and water in jars well covered. When the pickle begins to ferment change it. Red currants may be kept as above.

To Pickle Bitter Oranges and Lemons for Wild Fowl. — Rub the fruit well. Cover them with vinegar with a handful of coriander-seeds, and some mace. Boil up the vinegar once or twice, and when cool, pour it again over the oranges.

To pickle Cauliflower or Brocoli. — Take firm, well- coloured vegetables, before they are quite ripe, and cut away the bark of the stems, and all the green leaves. Scald them for four minutes in a pan of boiling brine, and then drain and dry them tho- roughly. When dry, pull them into properly-sized branches, cutting the stalks smoothly, and pack them up in the jars with the same pickle-liquor as directed for onions or beet-roots.

Obs. — Nasturtiums, to make either a pickle or for imitation caper-sauce, may be prepared in the same manner.

To hasten the Preparation of Pickles. — Parboil the vegetables you wish to pickle in brine. Drain and dry them, and then proceed as before directed with the respective kinds. The colour will not be quite so good, but the vegetables, besides being less crude, will be fit for use in a few days.

PART THIRD.

CHAPTER I.

MADE-DISHES.

“ When art and nature join, the effect will be Some nice ragout , or charming fricassee."

King's Cookery .

“ But prudent men will sometimes save their cashr

By interlinear days of frugal hash."

Crable's Tales.

What is technically called a made-dish, presupposes either a more elaborate mode of cookery than plain frying, boiling, or roasting, or else some combination of those elementary processes, — 'as, for example, half- roasting and finishing in the stew-pan, which is a very common way of dressing a ragout. All dishes com- monly called French dishes are of this class, such as fricassees and ragouts, meat braised, larded, &c. and so are hashes, curries, and generally all viands that are re-dressed.

To dress a made-dish properly requires rather judgment and contrivance than ’manual dexterity. It is in fact more difficult to broil a chop properly than to dress a haricot, provided the cook knows how to proportion the seasonings, and to blend the flavours with taste and judgment. Stewing is the common form of made-dishes, and is that mode of cookery which is best adapted to dry, fibrous, harsh meats, and to dry salted fish. Its perfection consists in the extreme slowness with which the process is conduct-

CHAP. I. — MADE-DISHES. 271

ed, and the closeness of the vessel in which the meat is contained. The lid of a stew-pan or digester, after f the gravy has been skimmed, ought to be as seldom removed as possible ; but the stew-pan may occasion- ally be shaken, to prevent the meat from adhering either to the bottom or to the sides.* Stewing is re- commended by Dr Cullen as the best mode of cook- ery for retaining all the native succulence of the meat, thus obtaining from it the greatest quantity of nour- ishment, and likewise as promotive of digestion, — the last assertion may be questioned.

Made-dishes are valued by the gourmand for their seasonings and piquancy, but they are equally esteem- ed by the economist from the circumstance of a much less quantity of material than would suffice for a boil or roast, making a handsome and highly-flavoured dish ; while, by the various modes of re-dressing, every thing cold is, in a new made-dish, turned to good account. The most common fault of made-dishes is, that they are overdone. While a large dinner is proceeding, the stew-pans are neglected, because their contents sustain less apparent injury than is instantly visible on roasts or broils ; and also because cooks either do not know, or forget, that meat stewing in its own rich juices is exposed to a more intense heat than accompanies boiling or open roasting before the fire.

The general rules we would give for dressing made- dishes are, that they be not over hastily done, but rather removed from the fire, as a very few minutes at any time will finish them completely, — that the sauce be smooth and properly thickened, so as to adhere to the meat, — and that the pieces be nicely trimmed, cut perfectly smooth with a fine-edged knife, and never left clumsily large. This is peculiarly to be attended to in re-dressing cold meat, which some- times comes to table mangled and lacerated as if it had been gnawed, not carved.

The very name made-dish, with us implies some- thing savoury and highly relishing, and though over

" It would be a great improvement if the lids of all stew-panป permitted fire to be put over as well as under the meat.

CHAP. I. — MADE-DISIIES.

272

seasoning is to be avoided, it is proper that made-dishes should rather be piquant than insipid.

TO MAKE GLAZE FOR MADE-DISHES.

To glaze Tongues, Fricamleaux, Hams, fyc. — Cut down knuckle of veal, shin of beef, feet and trimmings of poultry, and a few slices of bacon. Let them catch over a quick fire, and pour in a little broth made of cow-heels or calf’s-head. Stew till this is a strong jelly; strain and pot for use. An economical cook will seldom need to make glaze. She will save it.

MADE-DISHES OF BEEF.

To ragout or stew a Rump of Beef. — Except for some particular purpose, a rump to be stewed should not be very broad, nor above ten inches in thickness, unless it be salted a little. Cut out the bone neatly, and break it ; and with that and what trimmings may be made in levelling the meat, make a little gravy, seasoned with onions, a carrot, and turnip, and a bunch of sweet herbs. Season the rump highly with cook’s pepper and a little cayenne, and skewer and tie it firmly up with tape. Lay skewers or willow twigs in the bottom of a nice clean stew-pot that will just hold the meat, and place the rump upon them, straining over it the gravy drawn from the bones. When it has simmered for an hour or more, turn it over, and put to it three carrots sliced, two turnips scooped to the size of marbles ; and in another half- hour onions sliced, and a glass of shalot-vinegar, or plain vinegar, with a couple of minced shalots, and more pepper if required. Keep the lid close the whole time ; and before dishing, put in a large spoonful of catsup, and another of made-mustard, with butter rolled in flour to thicken the gravy. The rump may be dressed more highly by filling up the hole whence the bone is taken with a relishing forcemeat, egging and browning it before stewing, and putting some wine to the sauce, which may also be enriched with sweetbreads or kernels, parboiled and cut into bits.

Obs.—A rump salted for four days in summer, or

CHAP. I. MADE-DISHES.

273

a week in cold weather, washed and stewed plainly, is an economical as well as an excellent dish, whether for company or for family use. It may be divided diagonally, so as to skewer up neatly, and stewed in weak broth with roots, as above. Skim the fat care- fully off, and serve the soup, which will be very rich, on toasted sippets, and the meat by itself either gar- nished with cut pickles, or sliced carrot, or onions prepared for garnishing. See page 236. A rump is -sometimes half-roasted, and finished in the stew-pot in weak broth, with some mild ale, wine, vinegar, cat- - sup, a faggot of sweet herbs, and onions, mixed spices, pickled mushrooms. Sec. This is an expensive dish, and has nothing to recommend it beyond the plainer- dressed rump.

TO STEW OR RAGOUT A BRISKET OF BEEF.

Take four or five pounds of a brisket, with the firm fat ; wash and rub it with salt and vinegar before dressing it. Put it into a small stew-pan that will just hold it, with water or broth, and, when well skim- med, let it stew very slowly for an hour, and then put to it cut carrots, turnips, and small whole onions. When it has stewed slowly till tender, draw out the bones, thicken the gravy with butter rolled in flour and a little catsup, with plenty of mixed spices. Serve the meat by itself, with a garnishing of sprigs of cauli- flower, and a sauce made of thickened gravy, with more catsup, and a little made-mustard.

Obs — A haricot of beef may be made of the above, by dividing the meat into about a dozen neat pieces, browning them, and putting in a sliced head of celery and forcemeat balls, in addition to the ingredients ordered above.

Another Way, or Bceuf Garni dc Choux, an excellent Dish. — Boil firm white cabbage cut in quarters in any good broth, and season with carrots, onions, two bay- leaves, and a sprig of thyme. Moisten with a little top-fat. Drain the cabbage, press out the fat, and serve them neatly round the meat.

274

CHAP. I. — MADE-DISHES.

TO STEW A SHIN OF BEEF.

Have the shin-bone sawed across in three different places. Place skewers in the stew-pot, and lay the meat on them with as much water as will nearly cover it. When it is skimmed, put in a bundle of herbs, a head of celery cut, four onions, and a dessert-spoonful of black and Jamaica peppercorns; cover the pot very close, and let the meat stew slowly for three hours, when cut carrots may be put to it, and afterwards cut turnip, with a dozen of small onions roasted and peel- ed. Make a sauce for the Bouilli, by thickening and then seasoning a pint of the gravy with catsup, spices, and a little made mustard. The French sauce liachee is also very suitable garnish with the onions.

BEEF ALAMODE.

The clod, the mouse-buttock, the rump, or the thick of the flank, may be dressed this way. Take from six to ten pounds, and rub it well with mixed spices and salt, and dredge it with flour. Lay skewers in the bottom of a well-tinned stew-pan, and on them spread some thin slices of good bacon ; place the meat on these, with a few more slices of bacon above, and a small quantity of vinegar and gravy, or good broth. Make the stew-pan very close, and let the meat stew as slowly as possible over embers for two hours. Turn it, and put to the gravy a high season- ing of cloves, black and Jamaica pepper, with a few bay-leaves and mushrooms if in season, or a little cat- sup, and a few button-onions roasted. Let it again stew very slowly till the meat is tender. Pick out the bay-leaves, and serve the meat in a tureen with the gravy, which, if it is slowly stewed, will have thickened to the consistence of glaze. Veal is very good dressed in the same manner. The gristly part of the breast is best adapted for this purpose ; and le- mon-grate may be added to the seasonings, but no catsup. .;

Obs. — The Culotie de Boeuf d la Gelle of the French

CHAP. I. MADE-DISHES.

275

)

J

I

kitchen, called also Bceuf a la Royale, differs very little from beef alamode, save that it is corded, and, when half baked or braised, is boned. It is served with its own gravy, and garnished with pickles or parsley.

DR hunter’s RECEIPT FOR A STEWED BRISKET.

Brisket of Beef sterved savoury. — Take eight pounds of brisket of beef, and stew it till quite tender, in sas much water as will cover the meat. When sufficient- ly tendered, take out the bones, and carefully skim off the fat. Take a pint of the liquor, put to it the third of a pint of red port wine, a little walnut or mushroom-catsup, and some salt. Tie up in a bit of muslin some whole white pepper and mace, and stew all together for a short time. Have ready some car- rots and turnips boiled tender, and cut into the form of dice ; strew them upon the beef, putting a few into the dish. Truffles and morels may be added.

To collar Beef — Choose the thin part of the flank, or what in Scotland is called the nine-holes, or runner. Let the meat be young, tender, and well-grained, but not very fat, as it is to be eat cold. Rub it with salt, and a little saltpetre ; and when it has drained a night, rub it thoroughly well with a mixture of sugar, salt, pounded pepper, and allspice. Let it lie a week in the salting-tray, turning it, and basting daily with the pickle. If the weather is cold, it may lie ten days, then bone it, and cut away all the gristly parts, and the coarse inner skin. Dry it, and strew over the in- side chopped herbs and cook’s pepper ; that done, roll it up as tightly as possible, bind it with broad fillets of strong cloth, and afterwards with tape ; press it under a heavy weight, and then undo the bandages ; re-fasten them when the meat has shrunk, and make the ends very fast. It will require from three to five hours slow but constant boiling. When done, press it again while still bound, and when cold, undo the bandages. It may be served hot, with savoys or car- rot, but it is most valued for slicing down cold.

CHAP. I. MADE-DISHES.

276

Obs. — A large fore-quarter of mutton, with the shoulder-blade cut off, will collar, and so will veal, but neither of them eat nearly so well as collared beef. — Beef is pressed flat to slice for sandwiches or to eat cold, exactly in the above manner, with the omis- sion of the binding up, — eats quite as ฆtf'ell, and is prepared with much less trouble.

To roast collared Ribs of Beef. — Take out the bones when the meat has hung till tender, season it highly with spices and herbs, and rolling tightly up, roast or bake it, or dress it as Hunter’s beef.

Obs. — This is an excellent and economical dish, as a soup much better than what can be made from dripping or roast-meat bones, can at once be made from the trimmings and the bones cut out. A neck or back-ribs of mutton boned, seasoned, and sprink- led with dried parsley and sage, will roast as above, and the bones and scrag make soup or barley-broth ; but we would rather recommend this to the economist than to the judicious eater ; for although two good dishes are by this means presented at table, this par- ticular piece of meat eats better dressed as chops, pie, bouilli or currie, than as a roast when the. roti can be dispensed with. •

BRISKET OF BEEF A LA FLAMANDE.

Take from eight to ten pounds of the gristly nice part of the brisket, trim and season it. Put it to stew in a nice stew-pan with the trimmings, a slice or two of bacon under and over it. Put to it carrots and turnips cut into the shapes of cocks’ combs, pigeons’ eggs, &c., and some cabbage previously dressed in top-fat or good broth. Arrange the vegetables with a few glazed onions round the meat, and thicken a pint of the broth for sauce.

To pot Beef, Veal, or Game. — Salt a piece of lean fleshy meat for two days. Drain it, season it well, and afterwards bake it in a slow oven, or stew it in airearthenware jar, placed in a vessel of boiling water. Drain off all the gravy, and set the meat before the fire, that all the moisture may be drawn out. Pull it to pieces, and beat it in a mortal*, with mixed spices

CHAP. I. MADE-DISHES. 277

and oiled fresh butter, till it becomes of the consist- ence of mellow Stilton cheese.

Ob s. — This is mostly made of beef dressed for other purposes, such as beef from which gravy is drawn, or the remains of any joint that cannot be otherwise used. It may be flavoured with anchovy, mushroom- powder, minced shalot, chervil or tarragon, dried and pulverized, if the potted meat is not to be long kept. The longer it is beat in the mortar the better it will eat and keep. Put it into small potting-cans, and cover them with plenty of clarified butter, which will afterwards be useful for frying meat, pie-crust, &c. — Game to be sent to distant places may be potted without cutting up the birds, and will keep good for a month.

To dress Ox- Palates.^— Clean and boil them till the -skin will easily pull off, and either cut them into long . slices and square bits, or merely divide them. Stew them very slowly in good gravy thickened with butter kneaded in browned flour, and season them with cay- enne, minced shalot, or onion, and a large spoonful of catsup, or the pickle of walnuts, mushrooms, or even of onions, which is very good for such purposes.

Obs. — This wre think the most suitable way of dress- ing palates; but they are often more expensively pre- pared, either by adding wine and mushrooms, or truffles and morels to the sauce, or by dressing them as a fricassee in white sauce. — See French Cookery for other excellent ways of dressing palates. Palates are very suitable to the dejeuner d lafourcliette , either served hot as kidneys, or pickled and cold.

Beef-Steak with Cucumbers. — Pare and slice three large cucumbers, and as many onions. Fry them in butter, and when browned, add a half-pint of gravy. Beat and season some rump- steaks and fry them. Dish them in a very hot dish, and pour the cucumber- sauce over them.

Obs. — This is a good dish for variety, with very little expense.

To slew a Tongue. — Trim off the coarse part of the root, but leave on some of the soft fat. Rub the tongue with salt, sugar, and pounded allspice, and let it lie in this for a few days. Stew it in a small close

M

278 CHAP. I. — ’MADE-DISHES.

saucepan for an hour, and then skin it, strain the li- quor, put some fresh broth to it if necessary, a faggot of sweet herbs, three bay-leaves, and a head of young celery sliced. When the tongue has stewed in this very slowly for nearly another hour, take out the herbs and bay-leaves, and season the gravy with cay- enne, pounded cloves, mixed spices, and a little wal- nut-pickle. Serve the tongue in a soup-dish, with the sauce about it, and a few mushrooms when in sea- son, or small onions previously roasted and peeled. This is an excellent and not an expensive dish ; and if any gravy be left, nothing can be better adapted for a sauce to ragouts, &c. The tongue may be cut open the long way, but not quite divided, and so spread on the dish.

Obs. — This differs little from the French tongue de bceuf d la braise, save that the French dish is en- riched by trimmings of game, poultry, or veal, in the stewing, and has a little wine put to the sauce.

To dress Kidneys, or Scotch Kidney -Collops. — Cut a fresh kidney in slices of the size of small beef-steaks, or into mouthfuls. Soak the slices in water, and dry them well. Dust them with flour, and brown in the stew-pan with fresh butter. When the collops are browned, pour some hot water into the pan, a minced shalot, or the white of four young onions minced, with salt, pepper, shred parsley, and a spoonful of plain or shalot vinegar, or onion-pickle liquor. Cover the stew-pan close, and let the collops simmer slowly till done. If flavoured vinegar is not used, a spoonful of mushroom-catsup put in before the collops are dished will be a great improvement. Garnish this dish like liver with fried parsley.

Obs. — Some good cooks season this dish with an anchovy and lemon-pickle, others add made-mustard.

Beef- Kidneys for the dejeuner a la fourchette.- Mince the kidneys, and season highly with salt, pepper, and cayenne. Fry the mince, and moisten it Avith gravy and champagne, and serve in a hot dish. Catsup, or lemon, or walnut-pickle, may be used in place of wine.

To dress Ox-Tails.— Let the butcher divide them at the joints. Scald them, dry and brown them in

6

CHAP. I. MADE-DISHES. 279

the stew-pan, adding hot water or weak broth, with a piece of butter rolled in browned flour. Stew them slowly till tender, and season with salt, mixed pep- per, minced parsley, and either a spoonful of catsup or shalot-vinegar, or a tea-spoonful of made-mustard. Many will think cayenne an improvement.

Hotch-Potch of Ox-Tail, a French Dish. — Have the tail jointed, and blanch it as for soup. Cover a stew- pan with trimmings of meat or poultry, and put in the tail, with plenty of onions, two carrots, a faggot of herbs, a bay-leaf, three cloves, and a bit of garlic. Moisten this with two ladiesful of broth, cover it with slices of bacon, thin paper, then the cover, and over all a few cinders. Let it simmer for four hours, till the meat part from the bones with a spoon. Serve with a haricot of roots stewed (after boiling) in the sauce of the tail or in butter.

Obs. — Ox-tail dressed as above is very good served with a sauce made of the pulp of peas.

Beef -Olives. — Cut slices from the rump half an inch thick, six inches long, and three inches broad. Flat- ten them, dip them in egg, and then in a seasoning made of pulverized or finely-shred herbs, bread-crumbs, mixed' spices, and salt. If the meat be lean, a little shred suet may be flattened into each piece of meat. Roll them neatly up, and fasten them with packthread. The olives may either be roasted on a lark-spit, and served with a drawn gravy, or browned and stewed over the embers in a broth made of the skins and trimmings. Thicken the sauce, and season it with catsup and a little walnut-pickle, and, dishing the olives neatly, skim it,. and pour it hot over them.

Beef Marrow-Bones. — Have them neatly sawed by the butcher. Fill up the opening with a piece of dough or paste, and tie a floured cloth over that. Boil them, placed upright, in the soup-pot (keeping them covered) for nearly two hours. Serve with dry toast.

Beef-Heart. — In England a heart is cut up, soaked to free it from the blood, and has the lobes cut off, after which it is stuffed with forcemeat as a hare, roasted, and served with venison-sauce. In Scotland beef-heart is dressed as minced collops, with a certain

280

CHAP. I. — MADE-DISHES.

proportion of beef, or, which we consider the best way of dressing it, is prepared as a cheap stew-soup thus : — Clean and cut the heart in large pieces lengthways. Put these into a stew-pot of cold water with salt, and carefully skim away the blood, which will be thrown up in large quantities. Take up the parboiled pieces, and carve them into mouthfuls ; return them into the strained liquor with plenty of shred onion, a shred head or two of celery, pepper, and allspice, and a dozen peeled potatoes. This is a highly nourishing, well-flavoured, and economical stew-soup, as the half of a good fat bullock’s heart will be sufficient to make it. — For Roast Beef, see page 93 ; for Steaks, Collops, fyc. pages 116, 119, 125/ Tripe, page 129.

Beef-Skirts. — These make a nice small dish dressed as palates. The French braise and farce them with mushrooms or oysters : they may be served with a ra- gout of cucumber, or over spinage or fried toasts.

Beef-Liver may be used when sound, and is con- stantly used on the continent either in a stew-soup with carrot and onion, or slowly cooked in butter as calf’s-liver, or as directed for lamb’ s-liver in the Scotch mode, page 128.

MADE-DISHES OF BEEF THAT HAS BEEN DRESSED.

Few persons come to the years of eating-discretion like cold meat, and though the days are quite gone when the hospitality of the landlord was measured by the size of the joint, it still happens that where a table affords any variety of dishes, much meat will be left cold. The invention of the culinary artist is thus ut on the rack for new forms and modes of dressing, and new names for various dishes which are intrinsi- cally one. The most common and the best methods of dressing cold beef are broiling, heating in the Dutch oven, or hashing.

To dress the Inside of a cold Sirloin. — Cut the meat in long and rather narrow slices of an inch thick, leaving a little of the firm fat upon each. Season them with salt and mixed spices, dredge them with flour, and heat them, without any thing like violent frying, in the gravy saved from the cold joint : sea-

CHAP. I.— MADE-DISHES.

281

soned with an anchovy, a shalot minced or a shred onion, and a little vinegar. Garnish with scraped horseradish, or fried parsley.

N. B. — The above may be broiled and served in the sauce.

To fricassee cold Beef. — Cut away all outside, skins, gristles, and fat. Cut the meat into thin small slices. Have ready a sauce made of broth thickened with butter rolled in flour, and seasoned with shred parsley and young onion, pepper, and salt. Strain the sauce when it is well-flavoured, and just heat the meat in it by the side of the fire, and then add a glass of red wine, the yolk of an egg well beat, and the juice of a lemon. Stir the fricassee for a few minutes, but do not let it boil.

Olives of dressed Beef — Cut the meat as for fresh beef-olives. Season the slices, and spread over them thinly a forcemeat of bread-crumbs, seasonings, and a little finely-shred suet or marrow. Roll them up, and stew them in a relishing gravy saved from the joint, or drawn from the beef-bones, and thickened with butter rolled in flour, and seasoned with an anchovy or a little catsup. ฃ7

To hash cold Beef — Cut down the meat into small slices, or mouthfuls, trimming away all burnt outside, fat, gristle, skin, &c. Set aside the meat thus pre- pared with what gravy you have saved, and make a pint of broth of the bones well broken, the lean pieces of meat that are not used, or hard, or overdone. $fea- son this broth highly with pepper, allspice, two oniohs, a faggot of parsley, and salt. Thicken it with flour rubbed down as for batter-pudding. Skim all the fat from it ; let it settle, and strain it, and heat it up again, putting to it, as additional seasonings, any of the following things: — Walnut or mushroom catsup, or onion-pickle liquor, with a few cut pijkles, a little tarragon vinegar, or some shred parsley, made-mus- tard, capers, nasturtiums, &c. &c. In brief, any fla- vouring ingredient which is agreeable to the taste of the eater, and easily procured. When this sauce is hot, put the cut meat and gravy to it, and let it slowly warm quite through without boiling; or the sauce

282

CHAP. I. — MADE-DISHES.

may be poured over the meat in the hash-dish, and that set in a hot- water bath, a cool oven, or vessel of boiling water, till the hash is hot through. Place toasted sippets in the dish. A currie-hash of beef is much liked. Fry a few large onions ; add the hashed meat and seasonings. Garlic may be used when liked.

Obs. — The varieties of Hashes are endless, but the above is conceived the best mode of making this dish, whether the hash be of beef or mutton. Hashes of veal or poultry require a white sauce, and a sea- soning of lemon-rind, and the juice of lemon ; or the flavour of tarragon given by vinegar, which makes a French-flavoured hash ; or a currie-hash of veal or fowls answers very well with plenty of small onions par-roasted, and then stewed whole in the hash-sauce. If meat comes back from the table which you know must be hashed next day, carve it before it get cool ; it will then imbibe all the gravy which lies on the dish, and be far more rich than if allowed to remain uncut till next day. This should be particu- larly attended to in hashes of venison, hare, or mutton.

Beef-Cecils. — Mince the white part of the meat very nicely, and mix it up with bread-crumbs, sliced onions, a chopped anchovy, and parsley, pepper, salt, and a little onion or walnut-pickle. Stir this mince over the fire in a small stew-pan, with a little melted butter, and when cold enough, make it up into large oval balls with a little flour ; egg the balls, and roll them in crumbs ; brown them before the fire, and pour hot gravy, seasoned with shalot and pepper, over them.

Cold Beef scalloped, or Sanders. — Mince the meat as in the last receipt, with the same seasonings and a little scraped tongue or ham. Moisten it with gravy and walnut-pickle, and fill up the scallop-shapes, lay- ing mashed potatoes neatly marked over the mince. Put some bits of butter over each shape, and set them to warm and brown in an oven.

To mince Dressed Beef. — Mince the beef finely with a little suet, and warm it up in a small stew-pan, with a little broth or water, minced shalot or onion, and a little vinegar, and what meat- gravy you have saved,

CHAP. I. MADE-DISHES.

283

which is the best ingredient that can enter into the composition of any hash or mince. Dish the mince on toasted sippets.

A French Mode of dressing cold Beef — Cut the part most underdone in slices., and stew them over embers in a sauce of Aveak broth, a glass of red wine, a small spoonful of tarragon vinegar, an onion, two bay- leaves, a sprig of thyme and parsley, pepper, salt, and cloves. Serve, either hot or cold, with the strained gravy, to which, hoAvever, more vinegar must be put if the beef is served cold. The Avine may be omitted.

To broil cold Beef — Cut the slices as steaks, broil them over a clear fire, or in a Dutch oven, and serve them Avith fried eggs, or scalloped potatoes, and steak- sauce, or piquante sauce made hot. — See Sauces.

Another may. — Divide the ribs, and shorten them with the cleaver. Leave the meat on the upper side about the breadth of a half-inch. Sprinkle the steaks well with salt and mixed spices, and place them in a Dutch oven, basting them Avith the gravy of the roast, bread-crumbs, and chopped parsley. Serve with grill sauce in a sauce-boat.

Bubble and Squeak. — This dish is made either of cold roast or boiled meat, and is best of meat salted. Cut the slices not too thick nor very large ; fry them in fresh butter with plenty of pepper, and keep them Avarm before the fire. Chop, and fry, or bruise some boiled cabbage, and lay it on the slices of beef; or keep the cabbage high in the middle of the dish, and lay the meat round it. For sauce, chop and stir a few slices of pickled cucumber and onion into a little thick melted butter, and add a tea-spoonful of made-mus- tard. Fried beet-root, eggs, or apples, may be used. A ragout of oysters, mushrooms, or onions, makes the dish superb.

Bubble and Squeak of Veal. — Make this exactly as beef, but use no mustard.

Obs. — This last dish deserves to be better knoAvn.

MADE-DISHES OF VEAE.

To slew a Fillet of Veal. — Take off the knuckle either to stew or for soup, and also the square end, which

284

CHAP. I. — MADE-DISHES.

will cut up into cutlets or olives, or make a pie. Stuff the middle part of the fillet with a forcemeat, as di- rected for roasted veal, and, rolling it up tightly, skewer it neatly, and simmer it very slowly in a close nice stew-pan that will just contain it. Lay skewers below to prevent the meat from sticking. When quite tender take it up, and thicken and strain the sauce. Serve with mushrooms parboiled, and then stewed in the sauce, and season with white pepper and mace ; or the sauce may be enriched with a few pickled oysters and forcemeat balls ; season with a glass of white wine and the juice of a lemon, and garnish with lemon sliced.

Obs. — The fillet may be half-baked and then stewed. For dividing a fillet, see French Cookery .

To stew a Breast of Veal. — Choose thick, fat, white veal. Chop off the neck and the edge-bone, and stew them for gravy. Stuff the thin part of the breast with a relishing forcemeat, made of a sweetbread par- boiled and minced, bread-crumbs, lemon-grate, nut- meg, pepper, salt, shred suet, and yolk of egg to bind the forcemeat. Skewer the stuffing neatly in, or sew it in, and stew the meat for an hour in the gravy made of the neck. Thicken a pint and a half of the sauce, and put to it a half-hundred oysters cut, a few mush- rooms chopped, lemon-juice, white pepper, and mace. Pour this over the stew, and garnish with slices of le- mon and forcemeat-balls.

To ragout a Breast or Tendrons of Veal. — Make a little strong gravy, as above, of the scrag and bones of the breast, and cut the meat into neat pieces, rather larger than if for currie. Brown these nicely in fresh butter ; drain them from the fat, and put them to stew in the broth with a faggot of sweet herbs, a piece of lemon-peel, cloves, mace, white pepper, all- spice, and three young onions, and salt to taste. This, like all stews, cannot be too slowly simmered over the embers, keeping the lid of the stew-pan very close. When the veal is quite tender, set the stew- pan to cool, and skim off all the fat that floats on the sauce, which must then be strained and thickened to the degree of a thin batter, and enriched just before • serving with a glassful of white wine and the juice of

CHAP. I. MADE-DISHES.

285

a lemon. Dish the veal and pour the sauce over it, holding back the sediment. Forcemeat-balls may be used as a garnishing to this dish, and will be the more suitable if made with a large proportion of grated tongue, sausage-meat, ham, &c.

Obs. — Veal, whether the neck or breast, is exceed- ingly good stewed plainly, and covered with white onion-sauce ; or stewed with young green peas, chop- ped lettuce, and young onions chopped. Celery also answers very well with stewed veal. — N. B. Lamb or Rabbits may be dressed as above, and served, the former with cucumbers, the latter with onion-sauce.

Veal-Olives. — See Beef-Olives ; or cut, flatten, and spread forcemeat on each slice with seasonings. Roll up each olive tightly, and egg and crumb them, and either roast or stew them in a rich gravy. Thicken the gravy, add to it a few forcemeat-balls, and serve with oyster or mushroom sauce.

Veal-Cutlets. — See page 125, and French Cookery.

Scotch- Collops.* — Cut small slices of equal thickness out of the fillet, and flour and brown them over a brisk fire in fresh butter. When enough are browned for the dish, put a little weak veal-broth or boiling water to them in a small stew-pan, adding, when they are nearly tender, the juice of a lemon, a spoonful of catsup, or the same of lemon-pickle, with mace, pep- per, and salt to taste. Thicken and strain the sauce, and pour it over the collops. The cutlets may be egged and dipped in crumbs. Some cooks lay the slices in a marinade of vinegar and spices for some hours before frying, but it is bad practice. Serve curled slices of bacon, or mushrooms if in season.

A Fricandeau of Veal. — Trim the fat fleshy side of a large knuckle of white veal, or take a long thick piece from the fillet ; skin it, beat it flat, season, and lard it with forcemeat. Lay some slices of good ba- con in a small stew-pan, and place the veal on them with more slices above it. Put in a pint or more of broth, the knuckle-bone broken, or two shanks of mutton, a faggot of herbs, a turnip, a carrot, and four

" This property means scotched , or scored collops, though the word has come to be understood as above.

M 2.

286

CHAP. I. — MADE-DISHES.

onions sliced, mace, four bay-leaves, some white pep- per, and slices of very fat bacon over all. Let this stew for more than two hours over a very slow fire, and keep the stew-pan closely covered, unless when basting the upper side of the fricandeau with the li- quor. The gravy will be very strong. Take up the fricandeau and keep it hot ; skim the fat from the gravy ; pour it from the sediment, and boil it quickly down till it thicken, — or, as it is technically called, become a glaze, which pour over the meat. Serve with sorrel or tomata sauce.

Obs. — The lean part of a large neck may be dressed as a fricandeau, drawing a glaze from the bones. Truffles and morels, artichoke bottoms, and fnush- rooms, are all served with this dish. Fricandeau is a French dish naturalized, though it does not always suc- ceedin this country. Like many other dishes, itis much improved by having fire put over the stew-pan, especi- ally towards the conclusion of the process ; and that is seldom done in this country.

To ragout a Knuckle of Veal, ( an excellent and economical Dish.) — Cut off the meat the cross wray of the grain in slices rather thinner and smaller than for cutlets. Make very slowly nearly a quart of broth of the bone broken, the skins, gristles, and trimmings, with a head of celery, an onion, a carrot and turnip, and a small faggot of parsley, lemon-thj^me, and basil. Season the slices with salt and cook’s-pepper ; dredge with flour, and brown them in a small stew- pan ; and, pouring the strained broth over them, stew the whole very slowly over the embers, or at a considerable distance from the fire, for a half-hour. Thicken the sauce with flour rolled in butter, and just before serving, add the squeeze of a lemon, and pounded mace. — To stew a Knuckle with Rice, see page 156.

To braise a Neck or other Piece of Veal. — Cut the scrag in bits, and lard the best end with chopped bacon, minced parsley, pepper, salt, and mace. Lay the larded meat in a shallow stew-pan, with hot wa- ter to cover it, and put around it the cut scrag, some slices of bacon, four onions, a turnip, a head of celery, two carrots, and three bay-leaves. Stew till tender.

CHAP. t. MADE-DISHES. 287

strain off the gravy, and, melting some butter in ano- ther stew-pan, take the neck gently up, and lay it there to brown. When browned, put as much of the strained gravy to it as will do for sauce, with a glass of white wine, the juice of a Seville orange, white pepper and mace. Dish with the browned side up- permost, and pour the sauce over it.

Obs. — This is an elegant but an expensive dish, with little to recommend it over plain savoury stews of veal save the name and the larding, a resource of cookery, by the way, which does not seem peculiarly suited to English palates, and which is now less em- ployed even in the French kitchen. Any piece of meat, poultry, or game, may be braised as above ; or, as another variety, stuffed with forcemeat instead of being larded. Braising is, in fact, slow stew-baking in fat rich compound juices, with high seasonings.

A Granada of Veal. — Line a small oval dish with a veal-caul, leaving a part hanging over the ledges of the dish. In this, place slices of good bacon, then a layer of forcemeat, next veal-collops well seasoned, and so on till the dish is filled. Tuck up the caul over the whole, tie paper over it, and bake the gra- nada, turn it out of the dish, and serve with clear brown gravy.

Obs. — Mushrooms, herbs. Sic. may be added at dis- cretion to this savoury dish.

To dress V eal a la daube. — Trim off the edge-bone of a good loin of veal, and cut off the chump.* Raise the skin, season the meat, and fill the hollow with a relishing forcemeat ; bind up the loin with fillets of linen, and cover it with slices of bacon ; place the loin in a stew-pan, with the bones and trimmings, and veal-broth, if you have it, or jelly of cow-heels. Put in a faggot of herbs, mace, white pepper, and two anchovies. Cover the lid of the pan with a cloth, and force it down very close, placing a weight over it. Simmer slowly for two hours, shaking the stew-

The chump or tail end makes a good family-dish, stewed in broth with roots, spices, herbs, and a slice of bacon. Serve its own gravy and the roots that are stewed with it.

288

CHAP. I. — MADE-DISHES.

pan occasionally. By this time the gravy will be re- duced to a strong glaze. Take out the bacon and herbs, and glaze the veal. Serve with sorrel or to- mata-sauee ; or with mushrooms, which are a very suitable accompaniment to made-dishes of veal or poultry.

A Haricot of Veal. — Shorten the bones of the best end of a neck or back-ribs. Either leave the meat whole, or cut it into chops. Brown it of a fine co- lour. Stew it in good brown gravy ; and, when nearly ready, add a pint of green peas, a large cucum- ber pared and sliced, and a well-blanched lettuce quartered ; with pepper, salt, a point of cayenne, and a quai’t, or what will cover the stew, of boiling broth. Dish the veal in the middle of the soup-dish, pour the stew-sauee over it, and garnish with the lettuce and a few forcemeat-balls.

Maintenon-Cutlets. — Cut and flatten the cutlets,, season them with mixed spices, dip them in beat egg, and then in bread-crumbs and pulverized sweet herbs, with a little grated nutmeg. Broil them over a quick clear fire, turning them quickly, and moistening them with melted butter. Twist each cutlet neatly up in thin writing paper made hot, and serve them with mushroom- sauce, or catsup, stirred into plain melted butter.

Obs. — Common books of cookery recommend dress- ing veal-cutlets, salmon-cutlets, &c. in paper, — a plan which is extremely difficult even under the hands of a French artist, and which requires butter- ed or oiled paper put on at first, and supplied by clean paper when the cutlet is nearly dressed. The origi- nal paper will look greasy and besmeared whatever care the cook may take, and fr^sh paper spoils the meat.*

Various Ways of dressing Veal. — Prepare as above, and dress cutlets' in a Dutch oven, pouring melted butter and mushrooms over them. Fresh veal minc- ed, with the grate of a lemon and nutmeg, and a little

* Nothing should be ere papilotte in a kitchen save a pig’s ears and P. T7

CHAP. I.— MADE-DISHES.

289

l shred mutton-suet, makes a very good side-dish or supper-dish, and warms up well, or does for patties or scallops. Veal-rolls, for a side-dish or supper-dish, may be made of long thin slices flattened, seasoned, and rolled round a forcemeat of bacon or grated ham, suet, shalot, parsley, and spices. Tie the rolls tight, and stew them slowly in gravy, adding a glass of white wine and the squeeze of a lemon. Serve in a ragout-dish. Stewed mushrooms are a suitable ac- companiment to this dish. Veal makes an excellent currie or pillau.

To dress a Calf’s-Pluck. — Clean and stuff the heart with a relishing forcemeat. Spread a veal-caul, or slices of fat bacon, over it, and bake it. Parboil the half of the liver and lights, and mince them rather finer than for a hash. Simmer this mince in a little good gravy, and season it with the juice of a lemon, catsup, white pepper, chopped parsley, and salt. Dish the mince, and place the heart above it, and lay slices of fried liver round it, with fried parsley, or sippets, or bread-crumbs ; or the heart, if large and fat, will make a handsome dish if stuffed with a rich forcemeat, roasted with caul or paper over it, and served with melted butter and catsup poured about it, or venison- sauce. The liver may be stuffed and roasted as above ; but this we conceive one of the absurdities of cook- ery. The lights are made into balls, or used for force- meat, to calf’s-head, &c. They must have a good deal of kidney or other fat, or of udder, and the usual veal-seasonings of mace, lemon-peel, &c.

To dress Sweetbreads. — Parboil them, but be sure not to boil them much. Divide and stew them in white gravy ; thicken and season it Avith salt, mace*; white pepper, and when just ready, a little cream ; or egg the parboiled sweetbreads, dip them in crumbs, chopped herbs, and seasonings, and finish them in a Dutch oven, and serve Avith melted butter and catsup.

To ragout Sweetbreads. — Cut them in mouthfuls, wash and dry them in a cloth, brown them in fresh butter, and, pouring as much brown rich gravy as Avill just cover them into the stew-pan, let them sim- mer gently, adding a seasoning of pepper, allspice*

290

CHAP. r. — MADE-DISHES.

salt, and mushroom-catsup. Thicken the sauce, and, dishing the sweetbreads very hot, pour the sauce over them through a sieve. — See French Cookery.

To dress Calves’ -Tails. — Clean, blanch, cut them at the joints, and brown them in butter or soft kidney- fat. Drain, and stew them in good broth seasoned with parsley, onions, and a bay-leaf. Add green peas to the stew if in the season, or some small mushrooms. Skim and serve the ragout. Foreign- ers use garlic, and dredge with grated Parmesan.

Calf’s- Heart. — Dress as a plain stew, and season with lemon-grate, or stuff and roast, rolling in force- meat.

Cajf’s-Liver. — Cut a fat white liver into thin slices. Dust flour over them. Fry them for five minutes. Strew minced parsley, with young onions, salt, and pepper over the fry. Moisten it with good broth, and give it a toss for five minutes more ; but do not let it boil, or it will harden. Before serving, add the squeeze of a lemon.

Calf’s-Liver may be dressed more richly by stew- ing it with bacon, herbs, spices, &c. and putting white wine to the sauce.

Veal-Kidney may be minced and fried as sausage, or in oval balls, mixing the fat and lean together, with a little bacon, onion, pepper, salt, & c. and dress- ed thus, forms a good accompaniment to plain stews of veal.

To jag Veal. — Cut, flatten, and season slices of veal, and put them into an earthen or stone jar, with a sprig of sweet herbs, a roll of lemon-peel, and some bits of fresh butter. Cover the jar very close- ly, and set it in a pot of boiling water, or in a slow oven for from two to three hours. Take off the co- vering, and stir a little thickening and the juice of a lemon into the sauce, and, allowing a few minutes for this to mix, dish the veal in a ragout-dish, pick- ing out the herbs and lemon-peel. Garnish with slices of lemon.

Veal-Cake. — This is rather a pretty fantastical dish to ornament a table than one about which either the epicure or economist cares much. Take the hard yolks of eight or more eggs and cut them in two.

CHAP. I. MADE-DISHES. 291

Put some of them in the bottom of a small nice tin pan, or earthenware vessel. Strew chopped parsley- over them, with seasonings ; then thin slices of veal and ham, or veal and ham separately beaten to a paste in a mortar. Place thus alternate layers of egg, pars- ley, and meat, till you have enough. Stick bits of butter over the top, and add a little water or gravy ; cover the saucepan very close, and set it in an oven. When done, which will be in about three quarters of an hour, take off the covering, and press the meat down. When cold and firm, turn it out. It may be baked in an oval or fluted earthenware shape, turned out, and garnished with curled parsley, stars of orange-skin, &c.

To dress a Calf’s- Head plain. — Wash it and soak it in hot water that it may blanch. Take out the brains, and cut away the black part of the eyes. Boil it in a large fish-kettle, putting it on with plenty of cold water, and some salt to throw up the scum. Sim- mer it gently for an hour and a half. Take up the head, cut out the tongue ; score the head (but not deeply) in diamonds ; brush it over with beat egg, and sprinkle it with bread-crumbs, chopped parsley, and seasonings. Stick a few bits of butter over it, and brown the head in a Dutch oven. Meanwhile, wash, scald, skin, and parboil the brains, and chop them up with parsley and sage first parboiled and chopped, white pepper and salt. Stir them into hot melted butter. Add the squeeze of a lemon, or a lit-

Itle lemon-pickle, a small quantity of cayenne, and a minced shalot. Skin the tongue, and serve the brains dressed as above directed, around it, as a small dish to accompany the calf’s-head. Serve also parsley and butter. Curled slices of toasted bacon, a piece of ham or bacon, a pig’s-cheek, or sausage, are indispens- able with calf's-head, even when highly dressed.

Calf or Lamb’s Head and Ragout, a Scotch Dish. — Having parboiled the head as above, cut down the one half of it, with the skinned tongue, the palate, &c. into dice and other neatly-shaped bits. Trim and brush the other half with egg, and strew crumbs, chopped parsley, &c. over it, and set it to brown, sticking butter over it, and basting it with more

292

CHAP. I. — MADE-DISHES.

crumbs, &c. Meanwhile stew the hash in a little good veal-broth, or jelly of cow-heels, or any rich fresh stock you have : season with mixed spices, the grate and juice of a lemon, mace, or whatever seasoning is most approved. Dish the ragout, and place the browned head upon it. Garnish with brain-cakes and forcemeat-balls, or fried sippets.

Obs. — Pickled oysters, catsup, &c. may be added to this ragout, which may, at the discretion of the cook, be either a white or brown ragout. This we conceive the best way of dressing a calf’s-head, though the hash or fricassee of the second day must, by the experienced gourmand, be considered as preferable to any other mode of cookery, and only objectionable from not making so important an addition to the ap- pearance of the table as the full-dressed head does. If it be a lamb’s-head you are to dress, the scrag (which is generally cut off with the head in Scotland) will make a great addition to the ragout.

To fricassee a Calf’s-Head. — Clean and parboil the head ; cut the cheeks, tongue, palate, &c. into nice bits, and stew them in a rich white gravy, with a lit- tle of the broth in which the head was parboiled, sea- soned with white pepper, mace, herbs, onion, and salt. Thicken with butter rolled in flour, and just be- fore dishing the fricassee, add a little cream or beat yolk of egg. Simmer this, but do not allow it to boil. Garnish with brain-cakes and forcemeat-balls, or curled slices of bacon and egg-balls.

To hash a Calfs-Head. — Clean and parboil the head ; or take what is left of a plainly-boiled cold head, and cut it into slices of a rather larger size than for fricassee. Peel and slice the tongue. Take up- wards of a quart of the liquor in which the head was boiled, with the bones, trimmings, and a shank of veal or mutton, and boil these for the hash-stock, with a faggot of sweet herbs, a good bit of lemon-peel, onions, and white pepper. Boil this gravy till it is good and well-flavoured. Thicken it with flour knead- ed in butter, and strain it into a clean saucepan. Season with pounded mace, catsup, or lemon-pickle, or a little of any piquant store-sauce, and warm up the hash, without suffering it to boil, though boiling

ฆฆ • ฆ

CHAP. I. MADE-DISHES. 293

will not harm calf 's-head as it does other meat. Gar- nish with forcemeat-balls, or curled slices of bacon, or fried bread, which forms a suitable accompaniment to all hashes.

Obs. — This hash may be rendered more piquant by anchovy, pickled oysters, &c. It may be dressed as a currie-hash by the addition of fried onions and currie-powder ; or receive the flavour of a French dish, from finely-shred parsley, knotted marjoram, and a bit of tarragon, being added to the sauce just be- fore dishing, or a little tarragon vinegar. It may also be flavoured very agreeably with a little basil- wine. A brown hash may be made as above by us- ing fried onion, catsup, soy, a little red wine, &c. ; but as all brown made-dishes are expected to be pi- quant, while those that are white are usually bland and balsamic, seasonings of a more pungent quality are to be used.*

• ป -

mock-turtle, or calf’s-he ad.— See pages 148, 1 49,

and 150.

Get a large fat head with the skin on. Scald and clean it well. Soak it in hot water, and, if you wish to have the imitation-dish very rich, parboil it in good veal-broth, with a turnip, carrot, onions, and sweet herbs. Skim this well. In half an hour take up the head, and when cold enough to be firm and easily handled, cut the meat thus : — The eyes into round slices, having first picked out the black part, the gristly part about the ears into long narrow stripes, the fleshy part into round slices, the thick of the cheeks into small dice, the thin on the forehead into long stripes, and the peeled tongue into nice small bits. Put the bones and trimmings, with a piece of

* In France, shalot-sauce is served with a plain-dressed calf’s- head ; but the favourite mode of dressing this dish is superbe. Make a forcemeat of a pound of minced veal and two pounds of the fat of beef-kidney, bread-crumbs steeped in cream and dried, and fine herbs minced, namely, mushrooms, parsley, and young onions. Add salt, pepper, and spices. Mix this thoroughly. Stuff the head with it, but keep some for forcemeat-balls. Braise the head in gravy-broth, put artichoke bottoms, veal sweetbreads cut, truffles, and button-mushrooms, to the ragout.

294

CHAP. I. — MADE-DISHES.

bacon, back into the stock-pot. Fry some mincecl shalot in plenty of butter browned with flour. Put the cut meat to this browning, and give it a toss for a few minutes, then strain a sufficient quantity of the stock over it, to make the dish not much thicker than a stew-soup. Season with mace, pepper, salt, and a half-pint of Madeira. When the meat has stew- ed very slowly, rather soaking in the gi*avy than ac- tually boiling, and is nearly ready, put to it cayenne to taste, a small glass of catsup, a very little soy, and a couple of spoonfuls of chopped basil, tarragon, chives, and parsley. When skimmed to be dished, add the juice of a lemon. Serve in a large but not deep soup-dish, ornamented with a cut paste-border, and garnish with forcemeat-balls and egg-balls, with a few green pickles intermixed.

Obs. — This highly-flavoured dish may be enriched by parboiled sweetbreads cut, oysters, turtle-balls, &c. ; or, if the head be lean or small, good cow-heel cut down will make an excellent addition to it, but will require more boiling, and must be put into the stock-pot an hour before the head. For Potted Head see National Dishes.

To dress Calves’ -Feet. — Clean and blanch them. Boil them well ; divide and serve them with sauce Robert, or sauce d la tartar, in the dish, or they may be served as a fricassee like calf’s-head, thickening the sauce, and seasoning with lemon-peel and mace.

MADE-DISHES OF COED VEAE.

To ragout cold Veal. — Cut the cold meat into small cutlets, trimming off all gristles,, skins, bones, &c. With the fragments, an onion, a turnip, and carrot, make a little good gravy. Melt some fresh butter in a frying-pan, and flour and brown the veal of a light brown ; take it up, strain the made-gravy into the pan, and thicken the sauce to a proper con- sistence with flour first mixed with water. When smooth and well mixed, put in the cutlets, and let them simmer very slowly. Season with pepper, mace, catsup, and anchovy, or mushroom-powder, if you choose, bearing in mind that meat re-dressed having lost much of its native flavour, requires more season-

CHAP. I. MADE-DISHES. 295

ing than at first. Skim the sauce, and serve the ra- gout in it.

To hash Veal. — Cut the meat in thin small slices, paring away all gristles, skins, &c. Warm it up in a gravy drawn from the bones, as in former receipts. Thicken with butter rolled in flour, and season with mace, minced lemon-peel, a spoonful of lemon-pickle, or the juice of a lemon, or, in place of these, a glass of basil- wine. — See Hashed Beef, page 281.

To mince Veal. — Take only the fine white part of the meat, — mince it very finely, and heat it up in a little veal-broth, with white pepper, salt, mace, a good deal of finely-minced lemon-peel, and a glassful of cream.

Obs. — Minced Veal may be dressed as patties or scallops. It is much more savoury when made of un- dressed meat.

A Dujielm of cold Veal. — This is made by mixing stewed mushrooms finely minced with minced veal, thickening the fricassee, putting a little cream to it, and serving with toasted sippets, which ought to ac- company all hashes.

To pot Veal. — A fillet of white veal answers very well potted. — See Potted Beef Pounded ham or smoked tongue mixed with the veal is a great improve- ment to it. — For Potted Calf’s-Hcad, see National Dishes. For Veal Sausage, see Sausages, and for se- veral excellent dishes of veal, see French Cookery.

MADE-DISHES OF MUTTON.

A Haricot of Mutton. — Cut down the back-ribs into handsome chops, trimming away the fat and bones. Flatten the chops ; season them well with mixed spices, (cook’s-pepper,) flour, and brown them lightly in the frying-pan, over a quick fire, and then put them into a stew-pan with their own gravy, and a quart and a half of strained broth, in which onions, a turnip, a carrot, and a faggot of parsley have been boiled. When the chops have stewed slowly for some time, put in one large or two middle-sized carrots cut into slices and marked on the edges, a dozen pieces of turnips scooped to the size of large marbles, and a

296

CHAP. I. — MADE-DISHES.

half-dozen button-onions either roasted or parboiled and peeled. When the chops are quite tender, skim, thicken, and season the gravy with pepper and salt. Dish the chops in a soup-dish, and pour the gravy and roots over them.

Obs. — Celery or cucumber may be put to the gravy, and also cut pickles, or a spoonful of catsup. Brown haricot is made with carrot and yellow turnip, onions, &c. White haricot of beans, white turnip, endive, ce- lery, &c. Haricot is an excellent plain dish, nourishing and savoury, containing a judicious combination of meat, fluid, and roots, and is one of the best ways in which veal-cutlets, mutton-chops, or rump-steaks, can be used. Hai-icot may be made of the loin, but not so economically as of the neck or back-ribs.

Shoulder of Mutton with Oysters. — Have a large shoulder, which has been kept till tender, boned, and highly seasoned with salt and pepper. Lay some bearded oysters inside the meat, roll it up firm, bind it with fillets, and simmer in broth, with onion and peppercorns, and a head of celery, till ready. Undo the tape, and pour oyster-sauce over the mutton.

To dress a Scrag of Mutton. — Trim the scrag, and braise it in fresh broth with roots, seasonings, and a faggot of sweet herbs, and with a few slices of bacon under and over it, if you wish it rich. Simmer gently for three hours. Skim, and strain the gravy, and serve it with the meat ; with dressed spinage, or cu- cumber sauce.

To dress a Breast of Mutton. — Cut off the fat ; par- boil the meat ; egg it, and strew over shred parsley and bread-crumbs. Stick pieces of butter all over it. Brown it in the Dutch oven, and serve with caper or Robert sauce, or with stewed cucumbers.

Midtm-Collops. — See Beef-Collops, p. 119 and 125.

To grill a Breast of Mutton. — Cut off the superflu- ous fat, and take out the bones. Beat the breast flat, and season and score it in diamonds. Brush it with egg, and strew minced parsley and bread-crumbs over it. Broil it in a Dutch oven, basting it well with fresh butter, and serve with caper-sauce, cucumbers, or sauce Robert.

Mutton-Cutlets Maintenon. — Cut handsome chops

CHAP. I. MADE-DISHES. 2^7

from the loin, or cutlets from the gigot. Fry some chopped shalot and mushrooms in butter, and in this brown the cutlets. Season them with cook’s-pepper, and strew them with crumbs and chopped parsley, and twisting them in buttered papers, finish them on the gridiron. Serve with cucumbers, or any sauce that is liked.

Mutton- Steaks. — Cut down the back-ribs, a rib in each steak, and chop the bone short. If very fat trim away some of the suet, and it will answer very well for pie-crust, puddings, &c. Broil them as beef-steaks, and serve hot and hot. Put salt and a bit of fresh butter in the dish, or serve with sauce Robert.

Mutton-Collops and Cucumbers. — Pare and slice the cucumbers. Sprinkle them with fine salt and pepper, and pour vinegar over them. Brown the collops in a frying-pan, and then stew them with the drained cu- cumbers in a little broth. Skim and season the stew, and serve it hot in a ragout-dish.

Obs. — Lamb chops are excellent dressed as above, but they must not be over fat. Some cooks add slices of onion to the above stew, and the practice is com- mendable.

To roll a Loin of Mutton. — Keep the meat till quite tender and just beginning to turn. Bone it, and sea- son it highly with black and Jamaica pepper, mace, nutmeg, and cloves, (all in powder,) and salt. Let it lie a day in this seasoning. Flatten it with a rolling- pin, and cover it with forcemeat as for hare. Roll it up, and bind with fillets of linen. Half-roast or bake it in a slow oven. Skim off all the fat when cold, and finish the dressing of the loin by stewing it in the gravy drawn from itself, first dredging it well with flour and more spices. Put to the sauce, ten minutes before dishing the meat, a glass of red wine, catsup, an anchovy, and a large spoonful of lemon-pickle.

To dress Mutton Rumps and Kidneys. — Parboil six rumps, which are the number necessary for a dish, in mutton-broth. Let them cool, and take off the cake of fat from the gravy. Brush the rumps with egg, dip them in crumbs and chopped parsley, and a little lemon-thyme, and brown them. Have six kidnevs

V

298

CHAP. I. MADE-DISHES.

larded and broiled in a Dutch oven, and stew a little boiled rice in the gravy of the rumps. Dish the rice in a shallow dish, and lay the rumps on it, the points meeting at a centre ; place a kidney between each of these, and garnish with cut pickles.

Obs. — This dish is very good dressed plain in the Dutch oven, and either served on rice stewed in broth, or with stewed cucumbers. Besides the above me- thods of dressing mutton, a haunch may be cut and roasted as venison. A Jlllet may be braised * by co- vering it with buttered paper or veal-caul, and then coarse paste, and roasting and glazing it, — serving it

* Braising We are afraid that the young beginner in cookery

may not find the account of the process of braising which is given in this chapter sufficiently circumstantial. This process, which is of French invention, is, by thorough-bred gourmands, esteemed the ne plus ultra of cookery. It is eminently suited to white meats, lean, or what was anciently called “ rascal venison,” turkey, and domestic fowls. It is not quite so well adapted to delicate stomachs ; nor is it relished by those whose unsophisticated palates can still distinguish and enjoy the native, decided flavour of meats. Braised turkey, or rather Dinde en daube , is now a very favourite dish, and, when old and dry in the flesh, braising is requisite for this bird’ of which it has been somewhat irreverently sung —

“ Turkey boiled is Turkey spoiled ;

And Turkey roast is Turkey lost ;

But for Turkey braised, the Lord be praised.”

Braising is comparatively an easy process, and the same rules apply either to meat or poultry. Clean, season, and stuff or lard, where necessary, the article to be dressed. Line a thick-bottomed stew-pan or baking-dish, just large enough to hold the meat, with slices of good bacon or fat beef, sliced onion, carrot, and turnip. Strew in a few chopped herbs, with salt, mace, and black and Ja- maica peppercorns, and a few bay-leaves, a clove of garlic, &c. &c. observing to vary and suit the saasonings to the nature of the pre- paration. Lay the meat or poultry on this spicy bed, and cover it with a superstratum of the same ingredients. Over this place a sheet of cambric-paper ; wrap a cloth about the lid of the stew-pan, and press it closely down, setting a weight over it to keep it so, and to prevent the escape of the savoury steams which the meat or poul- try ought to imbibe till completely saturated. Set the stew-pan over embers, have embers above it, and let the process be very slow. Dishes which are braised are finished by glazing, thus: — Take out the meat and keep it hot ; strain the gravy into a clean pan ; give it a quick uncovered boil for a few minutes, and brush the meat with the jelly once or oftener till it look well, allowing one coat to firm before another coat of the varnish is put on : or you may have a glaze ready prepared. French cooks glaze every dish. The English re- lish variush as little on their meat as rouge on the cheeks of their countrywomen — P. T.

CHAP. I. — MADE-DISHES. 299

on French beans or cucumbers, first stewed in gravy, and placed in the dish below the mutton.

parson’s or friar’s venison.

Bone the shoulder of mutton, when kept till very ten- der, and lay it to steep in wine, vinegar, herbs, and spices. Make a forcemeat of the trimmings and the kidney, tongue, &c. with oysters or mushrooms. Stuff the shoulder, — cover it with veal-caul ; roast or braise it, and serve with venison-sauce. Garlic gives it the flavour of foreign cookery.

Sheep s Trotters. — Stew in a braise, and serve with sauce Robert. See French Cookery.

MADE-DISHES OF COLD MUTTON.

Dressed mutton may be warmed up either by hash- ing, stewing in broth, or broiling in a Dutch oven. The last mode is suitable to a blade-bone, which may be scored, seasoned, broiled, and served with any re- lishing sauce.

To hash Mutton. — Cut the white underdone parts into thin slices, about the size of a shilling. Prepare a gravy from the gristles and other trimmings, and season it with pepper, salt, and onion. Skim off the fat, and strain it, and putting the meat to it, let it soak till thoroughly warm, but it must not boil.

Minced Mutton with Cucumbers. — Mince the best parts left of a cold roasted leg, and stir this into a mince of stewed cucumbers. Let it heat, but not boil.

Obs. — Minced mutton may also be served with en- dive.

N. B. — Almost every dish made of mutton may be prepared of lamb.

Casserole of dressed Mutton. — Line a mould with mashed potatoes ; fill it with the mutton properly sea- soned ; cover the whole with more mashed potatoes, and bake and turn it out.

Haricot of cold Mutton. — Cut the cold meat into chops, trimming off all superfluous fat, and simmer it very slowly in any strong well-seasoned broth you may have ready, or may make of the mutton-bones.

300

CHAP. I. MADE-DISHES.

&c. Add a half-dozen of button-onions, some round slices of carrot, and a turnip cut down. Season with pepper and allspice, and serve the stew in a soup- dish.

Obs. — This is a good and economical way of dress- ing cold roast mutton for family use.

MADE-DISHES OF LAMB.

Breast of Lamb with Cucumbers. — Chop off the chine-bone, and notching the breast well, stew it in good gravy for twenty minutes. Take it up, drain and score it in diamonds. Season it with mixed spices, dredge it with flour, and finish in a Dutch oven, or on the gridiron. Serve on stewed cucumbers.

Lamb-Cutlets with Spinage. — Take cutlets from the loin ; flatten, season, and broil them ; and placing stewed spinage neatly in a dish, lay the cutlets round it.

Lamb-cutlets are also very elegantly served with a ragout of mushrooms or oysters, the cutlets laid around the ragout. Asparagus, or asparagus peas, is very suitable to lamb.

Shoulder of Lamb stuffed. — Bone the shoulder, and fill up the vacancy with forcemeat. Braise the meat very slowly over embers, or a stove ; or stew it plain- ly in the same manner. Glaze it, and serve with sorrel-sauce, tomata-sauce, or stewed cucumbers.

Lamb-Steaks Ragout. — Stew them in veal-broth, to which a little sweet milk is put, and season with white pepper and mace. When nearly ready, thicken the sauce with a little mushroom-powder, a bit of butter rolled in flour, and add a large glassful of good cream.

Lamb-Steaks Brown, see p. 119. — Flatten and season them. Brush them with egg, and roll them in a sea- soning of chopped parsley, bread-crumbs, grated le- mon-peel, nutmeg, and salt. Fry them of a fine light- brown, and pour over them some good thickened gravy, a glass of wine, and either a few stewed oys- ters or mushrooms. Skim the sauce, and serve the dish very hot, garnishing it with forcemeat-balls, fried bread, or cut pickles if requisite.

CHAP. I. MADE-DISHES.

301

Another Way. — Fry the steaks for live minutes in butter; drain them, dip them in egg and bread- crumbs, and finish them on the gridiron.

Lamb-Sweetbreads Ragout. — Blanch what will make a dish with scalding water. Soak and stew them in good clear gravy for twenty minutes, adding white pepper, mace, and salt. Thicken with butter rolled in flour. Beat up two yolks of eggs and a glass of sweet cream, with a dessert-spoonful of minced pars- ley, and a little nutmeg. Take off the stew-pan, and gradually mix in the beat egg and cream. Make the sauce hot, stirring it diligently lest it curdle, but do not let it boil. Asparagus points, or cut French beans, first parboiled, may be stirred into the ragout.

Obs. — If the sweetbreads are very large they must be cut.

Lamb-Chops with Potato, a favourite Dish. — Cut the back-ribs of a large lamb into handsome chops, trimming off the bone with a chopping-knife. Season and brush the chops with a beat egg ; dip them in crumbs and minced parsley, and fry ‘them nicely. Place mashed potatoes, (made somewhat thin with butter and cream, and again heated,) high in the centre of a dish, score this neatly, and lay the hot chops around them, leaning each chop on the side of the adjoining one.

Obs. — A finely-minced onion may be added to the mashed potatoes if the flavour is liked.

To dress Lamb’s Liver, see p. 128. To dress Lamb’s- Head, see page 291.

To dress a Leg of Lamb with Vegetables. — Cut the loin into handsome steaks, and fry them nicely. Boil the gigot slowly, skimming it well, that it may look white and plump. Place the gigot in the middle of the dish, lay the steaks around it, with sprigs of nicely- boiled cauliflower on each steak ; or it may be served with spinage, sorrel, or stewed cucumber. Pour some hot melted butter over the gigot.

Obs. — This is an elegant variety in dressing lamb, and is attended with no additional expense whatever.

Besides the above methods of cookery, lamb may be dressed as ragout, collar, currie, cutlets Mainte-

N

302

CHAP. I. MADE-DISHES.

non, covered with rice, &c. Cold lamb, whether shoulder or breast, is best re-dressed in the Dutch oven, by scoring, seasoning, and grilling it ; or it may be hashed, though this mode of dressing is not so well suited to lamb as to veal or poultry. For Roast Lamb, see p. 101 .

Lamb’s Stove, a Scottish Dish. — Clean and blanch the head. Stew it in broth, or along with a piece of meat, till tender. Add minced parsley, green onions, and some mashed spinage, and serve the stew and head together in a soup-dish.

Obs. — This, nationality apart, we consider a very indifferent preparation. It is but a beggarly imitation of the Tete d’agneau a la pluche verte of our old allies the French.

Lamb’s Stove, by a French Receipt. — Clean two lamb’s heads. Lift up the skin, and cut out the jaw- bones. Let them soak in salt and water; blanch them ; rub them with lemon to whiten them. Let them simmer for an hour in a blanc.* Drain them ; split the skull ; take out the brains, skin the tongues, and split them ; trim the ears. Serve the heads neat- ly arranged on the dish with a good sauce, and the pluck as ragout, or serve with a green sauce of parsley.

MADE-DISHES OF VENISON, HARE, AND RABBIT.

To stew a Shoulder of Venison when too lean to roast. — Bone the meat when it has been kept long enough. Flatten it, and lay over it thin slices of fat well-flavoured mutton. Sprinkle with plenty of mixed spices, and roll it up very tight. Stew it slowly in rich beef or mutton gravy in a close stew-pan that will just hold it. Add, when nearly finished, pepper, cayenne, allspice, and a half-pint of claret or port. When the venison is tender, which will be in about three hours, take off the bandages, and dish it, pour- ing the strained gravy over it. Serve with venison-

SclU C6*

Obs, A few slices of lean mutton, or two or more

shanks well broken, may be put to the gravy to en-

• A rich broth. See Note in French Cookery for llanc.

CHAP. I-. — MADE-DISHES. 303

rich the stew. A breast may be dressed as above, but is better as a pasty.

Venison- Collops, a Scotch Dish. — Cut the meat in thin cutlets, season them highly with mixed spices, and having browned them in the stew-pan, put to them a quarter-pint of strong brown gravy, the same quantity of claret, some fried crumbs, a little fine su- igar, and a glass of the best vinegar. Stew slowly in a closely-covered stew-pan, and dish the collops in the -strained sauce. They may first be marinaded.

Ohs. — Venison makes the finest flavoured minced collops, surpassing either beef or hare ; and excellent steaks, when seasoned, dipped in butter, rolled in crumbs, and broiled quickly. But these steaks re- quire a gravy-sauce, unless the venison be very fat.

CIVET OF VENISON.

(Cut the neck, or back-ribs, or breast, in small chops. IFry some pieces of good bacon in butter, and when n.nelted, drain off the liquid and add flour. Brown the -iteaks in this roux, and then moisten with red wine. Burgundy or claret,) and good broth. Add parsley, mions, pepper, salt, and also garlic if admired. Let his cook slowly, shaking the dish occasionally. Add small onions and mushrooms. Let the sauce be of i food consistence. This is elegantly served en casse - ฆ' ole.

MADE-DISHES OF COLD VENISON.

IVo slew cold Venison. — Make a gravy of what re- ; nains about the meat, a little strong unseasoned mut- i on-broth, and a bundle of sweet herbs. When this is r -ood, skim it, and add browned butter thickened with I' our, also catsup, mixed spices, a little claret, and a spoonful of currant-jelly if it is liked. Boil this till smooth, stirring it well, and put in the venison cut in i lin slices. Let it heat thoroughly, and taking out tie herbs, dishit, squeezing a lemon into the dish.

• ramish with slices of lemon and fried bread, or with ut pickles.

To hash Venison. — Cut the meat as for other ashes, and warm it in its own gravy. Season and ish it on sippets.

304

CHAP. I. MADE-DISHES.

Obs. — When the hashed venison is very lean, some cooks cut the firm fat of a neck of mutton into thin small slices, stew them in wine and sugar, and add them to the hash. A large piece of cold venison, when it can- not be used otherwise, will make a good stew-soup, made as directed for veal stew-soup. For Roasting Venison, see p. 98

MADE-DISHES OF HARE AND RABBIT.

To stew a Hare. — Cut off the legs and shoulders, or wings, as they are sometimes called ; chop down the middle of the back, and then chop each side into two or three pieces. Season these with mixed spices, and steep* them for some hours in shalot-vinegar, with three bay-leaves, and some pounded cloves. Make a pint and a half of gravy of the neck, head, liver, heart, ribs, &c. with onions, a good slice of bacon chopped into small bits, a large carrot split, sweet herbs, and two dozen corns of black pepper and allspice. Strain this into a clean stew-pan, and put the hare, with the vinegar in which it has been soaked, to it, and stew gently till done. Add salt, spices, and a little cay- enne. A little catsup may be added, and the stew may be thickened with butter rolled in browned flour.

Obs. — This is an excellent method of dressing a hare, which makes at best but a dry and ungainly roast. A few roasted button-onions may be peeled, stewed in the sauce, and served with the hare. An old hare requires to be either larded, stewed in very rich broth, or, which is still better, braised. Garlic, if liked at all, should be used with hare. Hare is also stewed in wine, ale, or cider, enriching the liquid with rasped bacon and high seasonings, also the blood put in when the dish is taken off the fire ; the liver and lights may be dressed as forcemeat-balls to serve with it. Currant-jelly or honey or sugar may be used with discretion in this dish.

To jug Hare. — Cut it into small pieces season

* The propriety of this marinade , we must own, is strongly doubted by some gastronomers of repute. They do not consider the flavour imparted as at all equivalent to the native juices withdrawn.

CHAP. I. — MADE-DISHES.

305

them, and put them into a jugging-can which will just hold them, with a slice or two of good bacon or beef, a faggot of herbs, a few onions, with a half-do- zen cloves stuck in them, a couple of bay-leaves, the rind of a lemon, and a little water. Cover the jug- ; ging-ean closely, so that the steams may not escape.

' Set it in a kettle of boiling water, or a slow oven, for three hours. When done, skim oft' the fat, and strain I off the gravy ; thicken it ; add seasonings if neces- sary, and dishing the pieces of hare neatly, pour the hot sauce over them ; or, if they have become cold, heat them up in it.

Obs. — Red wine, instead of water, and the juice of i a lemon, may be added to the jugged hare, which will i then make a highly-flavoured ragout. Serve venison- sauce ; but the natural sauce is the best that can ac- company this dish.

To broil a roasted Hare for Supper or Luncheon. — Cut off the legs and shoulders, and flatten and sea- son them ; broil them on a quick clear fire ; froth with i cold butter, and serve them hot with venison-sauce.

Obs. — Hare may also be dressed as directed for goose.

To hash Hare. — Cut down the hare intothinbits, and warm these in a gravy made of the head, bones, &c. Season with mixed spices, an onion, and herbs, and a little wine. Pick out the onion and herbs, and serve the hash on toasted sippets.

Hare. Cakes. — Mince the best parts of the hare with a little firm mutton-suet. Season the mince highly. Pound it in a mortar, and making it up with raw eggs as small cakes or sausage roll, flour and fry them, or do them in a Dutch oven. See Gateau de Lievre.

To smother Rabbits.'—1 Truss them and boil them ; smother them with white onion-sauce, melting the butter with milk that it may look very white.

Obs. — In Scotland rabbits wont to be smothered in an onion-sauce made with strong clear gravy instead of melted butter, and though the dish looked less in- viting, it was at least equally good. Rabbits cannot be too slowly boiled. Bring them very slowly to boil, and finish by the side of the fire. Those who dislike onion-sauce for this food may use a part of apples, turnips, or bread. Celery, artichoke-bottoms, young

306

CHAP. I. — MADE-DISHES.

pease, and French beans, are all used as ragouts for rabbits.

To fry Rabbits. — Cut them in joints, and fry them in fresh butter, with dried parsley and a sprinkling of sage. Serve liver and parsley-sauce. Rabbits may also be fricasseed as directed for chickens. They make an excellent pie, a good soup, and may be pot- ted or jugged.

MADE-DISHES OF POULTRY AND GAME.

To boil Fowls with Rice. — Stew a large white fowl in a little clear mutton-broth, seasoned with white pepper, onion, and mace, in a close stew-pan that will just hold it and allow it room to swell. When it has stewed a half-hour, put to it a small cupful of clean well-soaked rice. When tender, take up the fowl, keep it hot, and, straining the rice from the broth, place it on a reversed sieve to dry. Dish the fowl, and pile the rice in light heaps around it. Serve pars- ley and butter sauce.

Fowl with Mushrooms. — Stew and season as above in a very strong gravy, with butter rolled in flour, and add a feAv button-mushrooms nicely picked. Serve mushroom-sauce or a white fricassee of mushrooms.

Fowls with Oysters. — Truss as for boiling. Put plenty of butter and a seasoning of mace and lemon- rind into them ; tie them at neck and vent ; cover a nice stew-pan with bacon, and put in the fowls. • Moisten with broth, and braise the fowls slowly. Meanwhile have a very nice oyster-sauce prepared either with butter or cream ; dish the fowls on this, and garnish with fried oysters and slices of lemon.

To force a Fowl, — a favourite Dish. — Having cleaned and boned the fowl, stuff the inside with the following forcemeat: — A quarter-pound of minced veal, two ounces of grated ham, two of chopped onion and suet, a spoonful of shred sweet herbs, two chop- ped hard yolks of eggs, a tea-spoonful of minced le- mon-peel, mixed spices, and a little cayenne. Let the several ingredients be very finely shred. Beat the whole to a paste in a mortar, adding two eggs to make them cohere. Stuff the fowl, sew it up, keep- ing it of a natural shape, draw in the legs, and truss

CHAP. I. MADE-DISHES. 307

the wings. Stew it in white clear broth, and when nearly done, thicken the sauce with butter rolled in flour. When just ready to serve, add a little cream, squeeze a lemon into the dish, and serve the fowl with the sauce around it. — See Quenelles and Gratia.

To ragout Poultry, Pigeons, Rabbits, 6$c. — Half- roast the thing which is to be dressed as a ragout. Cut it into joints as at table, and stew in good broth, with a couple of onions, two dozen corns of allspice and black pepper, a few cloves, a piece of lemon-peel, and for some things a slice of celery, for others, a couple of bay-leaves. Skim the stew, and, keeping the lid quite close, let it simmer for three quarters of an hour or more, according to the age and size of the birds. Strain off the gravy, leaving the fowls in the stew-pan to keep hot. Take off the cake of fat which will soon form upon the gravy, and thick- en it with butter rolled in browned flour till it is as thick as stiff pancake-batter. Add to it a glass of red wine and the squeeze of a lemon. Dish the fowls, ducks, or rabbits, whichever your dish may be, and pour the sauce hot over them, garnishing with fried bread.

Obs. — The sauce ought to be smooth, thick, and •well-coloured. It may be made without wine.

To braise Chickens or Pigeons. — Bone them, and stuff them with forcemeat. Fry a few sliced onions in a stew-pan ; add to these the bones and other trim- mings of the chickens, with a broken shank of veal or mutton, a faggot of herbs, a few blades of mace, and a pint of good broth. Cover the chickens with slices of bacon, and then with veal-caul or paper. Wrap a cloth about the lid of the stew-pan, and stew very slowly over embers, or on a stove, for an hour and a half. Take them up and keep them hot in an oven. Strain the braise-gravy, and boil it up quickly to a jelly. Glaze the chickens with it, and serve with a brown fricassee of mushrooms.

A Continental Method of dressing cold roast Fowls. — Beat up two yolks of eggs with butter, mace, nutmeg, &c. Cut up the fowls, dip them in this, and roll the pieces in crumbs and fried parsley. Fry the cut pieces nicely in butter or clarified dripping,

308

CHAP. I. — MADE-DISHES.

and pour over it any white or green vegetable ragout that you may have left over. Parmesan grated is used to heighten the gout of this dish.

To braise a Goose. — Every thing to be braised is trussed as for boiling. Put slices of bacon over the goose, and line the stew-pan with the same. Put in the goose with the giblets and seasonings. Moisten with stock. Braise as elsewhere directed, and serve it above either apple or onion sauce, or onion sauce mol- lified with, white turnip.

N. B. — A hare may be cooked thus.

Obs. — Wine is used in braising both goose and Turkey, but we do not approve of it.

To f ricassee Chickens white. — Cut up each chicken into eight parts, as in carving them at table. Wash, dry, flatten, and season them with mixed spices, using only white pepper. Take a pint of clear veal or mut- ton gravy, or other good clear stock, and put to it a roll of lemon-peel, two onions, three blades of mace, and a few sweet herbs. Stew the chicken in this very slowly for a half-hour, keeping the stew-pan co- vered. Strain the sauce, and thicken it with butter rolled in flour, salt, and a scrape of nutmeg. When ready to be served, add a quarter-pint of good cream, and the yolk of one or two eggs well beat. Mix this very carefully lest it curdle, and be sure it does not boil. A glass of white wine and the squeeze of a lemon may be put to the fricassee.

Obs. — Besides the above methods of dressing fowls and chickens, they may be stewed with pease and lettuce in good broth, seasoned with parsley, young onions, salt, and spices. If large fowls, they may be cut down the back. Young chickens may be trussed as for boiling, and stuffed. Put in the pease, and a cut lettuce a quarter of an hour after the chickens. Fill up the dish with the gravy, laying the pease and let- tuce over the chickens. (See in French Cookery Fricassee Naturel, and a la Paysanne .)

Davenport Fowls are stuffed with a forcemeat made of the hearts, liver, &c., an anchovy, yolk of hard- boiled eggs, onions, mixed spices, and a piece of but- ter or shred mutton-suet, or veal-kidney fat. Sew up the necks and vents, brown the fowls in a Dutch

chap, i.— made-dishes. 309

oven, then stew them in broth, and serve with mush- room-sauce, or melted butter and catsup.

To stew Giblets. — Clean and cut them as directed for giblet-soup, p. 157* Season with mixed spices. Stew them in a little broth, and before serving thicken the sauce, and add a glass of good cream to it.

To pull cold Turkey or Chickens. — Skin them, and pull the meat off the breast and wings in large long flakes. Brown these in a Dutch oven, basting with butter, or very quickly in a frying-pan, so as not to dry the meat. Drain from the butter, and simmer the pulled meat in good gravy, seasoned with mixed spices. Thicken the sauce. Meanwhile cut off the legs, sidesmen, and back. Season and broil these, and serving the pulled hash in the middle of the dish, place these over and around it. Garnish with fried sippets. Turkey may be warmed as above ; but the leg should be scored, seasoned, and grilled, and the hash served around it.

To stew Pigeons brown. — Season them, and truss them with the legs inward. Return the livers into them, with a bit of butter and chopped parsley. Lay them in a small stew-pan, with slices of bacon below them. Twenty minutes will cook them — serve well- seasoned brown gravy-sauce with them.

To ragout Pigeons . — Clean and stuff them with a seasoning of mixed spices, salt, parsley shred very finely, a piece of fresh butter, and a few bread-crumbs. Tie them at neck and vent, half-roast them, and finish in the stew-pan in good gravy, to which a glass oi white wine, a bit of lemon-peel, and a few nice picklea mushrooms may be put. Thicken the sauce with but- ter rolled in flour. Dish the pigeons, and pour it over them. Garnish with asparagus laid between the birds.

Obs. — Cream, or the beat yolk of an egg , may be put to this, and to any white ragout, taking care to prevent these ingredients from curdling. The pi- geons may be stuffed with a forcemeat of the livers, with bread-crumbs, minced parsley, butter, spices, and a little cayenne, and dressed as a brown ragout, by browning them in the frying-pan previous to stew-

n 2

310

CHAP. I. — MADE-DISHES.

ing, thickening the sauce with browned flour, and adding to it a spoonful of catsup or a glass of red wine. Some good cooks stew pigeons with white cabbage, cut as for pickling, serving the cabbage round the pigeons; or stew them in brown gravy, highly seasoned, adding mushrooms or a little catsup. Others stew them with a lettuce quartered instead of cabbage. To Roast or Broil Pigeons, see pages 111, and 121, Pigeon Soup , p. 153. Pigeons pot very well, and are thought excellent as a pie, either cold or hot. N. B. — The cabbage should be braised.

Ducks with young Pease, a favourite Dish prepared in the best Manner. — Clean, truss, and singe the ducks, which should be plump and young. Season them with salt, pepper, cayenne, and mixed spices. Place them between layers of bacon in a stew-pan that will just hold them, and moisten them with a little gravy. Stew them from a half-hour to a whole one, according to size and age of the birds. Meanwhile boil and af- terwards fry three pints of the most delicate green pease with a half-pound of good bacon cut in bits. While the pease still retain their good colour drain off the fat, dust some flour over them ; add a little water or broth, a bunch of parsley and young onions, some pepper and salt, and the ducks carved (if too large) into proper pieces. Serve the pease over the ducks, and let the fat be carefully skimmed off.

Obs. — The ducks may be roasted ; but stringy sum- mer ducks that come with green pease are much better dressed as above. Some persons will prefer the pease fried in butter instead of bits of bacon, and the dish, if not so rich, will remain at least as elegant.

To stew an old Duck with Cabbage. — Stew the cabbage in top-fat with seasonings. Par-roast a large fat duck, and stew it in gravy well seasoned with herbs, onions, sage, pepper, and salt. Thicken the gravy, and serve the duck with the cabbage under it and the sauce in the dish.

To ragout Ducks. — Put the gizzards, livers, necks, &c., to a pint of good strong beef-broth, or other well- seasoned good stock. Season the ducks inside with salt and mixed spices. Brown them on all sides in a frying-pan, and then stew them till tender in the

CHAP. I. MADE -DISHES. 311

strained stock. When nearly ready, thicken the sauce with browned flour and butter.

Another Way. — Clean and season the ducks with pepper and salt inside. Par-roast them, and stew them in beef-gravy, with shred onions fried in the stew-pan before the gravy is put in. When the ducks have simmered for twenty minutes, and been turned, put in a few leaves of sage and of lemon-thyme chop- ped very fine, or, in the season, a pint and a half of young green pease. When these are tender, thicken the sauce with butter rolled in flour, and serve the ducks and pease together in a deep dish.

Ohs. — When pease are not in season, a dozen or two of button-onions may be par-roasted and stewed with the ducks, or sliced cucumbers and onions, first fried.*

To hash Ducks. — Nothing hashes better than a fat duck. Cut it into pieces as in carving at table, and soak them by the side of the fire in a little boiling- gravy till thoroughly hot. Add a glass of wine and a sufficient quantity of mixed spices, to give the sauce a high relish ; or cut up the ducks, make a gravy of the trimmings and some onions. Thicken it when strained with butter browned with flour. Stew the cut ducks gently till ready, and having seasoned the sauce, serve the hash on fried sippets.

Obs. — A cold goose may be dressed in the same way, adding a little finely-shred sage and onion to the hash-sauce ; — or the legs of a goose may be scored, sea- soned, and grilled, as directed for a turkey. Cold poultry, rabbits, and game may all be hashed as above. See that the hash-sauce be well thickened, smooth, and carefully cleaned of all the fat. Where there is any cold stuffing left, cut it into slices, and serve it warmed in the Dutch oven round the hashed meat.

* Fillets cut from the breast of plump under-roasted ducks (that have been stuffed with chopped young sage and onion before they were roasted), served in hot orange-gravy, and the juice that flows from the birds, with cayenne and nigh seasonings, is esteemed a rare luxury by the skilful gourmand. This is a disn for the solitary epi, cure, not for a table. Wives, children, and friends have no portion in such dainties. This is the French Table Salmi.

312

CHAP. I. MADE-DISHES.

To hash cold Wild Fowl. — Cut them as at table, and let them soak till hot in boiling gravy thickened with bread-crumbs, and seasoned with salt, mixed spices, a glass of claret, and a spoonful of lemon- pickle or orange-juice. Garnish with fried sippets. For partridges and pheasants use only white pepper and white wine.

N. B. — Some gourmands dislike bread-crumbs here.

To ragout Wild Duck or Teal. — Half- roast the birds. Score the breast, but not deeply, and into each indenture put mixed spices and the juice of a lemon. Let the birds lie a few minutes, and then stew them till tender in good brown gravy. Take up the birds and keep them hot ; add a glass of wine and three finely-shred shalots to the gravy, and pour it over the ducks.

Obs. — This is a dish of very highgowJ, and it is prized accordingly. In carving ducks, whether wild or do- mestic, after scoring the breast it is an improvement to put a little butter over it, as in shoulder of lamb, and above that to squeeze an orange or lemon. Ducks are also re-dressed as currie, brown ragout, or as a stew-soup. Ducks, and particularly the wild, may be dressed as civet of hare. — See also French Cookery.

CHICKEN, RABBIT, AND VEAL, &C. CURRIE.

This common and favourite dish is at once economi- cal, convenient at table, and of easy preparation. All kinds of viands may be dressed as currie. The only important rule is, to have good stock ; and the only art consists in hitting the medium in seasoning, or in suiting the tastes of the individuals for whom the cur- rie is prepared. — See Obs. p. 1 92. Cut up the chick- ens, fowls, rabbits, veal, lamb, &c. &c., into pieces proper to be helped at table, and rather small than clumsily large. Fry the cut meat in butter, with sliced Spanish or whole button-onions, over a quick fire, till of a fine amber colour. When the meat is browned, add nearly a pint of good mutton or veal stock unseasoned ; and when this has simmered slowly for a quarter of an hour, or more if the fowls are old, add from two to three dessert-spoonfuls of currie-

CHAP. I. MADE-DISHES. 313

powder and a spoonful of flour, both rubbed very smooth, and carefully stirred into the sauce. When just ready, add also a glass of good thick cr^am, and either the juice of a lemon or a proportionate quantity of citric acid. Skim off all fat, and if the sauce is not rich enough (before dishing) stir in a small quantity of melted butter. If the sauce be too thick, add a little broth to thin it. Some cooks pound part of the meat and all the scraps to thicken the currie, and also the boiled livers, &c.

Obs. — Currie may be made of cold chicken, slices of veal, lamb, &c., and is a very acceptable variety at table in place of toujours hash, though very inferior to currie of undressed meat. Some cooks add a few small onions that have been cooked in the broth ; others a few capsicums or a fresh chilli, which is pe- culiarly acceptable to those who like hot-spiced dishes.

Currie-Balls. — Take stale bread-crumbs finely grated, the yolk of a hard-boiled egg, and a piece of fresh butter the size of a walnut. Add currie-pow- der, and beating these ingredients to a paste in a mortar, make the mixture up into small balls, with raw yolk of egg and a little flour.

To boil Rice for Currie. — Pick and soak the rice, and boil it quickly in boiling water and salt till it be tender but not soft ; drain it, and put it to dry be- fore the fire on a sieve reversed. Either heap it lightly on a dish by itself, or if the dish of currie be small, it may be served round the di^h in which the currie is placed in the centre. — See also page 369.

Obs. — Rice for currie is seldom properly boiled. It is either in a mash or the grains are quite hard. To avoid both defects some cooks shower hot water upon the boiled rice, and set it to evaporate before the fire, so that every several particle may be distinct, and yet the whole tender enough to eat. When over- boiled, the rice may, after draining, be smoothed, brushed over with yolk of egg, and browned in the oven, — though this necessity ought never to be courted Handle it very lightly. Spooning spoils it.

Brain-Balls and Cakes for Made-Dishes These

may be made either for lamb’s or calf’s-head by the

314

CHAP. I. — MADE-DISHES.

same process. Clear the brains of all the filaments and skins that hang about them, and having scalded them, beat them up in a basin with the yolks of two eggs, a spoonful of bread-crumbs, another of flour, a little grated lemon-peel, and a small dessert-spoon- ful of finely-shred parsley, and if for calf's-head, a little shred sage and thyme. Put seasonings to the mixture, and a large spoonful of melted butter ; and dropping the batter in small cakes, fry them of an amber colour. They may either be served as a gar- nishing, or as a small side-dish to accompany a dress- ed calf's-head or lamb’s head.

For Balls. — Make the above mixture into small balls with more egg and flour.

Croquets and Rissoles. — These little useful dishes dif- fer from savoury patties only in shape. They are all made of cold chicken, sweetbreads, veal, or any nice bit of white meat that is left cold. Mince the meat, season it, and stew it for two minutes in gravy. Cro- quets are rolled up as small sausages, dipped in eggs, and rolled in bread-crumbs, fried a light brown, and served with nicely-fried parsley. Rissoles are made of thin puff-paste, in any form you please, spreading a little of the mince on the paste, and doubling it up like an apple-pasty ; or it is served as balls rolled up in paste, fried, and garnished with parsley.

Canapes. — Take the crumb of a large loaf, cut it in slices the thickness of three quarters of an inch ; af- terwards cut them into any form, and fry them of a nice colour in oil or butter ; mince separately the hard yolks of eggs, whites, cucumbers, capers, anchovies in strips, different fine sweet herbs, small salad herbs, &c., and put them in a little oil ; season the canapes (fried bread) with salt, pepper, and vinegar ; dress it hand- somely, and garnish it tastefully with hard eggs, ham, beet-root, small herbs, anchovies, capers, cresses, &c. &c., and serve upon dishes for hors d‘ oeuvre, L e. re- lishes.

Pork Sausages. — Mince the fat and lean of pork, keeping out skins and gristles, and season it well with salt, black and Jamaica ground pepper, and chopped sage. Clean and half-fill the guts, and fry the sausages.

Oxford Sausages. — Take equal quantities of veal

CHAP. I. — -MADE-DISHES.

315

and pork, mince them, and add a half of the weight of beef-suet; mix and season them well, as above, and add a small quantity of the crumb of fresh bread, steeped in water.

Obs. — A chopped anchovy is an improvement to these sausages. Lemon-peel, grated nutmeg, lemon- thyme, savoury and sweet marjoram, wont to be used for this composition, but are now getting obsolete.

Epping Sausages. — Take equal quantities of young tender pork and beef-suet. Mince them very finely, and season with salt, pepper, grated nutmeg, a sprink- ling of sage, and some thin rind of bacon. Roll up with egg, and fry it.

Bologna Sausages. — Take equal weight of bacon, beef, pork, and veal. Mince, and season high with pepper, salt, and sage. Fill a well-cleaned gut and boil for an hour.

Beauvillier’s Sausages. — Mince what quantity of fresh pork will be necessary ; mix with it equal to a quarter of lard, salt, and fine spices ; fill the skins and tie them ; hang them in the smoke for three days ; then cook them in bouill&n for three hours, with salt, a clove of garlic, thyme, bay, basil, parsley, and young onions ; when cold, serve upon a napkin.

Smoked Scotch Sausages, to keep and eat cold.— Salt a piece of beef for two days, and mince it with suet. Season it highly with pepper, salt, onion, or shalot. Fill a large well-cleaned ox-gut, plait it in links, and hang the sausage in the chimney to dry. Boil it as wanted, either a single link or altogether.*

Common Beef Sausages. — These are made of minced collops, with seasonings, and a proportion of suet. The crumb of a penny-loaf, soaked in water, is al- lowed to every three pounds of meat, before filling the skins.

Savaloys. — Take a piece of tender pork, free from skin and gristles, and salt it with common salt and a

• Some of these sausages wont to be made when a Mart was killed ; they formed an excellent article of supply for the hill, the moor, or the boat ; and in the Hebrides and remote parts of the Highlands they still hold a favourite place in the wide open chimney. - *

316

CHAP. I. — MADE-DISHES.

little saltpetre. In two or three days mince it, and season with pepper, chopped sage, and a little grated bread. Fill the gut, and bake the savaloys for a half- hour in a moderate oven. If to be eaten cold, let them lie a day or two longer in the salt.

DEVILS.

Though devils are often served at supper or luncheon, they are most commonly considered as provocatives and stimulants, — a relish with wine, or a spur to a jaded appetite. Their preparation must accordingly vary with the momentary tastes or necessities of the consumers. The only indispensable attribute of the common familiar cock-crow devil for a rere-supper is scorching heat and tear-compelling pungency. De- vils are made of the legs, rumps, backs, and gizzards of cold Turkey, goose, duck, capon, and of all kinds of game, particularly the backs of moor-game, which have a peculiarly stimulating bitter ; and also of veni- son, veal, and mutton-kidney, fish-bones, and biscuits or rusks. The meat to be dressed in this way must be scored, that the seasonings may find suitable places of retreat. The seasonings, which consist of salt, pepper, cayenne, and currie, mushroom, anchovy, or truffle-powder, must be administered at the discretion of the consumer. It is a common mode to have the things seasoned at table, and then sent to the kitchen fire. The devils must be broiled on a strong clear fire, and served in a hot- water dish, or one with a spi- rit-lamp. When not served dry as a relish with wine, the proper sauces for devils are, grill-sauce, ancliovy- sauce, or any piquant sauce. Dry toasts or rusks are a proper accompaniment to deviled poultry, &c.*

* The following receipt for the preparation of devils is the best that has yet been disclosed ; for in this philosophic and amateur de- partment of cookery profound mystery has hitherto been observed : — “ Mix equal parts of common salt, pounded cayenne, and currie- powder, with double the quantity of mushroom or truffle powder. Dissect a brace of woodcocks (if under-roasted so much the better), split the heads, divide and subdivide the legs, wings, back, &c., and powder all the pieces with the seasonings well mixed. Bruise the trail and brains with the yolk of a hard-boiled egg, a very little pounded mace, the grate of half a lemon, and half a spoonful of soy.

CHAP. I. MADE-DISHES. 317

Sandwiches. — These are a convenient and economi- cal, but, at the same time, a rather suspicious order of culinary preparations, especially in hotels and public gardens; they are therefore getting into disrepute. Sand- wiches may be made of ham or tongue, sliced, grated, or scraped : of German or common pork sausage, cold salted rump, anchovies, shrimps, sprats, potted cheese, or hard yolks of egg and Parmesan or Cheshire cheese pounded with butter : forcemeat, and potted meat of various kinds, cold poultry, with whatever seasonings of mustard, currie-powder, &c. &c. are most suitable to the meat with which the sandwich is made. The only particular directions that can be given are, to have them fresh-made, and to cut the bread in neat even slices, of any shapes that are fancied, and not too large nor thick.

A Cheese-Sandwich. — Take two-thirds grated Parme- san or Cheshire cheese, and one of butter, and a small proportion of made-mustard ; pound them in a mor- tar ; cover slices of bread with a little of this, and over it lay thin slices of ham, or any cured meat ; cover with another slice of bread, press them toge- ther, and cut this into mouthfuls.

Obs. — An anchovy may be pounded with the mix- ture.

Anchovy-Toasts. — Cut slices of bread as for sand- wiches, and fry them nicely in fresh butter. Spread them with anchovy-butter, or anchovies and butter freshly pounded, and lay some quartered anchovies above all.*

Rub these together till they become smooth, and add a table-spoon- ful of catsup, a glass of Madeira, and the juice of two Seville oranges. Throw this sauce, along with the birds, into a silver stew- dish to be heated by a lamp. Cover it close, and keep gently sim- mering, occasionally stirring, until the flesh has imbibed the greater quantity of the liquid. When you have reason to suppose it is completely saturated, throw in a small quantity of salad-oil, and stirring it all once more well together, serve it round instantly.” The only remaining direction the writer of this admirable receipt

fives is, that as in picking the bones your fingers must necessarily e impregnated with the flavour of the devil, you must be careful in licking them, not to swallow them entirely. These are Table Salmis.

• 7 oas-'s — The old French Cookery possessed an endless variety of Toasts , some of which are still worthy of attention ; as Friars

CHAP. I. MADE-DISHES.

318

Ramakins. — Take equal parts of sound Cheshire and Gloucester cheese and fresh butter, and having crumbled or grated the cheese, beat the whole to a paste, with three or four yolks of eggs, and the crumb of a new French roll previously soaked in hot milk. Mix the paste with the whites of two of the eggs well beaten. Season with a little salt, pepper, and pound- ed mace. Fill small paper pans, or very small sauc- ers, half full with the mixture, and bake the ramakins in a Dutch oven. Serve them quite hot, which is pe- culiarly requisite for every preparation of cheese.

Obs. — This batter is also served over boiled maca- roni, or with stewed celery, asparagus, cauliflower, or brocoli. Parmesan or Gruyere cheese will make a more relishing ramakin where expense is not consi- dered.

Pastry Ramakins. — Take any bits of puff-paste that remain from covering pies, tarts, &c. and roll them lightly out. Sprinkle grated cheese over them of any dry high-flavoured kind. Fold the paste up in three, or only double it, and sprinkle it repeatedly with-grated cheese. Shape the ramakins with a paste- runner to any shape, and bake and serve them hot on a napkin or as hors-d’oeuvres, i. e. relishes.

To dress Macaroni in the best Way. — Wash it well, and boil it slowly in water till it is tender, but not soft. Strain it, and add strong well-flavoured stock to it. When quite tender, dish it. Strew it over

toast , which was exactly our modern anchovy-toast sprinkled over with chopped parsley, shalot, and capers. Brittany toasts were made of chopped salad herbs, with salad,-sauce. Veal-kidney toasts were rather an inviting mess ; the minced kidney seasoned with shalot and parsley, and mixed with egg and bread-crumbs, was in fact a piquant forcemeat spread on a toast, which was baked and served hot. Ham-toasts were made thus The slices were soaked to freshen them, in the first place, when this was needful. Afterwards they were soaked in a stew-pan in butter and seasonings for a few minutes ; the toasts were fried in the same pan- Dish them hot, and pour a little gravy with pepper, salt, and vinegar, oyer them. There were toasts still more recherche of fat livers, skate-livers, &c. all appropriate to the rere-supper of those convivial times, but scarcely admissible into the cookery of modem regularly-constituted families.

CHAP. I. MADE-DISHES. 319

with grated Stilton or Parmesan cheese, and brown it in a Dutch oven.

Obs. — Instead of gravy-stock melted butter may be put to it. It may also be covered with ramakin- batter, or boiled with milk instead of water, or stew- ed in white ragout-sauce, with a little chopped lean ham. The grated cheese may also be mixed up with the boiled macaroni, and having dished it, strew fine bread-crumbs lightly over it, and pour melted butter on the crumbs through a colander. Brown it in a Dutch oven, or with a salamander.

To pot Cheese. — Cut down half a pound of good sound mellow Stilton, with two ounces of fresh but- ter ; add a little mace and made-mustard. Beat this well in a mortar, and pressing it close in a potting- can, cover with clarified butter if to be long kept.

Obs. — Currie or anchovy powder, cayenne or pep- per, may all be added to the cheese.

Toast and Cheese. — Pare the crust off a slice of bread cut smooth, and of about a half-inch in thick- ness. Toast it, but do not let it wither or harden in the toasting. Butter, and cover the toast with slices of sound fat Stilton, Gouda, or Dunlop cheese of the first quality. Lay the toasts on a cheese-toaster, and notice that the cheese is equally done. Pepper, salt, and made-mustard, are to be added at discretion.

Obs. — The toasts may be covered with the cheese previously grated, which will favour the equal melt- ing of it ; or the cheese may be toasted on one side before being put upon the bread.

Cheese-Fritters. — Pound good cheese with bread- crumbs, raw yolks, rasped ham, and butter. Make this into oval small balls, dip in stiff fritter-batter and fry them.

Braised Cheese. — Melt some slices of fat good cheese in a small dish over a lamp or over steam. Add butter and pepper, and mustard if chosen. Have ready soft toasts in a hot water-dish or cheese-dish with hot wa- ter, and spread the cheese on these,

Welsh Gallimaufry. — Mix well in a mortar cheese with butter, mustard, wine, flavoured vinegar, or any ingredient admired.

A Scotch Rabbit.— Cut, toast, and butter the bread

320

CHAP. I. — MADE-DISHES.

as in toast and cheese, and keep it hot. Grate down mellow Stilton, Gouda, or good Dunlop cheese ; and if not fat, put to it some bits of fresh butter. Put this into a cheese-toaster with a hot-water reservoir, and add to it a glassful of well-flavoured brown stout por- ter, a large tea-spoonful of made-mustard, and pep- per very finely ground, to taste. Stir the mixture till it is completely dissolved, brown it, and, then fill- ing the reservoir with boiling water, serve the cheese, with the hot toasts oil a separate dish.

Obs. — This is one of the best plain preparations of the kind that we are acquainted with. Some gour- mands use red wine instead of porter, but the latter liquor is much better adapted to the flavour of cheese. Others use a proportion of soft putrid cheese, or the whole of it in that state. This is, of course, a matter of taste, and beyond the jurisdiction of any culinary dictator. To dip the toasts in hot porter makes ano- ther variety of this preparation.

Cheese to serve as a Relish. — Grate three ounces of good mellow cheese, and the same quantity of bread. Mix these with two ounces of butter, the beat yolks of two eggs, some made-mustard, pepper, and salt. Mash in a mortar, and spread this paste on small toasts cut as sippets. Toast, brown, and trim these, and serve them very hot.*

DIFFERENT WAYS OF DRESSING EGGS OR OMELETS.

To poach Eggs.— Boil and skim some spring-iva- ter with a little vinegar in it. Break the eggs,

* Toasted Cheese This academic, histrionic, and poetical prepa-

ration has produced a good deal of discussion in its day. The Welsh Rabbit, (by the way, we are inclined to think with a learned friend, that the true reading is Welsh Rare Bit,) has ever been a favourite morsel with those gentlemen who think a second supper fairly worth the other three regularly -administered meals of the day. The twenty-eighth maxim of O’Doherty is wholly dedicated to this tasteful subject, and his culinary opinions are worthy of profound attention. “ It is the cant of the day,” quoth Sir Morgan, “ to say that a Welsh Rabbit is heavy eating. I know this, but did 1 ever feel it in mv own case — Certainly not. I like it best in the genuine Welsh way, however that is, the toasted bread buttered on both side*

CHAP. I. — MADE-DISHES.

321

(which should be two days laid) with the point of a knife that the meat may slide gently out without breaking. Turn the shell above the egg as you dip it into the water to gather in all the white. Take off the stew-pan, and slide them gently into the boiling water, taking care to break their fall. Let the sauce- pan stand by the side of the fire till the white has set, and then put it on the fire for a minute or two. Take up the eggs with a slice ; trim away the broken parts of the white, and serve on toasts, slices of cold meat, broiled pork-sausage, spinage, brocoli, sorrel, or also with veal-gravy.

Obs. — Poached eggs may be served with a sauce of grated ham, shred onion, parsley, pepper, and salt. Stew this for ten minutes in weak broth. When rea- dy, thicken and strain the sauce, and when it is a lit- tle cool, cover the eggs. They may be poached in butter. ,

Mushroom and Egg Dish. — Slice, fry, and drain some large onions and a few button-mushrooms. Slice hard-boiled eggs, the yolks and white separate- ly, and either simmer the whole in fresh butter with pepper, salt, mustard, and shalot-vinegar, or in good gravy. Put in the sliced, yolks last, and only let them remain about a minute. Serve very hot, and garnish with curled parsley and a fetv rings of the white of the eggs.

Swiss Eggs. — Mix two ounces of grated cheese and two of melted butter with six beat eggs. Sea- son with salt, pepper, shred parsley, and young oni- ons. Cook the mixture lightly in the frying-pan. Brown the upper side with a salamander, and serve very hot.

profusely, then a layer of cold roast beef, with mustard and horse- radish, and then on the top of all a superstratum of Cheshire tho- roughly saturated while in the process of toasting with cwru\ or, in its absence, porter — genuine porter, black pepper, and shalot-vine- gar. I peril myself upon the assertion, that tins is not a heavy sup- per for a man who lias been busy all day till dinner in reading, writ- ing, walking, or riding, — who has occupied himself between dinner and supper in the discussion of a bottle or two of sound wine, or any equivalent, and who proposes to swallow at least three tumb- lers of something hot ere he resigns himself to the embrace of Som- nuii. With these provisoes I recommend toasted cheese for supper.”

6

322

CHAP. I.— MADE-DISHES.

To butter Eggs. — Beat six eggs well up in a basin. Set three ounces of fresh butter to melt in another basin placed in boiling water. Stir the eggs and but- ter together ; add pepper and salt, and a finely-minced onion, if it is liked. Pour the mixture into a small saucepan, and toss it over a slow fire for a few se- conds, then pour it into a large basin ; and thus skink the mixture backwards and forwards, setting it on the fire occasionally, but keeping it constantly briskly agitated till ready. Serve on toasts, or as an accom- paniment to salt fish or red herrings, or serve on a toast and garnish with sprigs of brocoli.

Scotch Eggs. — Five eggs make a dish. Boil them as for salad. Peel and dip them in beat egg, and co- ver them with a forcemeat made of grated ham, chop- ped anchovy, crumbs, mixed spices, &c. Fry them nicely in good clarified dripping, and serve with a gravy-sauce in a tureen.

Ohs. — Eggs may be boiled half-hard, wrapped in puff-paste, clipped in egg and crumbs, fried and serv- ed as a side-dish or supper-dish. Eggs for a small dish may be boiled hard, sliced, and served in a white ragout-sauce, dishing them with a whole yolk in the middle. Curled slips of bacon, toasted sippets, fried parsley, mushrooms, &c. form appropriate accompa- niments and garnishings to dishes of eggs. — See French Cookery for other preparations of eggs.

An Omelet. — Beat up six eggs with salt, pepper in fine powder, a large spoonful of parsley very finely shred, half the quantity of chives or green onion, a small bit of shalot, if liked, some grated ham or tongue; or, if for niaigre days, to which this dish is considered appropriate, lobster-meat, the soft part of oysters, shrimps, or grated cheese, may be used. Let the several things be very finely minced, and well mixed with the batter, adding a large spoonful of flour, and some bits of butter. Fry the omelet in plenty of very hot butter in a nicely-tinned small frying-pan, stirring it constantly till it firm, and then lifting the edges with a knife, that the butter may get below. It must not be overdressed, or it will get tough and dry. Carefully turn the omelet, by placing a plate over it, and return it into the frying-pan to

CHAP I. MADE-DISHES.

323

brown on the other side ; or, without turning, hold the pan before the fire till the raw is taken off the upper side ; double it, and serve it .very hot.

Obs A more delicate but less relishing omelet

may be made by seasoning the batter with lemon- peel, mace, nutmeg, &c. and using neither meat nor fish. Some cooks put a little pulped apple, or mash- ed potato, to omelets ; others flavour them with tarra- gon and mushroom-powder. Omelets may have grat- ed ham, minced roast veal, kidney, or grated Parme- san cheese, sprinkled over them. In the old French cookery omelets were garnished with anchovies, fat livers, red herrings, and all the pungent herbs used for toasts. To a simple omelet, the squeeze of a le- mon or Seville orange is an improvement.

Asparagus and Eggs. — Beat three or four eggs well with pepper and salt. Cut some dressed asparagus into pieces the size of pease, and stir them into the eggs. Melt two ounces of butter in a small stew-pan, and pouring in the mixture, stir it till it thicken, and serve it hot on a toast.

Obs. — Eggs may be made into a pie, using mince- pie meat with the hard-boiled chopped eggs. They may be served as a vol-au-vent, or with sippets, &c. Eggs may be filled with a relishing forcemeat, using the hard yolks as a part of th e farce.

Fairy Butter. — To six hard-boiled yolks add a half- pound of fresh butter and the same weight of sifted sugar. Pound this with a spoonful or two of orange- flower-water to keep it from oiling, and squirt it ; or rub it through a tightened cloth. It is served over ham and bread for breakfast, and in many ways for garnishing ; or by itself, as a little dish garnished with savoury jelly of either fish or meat.

Dressed Cucumber. — Pare and slice the cucumbers thin, and with a penknife cut the slices into small skeins (the length of the dish), wound up. Dress these along the dish, and pour vinegar over. Cucumbers thus cut may be served over beet-root sliced. Salads ad- mit of many elegant decorations of contrasted colour ; as scraped horseradish, squirted fairy butter, young radishes, &c. &c. Cucumbers in skeins may also be cooked.

3

CHAPTER II.

A COMPENDIUM OF FRENCH COOKERY,

COMPOSED FOR THE NEW EDITION OF

THE COOK’S AND HOUSEWIFE’S MANUAL,

CONSISTING OF RECEIPTS FOR THE MOST APPROVED FRENCH MADE-DISHES, SOUPS, SAUCES, AND PASTRY.

Muse, sing the man that did to Paris go,

That he might taste their Soups , and Sauces know.

Dr King.

It will save much trouble to admit at once, that the French are the greatest cooking nation on earth. They, at least, insist that it is so, and perhaps they may be in the right. This much is certain, that in France alone the culinary art is regarded as an exact science, of which every one understands something, and feels pride in his knowledge. The various branches of economy connected with the kitchen are equally well understood ; and the art of making the most and best of every thingis diligently practised. The causes of this acknowledged superiority it is not our present business to investigate ; our concern being only with those matters in which this confessed ex- cellence consists. But there is one cause of superior- ity so obvious that it must be mentioned,-— namely, the extreme patience and anxiety with which the most restless people in the world, upon all other occa- sions, attend to culinary processes. A French cook

CHAP. II. MADE-DISHES.

325

will give a half-day to the deliberate cookery of a ra- gout, which an English one would toss off in a half- hour ; and will watch the first popple of his stew-pan as if it were the last pulse of life. Any one who has seen a French cook attending to the veloute, or pound- ing the quenelle, as if life and death depended on his function, may have some idea of the importance of his art in his own estimation. Another evident cause of French superiority is the comparative plenty of game, fine herbs, and vegetables, mushrooms, truffles, &c. and the cheapness of poultry and of wines of high flavour ; and, paradoxical as it may seem, the scar- city of fuel in France.

So scientifically is the culinary art understood by our neighbours, that a French kitchen previous to a grand dinner is a perfect arsenal of consommes, gravies, glaze, roux , and mixed spices, all prepared in the best and most^economical manner; for, however it may be in this country with those ministers of vanity imported to English kitchens by luxury and ostentation, eco- nomy is thoroughly understood in France. Though objections are brought to the high relish of French dishes, we will venture to affirm, that the receipts given in our Engish Cookery Books, with their hete- rogeneous mixture of a thousand and one ingredients, are not only more expensive, but less simple, than those of Beauvilliers or Ude. But if bonne chere is so -well understood by our neighbours, bon gout in all matters connected with the table, or rather with the fete, is their undoubted forte.

The French are allowed to excel in soups and ra- gouts, and in the elegant preparation of their sauces. They have also many more and better ways of dress- ing vegetables than are known to us, by which they can, at small expense, add to the variety and good appearance of a table. Their modes of cookei’y, by braising, dressing in a hlanc, or in a poele, and their farces , deserve the serious attention of every lover of good cheer. The French have also ever been pre-emi- nent as a larding nation, and as skilful in glaze. Now, though we seldom prize varnished meat, nor greatly admire larding , we do highly value that union of economy with bon gout which enables the French to

o

326

CHAP. II.' — FRENCH COOKERY.

turn every cold left dish to good account, in the well- known varieties of timballes, scollops, vol-au-vent, or by dressing in casserole or croquets, & c. This branch of French cookery is worth the attention of every eco- nomist ; for though one, for example, does not go to the expense of serving a piece of cold turbot as a dressed salad or a vol-au-vent, it is excellent to know how the fish is best prepared for serving in a plainer style. There is already much French cookery blended with our own, and of late we are taking to the names as well as the dishes. Every modern cook wdio would thoroughly know her art must study the best French dishes, as modified by English taste and usage, and to do this she must be acquainted with the lead- ing features of the French system. In this Chapter, therefore, besides a copious selection of receipts for the best French dishes, we have given the elements of French cookery; and throughout the whole Manual, wherever the French mode seemed to deserve notice in any particular English receipt, the variation has been carefully pointed out to the attention of the cook.

STOCK-BROTH, OR GRAND BOUILLON.

Stock-Broth is the first step in French as in Eng- lish systematic cookery. It is made exactly as direct- ed at pages 1 36-7 of this Manual.

GRAND CONSOMME.

Take a knuckle of veal, a shin of beef, any trim- mings of veal, poultry, rabbits, or game, or an old fowl, or brace of partridges. Cut these in pieces, (except such as you wish to serve as dishes,) and put them into a nice clean stew-pan “with a bunch of parsley and young onions, and, if the flavour of foreign cookery is admired, a clove of garlic. Moisten this with fresh broth, and let the meat sweat over a slow fire till hot through.' Prick it with a sharp-pointed knife to let the jiuces flow out, and add as much boiling broth as will suit the quantity of meat you have. Skim this, and let it simmer for three hours. Let it settle. Skim and strain it.

Obs.— Consomme wholly of poultry or game, to suit

CHAP. II. MADE- DISHES. 327

dishes of fowl or game, may be made as above with- out using beef. For this gravy a little ham is an im- provement, but for game consomme, a partridge. Al- ways keep in mind, that the flavour of the consomme in fine cookery should not be at variance with the fla- vour of the dish of which it is to form the sauce. For example, if for a dish dressed with mushrooms, which always have a very peculiar and decided flavour, sea- son the consomme with that vegetable. This, the grand consomme, is the second step in French cookery.

Blond dc Veau, or Veal-Gravy, or Consomme. — Heat and rub a stew-pan hard with a towel, then rub it with butter. Lay some slices of lean bacon in the bottom of it, and over these four or five pounds of a leg of veal cut into slices. Moisten with a ladleful of grand consomme, and in this let the meat sweat. When it has catched a golden tinge over a rather brisk fire, prick it with a sharp knife to let its juice flow out ; let it sweat for twenty minutes more ; when reduced to a jelly of a topaz colour, moisten with boiling stock-broth (grand bouillon,) and season with onions, parsley, and mushrooms. Let this boil for an hour, and strain it for use.

Grande Sauce, see Savoury Brown Gravy, page 233.

Sauce Espagnole. — Put some slices of ham, accord- ing to the quantity of sauce you want, into a stew- pan, with double the quantity of sliced veal. Moisten with a small quantity of consomme, and Avhen you have drawn a strong amber-coloured jelly, put in a feAv spoonfuls more to float off this. QN. B. — This is a proper direction for detaching all glaze.] Put in a little more consomme of poultry or rabbits, if you have it; if not, strong blond de veau. Season Avith a little parsley, green onions, a half bay-leaf, tAvo sprigs of basil and thyme, and tAvo cloves. Simmer for a half- hour, skim and strain.

Obs. — This is used for many dishes ; it is a favour- ite general sauce, and, Avhen wanted, is thickened with roux, and seasoned Avith Madeira. It is some- times made of game.

V eloute, or White Cullis, see also page 234. — SAveat slowly over the fire some slices of very nice ba- con, a knuckle of very white veal, any trimmings of poultry or game you have, and the white part of

328

CHAP. II. — FRENCH COOKERY.

two carrots, and a bunch of onions. When you have got all the juices out of it, and it is just ready to catch, moisten it with consomme, and season with a small faggot of sweet herbs. When all the strength is got from the meat, let the gravy settle, shim it, strain it, and reduce by a quick boiling till it is nearly a jelly. Meanwhile mix three spoonfuls of potato-flour with three pints of cream, and, when this boils, pour it to your sauce, and boil till the veloute is of a proper con- sistence and very smooth. Stir it up, continually lift- ing it by spoonfuls and letting it fall, and do this till it is cold to prevent a skin from gathering on it.

Sauce a la Bechamelle. — Take as much veloute as you choose, and moisten it with blond de veau. Mix with this a pint of boiling cream, or what quantity you wish, with seasonings fit for the dish you intend to make.

Brown Italian Sauce, Italienne Rousse, a favourite French Sauce. — Take two spoonfuls of chopped mush- rooms, one of parsley, half a one of shalot, half a bay-leaf, pepper and salt to taste. Moisten with Es- pcignole, and stew the vegetables. Add more pepper, if necessary, and the quantity of consomme necessary to bring the sauce to the proper thickness.

Italian White Sauce, Italienne Blanche. — Use ve- loute instead of Espagnole. This is all the difference between the white and brown sauce.

Sauce a la Maitre d’ Hotel. — Melt a quarter-pound of butter, and thicken it with flour ; add in the stew-pan a little scalded and finely-minced parsley, salt, pepper, and a squeeze of lemon. Work it well with the spoon to make it smooth.

Sauce Hachee. — Take of chopped mushrooms and gherkins a spoonful each, half -a spoonful of scalded minced parsley, with pepper, salt, and vinegar. Mois- ten with a little consomme, or with brown Italian sauce.

French Sauce a la Tartare. — Mix a minced shalot and a few leaves of chervil and tarragon finely minced with 'a tea-spoonful of made-mustard, a glass of vine- gar, and a sprinkling of cil. Stir this constantly, and, if necessary, thin it with vinegar.

Sauce Tournee. — Moisten some white roux with consomme of poultry and blond de veau, till it is thin. Stew in it a few chopped mushrooms, parsley, and onions. Skim and strain the sauce. For roux see p. 231 .

CHAP. II. MADE-DISHES.

329

Sauce a la Pluche. — Blanch and drain some large- leafed young parsley and a little tarragon. Put to this a pint of veloute and a half-pint of clear consomme. Stir in a bit of butter ; work it well to make it smooth.

Obs. — This is a proper sauce for lamb’s stove.

Sauce a l’ Allemand, or German Sauce. — Thicken sauce tournee with the beat yolk of an egg or two, ac- cording to the quantity. This sauce is extensively used for dressed meat-dishes.

Sauce a la Matelote for Fish. — To a large pint of browmxwo: heated, or of Espagnole, putsix onions sliced and fried with a few mushrooms, or a little mush- room-catsup, a glass of red wine, and a little of the liquor in which the fish was boiled. Give it a season- ing of parsley, chives, or bay-leaf, salt, pepper, all- spice, and a clove. Skink it up, (using a large spoon) to make it blend Avell. Put veal-gravy to it if want- ed more rich, or a good piece of butter. Strain it, and if wanted exceedingly rich, add small quenelles, (forcemeat-balls,) proper for a fish-dish, glazed onions and mushrooms, a little essence of anchovy and a squeeze of lemon. Serve over stewed carp or trout.

Obs. — This sauce is exceedingly admired by some gourmands, indeed preferred to all other ways of serv- ing fish.

Sauce a la Matelote. — Take a heaped spoonful of minced parsley, chives, and mushrooms, and give them a fry in butter. Dredge them with flour, and moisten with consomme till sufficiently thin. When stewed a few minutes, add to this the beat yolks of two eggs, and take care they do not curdle.

Obs. — This is a cheap, general, useful sauce for mutton-cutlets, palates, sweetbreads, &c.

Remoulacle. — Pound the hard-boiled yolks of two eggs in a mortar with a little sour cream, or the raw yolk of an egg, a spoonful of made-mustard, pepper, salt, cayenne, one spoonful of vinegar or two of oil. Rub this through a sieve, and it is ready.

Salmi Sauce d l’ Espagnole, a Game Sauce. — This is a sauce of high relish. Fry in butter, over a slow fire, three shalots chopped, a sliced carrot, a bunch of pars- ley, some bits of ham, and a sprig of thyme. Let them just catch, and moisten them with Madeira.

330 CHAP. II. — FRENCH COOKERY.

Let this reduce a little, and add to it the trimmings of the game, and a little Espagnole. Let this stew till it is very good ; season it with salt and pepper ; skim and strain it. This sauce is served over salmis of partridge, duck, &c.

Poivrade Sauce. — Cut six ounces of ham into bits, and fry them in butter with a few sprigs of parsley, a few young onions sliced, a clove of garlic, a bay- leaf, a sprig of sweet basil, one of thyme, and two cloves. When well fried over a quick fire, add pep- per, cayenne, a little white-wine vinegar, and a half- pint of consomme. Let it simmer by the side of the fire for a good while, skim it and put it through a tammy-cloth.

Ravigote Sauce. — This is compounded of fine herbs, and is used both cooked and raw.

Dressed Ravigote. — Take a suitable quantity of burnet, chervil, tarragon, and celery, with two leaves of balm. Clean and boil them. Throw them into fresh water, and drain and pound them with a little salad-oil, and vinegar, pepper, and salt. Rub this when sufficiently done through a search.

Cold or uncooked Ravigote. — This is, in fact, just a salad sauce. Clean, mince, and pound the above herbs with a few capers and a boned anchovy or two. Pound the whole well with a raw egg, and add a little good vinegar to keep the ingredients from clagging. Mustard, or any stimulating ingredient, may be added. Rub through a search.

Mushroom- Sauce, by Beauvilliers’ Receipt. — Take two handfuls of mushrooms, wash them in several waters, rubbing them lightly ; put them into a drainer ; mince them with their stalks ; put them into a stew-pan, with the size of an egg of butter ; let them fall over a slow fire, and when nearly done, moisten them with two skimming spoonfuls of veloute ; let them simmer three quarters of an hour more ; rub them through a search, and finish with cream, as is directed for the onion purtc, with this difference, however, that this ought to be ra- ther clearer.

La D uc elle- Beauvilliers. — Mince mushrooms, pars- ley, young onions or shalots, the same quantity of each ; put some butter into a stew-pan with as much rasped bacon ; put them upon the fire ; season with

CHAP. II. — MADE-DISHES.

331

salt, pepper, fine spiceries, a little grated nutmeg, and a bay-leaf; moisten with a spoonful of Espagnole or ve- loute ; let it simmer, taking care to stir it : when suffi- ciently done, finish it with a thickening of yolks of eggs well beaten, which must not boil ; the juice of a lemon is not necessary, but may be added. Put it into a dish, and use it for every thing that is put in papillotes.

N. B. — The other sauces used by the French are either the same as our own that go under similar names, or the difference is pointed out in the receipts given in the Chapter Sauces.

FBENCH SOUPS.

Soups, under the French names, or, what is the same thing, under a different name, but the same soup, are so common at English tables, that the best part of them will be found in the Chapter Soups. There are still a few entitled to a place here.

Potage au Riz, or Rice Soup. — Have a strong clear bouillon , (stock-broth) of veal or beef, or a mixture of these meats, made as directed for stock-broth. Put a sufficient quantity of this, well-seasoned, boiling, into a tureen, in which are two ounces of rice, pre- pared as directed for Mullagatawny, page 369.

Another Way, which makes two Dishes. — Boil a neatly-trussed large fowl or capon in grand bouillon with two cloves, two onions, a faggot of sweet herbs, and salt. Skim it well to make the soup clear. Serve the fowl with a little great salt sprinkled on the breast, and a spoonful of clear soup about it. Serve the soup on boiled rice, taking out the onions and cloves, and putting a little brown beef or veal gravy to it to im- prove the colour.

Potage au Vermicelli. — Prepare four ounces of ver- micelli by blanching it, and boiling it in broth. Make the soup of grand bouillon, of blond de veatt, or con- somme, or a part of each. Let the cooked vermicelli boil in it five minutes and no more.

Potage a V Italienne, a Brown Soup. — Cut young- carrots and turnips in scrolls like ribbons, some white of leeks, and two heads of celery, and three onions in fillets. Fry these in butter ; moisten with strong, clear, deep-coloured gravy-stock, and some blond de

332

CHAP. II. — FRENCH COOKERY.

veau. Season Avith salt, and serve on toasted crusts soaked in a little broth.

N. B. — If the roots are old, scald them. This in the season is made a sort of vegetable hotch-potch, Avith green lettuce, &c.

Polage a la Baveuu, a clear Brown Soup .* — Scoop out some yellow turnips like marbles Avith a scooper. Blanch them, and boil them in a clear strong con- somme with a little browned sugar. Colour the soup deeper with veal-gravy, and serve it on toasted crusts.

Polage au Choux, Cabbage Soup — Parboil three firm white small cabbages. Drain them, and braise them in top-fat, with a feAV slices of bacon and season- ings. Drain them again off this fat ; quarter them, and slide them into the tureen, and over them pour strong well-seasoned and boiling beef stock-broth.

German Cabbage Soup. — Mince the parboiled cab- bage. SteAV them in butter, and serve in strong broth, Avith toasted bread cut in dice.

Polage Printanier, or Spring Soup. — Cut carrots, turnips, celery, and onions into small dice. Fry them gently, and boil them sloAvly in clear veal-broth, Avith a bit of browned sugar. Boil separately very green asparagus tops, and French beans cut as small dia- monds, also very green pease. Mix them and serve.

FRENCH DISHES AVHICH ARE SERVED IN TUREENS OR SOUP-DISHES IN THE FIRST COURSE.

civet of hare, a favourite Dish.

Cut the hare into small pieces, and carefully save the blood. Cut some firm Avhite bacon into small cubes, and give them a light fry with a bit of butter. Strain the gravy they give out, and thicken it Avith broAvned flour dusted over it in the steAv-pan. Put aside the bits of bacon, and place the cut hare in the stew-pan in the gravy. When firmed Avith frying, moisten Avith good broth and a pint of red Avine, and season with parsley, young onions, salt, pepper, a few mushrooms or catsup, or mushroom-powder. Let the meat steAv slowly till done, and skim off the fat. Noav lift all

* The French sometimes brown their carrots and turnip in butter, and rub them through a scarcli for carrot or turnip soup.

CHAP. II.— MADE-DISHES.

333

that is good of the hare, and also the bacon that you put aside, into a clean stew-pan. Strain the gravy over this, and now put to the civet, the bruised liver, the blood, some small mushrooms and onions ready cook- ed. Do not let it boil lest the blood clot. Pat the gravy in which the mushrooms and onions were cooked to the civet when it (the gravy) has been well boiled down.

Obs. — If cooking for palates trained on the conti- nent, add to the seasonings a bay-leaf, asprig of thyme, and two cloves of garlic. This civet is very similar to the old Scotch hare-soup.

CIVET OF ROE-BUCK.

Make this exactly as civet of hare, but without the blood of the animal. Use small cutlets of the neck and breast. It is an admirable way of dressing ve- nison.

FRENCH MADE-DISHES OF BEEF.

Bceuf d la Flamande. — See page 276.

Beef Steaks with Potatoes. — See p. 119.

Palais de Bceuf d V Ilalienne, Beef Palates with Ita- lian Sauce. — Rub the palates with salt; parboil and skin them. Cut them into scollops not too large, and stew them in a brown Italian sauce well thickened by a previous boiling down. Add a squeeze of lemon, and serve them.

Obs. — This will be found an exceedingly good way of dressing palates.

Enlre-Cole de Bceuf. — By this is meant what lies under the long ribs, or that thick slice of delicate meat which may be got from between them. Cut this into narrow steaks. Flatten and broil them, and either serve the steaks a la bif-tik Anglais, or with sauce hachee under them.

Langue de Bceuf en Mirolon. — Cut a cold tongue into nice round slices. Heat them in Espagnole, with pepper, salt, and a little broth. Dress them hot round a dish, each slice leaning on the edge of the other, which is called en Mirolon.

Langue de Bceuf d la Braise, Tongue braised.

Clean a large tongue as elsewhere directed. Parboil and skin it, and lard it all across with lard, seasoned

o 2

334

CHAP. II. — FRENCH COOKERY.

with cook’s-pepper. Put it in a stew-pot that will just hold it. Cover it with good broth, and a glass of wine. Season with a bay-leaf and two cloves, two carrots, and three onions, with any trimmings of veal, poultry, or game, you have. Put paper over it, and fire over the lid, and stew it slowly for two hours and a half. Garnish with the roots, and sauce the tongue with the strained gravy, to which add a little Espag - nole. N.B. — This is of very high gout , — one of the most cloying specimens of French cookery.

Ox Rumps in the French manner, see page 279.

Gras Double, Tripe todress.~- Take the fattest thick tripe well cleaned, and repeatedly scalded and scrap- ed. Boil it in water two hours, and clean it again, then stew it in a blanc* for four or five hours. Cut it in lozenges, and serve in white Italian sauce.

VEAL.

The French Manner of dividing and dressing the Fillet. — The fillet is formed of three distinct parts ; the large fat fleshy piece inside of the thigh, which the French call the noix. Of this they make a principal first-course dish. The piece below this they call the under noix, and the side part the centre noix. Of the principal noix they make a fricandeau, or a small roast, by stuffing and skewering this piece, to which in a cow-calf the udder is attached ; or they fry it a la bourgeoise. Of this part they also make cutlets, and grenadins. The under noix they use for piemeat, forcemeat, &c. the centre Jioix, or fat marrowy piece of the cutlet next the rump, for godiveau, sauce tournee, &c. The trimmings and bones help to make Espag- nole, or any soup or sauce. The part next the rump or centre noix is also dressed d 'la bourgeoise.

Noix de Veau en Bedeau, or in the Beadles Fashion. — Flatten the noix, and lard it lengthways with lard, seasoned with minced parsley, green onions, and cook’s-pepper. Line a stew-pan that will just hold

* A rich broth or gravy in which the French cook palates, lambY- head, and many other things. It is made thus : — A pound of beef- kidney fat, minced, put on with a sliced carrot, an onion stock, with two cloves, parsley, green onions, slices of lemon without the peel or seeds, or, if much is wanted, two pounds of fat, and two lemons. When a good deal melted, put in water made into brine with salt ; and when done, keep the mane for use.

CHAP. II. MADE-DISHES.

335

it with trimmings of veal, and lay slices of white bacon over the noix where not larded. Put onions, carrots, parsley, &c. into the stew-pan, and a little Espagnole or roux. Serve with sorrel, spinage, or a puree of onions.

A puree of onions, turnips, mushrooms, &c. is a thin pulpy mash or sauce of the vegetable specified.

Grenadins de Venn, Veal Grenadins. — These are small slices from the fillet about an inch thick, flat- tened, and one piece being cut round, the others must be shaped as lozenges to lie round this centre. Lard them, stew them in a pan lined with bacon, and trim- mings of veal seasoned as above ; put fire over the pan. Serve on a puree of mushrooms, or with sorrel, or endive, dishing the grenadins with their points to the centre where the round piece is laid.

Calf’s Brains d la Ravigole.* — Skin the brains, and carefully remove all the fibres. Soak them in se- veral waters. Parboil in salt and water, with a glass of vinegar for ten minutes, and when firm, divide and fry them. Serve with ravigote sauce .

Calf’s Brains d la Maitre d’ Hotel, a neat Corner- Disk. — Boil the brains as above with a little butter in the water, but don’t fry them. Fry some bread cut like scollop-shells. Dish the brains divided with the bread between, and cover with a Maitre d’ hotel sauce. Another pretty dish of brains may be made by serving very green fried parsley in the middle of the dish, and the brains around, saucing with browned butter, and a little vinegar.

Bis de Veau aux Mousserons, Veal- Sweetbreads, with Mushrooms. — At all times choose sweetbreads large and white. Soak them and blanch in boiling water till they firm. Cut them in nice pieces, and stew them in a little veloute with mushroom-sauce, t ready prepared. Boil down the sauce, and, when well re- duced, thicken with beat yolks of eggs, and season

• We do not conceive these dishes as of much importance ; but wheie there is a table to garnish every day, and a cook to labour, these trifling things may often be found useful. Where good dinners are constantly given, and sauces prepared at any rate, the expense is no- thing.

-f- The French rub this sauce, celery, onion, &c. through a sieve so that they are all purees, i. e. smooth and of pulpy consistence. ’

336 CHAP. II. — FRENCH COOKERY.

with a little blanched parsley., nicely minced, and a squeeze of lemon.

Calf’s Live r, with fine TIerbs. — -Cut a sound white liver into oblong slices an inch thick. Form these into the shape of hearts about two inches broad, dredge them with flour, and put them to fry with onions, mushrooms, parsley, pepper, and salt, previ- ously shred, and stewed in butter. Fry all this gent- ly till ready, and dust it with pepper. Keep the li- ver hot, put a little broth or gravy to the herbs to moisten them, and stew for a minute, and serve them over the liver which may be dished in order, arrang- ing the bits neatly.

Obs. — This dish is served for the dejeuner d lafour- chette, and must then be rather highly seasoned, and very hot.

Blanquettes of Veal. — Cut a cold roast loin or shoul- der of veal into nice small cutlets, using only the white part. Trim away the browned outside fat, and mince the veal. Stir it till warm in veloute well reduced ; but do not let it boil. Thicken with the yolk of an egg or two, and add a squeeze of lemon when ready to serve.

Blanquettes with Cucumbers. — Cut cold veal as above into scollops, and heat them in sa.uce tournee. Quarter and cut four or five cucumbers also into scollops. Cook them also in sauce tournee. Drain them ; reduce the strained sauce; thicken it with the beat yolks of two eggs. Put in a little cream, salt, and a bit of sugar. Serve the sauce over the meat and cucumbers.

Blanquetie d la Paysanne. — Prepare the veal as above in scollops. Heat the meat in a reduced sauce tournee. Thicken with egg, and season with minced parsley, and, just before serving, a good squeeze of lemon.

To dress cold Sweetbreads . — Cut them into scollops or square bits. Stew them in strong gravy only to heat through. Fry scollops of bread, dish with these alternately, and garnish with fried parsley.

Veal Cutlets d la Chingara*— Cut and trim cutlets from the fillet. Put them into the stew-pan with but-

* These were the favourite cutlets of the Nabob. J ekvll pre-

ferred cutlets d V Ittilieune, i. c . dipped in butter, nicely broiled, and served with a white Italian sauce.

CHAP. II. MADE-DISHES. 337

ter and ham, onions, parsley, carrot, and herbs. Warm in soup a slice of smoked tongue for each cutlet. When the cutlets are done enough, take them out ; boil down the stock to a glaze, and put them back. Glaze the slices of tongue. Dish one on each cutlet, shaping them together. Dish them around. Put a little Espagnole into the stew-pan, and a bit of butter also ; warm in it the remains of the smoked tongue minced, and pour this sauce into the middle of the cutlets.

Cotelettes au Jambon. — These are precisely the same as the former, only ham (the prime slices) is used in- stead of tongue.

Cutlets with Jine Herbs, or a la Venetienne. — Chop a handful of mushrooms, two shalots, a little parsley, and a sprig of thyme. Stew these in rasped bacon and butter ; when done, stew the cutlets over a very slow fire. Season with pepper and salt. Skim off the fat carefully. Put in a large spoonful of sauce tournee or white roux. Thicken with yolks of eggs beat with a little cream. Add the juice of a lemon, which is pro- per for all dishes made of veal, and a little cayenne.

Loin of cold Veal a la Bechamelle. — A loin of veal, when used as a remove, very often comes back from the table untouched, or with very little taken off it. Make a mince of the fillet or inside of the loin. Cover the loin with buttered paper, and warm it in a Dutch oven. Place it above the stewed blanquette, ( i . e. mince) and serve with a white sauce.

MUTTON.*

Gigotdla Gasconne, or Leg of Mutton Gascon Fashion .ฆ — This is a dish of very high gout and seldom seen now, but it still has devoted admirers. Lard a leg of mut- ton with garlic and fillets of anchovies ; roast it, and serve with Spanish or garlic sauce. — See page 237-

Cotelettes a la Soubise, Sou bis e Mutton-Cutlets. — Cut chops from the ribs, or cutlets from the leg, rather thick than otherwise. Trim off the superfluous fat,

* Families in the country, and those who “ kill their own mut- ton,” depend so much upon this favourite food, that it is impossible to know too many good ways of dressing it ; though, when all is done, none can surpass a roast or boiled leg, hotch-potch, boiled scrag with onion-sauce, and a well-dressed mutton-chop. P. T.

338

CHAP. II. — FRENCH COOKERY.

and sweat them in a stew-pan with strong gi’avy or butter-sauce., also green onions, parsley, pepper, and salt. When neai-ly cooked, take out the herbs, and reduce the sauce nearly to a glaze. Drain the cutlets. Dish them very hot with the sauce in the middle, and a dozen small onions, cooked as directed for garnish- ings.

Obs. — Soubise cutlets used to be larded, and brais- ed in bacon with all sorts of braising herbs; but there has been a considerable revolution of late even in French cookery.

Cotelettes a Vltalienne and au naturel. — These are nearly the same. Cut, trim, and dip the chops in butter and bread-crumbs. Broil them a little. Put pepper and salt over them, then butter and crumbs again, and broil till ready. Press out the fat between folds of hot paper, and serve with brown Italian sauce.

Cotelettes d la Minute, or in their Juice, for Dejeuners d la Fourchette. — Take rather thin slices from the gi- got, as in carving a roast leg. Put them into a thin- bottomed frying-pan in which is hot butter. Turn them continually. Keep them hot by the fire ; and put into the pan a little gravy and a few chopped herbs, stewed as for Venetian veal cutlets ; give this a toss, and skim and serve it round the hot cutlets.

Ilognons de Mouton, or Mutton Kidneys. — These are also served at a dejeuner d la fourchette. Skin and split a dozen kidneys without wholly separating them. Skewer them with wire skewers to keep them open ; rub them with a little salt and pepper ; dip them in butter, and broil first the inside, that, when turned on the grill to be finished, the gravy may be preserv- ed. Dish on a hot plate, with a very little chopped parsley and butter over each.

Obs. — In France these are also dressed as a mince, stewing the mince in butter, draining and serving it in a well-reduced Italian brown sauce with a very lit- tle Champagne. — See page 297-

Beef-Kidneys are dressed as above, and served at the dejeuner d la fourchette. N.B.— With brains, kidneys, and liver, use cayenne.

Haricot brun, or d la Bourgeoise. — Brown the chops in the frying-pan. Blake a roux of the butter in which they were fried, with a little more butter

CHAP. II. — MADE-DISHES. 339

and browned flour. Add a little veal-gravy, or good consomme, well seasoned, and some bits of turnip, with parsley and green onions. Skim the sauce often to clear it of fat. Have some turnips scooped into balls ready boiled, as for soup Baveau. Put them with the chops into a clean stew-pan, and strain the sauce over them. When the sauce looks clear and brown, and the turnips are done, dish the chops, and serve the sauce and turnip-balls in the middle.

Hachis de Mouton d la Portugaise. — Prepare the meat as for any hash. Heat it in a thick, well-reduc- ed Espagnole, with butter, pepper, and salt. Serve with eggs over it, poached rather hard, and dressed onions between, en cordon, or chain wise.

Minced Mutton with Cucumbers .. — See page 299.

Piedde Mouton d la Sauce Robert, Sheep’s Trotters. — — Cook the cleaned trotters in a blanc (see note, p. 333.) When slowly stewed till tender, bone them. Roll them in a dressed forcemeat. Dip them in thin frying batter, and fry them.

Ob s. — They may also be stuffed with the forcemeat, and braised, and so served. Serve with Robert sauce.

Pieds d’Agneau, or lamb’s trotters, are dressed as above.

Cervelles des Moutons, Sheep’s Brains. — These are dressed exactly as calves’ brains, but more pungent seasonings are proper.

Obs. — Of mutton the French also make fricandeaux mortadelles, or large sausages, grenadins, and many other dishes.

Cochon de Lait au Maine Blanc, or en Galan- tine.— Prepare the pig as directed at page 96, and bone it all except the head and feet ; but take care not to break the skin. Make a forcemeat of any degree of richness you choose of veal, beef- &c. suet, calf’s udder. Mince fine herbs (as basil and sage), panada, and some eggs to mix. [[Read the article Quenelles.^ Add plenty of spices. Now proceed as directed for godiveau. Lay the boned pig on a cloth, and cover it equally with the force- meat. Rasp some ham over it. Try to keep the pig as near its natural shape as possible. Sew it up. Bind it in a napkin with tape, and boil it in broth sea- soned with roots and herbs. When unswaddled, after

340

CHAP. II. — FRENCH COOKERY.

two hours slow boiling, wipe it dry, and serve with brown Espagnole, or, if cold, on a napkin.*

HURE DE COCHON.

Pig’s Face stuffed. — Make the head as large as you can, by cutting down to the shoulders. Singe it carefully. Put a red-hot poker into the ears. Clean and carefully bone the head without breaking the skin. Rub it with salt, and pour a boiled cold brine over it, with a large handful of chopped juniper-ber- ries, a few bruised cloves, and four bay-leaves, with thyme, basil, sage, a head of garlic bruised, and a half-ounce of saltpetre pounded. Let the head steep in this for ten days, and turn it and rub it often. Then wipe, drain, and dry it, and make a forcemeat for it thus : — Take equal quantities of undressed ham, and the breast of bacon. Season highly with cook’s- pepper, and fine spices if you choose. Pound the meat very small, and mix with it some seasoned lard, parsley, and young onions, finely mixed. Prove the quality of the forcemeat as directed at page 347- Im- prove it if deficient. Spread it equally over the head. Roll up, and sew it and bind it in a cloth, and stew it in a braise made of any trimmings and seasonings left, with broth enough to cover it. It will take near- ly four hours to cook, and will be still better if larded before it is stuffed. Try to pierce it with a larding- pin. If the pin enters easily, it is done. When cool, take off the binding- cloth. Trim the ends of the col- lared head, and serve it on a napkin.

* Dr Redgill, whose experiments on pig, from first to last, are extremely interesting, totally lost one stuffed pig by overboiling ; and had another considerably injured by the sewing rending the skin. But his final success was triumphant ; and he wrote down, as a canon of cookery, that all stuffed meats, as pig a la movie blanc , haggis, sausage, &c. are not to be boiled by their apparent size, but by their solidity ; for forcemeats of any kind will cook in a third or a half less time than a joint of meat of compact texture. The sew- ing should be the stitch surgeons use in sewing up wounds. If the cook would avoid the catastrophe of her pig, goose, or haggis burst- ing, she will boil these important articles on a fish -drainer, that, if an accident do occur, ready help may be administered. Silk thread is more apt to tear the integuments than any other thread ; the cook should therefore for her purposes use soft thread made of cotton.

3

CHAP. II. JMADE-DISIIES.

341

Obs. — This dish is well worth the attention of the gourmand and of the country housekeeper. It will keep a long while, and the liquor will make a savoury pease-soup, boil to a glaze, or braise vegetables. In- dependently of the stuffing, this French mode of cu- ring pig’s face is excellent.

To dress cold roast Pig a la Bechamelle, or in white Sauce. — Carve what remains of the piginto neatpieces, and let these just heat in bechamel-sauce, or serve them as blanquettes, i. e. a mince.

FRENCH MADE-DISHES OF POULTRY AND GAME.

GATEAU DE LIEVRE.

Hare Cake for a second Course .- — Prepare the hare as directed at page 152, and save the liver and the blood. Scrape the meat from the skin and sinews, and mince with it the liver, a piece of a calf’s-liver, and a good piece of the best part of an undressed ham. Pound the whole to a paste with a little cold broth, or hare or game soup, if you have it. Add equal to a third part of the bulk of rasped lard. Pound the whole well together, with salt, pepper, young onions, and pars- ley, previously cooked ; — give a seasoning also of the four fine spices, and a spoonful of brandy. Mix with the pounded meat six or eight eggs one by one, and, if foreign cookery is admired, the expressed juice of a clove of garlic. When the whole is exceedingly well pounded and mixed, line a stew-pan with slices of lard, and put the forcemeat over it to the thickness of an incli and a half, and quite level and equal. Then put in a layer of lard, pistachios, and truffles, all cut in stripes and neatly put down ; then again force- i meat an inch and a half thick. Cover this with slices ' of bacon, and this with paper. Close the pan, and bake the cake slowly for two hours, or for three, if you have a cake of three layers of forcemeat. Let it cool ; dip the mould in hot water to loosen the cake, and turn it out. Garnish to your fancy. Serve on a napkin.

Obs. — Hare is also dressed as cotelettes and boudins.

Rabbits a la Vcnetienne ; i. e. with fine Herbs.-

Carve two white young fat rabbits neatly, and fry lie pieces in butter with some rasped bacon and a

342

CHAP. II. — FRENCH COOKERY.

handful of chopped mushrooms, parsley, and shalot, with pepper, salt, and allspice. Rub a tea-spoonful of flour into a little consomme, and pour this into the stew-pan with the rabbits. Stew slowly till they are cooked ; skim and strain the sauce, and serve it hot about the meat, with a seasoning of cayenne and a good squeeze of lemon.

fowl a la chingara, a favourite Gourjnand Dish.

Cut a fat white fowl in four, across and down the back. Melt the least bit of butter in a stew-pan, and lay four slices from the best part of an undressed ham in the pan. Lay the cut fowl on this, and stew it very slowly on embers. When done, drain off the fat. Pour over the glaze which will have formed at the bottom a little Espagnole, and rub in a little cayenne, salt, and pepper. Meanwhile have ready four toasts. Fry them in the fat you poured off the fowl, and dust them with pepper and salt, and serve them between the slices of ham, on each slice of which a quarter of the fowl is to be laid.

Fowls d la Ravigote. — Roast the fowls, and serve them with ravigole-sauce.

Poulets d la Tarlare. — Roasted young fowls with sauce-tartar.

Fowl d la Campire. — Slit the breast of a roasted fowl to let the juice flow out, and lay sliced raw onions in the slits, and serve with a brown poivrade in the dish.

Poulets aux Huitres, young Fowls with Oyster- sauce. — Stiffen a quarter of a hundred of oysters in their own strained juice. Then stew them in a little veloule, or in two ounces of butter melted, and thick- ened with a little flour ; add white pepper and the squeeze of a lemon, and pour this hot over two roast- ed fowls, or serve it in a sauce-tureen separately.

Fricassee de Poulets d la Paysanne, a plain Fri- cassee of Chickens. — Singe two fat white chickens very well, (see note, page 96.) Carve them finely with a very sharp knife exactly as at table. Wash them in lukewarm water, and blanch them over the fire a few minutes to firm the flesh. Plunge them in cold wa- ter, and then put them into a very nice stew-pan with

CHAP. II. MADE-DISHES.

343

three ounces of butter, a faggot of parsley and green onions, and a cupful of nicely-trimmed button-mush- rooms. When warmed through and a little tinged, dredge on flour, and add salt, white pepper, and a little of the liquor they were blanched in. Let the fricassee simmer for a half-hour, or more if the chickens are large. Then lift the chickens into another saucepan. Skim off the fat, and reduce by a quick boil the sauce they were cooked in, and strain it over them. When about ready to serve, add a thickening of the beat yolks of two eggs.

Scollops of cold Chicken. — Mince and heat in becha- mel-sauce, in scollop-shapes, and serve with a cucum- ber-sauce.

Rissoles of cold roast Chicken. — Mince the white and good parts. Warm the mince in veloute well reduc- ed. Season with mace, white pepper, and nutmeg, and when cold, roll this up into balls the size of good large eggs. Wrap these in paste, and fry and serve them with fried parsley.

Salmi de Perdreaux, Salmi of Partridges .*• — Par- roast three or four partridges kept till they have ta- ken a little fumet. When cold, skin them and carve them. Put them into a small stew-pan, with a bit of lemon-peel, four shalots, a few bits of dressed ham, seasoning herbs of all kinds that you like, and a des- sert-spoonful of peppercorns, with the trimmings of the partridges, and a half-pint of Espagnole, and two glasses of Madeira. Let this simmer for an hour very gently. Dish the birds, and strain the skimmed sauce over them. Serve fried bread with the salmi, which must be hot and high-seasoned to be good for any thing.

Partridge Salmi, Sportsman’ s Fashion. — Put roasted, or, if done on purpose, half-roasted partridges, skinned and carved, into a saucepan with a small glass of eat- ing oil, a large glass of wine, pepper, salt, and the

* Salmis are favourite dishes with epicures, both on account of the excellence of their constituent parts, and their elaborate and pi- quant composition. They are in tact a species of moist deiHls. For thorough-bred English palates more hot seasonings will be requi- site than are used by the French ; and this must be attended to.

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CHAP. II. — FRENCH COOKERY.

grate and juice of a lemon. When just heated through, serve with grilled crusts.

Salmi of Wild Duck, or Teal Duck. — Make a sauce of veal-gravy as for partridges, but add caj'enne. Simmer the trimmings of the duck in this, and then put in the cold roasted duck carved and skinned. Sim- mer till hot. Lift the meat into another stew-pan. Skim the sauce, and strain it over the meat, and add more seasoning if needful. Squeeze a bitter orange over the sauce, and serve the dish very hot.

Eggs a la Tripe. — Peel, slice, and fry in butter, three or four Spanish onions. When done, dust in some flour, and let it catch to a light brown. Put in a lit- tle hot milk, salt, and pepper, and let the sauce re- duce/" Put to tins a dozen small hard-boiled eggs cut in slices. Mix them gently with the sauce not to break the slices. Arrano-e them neatlv in the dish.

Eggs in Sauce Robert. — Proceed as above directed ; but brown the onions over a brisk fire, and moisten with soup. Reduce the same by boiling. Add a tea- spoonful of made-mustard, and stir in the sliced eggs.

Eggs a la Maiire d’ Hotel. — Do these white as eggs d la tripe, but throw in a good lump of butter and minced parsley.

Obs. — These dishes, though the best of their kind, seem of little comparative importance ; but when the cook, or the mistress of a family, as is often the case, is racked for something to fill up an odd corner, they afford a cheap and ready resource. Eggs dressed in this last way will afterwards make an admirable sauce for salt cod, ling, &c. &c.

FRENCH BISHES OF FISH.

Court Bouillon. — Where fish is boiled every day, as in large establishments, this is a very useful broth, as well as in Catholic families during Lent. Season a large gal- lon of water with salt, three carrots, a bunch of pars- ley, or roots of parsley and green onions, four shalots.

• To boil and peel Eggs Boil them for fifteen minutes ; drop

them in cold water ; roll them below your hand, and the shell will come off like any other mould.

CHAP. II. MADE-DISIIES.

345

thyme, basil, two bay -leaves, a half-ounce of pepper- corns, and a few cloves. Stew and strain this as you need ; add wine or vinegar. It will answer repeat- edly by being boiled up ; and the fish boiled on suc- cessive days will enrich it. A piece of butter may be put in at first. It will form a good basis for maigre sauces to the fish. This is called eau de sel.

Trout or Pike a la Genevoise. — Clean the fish, but do not scale it. Put a little court bouillon in a stew- pan with parsley-roots, cloves, parsley, two bay-leaves, and onions, also a carrot if j’-ou like. When these have stewed an hour, strain the liquor over the pike or trout in a small oval fish-pan, and add a little Ma- deira to the liquor. When boiled, drain it, and take off the scales thoroughly. Then put it in the pan, with a little of the liquor to keep it moist and hot. Make a roux or thickening, and add to it veal-gravy (or, if for a maigre dish, wine ;) season this sauce with bits of mushroom, parsley, and green onions. Let it stew till smooth. Thicken with butter kneaded in flour if needful. Strain the sauce over the dished fish, with a squeeze of lemon and a little essence of anchovy.

Obs. — For trout use claret or some red wine, with mace and more cloves. N.B. — Saumon a la Genevoise is dressed exactly in this way, which, though rich cookery is now more out of date than fish served ซ la matelote. The head of the fish must be bound up to keep it from breaking, which is proper in dressing other fish.

To dress Fillets of cold Pike a. la Maitre d.’ Hotel. — Cut them neatly. Stew them in butter with pepper and salt. Dish the fillets neatly, and sauce them with a maitre d’hotel sauce, to which you put a little essence of anchovj'.

Obs. — French cooks serve cold fish, re-dressed, as vol-au-vcnts, croquets, saladcs, boudins, and in many in- genious modes as to outward shew.

Matelote de Carp a la Roy ale. — Clean what number of carp you choose. Cut them into three or four pieces according to the size. Dry these, and stew them very slowly in red wine. Make a sauce mate- lote (see page 329), but use the wine in which the carp is stewed both from economy and to have the full flavour. Use also a handful of cleaned mushrooms.

346 CHAP. II. — FRENCH COOKERY.

Dish the fish, the heads in the middle, and strain the prepared sauce over them. Place the small stewed onions and mushrooms dressed in the sauce round the fish, and garnish with the soft roes stewed in vinegar.

Obs. — This sauce, and all fish-sauces, should be of a good consistence to adhere to the fish.

Perches au Vin, Perches in Wine. — Scale and clean the perch. Cook them in good stock and a lit- tle white wine, with a high seasoning of parsley, chives, cloves, & c. Thicken a little of this liquor for sauce. Add to it salt, pepper, nutmeg, and a little anchovy-butter.

Obs. — Always use white wine with white fish and red wine with red-coloured fish.

Perch ci la Maitre d’ Hotel. — Boil some salt, pep- per, parsley, and chives in water, and in this bouillon boil the perch. Drain and dish them, and cover them with a maitre cl’hotel sauce.

Eturgeon a la Broche, Roast Sturgeon. — Clean and split the fish, or a part of a large one. Make a mari- nade of white wine, melted butter, and seasonings, and baste the sturgeon with this. Take for sauce some of the skimmed basting-liquor, a little Espagnole and veal-gravy, or roux and gravy, which must serve as a substitute for Espagnole in all kitchens. Boil up, strain, and serve this, and also a poivrade sauce.

Obs. — A sturgeon may be as conveniently baked. Use a marinade as sauce, and let the baking-dish be deep. Baste the fish occasionally. Cold roasted ox- baked sturgeon may be dressed as directed for tui-bot, and served in a vol-au-vcnt or without.

Morue ci la bonne Femme, Salt Cod in a plain Way. — Prepare the salt fish as directed for boiling cod. Have some boiled potatoes in the shape of coi-ks, cut in slices about the size of a shilling, and warm them with the fish in melted butter.

Turbot Roe, a small elegant dish. — Handle so as not to break the roe ; blanch it and finish in the oven, as a ragout or as a white fricassee. Garnish with lemon.

OF FORCEMEAT IN GENERAL.

Quenelles and Boudins. — The French claim undivided supremacy over the whole civilized world in the art

CHAP. II. MADE-DISHES. 347

of preparing^ rces. Without presuming to question their superiority, it is possible for a cook of ordinary abilities and industry to attain a competent know- ledge of this high mystery without serving a regular apprenticeship at the French stove, provided she give respectful attention to the manner in which foreign artists proceed. The French have reduced the art of preparing forcemeat to fixed principles. As con- stituents, they have the gocliveau, the paiiade, the farce of fowl, or the gratin, all cut and dry ; and these they laboriously compound with a degree of patience which goes far to redeem their national character from the charge of fickleness and levity. Of these are formed the quenelle and boudin, a class of preparations which, though made of forcemeat, form, like our sausages, a distinct order of dishes. The French forcemeats are indeed worthy of the profound attention of every re- fined epicure, and ought to supplant our home-made crude compounds with all speed. The first element is the Godiveau.

Godiveau, of which also excellent Patties may be made. — Scrape a pound of a fillet of white well-fed veal, and mince a pound and a half of beef-suet, free from all strings, skins, and kernels. Chop a suitable quantity of scalded parsley , young onions, and also mushrooms, to season this meat. Add pepper, salt, allspice, and mace, and pound the whole very well, mixing in three raw eggs at different times, and a little water. When very well pounded, make up a small ball of Xh.e farce, and boil it in boiling water, to try if it be light, well- seasoned, and good. By this proof -ball be guided either in adopting the farce, or in adding another egg to give firmness, or water to liquefy the Godiveau.

Gratin. — This farce may be made either of the white parts of a fowl, or of veal. Cut a half-pound of the fillet into small bits, and toss them over the fire in butter for ten minutes, with salt, pepper, and herbs. Drain off the butter. Mince the meat, and then pound it, if for fowls, with the livers parboiled, veal-udder parboiled and skinned, or butter instead of udder, and panada (see next page.) Have as much butter or veal-udder as of each of the other ingredi-

348

CHAP. II. — FRENCH COOKERY.

ents, i. e. a third of each. Pound the wh ole together, adding an egg at a time till you have three, as in the godiveau. Prove the forcemeat by poaching a small ball.

Panada for Forcemeats. — Soak slices of bread in hot milk. Press out the milk when the bread is quite moist ; and beat up the bread with a little rich broth or white sauce, and a lump of butter. Stir till this becomes somewhat dty and firm. Add the yolks of two eggs, and pound the whole well together.

Queielles de Volaille, Forcemeat-Balls qj Poultry as a Dish. — Strip off the skin, pull out the sinews, and mince and pound the best parts of young fowls, till the meat will rub through a scarce. Have one part of this, one of panada, and a third of veal-udder par- boiled and skinned. Pound the whole well together, and season with salt, white pepper, and mace. Put raw yolks to the compound, and beat it perfectly smooth. Try it as above directed. If not firm enough, add more eggs, one only at a time. Make up the quenelles of egg-shapes, and poach or bake them. N. B. — Quenelles may be made of rabbit, partridge, or pheasant, in the same way. Serve with clear gravy.

Boudins d la Richelieu, Puddings of Rabbits or Poultry. — Make a forcemeat of rabbits or poultry, as directed for quenelles j but instead of panada use pounded potatoes. Put to the farce dressed onions or mushrooms chopped, in any suitable quantity. Spread the forcemeat smooth on the dresser, and with a knife roll it up in small sausages or boudins, or mould it to a proper shape, and bake the pudding. Whether boiled or baked, serve with brown Italian sauce.

Boudins in general may be. made of all sorts of game, poultry, also of whitings, craw-fish, &c.

Boudins Blanc, an exceedingly good kind of White Puddings. — Cook a dozen small onions in broth. Make a rather dry panada of cream or milk, and pound this with the onions and some pounded sweet almonds. Put to this caul, cut in little bits, some yolks of eggs, a little cream, the white parts of raw chickens finely minced, with salt and spices. Pound the whole well, and try it by dressing a little in a small pan before you fill the skins. Boil the boudins in milk and water,

CHAP. II. MADE-DISHES.

349

and prick the skins to prevent them from bursting. When wanted, dip them in boiling water to heat, and finish them in a paper-case in a Dutch oven.

FRENCH DISHES OF VEGETABLES AND FRUIT.

See also pages 209, 210, 211, 212.

The French claim superiority for their cooks for their skill and variety in dressing vegetables ; and the assumption is in this instance just. Vegetable prepa- rations enter largely into their second courses, usually affording two dishes for an ordinary dinner, and four for a larger one. Great improvements have been made of late, even among ourselves, in preparing the more delicate and showy vegetable dishes ; and it is to be hoped that British cooks, besides imitating the French in saucing their cauliflower and artichokes, will soon copy their manner of braising cabbages and carrots for ordinary use.

Asparagus Pease for Ihe second Course. — Pick and cut some young asparagus into small equal bits, rejecting what is woody. Boil these pease in salt and water, and drain and dry them in a cloth. Then give them a fry in butter with a bunch of parsley and green onions, and a sprig of mint. Dredge in flour. Put in a bit of sugar, and moisten with boiling water. Give them a quick boil. When boiled down, take out the fagot of parsley and onions, and thicken the sauce with the beat yolks of two eggs, beaten up with cream and a little salt and grate of nutmeg.

Obs. — Melted butter may be used instead of cream.

To dress Green Pease for a second Course. — Boil a large pint of the finest green pease in water, with salt and a good piece of butter rubbed among them. When tender, drain them, lifting them out of the co- lander with your hand that the refuse may be left. Stew them with a fagot of parsley and green onions. The colour will now deepen. Dredge a good deal of flour over them, and stir a piece of butter among them, with salt, a very little grated Parmesan (if you like) and a knob of sugar dipped in boiling water. Let them get quite dry, and dress them high on the dish.

p

350

CHAP. II.' — FRENCH COOKERY.

Sea Kale for the second Course. — We do not know that this vegetable is naturalized in France even yet ; but after boiling it in plenty of water with salt, French cooks in this country drain it, and serve with sauce blanche or veloule.*

Artichoke-bottoms en Canapes. — Have the boiled ar- tichokes nicely trimmed, and the chokes removed. When cold, fill them with anchovy butter, and deco- rate them with pickled capers, gherkins, and beet- root carved, attending to the effect of contrasted co- lours.

Artichokes a Vltalienne. — Trim and quarter the ar- tichokes, and boil them in salt and water. Take out the chokes. Drain and arrange the quarters with the leaves outwards. Pour a white Italian sauce over them, and garnish with cresses.

French Beans a la Poulelte. — When boiled, as else- where directed, very green, drain them. Reduce some sauce tournee. Thicken it with beat yolks of eggs, and pour this over the beans.

Windsor Beans d la Poidette. — Boil fresh young beans. Stew them, first taking off the coats, and sauce them d la pouleite, i. e. with velouie.

Potatoes a la Maitre d’ Hotel. — Peel boiled potatoes, and turn them the size of thick corks. Cut them in half-inch slices. Put them into a stew-pan with some skinned green onions and parsley, pepper, salt, and butter. Moisten with broth, and toss them till the parsley is cooked.

Endive for the first or second Course. — Clean the en- dive by frequent washing, and plunge it, head down- most, in salt and water, to draw out those insects which often lodge in the leaves of vegetables. Blanch the heads, drain them, and when cold, chop them fine. Stew them in veal-gravy with salt. When tender, add a little Espagnole, and serve with poached eggs for the second course, or under fricandeaux, or with hash- ed mutton.

Compdte de Cerises, preserved Cherries.— ^ To a half-

• Sauce blanche , i. e. melted butter, is perhaps the most appro- priate sauce for all vegetables, but for the danger of its running to oil, which makes veloute or cream preferable in nice cookery.

CHAP. II. MADE-DISHES.

351

pound of clarified sugar put a pound of cherries, of which half the stalk is cut away. Give them a boil of three minutes. Skim, and serve them in a glass dish. Or take out the stones and cut away the stalks.

Pears in Sugar. — Put a clove into the eye of each pear. Throw them into hot water to scald them. Pare, and keep them in water to preserve the colour. Boil them in a very thin syrup of a large pint of wa- ter to a half-pound of sugar. Add the juice of a le- mon, and serve in a glass dish in the syrup.

Another Way. — Divide large pears. Take out the seeds. Blanch them in hot water and lemon-juice, to keep the colour white. Pare them. Throw them into fresh water, and give them a few boils in their syrup before serving them.

Apples a la Pot'tugaise. — Wash and core fine large rennets, but do not pare them. Prick them with a knife, and boil them in thin syrup. Then put them in an earthen dish under a small furnace to brown, basting them with the syrup.

Peaches in Sugar. — Blanch six or eight in hot water, that they may peel easily, then give them a boil in syrup, and serve. The French serve all sorts of fruit en compote, which form tasteful and economical dishes.

Fashionable French small Pastry for second Courses and Suppers, chiefly made of paste royal.

Paste Royal to make. — Put four ounces of butter into a stew-pan with a large glassful of water, two ounces of beat sugar, and a bit of lemon-peel. When the butter is nearly melted, shake some dry flour to it through a fine sieve. Take out the lemon-peel, and with your hand put in as much more flour as the boil- ing liquid will take, stirring briskly with a wooden spatula or spoon, till it come easily from the sides of the stew-pan. Put it in another pan. Let it cool. Break an egg into it, and stir it well to mix, and af- terwards three or four more eggs till the paste becomes tenacious and ropy. This is used for many small ar- ticles, as pains a la duchcssc, choux, Chantilly basket. In short, it may be moulded into any form, according to the ingenuity of the cook. The things made of it,

5

352 CHAP. II. — FRENCH COOKERY.

when arranged on paper, may be iced, baked in a moderate oven, and dried before the fire. This paste swells very much, which must be considered in form- ing the things made of it.

Choux of Paste Royal. — Form in the shape of balls larger than children’s marbles. Bake in a moderate oven. Dry them, and make a small opening in the side, into which put a little of any sweetmeat you like.

Pams a la Duchesse. — Make as the choux, but flat- ten them with the rolling-pin to the length of four inches. When baked, slit them open at the end, and introduce the sweetmeat.

Les Gimblettes a la Artois. — Make as the choux, but give them a deep dint in the middle before baking. Widen this by turning your finger round in it. Sift sugar over them when just done; glaze with a sala- mander, and put the sweetmeats in the cavity.

Les Petits Choux, et les Gimblettes Pralines.* — Make them rather smaller than above directed ; and before baking, but when glazed, sprinkle finely-pounded sweet almonds and sugar over them, and garnish with sweetmeats, as the others.

Paste-Buttons and Melvilles. — These may be made better of paste royal than of puff-paste, and it may, as formerly said, be rolled out, and dressed in any form you choose, serving any preserved sweetmeat neatly upon it.

Chantilly Baskets. — French cooks make these of very small choux of pate royale , instead of the ratafia- biscuits used in this country. The method is the same. When the little biscuits or choux are quite crisp, have ready some sugar clarified and boiled to crackling height. Hun a small skewer into each bis- cuit, and dip it in the sugar. Fix them one by one, as dipt, round a dish that will form your basket. When one row is done, begin another. The candied sugar will make the biscuits instantly stick. Use ra- ther larger biscuit for the upper tiers, as the basket should widen at the top. Three or four tiers will be enough of height. The handle will be most easily

* What we would call confected.

CHAP. II. MADE-DISHES.

353

made by sticking the biscuits together round the ledge of a stew-pan, first ascertaining the width of the arch ; for really what is ordered in common receipt-books, about “throwing over an arch,” is easier said than done. An ornamental border of coloured drops of gum-paste may be given to this. Serve any thing sweet you pre- fer in the basket, which should be lined with cam- bric-paper.

Bouchees de Dames, Ladies’ Lips or Kisses. — Make a paste as for fine biscuits, of six fresh eggs, with six ounces of sifted sugar, and three of potato-flour. Beat this very well ; spread it thinly, and bake on paper on a buttered oven-tin for nearly twenty minutes. When fine, stamp out the paste the size of dollars, and glaze with white, rose, or violet-coloured icing, or some of each. — See To Ice Cakes.

The Twins, or Meringues Jumeaux. — Whip the whites of eight eggs to a firm froth, and add to this a pound of fine sifted sugar ; or clarify and boil it to the second degree. Season with lemon-grate, and beat all very well together. Drop them on paper in the shape of an egg. Sift sugar over them. Bake them in a slow oven. When firm, draw them out, and stick two and two together, and put them to dry before the fire or in a hot closet. .

Obs. — These meringues or twins may be made as above, but flavoux*ed with marasquin or orange-flowers confected ; but they must then be made smaller.

As has been said, an endless variety of trifles is made of paste royal, by purchasing the proper cut- ters or stamps. Among the neatest are the petits pa- niers and petites brioches, of which the proper stamp will direct the forming.

A Fruit-cake. — Roll out any bits of puff-paste you have left from more important preparations. Spread marmalade over them. Decorate with paste bands or straws. Glaze the cake with yolk of egg; bake it, and cut it into oblong pieces, and pile them on the dish. See Darioles, Flans, &c.

354

CHAPTER III.

SCOTCH NATIONAL DISHES.

“ There are livers out of England.”

Cymbeline.

It has been remarked, that every country is celebrat- ed for some culinary preparation, and that all national dishes are good. The reason of this is sufficiently ob- vious : had they not been acceptable to the palate, they never could have either gained or maintained their rank. Accordingly, the Spanish olio, the Itali- an macaroni, the French ragout, the Turkish pillau, and the Scotch haggis, differing essentially as they do, are, nevertheless, all equally good after their kind, though here we give precedence to the “ Great chief- tain of the pudding race.”

THE SCOTCH HAGGIS.

Clean a sheep's pluck thoroughly. Make incisions in the heart and liver to allow the blood to flow out, and parboil the whole, letting the wind-pipe lie over the side of the pot to permit the phlegm and blood to disgorge from the lungs ; the Avater may be changed after a few minutes’ boiling for fresh water. A half- hour’s boiling will be sufficient ; but throAV back the half of the liver to boil till’ it will grate easily ; take the heart, the half of the liver, and part of the lights, trimming aAvay all skins and black-looking parts, and mince them together. Mince also a pound of good beef-suet and four onions. Grate the other half of the liver. Have a dozen of small onions peel- ed and scalded in two waters to mix Avith this mince. Toast some oatmeal before the fire for hours, till it is of a light-brown colour and perfectly dry. Less than two tea-cupfuls of meal Avill do for this quantity of

CHAP. III. SCOTCH NATIONAL DISHES. 355

meat. Spread the mince on a board, and strew the meal lightly over it, with a high seasoning of pepper, salt, and a little cayenne, well mixed. Have a haggis- bag perfectly clean, and see that there be no thin part in it, else your whole labour will be lost by its burst- ing. Some cooks use two bags. Put in the meat with a half-pint of good beef-gravy, or as much strong broth, as will make it a thick stew. Be careful not to fill the bag too full, but allow the meat room to swell ; add the juice of a lemon, or a little good vinegar ; press out the air, and sew up the bag ; prick it with a large needle when it first swells in the pot, to prevent bursting ; let it boil slowly for three hours if large.

Obs. — This is a genuine Scotch haggis ; the lemon and cayenne may be omitted, and instead of beef- gravy, a little of the broth in which the pluck was parboiled maybe taken. A finer haggis maybe made by parboiling and skinning sheep’s tongues and kid- neys, and substituting these minced for the most of the lights. There are, however, sundry modern re- finements on the above receipt, — such as eggs, milk, pounded biscuit, &c. &c., — but these, by good judges, are not deemed improvements. Some cooks use the small fat tripes, as in lamb’s haggis.*

a lamb’s-haggis.

Slit up all the little fat tripes with scissors, and clean them. Clean the kernels also, and parboil the whole, and cut them into little bits. Clean and shred the web and kidney fat, and mix it with the tripes. Sea- son with salt, peppex-, and grated nutmeg. Make a thin batter with two eggs, a half-pint of milk, and the necessary quantity of flour. Season with chopped chives or young onions. Mix the whole together. Sew up the bag, which must be very clean, and boil for an hour and a half.f

• Mr Allan Cunningham, in some of his Tales, orders the parboil- ed minced meat of sheep’s-head for haggis. We have no experience of this receipt, but it promises well.

+ We have been requested by a correspondent to give the fol- lowing receipt publicity for the benefit of mankind. The Cleiku m

3 56 chap. hi. — i

SCOTCH NATIONAL DISHES.

FAT BROSE.

Boil an ox-head, sheep’s-head, ox-heel, or skink of' beef, till an almost pure oil floats on the top. Have some oatmeal well toasted before the fire, as in making haggis ; put a handful of the meal into a basin with salt, and pouring a ladleful of the fat broth over it, stir it quickly up, so as not to run into a doughy mass, but to form knots.

Kail-Brose is made as in the former receipt, but of broth in which shred greens have been boiled.

COCK-A-LEEKIE.

Boil from four to six pounds of good shin-beef, well broken, till the liquor is very good. Strain it, and put to it a capon, or large old fowl, and, when it boils, half the quantity of blanched leeks intended to be used, well cleaned, and cut in inch-lengths, or longer. Skim this carefully. In a half-hour add the remaining part of the leeks, and a seasoning of pep- per and salt. The soup must be very thick of leeks, and the first part of them must be boiled down into the soup till it becomes a green lubricious compound. Sometimes the capon is served in the tureen with the cock-a-leekie. This is good leek-soup without a fowl-

Club have no experience of it, but Dr Redgill was willing to stake his reputation upon it untried : —

Calf's-IIaggis — Take the veal-caul, (or web of fat], the udder, the kidney, and best part of the pluck. Blanch and boil the udder, and the split kidney and pluck, for ten minutes. When cool, mince them ; mince also the caul. Blanch apd hash two dozen sprigs of

{licked young parsley, a few green onions very young, a bit of sha- ot, and a few mushrooms, if you have them. Stew the herbs in but- ter for three or four minutes, and moisten them with a glass of Ma- deira. When dried, season with salt and pepper. Mix the in- gredients, i. e. the herbs, and mince. Put them into a bag as other haggis ; but for security have two bags, one casing the other, in case of a breach. Mix meanwhile the beat yolks of two eggs with a half-pint of rich and highly-seasoned veal or beef gravy and two spoonfuls of pounded and sifted rusks. Put this into the bag with the other materials, and the squeeze of a lemon, and when sewed up, toss it about to blend them all, and boil in fresh broth if you have it ; pricking the bag to let out the air, as in your other re* ceipts.”

CHAP. III.— SCOTCH NATIONAL DISHES. 357

Obs. — Some people thicken cock-a-leekie with the fine part of oatmeal. Those who dislike so much of the leeks may substitute shred greens, or spinage and parsley, for one half of them. Reject the coarse part of the leeks. Prunes wont to be put to this.

• ป

balnamoon skink, an Irish Souj .

Clean and cut into pieces two or three young cocks, or fowls. Have one larger neatly trussed for boiling. Boil the cut fowls till the broth is as strong and good as they can make it ; but do not overboil the fowl. Strain the broth, season it with parsley, chives, and young onions chopped, and, if in season, a few tender green pease. Add white pepper and salt, and serve the whole fowl in the tureen.

Obs. — This is another variety of the old Scottish cock-a-leekie ; a dish, which, under some name, is, with whatever modification of seasoning, familiar in every country where a backward system of husbandry renders poultry plenty, and shambles-meat scarce. Without desiring to innovate on these national pre- parations, we would recommend, for the sake of the ladies’ dresses and the gentlemen’s toil, that the fowl be carved before it is served in the tureen.

HOTCH-rOTCH.

Make the stock of sweet fresh mutton. Cut down four pounds of ribs of lamb into small steaks, and put them to the strained stock. Grate the zest of two or three large carrots ; slice down as many more. Slice down also young turnips, young onions, lettuce, and parsley. Have a full quart of these things when shred, and another of young green pease. Put in the ve- getables, withholding half the pease till near the end of the process. Boil well and skim carefully ; add the remaining pease, white pepper, and salt; and when enough done, serve the steaks in the tureen with the hotch-potch ; trim the fat from the steaks.

Obs. — The excellence of this favourite dish depends mainly on the meat, whether beef or mutton, being perfectly fresh, and the vegetables being all young, and full of sweet juices The sweet white turnip is

r 2

358 CHAP. III. — SCOTCH NATIONAL DISHES.

best for hotch-potch, or the small, round, smooth- grained yellow kind peculiar to Scotland. Mutton makes excellent hotch-potch without any lamb-steaks. Parsley shred, white cabbage, asparagus-points, or lettuce, may be added to the other vegetables or not, at pleasure.

WINTER HOTCH-POTCH.

This dish may be made of either fresh beef, or of a neck or back-ribs of mutton, or a mixture of both. Cut four pounds of meat into handsome pieces. Boil and skim this well, and add carrots and turnips sliced, small leeks and parsley cut down, and some German greens finely shred, and put in only a little before the soup is completed. Season with pepper and salt. The quantity of vegetables must be suited to the quantity of meat, so that the soup may have con- sistence, but not be disagreeably thick. Serve the meat and soup together. This may be thickened with the fine part of toasted oatmeal. Have rice or whole pease boiled in it, which last is a great improvement.

TO MAKE SKINK, ail old Scotch Soup.

Take two legs of beef, put them on with two gallons of water ; let them boil for six hours, taking care to skim the soup well all the time, as the gravy should be very clear and bright ; then strain the liquor from the meat, take out the sinewy part from the meat, and lay it aside till your soup is ready to serve up. Cut the sinews about an inch long. Have some vegetables cut, such as carrots, turnips, leeks, onions, celery, lettuce, cabbage shred small, and green pease, when to be had. Blanch the whole in water for ten minutes. Put the whole into the soup, and boil till quite tender. Serve up the sinews in the tureen with the soup. Season the whole with salt and pepper before dishing it.

Obs. — Herbs may be used in these soups ; and white pease (boilers) are by many thought an improve- ment. Both are cheap and excellent family-dishes.

Plain Scotch Fish and Sauce Maigrc. — This is, in fact, just a fish-soup. Make a stock of the heads, points

CHAP. III. SCOTCH NATIONAL DISHES. 359

of the tails, fins, &c., or where fish is cheap, cut down a small one or two to help the stock. Boil green onions, parsley, and chives in this, and some whole pepper. When all the substance is obtained, strain it. Thicken with butter kneaded in flour, but only to the consist- ence of a soup, and put in the fish (generally had- docks), cut in three or divided. Boil ten minutes, and serve the fish and sauce together in a tureen or soup-dish. — See page 182-3.

Scotch Fish and Sauce, a favourite Dish. — Proceed as above to make a stock, or use a broth of meat if wanted rich, though plenty of butter kneaded in browned flour will make this rich enough. The fish cut in pieces may also be browned. Season highly with mixed spices and a half-cupful of catsup. This dish may be enriched with oysters, shrimps, or muscles prepared : or with fish farce balls. The sauce should be thicker than in the former receipt. Serve as above. Some will like celery here.

friar’s chicken.*

Make a clear stock of veal, mutton-shanks, or trim- mings of fowls. Strain this into a very nice sauce- pan, and put a fine white chicken, or young fowl or two, cut down as for currie, into it. Season with salt, white pepper, mace, and shred parsley. Thicken, when the soup is finished, with the beat yolks of two

• Friar's Balsam — We have been favoured by a literary lady with a receipt for making Friar’s Balsam, once so highly esteemed in Scotland. The receipt is of value as an antiquarian curiosity, independently of the medicinal virtues of the balsam. After the .Re- formation, this preparation was, in zealous Protestant families, call- ed “ Aromatic Tincture."

“ Take 4 oz. of storax, 2 oz. of balsam of Peru, 7 oz. of benzoin, and of myrrh, frankincense, soccotrine-aloes, angelica-roots, and flowers of St John’s-wort, each an ounce. Pound the gums, pul- verise the flowers, and put all the ingredients, except the balsam of Peru, into a wide-mouthed bottle or glazed jar, with two English pints of highly-rectified spirit of wine. Cork the bottle or jar very closely, tying it over with bladder and linen, with a waxed pack- thread. Bury the bottle in the hot dunghill of a stable-yard for a month, taking it up to shake the contents every other day. At the end of four weeks put in the balsam of Peru. Shake the bottle oc- casionally for three days, and strain off the balsam through a piece of cambric. Keep it in vials well corked and sealed.

360 CHAP. III. SCOTCH NATIONAL DISHES.

eggs, and take great care that they do not curdle. Serve with the carved chicken in the soup.

Obs. — The stock may be simply made of butter, and the meat may be nicely browned in the frying-pan before it is put to the soup. Rabbits make this very well. Some like the egg curdled.

minced collops, an economical Dish.

Mince a fleshy piece of beef, free of skins and gristles, very fine, and season it with salt and mixed spices, — that is, kitchen-pepper. Mix up the collops with a little water or broth ; and, having browned some butter in a saucepan, put them to it, and beat them with an iron or wooden spoon to keep them from go- ing into lumps, till they are nearly ready. Put some gravy to them, or a little broth made of the skins and gristles.

Obs. — Shred onions will be relished by some per- sons ; also a little made mustard : pickles,* or vinegar, plain or compound, is also used. Minced collops will keep some time, if packed in a can and covered like potted meats. Some cooks scrape the meat instead of mincing it.

Hare, Venison, and Veal-Collops are made as above, using the seasonings appropriate to those meats.

POTTED HEAD, POTTED HEELS, &C.

Dress a cow’s-head as directed for ox-cheek-soup, and, when boiled till very tender, cut the meat into small pieces, shaped as directed for Mock-Tur- tle. Strain the gravy ; season very highly with mixed spices and mace, and return the whole into a clean saucepan. Boil for some time, and pour it out into stoneware shapes or basins, and when cold, turn it out. This makes a pretty side-dish, dormant dish, or supper-dish. Garnish with a wreath of curled parsley, or sliced beet-root pickled. Cow-heels and Calf’s-iiead are potted in the same manner. Season calf’s-head with lemon- peel and juice of lemon.

• Though in all Scotch cookery-books pickles are ordered to be mixed witli minced collops and other ragouts, the ( leikum Club refuse their sanction to the semi-baTbarous practice ot ming- ling crude vegetables with hot dressed meat.-— I . T.

CHAP. III. SCOTCH NATIONAL DISHES. 361

stoved howtowdie, with drappit Eggs.

Prepare and stuff with forcemeat a young plump fowl. Put it into a yetlin concave-bottomed small pot with a close-fitting lid, with butter, onions, spices, and at least a quarter-pound of butter. Add herbs if approved. When the fowl has hardened and been turned, add a half-pint or rather more of boiling wa- ter. Fit on the lid very close, and set the pot over embers. A cloth may be wrapped round the lid, if it is not luted on. An hour will do a small fowl, and so in proportion. Have a little seasoned gravy, in which parboil the liver. Poach* nicely in this gravy five or six small eggs. Dress them on flattened balls of spin- age round the dish, and serve the fowl, rubbing down the liver to thicken the gravy and liquor in which the fowl was stewed, which pour over it for sauce, skim- ming it nicely, and serving all hot.

Ohs. — This is a very good small dish. Mushrooms, oysters, forcemeat-balls, &c. may be added to enrich it ; and celery may be put to the sauce, or the spinage may be and often is omitted. Chickens and young fowls are dressed as above in Germany with fried eggs, or they are steeped in lemon, spices, and pars- ley, and cut up, and fried, and served with eggs.

a veal flory, or Florentine Pie.

This Scotch dish is neither more nor less than a good veal-pie, with the addition of some stoned raisins and prunes, minced with beef-suet.

scotch white puddings.

Mince good beef-suet, but not too finely, and mix it with about a third of its own weight of nicely-toasted oatmeal. Season very highly with pepper, salt, and finely-shred scalded onions. Have the skins thorough- ly cleaned, and cut of equal lengths. Fill them with the ingredients, and fasten the ends with a wooden pin or small feather. Boil the puddings for an hour, pricking them as they swell in the pot, to let out the air. They will keep for months in bran or oatmeal.

• This is the French amfs pochcs an jus.

362 CHAP. III. — SCOTCH NATIONAL DISHES.

When to be used, warm them in hot water, then on the gridiron, on oiled paper, or without, and serve very hot.

Giver-Puddings are made as above, using parboil- ed liver grated in the proportion of one-fourth ; the rest suet and meal, with seasonings.

roasting a pig, Scotch.

The directions of a thorough-bred Scotch cook, sanctioned by experience, authorise us to recommend that a pig intended for roasting shall be slightly rub- bed with melted butter whenever it has warmed at the fire; then thickly dredge every part with fine flour ; keep turning the spit continually, but slowly, allowing twenty minutes for each pound weight in the roast ; and frequently dredging it, that the skin may have a complete supei'fice of flour, uniform as on the locks of an antiquated beau of the last century, shrouding the encroachments of Time beneath the powder of Fashion. When the pig has performed the specified revolutions before a clear fire, let the flour be blown off with a small handy pair of bellows; and with a large piece of butter, within a single press of clean linen, rub the skin all over, turning the roast with great deliberation. Persevere in this unction a quarter of an hour, and the pig crackling will be exquisitely crisp. ( From a Correspondent.')

TO FRV TRIPE.

This Scottish dish is economical, palatable, and agreeable to the eye. The pieces of tripe left after an ordinary stew are best for the present purpose ; or, if you are to use tripe just taken from its own jelly, it must be wiped from moisture, and stewed in warm milk, with a small piece of butter and salt. Simmer it slowly till very tender. This should be done in time to let it be thoroughly cold, before the finishing ingre- dients are added. Make a batter with three eggs well beaten, allowing a spoonful of flour to each egg, and as much milk as will make a thick batter. Sea- son with ginger, salt, onions, or chives, and parsley minced very fine. Gut the tripe in cutlets, dip it in

CHAP. III. SCOTCH NATIONAL DISHES. 363

the batter, and fry with beef-dripping. If you find the batter is not thick enough to cover the tripe with a fine brown crust when fried, add a little more flour.

FINE PUDDINGS IN SKINS.

Mince apples and grate biscuit ; take an equal weight to these of minced suet. Sweeten this with sugar, and season with cinnamon and grated nutmeg. Moisten the whole with wine, or any well-flavoured liquor, and fill the skins, but not too full, as the bread swells. Boil, and serve hot.

Obs. — These will keep for a week or ten days, and re-warm. Another kind is made of rice boiled in milk, and suet, currants, sugar, and seasonings. The suet in these puddings should not be shred too small, nor yet left in lumps. See Boudins, p. 348.

SCOTCH BLACK PUDDINGS.

Salt the blood when drawn ;* strain it ; mix it with a little sweet milk or broth ; stir into it shred suet and dried oatmeal, with plenty of pepper, salt, and minced onions. Fill the skins, and boil and broil as white puddings. Savoury herbs may be added.

OATMEAL DUMPLING, OT a FilleSS Cock.

This antique Scotch dish, which is now seldom seen at any table, is made of suet and oatmeal, with a sea- soning of pepper, salt, and onions, as for white pud- dings, the mixture bound together with an egg, and moulded somewhat in the form of a fowl. It must be boiled in a cloth.

crappit heads, or Fish with Forcemeat.

The original Scotch farce was simply oatmeal, suet or butter, pepper, salt, and onions, made into a coarse forcemeat, for stuffing the heads of haddocks and whitings. Modern Crappit Heads are forced with

• Of all blood that of the hog is thought the richest, and this is always employed in France in their boudins of this kind, which are excellent. The blood of the hare has the most delicate flavour of any, but is not to be got in sufficient quantity for puddings— See Boudins , French Cookery.

364 CHAP. III. — SCOTCH NATIONAL DISHES.

the ingredients mentioned in pages 190, 191, or with the fleshy parts of a lobster, or good crab, minc- ed, a boned anchovy, the chopped yolk of an egg, grated bread or pounded biscuit, white pepper, salt, cayenne, a large piece of butter broken down into bits, with beat eggs to bind, and a little oyster-liquor. A plainer and perhaps more suitable stuffing may be made of the roe of haddock or cod parboiled, skinned and minced, mixed with double its bulk of pounded rusks or bread-crumbs, a good piece of butter, shred parsley, and seasonings, with an egg to cement the forcemeat.

sheep’s-head broth.*

Choose a large fat head. When carefully singed by the blacksmith, soak it and the singed trotters for a considerable time in lukewarm water. Take out the

* This national preparation was wont to be a favourite Sunday- dinner dish in many comfortable Scottish families. Where gentle- men “ killed their own mutton,” the head was reserved for the Sun- day’s broth ; and to good family customers and victuallers, a prime tup’s head was a common Saturday’s gift from the butchers with whom they dealt. By the way, nationally speaking, we ought to say fleshers, as our countrymen would, till very lately, have been mortally offended at the designation of “ butcher.”

Sheep’s-head broth is reckoned medicinal in certain cases ; and was frequently prescribed as an article of diet by the celebrated. Dr Cullen.

This dish has furnished whole pages to Joe Miller and his right witty contemporaries. In one of the most pleasing pieces of biogra- phy that ever was written, — “ The Life of Lady Grizel Bailie,” — there is an amusing “ Sheep’s-head anecdote,” which at once af- fords a glimpse of the simplicity of the national manners, and of the dexterity and good sense of the affectionate and very juvenile he- roine. Her father, Sir Patrick Home, proscribed after the Resto- ration, was hidden near his own mansion, — his lady and their daughter Grizel being alone privy to his place of concealment. It was the duty of this young girl, not only to carry food to her father during the night, but to abstract these supplies from the dinner- table, so that neither the servants nor younger children might be aware that there was an invisible guest to feed. Her inordinate ap- petite and stratagems to procure food became the source of many jokes at table ; and one day, when a sheep’s-head,— a favourite dish with Sir Patrick,— was produced, she had conveyed nearly the whole into her lap, when her young brother, afterwards Earl of March- mont, looked up, and exclaimed,— “ Mother, mother, look at Grizel ; while we have been taking our broth, she has eaten up the whole sheep’s-head !” — The consternation of young Home could not, however, exceed that of a learned gentleman, who at present fills a chair in the Edinburgh university, upon a somewhat similar occasion. Before filling his present honourable situation, Professor

CHAP. III. SCOTCH NATIONAL DISHES. 365

glassy part of the eyes, and scrape the head and trot- ters, and brush till perfectly clean and white ; then split the head with a cleaver, and take out the brains, &c. ; clean the nostrils and gristly parts, split also the trotters, and take out the tendons. Wash the head and feet once more, and let them blanch till wanted for the pot.

Take a cupful of barley, and twice that quantity of soaked white or old green pease, with a gallon or rather more of water. Put to this the head, and from two to three pounds of scrag or trimmings of mutton perfectly sweet, and some salt. Take off the scum very carefully as it rises, and the broth will be as limpid and white as any broth made of beef or mut- ton. When the head has boiled rather more than an hour, add sliced carrot and turnip, and afterwards some onions and parsley shred. Ahead or two of celery sliced is admired by some modern gourmands, though we would rather approve of the native flavour of this really excellent soup. The more slowly the head is boiled, the better will both the meat and soup be. From two to three hours boiling, according to the size of the head and the age of the animal, and an hour’s simmering by the side of the fire, will finish the soup. Many prefer the head of a ram to that of a wether, but it requires much longer boiling. In either case the trotters require less boiling than the head. Serve with the trotters, and sliced carrot round the head. Sheep’s-head not too much boiled

• ••••• wag for some years a professor in S College ;

and, as might have been surmised, in the lapse of those years of exile, experienced a natural and national longing for that savoury food, which, to a Scotsman, is like mother’s milk. A sheep’s-head was accordingly procured by his orders, and sent to the black- smith’s to be singed. The hour of dinner arrived ; the chops of the learned professor watered with expectation ; when, lo ! to his dis- appointment and horror, the fleshless skull was presented, and, doub- ly worse, accompanied with a bill, setting forth, — “ To polishing a

sheep’s-head for Professor , one shilling and fourpence !” —

Thus making the unfortunate philosopher come down with Is. 4d- for being deprived of the exquisite pleasure which he had anticipated in polishing the skull himself.

The village of Duddingston was long celebrated for “ sheep’s- head,” and consequently a favourite resort of the frugal citizens of Edinburgh. Sheep’s-head clubs were not unfrequent throughout the ornntry, and “ The Tup’s-head Dinner” about Michaelmas-day is still a high festival with the dignitaries in certain of our royal burghs.

366 CHAP. III. — SCOTCH NATIONAL DISHES.

makes an excellent ragout, of better flavour than calf 's- head ragout.

Obs. — The sauces ordered for boiled mutton and cow-heel are well adapted to this dish, if sauce must be had where it is so little required.*

LEEK-PORRIDGE.

Make this as cock-a-leekie, and thicken with toasted or fried bread. Use fewer leeks. Prunes are some- times put into this composition.

PLUM-PORRIDGE.

Boil and skim the liquor of a large shin for six hours. Strain off the liquor, and put to it a piece of veal cut from the fillet. Soften the crumb of a penny-loaf in the soup, and beat it smoothly. Thicken the soup with this, and put to it a half-pound of stoned rai- sins, and a half-pound of stoned prunes, a pound of currants well-cleaned, and some pepper, mace, and grated nutmeg. When the fruit is soft, the dish is ready. A little more bread may be used, if greater consistence is wanted, and the veal may be omitted.

Pan-Kail, a Maigre Soup. — Mince cabbage, sa- voys, or German greens ; boil them in water, thicken- ed with meal and a piece of butter, salt, &c. Kail is also made by parboiling and mashing the greens, put- ting them to hot pot-liquor, and thickening with bread or pounded biscuit.

A PILLAU.

Stew some rice in broth, or with butter ; and season it with white pepper, mace, cayenne, and cloves. Place two small fowls, or a few veal or mutton cut- lets, in the centre of a large dish, and lay some slices of boiled bacon beside them. Cover with rice ; smooth and glaze the rice with egg, and set the dish before the fire, or in the oven, to brown for a while.

• The reviewer of the first edition of this work in Blackwood’s Magazine suggests, that there should be two heads and eight trot- ters, which admirable emendation certainly more than doubles the value of the receipt.

CHAP. III. SCOTCH NATIONAL, DISHES. 367

Garnish with yolk of hard-boiled eggs and fried onions, or use forcemeat-balls.

Obs. — This is no bad dish, whatever country owns it. A more oriental complexion may be given to this dish by frying the rice in butter, stirring it with a fork till of a light-brown, and then stewing it in broth till soft.*

AN OLIO.

Boil, in a close-covered pot, a fowl, a couple of par- tridges, a piece of a leg of mutton, a knuckle of veal, and a few rump- steaks, also a piece of good bacon or ham. Brown the meat first ; add boiling-water ; and when it has boiled an hour, add parsley, celery, young onions, pease, carrot, turnip, and a bit of garlic, if it is liked, with salt and mixed spices. Serve the whole together, first picking out the bacon. Seasoning herbs may also be used.

CHINA CHILO.

Mince a pound and a half of good mutton and four ounces of mutton-suet. Stew this in broth or with butter, and add green pease, young onions, and a little shred lettuce. Season with salt, cayenne, and white pepper. Heap boiled rice round a shallow soup-dish, and serve the stew in the middle.

Obs. — Veal or fowl may be dressed as above. A little currie-powder may be added to the seasoning. The zest of carrots, cut in very small cubes, will sup- ply the place of pease in winter.

PILLAU OF VEAL.

Half-roast a breast of veal, and cut it into neat pieces. Season these highly, and stew them in rich gravy. Lay a casserolet of rice round a dish, and

• This is the same dish known in French cookery as Capons d la Turque, except that the bodies of the fowls are stuffed with boiled rice.

•f A Casserole, or rice edging for made-dishes, is thus pre- pared : — Soak and stew the rice with salt and a blade of mace. If wanted very rich, put butter and the beat yolks of eggs to it when ready. Place it neatly on the dish for an edging ; glaze with egg, and set it in the oven for a few minutes before heaping the currie, hash, pillau, or whatever the dish is, in the middle of it. An edg-

368 CHAP. III. — SCOTCH NATIONAL DISHES.

put the meat in the centre. Cover with more rice, and set the dish in the oven for a short time, having first glazed it with eggs.

Obs. — Currie-powder may with advantage be used for a pillau; and it may be made of dressed veal. Pillau is also made baked of a mixture of bacon, chicken, and onions, in layers. A fowl, capon, or small turkey, may be trussed as for boiling, and makes an elegant pillau dressed as in this receipt, but cover the breast with bacon, which remove before dishing. A hind-quarter of lamb makes a nice pillau. Braise the leg, and fry the loin in steaks, and treat as above.

FRICANDELLE.

Take one pound of the lean of a leg of veal, half a pound of veal-suet, four rusks soaked in milk, four eggs, leaving out two whites, some onions, pepper, salt, nutmeg, and lemon-peel ; chop it all together very fine, and make three balls of it, which you must put into boiling water, and let boil four minutes. Make gravy of the skin, bones. See., which must be carefully taken out of the veal. Fry your balls a light-brown in butter, and stew them half an hour in the gravy. Garnish the dish with slices of lemon ; thicken the sauce with butter rolled in flour, if thin. It ought to be very thick. (From a Correspondent .)

mullagatawny, or currie-soup, as made in

India.

Have ready pounded and sifted an ounce of corian- der-seeds, the third of an ounce of cassia, three drachms of black and two of. cayenne pepper, and a quarter of an ounce of China turmeric ; mix them well. This quantity will do either for two chickens, a large fowl, or three pounds of meat. Cut down the meat in small pieces, and let it boil slowly for a half- hour in two quarts of water ; then put to it four onions, and three cloves of garlic shred and fried in two ounces of butter. Mix down the seasonings with

ing very suitable to any re-wanned ragout or vanned fish for plain dinners may be made of mashed potatoes, marking them nea'ly, and serving the ragout or fish in the middle.

CHAP. III. SCOTCH NATIONAL DISHES. 369

a little of the clear broth, and strain them into the stew-pan, which must simmer till the soup is smooth and thick as cream. When it is within five minutes of being finished, add the juice of a lemon, or citric acid in the proportion. Serve the meat and soup in a tureen, with boiled rice, in a hot-water dish.

TO BOIL RICE FOR THIS SOUP, &C.

Wash in warm water Patna rice, picking out all the hulls and black particles. Pour boiling water over it, and close the stew-pan, which must be kept in a warm place. In an hour pour off the water, and setting the stew-pan on the fire, briskly stir up the rice with a fork till it dry without hardening.

ANOTHER WAY.

Wash a half-pound of rice, and boil it in two quarts of boiling water for fifteen minutes. Turn it out to drain through a colander, and dry it by the fire. It must be very lightly handled, and every grain will be separate and distinct. Indeed, rice should never be taken up with spoons, but tossed over into the dish.

the garbure, a Dish of the North of Europe.

Take a fresh knuckle of ham, a knuckle of veal, and six pounds of the flank piece of beef well beat. Sweat this over a slow fire, with a bunch of parsley, three onions stuck with cloves, and three carrots, put- ting in a pint of fresh broth at the first. When the meat is well heated, and the juices drawn out, add five or six pints of broth, and stew the whole slowly for two hours. Have some firm white cabbages cleaned, quartered, and blanched, and braise them be- tween layers of bacon with a little broth till rich and mellow, when they must be put to the broth : now add sausages, or the legs of salted geese previously dressed. Toast slices of rye-bread, or brown bread as a substitute, and on a bed of this lay the cabbage, drained of fat, with the ham above it in the middle, and the sausages or geese-legs round it. Serve the broth separately.

9

370 CHAP. III. — SCOTCH NATIONAL DISHES.

duck with sour-crout, German.

Braise a half-pound of drained sour-crout with a good piece of bacon, parsley, onions, spices, and sweet herbs. Lay the duck in the middle ; cover with more slices of bacon ; moisten with top-fat, and stew slowly. When about half-done, add some small sausages. Drain the sour-crout when ready to serve, and place the duck over it, with the sausages around.

Ohs. — Both these dishes are for the first course in place of soups, and must be served in a deep dish.

provence brandade, an excellent Wan of dressing

Salt Fish.

Soak and brush the fish in water (some use lime-water to whiten, but we do not recommend it). Stew it as directed for other salt cod or ling. Oil a suffi- cient quantity of butter (or use oil and butter) in a small stew-pan, with chopped parsley and a bruised clove of garlic. Skin and pull the fish to small pieces, and shake them well in the stew- pan, to make them melt to a mass in the oil. The stew-pan must be all along vigorously shaken.

N. B. — An easier way of dressing this dish is to pound the fish, and bake it with the butter in paste.

IRISH STEW.

Take the loose fat from a loin or neck of mutton, and cut from three to four pounds of it into small well- shaped chops. Flatten and season them with salt and mixed spices. Peel six or eight onions ; parboil and skin a quantity of potatoes. Lay some shred suet at the bottom of a stew-pan, and a half-pint of broth, or melt two ounces of butter. Slice in a layer of pota- toes, then a layer of chops, then strew in the onions, then again the potatoes and chops, &c., and let the top be covered with potatoes. A shank or small bit of ham, or a scrape of smoked tongue, or a little sau- sage meat, is a great addition to this favourite dish. It must stove very slowly, and the pan must be closely and constantly covered.

Ohs. — Some cooks wrap an old napkin round the stew-pan lid, which forms a sort of luting in

CHAP. IV. — SCOTCH NATIONAL DISHES. 371

dressing this and other dishes. There is a kind of cottage-oven used in Ireland, in form of a wide stew-pan, made of cast-iron, with a lid of the same thickness, on which embers of turf are put. This is placed over other embers, and an equal slow heat is maintained, which dresses a stew, bakes a pud- ding or a bit of meat, and is found very useful at other times as a cottage-pot. Hunter’s Pie is another excellent form of Irish stew. It is sometimes made of beef-collops instead of mutton-chops ; and then the potatoes are always mashed. Place the po- tatoes, meat, and onions in alternate layers in an earthenware pie-dish, and bake them ; the top layer of potatoes may be neatly scored, scolloped on the edges, and glazed with eggs, if approved. A fashion- able Irish stew is baked in a mould en casserole, and turned out.

Edgings io Dishes. — These are made (to serve made-dishes in,) of bread, rice, mashed potato, and ornamented paste-edgings; and for sweet dishes served in glass or china, of small drop-biscuit, caramelled fruit, nuts, or almonds, stuck on with candied sugar. These edgings are en casserole, crustades, casserolettes, and other garnitures, only suitable to French dishes.

Bread- Borders , Beauvilliers .• — Take firm stale bread, cut the crumb in slices of the thickness of the blade of a knife ; cut those slices into any form ; heat some oil in a stew-pan, and put in the bread ; make both white and brown ; when they are very dry, drain them, make white paper cases, and put them up se- parately, according to their form and colour ; when they are wanted to garnish dishes, pierce the end of an egg, let a little of the white out, and beat it with the blade of a knife ; mix a little flour ; heat your dish a little ; dip one side of the form into the beaten paste ; in this manner continue till the border is finish- ed ; care must be taken not to heat the dish too much.

Rice Casserole, in the French Style. — Pick, wash, and blanch the rice ; drain and put it into a stew-pan ; moisten it with the top of the stock-pot by degrees as it swells ; shake it often, to pi-event its sticking, but in a manner not to break it ; take care that it is well nourished, that it may be fat enough ; put in a little salt ; when done take a piece of bread the size of the

372 CHAP. III.— SCOTCH NATIONAL DISHES.

dish it is to be served upon, and mould the rice round as if it were paste, and fix it well upon the dish ; cover the bread with a slice of bacon ; put the rice into a mould that has been buttered to cover it; close it well, forming it nicely ; mark the cover where it is to be opened when it is done ; put it in a very hot oven, let it take a fine colour ; when ready to serve, take off the top with care, and empty it by taking out the bread, and fill it with any ragout that is suitable, put on the cover, and send it to table.

N. B. — This is a fit way to prepare rice for bor- ders. A little of the sauce of the dish may be stirred into it.

Crustades, Bread prepared in which to serve Ragouts, fyc. — They are baked in egg or heart-shaped moulds about from six to eight inches long. Scoop out the crumb ; fry in butter or top-fat ; drain dry and line with gratin, and fill with any nice fresh or re-dressed ragout. They are made small also. Moulds of this kind are made in Scotland of potatoes, (waxy ones are best, or a little flour may be added to them.) These potato-crw.^. may be made as Westphalia loaves, and served piled up in the dish as a pyramid. What we call rolls and loaves are the same as crustades.

IRISH TRIPE.

Cook some onions in milk and water. If large, divide them, and have plenty of them. Add the tripe, cut in stripes, to the onions, and thicken as much of the sauce with butter, flour, and a little mustard, as will sauce the tripe. Vinegar or lemon-juice may be added.

BREAD AND MEAT, Or Koohbe.

We have been favoured with a receipt for this sa- voury preparation, which, at sea, in camp, on Indian hunting excursions, and long marches in India, is found to be very convenient. Make a dough with yeast as for bread ; when yeast cannot be obtained, use eggs or milk. Roll out the paste very thick, and wrap meat into it (fat meat is best) of any kind, sea- soned in any way that is most convenient or agree- able. It may be either boiled or baked. This species of camp-cookery is carried to some perfection in India.

CHAP. III. NATIONAL DISHES. 373

It is applicable to all kinds of game, poultry, and meat. Fowls may be stuffed with hard eggs, chop- ped parsley, oysters, &c. ; veal, with a forcemeat ; goose, pig, and duck, with apples or onions, as the sauce is wanted. The things must be well skewered, or sewed before they are put into the dough, which forms a crust about the meat ; thus combining bread, meat, and sauce, in one dish.

LE BON DIABLE.

This favourite bonne bouclie, for which we have ob- tained the receipt from a lady who has contributed many valuable articles to this work, is thus prepared at Pondicherry : — Score the devil, whether of duck, goose, or Turkey, deeply in all directions; and, sea- soning it highly with mixed spices, send it from the table to be broiled. Meanwhile take from each dish at table a spoonful of sauce or gravy, and, stirring this well in a silver saucepan over the fire, have it ready boiling-hot to pour over the grill, or Le bon (li- able, which is then handed round.

Obs. — The parts usually deviled are the rump, the gizzard, and drum-sticks. Soy, lemon-juice, and made-mustard may be added to the sauce. See Devils and Salmis.

INDIAN BURDWAN.

This eastern preparation is of the English genus, de- vil, or French Salmi. It is made of poultry, rabbits, venison, kid, game, but is best of the latter. Make a sauce of melted butter with cayenne, or afresh chilie if possible; a bit of garlic, essence of anchovy, and a sliced Spanish onion. Stew over a spirit-lamp till the onion is pulpy, when the Burdwan will be ready. Squeeze in a lime or Seville orange. Serve round very hot.*

* It would be very easy to swell this section of the Manual with a formidable array of uncouth dishes and strange names, with Indian, Syrian, Turkish, and Persian Yaughs , Kabaubs , and Cus- cussuies , as modem travellers, and particularly the Trench, have aid considerable attention to Asiatic cookery ; but this we consicl, mere waste of space, which may be more usefully employed.

Q

CHAPTER IV.

Chimeras from the poet’s fancy flow ;

The cook contrives his shapes in real dough.

PASTRY, PIES, FASTIES, PATTIES, PUDDINGS, &C.

Savoury pies, made of fresh materials, properly sea- soned, and not overdone — their besetting fault — are very generally liked. They are economical, since a good pie may be made of a piece of meat that would neither stew, roast, or boil, so as to make a hand- some dish ; and they are convenient at table, since they may be divided and subdivided to any length, with little trouble to the carver. Pies can be made of almost every thing, and they eat better cold than meat dressed in any other way. A solid pie is a larder in itself, and as useful on the moors or at sea as in coun- try situations, where families are liable to the incursions of voracious visiters. The state of the oven should be particularly attended to, as almost every oven has a temperament of its own ; and it should never be for- gotten, that from the intense degree of heat, and the circumstance of the meat being cut down into small pieces, the process of baking is much more rapid than either roasting or stewing, and in this comes near to frying. Puff-paste requires a rather smart oven to make it rise light. Raised paste must have a quick oven; and paste iced must have a slack oven, that the icing be not scorched before the fruit is sufficiently baked. A few general plain directions may be given ; but practice and observation are essential to the pro- per preparation of pie- crust -and the management of an oven. All pies to be eaten cold must be more high- ly seasoned than hot ones. Fine crust should have a little sugar, noth e floured much, and should be baked in a room of a medium temperature. Have a feather- brush to wipe off superfluous flour.

To make Puff- Paste. — Have the best flour, sifted, fresh, and free of damp. Take half its weight, or rather more, of fresh or washed salt butter. Crumble a third part of the butter among the flour, mixing it well, and make it into dough with a proper quantity

CHAP. IV. PASTRY, PIES, &C. 375

of water. Throw dry flour on the table to prevent it from sticking, and work it up quickly to a stiff paste by kneading it beneath your hands. Roll out the paste when it is smoothly kneaded, which will be known by pressing it between the finger and thumb. Divide what remains of the butter into four parts. Take the first, break it into bits, and stick it equally over the paste. Strew a little flour lightly on the butter, and clap it down to make it stick ; fold up the crust, roll it out, and repeat the process till all the butter is used. The sooner puff-paste is baked after it is made, the lighter it looks, from the folds rising distinctly. Till it is to be used, lay the folds of a wet cloth over it. French cooks give this paste (t feuille - tage ) five turns, or more to make it rise lightly into many leaves. This paste, when for vol-au-vent, should get six turns and a half; that is, six turns, and be doubled up. The more turns the more butter is re- quired. The oven, if possible, should not be opened till puff-paste, or pate-royale, is baked, for draughts of cold air always flatten it.

Raised Crust for Meat-Pies. — Boil an ounce of lard, and rather more of fresh dripping or butter, in about a pint of water, and make the paste of this. Knead it strongly, and beat it well with a rolling-pin. Let it stand to cool, and then raise the pie ; or cut out pieces for the top and bottom, and a long piece for the sides ; cement the bottom to the sides with egg, bringing the bottom-piece beyond the sides, and pinching both together to make them join closely. Fill up the pie. Put on the top, and pinch it again close to the sides. Small raised pies may be made by lining a tin shape with a sliding bottom with paste, all in one piece, and putting on atop.

Common Paste for savoury Pies. — To two pounds of good flour take six ounces of butter ; break it down among the flour, and mix with a couple of beat eggs and a pint of hot water. Knead it smooth, and roll out and double it three or four times. Cold paste is made as above, only use cold water.

Rich Paste of Beef-suet, for common Meat- Pies

Cut the suet in bits, and melt it in water. Strain it into fresh water, and when cold, press out the water and pound it in a mortar with a little oil till it come

376 CHAP. IV. — PASTRY, PIES, &C.

to the consistence of butter. Use this for making pie-crust.

Common Tart-Paste. — Make as above, only use a little more butter, and a spoonful of sugar, if requisite.

Short Crust for preserved Sweets. — To a pound of tlie finest flour put a half-pound of fresh butter, the beat yolks of two eggs, and three ounces of fine sifted loaf-sugar. Mix up with hot milk, knead it smooth, and ice the paste when ready. Cream may be used, and less butter.

Obs. — The more finely the butter is crumbled down among the flour the shorter will the crust eat. Those who dislike sweet crust may either omit entirely or use only half the quantity of sugar. The above paste is only employed to line tin pans. This paste may be perfumed by making it of rose or orange flower wa- ter,— almond-paste will enrich it. It may, where suitable, be flavoured with lemon-juice. In this de- partment, like every other, much is left to the taste and discretion of the cook.

Venison Pasty-Crust. — Make a paste in the propor- tion of two pounds of flour to more than a pound of butter, with beat eggs and hot water. Roll it out three times, double it, and the last time let the part intended for the top-crust remain pretty thick.

Rice Paste for savoury Pies. — Clean and simmer the rice in milk and water till it plump. Cover veal, lamb, chicken, or game pies, equally with a layer of this, using beat egg to make it adhere.

Fine Crust for Cheese-cakes, or delicate preserved Fruits. — Sift a pound of the best flour, -well dried, and mix it well with two ounces of finely-sifted sugar. Beat half a pound of fresh butter to a cream by work- ing it cold with a spoon or knife. Mix the flour and sugar very gradually with this, and work into it the well-beat whites of three eggs. If the paste is not stiff enough to roll out, put more flour and sugar to it. See Paste-Royal.

SAVOURY PIES OF MEAT, &C.

To make a Beef-Steak Pic. — Any tender and well- mixed piece of beef will answer for a pie, though the rump is best. Cut the meat into handsome steaks ;

CHAP. IV. PASTRY, PIES, &C. 377

flatten and season them with mixed spices ; place fat and lean pieces together, and either roll them up as olives, or place them neatly in the dish. Putin either a half-pint of gravy and a glass of vinegar, or the same quantity of water and vinegar. Let there be enough of fat. A few small cooked onions maybe addedt

Obs. — Cut pickles, a little catsup, or other season- ings may be put to the pie, and either forcemeat-balls or a layer of forcemeat above and below the beef. Some prefer a few oysters. Lay a stripe of crust all round the edge of the dish, and then cover it.

Veal-Pie . — Cut chops from the back-ribs or breast. Trim off the bones, and season the chops highly with mixed spices and such herbs as you choose ; add a little gravy drawn from the trimmings, and cover the pie.

A richer Veal-Pie. — Proceed as above, but add a few slices of lean bacon, forcemeat-balls and boiled yolks of eggs, or a scalded sweetbread cut into bits, and truffles, morels, or mushrooms, as is convenient or approved. When baked, pour some well-seasoned hot gravy into the pie by removing the top.

A very rich V eal-Pie. — Cut steaks from the breast or fillet. Season them with white pepper, salt, mace and cloves pounded, lemon-grate, and a scrape of nutmeg. Cut down and season as above two sweet- breads or a veal-kidney. Lay an edging of paste round the ledge of the pie-dish, and fill it. Put hard- boiled yolks of egg or the cut sweetbreads, and either some mushrooms or oysters over the meat. Strew in more mixed seasonings, and place a layer of thin slices of ham over the whole. Put in a half-pint of water or gravy, and cover the dish. When ready, re- move the top, and pour in through a funnel a large glassful of good veal-gravy quite hot, and thickened with flour and cream.

Veal Olive-Pic. — Cut long slices from the fillet, and flatten and season them, having first brushed them with the yolk of an egg. Roll them up neatly as olives, and place them in the dish, making the middle part highest, as is proper in all pies. Fill with water, and cover the dish ; or fill with good gravy thickened with cream and flour. A little forcemeat spread on each olive will be an improvement.

378 CHAP. IV. — PASTRY, PIES, &C.

Hick V eal Olive-Pie. — Make a forcemeat of minced veal with alittle suet; or of veal-kidney, a few bread- crumbs, some finely-chopped parsley, lemon-grate, salt, and mixed spices. Work up the forcemeat with the yolks of two eggs, and place a little of it in the middle of each slice of the meat cut for olives. Let the olives be previously flattened and seasoned. Roll them neatly up, and fill up the pie-dish. Make a do- zen or more of forcemeat-balls round and oval of the remaining forcemeat, and lay them in the dish, with the yolks of four hard-boiled eggs divided, two pickled cucumbers cut in round and oblong slices, and a few p’ckled mushrooms. Make a gravy of the bones and trimmings of veal, seasoning it with parsley and onion. Thicken and strain this gravy, and put to it a glass of white wine and the juice of a lemon. Pour this into the pie, and cover it with a good puff-paste.

Calf s -liead-Pie to eat cold. — Scald and soak the head, and simmer it for a half-hour in a very little water with a large knuckle of veal, the rind of a le- mon, two onions, a fagot of parsley and winter sa- voury, a few white peppercorns, and two or three blades of mace. Take up the head, and when cold, cut it into bits of different forms as for a ragout. Peel and cut the tongue into square pieces. Boil the broth in which the head was simmered with a few chips of isinglass till it is reduced to a strong jelly- gravy. Put a layer of thin slices of lean ham in the bottom of the pie-dish ; then some of the head and tongue, mixing fat and lean, and forcemeat-balls made of the knuckle ; and add hard yolks of egg cut in two. Strew above each separate layer a seasoning of white pepper, salt, nutmeg, and lemon-grate. Fill up the dish with the jelly-gravy, and bake the pie.

Obs. — This pie will keep cold for a fortnight, and slices of it make a very neat side-dish or supper-dish, from the variety of colours and forms.

Calf s-foot- Pie. — Clean and boil two feet till ten- der, but not slobbery. Mince the meat when cold with suet and pared apples, in the proportion of a third part apples and suet. Mix dried currants, a little sugar, and a quarter-pint of white or raisin wine with the mince. Cover the dish with rich puff-paste. A half-hour or little more will bake this pie.

CHAP. IV. PASTRY, PIES, &C. 379

A Bride's Pie, — a Scotch Pie. — -This is just a very- nice mince-pie. Chop the meat of two calves’ feet, boiled as in the former receipt, a pound of mutton- suet, and a pound of pared apples all separately, till they are fine. Mix them, and add to them a half- pound of picked currants, and the same quantity of raisins stoned and chopped. Season with a quarter- ounce of cinnamon in powder, two drachms of grated nutmeg and pounded mace, an ounce of candied ci- tron, and double the quantity of lemon peel, both sliced thin, a glass of brandy, and another of Madei- ra. Line a tin pan with a slip -bottom with good puff-paste, and put the minced meat, &c., into it. Roll out a cover for the pie, which ought to have a glass ring concealed somewhere in the crust, and to be embellished with appropriate ornaments and de- vices.

A Mutton-Pie. — Cut a back-ribs or loin into hand- some chops ; trim off the bone, flatten and season the chops with pepper and salt. Put them neatly into the dish ; fill it up with gravy or water, and strew parsley and a minced onion over the meat.*

Obs. — Mutton or veal pie may be seasoned with curry-powder. Mutton or veal may be made into small raised pies of an oval or other shape, and re- warmed in a Dutch oven when wanted for hot sup- pers. A Squab-pie is made of mutton-chops, cut apples, and shred onion, with spices and a little sugar.

Lamb-Pie. — This is made of either the loin, back- ribs, or breast, not too fat, cutting out the bone if wished, but always leaving the gristles. Do not sea- son this delicate meat over highly. Put a little jelly- gravy in the dish if the pie is to be eat cold, in which state a lamb-pie is exceedingly good. Eggs may be added.

Pigeon-Pie. — Clean and season the pigeons well in the inside with pepper and salt. Put into each bird a little chopped parsley mixed with the livers par- boiled and minced, and some bits of butter. Cover the bottom of the dish with a good beef-steak. Lay in the birds ; put the seasoned gizzards, and, if ap-

• A corresponding member of the Cleikum Club recommend* sauce Robert for mutton, but made without lemon-juice.

380

CHAP. IV. PASTRY, PIES., &C.

proved, a few hard-boiled yolks of egg into the dish. A thin slice of lean ham laid on the breast of each bird is an improvement to the flavour. Cover the pie with puff-paste. A half-hour will bake it.

Obs. — It is common to stick two or three feet of pigeons or moorfowl into the centre of the cover of pies as a label to the contents, though we confess we see little use and no beauty in the prac- tice. Forcemeat-balls may be added to enrich the pie. Some cooks lay the steak above the birds.

Moorfowl-Pie. — If the birds are small, keep them whole ; if large, divide or quarter them. Season them highly, and put plenty of butter into the dish above and below them ; or put a beef-steak into the bottom of the dish. Cover the dish with good puff-paste, and take care not to bake the pie too much. A hot sauce made of melted butter, the juice of a lemon, and a glass of claret, and poured into the pie when to be served hot, is an improvement, and does not over- power the native flavour of the game. Woodcocks and snipes, when very plenty, are sometimes made into pies. Clean the intestines, which are so highly prized. Parboil and pound them with seasonings, scraped lard, chopped herbs, and truffles. Stuff the birds with this forcemeat. Put away the gall-bag.

A Hare-Pie. — Cut up the good parts of a hare ; season and put them in a pie-dish with plenty of but- ter ; or if to be very rich, forcemeat-balls and yolks of hard-boiled eggs. If to eat cold, which this pie does very well, fill the dish with a jelly-gravy when the crust is taken off.

Chicken-Pie. — Cut up, as for helping at table, as many young fowls as the size of your pie requires. Season the joints with white pepper, salt, and a little mace and nutmeg, all in fine powder. Put the pieces into the pie-dish, with thin slices of fresh ham or veal chops, or veal udder. Forcemeat-balls, layers of forcemeat, and yolks of hard eggs, may be added at pleasure. Make a good gravy of knuckle or scrag of veal or shanks of mutton, seasoning it with white peppercorns, onions, and parsley. Strain this gravy, which must be boiled to a jelly, and put it to the pie. Cover with a rich puff-paste, and bake the pie, if large, for an hour and a quarter.

381

CHAP. IV. — PASTRY, PIES, &C.

Obs. — The chickens may be stuffed, if small, and laid on forcemeat. This pie, and all pies, may be made plainer at the discretion of the cook.

Giblet-Pie. — Clean and stew the giblets in broth, with peppercorns, onions, and parsley. When ten- der, take them up, and when cold, cut them in pieces. Lay a beef-steak in the bottom of a small pie-dish, or a layer of forcemeat made of seasonings, minced veal or beef, and a little ham. Put in the cut giblets, and strew in shred onion. Strain the liquor over them in which they were stewed, and place a few boiled po- tatoes sliced above all. Cover with a common crust, or with mashed potatoes.

Obs. — A giblet-pie is sometimes made with a pud- ding composed of the blood of the goose or ducks strained, a little boiled rice, suet and onion shred fine, with pepper and salt. Keep the skin of the neck of the goose, and stuff it with this. Close it at both ends, turn it round, and place it in the centre of the pie.

Rabbit-Pie. — This may be made as directed for chicken-pie; or more plainly as giblet-pie, making a forcemeat of the livers parboiled, chopped parsley, and anchovies, or shalot, pepper, salt, and a little butter or shred suet. A few slices of well-flavoured bacon will improve a rabbit-pie.

Obs. — Rabbit-pie may be made with onion-sauce ; but first parboil the onions to take off the excess of their flavour. ป.

Partridge-Pie. — Clean and truss four, or, if large, three partridges, cutting off the legs at the second joint. Season with pepper, salt, and chopped pars- ley.* Place a veal and ham forcemeat, or slices of veal and ham at the bottom of the dish, then put in the partridges, with a good many bits of butter stuck about them, and either a fetv scalded button-mush- rooms or a glassful of mushroom-catsup. Cover the ledge of the dish with stripes of paste, and then put on the top. About an hour will bake this pie.

A Goose-Pie. — This is generally made in a raised crust. For a common pie, quarter or cut the goose in-

* French cooks chop the livers with parsley, and stuff with this. They also dob the birds with seasoned lard. This makes an admir- able cold pie in a raised crust.

2

382

CHAP. IV. — PASTRY, PIES, &C.

to eight pieces ; season, and bake it with plenty of' butter. Two green geese will make a still better pie. They may be baked with either a plain paste or a layer of mashed potatoes laid over the baking-dish and neatly marked. They may be previously braised.

A Christmas Goose-Pie .*ฆ — Bone and season highly a goose and a large fowl. Stuff' the latter with force- meat made of minced tongue or ham, minced veal, parsley, suet, pepper, and salt, with two eggs. Stew them for twenty minutes in a little good broth in a close stew-pan. Put the fowl within the goose, and place that in a raised pie-crust, filling up the vacancies with forcemeat or slices of parboiled tongue or pi- geons, partridges, &c. Put plenty of butter over the meat. This pie will take three hours to bake. It will eat Avell cold, and keep a long while.

Perigord-Pie. — This is a dish which can scarcely be ever prepared in this country, where truffles are scarce, and very inferior to those of France. ThePeri- gord-pie is, however, so celebrated, that it would be unpardonable to treat it with neglect. Truss as for boiling six partridges. Singe and wipe them. Season them with salt, pepper, and mixed spices, minced parsley, and young onions, and lard them. Brush, wash, and peel two pounds of truffles. Hash the small ones and broken ones ; and pound with the livers of the partridges and a fat goose-liver, or fat livers of poultry, or a piece of veal-udder parboiled. Mince all these things, and pound them in a mortar, adding raw egg, as directed for quenelles in French cookery. Season this forcemeat very highly. Cut open the trussed partridges at the back, and stuff each of them with the forcemeat and some whole truffles. Bake them in a raised pie-crust, either round or oval, lining the crust with slices of bacon and forcemeat.

Venison Pasty. — A modern pasty is made of what does not roast well, as the neck, the breast, the shoul- der. The breast makes the best pasty. Cut it into little bits, trimming off all bone and skins. Make some good gravy from the bones and other trimmings.

* This receipt still keeps its place in cookery-books, though the pie itself is now as rare as the capercailzie or the wild boar. — Ed.

383

CHAP. IV. PASTRY, PIES, &C.

Place fat and lean pieces of the meat together ; or, if very lean, place thin slices from the firm fat of a leg or a neck of mutton along with the meat. Season the meat with pepper, salt, pounded mace, and allspice. Place it handsomely in a dish, and put in the drawn gravy, a quarter-pint of claret or port, a glassful of shalot vinegar, and, if liked, a couple of onions very finely shred. Cover the dish with a thick venison- pasty crust.

Obs. — This is a dish in which ornament is not only allowable but is actually expected. The paste decore- merits are, however, matters of fancy. Before the pasty is served, if the meat be lean, more sauce made of a little red wine, gravy, mixed spices, and the juice of a lemon, may be put in hot. The common fault of venison-pasty is being overdone. An hour and a half in a moderate oven is fully sufficient for baking an ordi- nary-sized pasty ; an hour will do fora small one. Some cooks steep the meat in the wine and other seasonings for a night, or for some hours previous to baking. This, no doubt, imbues the venison with the flavour of the seasonings, but at the same time drains off the juices, and hurts the natural flavour of the meat, so that we would rather discountenance the practice. A mock venison-pasty is made of a breast of mutton soak- ed in claret, vinegar and spices, for a night before dressing.

Rook Pie. — Skin the birds ; cut out the back-bones ; season them with pepper and salt. Lay a beef-steak in the bottom of the dish, and put a good deal of thick- ened melted butter over the birds. Cover with a common crust. A quarter of an hour will bake them. — For Savoury Fish Pies see Chapter VI., Fish.

fruit-pies, &c.

Fruit-pies require a light and rich crust. Fruits that have been preserved are generally baked in an open crust, and are ornamented with pc.ste-bars, bas- ket-work, stars, &c. Preserved fruit must not be put in till the crust is baked, as the oven often injures the colour of preserved things.

Apple-Pie. — Wipe, pare, core, and slice the apples

304 CHAP. IV. — PASTRY, PIES, &C.

Lay a stripe of puff-paste round the edge of the dish. Put in a layer of the sliced fruit, then sugar and whatever seasonings you use. Proceed in this man- ner till the dish is heaped, keeping the fruit highest in the middle. Cover it with puff-paste, and orna- ment the top with leaves, flowers, &c.

Obs. — A variety of apples are used for baking, though russetings, and such as are a little acid, are esteemed the best. Apple-pie is generally seasoned with pounded cinnamon and cloves, lemon-grate, quince marmalade, candied citron or orange-peel. If the apples have become dry and insipid, the parings and cores may be boiled with a stick of cinnamon, and the strained liquor added to the pie. Apple-pie is liked best hot. It was wont to be buttered, and this is still the practice in some provincial situations in England, though buttered pease and buttered apple- pie, for some reason which we do not comprehend, have latterly come to be considered ungenteel, if not absolutely vulgar. Puttering is performed by putting a piece of butter into the hot pie when it is cut open. Apples must be thrown into a basin of water as they are pared, or they will become black.

Ripe Fruit Pies. — Black cherries and currants, damsons, plums of all kinds, currants, or raspberries and currants mixed, apricots and gooseberries, are all made into fruit pies. Place the fruit, picked and washed, in a flattish pie-dish, raising it high in the middle. Allow enough of sugar, and cover with a rich light paste, which fruit pies require more than those made of meat.

Gooseberry-Pie. — Top and tail as many unripe gooseberries as will nearly fill your dish. Line the dish, or merely border it Avith paste. Put in the fruit, and plenty of moist sugar, and cover the pie with good puff-paste.

Obs. — As all fruit goes on to ripen, it requires more sugar till fully ripe.

Rhubarb-Pie. — Peel off the skin from stalks of young rhubarb, and cut them slantwise into bits of about an inch and a half. Stew them slowly in su- gar, or in butter, and a little water, till soft, mash and make them into a covered pie or open tart.

385

CHAP. IV. PASTRY, PIES, &C.

Obs.— -Gooseberry, apple, rhubarb, and other fruit pies, eat very well cold ; or the fruit may be stewed and sweetened, for common use, without farther pre- paration. Fresh good cream is a very great improve- ment to all fruit pies and tarts. The next best thing is plain custard. In England the cream is often sweetened, thickened with beat yolks of eggs, and poured over the fruit. In Scotland cream for tarts is usually served by itself, either plain or only whisked.

Fruit Tarts of Preserved Fruits. — These are made of all sorts of marmalades, jams, and preserved small fruits. If apples, pare, core, and quarter them. Stew and mash them, and sweeten them with fine beat su- gar. Season with the squeeze of a lemon, a little beat cinnamon, an ounce of candied orange-peel, and a little white wine or cider. Cover a flat dish with tart-paste, and place a broad rim of puff-paste round the edges. Bake the paste, and put in the jam, either when it is ready, or a few minutes before. Paste stars, flowers, &c., may be cut out, and baked on tins to ornament the top ; or if the fruit is put in at first, it may be covered with paste trellis-work.

Obs. — Tarts of preserved fruit, when much orna- ment is wranted, are served with a paste croquante, or ornaments of sugar boiled to caramel ; but as this is rather the business of the professed confectioner than of the practical cook, and cannot be taught without actual experiment, we pass it over.

Small Tarts and Puffs of Fruit. — Line very small patty-pans, either oval or round, with puff-paste, and pare them neatly. Put in a little of any kind of jam or marmalade, and either cross-bar the tarts with paste-straws, or wreathe paste-straws round them.

Obs. — This, or making little patties or paste rama- kins, is a vei'y good w'ay of using any bit of paste that is left over from a hmge pje or tart.

Small Puffs. — Roll out puff-paste of nearly a half- inch thick. Cut it into pieces about five inches wide, to have, when doubled, the form of squares, triangles, crescents, &c. Place a little jam of any kind on each, and double them up. Wet and pinch them close at the edges with a fluted paste-runner, and bake them on tins, writh paper below.

386

CHAP. IV. — PASTRY, PIES, &C.

Cranberry -Tart. — This may be made either of fresh or preserved cranberries. Season with beat cloves and cinnamon. Put in a sufficient quantity of sugar. Cover with a puff-paste, and serve with cream, which to this fruit is indispensable.

Prune-Tarts. — Wash and scald the prunes; take out the stones, and either bruise them, and take out the kernels to add to the tarts, or not, as you choose. Put sugar to taste to the fruit, and bake it as a tart or pie.

To Ice Tarts. — Beat the white of an egg very well, and brush the paste with a feather, either at first, or when half baked, which will prevent the icing from becoming scorched in the oven. When brushed well over with egg, sift fine sugar, beat to an impalpable powder, over it. A heavier kind of varnish for some things is made of beat yolks of eggs and melted but- ter.

Common Glazings for Paste. — Sugar and water. Yolk or white of egg beat up with water, white of egg and sugar sifted over. Yolk of egg and melted butter.

Mince-Pies. — These are made in an endless variety of ways. Indeed every family receipt-book teems with prescriptions. We select what is, after experi- ment and mature consideration, considered the best formula. — Par-roast, or bake slightly, a couple of pounds of the fine lean of good beef. Mince this, or scrape it. Mince also two pounds of fresh suet, two of apples, pared and cored, three pounds of currants washed, picked, and dried, and a pound and a half of good raisins stoned. Let the things be separately minced till fine, but not so fine as to run together ; then mix them with a pound of beat sugar, and add a tea-spoonful of salt, a half-ounce of ground ginger, the same weight of allspice and bruised coriander- seeds, some beat cloves, two nutmegs grated, the juice and grated rind of two lemons and of two Se- ville oranges, half a pound of candied lemon and orange-peel, and a quarter pound of candied citron sliced. Mix the seasonings equally with the meat. Put a half-pint of brandy, or pine-apple rum, into a basin, with double that quantity of Madeira or sherry.

CHAP. IV. PASTRY, PIES, &C, 387

and a half pint of orange-flower water. Keep the minced meat closely pressed in cans, in a cool dry place. When to be used, cover pans of any size, small saucers, or a small pie-dish, with puff or plain paste. Moisten the meat, if hard, with a little wine or brandy, and fill the pies. Put a cover of puff- paste over them, or if plain paste, ice it. Pare the edges neatly, and mark the top with a paste-knife. Half an hour of a moderate oven will bake them. Slip them out of the tins, and serve them hot.

Obs. — Mince-pies may be made cheaper, and yet very good, by substituting gravy for wine ; or by using home-made wine, (ginger-wine is best,) by les- sening the quantity of expensive fruits and spiceries, and taking any bit of lean dressed beef the larder af- fords, or a piece of boiled double tripe minced fine.

Superlative Mince-Pies. — Rub with salt and mixed spices, a fat bullock’s tongue. Let it lie three days, and parboil, skin, and mince or scrape it. Mince se- parately three pounds of Zante currants, picked, plumped, and dried, a dozen of lemon pippin apples pared and cored, and a pound of blanched almonds, with a few bitter ones. Mix them, and add a half pound of candied citron and orange-peel minced, and an ounce of beat cinnamon and cloves, with the juice and grated rind of three or four lemons, half an ounce of salt, and the same quantity of allspice, and a quar- ter-pound of fine sugar pounded, a pint and a half of Madeira, the same quantity of brandy and orange- flower water. Line the pans with a rich puff-paste, and serve the pies hot with burnt brandy.

Obs. — The brandy should be burnt at table as it is used. Though the mince-meat will keep good for some time, it is best not to be too old. The fruit, suet, and wine may be added when the pies are to be made, as the suet and raw apples are apt to spoil, and the dried fruits, though in less dangei*, do not im- prove by keeping in this state. Mince-pies will warm up very well in a Dutch oven, or in a slow oven, or before the fire.

Common Apple, Gooseberry, or Rhubarb Pasty or Turn-Over. — Make a hot crust with dripping or lard melted in boiling water ; roll it out quickly, and cut it so as to be of a semicircular form when turned over.

388

CHAP. IV. — PASTRY, PIES, &C.

Lay stewed apples, rhubarb, or scalded gooseberries, in the crust, with coarse sugar to sweeten; add for apples a little lemon-peel or cinnamon. Cut the ed- ges, double up and pinch the crust, and bake the pas- ties in a moderate oven. If there be icing at hand they may be iced.

Obs. — This is a cheap preparation, and a greater favourite with young persons than those that are more delicate and expensive.

Vol-au-vent. — Cut, with a paste-runner, puff-paste which has got six turns, and been doubled into the shape of the dish in which the vol-au-vent is to be served. Lay it on a baking-tin with a ledge, and orna- ment, and brush it over with yolk of eggs. Open it lightly all round, with the point of a knife, and when baked in a sharp oven, open the cover formerly marked, without breaking the top, scrape out all the inside paste, fill with any white fricassee, as chickens, rabbits, sweetbreads, or with scollops of turbot or cod, fillets of soles, and put on the top.

Obs. — One main use of vol-au-vent is, that it gives a handsome form to things left cold, which could not otherwise make part of an entertainment for company. For second courses, vol-au-vent may be fancifully marked round the border in a wreath of leaves, and have sweetmeats or delicate dressed vegetables served on it.

PUFFS.

These are called apple-puffs, lemon-puffs, cheese- puffs, egg-puffs, &c., from the principal ingredient in their composition.

Apple- Puffs. — Stew or roast apples till they will peel and pulp dry. Mix them 'with good beat sugar and finely-chopped lemon-peel. Bake them in thin sweet paste, in a quick oven. They are best when made rather small.

Lemon or Orange-Puffs. — Grate down three quar- ters of a pound of refined sugar, and mix it well with the grate of three lemons, or two Seville oranges. Beat the whites of four eggs to a solid-looking froth, and putting this to the sugar, beat the whole toge- ther without intermission for half an hour. Make

389

CHAP. IV. PASTRY, PIES, &C.

this batter into a variety of shapes, and bake it on oiled paper laid on tin plates, in a moderate oven. When cold, take off the paper.

SAVOURY PATTIES.

This is an elegant, though secondary class of culi- nary preparations, and is as much admired by the economist as the gourmand. Where dinners have been given, or are in course of preparation, it is easy to make a dish of savoury patties, with small trouble and almost no expense. Patties are made of a variety of things, as cold veal, fowl, rabbit, hare, lobsters, oysters, &c. They admit of all manner of seasonings, and must be nicely minced.

To make Crust for savoury Patties. — Roll out a thin puff-paste, and line the patty-pans. Cut out the tops on paper, with a tin stamp in form of a star or any handsome shape. Mark the tops very neatly, and lay a piece of paper crumpled up into the lined patty-pan, to support the top when baking, and then put on the top. Bake the patties, and ice them. When to be served, take off the tops and pick out the paper, fill up with a hot mince, and put on the lids neatly, taking care not to fill the patties so full as to run over.

Obs. — This plan of baking the crust separately will, on trial, be found much superior to filling them at the first. The icing may be omitted.

Chicken and Ham Patties. — Skin and mince very fine, the breast or white fleshy parts of a cold chicken, and about half the quantity of lean ham, or of tongue highly flavoured. Have, in a nice small saucepan, a little good veal-gravy drawn from bones or trim- mings, or the jelly of roast veal or lamb, thickened with a bit of butter rolled in flour; add a little grated lemon-peel, white pepper, salt, a very little cayenne, and a tea-spoonful of lemon-juice. Stir the mince in this till quite hot, and fill up the patties, which are best baked empty, as the minced meat hardens in the baking.

Rabbit and Hare Patties. — Mince the best parts of a cold roast rabbit or hare, very fine, with a little

390 CHAP. IV. PASTRY, PIES, &C.

finely slired mutton- suet. Draw a gravy from the bones ; or take other good gravy, and thicken it with butter and flour, and season with salt, cayenne, pep- per, nutmeg, mace, the grate of half a lemon, and a very little red wine, cfr any of the flavoured vinegars. Stew the mince, and fill the patties as above directed.

Obs. — If there be any stuffing of the hare left, it will make, when minced, a good addition to the pat- ties, as will all the native gravy left about veal, hare, &c. Patties may be made fried, either for a dish or a garnish.

Oyster-Patties. — Prepare the paste for these patties as in the above directions, and wash in their own li- quor, and beard as many small oysters as will make a dozen of patties. Strain the liquor, and put to it an ounce of butter rolled in flour. Cut the oysters, if large, into small bits, and stew them in this with a little salt, mace, and white pepper, the grate of half a lemon, and, if liked, a little cayenne. A spoonful of thick cream may be added. Put this hot into the patties when ready to serve. Some good cooks put a little hashed parsley to the oysters, with salt and pepper, and no other seasoning.

Lobster-Patties. — Chop the meat of the tail and claws of a boiled lien-lobster. Pound a little of the spawn in a mortar, with a half-ounce of butter crumb- led, a little veal jelly gravy, or butter, and a spoonful of cream ; add a seasoning of cayenne, mace, salt, a little essence of anchovy, and a tea-spoonful of lemon- grate. Stew the lobster meat in this for a few minutes, adding a spoonful or two of water if over thick, and a very little flour to give consistence to the gravy. Fill the patties with the hot stew when they are ready to serve.

Oyster and. Mushroom-Patties. — Take two parts of stewed oysters, and one of fresh mushrooms, cut them separately into small dice. Fry the mushrooms in butter and flour. Moisten with gravy, the oyster-li- quor, and a little cream. Season with salt, nutmeg, pepper, and cayenne. Stir the oysters, and fill the patties.

Turkey-Patties. — Mince the white part, and a little grated ham. Stew in a little good gravy, or melted

CHAP. IV. PASTRY, PIES, & C. 39l

butter. Put a spoonful of cream to the mince, and season with white pepper, salt, and mace.

Veal and Ham Patties. — Make and season them as for chicken and ham patties.

Beef-Patties or Podovies. — Shred a tender under- done piece of lean beef with a very little of the firm fat. Season with pepper, salt, onion, an anchovy boned and chopped, and a very little shalot or Chili vinegar. The podovies may either be made by put- ting the mince into hot paste like apple-pasty, and frying them, or be baked in patty-pans in a good plain crust made of dripping or lard.

To prepare Meat for small Pies for Supper, hot Lun- cheons, or for Patties. — Take in the proportion of a pound of fillet of veal, a pound of beef, and a half- pound of suet. Mince the meat roughly, and the suet less than the meat. Season with salt, pepper, and all-spice. The meat thus prepared will keep some days if pressed into a pot. When to be baked in saucers, or as little raised pies or patties, add a little hashed parsley. Or bake the pies, and heat them when wanted.

Srveet Patties. — Mince the boiled meat of a calf’s- foot, three apples, and a little candied orange and le- mon-peel ; add fresh lemon-grate, „and the juice of a lemon, a little fine sugar, a small glass of sweet wine, a little nutmeg, the chopped yolk of two hard- boiled eggs, and, if wished, a little shred mutton- suet, or marrow. Bake the patties in puff-paste. Patties may be made like mince-pies, and seasoned in an endless variety of ways. They may be made as Turn-overs, and fried in plenty of lard or dripping. They are also a simple and favourite family-dish when baked as Turn-overs on tins.

PUDDINGS.

Any tolerable cook, however young in the art, may compound a good pudding by attending to the follow- ing simple rules and plain directions. Attention is all that is required, and a little manual dexterity in turn- ing the pudding out of the dish or cloth in which it has been dressed. Let the several ingredients be each fresh and good of its kind, as one bad article, particularly eggs, wiH taint and destroy the whole composition.

392 CHAP. IV. — PASTRY, PIES, &C.

Have the pudding-cloths washed, boiled in wood- ashes, and always laid by quite dry after using. Puddings ought to be boiled in an open pot, in plenty of water, which must be kept on a quick boil ; or baked in a quick but not scorching oven. A pudding in which there is bread must be tied up loosely, to al- low room for swelling. A batter-pudding ought to be tied up firmly. Eggs for puddings must be used in greater quantity when of small size. The yolks and Avhites, if the pudding is wanted particularly light and nice, should be strained after being sepa- rately well beat. The several ingredients, after being well stirred together, should have a little time to stand, that the flavours may blend. The common fault of boiled puddings, which are often solid bodies, is being underdone. Baked puddings are as often scorched. When the pudding-cloths are to be used, dip them in water, and dredge them with flour. When a pudding begins to set in the oven, stir it up to prevent the fruit, &c. from settling down to the bottom ; and when boiled, turn over the cloth in the pot for the same reason, and also to prevent it from sticking to the bottom. As the water wastes fill up the pot with boiling water. When the pudding is taken out of the pot, dip it quickly into cold water, and set it in a basin of its size. It will then more readily separate from the cloth without breaking. Some cooks, in seasons of scarcity, recommend snow in place of eggs. We do not pretend to understand the philosophy of this prescription ; — to be sure snow, as it falls, does look something like beat white of eggs, and from the quantity of air contained in it, may help the pudding to rise. This is all that it can do. Small beer, when fresh land yeasty, is a better substitute; but the pudding should be allowed to stand for some time after the beer is put in, before it is cooked. Care must be taken to mix batter-puddings very smoothly. Let the flour be gradually mixed with a very little of the milk, as in making mustard or starch, and afterwards strain the batter through a coarse sieve. Raisins, prunes, and damsons, for pud- dings, must be carefully stoned ; or sultanas may be used in place of raisins. Currants must be picked

393

CHAP. IV. — PASTRY , PIES, &C.

and plumped in hot water, or, which is better, rubbed in a cloth and plumped before the fire ; almonds must be blanched and sliced ; and in mixing grated bread, pounded biscuit, &c., with milk, pour the milk on hot, and cover the vessel, which is both bet- ter and easier than boiling. Mutton-suet for puddings is lighter than that of beef; but marrow, when it can be obtained, is better than either. A baked pudding for company has often a paste-border or a garnishing of blanched and sliced almonds about it ; if boiled, it may also be garnished in various -ways. The most elegant seasoning for pudding is conserve of Seville orange, lemon-rind, and orange-flower-water. Spir- its, and even wine, are every day less used, both from taste and economy.

A Common Plum-Pudding. — Take six ounces of shred suet, four of dry flour, two of stoned raisins, three of picked and plumped currants, a little all- spice and nutmeg, or cinnamon. Thin this with beat eggs and a little milk, and put in either a glass of sweet wine or a half-glass of rum or brandy and sugar, to taste. There are a thousand other ways of making a plum-pudding.

Obs. — The wine or spirits may be spared, and the pudding flavoured with distilled waters, as rose-water, peach-water, orange-floAver- water, &c.

A superfine Plum-Pudding. — Take four ounces of pounded pudding-biscuit, and two ounces of the best flour, or good common biscuit, a half-pound of bloom or muscatel raisins stoned, the same quantity of fresh Zante currants picked and plumped, and a half- pound of suet stripped of skins and filaments, and shred ; a small tea-spoonful of nutmeg grated, a quar- ter-pound of fine beat sugar, a drachm of pounded cinnamon, and two blades of mace ; three ounces of candied lemon, orange, and citron, sliced, and two ounces of blanched almonds roughly chopped. Beat four eggs well, and put to them a little sweet milk, a glass of white wine or brandy, and then mix in the flour and all the ingredients. Tie up the pudding firm, and boil it for four hours, keeping up the boil, and turning the cloth. Serve pudding sauce. — See Sauces.

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CHAP. IV. PASTRY, PIES, &C.

Obs. — Plum-pudding will keep cold, and re-warm when wanted, in slices, in the Dutch oven or frying- pan. A plum-pudding, with meat, may be made either according to the receipt for minced pies, or a bride’s-pie, adding eggs and milk enough to thin it.

Marrow-Pudding. — Grate as much bread as will fill a large breakfast-cup quite full. Put it into a jug, and pour nearly a quart of boiling sweet milk or thin cream over it, and let it swell and soak, while you shred a half-pound of marrow or suet, and beat up four large or six small eggs. Have two ounces of raisins stoned, and two ounces of currants picked and plumped. Sweeten the pudding to taste, and season it with a very little grated nutmeg, and a tea-spoonful of cinnamon in powder. Cover a stoneware flat dish on the edge with stripes of puff-paste, and mark it neatly in leaves. Bake the pudding in this dish, or plainly in a deep dish.

Obs. — A few almonds, or a little candied citron or orange-peel, may be put to this pudding for variety A little finely-sifted sugar may be strewed on the top, which makes a good veil to puddings when un- luckily scorched in the oven ; or a few blanched al- monds sliced majr be stuck round it for ornament. In a flat dish twenty-five minutes will bake it It will require a half-hour in a deep dish ; or it may be boiled in a pudding-shape. This pudding will keep and cut in firm slices, which may be broiled or heated in a Dutch oven. A suel-pudding, a baked plum-pud- ding, and a, fat-pudding, are made exactly as the above, only the quantity of fruit may be varied at pleasure, or cheaper fruit substituted.

A Hunter s Pudding. — This is nearly a plum-pud- ding. Stone a pound of raisins, and chop them, shred a pound of suet, clean a pound of currants, grate the rind of a lemon over this, and mix up six beat eggs with a pound of flour, a quarter-pound of sugar, and what milk will make a stiff batter. Season with a salt-spoonful of Jamaica pepper, and the same quan- tity of nutmeg; and add candied citron and orange- peel, if you like. Boil for six or seven hours in a cloth or mould, and serve with pudding-sauce.

Obs. — This pudding will keep a long while, and

CHAP. IV. PASTRY, PIES, &c. 395

in this its utility consists ; it may either be broiled in slices, or warmed up in a fresh cloth. It will take a long while to get hot quite through if warmed whole.

Breacl-Pudding. — Pour a large pint of boiling milk over what will fill a breakfast-cup of bread-crumbs. Let them soak covered till cold, and mash it smooth with a spoon. Sweeten it to taste. Add to it four or five eggs well beat, and season with cinnamon or nut- meg. Stir in two ounces of currants picked and plumped, or a few cut raisins ; or the pudding may be made very rich by the addition of blanched and chopped almonds, candied citron, and orange-peel, with raisins and currants. Boil it in a basin, or bake it in a dish. Pounded sweet or plain biscuit may be used instead of bread-crumbs. A Brown Bread-Pud- ding is made as above, but more plainly, and also a Save-all or Crust- Pudding. Small bread-puddings

may be baked in little buttered cups.

Rice-Pudding. — Wash well in several waters, and pick a half-pound of the best Carolina rice. Boil it slowly in a little water for a few minutes, and then put a pint and a half of sweet milk to it, with a roll of lemon-peel. Stir it constantly, to prevent it from sticking. When quite soft, pour it into a dish, and mix two ounces of fresh-butter, or of nicely-shred suet with it; and when cold, three or four beat eggs, sugar to taste, and a seasoning of cinnamon or nut- meg. Cover the edges of a flat pie-dish with paste cut into leaves, and bake the pudding in it. A few currants may be put to it. This pudding may be thinned with milk and boiled in a cloth ; or it may, allowing a double quantity of suet, be filled into skins and so boiled. Chopped apples, stoned prunes, &c., may be put to this pudding ; and it may be made of ground instead of whole rice.* When candied peel is used, this takes the name of Patna-Pudding.

Delicate small Rice-Puddings. — Prepare four ounces of rice as above directed, and put to it three ounces

• We have seen wheat struck in the same manner as pot or pearl barley, substituted for rice, in making puddings. It is much cheap- er, can be had fresh at all times, and is by many persons thouent better than rice P. T. b

396

CHAP. IVi PASTRY, PIES, &C.

of fresh butter, and a half-pint of cream. When cold, mix in sugar to taste, and six well-beat yolks of eggs, with three whites, grated lemon-peel, and a little cin- namon. Butter small cups, and putting into each a few slices of candied citron, fill very nearly full, and bake them. Dish and serve them hot with sweet sauce in a boat.

Sago-Pudding. — Wash in several waters, and boil four spoonfuls of sago in a quart of new milk. Sweet- en to taste, and season with cinnamon, lemon-peel grated, and a scrape of nutmeg. Add when cold, four eggs well beat, and bake in a dish with a cut paste- border.

Ohs. — The sago may be first boiled in water, and then have wine and lemon-peel put to it, with some beat butter and no milk.

A Millet-Pudding. — Wash four ounces of the seeds, and put to them a pint and a half of hot new milk, and two ounces of butter, sugar to taste, a little gin- ger and nutmeg, and whatever other seasonings are fancied. When the milk is cold, add three eggs beat, Some finely-shred mutton-suet will be no bad im- provement, and a little brandy or pine-apple rum.

Macaroni-Pudding. — Simmer the macaroni in milk and water till tender, with new milk to thin it ; and when cold, add three beat yolks of eggs. Season with nutmeg, cinnamon, and a little almond-flower- water or noyeau, and sweeten with fine sugar. A little gin- ger-wine or raisin- wine is an improvement. A layer of orange marmalade, or apricot-jam, in the centre of the pudding, is an excellent addition ; or plums or prunes stoned and plumped, with shred marrow finely beat, mutton-suet and sugar, may be placed in a thick layer over the macaroni. Stick blanched almonds sliced long-ways round the edges.

Parisian Macaroni-Pudding. — Wash six ounces of macaroni, and simmer it in water till it is tender, but not soft. Strain it off; beat up five yolks, and two whites of eggs. Stir into them a very little salt and pepper, and a half-pint of good sweet cream. Mince, but not too finely, the skinned breast of a cold fowl, and rather less of dressed lean ham. Grate about an ounce and a half of Parmesan cheese over the mince,

CHAP. IV. PASTRY* PIES; &C. 397

and mix the whole ingredients well together with the macaroni. Butter and fill a melon-shaped or other pudding-dish, and expose it to the steams of boiling water till thoroughly done. Turn the pudding care- fully out, and serve it hot, with a strong clear gravy flavoured with onions, parsley, and, if the flavour of the French cookery is admired, a little tarragon.

Obs. — This, by gourmands of experience, is consi- dered as out of sight the best modern preparation of macaroni, sweetened dishes of this paste being con- sidered by them as only fit for boys and women.

Vermicelli-Padding. — Boil three ounces of soaked vermicelli till soft, in a pint and a half of new milk, with fine sugar to taste, a stick of cinnamon, and a bit of lemon-peel. Stir in, when cold, the beat yolks of four eggs with two of the whites, and bake the pudding in a dish with a paste-border.

Custard-Puddings. — Beat up the yolks and whites of from four to six eggs separately. Mix the yolks with a pint and a half of rich new milk into which two or three spoonfuls of flour have been rubbed. Sweeten the mixture to taste, and add cinnamon and lemon-grate. When just ready to dress, stir in the beat whites of the eggs, and a little orange-flower- water. Boil the pudding for a half-hour in a butter- ed basin, with a floured cloth tied tightly over it ; or bake it for twenty minutes. Grate sugar over the top, or put bits of red currant-jelly neatly over it.

Batter-Pudding. — Mix three or four ounces of flour with a little milk, and add a pint more of milk to it. Put a piece of butter the size of a small egg to this, and put it on the fire, stirring constantly till it thick- ens. When cold, add the beat yolks of four eggs, and a little ginger and grated lemon-peel. Boil in a buttered basin, and serve hot with a sweet sauce, or along with meat.

Obs. — A little orange-marmalade or conserve is a great improvement to this and to all batter-puddings. Instead of flour, potato-mucilage, ground rice, or ar- row-root, may be used, only the pudding must then change its name.

Almond or Ralajia Pudding. — Blanch, cut down, and beat in a mortar to a paste a half-pound of sweet and a

R

398

CHAP. IV. — PASTRY, PIES, &C.

half-ounce of bitter almonds, with a spoonful of orange- flower water or plain water. Add to this paste three ounces of fresh butter melted in a glass of hot cream, four beat eggs, sugar to taste, a scrape of nutmeg, and a little brandy or curaijoa. Bake this in small cups buttered, or in a dish, and serve with a hot sauce of Avine, sugar, and butter.

A baked Almond-Pudding. — Beat as above six ounces of sweet and a dozen bitter almonds, and mix the paste with the beat yolks of six eggs, four ounces of butter, the grate and juice of a large lemon, a pint and a half of cream, and a glass of white wine. Add sugar to taste, and bake in a dish, with a neatly-cut paste-bor- der. Ornament the top with sliced almonds or citron.

Orange-Pudding. — To the grated rind of a lai-ge Seville orange put four ounces of fresh butter and six of pounded fine sugar. Beat this in a mortar, and gradually add eight well-beat eggs. Scrape a raAv apple into the mixture, and put it into a dish lined with paste and neatly scolloped on the edge. Cross- bar it with paste-straws, and bake till the paste is done.

Obs. — Less or the above mixture Avill do for all or- dinary-sized pudding, as this high-flavxured compo- sition goes far. Candied orange-peel beat to a paste makes a very fine pudding Avhen used as above.

Lemon- Pudding. — Melt half a pound of sugar and six ounces of fresh butter together, and Avhen cold, add eight eggs very Avell beat, the juice of one lemon, and the grated yelloiv rind of two. Mix them all Avell, and bake in a puff-paste neatly marked on the edges.

An Apple-Pudding. — Pare and grate three quarters of a pound of juicy apples. Put to them six ounces of butter beat cold to a cream, four beat eggs, two pudding-biscuits pounded, the rind of a lemon grat- ed, sugar to taste, a spoonful of brandy, and another of orange-floAver Avater. Bake in a puff-paste marked in leaves round the border, and Avhen done, streiv can- died lemon or orange peel sliced over the top.

Obs. — Any good sweet biscuit may be used, or bread-crumbs. A little lemon-juice or cider may be added if the apples are too melloAv.

A Swiss Apple-Pudding. — Place alternate layers of

399

CHAP. IV. PASTRY , PIES, &C.

sliced apples and sugar, with a very thin layer of rusks pounded and soaked in milk. Finish with the pound- ed rusks, and pour melted butter over the pudding. Orate sugar over it when to be served.

An excellent Apple-Pudding. — Pare, core, and stew the apples in a small stew-pan with cinnamon, two or three cloves, and the grated rind of a lemon. When soft, sweeten them to taste. Pulp them through a sieve, and add the beat yolks of four eggs, a quarter- pound of butter, the grated peel and the juice of a lemon. Mix the ingredients well, and bake for a half- hour in a dish lined with good puff-paste.

Nottitigham Pudding. — Pare and core six large ap- ples. Fill the hearts with moist sugar and a little cinnamon. Place them in a pie-dish, and pour a light batter-pudding, suitably seasoned, over them, and bake till the apples are ready, — about three quarters of an hour.

Apricot, Peach, or Nectarine Pudding. — Pour a pint of hot cream over what would fill a cup of bread- crumbs, and cover the jug. When cold, add the beat yolks of four eggs, a glass of white wine, and beat sugar to taste. Scald till soft a dozen large apricots. Cut them, take out the kernels, and pound the whole in a mortar. Mix them with the other ingredients, and the beat whites of two of the eggs, and bake in a dish with a paste-border.

Gooseberry -Pudding. — Stew green gooseberries till they will pulp through a sieve. When cold, pulp them, and add to them six ounces of butter, four ounces of sugar-biscuit, pounded sugar to taste, four beat eggs, and a glass of brandy. Bake in a dish with a paste-border.

Ohs. — Excellent patties, and small pasties or turn- overs, may be made of this material.

Newmarket or Bread-and-Butler Pudding. — Boil a pint and a quarter of good milk for a few minutes with the rind of half a lemon, a stick of cinnamon, and a bay-leaf, or a spoonful of almond-flower water. Put in fine sugar to taste, and as the milk cools mix it gradually with the well-beat yolks of six eggs, and three of the whites separately beaten. Cut and but- ter with fresh butter slices of bread of about a half- inch thick. Place this in a pudding-dish, and then a

400 CHAP. IV. PASTRY, PIES, &C.

layer of cleaned currants with a few raisins stoned and chopped, then again bread, and then fruit ; but have the top layer of buttered bread. Pour the cus- tard through a fine sieve over this j let it soak for an hour or two, and bake it for a half-hour.

Chancellor s or Cabinet-Pudding, a very delicate Pud- ding.— Boil a pint of cream with a bit of lemon-peel, and some fine sugar, and pour it hot over a half-pound of newly-baked savoy biscuit. Cover the dish. When the cream is soaked up, add the yolks and whites of eight eggs separately well w hisked. Bake the pud- ding, serve with custard-sauce. Dates, plums, or rai- sins may be added, and also minced marrow, almonds, and grated citron.

College- Puddings. — Beat six yolks and three whites of eggs, and mix them to a smooth batter with three heaped spoonfuls of flour, a little ginger, and half a nutmeg, with pounded loaf-sugar to taste. Add four ounces of shred suet, four of picked currants, and an ounce of candied orange-peel and citron sliced. Bake in patty-pans, or fry these small puddings, making them up of an egg-shape. Serve with pudding-sauce and sliced lemon.

Obs. — Bread-crumbs or pounded biscuit may be used instead of flour when the pudding is to be bak- ed. For all puddings bread is much lighter than flour, and more suitable to delicate stomachs.

Duke of Cumberland’ s Pudding. — Mix in equal pro- portions grated bread, shred suet, chopped apples, loaf-sugar, and cleaned currants, with six eggs well beat. Season with the grate of a lemon, half a nut- meg, a little salt, and two ounces of candied citron, lemon, and orange-peel. Mix the ingredients thorough- ly, and when they have stood -for an hour to amalga- mate, put the mixture into a buttered mould. Tie several folds of a floured cloth over it, and boil for two hours and a half.

Northumberland Puddings. — Make a thick batter by boiling and sweetening milk and flour. When cold and firm, mash it up, and add to it four ounces of melted butter, the same weight of currants, two ounces of candied lemon and orange-peel sliced, and a little brandy if liked. Butter tea-cups, and bake

401

CHAP. IV. PASTRY, PIES, &C.

the puddings in them for fifteen minutes. Turn them out on a dish, and pour wine-sauce over them if to be eat hot. If to make a cold ornamental supper-dish, omit the wine-sauce.

Dutch Pudding, or Albany Cake. — Mix two pounds or rather less of good flour with a pound of butter, melted in half a pint of milk. Add to this the whites and yolks of eight eggs separately well beaten, a half- pound of fine sifted sugar, a pound of cleaned cur- rants, and a few chopped almonds, or a little candied orange-peel sliced fine. Put to this four spoonfuls of yeast. Cover it up for an hour or two, and bake it for an hour in a wide flattish dish. When cold it eats well as a cake.*

A Welsh Pudding. — Melt a half-pound of butter by setting it in a basin floating in hot water, and gradu- ally mix with it the beat yolks of eight eggs and the whites of four. Sweeten with fine pounded sugar, and season with the grate of a lemon and a little nut- meg. Bake in a dish with an ornamented paste-bor- der ; and when ready, stick slices of citron or candied orange-peel round the edges.

A George Pudding. — Boil as for rice-pudding foui- ounces of rice with a roll of lemon-peel. Mix this when drained dry with the pulp of a dozen boiled, roasted, or baked apples, well beaten. Add the beat yolks of five or six eggs, sugar to taste, and a little cinnamon, with two ounces of candied orange and ci- tron sliced fine. Line and butter a basin or mould with paste, (not too thick,) and pour the pudding in- to it ; then gently stir in the whites of the eggs beaten to a strong froth. Bake the pudding for more than a half-hour, and serve it witli a hot sauce made of wine, sugar, the yolk of an egg, and a bit of butter.

Cream-Sauce for Puddings. — Sweeten thin cream, and season either with nutmeg, cinnamon, or lemon rind, as best suits the pudding. Cook the cream with a bit of butter and a little rice-flour. Skink it well, and keep it hot by plunging the dish in hot water. When ready to serve, add a glass of sweet wine. Boil it up, and pour over the pudding.

• This is the bonne bouche at the substantial tea-parties of the State of New York. The feast, begun with fried eggs and bacon ends with buck-wheat cakes and the above preparation.

402

CHAP. IV. — PASTRY, PIES, &C.

A French Fruit-Pudding, or Charlotte. — The prepa- rations known here by this name are much admired on the continent, and jiarticularly in France, where the solid, lumpy, and doughy English pudding, and fat pie or tart crust, are not so much esteemed as they are at home. A Charlotte — French Fruit-Pudding, or by whatever other name it be designated, may be made of any kind of fruit, or of a mixture of such as blend well, as apricot and apple marmalade. Cut even- ly, slices of bread of nearly half an inch in thickness. Butter them richly on both sides, and cover the bot- tom and sides of a buttered pan with them, cutting the bread into dice or long slips, to make the whole join or dovetail compactly. Fill up the dish vrith ap- ples, prepared and seasoned as marmalade for an ap- ple-pie. For the top, soak slices of bread in melted butter and milk. Cover the apples with these soaked slices. Butter them, and keep them pressed down while baking in a quick oven with a plate and a weight placed on it.

Ohs. — This, turned ฉut of the shape when baked, is sometimes called an apple-loaf. Any kind of pre- served or ripe fruit may be used instead of apples. A few thin slices of bread buttered thus make a good crust to a rice or other pudding.

Yorkshire Pudding, to bake under a Roast. — Mix four ounces of flour very smoothly with a pint and a half of milk, four beat eggs, and a little salt, and also gin- ger if liked. Butter a shallow tin pan ; pourthebat- ter into it, and place it below the roast. When set- tling, stir up the batter; and when browned on the upper side, turn over the pudding, first drawing a knife round the edges to loosen it. Brown the other side. It should be about an inch thick when done. This is the favourite English accompaniment to a sir- loin of beef, or a loin of veal or mutton ; finely-minc- ed parsley, shalot, onion, and also suet well beat, may be added. This pudding, if for roast pork, should have a little minced sage.

Potato-Pudding, to go below a Roast. — Peel, boil, and mash the potatoes, with a little milk, salt, pepper, and a finely-shred onion if approved. Dish and score this, and set it below the roast to catch the dripping, and to brown.

403

CHAP. IV. — PASTRY, PIES, &C.

Potato-Pudding with Meal. — Mash the potatoes. Make them thin with milk, and season them as above. Cut either fat beef, mutton, or pork, into very small bits, and season these well with salt, pepper, allspice, and shred onion. Place a layer of meat at the bottom of a baking dish, then potatoes, and proceed thus till the dish is filled. Pour all the potato-batter that re- mains equally over the top, and stick some butter over that. Bake of a fine brown, covering with paper to prevent scorching.

Ohs. — This dish is in no material respect different from baked Irish stew. The meat may be kept in steaks ; and the pudding is then called a rump-steak pudding. Chicken or veal, with currie seasonings, may be dressed as above, using boiled rice-batter. A Mutton-Pudding is also made with potatoes as above.

Kidney-Pudding, or Dumpling. — Split, soak, and season one or two kidneys. Line a basin with a hot paste made of suet, flour, and hot milk. Put in the kidney with a little shred onion and suet, and pinch in the paste ; cover with a cloth, and boil for two hours.

ฆ — For Blood-Puddings and White-Puddings, see Na- tional Dishes, and French Cookery for several excellent meat puddings.

DUMPLINGS.

Dumplings are made of all sorts of fruit, either fresh or preserved, and also of meat and other things. They are convenient, and sometimes economical, though not particularly elegant, and far from being of easy digestion. The boiled paste of dumplings is dough in its heaviest form.

Suet-Dumplings. — Chop from four to eight ounces of suet fine, and take double the weight of Hour and grated bread. Beat two or three eggs with a glass- ful of milk. Mix all well together, and put a little salt and allspice to the mixture. Work it up into the shape of large eggs, and tie each up separately in a pudding-cloth dredged with flour. Boil three quar- ters of an hour.

Plum, Apple, Currant, Raspberry- Jam, Strawberry- Jam, Gooseberry, or Damson Dumpling. — Line a but- tered tin basin with a plain crust, and fill with the fruit, either preserved or prepared as for pies and

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CHAP. IV. — PASTRY, PIES, &C-

puddings. Pinch in the paste, tie a floured cloth over the basin, and boil from two to three hours, and turn it out.

Norfolk Dumplings. — Make a very stiff batter with flour, a little milk, three eggs, and salt. W ork this up into balls of the size of small turkey eggs, and roll them in flour, and boil them in water, or along with meat ; or drop the batter from a spoon into wa- ter that boils fiercely.. Boil them for ten minutes, drain, and serve them hot. Currants and sweet spices may be mixed with suet or paste dumplings.

PANCAKES AND FRITTERS.

These articles make an economical and genteel addi- tion to small dinners, and have the advantage of being quickly forthcoming upon any emergency.

Common Pancci/ces. — Beat from four to six eggs, according to the number of pancakes wanted, and put in a spoonful of flour for every egg, with sugar, gin- ger, and a little nutmeg. Stir in milk enough to re- duce this to a batter. Make a small frying-pan hot, melt a little butter in it, pour it out, and wipe the. pan, or rub it with a buttered cloth. Put in a very small piece of butter, and when it froths, a ladleful of batter ; — toss round the pan to diffuse this equally. Run a knife round the edges, and turn the pancake. Brown very lightly on both sides, double them up to keep hot. Serve a few at a time, hot and hot, with grated sugar and sliced lemon, or roll them lightly up as a collar.

Fine Pancakes. — Beat six eggs in a pint of cream, and add three or four ounces of butter, if they are wanted rich. Use rice-flour, or a proportion of it, and sweeten with sugar, and season ’with nutmeg, cinna- mon, or lemon, as is most agreeable. Sift sugar over them as they are fried.*

Irish Pancakes. — These are made as above, with more flour and sugar.

* In the Cleikum, and probably in some other old-fashioned inns and Scottish families, pancakes were wont to be served with a layer of currant-jelly between the folds, — a practice for which much might be said by those familiar with it. Is not tins the omelette a la Celestine , or au confiture , of our old allies, still lingering in re- mote places of the country — P. T .

405

CHAP. IV. PASTRY, PIES, &C.

Rice-Pancakes or Fritters. — Boil four ounces of rice- flour in a quart of cream, or very good milk, till it is as thick as pap. Stir in a quarter-pound of sugar. When cold, mix four spoonfuls of flour, a little salt, and eight beat eggs, thoroughly together. If not stiff enough, add more flour and sugar, and fry the batter either as fritters or pancakes. Serve with a little melted butter, wine and sugar poured into the dish.

Batter for Fritters and for Frying. — Put a half- pound of sifted flour into a dish, with salt, a little melted butter, and the yolks of two eggs. Moisten and work up this with wort, or fresh yeasty beer, till it is of a proper consistence. Have the whites of the eggs well whipt, and work them into the paste, which should be made hours before it is used. Wa- ter or wine may be used instead of beer. Top-fat makes the best fritters, and next to it the soft kidney- fat of beef.

Good plain Fritters. — Mix minced apples rolled in sugar with a little finely-shred suet and stiff pancake- batter or fritter-batter, as above described. Drop this in proper quantities into boiling dripping, and fry the fritters ; or a few picked currants may be stir- red into the batter, and dropt in spoonfuls into the boiling dripping.

Apple-Fritters. — Put a little additional flour to com- mon pancake-batter. Peel and core large apples ;* cut them in slices, dip them in thethick batter, and fry them in lard, or good clarified dripping. Drain and dish them neatly above each other, and grate sugar over them ; or drop batter into the boiling fat in the frying-pan, then slices of apple, and more batter over that.

Obs. — Fritters are best served on the folds of a da- mask napkin. They may be made of ripe or preserv- ed fruits of all kinds, and are then called Italian. The batter may be seasoned with wine, &c.

Potato- Fritters. — Potato-fritters are sometimes dress- ed as a sweet dish ; but are better plain, made of

* French cooks steep rennets for fritters in brandy and cinnamon, or someliqueur, beforedipping them in the batter. They make fritters of all sorts of fruits, first halt-baking the cored apples or apricots.

R 2

406

CHAP. v. — ORNAMENTAL DISHES.

mashed potatoes well seasoned, thickened to a batter with a beat egg and milk, and fried in lard, to serve with sausage, steaks, chops, red herrings, &c.

Oyster-Fritters. — Make a batter as above, but omit the sweet seasonings, and use pepper, mace, salt, and a little cayenne. Dry the oysters in a cloth after they are washed and cleaned, and dip them one by one in the batter. Fry and serve them. hot. Serve on crisp- ed parsley.

CHAPTER V.

CREAMS, JELLIES, SWEET DISHES, PRESERVES, AND ORNAMENTAL CONFECTIONARY.

Make your transparent sweetmeats truly nice.

With Indian sugar and Arabian spice ;

And let your various Creams enriched be With swelling fruit just ravish’d from the tree.

Dr King.,

Where there is a good confectioner at hand, it will in general be not only more convenient, but as cheap, to purchase a great part of the smaller articles used for desserts and suppers, as wafers, little sou fie cakes, Bouchees des dames, and the many fanciful trifles made of paste-royal. Even moulded creams, jellies, and preserved fruits of the finer kinds, where they are not often used, will be often obtained as cheap, and in better style than they can be .prepared in small fa- milies. But this department of the culinary art, be- sides affording a pleasing variety to the domestic busi- ness of ladies, often in the country becomes a neces- sary branch of knovdedge. In the present edition of this work there is therefore given a copious selec- tion of receipts in ornamental confectionary, according to modern and fashionable practice. Beginners in confectionary, as in cookery, are often at a loss to know how much of a receipt must be followed ac-

CHAP. V. — ORNAMENTAL DISHES. 407

cording to the letter, and how much understood in the spirit only. Like the Malcide Imaginaire, when ordered to walk across the room, they are miserable from not knowing whether to take the breadth or the length. In general this is of small consequence, pro- vided they do walk either way.

CREAMS.

Creams are either shaped in a mould, and turned out, and garnished with myrtle or other flowers, or served in a glass dish, or in little glass cups. For creams and jellies moulded to shapes, freezing is neces- sary if you would make sure of having the shape fine and entire. Isinglass also must be put in considerable quantity to all things of this kind that are made in shapes ; but if only in a dish or little cups, more eggs are used, and no isinglass. Melt slowly, in a little water, the isinglass to be used, and try a little of your cream or jelly in a small shape or orange-skin, to see if it be strong enough to take and keep a shape. Moulds are best of earthenware ; pewter or tin ones give jel- lies a bad colour.

All creams are made nearly in the same manner, the chief difference arising from the flavouring ingre- dient, which generally gives the name, as coffee, cho- colate, lemon, tea, vanilla, &c. Though creams cer- tainly look handsomer when moulded and iced, they are not so good as when served in cups, from the greater quantity of isinglass, and the absence of eggs.

The yolk of one fresh egg in every cupful is a good rule in making creams and custards to be served in cups, but many more are often used for moulds. A little grated nutmeg, or cinnamon, may be sprinkled over creams served without being moulded. The exact quantity of isinglass necessary can only be known by experiment at the time of making the cream, this commodity varies so much in strength. For a large mould it must be stiffer than for a small one.

To freeze Creams and Jellies. — There are various ways of procuring ice ; the cheapest is to buy it of nature’s making, and to have a necessary apparatus for preserving it after you have got it. Break the ice in a proper ice-bucket, and strew a handful of salt

408 CHAP. V. — ORNAMENTAL DISHES.

amongst it. Take it from the sides occasionally. Place your mould over the ice, and bury it amidst ice, but take care that the cream or jelly be quite cold, else it will melt the ice instead of being freezed itself. Let it i*emain till wanted for the table. Then dip a towel in hot water, and rub it quickly round the mould, to detach your jelly or cream, and turn it carefully upside down. You must use a towel dipped in hot water to turn out every thing made in a mould, (as pudding, &c.) whether iced or not.

ITALIAN CREAM.

Take two parts of sweet cream and one of milk, about a quart in all. Boil this, and infuse in it four ounces of fine sugar, and the thin rind of a lemon, or two if small. When flavoured, add the beat yolks of eight eggs, and beat the whole well. Set it on the fire to thicken ; and wThen this is done, put in a little melted isinglass, (about a half-ounce, and more after- wards if necessary ;) whip it well ; strain it through a lawn-sieve, and try a little in a small mould.

Italian Cream another Way. — Whisk up a pint or rather more of the richest cream, the yellow rind of a lemon rubbed off with sugar, the juice of the lemon, and more fine sifted sugar to sweeten the cream to taste. Put to this, when well whisked, an ounce of isinglass dissolved by boiling-hot water, and strained through a lawn-sieve. Beat these together well, and season with noyeau, or cura9oa, if liked. Fill the shape, and when firm, turn out, and garnish accord- ing to fancy.

Obs. — This, with little variation, is the preparation called Italian Cheese.

Coffee-Cream. — Boil equal quantities of fresh cream and milk. Season with sugar and a particle of salt. Roast two ounces of good coffee-beans, or refresh the same quantity of those already roasted, and throw them hot into the cream, or you may use a strong clear tincture, by infusing good coffee. When cold, add the beat yolk of an egg for every cupful, strain it twice or three times ; and place the cups in a wide pan of boiling water, which will cover them half-way up. Cover the pan, and put embers over the lid, to keep the vapour from falling down. If for a shape,

CHAP. V. — ORNAMENTAL DISHES. 409

set the cream and eggs on the fire to thicken, put isinglass to it, and fill the mould.

WHIPT COFFEE-CREAM.

Infuse two ounces of coffee, so as to have a break- fast-cupful of a strong tincture. Whip "a quart of sweetened cream, and lay aside the froth as it rises, on a sieve reversed, to drain. Add the white of an egg if it will not rise well. Boil the remaining cream, and put it to the beat yolks of three or four eggs, or the clear coffee-tincture. Serve it in a glass dish and the whip over it.

N. B. — Whips will be easier made if the cream, where convenient, is whisked over ice.

Another Coffee-Cream. — Have a pint of clear jelly of calves’ -feet, free of blacks and fat. Clear a large cupful of strong coffee with isinglass till bright and deeply brown. Mix it with the jelly; add a pint of good cream and fine sugar to taste ; and after mixing well, boil up for a few minutes till you have a weak jelly. This is an easily-made and favourite cream.

Ratafia- Cream. — Mix a quarter-pint of ratafia or noyeau with the same quantity of mountain wine, sugar to taste and the juice of a lemon and of a Seville orange. Whisk this with a pint of good cream, add- ing more sugar if necessary, and fill the glasses. Ra- tajia-crcam may also be made of the beat yolks of four or five eggs, with a quart of cream and two glasses of brandy scalded together, but not boiled over the fire. If moulded, add isinglass, and proceed as for other creams made in shapes.

A plain Cream. — Boil a pint of milk and one of cream with two bay-leaves, a bit of lemon-peel, fine sugar to sweeten, a dozen almonds, and three bitter ones, beaten to a paste, with orange-flower water. Thicken with a little rice-flour rubbed with milk, and give it a scald. When cold, put a little lemon-juice to the cream, and fill the glasses or cups. A "little nutmeg or cinnamon may be strewed over this and other creams.

Orange-Cream, an elegant Cream. — Wipe with a wet towel, and grate off the thick coarse parts of a Seville orange-rind ; then pare and boil the skin till 5

410

CHAP. V. ORNAMENTAL DISHES.

soft, changing the water. Beat this in a marble mor- tar.) and put to it a spoonful of ratafia, the juice of the orange strained, four ounces of fine sugar, and the yolks of four eggs. Beat these ingredients thoroughly well together for a quarter of an hour, and then by degrees mix them with a pint of cream that has boiled ; keep beating till the whole is cold ; then put it into custard-cups, and set these in a kettle of boil- ing water. Wipe the cups, let the cream thicken by cooling, and garnish with thin parings of preserved orange-chips.

Obs. — By the addition of isinglass this cream may be made in a shape.

Lemon-Cream. — Make as coffee-cream, but use le- mon-rind instead of coffee, to give the flavour.

Obs. — Every variety of cream may be made in the same manner, only changing the flavour, as pistachio cream of the nuts. Chocolate and tea creams, by em- ploying an infusion as in coffee. Orangc-jlowers make an elegant cream.

Canary or Sac/c Cream. — To a half-pint of cream add one of sweetmilk, and sweeten, put to it the beat yolk of an egg or two, and a bit of lemon-rind, and a glass of wine. Stir over the fire, but take care it does not curdle. Serve in glass cups, with bits of toast or small light biscuits.

CREAMS OF PRESERVED OR FRESH FRUITS.

Raspberry or Strawberry Cream, not iced. — Mash the ripe fruit, and boil down the drained juice with fine sugar. Have a strong whip made of sweetened cream. With what remains mix the beat yolks of eggs, and when cold, mix the fruit with this, and serve the whip over it.

Obs. — This will make equally well of preserved jel- lies or jams, by freeing the latter of all seeds and skins ; or it may be made in a shape by mixing an ounce of melted isinglass with a quart of cream, straining it, and when cool, adding the fruit-syrup with it, and filling the mould.

Pine-Apple Cream. — Infuse the rind of a pine- apple in boiling cream, and proceed as in other creams,, only this is almost always moulded.

CHAP. V. — ORNAMENTAL DISHES.

411

Cocoa-Nut Cream. — Use the grated cocoa to fla- vour.— N.B. This is a favourite flavouring ingre- dient in the colonies for puddings. Sec. It is thought to give the laurel-leaf flavour, and has no pernicious quality.

To ice Fruits, Creams, Jellies, tyc. — Proceed as be- fore directed for icing creams in moulds. It is ne- cessary that creams and fruits to be served with “ the name of iced,” should be thoroughly done ; to be so, let them be long in the freezer, and only fill the glasses when they are wanted at table. All sorts of fruits may be iced.

Strawberry Ice-Cream. — Mix the fruit-juice, strain- ed and sweetened in the proportion of a pound to a pint of whipped cream. If to be moulded to a shape, add a little melted and strained isinglass ; if in small glasses, this is not necessary.

Raspberry Ice-Cream. — Make as above.

Apricot Ice-Cream. — Peel, stone, and pound the apricots with a little sugar. . Press the mash through a tammy, with a wooden spoon. Mix it with sweet- ened whipt cream ; put a little melted isinglass to it, whip the whole over ice ti]l it is thoroughly blended. Then fill the mould, and place it in the ice-bucket,

N.B. — We must again notice, that the necessary- quantity of isinglass to make creams take a shape can only be known by experiment.

Imitation of Fruit Ice-Creams is made by tinging blancmange with beet-root or prepared cochineal.

jellies to be sent to Table in a Shape. %

Clarify the sugar you use, whether the jelly is boiled or worked cold ; for although the main excel- lence of these jellies is no doubt the flavour, their most obvious qualities are colour and transparency-. The former depends on the materials employed and on the manner of preparing ; the latter in a great mea- sure upon the straining of the jelly. The utensils should all be brightly clean, the moulds of earthen- ware, (as metal will turn jellies of red fruits to a dingy purple,) and the spoons silver or wood. Unless the moulds are set in ice, the cook will often be disap- pointed.

Calves -Feel Jelly. — It is best to make the plain

412 CHAP. V. — ORNAMENTAL DISHES.

jelly the day before the dish is wanted. Clean and slit four calves’-feet, and boil them slowly in five quarts of water till rather more than the half is wast- ed. Skim the stock, strain off the liquor, and when cold and firm, remove the top-fat and the sediment. Put this jelly-stock, when wanted, into a nice pre- serving pan, with white sugar to taste, the thin peel of two lemons, and the juice of from four to six; a half-bottle of Madeira or Sherry, the whites of six eggs well whisked, and the shells crushed and thrown into the pan. Stir this well together, and set the pan on the fire, taking care not to agitate the jelly after it begins to heat. Let it boil slowly for from twelve to fifteen minutesy then throw in a little cold water, and let it boil another five minutes. Set the pan, with a flannel cloth thrown over it, to settle for a half-hour, pour the jelly into a flannel jelly-bag, and strain till it be perfectly pellucid.'

N. B. — If you have any doubts of your jelly not keeping the shape, add a little melted isinglass.

Obs. — This jelly may be made of cow-heels, jor a proportion of them ; and it may be flavoured with many things, some of them cheap substitutes for what is ordered above. Curafoa, noyeau, or sweet wine, may be substituted for wine, or less may be used, and a little good vinegar or verjuice does for part of the lemon-juice. Some very great economists even substi- tute porter' or ale for wine, and flavour with coriander- seeds, allspice, cinnamon, and cloves. Finely-flavoured ale is indeed an excellent substitute. It must not be too much hopped.

Madeira- Wine Jelly. — Make this precisely as calves’- feet jelly, but with more wine, and a glass of brandy after the jelly is clarified ; and- as this diminishes the strength of the jelly, a little melted isinglass to give firmness. ./ *

ORANGE-JELLY.

Take twenty oranges, infuse the rind of six in a basin with boiling water. Divide and squeeze the whole number, as in making orange-marmalade. Cla- rify a pound and a quarter of sugar, and when it has reached the second degree, (see clarifying,) put in the

CHAP. V. — ORNAMENTAL DISHES.

413

strained juice, and the strained infusion of the rind. Let it come to the point of boiiyfcg, but not boil. Skim it, and run it through a jelly-Waffi-v If the oranges are too ripe, use a fourth parthitter^oranges, or a couple of lemons, with their rind infused. Add clarified isin- glass. Try the jelly in a small mould, and fill the moulds.

Obs. — The colour should be a pale topaz ; a few blades of saffron will improve it.

Lemon- Jelly. — Make this exactly as the above, but use more sugar, and take care that all the lemons are quite fresh.

APPLE-JELLY.

Pare as many juicy apples as you will want, and slice them into a little water. Boil them to a mash, drain them through a jelly-bag, and take equal weight of sugar,boiled to blowing height. Boil forten minutes, seasoning with the grate and juice two or more lemons.

Peach-Jelly. — Peel, divide, and stone eighteen peaches. Break the stones, and take out the kernels. Boil the peaches and bruised kernels in clarified sy- rup for a quarter of an hour. Season it with the juice, and grate of four fresh lemons. Run it through a jelly-bag, add an ounce of clarified isinglass, and fill the mould, which must be plunged in ice.

jellies of red fruits in Shapes.

Make all these with isinglass purified, and do not boil them as jellies for preserves, as the colour will suf- fer. One direction will do for all.

Raspberry- Jelly for a Shape. — Put fresh-picked fruit into an earthenware mortar, with sifted sugar. Mix them well. Put in a little water, run this through a jelly-bag, and stir in what you think a sufficient . quantity (about an ounce to the quart) of melted cold isinglass. Fill your mould.

Obs. — Strawberry, red currant, and cherry jelly, are all made as above — only for cherries put a little lemon-juice; and also for the other fruits if mawkish- ly sweet with ripeness.

Hartshorn-Jelly. — Simmer a half-pound of the shavings in two quarts of water till the half is wasted. Strain and boil up the jelly with the thin rind of three

414

CHAP. V. — ORNAMENTAL DISHES.

sweet oranges and three lemons. When cool, add white sugar to taste, the juice of the fruit, wine, and the whites of six eggs well whisked up. Let it just come once more to boil, without stirring it, and run it through a jelly-bag till quite clear. A pinch of saffron to tinge with colour may be added.

V enus s Jelly. — Make as hartshorn-jelly ; tint this rose-colour with cochineal, and flavour with Madeira.

BLANCMANGE.

Pick and boil two ounces of isinglass for a quarter of an hour in a quart of milk or sweet cream, with the thin rind of a small lemon, sugar to taste, and a blade of mace. Blanch, split, and pound, six bitter almonds, and two dozen sweet ones, with a little rose- water, or plain water, to prevent their oiling, and stir the paste gradually into the hot milk. Strain through a fine lawn-sieve or napkin into a basin, and let it settle for a good while, that the sediment may fall. Pour it again clear off from the sediment, and fill the moulds. It is sometimes difficult to take out, and dipping the mould in hot water destroys the fine marble-like sur- face ; rub it with a towel dipped in hot water. Raise it from the edges with a fruit-knife, and then use the fingers to get it out. Garnish with flowers, or slices of orange-peel neatly marked.

Blancmange as in France. — Make the stock of calves’-feet well blanched, or of white fish, as skate, or of feet of poultry. Season it with lemon-peel and co- fiandet-seeds. In other respects make it as above ; but use as little isinglass as possible.

Rice Blancmange. — Swell four ounces of rice in water; drain and boil it to a mash in good milk, with sugar, a bit of lemon-peel, arid a stick of cinnamon. •Take care it does not burn, and when quite soft, pour it into cups, or into a shape dipped in cold water. When cold, turn it out. Garnish with currant-jelly or any red preserved fruit. Serve with cream, or plain custard.

TRIFLES.

An elegant Trifle. — Whisk in a large bowl, the day before you make the trifle, a quart of good cream, six ounces of fine sifted sugar, a glass of white wine, the

CHAP. V. — ORNAMENTAL DISHES.

415

juice and fine grate of a lemon, and a few bits of cin- namon. Take off the froth as it rises, with a sugar- skimmer or silver fish-trowel, and place it to drain over a bowl on a sieve reversed. Whisk till you have enough of the whip, allowing for what it will fall down. Next day place in a deep trifle-dish, six sponge- cakes broken, or rice trifle-cake, or remnants of any good light cake, cut down ; a dozen ratafia-drop- biscuits, and some sweet almonds blanched and split. Pour over them enough of white wine, or ginger wine, to moisten them completely, and add a season- ing of grated lemon-peel, and a thin layer of rasp- berry or strawberry jam. Have ready a rich and rather thick custard, (see Custards,) and pour it over this to the thickness of two inches. Heap the whip above this lightly and elegantly, and garnish with a few sprigs of light flowers of fine colours, or a few bits of very clear currant-jelly stuck into the snow- white whip, or a sprinkling of harlequin-comfits.

Gooseberry or Apple Trifle. — Scald, pulp, sweeten, and season the fruit, if apples, with cinnamon or le- mon grate ; mix it over the fire with a thin custard ; put it into the trifle-dish, and when cold, cover it with a whip made the day before, as no whip will be solid unless it has stood a good while.

CUSTARDS.

Custard for a Centre Dish. — Make a strong whip of sweetened cream, and have a little of the same cream tinged with cochineal before it is whipt. Heap the white over a rich custard, and drop the pink-coloured froth fancifully round that. Garnish with bright green preserved fruit in slices to contrast the colours.

Almond-Custard . — Blanch and pound nearly a half- pound of sweet and a half- ounce of bitter almonds, using a little rose-water to nrevent them from oiling. Sweeten a pint or rather mm-e of boiling sweet milk and another of cream, and mix these gradually with the yolks of six eggs, stirring them well as they cool. Rub the almond-paste through a sieve to this, and set it over the fire to thicken, carefully stirring it. Pour it into a jug, and stir till it cools. Instead of boiling, this may be baked in cups, or in a dish with an ele- gantly-cut paste-border. Flour of rice may be used

416 CHAP. V. — ORNAMENTAL DISHES.

instead of almonds ; they are then called Rice-Cus- tards.

Baked Custard. — Boil and sweeten with fine sugar a pint of milk; and another of cream, with a stick of cinnamon and a bit of lemon-peel. When cool, mix in the beat yolks of four eggs. Pick out the cinna- mon and lemon-peel, fill the cups, and bake for ten minutes.

Lemon-Custard. — Beat the yolks of eight eggs as well as if for a cake, till they are a strong white cream. Mix in gradually a pint of boiling water and the grat- ed rind and juice of two lemons. Sweeten to taste, and stir this one way over the fire till it thicken, but do not let it boil. Add a little wine and a spoonful of brandy when the custard is almost ready. Stir till cool. Serve in cups to be eaten cold.

Excellent common Custards. — Boil a quart of new milk with sugar, a bit of cinnamon and lemon-peel, and a bay-leaf. Mix a spoonful of rice-flour with a little cold milk and the beat yolks of six eggs. Stir the whole together into the boiling milk in a basin, and then let it thicken over the fire, but not boil. Pour it into a cold dish, and stir one way till cool. A very little ratafia, curaijoa, or peach-water, may be put to flavour this custard. Grate a little nutmeg, or strew a little ground cinnamon lightly over the top of the cups.

Curds and Cream •• — When the milk is curdled firmly, fill up a melon or Turk’s- cap stoneware-shape, perforated with holes to let the whey drain off. Fill up the dish as the curd sinks. Turn it out when wanted, and serve with cream in a glass dish ; or a whip may be poured about the curd, which may be made firm either by squeezing or' standing long to drain.

Cheesecakes. — These are just various pudding in- gredients, more or less rich, baked in paste. Mix with the beat curd of a quart and a half of milk a half-pound of picked currants, white sugar to taste, and also pounded cinnamon, the beat yolks of four eggs, the peel of a lemon grated off* on lumps of the sugar used for sweetening, a half-pint ot scalded cream, and a glass of brandy. Mix the ingredients

CHAP. V. — ORNAMENTAL DISHES. 417

well, and fill patty-pans lined with a thin light puff- paste nearly full. Twenty minutes will bake them in a quick oven. They may be iced.

Almond-Cheesecakes. — Blanch and pound a quarter of a pound of sweet almonds and eight bitter ones with a glass of common or orange-flower water. Add four ounces of sugar, a quarter-pint of cream, and the whites of two eggs beat to a froth. Mix and fill small patty-pans ; or these almond-cheesecakes may be made by merely mixing a few beat almonds with common cheesecakes.

Lemon or Orange Cheesecakes. — Grate the rinds of threelemons, and squeeze their juice over three sponge- biscuits soaked in a glass of cream. Add to this four ounces of fresh butter, four of fine sugar, and three eggs well beaten. Season with cinnamon and nut- meg. Mix the whole ingredients thoroughly, and bake in small pans lined with a light thin paste. Lay a few long thin slices of candied lemon-peel upon the top.

An Egg-Cheese, or Curd-Star. — Boil and season with cinnamon and lemon-peel a quart of milk or cream, and put to it eight eggs well beat, and a very little salt. Sweeten and season with orange-flower water, wine, or any seasoning that is preferred. Stir and let this boil till it curdles, and till the whey is completely separated ; then drain it through a sieve, and put it into a star-mould or other shape, with holes to let the whey drain wholly off. When firm, turn it out, and serve with cream, custard, or wine and sugar around it.

Gooseberry -Fool. — Put the picked fruit and a glass of water in a jar with a little moist sugar, and set the jar over a stove, or in boiling water, till the fruit will pulp. Press it through a colander, and mix the pulp by degrees with common plain custard made with very few eggs.

Apple-Fool. — This is made as above. The fruit may either be mixed with sweetened milk thickened with eggs, or with plain custard.

Buttered Apples. — Pare and core pippins or rennets. Stew in their syrup as many as will fill your dish, and make a mash or marmalade of the rest. Cover the dish with a thin layer of the marmalade. Place

CHAP. V. — ORNAMENTAL DISHES.

418

the apples on this, with a bit of butter in the heart of each. Lay the rest of the marmalade into the vacan- cies. Glaze with sifted sugar, and give them a fine colour in the oven.

Apples in Rice. — Prepare apples as above ; but in- stead of marmalade use seasoned and buttered rice. Glaze and brown as above.

N. B. — These are cheap and excellent preparations. For preparing the rice ; see Gateau de Riz, 338.

Devonshire Junket. — Milk the cow into a bowl in which a little rennet is put. Stir it up when full ; and when firm pour over it scalded cream, pounded sugar, and cinnamon.

Whipt Syllabub. — Make a strong whip as directed for Trifle ; or in making a Trifle a little of the whip may be saved, or may even be applied to this use after it has done duty on the Trifle. Mix a large pint of rich sweet cream with a half-pint of sweet Avine, sifted sugar to taste, the juice and fine grate of a lemon, and a little cinnamon. Stir this briskly, and fill the glasses within a half-inch of the brim. With a spoon lay a little of the whip lightly on the top of each ; oraAvhip may be got by Avhisking the above materials, and draining the froth on a sieve as long as possible before the syllabubs are Avanted.

Windsor Syllabub. — Pour a bottle of sherry or port into a deep china or glass boAvl ; sAveeten it Avell, and season it wdth pounded cloves and grated nutmeg. Milk nearly double the quantity of milk over it, and stir it up.

Staffordshire Syllabub. — It is made as above, sub- stituting cider with a little brandy for the wine.

Somersetshire Syllabub. — Sweeten a pint of port, and another of Madeira or sherry, in a china boAvl. Milk about three pints of milk over this. In a short time it Avill bear clouted cream laid over it. Grate nutmeg over this, andstreAv a feAv coloured comfits on the top if you choose.

SOUFFLES.

Souffle of Ground Rice. — Bleach tAVO spoonfuls of rice-flour, as directed in making potato-flour, and dry this quantity. Boil it sloAvly Avith a half-pint of

CHAP. V. — ORNAMENTAL DISHES.

419

sweet milk. To a little of it in a basin put the beat yolks of four eggs, and mix them well. Sweeten this, and cook the whole for a few minutes over the fire, as in making custard. Cool this, and gently pour into it tiie whites of six eggs beaten to a snow. (If they are not well beaten, the souffle will never rise.) Put the whole into a souffle-dish, and bake it in a rather slack oven.

Souffle of Potato-Flour. — Mix a large spoonful of potato-flour and one of sifted sugar, with as much boiled milk or cream as will make a thick batter of them, or a thin paste. Flavour this with rose-water, orange-flower- water, coffee, or chocolate, as you please, and name the souffle accordingly. Work into this the beat yolks of six eggs, and afterwards gently add the whites, beat to a snow. Bake the souffle, and glaze it if you please. This dish is susceptible of many forms ; it may be coloured with saffron, &c. The whipping of the eggs and the state of the oven are the main points.

Omelette Souffle. — Beat separately and strairi**the whites and yolks of six eggs. Sweeten the yolks, and perfume with orange-flower water or lemon-peel. Beat the whites again to a strong whip, and stir lightly into the yolks. Melt a bit of fresh butter in an omelette-pan, and pour in the mixture. Cook it over a slow fire not to scorch. Turn it carefully out. Dredge fine sifted sugar over it, and set in the oven to rise.

Obs. — All souffles must be served instantly when ready, or they will flatten.

Clouted Cream. — Season a quarter-pint of new milk with two blades of mace, and put to it a large glass of rose-water. Strain and add to this the beat yolks of two eggs. Stir the mixture into a quart of rich cream, and let it scald, stirring it all the while. The rose- water may be omitted when this is to be eaten with fruit.

Wassail-Bowl, a Centre Supper-Dish. — Crumble down as for Trifle a nice fresh cake (or use macca- roons or other small biscuit) into a china punch-bowl or deep glass dish. Over this pour some sweet rich wine, as Malmsey Madeira, if wanted very rich, but

420

CHAP. V. — ORNAMENTAL DISHES.

raisin-wine will do. Sweeten this, and pour a well- seasoned rich custard over it. Strew nutmeg and grated sugar over it, and stick it over with sliced blanched almonds.

Obs. — This is, in fact, just a rich eating posset. A very good wassail-bowl may be made of mild ale well spiced and sweetened, and a plain rice-custard with few eggs.

SWEET DISHES OP RICE.

Snow-Balls. — Swell a half-pound of rice in water with a roll of lemon-peel till tender, and drain it. Di- vide it into five parts, and roll a pared apple cored, and the hole filled with sugar and cinnamon, into each heap, tying them up tightly in separate cloths. Boil for an hour, and serve with pudding-sauce.

Buttered Rice. — Swell the rice till tender in new milk. Pour off the thick milk, and add melted butter, sugar, and cinnamon. Serve hot. For croquets of rice, see observations on Gateau de Riz.

A Disk of Snoiv, or Snow-Cream. — Stew and pulp a dozen of apples ; beat, and when cold stir this into the whites of a dozen eggs whisked to a strong froth ; add a half-pound of sugar sifted, and the grate of a lemon. Whisk the w'hole together till it becomes stiff, and heap it handsomely in a glass dish.

Souffle of Apples in a Rice-Border. — Prepare the rice as for Gateau de Riz, but keep it thicker by using less milk. Raise the bordure three inches round your dish, egging the edge to make it adhere. Make it smooth and of a neat form. Mix with new-made apple-jam, very sweet, the beat yolks of six eggs, and two ounces of butter. Stir this over the fire to cook the eggs. To this put the whites of eight or ten eggs whisked to a snow. Mix gently. Fill the dish, and bake in a moderate oven till the souffle rises light.

Oatmeal-Flummery. — Put finely-ground oatmeal to steep in water for three days. Pour off the thin of the first water, and add as much more. Stir up, strain, and boil this with a little salt till of the thickness wanted, adding water at first if it be in danger of get- ting too stiff. 1 A piece of butter is an improvement, and a little white sugar. Serve in a basin with milk, wine, cider, or cream.

CHAP. V. ORNAMENTAL DISHES. 421

Obs. — This, if allowed to become sour, is neither more nor less than Scotch sowens.

Rice Flummery. — Mix a couple of spoonfuls of rice- flour with a little cold milk, and add to it a large pint of boiled milk sweetened and seasoned with cinnamon and lemon-peel. Two bitter almonds beaten will heighten the flavour. Boil this and stir it constantly, and when of proper consistence, pour it in a shape or basin. When cold turn it out, and serve with cream or custard round it ; or with a sauce of wine, sugar, and lemon-juice.

Obs. — This differs in nothing from rice blancmange, except that rice-flour is used instead of the whole rice.

French Flummery, or Yellow Flummery, fyc., may be made as directed for blancmange, using well-beat yolks of eggs instead of cream. It may be made either in cups or in a mould of any shape.

N. B. — This is seldom made.

Mille Feuilles, Italian Pyramid, or Puits d’ Amour. — This is the self-same thing with different names. A good puff-paste, rather thick, must be stamped out with tin stamps, or any ingenious substitutes, into a number of pieces, each less than the other ; the base being of the size of the plate in which the pyramid is to be raised, and the others gradually tapering to the top. Bake the pieces of paste on paper laid on tins, and ice them. Pile them up with raspberry and other jams of different colours laid on the edges, and a bunch of small preserved fruit or some other orna- ment on the top.

Another Way, from Beauvilliers. — Take puff-paste, and roll it out as above ; cut it with figured paste- cutters of different sizes ; cut them equal in number, the lai'ge and small ; put the large upon a leaf; wet them with water, and put on the small ones ; glaze them, and with the point of a knife cut them in the middle the size of a thimble ; put them into the oven, and when nearly done powder them with sugar ; glaze them, take out the heart, replace it with sweetmeats, and serve.

To bake Pears.- — Pare, core, and, if large, divide them. Bake them in a stoneware dish with sugar, bruised

s

422

CHAP. V. — ORNAMENTAL DISHES.

cloves, a little sweet wine, and grated lemon-peel. The oven should be rather slow.

To stew Pears. — Prepare and season them as above, and pack them in a new block-tin saucepan with a little water or wine. Cover them close, and let them stew slowly for three hours.

Black Caps. — Pare, divide, and core some large juicy apples. Bake them, with white sugar strewed over them. Serve with a sauce of wine, water, and sugar, seasoned with cloves and cinnamon.

Obs. — Genuine black caps are neither pared nor divided ; they are merely cored, the holes stuffed with sugar and seasonings, and the apples stewed very slowly in sweet wine in a close-covered tin pan. The tops are then blackened with a salamander, which gives the name. See also French dishes of fruit.

APPLES.

•

Chartreuse de Pommes, — Beauvillier s’ Receipt. — Take a score of rennets ; peel them, and with a very small corer take off all the pulp about the heart ; when there is enough of those to fill the Chartreuse mould, mince the rest of the apples to make a marmalade ; equalize all the little apples, or pieces that have been cut out with the apple-corer ; make a little saffron- water ; put a little sugar to it ; throw in a third of the small apples ; give them a slight boil, take them off, and drain ; do another third in cochineal, and the last in a syrup of white sugar, with an equal quantity of an- gelica as of each of the apples ; cover the mould with white paper; make any design in the bottom with red, green, yellow', and white; mix them tastefully all round the mould to the top, _ and fill it up with mar- malade, which ought to be firm and without any void. When ready to serve, turn up the mould upon the dish, and take off the paper.

SWEETMEATS AND PRESERVES.

To preserve the fruits that are in common use, and to make those sweetmeats which are oftenest wanted in private families, is justly considered a point of good housewifery; for these common things may be both

CHAP. V. — ORNAMENTAL DISHES. 423

cheaper and more nicely done at home than where they are manufactured by wholesale for the market. A little care and practice will soon give the cook or mistress of a family sufficient skill to prepare the su- gar for these things, — attention and cleanliness do the rest. The sugar for preserves ought, generally speak- ing, to be of the first quality. It ought also to be in sufficient quantity, for it is very short-sighted econo- my to make paltry savings, at the risk of injuring commodities which are always costly, however they may be managed. Never squeeze the fruit too much. Take merely the juice that flows freely ; and use what remains for wine, coarse jams, or black butter. Unless preserves are bright, and of a fine colour, they lose half their value ; and this they never will be if the fruit is squeezed till the seeds are broken. Let all jelly-bags and sieves be dipt in hot water, or they will absorb a great quantity of the jelly. Sweetmeats are most safely kept in small pots of earthenware, or small stone jars, with papers steeped in brandy put over them as soon as they are cool, and a layer of su- gar sifted either above or below these papers, or both. This sugar is well bestowed, and it can be afterwards used in making other preserves. To keep stone fruit, melted mutton-suet is sometimes used, and is certain- ly an efficacious method of excluding the air, though not very pleasant otherwise. Presses lined with wood, shelves, pantry-drawers, or any place that is perfectly dry, and, if possible, not too warm, are best suited for keeping preserves. Brass and copper pans scoured till brightly clean are still much used for making pre- serves ; but a vessel of double block-tin, or of iron very thickly tinned, if kept for jellies and sweet things, answers equally well, and is far more safe, particularly for the coarser jams, which being gene- rally made with a short allowance of sugar, require long boiling. Sweetmeats are best when rather quick- ly boiled, that the watery parts may be driven off without a process continued so long as to injure the co- lour of the fruit. The shade of colour may be varied in many ways by using white currants to lighten, or black to deepen the colour, or by white or red rasps. Fruit-jellies may be made without boiling at all, by

424 CHAP. V. — ORNAMENTAL DISHES.

merely stirring the sugar finely beaten and sifted into the juice of the fruit. But they look muddy and eat harshly. It is a good plan to have a sieve, spoons with holes, and two pans of different sizes, kept wholly for preserves and sweet dishes, as the least taint of other things will at once destroy these delicate pre- parations. Sweetmeats and preserved fruits ought to be looked at several times during the first month ; and if mouldiness gathers on them which is not occasioned by external damp, jellies and jams, and the syrup of preserves, must be boiled over again till the jelly is firm, and till the watery particles which the fruit has given out to the syrup are wholly evaporated.

OF BOILING SUGARS FOR PRESERVES.

Confectioners reckon several degrees in preparing sugars, from a simple clarified syrup to caramel.

To clarify Sugar. — To every pound of broken su- gar take a quarter-pint of water, and the half of the white of an egg beat up, or less egg will do. Stir this up till the sugar dissolve, and when it boils, and the scum rises strong and thick, pour in another quarter- pint of cold water to each pound. Let it boil, edging the pan forward till all the scum is thrown up. Set it on the hearth, and when it has settled take off the scum, and lay it on a reversed hair sieve over a dish, that what syrup is in it may run clear from it. Keturn the syrup into the pan, and boil and skim it once more.

Candied Sugar, Lf Degree. — Boil clarified sugar till it rises in the pan like clusters of pearls ; or try be- tween the finger and thumb if it have tenuity enough to draw out into a thread.

Blown Sugar, 2 d Degree. — Boil candied sugar till on dipping the skimmer into the syrup, and blowing through the holes of it, the sugar forms into bubbles.

Feathered Height, 3 d Degree. — Boil sugar of the 2d degree for some time longer, and dip the skimmer in the pan. Shake off the sugar, and give the skimmer a sudden toss, when if enough done the sugar will fly off like snow-flakes.

Crackling Sugar, 4th Degree.— Boil, feathered sugar

CHAP. V. ORNAMENTAL DISHES. 425

till on dipping a stick into the pan, and putting it af- terwards in cold water, the sugar will immediately become hard.

Caramel Sugar. — Boil crackling sugar till on dip- ping a stick into it, jand then into cold water, it har- dens and snaps like^^ss.

Obs. — This last makes a very elegant cover for sweetmeats, when prepared thus : — Set the pan with the caramel sugar instantly into a vessel of cold water. Have the caramel-moulds oiled with almond-oil, and with a fork or spoon spread fine threads of sugar over them in form of net- work or chain- work. All sorts of fruits may be caramelled, whether fresh or preserv- ed. They must be washed free of sugar, if the latter, and dried in both cases; the process is, however, troublesome, and seldom succeeds but under the hands of thorough-bred confectioners, to whom, in general, all merely ornamental affairs should be left. If fami- lies can afford ornament, they must not grudge the cost of having it well executed.

FKUIT-JELLIES.

Red-Currant Jelly. — Let the fruit be good of its kind, fully ripe, and gathered on and after a dry day. Strip off the stalks ; weigh it, and clarify and boil to the 2d degree an equal weight of refined sugar. Put the fruit to this in the preserving-pan. Skim and boil for fifteen minutes. Skim again, and run the jelly through a hair sieve, pot it, and when cold paper it up. What remains in the sieve will make pies, or mix with any common jam.

Obs. — A small proportion of raspberries will greatly improve the flavour of the jelly. It may be made pa- ler by the mixture of a fourth or third part of white currants ; or white raspberries may be used. This jelly may be made with less boiling, or no boiling, as it may be worked cold as it is technically termed ; but though this method is very suitable for jellies made to serve in shapes, for immediate use in short, it does not, in our opinion, or by our experience, answer for preserves.

White-Currant Jelly. — Make as above, or squeeze the fruit and strain the juice. Use only a silver skim-

426 CHAP. V. — ORNAMENTAL DISHES.

mer and the finest sugai*, and boil only five minutes, as the delicate colour of this sweetmeat is very easily injured. Run it twice through a jelly-bag if neces- sary.

Black-Currant Jelly. — Pick&he fruit and scald it in a jar set in boiling water. Ami a little water to it, and squeeze the hot fimit through a sieve. To every pint of the juice allow a pound of sugar and a little water, and boil and skim for twenty minutes.

Another Way. — Clarify the sugar, and put the fruit to it. Let it boil for twenty minutes ; run off some of the jelly through a sieve, and keep the rest as jam for common tarts, &c. •

Gooseberry and Cranberry Jellies. — Clarify an equal weight of sugar with that of the fruit. Boil the fruit for twenty minutes, and run the jelly through a sieve, allowing a little to remain to make a coarse jam, which may be seasoned with spices and used for dumplings and pies.

Obs. — Where cranberries are gathered in this coun- try, good country housewives put cinnamon to those preserved for tarts. Cloves or mace would be more suitable.

Raspberry- Jam. — Take four parts picked raspber- ries and one of red-currant juice, with equal weight of sugar. Put on half the sugar with a little water. Skim this and add the fruit. Boil for fifteen minutes, add the other half of the sugar, and boil for another five minutes, and when cold pot the jam. This and all other jams may be made with less sugar, if they are longer boiled ; but both colour and quality will suffer in the process.

Strawberry- Jam. — Gather fine, scarlet strawberries quite ripe. Bruise them, and put about a sixth part of red-currant juice to them. Take nearly an equal weight of sugar sifted, and strew it over them in the preserving-pan ; boil quickly for fifteen minutes ; pot, and cover with brandy papers when cold.

Gooseberry and Black-Currant Jam. — Take equal weight of pounded lump-sugar and picked fruit. Strew the sugar over the fruit in the preserving-pan, and put a little water into it. Boil and skim. Lift a little of the juice and fruit when the fruit is boiled tor

CHAP. V. ORNAMENTAL DISHES. 427

about twelve minutes, and set it to cool on a plate. If the juice runs off, the jam must be boiled longer. If it jellies, though weakly, it is enough. This is a test for all jellies.

Obs. — To get rid mf the seeds of the hairy red gooseberry, take up tne syrup as it boils with a gravy- spoon, and run it through a small search, and return it to the pan.

Apricot and Plum Jam or Marmalade. — Stone and skin the fruit. Scald it in a little water in an earth- enware or stone vessel. Rub it through a coarse sieve, or mash it in a bowl. Take equal weights of pulp and pounded loaf-sugar, and boil the jam for fifteen minutes in a preserving-pan, stirring and skim- ming it. The bruised kernels of the fruit, or a few bitter almonds blanched and bruised, maybe put into flavour the jam. Peach, nectarine, and quince jam, for puddings and tarts, may be made in the same manner.

Obs. — Jams should be quickly boiled to retain a good colour, and care must be taken that the thicker sorts do not stick to the pan.

Scotch Orange Chip Marmalade. — Take an equal weight of fine loaf-sugar and Seville oranges. Wipe and grate the oranges, but not too much. [[The grate boiled up with sugar will make an excellent conserve for rice, custard, or batter jniddings.^\ Cut the oran- ges the cross way, and squeeze out the juice through a small sieve. Scrape off the pulp from the inner skins, and pick out the seeds. Boil the skins till per- fectly tender, changing the water to take oft’ part of the bitter. When cool, scrape the coarse white thready part from the skins, and trussing three or four skins to- gether for despatch, cut them into narrow chips. Clari- fy the sugar, and put the chips, pulp, and juice to it. Add, when boiled for ten minutes, the juice and grate of two lemons to every dozen of oranges. Skim and boil for twenty minutes.

Obs. — There are various vปnj^ of making thi^ mar- malade. The half of the boileci skins may be pound- ed before they ar^fciixed ; and if the chips look too numerous, part of them may be withheld for pudding-

428

CIIAP. V. ORNAMENTAL DISHES.

seasoning. The orange-grate, if a strong flavour is wanted, may either be used in substance, or infused, and the tincture strained and added to the marma- lade when boiling. Where marmalade is made in large quantities for exportation, the various articles are prepared and put at once into a thin syrup, and boiled for from four to six hours. Orange-marmalade may be thinned with apple-jelly, or when used at breakfast or tea, it may be liquefied extempore with a little tea.

Smooth Orange-Marmalade. — This is made as above, only the skins, instead of being cut into chips, must be pounded in a mortar, and gradually mixed with the syrup,- — withholding a part if the marmalade be in danger of becoming too thick.

Transparent Orange-Marmalade. — Use the juice and pulp of the fruit only. Wash the latter in a very little water, and strain in to the juice. Take a pound or rather more of refined sugar to the pint of juice, and boil it in the 2d degree. Put the juice to it, and boil and skim well for twelve minutes.

Obs. — Use the skins for orange-chips.

Lemon-marmalade may be made as above, but is seldom seen.

Black Butter, a cheap Preserve. — Pick currants, gooseberries, strawberries, or whatever fruit you have, and to every two pounds of fruit put one of sugar, and boil till a good deal reduced.

To preserve Damsons for Pies. — Have equal to the weight of fruit of clarified sugar. Boil any of the bro- ken damsons in this ; and then add the whole quanti- ty, and boil till it jellies. Pot the compote, and tie pa- per over the pots. Keep them in a dry place.

Another Way. — Put the fruit into Dutch stone jars, place the jars in boiling water up to their necks, and scald the fruit by this means for an hour. Next day fill up the jars with cold water, and cover them.

N. B. — W emplace no faith in this receipt, but it is often given. •

Cheap Method of pfe serving Fruit for Puddings. — Pare apples, pears, plums, or picks whatever sort of fruit you have, and place it in a stone jar, with as

429

CHAP. V. — ORNAMENTAL DIIISES, & C.

much Lisbon or brown sugar as will sweeten it. Bake in a cool oven till done. It will eat with rice or with bread, make small pasties, &c.

To preserve Fruit without Sugar, for Pies, Pud- dings, SfC. — Gather Morello cherries, green gages, cur- rants in bunches, green gooseberries, &c. not over ripe, and pick them as soon and as gently as pos- sible. All bruised ones must be laid aside. Drop them softly into wide-mouthed short-necked glass bottles, and shake the bottles gently that the fruit may lie compactly. Stop the bottles with good corks, and set them in a slow oven till the fruit begins to shrivel. Take them out, and in a little while make the corks firm, dip them in bottle-rosin, and keep till wanted.

Obs. — We do not pledge ourselves for this receipt.

RECEIPTS FOR BEAUTIFUL PRESERVES FOR DESSERTS, &C. &C.

Jargonel Pears. — Take large, finely-shaped pears, and pare them very smoothly though thin. Simmer them in a thin syrup, and let them lie in this syrup in a covered tureen or basin for a day or two. See that they are covered with the syrup. Drain off the syrup, and put more sugar to it. Clarify it, and simmer the pears till they look transparent. Take them up, and pour the syrup over them. About a fourth more sugar than the weight of the fruit is the requisite quantity.

Obs. — The syrup may be seasoned with the j uice of lemons. The pears may either be served dry by dry- ing them in the sun, or in a slow oven when wanted ; or served in the syrup, which is better and more econo- mical, as the fruit that is not used can be potted up afresh. If the seeds of this and of all preserved fruits are picked out, which may be done by an opening at both ends that will allow an ivory bodkin to be intro- duced, they will keep much better. Large finely- shaped pears done in this way, and iced white, as di- rected for cakes, look exceedingly well. Pears are preserved red, by putting a grain or two of pounded cochineal into the syrup, and pouring red gooseberry or currant jelly over them.

s 2

430 CHAP. V.— ORNAMENTAL DISHES, &C.

Preserved Apples for present Use. — Clarify fine sugar, and boil nicely-pared and cored pippins in it, with a little lemon-juice. Serve in a glass or china dish, with the syrup about them, and garnish with bunches of preserved barberries, or sprigs of myrtle.

Red Apples served in jelly are made nearly as above. Pare and core the most beautiful pippins you can get, but leave the stalks. Throw them into a pan of wa- ter to keep the colour good ; boil them in a very lit- tle water, and turn them. Mix cochineal with the water. When done, dish them heads downmost, and put sugar to the red water, with the rind of a lemon, and boil it till it jellies. Strain it, and wrhen cold scoop it up neatly with a tea-spoon, and lay it among the apples in heaps, like roughed calves’-feet jelly. Garnish with sprigs of myrtle, rings of lemon-rind, &c.

Oranges in Sugar, a prettly little Dish. — Skin four or five oranges, carefully remove all the scurf and thready parts. Cut them in round slices, and dress them in a small glass dish in hot syrup. Garnish with sprigs of myrtle.

To preserve Apricots. — Always choose the finest fruit for preserving. Stone and pare the apricots, keeping them as firm and entire as possible. Take above their own weight of pounded sugar, and strew it over them for a night, laying the slit upmost to keep in the juices of the fruit. Break the stones, and blanch what are good of the kernels. Simmer the whole gently till the fruit looks transparent. Skim carefully, and lift out the fruit into pots, pour the syrup and kernels over them, and cover when cold ; — or they may be preserved in apple-jelly ; or green- ed, by putting a bit of alum, about the size of a large nutmeg, into the water in which they are alternately scalded and cooled, till they take the desired colour. Peaches and green gages may be preserved as above.

Qhs. — Sugar for preserved fruit must be boiled to the 2d or 3d degree. The fruit should be looked at for the first month, and, if needful, the syrup may be boiled up, allowed to cool, and again be put over them. If you put them into fresh syrup, and use the first for pies, apple-marmalade, &c. the fruit will be better preserved, and the loss nothing.

CHAP. V. — ORNAMENTAL DISHES, &C. 431

Magnum Bonum Plums. — Do them as directed for apricots, and be sure that the syrup is well clarified and well skimmed, and that the first simmering* is slow and short, or else, instead of looking clear and plump, the fruit will shrink and shrivel in spite of whatever may be afterwards done to plump it.

Obs. — A bit of the stalk left is thought an improve- ment to the appearance of those preserved fruits.

To preserve Red Gooseberries. — Clip olf the top of each berry, and take weight for weight of fine sugar. Clarify the sugar, and put the fruit to it, having made a slit with a needle in each berry, to let the sugar penetrate the fruit. Skim well, and when the skins look very transparent, take up the fruit with a sugar-skimmer into glasses or pots. Boil the syrup till it will jelly, (if the fruit were boil- ed so long it would become leathery.) Strain it through a fine sieve, and pour it on the berries. This is a cheap and beautiful preserve, either made as tart with croquant cover, or served in a glass dish. Green Gascoignes may be done in the same manner, first greening them, as directed for pickles, with alum and vine or cabbage leaves, though this at best is, we confess, a suspicious process. The seeds must be picked out of those green gooseberries, or they will not look nearly so well.

To preserve Cherries. — Take a fourth more of sugar than of Morello cherries. Cut the stalks ; take out the stones with a silver toothpick or bodkin as gently as possible ; or, if this be too troublesome, prick the fruit with a needle. Clarify the sugar, and put to it a half-pint of red or white-currant jelly ; and when this has boiled for five minutes, put in the cherries, and let them simmer till they look bright.

Dried Cherries. — Take out the stones, and give the cherries a slow boil in a thin syrup. Let them re- main in this for a day, and scald them again and again, making the syrup gradually richer. When they look bright and plump pot them up in the syrup ; and when wanted, drain and dry them on a stove or wire sieve, or in a very cool oven. Cherries, peaches, apricots, &c. may be preserved in brandy with great ease. Prick them with a needle, and drop them into

432 CHAP. V. — ORNAMENTAL DISHES, &C.

wide-mouthed bottles, with some fine sugar. Fill up with brandy, and cork and place the bottles in a hot- water bath or cool oven for some hours.

Cherries en Chemise, a very pretty little Dish. — Take the largest ripe cherries you can get. Cut off the stalks with scissors, leaving about an inch to each cherry. Beat the white of an egg to a froth, and roll them in it one by one, and then roll them lightly in sifted sugar. Lay a sheet of paper on a sieve reversed, and set them in a stove till they are to be served.

Obs — The same may be done with bunches of cur- rants, strawberries, hautboys, & c. Fruits en chemise look well and cost little.

Cucumbers, a beautiful Preserve. — Lay the cucum- bers in a weak pickle of salt and water for two days, and then for the same length of time in fresh water, changing it twice. Green them as directed for pickles, and strew a bit of alum over them to assist the process. When alternately scalded and cooled till they look of a fine green, boil them for a few minutes in water with fresh leaves above and below them, and when cool, cut a bit out of the flat side, and scrape out the seeds and pulp. Dry the fruit gently in a cloth, and put into the inside a seasoning of bruised cloves, sliced ginger, thin lemon-rind, mace, and a few white peppercorns. Tie in the bit cut out with a piece of narrow tape. To every pound of fruit clarify a pound of sugar, and when cold, pour it over them. Press them down with a plate on which a weight is placed, that they maybe covered ; and when they have soak- ed two days, boil up the syrup, adding one-half more of clarified sugar to it. Repeat the soaking and boil- ing up of the syrup three more times during a fort- night, and, last of all, add to it the juice and fine grate of two lemons for every six cucumbers, and boiling them in it for ten minutes, pot them up. They may be preserved by a more simple process, by cutting them in quarters, but look best when done whole and served in a glass dish. A little pine-apple rum put to the syrup gives the flavour ot West India sweet- meats. Melons are preserved in the above manner, and also whole Seville oranges, first carving the skins of the oranges with a sharp knife in form ot leaves.

CHAP. V. — ORNAMENTAL DISHES, &C. 433

flowers, &c. or of a pine-apple ; when steeped, the in- side must be scooped out, by cutting a large hole at the top for this purpose. The great art in preserving fruit is to avoid having the syrup too rich at first, which would infallibly shrivel them, particularly if they be boiled in it, or have it poured hot over them.

To preserve Strawberries. — Sprinkle sifted fine su- gar, equal to half their own weight, over the finest fruit of the scarlet kind, not over ripe. When they have lain in this for a night, take as much sugar again ; or, in all, equal weight to the fruit, and with currant-juice make it into a thin syrup, and simmer the fruit in this till it will jelly. Serve in cream, or in a glass dish.

To preserve carved Oranges whole. — Choose large well-shaped and well-coloured smooth oranges. Rub them hard with a towel, and with a sharp penknife, or a knife made for this purpose, carve the rind in deeply-indented leaves, groups of dancing nymphs, &c. &c. according to your fancy (to do this well the thing must be seen.) Boil them thus carved in plenty of spring water, and when quite soft take them up and drain them. Cut a piece out of the top with a sharp knife, and with a mustard-ladle scoop out all the pulp and seeds and fibres. Boil them Jilled and floated in clarified syrup for forty minutes. In four days repeat the boiling for twenty minutes, and do this four times. Last of all boil the syrup candy-high with more syrup, and keep them well covered with it. If the colour fall, boil them and add fresh syrup.

Ohs. — Several pretty dishes are made with preserv- ed oranges. They may be filled with rich custard, with calves'-feet jelly, or other jellies, or with a mix- ture of beat almonds, sugar, cream, and seasonings. — See Oranges in Sugar.

TABLETS AND CONFECTIONARY DROPS.

A few receipts in this department may be useful in most families, as these things are cordial and some- times even medicinal, and may be very cheaply and easily^prepared at home.

To make Cinnamon, Lemon , llorchound, or Ginger

434 CHAP. V. — ORNAMENTAL DISHES, &C.

Tablet. — Take oil of cinnamon, fine sifted China gin- ger, essence or grate of lemon pounded in the propor- tion wanted for flavouring the article to be made. Two drops of oil of cinnamon, a half-ounce of ginger, and the grate of two lemons, is a medium quantity to a pound of sugar. Mix the flavouring ingredient very well with the boiling sugar, and pour it out when boiled candy height, on a mai’ble slab or stone previ- ously rubbed with sweet oil. Mark the tablet in squares with a roller and knife. Drops may be made of the same materials, dropping them regularly on paper, and taking them off with a knife w'hen firm. Any kind of sugar-drops may be made by using dif- ferent flavouring ingredients to moisten the sugar; as, for example, for coffee-drops, use a little strong clear tincture of the coffee-berry ; for clove-drops, essence of cloves, for peppermint-drops, essence of peppermint.

Fruit-Pastes. — Oranges, apples, cherries, pears, raspberries, & c. are all made into paste. Boil the pared fruit with clarified sugar to a thick marmalade. Season it, mould it into cakes. Dry these in a stove. The cakes must be small, and of any form or variety of forms ; they may be ornamented by having the impress of some of the Wedgewood-ware seals (gx-oups from the antique) pressed upon them.

Ratajia- Drops. — Blanch and beat, with an ounce of fine sugar and a little water, four ounces of bitter and two ounces of sweet almonds. Add to the paste a pound of sugar, the whites of two eggs, and a little noyeau. Beat the whole well, and when light, drop the batter from a biscuit-funnel on paper, of the size of pigeons’ eggs, and bake the drops on tins.

To make Barley-Sugar. — Clarify, and boil sugar to the 4th degree, or crackling height, and when nearly boiled enough, add to it lemon-grate, a drop of citron- oil, or a little beat spennaceti, whichever sort of bar- ley-sugar is wanted. Rub a small slab with oil, and when the sugar is ready, dip the pan in cold water for two minutes, and then pour it out on the slab. Cut the sugar into slips, and while hot twist it it you choose. Care must be taken in boiling sugar to this height, that it does not burn, nor flyover; to prevent which, a small bit of butter may be thrown in to check

CHAP. V. ORNAMENTAL DISHES, &C. 435

the violent ebullition, and a little lemon-juice if it be in danger of graining.

Candied Orange and Lemon Peel. — Soak the peel of lemons or Seville oranges first in salt and water, and afterwards in fresh water till their acrid taste is gone. Dry them, and boil them till tender in a thin syrup ; afterwards in a stronger syrup boiled higher ; next drain and dry them for use.

Rose Souffle Cakes. — Pick a handful of rose-leaves, and give them a boil in a syrup made of a pound of sugar. Have ready an icing made of two ounces of sugar, and the white of an egg well beat up and ting- ed with cochineal. Stir a spoonful of this into the syrup till it rises ; fill the small moulds, and bake.

Obs. — Confectioners use carmine or lake-powder for these cakes, and so have rose souffle cakes in full bloom all the year round.

To make Devices and Ornaments in Sugar. — Make a paste of the finest loaf-sugar and gum tragacanth steeped in rose-water, or any flavoured water, and mould and colour the ornaments as best suits the pur- pose for which they are intended ; as rose with cochi- neal ; yellow with gamboge ; green with spinage- juice.

CAKES.

Before beginning to make any sort of cake, have the sugar beat and sifted ; the flour dry and sifted; the fruit stoned, or picked and washed ; the lemon-peel pared, or beat to a paste in a mortar, with a little cream ; the butter, when this is used for light cakes, beaten cold to a cream ; and, above all, have the egg s, yolks and whites, separately well beaten. A large tin basin answers best for this purpose, as the yolks can in this be heated a little over the fire while the whisk- ing is going on, which greatly assists the process. It is a good test of beat eggs when they are so thick as to carry the drop from the whisk. If the eggs are not properly managed at first, it is difficult to raise them to a cream afterwards. It ought to be remembered, that eggs, besides enriching cakes, are intended to supply the place of yeast. When the several ingre-

436 CHAP. V. — ORNAMENTAL DISHES, &C.

dients are well mixed, they ought immediately to be put into the oven, that the fruit may not sink ; but if yeast is used, the cake must stand for some time to rise. Yeast should be sweet and thick. It may be improved by blanching it with water, allowing it to settle, and then pouring the water off. The thing next to be attended to is the state of the oven. It must not only be thoroughly heated previously, but have a quick heat when the cake is put in. Folds of paper ought to be put about cakes when put into the oven, lest the top get scorched. Plunging a large knife into the heart of a cake, and drawing it quickly out, is the best mode of judging whether it be ready. If not enough, the blade of the knife will be glary, and the cake must be instantly returned to the oven. The heat ought to be kept up throughout, by adding fresh fuel occasionally till the cake is drawn ; but, above all, attention must be given till it is once pro- perly raised. Cakes ought to be kept in a dry place, wrapped up and set in a jar to keep them from har- dening. They will keep thus a very long time.

To ice and glaze Pastry and Cakes. — This is done with the whites of eggs and sugar ; and in a common way is a very simple process. Yolks of eggs glaze cakes the most effectually, but sifting fine sugar over little cakes and biscuits before they are put into the oven will do them well enough.

To ice or frost a Bride’ s-Cake, or very large Plum- Cake. — To a half-pound of fine sifted sugar put the whites of two eggs, beaten with a little orange-flower water, or simple water, and strain. With this whisk the sugar for along time, till it is quite smooth. This may be tinged with the juice of strawberries or currants, or with prepared cochineal. For a bride’s-cake confec- tioners use lake or cochineal. Lay the icing on large cakes with a spoon. Brush small ones with a few feathers dipt in the mixture. Lemon-juice well beat with the sugar and white of egg s will make a white icing. No other white icing is admissible.

A jdain Pound-Cake. — Beat a pound of cold butter to a cream, and put to it nine eggs well beat. Beat them together till well mixed and light ; and put to them a little shred lemon-peel, or a few blanched al-

CHAP. V. — ORNAMENTAL DISHES, &C. 437

monds chopped, sugar, and a pound and a quarter of dried and sifted flour. Bake in a pan for an hour, in a rather quick oven ; or two small cakes may be made of the same ingredients.

Obs. — This may be made a plain plum-cake, by put- ting to it a half-pound of currants, a few raisins, and a half-pound of candied lemon and orange peel, with nutmeg and cinnamon to taste. This may also be converted into a Jine seed-cake, by adding caraway and coriander seeds to the plain cake.

A very rich Plum-Cake. — Take equal weight of currants and flour ; — about a pound of each will make a cake of good size ; a pound and a half will make a large one. Beat twelve ounces of fresh butter to a cream. Beat also sixteen eggs to a cream with a whisk in a tin pan, and set them over the fire with a pound of sifted sugar, whisking all the time. When warm take them off, and continue to beat till they are cold, when the butter must be well mixed with them; and then the currants, which should be previously picked, dried in a cloth, and rubbed in flour. Put to this a half-pound of candied citron, lemon and orange peel cut in long bits, a half-ounce of bitter almonds beat to a paste with a little sugar, two ounces of sweet al- monds blanched and cut the long -way, half an ounce of pounded cinnamon and mace, and a little cura^a, or any highly-flavoured liqueur, or plain brandy. Pa- per a hoop, and pour in the cake.

A plain Plum-Cake. — Use as much flour, butter, and sugar, as are ordered in the above receipt, but take only half the quantity of fruit, candied peel, and eggs. Season with cloves and nutmeg. Melt the butter in a half-pint of hot cream. Mix with the beat eggs three spoonfuls of good yeast. Put the whole toge- ther ; and if the stuff be too thick, add a little sweet wine to it, or more cream. Pour it into a buttered pan, and let it rise before the fire before it is put into the oven, which should be strongly heated.

Rice-Cake. — Mix half a pound of sifted rice-flour with a half-pound of loaf-sugar sifted, and put this to six eggs well whisked and strained. Season with a little ratafia and orange-flower water, and a drop or two of essence of lemon, or some finely-grated rind of

438 CHAP. V. — ORNAMENTAL DISHES, &C.

lemon. Beat the whole together for twenty minutes, and fire in a quick oven.

Obs. — This is an excellent cake for a trifle, but it will not keep long. A small proportion of wheat- flour may be mixed with the rice-flour.

A fne Seed-Cake. — Take a pound and a half of flour, and sixteen eggs well whisked. Mix with them a pound and a half of fine beat sugar, and whisk them well together. Throw in a half-pound of cut candied citron, lemon, and orange peel, and four ounces of al- monds blanched and cut. Mix this with a pound and a half of dried flour, and twelve ounces of butter beat to a cream. Season with cinnamon and cloves, and throw in a few caraway-seeds. Smooth the top of this (and every sort of cake) when put into the hoop, and throw sugared caraways over it.

Rice-Cake for the Centre of a Table, — the fashionable Gateau de Riz. — Prepare the rice as for a casserole (see page 367), and for four ounces take a quart of boiled cream, in which the peel of a lemon has been infused. Let them soak till the rice has absorbed all the cream, and is swelled. Sweeten this with fine sugar, and season with essence of lemon. When cool, add the beat yolks of eight eggs, and the whites well whisked by themselves, and also a good piece of butter. Then pour four ounces of melted butter into the, mould, and turn it round and round till the cooling butter adheres to all sides of it. Next cover the mould with fine bread-crumbs ; and this done, pour in the cake. Bake it for an hour in a moderate oven, turn it upside down on the dish, and garnish it with flowers, &c. &c.

Obs. — If any of the material is left after filling the mould, roll it up in the shape of corks, dip them in butter, and fry as fritters. Dressed round fried pars- ley, this makes croquets of rice. A dozen sweet and a few bitter almonds may be put to this cake ; and it may be made of vermicelli, or served as a pudding, with a custard-sauce.

A common Seed-Cake. — Mix a half-pound of beat white sugar with two pounds of flour in a large bowl or pan. Make a hole in the centre, and pour into it a half-pint of lukewarm milk, and two spoonfuls of yeast. Mix a little of the surrounding flour with this,

439

CHAP. V. — ORNAMENTAL DISHES, &C.



and throwing a cloth over the vessel, set it in a warm place for an hour or two. Add to this half a pound of melted butter, an ounce of caraway-seeds, and a little allspice, ginger, and nutmeg, and milk sufficient to make the whole of a proper stiffness. Butter a hoop, and pour in the mixture. Let it stand a half- hour at the mouth of the oven to rise, and then bake it.

Scotch Diet-Cake. — Take a pound of fine sugar sift- ed, the same weight of eggs very well whisked, and mix and beat them together for twenty minutes. Sea- son with lemon-grate and cinnamon. Stir in very smoothly three-quarters of a pound of sifted flour. This is a very light cake, and will bake quickly. It may either be iced, or have sifted sugar strewed over it before baking.

Scotch Short-Bread. — To the fourth of a peck of flour, take six ounces of sifted sugar and of candied orange-peel, citron and blanched almonds, two ounces each. Cut these in rather large pieces, and mix them with the flour. Rub down among the flour a pound of butter in very minute bits, and melt a half-pound, and with this work up the flour, &c, The less knead- ing it gets the more short and crisp the cakes will be. Roll out the paste into a large well-shaped oval cake about an inoh and a half thick, and divide this. Pinch the cakes neatly at the edges, and mark them on the top with the instrument used for the purpose, or with a fork. Strew caraway- com fits over the top, and a few stripes of citron. Bake on paper rubbed with flour.

Obs. — Plainer short-bread may be made by using less butter and no candied fruit. The whole of the butter may be melted, which makes the process easier. Chopped almonds are used for rich short-bread.

Savoy or Sponge Biscuit. — Whisk twelve eggs till white and thick, and mix with them a pound of sifted sugar. Beat these very well together, and then gra- dually mix in a half-pound of flour, and a seasoning of essence of lemon, or lemon -grate, and a little orange- flower water. Butter a melon or Turk’s-cap mould, and fill it within two inches of the top. Bake for three-quarters of an hour, and when ready, take out

440 CHAP. V. ORNAMENTAL DISHES, &C.

the cake, shaking the mould to loosen it. Sponge • biscuits are baked in small tin shapes, and iced or glazed with sifted sugar.

Obs. — These light cakes, or the remains of them, are well suited to puddings or trifles.

Macarooiis .* — Blanch and pound with the whites of four eggs a pound of Jordan almonds. Add to this two pounds of fine sugar, and pound these ingredients to a paste ; then put in eight more whites of eggs. Mix the whole well together ; fill a biscuit-syringe, and squirt the macaroons through this on wafer-paper, and fire them slowly on tins. Ratafia-cakes may be made as above, by using one-half bitter almonds. Drop the biscuit from a knife, instead of a squirt, if you like.

Plain Gingerbread. — Mix with a pound and a half of flour four ounces of butter, four of brown sugar, a half-ounce of ground ginger, and some allspice. Make this into a paste with two ounces of hot treacle, and shape and bake the cakes.

Fine Gingerbread. — Two pounds of flour, a half- pound of brown sugar, a half-pound of orange-peel cut into bits, an ounce of ground ginger, half an ounce of caraway- seeds, cloves, mace, and some allspice. Mix with these a pound and a half of treacle, and a half-pound of melted butter. Mix the ingredients well together, and let them stand for some hours before rolling out the cakes. The paste will require a little additional flour in rolling out. Cut the cakes, mark the top in diamonds with a knife, and bake them on tin plates. Gingerbread-nuts may be made of the above paste, but a little more of the ginger and other spices should be employed, and a good deal more flour. Bake on paper.

SMALL TEA-CAKES.

Good Tea-Cakes. — Rub four ounces of butter into eight ounces of flour, and mix with this six ounces of cleaned currants, the same of beat sugar, and three

* An endless variety of small biscuit is made in the manner of macaroons, as light lemon-biscuit, by using grated peel and the yolks of three eggs, chocolate biscuit, orange and common biscuit, &c. &c.

CHAP. V. ORNAMENTAL DISHES, &C. 441

beat eggs. Make this into a paste, and roll it out about a half-inch thick, and stamp out the cakes of any size you please with a wine-glass, ale-glass, or small tumbler, by running a paste-cutter round the glass. Dust the top with sugar.

Tunbridge- Cakes. — Make them as above, of any size you please, and strew caraway-comfits over the top.

Shrewsbury Cakes. — Beat half a pound of cold but- ter to a cream, and mix with it six ounces of sifted sugar, eight ounces of flour, a few caraway- seeds, and some pounded cinnamon, two eggs beat, and a little rose-water. Roll out the paste a quarter of an inch in thickness, adding a little more flour if necessary, and stamp out the cakes of any shape or size that is liked.

Bath Cakes. — Roll half a pound of butter into a pound of flour, and add four beat eggs and a glassful of yeast. Set this before the fire to rise ; then add four ounces of sifted sugar, and a few caraway-seeds. Roll the paste into thin sheets, and stamp them out. Bake them on tins. They should rise very light.

Obs. — This is made into Bath Buns by moulding the paste in the shape of buns, and strewing a few sugar-caraways over the tops.

Scotch Petticoat-Tails. — Mix a half-ounce of eara- way-seeds with the fourth of a peck of flour. Make a hole in the middle of the flour, and pour into it twelve ounces of butter melted in a quarter-pint of milk, and three ounces of beat sugar. Knead this, but not too much, or it will become tough ; divide it in two, and roll it out round, and rather thin. Cut the cake by running a paste- cutter round a large din- ner-plate, or other large round plate. Cut a cake from the centre of this with a small saucer or large tumbler. Keep the inner circle whole, and cut the outer one into eight petticoat-tails. Bake these on paper laid on tins, serve the round cake in the middle of the plate, and the petticoat-tails round it.

Queen-Cakes. — Make these as pound-cake or plum- cake ; but bake in small saucers, or fluted tins made for the purpose.

Cinnamon-Cakes. — Whisk six eggs with a glass of

442 CHAP. V. ORNAMENTAL DISHES, &C.

rose-water ; acid a pound of sifted sugar and a quarter- ounce of ground cinnamon, with Hour enough to make a paste. Roll this out, and cut it into small cakes. Bake them on paper. They may be iced, or have sifted sugar strewed over them.

Sugar Tea-Cakes. — Make a paste with a pound of flour, twelve ounces of sifted sugar, the yolks of two eggs,alittle nutmeg or cinnamon, and a glass of orange- flower water. Roll it out thin, cut with a stamp or glass, strew sugar over the cakes, and bake them.

Derby Short-Cakes. — Rub down a pound of butter into two pounds of flour, and mix with this a half- pound of beat sugar, an egg, and as much milk as will make a paste. Roll this out thin, and cut out the cakes in any form. Bake on tin plates for about ten minutes. They may be iced, or have sifted sugar strewed over them.

Kent Drop-Calces. — A pound of flour, a half-pound of butter, the same of sifted sugar and currants. Make this into a paste with two eggs, two spoonfuls of or- ange-flower water, a glass of brandy and one of sweet wine- Mix up quickly, and drop the batter through a biscuit-funnel on floured tins, and bake for five or six minutes.

Rout-Cakes. — To the beat yolks of twelve eggs put a half-pound of butter beat to a cream, half a pound of sifted sugar, the fresh grate of a lemon, and twelve ounces of flour dried. Season this with a little orange-flower wTater, or a few pounded almonds. When very well mixed, pour the cake into a paper mould. Let it be scarcely an inch thick, bake it, and when cool ice it, and cut it with a sharp knife and ruler into squares, lozenges, diamonds, & c. Moisten the edges of these bits with’ sugar, and crisp them before the fire. s

Common Buns. — Take two pounds of flour and one of beat sugar, and mix them. Make a hole in the middle of the flour, and put in a glassful of thick yeast, and half a pint of warmed milk. Make a thin batter of the surrounding flour and the milk, and set the dish covered before the fire till the leaven begins to ferment. Then put to the mass a half-pound of melted butter, and milk enough to make a soft paste

443

CHAP. V. ORNAMENTAL DISHES, &C.

of elf the flour. Cover this with a dust of flour, and let it once more rise for half an hour. Then shape the dough into buns, and lay them apart on buttered tin plates in rows to rise for a half-hour. Bake in a quick oven.

Cross-Buns are made of the same sort of dough, with the addition of a little more sugar, and a season- ing of cinnamon, allspice, and mace. They must, when moulded, have the figure of the cross impressed on them with a stamp. Seed-Buns are also made as above, with the addition of caraway-seeds. They may be baked in pans, and glazed.

Plum Buns. — Mix with the dough of common cross- buns, currants, candied orange-peel, blanched almonds chopped, and a seasoning of cinnamon and mace. Mark them round the edge when moulded, and bake as common buns.

A Scotch Half-peck Bun, from Mrs Fraser s Cookery. — Take half a peck of flour, keeping out a little to work it up with ; make a hole in the middle of the flour, and break in sixteen ounces of butter ; pour in a mutchkin (pint) of warm water, and three gills of yeast, and work it up into a smooth dough. If it is not wet enough, put in a little more warm water ; then cut off one-third of the dough, and lay it aside for the cover. Take three pounds of stoned raisins, three pounds of cleaned currants, half a pound of blanched almonds cut long ways ; candied orange and citron-peel cut, of each eight ounces ; half an ounce of cloves, an ounce of cinnamon, and two ounces of ginger, all beat and sifted. Mix the spices by them- selves, then spread out the dough ; lay the fruit upon it ; strew the spices over the fruit, and mix all toge- ther. When it is well kneaded, roll out the cover, and lay the bun upon it ; then cover it neatly, cut it round the sides, prickle it, and bind it with paper to keep it in shape; set it in a pretty quick oven, and, just before you take it out, glaze the top with a beat egg.

WAFERS.

Th ere are wine, butter, and cream wafers. The latter is the sort commonly made. Mix in equal quantities dry flour and sifted sugar. To every six spoonfuls of this you mean to use, allow three eggs.

444 CHAP. V. ORNAMENTAL DISHES, &C.

Beat the mass, and flavour it with lemon, orange- flower water, or mace. Put a very little fresh yeast to it if you have it, and moisten it down to a thickish batter with good cream. Work the ingredients well, and let the whole settle a while. When wanted, rub the irons for making wafers with fat bacon, or with fine wax. A tea-spoonful of the batter will make one wafer. Turn the iron round as it bakes over a brisk fire. When cold, sprinkle them with sugar, and serve.

HOUSEHOLD BREAD, & C.

Common Wheaton Bread on Cobbett’s Plan. — Put a bushel of flour into a trough. Make a deep hole in the middle of the heap, and take for a bushel of flour a pint of good yeast, and stir it well up with as much milk-warm water. Pour this into the hole made in the flour ; then take a spoon, and work it round the edges of this body of moisture, so as to bring into it by degrees flour enough to make a thin batter, which must be well stirred for a minute or twro. Throw a handful of flour over the surface of this batter, and cover the whole with the folds of a cloth to keep it warm. Set it by the fire, regulating the distance by the state of the weather and season of the year. When the batter has risen enough to make cracks in the flour, form the whole mass into dough thus: — Begin by strewing six ounces of salt over the heap ; and then beginning round the hole containing the batter, work the flour into the batter, pouring in milk-warm soft water or milk as it is wanted. When the whole mass is moistened, knead it well, that the fermented paste may be duly mixed with the vcdiole mass. Mould the loaves; let them rise for twenty minutes, and put them into the oven, which should be previously heat- ed. The loaves will require a length of time to fire proportioned to their size.

To bake Breakfast Rolls. — To two pounds of flour put a spoonful of salt, a quarter -pint or less of fresh yeast, and as much warmed milk and water as will make a batter. Stir this well till it is smooth, and let it stand covered before the fire to rise for two hours, if you have time to wait so long. Add as much

445

CHAP. V. — ORNAMENTAL DISHES, &C.

more flour into which you have rubbed down what butter you mean to put to the rolls. Work the dough, divide it, and mould the rolls ; fire them on tins, and rasp, and keep them covered to keep soft.

Manheim Rolls , — a French Receipt. — Put two raw eggs among six ounces of flour, with two ounces of sifted sugar. Mix this to a paste, and add half an ounce of anise-seeds in powder. If the paste be too wet, put in more flour. Make this kneaded paste level, and cut it into rolls about twelve inches long and two broad. Bake them on a buttered tin, and glaze with the yolk of an egg. Cut them when done into very small cakes.

Brown Bread is made as above, with coarse flour, or a proportion of bran added to fine flour.

French Bread. — All sorts of fine bread baked with milk, eggs, and butter, receive this name. To a half- peck of the finest flour put a quart of lukewarm milk, a little salt, a quarter-pound of melted butter, and a half- pint of bleached yeast ; whisk the fluids together, and add two or three beat eggs ; mix the flour with this, handling it as little as possible ; let the dough rise, and mould the bread into rolls, cakes, &c. Bake on tins in a quick oven, and rasp the loaves.

Sally Lunn Cakes. — Make them as French bread, but dissolve some sugar in the hot milk. Mould into the form of cakes. A little saffron boiled in the milk enriches the colour of these or any other cakes.

Yorkshire Cakes are made as above, only moulded smaller.

Irish Bread Breachd * — To as much flour as will make two quartern-loaves put a half-pound of melted butter. Make the dough with fresh yeast, and when it has risen, mix in a half-pound of beat sugar, a half- pound of currants, picked, cleaned, and dried; the same quantity of stoned raisins ; a few sweet almonds blanched and chopped, and some candied orange-peel. Mould and bake the loaves.

Yeast. — There are many ways of preparing yeast, but no yeast is to be compared with that made of fresh

• This Irish word signifies spotted or freckled. This mottled loaf is the holiday -cake of Munster.

T

446 CHAP. V. — ORNAMENTAL DISHES, &C.

worts. Yeast is made of the flour of pease, rye, po- tatoes, and wheat, mixed with sugar and water, after- wards fermented with good fresh yeast. Bad yeast may be improved by mixing in it flour and sugar, with a little warm water, or by bleaching it ; that is, beating up the yeast with water equal in quantity to itself, and the white of an egg to each quart of yeast. In twelve hours pour off the thin. What remains will be improved yeast.

Russian Yeast , — the best Substitute that we know. — Make a thick wort of ground rye or malt, and for a gallon of this take three ounces or more of leaven, and dissolve it in a little of the wort. Mix the whole, and add a half-pound of ground malt ; shake the mixture for some time, and in half an hour add two large spoonfuls of good yeast; cover for forty-eight hours, and the whole will be good yeast.

Another Substitute. — To a pound of good mashed potatoes, of the mealy kind, put two ounces of brown sugar. Pulp the potatoes through a colander, and mix them with hot water ; add two or three spoonfuls of good yeast. This is not so strong as beer-yeast, but it does for household-bread by using more of it. In the country, this substitute, as it is easily obtained, will be found particularly convenient.

Camp Yeast. — Make a thin gruel of a gallon of spring water, with flour of rye, wheat, or pease ; boil it, stirring it well for twenty minutes. Add to this a half-pound of raw sugar, and when as cool as new milk, put a quarter-pint of fresh yeast to this, and let it ferment, covered before the fire, or in a w arm place. Pour off this part. Keep bottled a few spoonfuls of this to ferment the next quantity wanted. A gill will do for four quartern-loaves.

PART FOURTH.

CHAPTER T.

LIQUEURS, CORDIALS, HOME-MADE WINES, BEERS, AND MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS.

The best basis of all Liqueurs is pure rectified spirit, or uncoloured proof brandy or whisky, — provided the latter have no smoky or peat-reek flavour. Some fine Liqueurs require to be distilled; but, as this is a troublesome process, in small families they are gene- rally made by infusion, which succeeds very well. The syrup employed must he clarified as for preserves. Sometimes capillaire-syrup is used ; but this, in most cases, is an unnecessary expense.

CurafOa. — Infuse three drachms of sweet oil of orange-peel with a pint of rectified spirits and a pound of clarified syrup. Another Way. — Infuse five ounces of the dry peel of bitter oranges, beat to a paste, with a little sugar, in a quart of pure spirit and a pound of clarified sugar. Let the mixture stand for a week in a warm place, and strain it off, first through a jelly- bag, and then patiently through filtering-paper.

N. B. — This is the mode of clearing all liqueurs and cordials, when straining is not sufficient to clear them.

Noyeau. — To a quart of pure brandy, or aquavitse, put six ounces of clarified syrup, one ounce of French prunes, with the kernels broken, two ounces of sound peach, nectarine, or, what is better, apricot kernels bruised, a few grains of celery-seed, and a favour of essence of lemon or bitter orange. Infuse for ten days or more, and filter, adding a half-pint of water.

448 CHAP. I. — LIQUEURS, CORDIALS, &C.

Scotch Noyeau, a very pleasant Compound. — Two quarts of proof-spirit, a pint and a half of water, a pound and a half of clarified syrup, six ounces of sweet and four of bitter almonds, blanched and chop- ped. Infuse for a fortnight, shaking the compound occasionally, and filter. Lemon may be added.

Strong Cinnamon Cordial. — Pour about sixpence worth of oil of cinnamon on a few knobs of sugar, and rub them well together. Mix this with two quarts of spirits and a pound of hot clarified syrup. Shake well, and let this infuse for a few days, and then filter it for use. Water may be added at pleasure to reduce the strength.

Obs. — This maybe made of cinnamon in substance. Use for this quantity about the eighth of an ounce, and the rind of a quarter of a lemon. This and other com- pounds may be coloured with burnt sugar; but, if well filtered, they look better when pure and bright.

Citron Cordial, a high-Jlavoured and excellent Com- pound.— Take yellow rinds of citrons, six ounces ; of orange-peel, four ounces ; a nutmeg bruised, and a pint and a half of clarified syrup. Mix with two quarts of spirits for ten days, keeping the vessel in a warm place. Filter for use.

Clove Cordial. — Take of bruised cloves and cassia- buds, a quarter of an ounce each, and a dozen Jamaica peppercorns. Infuse the spices in hot water, and keep the bottle by the fire, close stopped, for a night or two. Strain this to three pints of proof-spirit, and add sy- rup to taste. Filter, and colour with burnt sugar, or a bit of cochineal. Mace or nutmeg, bruised, may be added to Clove Cordial. It is grateful and stomachic.

Barbadoes Water. — To two quarts of proof-spirit add syrup to taste, two ounces of fresh orange-peel, four of lemon-peel, and a few bruised cloves. Infuse for ten days, and filter.

Crime d’ Orange, a delicious Cordial. — Over a dozen oranges, sliced, pour three quarts of rectified spirit, and a pint of orange-flower water. Close the vessel carefully ; and in ten days add five pounds of clarified syrup, a quart of water, and a half-ounce of tincture of saffron ; close the vessel again, and in a fortnight

CHAP. I. LIQUEURS, CORDIALS, &C. 449

strain off the liquor through a jelly-bag; when it has settled, pour it from the lees and bottle it.

Obs. — The lees of liqueurs make an excellent addi- tion to those puddings and cakes for which spirits are ordered.

Common Ratafia. — Take an ounce of bruised nut- megs, a half-pound of bitter almonds, blanched and chopped, and a grain of ambergris, well rubbed with sugar in a mortar ; infuse in two quarts of proof- spirit for two weeks, and filter.

Red Ratafia. — Six pounds of the black-heart cherry, one of small black cherries or geens, and two of rasp- berries and strawberries. Bruise the fruit, and when it has stood some time, drain off the juice, and to every pint add four ounces of the best refined sugar, or of syrup, and a quart of the best brandy. Strain through a jelly-bag, and flavour to taste with a half-ounce of cinnamon and a drachm of cloves, bruised and infused in brandy for a fortnight before.

Cherry Brandy or Whisky. — Pick morello, or black cherries, from the stalks, and drop them into bottles, till the bottles are three-quarters full ; fill up Avith brandy or whisky. In three Aveeks strain off the spirits, and season Avith cinnamon and clove mixture, as in last receipt, adding syrup to taste. Ratafia should not be sweet. A second Aveaker decoction may be obtained by pouring more spirits on the fruit.

Black-Cherry Brandy. — Put, to three quarts of brandy, four pounds of stoned black cherries ; — bruise the stones, and add them to the mixture. Infuse for a month ; — filter, and add the flavouring ingredients and syrup, as directed above. A second infusion may be made, which will require more seasoning than that first draAvn.

Obs. — Some persons reject all perfumes in com- pounds of this kind.

Raspberry Brandy is made precisely as above, and is best Avhen strong of the fruit, without any other flavouring ingredient.

Usquebaugh, or Irish Cordial. — To two quarts of the best brandy, or Avhisky without a smoky taste, put a pound of stoned raisins, a half-ounce of nutmegs, a quarter-ounce of cloves, the same quantity of carda-

450 CHAP. I. — LIQUEURS, CORDIALS, &C.

moms, all bruised in a mortar ; the rind of a Seville orange, rubbed off on lumps of sugar, a little tincture of saffron, and a half-pound of brown candy-sugar. Shake the infusion every day for a fortnight, and filter it for use.

Obs. — Not a drop of water must be put to Irish Cordial. It is sometimes tinged of a fine green with the juice of spinage, instead of the saffron tint.

L'Eau de la Vie .* — This liqueur is very pleasant, and in quality so similar to Verder or Milk Punch, Lemon Brandy, &c., that it is unnecessary to give any other receipt for these compounds than the rhym- ing one subjoined.

Glasgow Punch. — ( From Peter’s Letters, vol. 3d, page 174 ) “ The sugar being melted with a little cold water, the artist squeezed about a dozen lemons through a wooden strainer, and then poured in water

* Eau de Vie — The following rhyming receipt for compounding this pleasant liqueur is communicated by a lady, who has contribut- ed to this volume many useful and some rare receipts : —

“ Grown old, and grown stupid, you just think me fit To transcribe from my grandmother’s book a receipt ;

And comfort it is for a wight in distress,

To be still of some use ne could scarce be of less.

Were greater his talents, fair Anne might command His head — if more worth than his heart or his hand.

Your mandates obeying, he sends, with much glee,

The genuine receipt to make I'Eau de la Vie.

Take seven large oranges, and pare them as thin As a wafer, or, what is much thinner, your skin.

Six ounces of sugar next take, and bear mind.

That the sugar be of the best double-refined.

Clear the sugar in near half a pint of spring-water,

In the neat silver saucepan you bought for your daughter. Then the fourth of a pint, you must fully allow,

Of new milk, made as warm as it comes from the cow.

Put the rinds of the lemons, the milk, and the syrup,

In a jar, with the rum, and give them a stir up.

A full quart of old rum ( French brandy is better),

But we ne’er, in receipts, should stick close to the letter ;

And then, to your taste, you may add some perfume, Goa-stone, or whatever you like, in its room.

Let it stand thus ten days, but remember to shake it ;

And the closer you stop it, the richer you make it.

Then filter through paper, ’twill sparkle and rise,

Be as soft as your lips, and as bright as your eyes.

Last, bottle it up, and, believe me, the Vicar

Of E himself never drank better liquor.

In a word, it excels, by a million of odds,

The nectar your sister presents to the gods 1”

CHAP. I. — LIQUEURS, CORDIALS, &C. 451

enough almost to fill the bowl. In this state the liquor goes by the name of Sherbet, and a few of the con- noisseurs in his immediate neighbourhood were re- quested to give their opinion of it — for in the mixing of the sherbet lies, according to the Glasgow creed, at least one-half of the whole battle. This being ap- proved by an audible smack from the lips of the um- pires, the rum was added to the beverage, I suppose, in something about the proportion of one to seven. Last of all, the maker cut a few limes, and running each section rapidly round the rim of his bowl, squeez- ed in enough of this more delicate acid to flavour the whole composition. In this consists the true tour-de - maitre of the punch-maker.”

Glasgow Punch is made of cold water newly taken from the spring. The acid ingredients above men- tioned will suffice for a very large bowl.

To Mull Wine. — Boil the spiceries (cinnamon, nut- meg grated, cloves, and mace) in any quantity ap- proved, in a quarter-pint or better of water ; put to this a full pint of port, with sugar to taste. Mix it well. Serve with toasts or rusks.

Obs. — The yolks of eggs were formerly mixed with mulled wine, as in making custard or egg-caudle, and many flavouring ingredients were employed which are now discarded.*

* Hot Spiced Wines A variety of these delicious potations

were in use so late as the beginning of the sixteenth century. The old metrical romances are full of allusions to these favourite com- pounds, and particularly to the hyppocras , sack , and clary. The lirst of these, which took its name from the bag through which it was strained being called “ Hippocrates’ sleeve,” was made of either white or red wine with aromatics, such as ginger, cinnamon, and aromatic seeds with sugar. Clary was made from claret, with honey and aromatics ; and suck from the wine of that name. These me- dicated liquors were used as a composing draught, or “ nightcap,” and also drank at the conclusion of a banquet. “ Of these spiced wines,” says Le Grand, in his Vie Privde des Frangois, “ our poets of the thirteenth century never speak without rapture, and as an ex- quisite luxury. They considered it the masterpiece of art to combine in one liquor the strength and flavour of wine, with the sweetness of honey, and the perfume of the most costly aromatics. A banquet at which no piment was served would have been thought wanting in the most essential article.” The only kind of these delicious beverages still in use, besides our common mulled wine, is Bishop , a bewitching mixture made of Burgundy and spices^ with sugar.

When this compound is made of Bourdeaux wine, it is called

452 CHAP. I. — LIQUEURS, CORDIALS, &C.

Wine-Whey. — Boil, in a small saucepan, a half-pint of new milk, and pour as much sherry or other wine to it as will curdle it. Take the pan off the fire, and when the curd sinks pour off the whey. Sweeten it with good sugar, and with hot water reduce it to any degree of strength that is wanted. Vinegar Whey, Cream of Tartar Whey, Lemon Whey, fyc. may Le made as above.

Scotch Hot Pint. — Grate a nutmeg into two quarts of mild ale, and bring it to the point of boiling. Mix a little cold ale with a considerable quantity of sugar and three eggs well beaten. Gradually mix the hot ale with the eggs, taking care that they do not curdle. Put in a half-pint of whisky, and bring it once more nearly to boil, and then briskly pour it from one vessel into another till it become smooth and bright.

Ohs.’ — This beverage, carried round in a bright cop- per tea-kettle, is the celebrated new-year’s-morning “ Het Pint” of Edinburgh and Glasgow. In Aber- deen, half-boiled sowens is used on the same festive occasion. The above is the national beverage now. A more refined composition is made by substituting white wine for ale, and brandy for whisky.

Bitters, an excellent Tonic. — Take of juniper-ber- ries two ounces, of gentian-root one ounce and a half, of coriander-seeds a quarter of an ounce, of orange- peel a quarter of an ounce, of calamus-aromaticus a quarter of an ounce, of snake-root a drachm, and of cardamom-seeds a half-drachm. Cut the gentian-root into small pieces, pound the other ingredients in a mortar, and put the whole into a large bottle or jar with four bottles of the best malt- whisky of the strength of glass-proof, or 15 per cent, below hydrometer-proof. Shake the bottle a little when the ingredients are first put in, but not afterwards. Let it stand for eight days carefully corked, and then strain it off, and bottle it for use.

Ohs. — Gin or brandy may be substituted for whisky ; but whatever spirit is used must be reduced to the strength of glass-proof.

simply Bishop ; but, according to a German amateur, it receives the name of Cardinal when old Rhine wine is used ; and even rises to the dignity of Pope when imperial Tokay is employed.

CHAP. I. — LIQUEURS, CORDIALS, &C. 453

The German Vermoute, or Wormwood- Wine.* — In- fuse two tea-spoonfuls of the extract of wormwood in a quart of St George, a celebrated Hungarian wine. Any rough white wine will probably answer the same purpose.

To make Sack-Posset. — This is made either of good cream and grated sweet biscuits, or of beat eggs and milk instead of cream. Boil the cream or milk, sweeten it, and season with cinnamon and grated nutmeg. Warm the wine (Canary, alias sack) in a separate vessel, and stir it gradually into the milk ; then pour it quickly from one vessel into another till perfectly smooth : this is especially requisite if made with eggs. See Wassail Bowl.

Ale-Posset. — Boil a pint of new milk with a slice of bread, sweeten and season a bottle of mild ale in a china basin or dish, and pour the boiling milk over it. When the head rises serve it.

Regent’s Punch. — A bottle of champagne, a quarter- pint of brandy, a glassful of veritable Martinique. With this mix a pint of a strong infusion of the best green tea strained, with capillaire or simple syrup to taste.

Obs. — Other liqueurs may be used with this com- pound, and also a flavouring of aromatics first infused and strained.

The Pope’s Posset. — Sweeten and boil a bottle of white wine. Have a half-pound of sweet almonds, with a few bitter, blanched, pounded, and boiled in water, and ready strained. Mix the boiling-hot ingredients, beat them well up together.

Athole Brose. — Mix with a cupful of heather-honey, two of mountain-dew, alias whisky, or, in this pro- portion, brandy and rum are also used, though the combination they form with honey cannot be called Athole Brose. The yolk of an egg is sometimes beat up with the brose.

Auld Man’s Milk. — Beat the yolks and whites of six eggs separately. Put to the beat yolks, sugar and a quart of new milk, or thin sweet cream. Add to this rum, whisky, or brandy, to taste (about a half-pint). Slip in the whipped whites, and give the whole a gentle stir up in the china punch-bowl, in which it

t 2

454 CHAP. I. — LIQUEURS, CORDIALS, &C.

should be mixed. It may be flavoured with nutmeg or lemon-zest.

Lait Sucre. — Boil fine sugar in milk, and flavour it with lemon. It is a refreshment fit for children’s balls, and is so used in France.

Eau Sucre. — Sugar in boiling water. It is a frugal beverage much used by French ladies, and is consider- ed soporific.

Rum Shrub. — This is made by adding the juice and an infusion of the rind of Seville oranges to rum, with a little syrup and plain water or orange-flower water. Honey, raisin-wine, porter, citric acid, &c., are also employed.

Brandy Shrub is made in the same manner. It is best to buy these compounds.

Currant Shrub, — White or Red, — is made by putting the juice of the fruit to rum or brandy, in the propor- tions of a pint of juice, or less, to a quart of spirit, and adding syrup to taste. It must then be filtered.

Lemonade. — This agreeable beverage wont formerly to be fermented, — now the process is more simple. Take any number of lemons, suitable to the quantity of liquor wanted ; pare them as thin as possible ; then rub the surface with knobs of refined sugar, to ex- tract all the zest ; put the saturated sugar into a basin, and squeeze the lemons over it. Add the best refined sugar to taste. Hot water, and a little boiling milk, if approved, may be added, in the proportions wished for : three quarts to two dozen lemons is a fair quantity, using the whole juice, but only half the rinds. Skim the liquor when well mixed, and run it through a jelly-bag previously dipped in hot water and wrung.

Portable Lemonade, — very useful on Voyages or in the Country. — Take of tartaric acid one half-ounce, re- fined sugar three ounces, essence of lemon half a drachm. Pound the tartaric acid and sugar very well in a marble mortar, and gradually pour the essence upon the mixture. Mix the whole very well, and pa- per it up for use in twelve separate parcels ; each of which, when mixed with a tumbler of water, will make a very pleasant and refreshing draught.

CHAP. I.— LIQUEURS, CORDIALS, &C. 459

cool, put a quarter-pint of yeast to the liquid, stirring it well up. Next day put in the juice of four lemons and the thin rind. Let it ferment in the open vessel for three days, and then strain and cask it.

Obs. — The wine, if properly managed, resembles Frontiniac. Elder-mine, made of the elder-berries, is a rich and expensive preparation. Made in the pro- portions of three pounds of sugar and three pints of elder-berry juice to the gallon of water, enriched with chopped raisins, and perfumed and flavoured with ginger, nutmeg, cloves, &c. An excellent but very expensive Elder-wine is made by using equal weight of water and Malaga raisins, and an eighth part elder-berries, and flavouring with cinnamon, cloves, mace, and ginger. This wine is the pride of many English housewives, and no expense nor pains are spared in its preparation.

Orange-Wine. — Dissolve twelve pounds of loaf-su- gar in six gallons of water, in which the whites of a dozen eggs have been whisked. Whisk the whole, and boil and skim it. When nearly cold, put into it six spoonfuls of yeast, and the juice of a dozen lemons. Next morning skim off the top, and add the parings of the lemons and the juice and yellow rind of four dozen Seville oranges. Ferment for three days, and cask the wine.

N. B. — This wine may be improved by substituting honey for one-third of the sugar. It may be enrich- ed by the addition of some of the high-flavoured wines, and perfumed with ginger, bitter almonds, bergamot, citron, peach-leaves, &c. &c. The whole of the orange-rind is by some thought to give too decided a flavour ; less may be used at pleasure.

Orange and Lemon Wine of Raisins. — Take two pounds of loaf-sugar, one pound of Malaga raisins, and the juice and peel of a Seville orange, to each gal- lon of water. Add the orange-juice when the wine is nearly done fermenting. Lemon-Wine is made in the same manner, using the lemon in rather greater quan- tity than the orange.

Par snip- Wine. — To every four pounds of parsnips, cleaned and quartered, put a gallon of water. Boil till they are quite soft, and strain the liquor clear off with-

5

460 CHAP. I. — LIQUEURS, CORDIALS, &C.

out crushing the parsnips. To every gallon of the liquor put three pounds of loaf-sugar, and a half- ounce of crude tartar. When nearly cold, put fresh yeast to it. Let it stand four days in a -warm room, and then bung it up.

N. B. — Parsnip-wine is said to surpass all the other home-made wines as much as East-India Madeira does that of the Cape. So much is said for it, and on good authority, that it certainly deserves a trial. Horseradish-wine is made as above, and is recom- mended for gouty habits.

Ginger- Wine, a pleasant Cordial Wine. — To ten gal- lons of water, in which fifteen pounds of loaf-sugar have been dissolved, put the beat whites of a dozen eggs ; mix this well, and boil and skim it ; then put to it twelve ounces of the best ginger peeled and bruised. Boil the whole a half-hour in a covered boiler to ex- tract the flavour. When the liquor is nearly cold, put a glassful of fresh yeast into the tub. Let it fer- ment for three days, and on the second add the thin parings of four Seville oranges and six lemons. Cask it, and bottle off in six weeks or less.

Obs. — This wine may be perfumed, or aromatized, as it is called, by a few cloves, some mace, cinna- mon, and nutmegs, bruised and infused in brandy : the strained infusion must be put to the wine before it is bottled.

Birch-Wine. — To every gallon of the sap of the birch-tree, boiled, put four pounds of white sugar and the thin paring of a lemon. Boil and skim this well. When cool, put fresh yeast to it ; let it ferment for four or five days, then cork it. Keep the bung- very close, and in four weeks raek and bottle it.

N. B. — The pith must be carefully corked up when it is drawn off from the trees, till it is to be used. Less sugar will answer.

BEERS AND OTHER HOUSEHOLD BEVERAGES.

White-Spruce Beer. — To five gallons of water put seven pounds of loaf-sugar, and three-fourths of a pound of the essence of spruce. Boil and skim this. Put it into a vessel, and, when nearly cool, add fresh

CHAP. I. — LIQUEURS, CORDIALS, &C. 461

yeast (about a half-pint or less.) When the beer has fermented for three days, bung the cask, and in a week bottle it off.

N. B. — For Brown Spruce use treacle instead of loaf- sugar, or coarse brown sugar.

Ginger-Beer, of a superior Kind, for keeping. — Take four pounds of loaf-sugar, four ounces or more of bruised ginger, and four gallons of water. Boil for a half-hour, and skim this. Slice two lemons or more into a tub, and put to them one ounce of cream of tar- tar. Pour the hot liquor over this, and when cool, add a half-pint or rather less of fresh beer-yeast. Let this work for three or four clays. Strain it olf clear from the lees, and add to it, if it is to be kept, a half-pint of brandy. Bottle in a week or ten days, and wire the coi’ks.

Common Ginger-Beer. — Make as above, but take a third less sugar, (brown sugar will do), and no le- mons nor brandy. Ferment for four days, and bottle for use.

Treacle-Beer, a Table-Beer. — Boil, for twenty mi- nutes, three pounds of molasses, in from six to eight gallons of soft water, and a handful of hops tied in a muslin rag, or a little- extract of gentian. When cooled in the tub, add a pint of good beer-yeast, or from four to six quarts of fresh worts from the brew- er’s vat. Cover the beer (and all fermenting liquids) with blankets or coarse cloths. Pour it from the lees and bottle it. You may use sugar, which is lighter.

N. B. — This is a cheap and very wholesome bever- age. A little ginger may be added to the boiling li- quid if the flavour is liked.*

ON BOTTLING LIQUORS, AND ON CORKS, BOTTLE- WAX, &C. &C.

“ The penny-wise and pound-foolish” principle is not shown in any part of domestic management more de-

• Excellent plain directions for brewing ale and beer of malt, on the small scale, suited to families in the middling ranks of life, or under that, are given in Cobbett’s Cottage Economy.

462 CHAP. I. — LIQUEURS^ CORDIALS; &C.

cidedly than in the purchase of corks. These should al- ways be of the best cork-wood; whether for pickles, catsups, made-wines, or even the cheapest commodi- ties. Bottles are best when new; but, if Avell kept and thoroughly cleaned, they will answer quite well. They should always be washed when set away empty, and kept with the head downmost. Bottles that have contracted a bad smell may be fumigated by a lighted match after they are well brushed and washed. The shot used for cleaning bottles should be carefully re- moved before they are filled. Bottle- wax is sold rea- dy prepared, or is easily made thus : —

Bottle-Wax. — A pound of rosin, a pound of bees- wax, and a half-pound of tallow. Mix with this red or yellow ochre, soot, or Spanish whitening, whichever colour you want. Melt it carefully, stirring all the while. When ready to boil over, stir with a candle- end, which will allay the ebullition.

To prevent Liquors from having a corked Taste. — Dip the corks in a varnish made of equal quantities of purified wax and suet melted together, and repeat the dipping till the cork-wood is covered with the mixture.

N. B. — We are not sure of this prescription. It will prevent a corked taste ; but, by contracting the fibres of the cork, will it as effectually exclude the external

463

CHAPTER II.

MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS, PREPARATIONS FOR THE SICK, AND CHEAP DISHES.

Good bioth with good keeping do much now and then ;

Good diet with wisdom best comforteth men ;

In health to be strong shall profit thee best,

In sickness, hate trouble, seek quiet and rest.

Thomas Trasses' s good Huswifely Phisich .

Rice Milk. — Wash the rice, and pick out the black parts. If milk is plentiful, it may be boiled in milk ; if not, boil it in water to plump and soften it, and when the water is wasted put in the milk ; take care that it does not stick to the saucepan. Season with sugar and a bit of cinnamon boiled in the milk. Le- mon is an improvement. Currants and grated nut- meg are sometimes used with rice-milk ; and the milk thus made is first thin, and then thickened to a caudle with beat egg and flour.

Obs. — Where boiled rice and milk is frequently used as an article of diet, as in some nurseries and boarding-schools, the addition of a little roughly-shred beef or mutton suet boiled with it will not only render it more nutritious, but more wholesome. A bit of le- mon-peel or a peach-leaf will give zest.

Salop Milk is made as above ; but, from its native flavour, does not require so much, nor indeed any sea- soning.

Sago Milk. — Soak the seeds in water for an hour before boiling. Boil a large spoonful in a quart of new milk. Sweeten and season to taste.

Obs — The foregoing milks may be made of ground rice and salop, using the flour in smaller quantity.

Sago, — also a Supper-Dish — Soak the berries, chang-

464 CHAP. IX. — MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS, &C.

ing the water. Simmer with a bit of lemon-peel till the berries look transparent. When nearly done, add aromatic spices, i. e. nutmeg, mace, and cloves, to taste, with wine and sugar. Give the whole a boil up before dishing it.

Obs. — Sago and patent cocoa, pounded in equal quantities, and a spoonful boiled in milk, make a nu- tritious breakfast, with sugar to taste.

Arrow-Root Jelly. — This may be prepared with either water, milk, or white wine and water, accord- ing to the purpose for which it is wanted ; and sweet- ened or seasoned to taste. Rub about two tea-spoon- fuls of the flour well with a little cold water, as in making starch. Stir it the whole time it is on the fire. Five minutes will dress it.

Obs. — This jelly, made in a shape and turned out, makes a light and pretty supper-dish, garnished with bits of red-currant jelly, or may serve for luncheon to young persons and children.

Gloucester Jelly for Invalids. — This is made of equal parts of rice, sago, pearl-barley, hartshorn-shavings, and eringo-root ; four ounces of the ingredients to nearly two quarts of water. Simmer slowly for an hour, and strain it. The jelly may be dissolved at pleasure in milk, wine, soup, &c., and is reckoned nourishing and light.

Obs. — This is sometimes called Dr Jcbh’s Restora- tive Jelly. It makes a good breakfast for invalids, when warmed in milk and sugar.

Dr Hunter s Dinner for a delicate Person. — Cut a piece of veal into slices, beat, and put these into an earthenware can with plenty of stewed turnip. Cover the vessel, and let it stand up to the brim in boiling water. Add salt and pepper, and serve when done. This simple dish, says the learned Doctor, contains all the juices of the veal, with the addition of saccharine matter afforded by the turnip. The Romans were acquainted with this mode of cookery ; it was what they meant by per duplex vas coqucre.

Barley-Water. — Wash common or pearl barley, and take in the proportion of an ounce to a quart of water. Give it a boil for a few minutes in a very little water, and strain off this, and take fresh water, which will

CHAT. II. — MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS, &C. 465

make the barley-water lighter and of a better colour. Boil it down one-half. Lemon-peel and sugar may be added, or a compound draught made, by adding to every pint of the decoction an ounce of stoned raisins, a quarter-ounce of sliced liquorice-root, and three or four figs. With lemon-juice it is less cloying and more grateful to the sick. Currant-jelly answers very well in barley-water.

Panada. — Slice the crumb of a loaf very thin, and boil it gently in water ; when soft, beat it well, and add sugar and wine, or a little rum. A little butter may be added to it.

Obs. — Panada may be made of chicken-broth in- stead of water, and seasoned with a little mace, or a bit of lemon-peel.

White Caudle. — Mix two large spoonfuls of finely- ground oatmeal in water, two hours previous to using it ; pour it from the grits and boil it. Sweeten, and add wine and seasonings to taste. Nutmeg and a little lemon-juice answer best for seasoning.

Brown Caudle — the Scotch Ale-berry, — is made as above, using mild sweet small beer instead of water.

Obs. — Caudle may be made of rice-flour or wheat- flour, with milk and water ; sweetening it to taste.

Beef -Tea. — Cut a pound of lean fresh juicy beef into little bits, and pour a quart or better of hot water over it ; infuse this for a half-hour by the fire, and then let it boil up quickly with a little salt, and take off the scum. Boil gently for a half-hour, and let it settle. Pour carefully from the sediment, or strain it. Beef-tea is sometimes made by simple in- fusion, but this is a rather disgusting preparation to most people. — Veal or chicken tea are made in the same way as beef-tea.

To make Coffee Buonaparte’s Way. — Put the ground coffee into a vessel with a strainer, and pour the water on it perfectly cold; plunge this vessel into another filled with boiling water, which must be kept at the boiling-pitch till the process is completed. This me- thod is thought to preserve the flavour of the coffee.

Parisian Coffee as made by M. de Belloy. — .Take, when the coffee is needed, nearly four ounces of the best powder recently prepared, and put it, with a very lit-

466 CHAP. II. — MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS, &C.

tie shred saffron, into agrecque* Pour in boiling water till it bubbles up through the strainer, and then close the vessel, and place it near the fire ; and as soon as the whole water is passed through, the coffee is made.

To make Coffee, a simple and good Method. — Pour boiling water in the proportion of six cupfuls to one cupful of freshly-grouncl coffee, but double the coffee if for foreigners. Let this be on the point of boiling for three or four minutes, held over the fire, and taken off at pleasure, so as to keep up the temperature, but not to permit any violent ebullition. Pour out a cup- ful two or three times, returning it ; and set the cof- fee-pot on the hob to keep hot, while the coffee clears.t

Obs. — By attending to the above simple receipts, if the coffee-powder is good, and not ground too finely, no isinglass, whites of eggs, &c., will be required to clear it. The bad quality of English coffee is become a sort of national reproach. Its capital defect is a want of material, or that material having either lain too long in powder, or in roasted berries, and coldness more than muddiness. The coffee-berries ought also to be of proper age, as the quality of the raw berry improves by keeping. Good cream is essential to good English coffee. Lisbon sugar, or white candy, is ordered by all cookery-books for coffee. We can see no reason for this, except that they dissolve quickly, notwith- standing the cream being poured into the dishes be- fore the hot coffee.

Coffee, like tea, promotes watchfulness; indeed some persons cannot sleep after drinking it in an evening. It is considered good for asthmatic patients. A mix-

* A utensil so called, which is used in Paris. A vessel of nearly similar construction, called an Imperial Percolator, is now getting into general use among ourselves, and is found exceedingly conve- nient. It gives no trouble in clearing the coffee, takes less of the powder, and yields a hot full-flavoured bright tincture the moment

it has filtered. . ,

-f The receipts for making coffee, which are given in Cookery- books, must completely drive off the flavour of the berry from the length of time that the coffee is directed to be boiled. Flour of mustard, in the proportion of a small tea-spoonful to the ounce of powder, is thought by some persons to improve the flavour, and is reckoned good in gouty as well as rheumatic habits.

CHAP. II. — MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS, &C. 467

ture of made-mustard in coffee, is also reckoned good for rheumatic persons. Coffee is also considered bene- ficial in dull headache. Roasted acorns, beech-mast, rye, pease, beans, &c. &c., are all used as substitutes for coffee.

Coffee-Milk. — Boil coffee-powder, according to the strength you want it, in new milk, for five minutes. Allow it to settle, and pour it off, or clear it with a few bits of isinglass.

Chocolate, to make. — Never make chocolate till it is to be used. Boil equal quantities of good new milk, and water. Scrape down the chocolate according to the strength and quantity wanted, and take the milk and water off the fire. Throw in the chocolate and sugar, and mill it well and rapidly, that it may be served with the froth on it, and completely blended with the milk.

Obs. — Chocolate is sometimes made in gruel for de- licate persons. Where much is used, it is thought an economical plan to make a pint of very strong choco- late, and to boil up a couple or three or four spoon- fuls of this, in milk, water, and sugar, as it is wanted, milling it well.

Waters, for cooling Draughts, of preserved or fresh Fruits. — Lemon Water and Orange-juice Water. — Pour boiling water on the preserved or sliced fresh fruit, or squeeze out the juice, boil it up in a little thin syrup, and put water to it as it is wanted. Apple- Water is made as above. — A tea-pot or covered jug should be used when those drinks are made by in- fusion.

To stem Frunes. — Put them in a nice small sauce- pan with very little water, and stew till soft, but not to a mash.

Gruels of Fruit. — Boil currants, black or red, or cranberries, in their juice, with sugar and nutmeg to taste, or use the jam of those fruits.

Oatmeal Gruel, in the best Manner, as made in Scotland. — Take very finely-ground oatmeal, of the best quality. Infuse as much as you wish in cold wa- ter for an hour or two. Stir it up, pour it from the grits, or strain it, and boil slowly for a long while.

468 CHAP. II. MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS, &C.

stirring it up.* Add a little salt and sugar, with any addition of wine, fruit, jelly, honey, &c. &c. you choose. This gruel will be quite smooth ; and when cold, will form a jelly. With a toast, it makes an ex- cellent supper-dish for an invalid.

Sweet Orange or Lemon Juice. — When you make chips, preserve the strained juice, by boiling it with an equal weight of fine sugar. It is a great addition to gruel or barley-water, and will be useful for gargles in fevers and cases of sore throat, &c.

Fumigating Mixture for Sick Chambers. — Two ounces of salt dried, two ditto of nitre. Mix and put to them in a stone-ware basin or plate, a half-ounce of water, and the same quantity of good sulphuric acid. Re- move all polished-metal articles from the room, as the vapour would rust them. To procure more advantage, when the process appears to cease, place the basin on hot sand.

Toast and Water. — An hour or more before it is Avanted, toast some thin slices of bread on both sides very carefully. Pour cold water over the bread, and cover the jug, or use boiled water, which many pre- fer, allowing it time to cool.

Poultices and Fomentations. — These things are usu- ally made in the kitchen, and a knowledge of their proper preparation is of importance to every cook or housekeeper in some part of their lives. Poultices are generally bread-crumb soaked and boiled in milk, water, or a preparation ordered by a medical man. They are also made of linseed-meal, oat and barley meal, and of grated carrot and turnip. They should be made as clean as possible, and they must be well boiled, soft, large enough, and, if to promote suppura- tion, applied hot. They must be renewed as frequent-

* The English language is very deficient in tenns descriptive of culinary processes. The Scotch retain the word “ to skink” in de- fining the process of continually lifting up a sauce or gruel by spoon- fuls, and rapidly letting it fall back into the pan. The French lan- guage, whicn is peculiarly rich in culinary terms, calls what is sig- nified above by stirring, to vanner a sauce or soup ; and to see a French cook, thus engaged at the stove with a vcloute, or sauce a la Lucullus , an Englishman might well suppose that life and death were depending on a process for wnich his language has no name. — P. T.

CHAP. II. — MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS, &C. 469

ly as they harden, and should always be fresh-made. It is good practice to put on the surface of the poul- tice oil or lard. Very nice persons stitch the poultice in a fold of fine muslin.

Fojnentations are generally made of the leaves or flowers of plants, as chamomile-flowers, mallows, elder- flowers, poppy-heads, wormwood, &c. They are best made by infusion in boiling water kept hot by the fire ; but the vegetables may also be boiled. Fomen- tations are generally applied by dipping flannel (about a square of flannel) into the boiling decoction, and wringing it quickly out. The hot vegetables are also applied in substance ; but this is more of the nature of a poultice than a fomentation.

The proper Medium Temperature of Baths.- — The tepid from 86ฐ to 97ฐ, the Hot Bath from 97ฐ to 108ฐ, the Vapour Bath from 100ฐ to 180ฐ.

Pot Pourri. — Put into a large china jar used for this purpose, damask and other single roses, buds, and blown flowers, as many as you can collect : add to every peck of these, a large handful of jasmine-blos- soms, one of dame violets, one of orange-flowers ; orris- root sliced, an ounce; benjamin and storax, each an ounce (many dislike this) ; twoor three handfuls of clove gilly-flowers and lavender-flowers, cloves, nutmegs, rosemary-flowers, allspice, knotted marjoram, lemon- thyme, rind of lemon, balm of Gilead dry, and a few laurel-leaves. Chop all these, and mix them well with bay-salt. Cover the jar. The various ingredients may be collected in succession as they flower. To these are added woodroof, jonquille-flowers, citron, and many other things.

Thieves’ Vinegar. — Take an ounce of the tops of wormwood ; rosemary, sage, mint, and rue, of each half an ounce ; flowers of lavender, two ounces ; aro- matic gum, cinnamon, cloves, nutmegs, and fresh garlic, two drachms of each; half an ounce of camphor, and eight pounds of red vinegar : beat all these ingre- dients well, and put them into a proper earthen jar, and pour the vinegar upon them ; the garlic ought to be sliced ; and after stopping the jar, put it in the sun or in a hot place, such as a sand-bath, for three or four weeks ; wring out the ingredients, and filter it

u

470 CHAP. II. MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS, &C.

through grey paper ; the camphor must be dissolved in a little spirits of wine. This vinegar ought to be kept closely corked.

Cayenne Pepper, to make. — This is made either of ripe chilies or capsicums. If chilies, dry them before the fire, turning them a whole day, till quite dry. Trim away the stalks. Pound the pods in a mortar till they become a fine powder, mixing in about a sixth of their weight of salt. Bottle the powder, and stop the vials carefully. If capsicums are used, and they are more easily obtained, dry in the oven, first mixing them with dried flour ; beat them to a powder, and add water, yeast, and a little salt, with which form the capsicums into paste in small cakes. Bake these twice; pound and sift the powder, and bottle as usual.

CHEAP DISHES AND COOKERY FOR THE POOR.

We are convinced that the art of preparing cheap dishes is much better understood by the intelligent poor, than by those who assume the task of instruct- ing them. It is not, therefore, for the direct use of the poorer classes, but for the information of those who, from charitable motives, are anxious to devote part of the abundance with which Providence has blessed them to their humbler brethren, that this sec- tion is added to the present edition of the Cook’s Manual. There is not a family of any consideration but might distribute at least three or four gallons of soup a week to their poor neighbours, with almost no additional expense, and only a little personal trouble to the cook or kitchen-maid ; for there is much waste in all families, which, by a slight degree of attention, might be avoided, and turned to good account, not only in supplying the wants of the poor, but in im- proving the domestic habits of young female servants, and qualifying them to be managers Avlien they shall come to be poor men’s wives. Without wishing to encourage habits of dependence, much less of beggary, benevolent persons will find in all neighbourhoods, old men, women, and children, to whom the certainty that on one day of the week they may look forward

CHAP. II. — MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS, &C. 471

to a warm and comfortable meal, will be no small blessing. Those benevolent individuals who actively interest themselves in bettering the condition of the poor, seldom fail to enjoin them to go to church. Were this injunction coupled with a comfortable Sun- day’s dinner of w'arm stew-soup, to such as need this kindness, the advice would not be less efficacious. For an expense of two shillings per week, any bene- volent individual may dine ten women or old men every Sunday of the year, even allowing that none of the waste of his kitchen were applied to this purpose, but that every article were purchased.

In speaking of dishes for the poor, it is at once pro- per to say, that we have no idea of human life in grown persons being sustained in comfort and physi- cal energy without a due proportion of animal food ; nor do wre conceive, that, with any better diet than the miserable unchanging meal of the Irish and High- land peasantry, or the rice of the feeble tribes of In- dia, there is any food more really economical than cheap stew-soups of meat or fish, with a proper mix- ture of vegetables, roots, and farinaceous seeds. But this mode of cooking is not only the cheapest, but also the most savoury in which food can be prepared. The worst feature in the domestic management of the pool* — we speak not of drinking — is the universal and inordinate use of tea, which they must either swallow a coarse half-sweetened pernicious decoction, without the milk, butter, meat, &c., which can alone render it a nourishing breakfast, or spend on it a share of their earnings, which must be subtracted from better purposes. The tea-pot drains the soup-pot, and the price of the materials of a coarse unsatisfying breakfast would purchase enough of meat, vegetables, and barley, or pulse, to make a hearty and comfort- able family-dinner. Were soup substituted for tea, and for those sickening and abominable slops called British coffee, as is still the practice with good families on the continent, and, till of late years, was so in the Highlands of Scotland and Ireland, the change would be still better ; as the meat, either cold, or re- warmed in a little of the soup, would furnish dinner. The objection made to the old hearty breakfast of the Low-

472 CHAP. II. — MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS* &;C.

lands of Scotland* oatmeal porridge* to the burgou of the navy and the stir-about of Ireland, as heavy fare for females and sedentary mechanics* could not be brought against a light soup thickened with oatmeal* and eaten with bread. The increase of soup-shops, and even of places for the early sale of coffee and Sa- lop* will be found one of the most effectual means for the suppression of dram-shops ; for there can be no doubt that there are in large towns, thousands on thousands of poor persons, market-women, barrow- women* and dealers in all sorts of small wares* who, were a pint of warm soup and a penny-loaf as easily come by at the corner of every street as a glass of gin, would, at least in the beginning of their career, pre- fer the former. *

Besides the receipts for Cheap Dishes subjoined, many are scattered throughout the work, as stew- soup of bullock’s-lieart, sheep’s-head broth in a plain way, rice and milk with suet, plain Scotch fish and sauce, Scotch haggis ; pan-kail, pease-soup, and po- tato-soup in which dripping is substituted for butter, ox-tail and ox-head soup and ragout, baked herrings, kidney-collops, white, blood, and liver puddings, muscle or other cheap shell-fish soups, calecannon enriched with dripping, Scotch kail-brose, and many other things.

CHEAP DISHES.

The subjoined receipts were published during a pe-

* It is not easy to hear the stern denunciations of gin, and of the profligacy of the lower classes, proceeding from one of those well- fed, well-clad moralists, who never indulge in any thing save sound old port, or the best of malt- liquor, without calling to mind one of the pictures of him, whose sagacity in detecting the manifold weaknesses of the human heart, and penetrating to its most hidden springs, is only excelled by his indulgence in judging of its wanderings and weak- nesses. The Antiquary is expressing his hope to the fish-woman, that the distilleries, then stopt, may never work again. “ Ay. ay.” said Maggie, “ it’s easy for your honour, and the like o' you gentle folks, toฐsay sae, that hae stouth and routh, and fire and fending, and meat and claith, and sit dry and canny by the fireside but an yc wanted fire, and meat, and dry claise, and were deeing o cauld, and had a sair heart, whilk is warst ava, wi’ just tippence in your pouch, wad na ye be glad to buy a dram wi’t, to be eilding and claise, and a supper, and heart's-easc into the bargain, till the morn’s morning ”

“ It’s even too true an apology, Maggie,” said Monkbarns.

CHAP. III. — OF CURING MEAT, &C. 477

when cold, poured over the hams ; — or now, that salt is so cheap, afresh brine may be made. Bruised juni- pers, coriander-seeds, sweet herbs, pounded or not, and all sorts of aromatic spices, may be added to hams, tongues, rounds, and sausage meat, also garlic ; but this must all be at the discretion of the cook.

To cure Hams. — Choose the short thick legs of clean-fed hogs. Those which are old enough to have the flesh of firm texture, and which have roamed at large in a forest, are far the best. To each large ham allow half a pound of bay-salt, two ounces, or even more, of saltpetre, eight ounces of coarse sugar, and a half- pound of common salt, with four ounces of Jamaica and black pepper, and one of coriander-seeds. Pound the ingredients, and mix them well ; — rub in about six ounces of the salt and the saltpetre, and, after two days, the rest of the salt and the spices. Rub for a long half-hour; — stuff the knuckle, and tie up the hole with packthread. Lay the hams in the trough ; — keep them carefully covered, and baste them with the brine every day, or oftener ; — turn them occasionally, and rub with the brine: make more brine, if neces- sary. Bacon and Pig’s Face are treated as above : the latter is the better of being pressed down with a weight or a stone. Some persons use weights for all cured meat, to keep it below the brine. Hams are made spiced by using aromatic spices and sweet herbs. Smoking with odoriferous woods, as juniper, &c., is an immense improvement to all dried meats.

Mutton-Hams. — Proceed as above, using only a fourth of the salt, but a half of the spices and sugar. Rub the hams very well all round, and stuff the kuckle as far down as your finger will reach with the salt and spices.

Obs. — Ram-mutton, though disliked at table, is, when good, thought to make the best-flavoured hams. In the Highlands, dried junipers are used in curing mutton-hams. No sort of meat is more improved by smoking with aromatic woods than mutton.* Mut-

* Tongues and mutton-hams may be smoked on a very small scale, by suspending them in an inverted hogshead, in which the smoke of juniper-wood or of juniper-berries is "confined.

u 2

478 CHAP. III. OF CURING MEAT, &C.

ton-hams, when they are once dried, will keep long enough, but scarcely improve after six months.

To make Hunters’ Beef. — Take the bone from a round, and salt it, as directed for a rump of beef, using grated nutmeg, half an ounce, and the same weight of cloves. When to be dressed, wash with a sponge, bind it tightly up, and put it into a tin or earthenware pan that will just hold it, with a pint of melted butter or gravy, and a little butter on the top ; cover the pan with several folds of brown paper, or a coarse crust. Bake for four hours, or more.

Obs. — The hole whence the bone is taken may be stuffed with sweet herbs or udder. The gravy in the pan after the beef is baked will be almost equal to ham-sauce for strength and flavour ; and is very use- ful for flavouring soups and sauces. Herbs, corian- der-seeds, juniper, and garlic, are all used for this pickled dish by the French. The round is braised with roots, bacon, and wine. The dish is glazed and garnished with pickles and jelly ; and thus decorated, when cold, even after being previously served hot, makes a handsome dormant dish at a great entertain- ment where there is a long table to cover.

Tongues, to salt. — Cut off the roots, and soak them in a weak brine ; afterwards salt them with common salt. The roots eat very well with greens, or will make pease-soup, stew, or Scotch kail. Scrape and dry the tongues ; rub them with a little common salt and saltpetre ; next day rub them very well with salt and brown sugar. Keep them covered with pickle for a fortnight ; smoke and dry them.

Obs. — When many tongues are salted, use a sinking- board and weights, to keep them below the brine.

To salt a Round or Rump of Beef. — A rump of twenty-five pounds will take two ounces of saltpetre, six of sugar, four of pepper, half a pound of bay-salt, and as much common salt. Rub the meat very well with the mixed salts and spices ; turn it on all sides, and rub it. Baste and rub with the brine every day for a month. It may either be hung and dried, or boiled out of this pickle.

Dutch Beef — Rub a rump of meat with brown sugar, and let it lie three days, turning it often ; then

CHAP. III. OF CURING MEAT, &C. 479

wipe it, and salt it with four ounces bay-salt, four ounces common salt, and two ounces of saltpetre, well beaten and mixed. Let it lie in this for a fortnight, and then roll it tight in a cloth, and press it under a weight. Smoke the meat in the cloth, hung in a chimney where wood is burned ; boil it piecemeal as it is w'anted ; when boiled, press it till cold, and it will grate or pull like Dutch beef.

Irish Beef. — Proceed as directed for a rump or round, only season with nutmeg and mace, as well as the ingredients mentioned there.

To cure Geese. — In Languedoc and other parts of France, where land is of small value, and geese plenty, much of the winter-food of genteel provincial fami- lies depends on these birds. As we think the infor- mation may be found useful in Ireland, and remote parts both of England and Scotland, we shall de- tail the French method of proceeding : — When the geese are very fat, about the end of autumn they are killed, and the wings and legs cut off, leaving as little flesh on the body as possible. The legs are partly boned ; and to every five geese a half-ounce of salt- petre is mixed with the necessary quantity of common salt, with which the legs and wings are well rubbed, and laid for twenty-four hours in a pan with savoury herbs. Meanwhile all the fat is collected from the bodies and intestines, and boiled down as lard over a very slow fire, strained, and put to cool. The legs, wings, and the body cut in'pieces, are in twenty-four hours taken from the salt, passed quickly through fresh water, and stewed over a very slow fire till the flesh will pierce with a straw. They are then taken out, and, when cold, packed in jars, and the fat pour- ed over them. When cold, paper and bladder, or

Earchment, are tied over the jars. A French family as, from this stock of winter-provisions, the power of having a ragout of a leg or wing, heated in a little of the jelly, and fat in which the meat is preserved ; or a soupe of a neck, back, or pinion, with the mere ad- dition of herbs, vegetables, and suitable seasonings. The relish is very high ; and French cooks speak with rapture of this savoury and economical mode of cook- ing geese. Young pigs may be treated in the same

480 CHAP. III. — OP CURING MEAT, &C.

manner, but their relish is not nearly so high. If the tat of geese be thus esteemed by our continental neigh- bours, there is certainly in this department much waste in English kitchens.

To press Beef. — Take the bones from the brisket or flank, or the thin part of the ribs. Salt and season it well with salt, sugar, and mixed spices, and let it lie a week ; then boil till tender, and press the meat under a heavy weight till cold, when it will either eat in slices or do for sandwiches.

To collar Beef — The top of the ribs and the flank are the pieces usually collared. Salt the meat, and keep it lying in salt for ten days ; then take off the inside skin, take out the bones, and roll up the meat as tightly as possible, wrapping it in strong cloth, and binding the wdiole with strong broad tape. Boil it for six hours, and press it till cold, when the bandages may be removed.

Obs. — Many cooks strew shred herbs over the meat before binding it, such as lemon-thyme, marjoram, &c. We would recommend merely a little pepper and shred parsley, if any thing is used. The breast of veal and mutton, pork or lamb, are sometimes col- lared,— seasoning veal and mutton with lemon-peel. Sic. These young meats, when collared, should be baked. They all look well sliced.

A Porker s and a Calf's Head are also sometimes collared. A porker’s head must be previously salted ; for a calf’s head the same seasonings are used as when the head is hashed. — See page 292.

To salt a Mart, or whole Bullock. — The following approved receipt has been communicated to us for salting meat for family-use, in those families in the country where a winter-store, or mart, is still annual- ly cured : — For an ordinary-sized cow, take as much spring-water as you think will cover the pieces of meat, and with Liverpool salt or bay-salt make of this Avater a pickle so strong as to float a potato. Stir till the ingredients are dissolved; and afterwards boil the pickle till all the scum is throAvn off. W hen quite cold, pour it over the meat in the salting-tub or beef-stand.

Obs. — The meat, and all meat or A egetables salted, must be Avholly and constantly covered with the pickle.

481

CHAP. III. — OF CURING MEAT, &C.

by occasionally adding fresh supplies as it wastes, and using a sinking-board. If the pickle becomes turbid, and a scum gather on it, either pour it off, and boil and skim it well before returning it, when cold, to the meat, or use a fresh pickle, which may now be afford- ed cheaply, and is perhaps better, because purer than the original liquor boiled up. Meat preserved in this way is never disagreeably salt, and will keep for a long time.

An excellent general Pickle for Meat, Hams, Tongues, งc. — Take in the proportion of six ounces of salt and four of sugar to the quart of water, and a quarter- ounce of saltpetre. Rub the meat with salt, let it drain, and pack it, and over it pour the pickle, first boiled, skimmed, and cooled.

To cure Butler in the best Manner. — Having wash- ed and beat the butter free of butter-milk, work it quickly up, allowing a scanty half-ounce of pounded salt to the pound. Let the butter lie for twenty-four hours, or more, and then for every pound allow a half- ounce of the following mixture : — Take four ounces of salt, two of loaf-sugar, and a quarter-ounce of saltpetre. Beat them all well together, and having worked up the butter very well, pack it for use in jars or kits ; or use more sugar and less salt.

Obs. — We confidently recommend this method of trvice salting butter, which only requires to be known to come into general use. It effectually preserves the butter, without so much salt being employed as to give it a rank and disagreeable taste. Summer-butter requires a little more salt than what is cured in au- tumn ; but the above proportions are used in some of the best-managed dairies in Scotland, though less might preserve the butter. Instead of strewing a layer of salt on the top, which makes a part of the butter useless for the table, place a layer of the above mixture in folds of thin muslin, stitch it loosely, and lay this neatly over the jar, which will effectually exclude the air. The turnip-flavour is a general complaint against butter made in winter and spring. Many experiments have been made, but we fear it is not possible wholly to remove this offensive taste. It may, however, be much ameliorated by mixing

482 CHAP. HI. — OF CURING MEAT, &C.

nitre, dissolved in water, with the milk, in the pro- portion of an ounce of nitre to ten gallons of milk. To give the cattle a little straw previous to their feed of turnip is a method employed in some places for preventing the turnip-flavour. On the continent, but- ter is clarified for storing, and so keeps well. It is skim- med when slowly melting over charcoal, allowed to settle, and poured from the lees. It may be salted thus, and when thus freed of all the milk, it keeps well.

Butter , as made in Dumbartonshire. — The subjoined receipt, which is excellent in a plain and rational way, is all that has rewarded a search through the numer- ous volumes of the Farmer’s Magazine, and the printed Transactions of the Highland Society. No process is so effectual in salting butter as working it with the hand as here directed. We may add, that butter-/^ its are best preserved for the next salting sea- son, by being allowed to stand unwashed, with any bits of butter that may adhere to the sides, and any pickle that is left. Clean the kits well by scouring and scrubbing with salt. If old-smelled from rancid butter, fill them with fresh earth for a day or two be- fore cleaning them, which will freshen and sweeten the vessels.

ff My cows are milked at eight in the morning and at eight in the evening ; and the number kept is from ten to twelve. Each cow’s milk is seithed, either by itself, into a dish of wood, or two put together, ac- cording to the size of the dish. As soon as milked, it is set upon shelves of wood in the dairy or milkhouse, where it stands in general as follows, viz. the even- ing milk thirty-four hours, and the morning milk twenty-two hours ; when the cream is skimmed off, and put into a vessel which holds one week’s cream ; and the milk is then made into cheese, which sells from 6s. to 7s. per stone. The churn is something like a large barrel, which stands upon a framo made for the purpose ; the inside work being driver round with a handle, the same as a pair of com- mon fanners. The butter is made generally once a week ; and in the morning previous to that opera- tion, the churn is filled with boiling water, when the

CHAP. III. — OF CURING MEAT, &C. 483

inside work is driven a few times round, and then the opening side of the churn is turned down, to let it out, the work being kept going round till the water be completely discharged, in order to throw out any sand or dust that might fall to the bottom, if the water wTas allowed to settle and run out of itself. The cream vessel is then brought, and the cream put into the churn, where it is wrought till the butter is separated from the milk ; when it is taken out into a clean ves- sel, and the milk well wrought out of it. A corn-sickle is then drawn through the butter, several crossways, in order to take out any hairs that may remain in it ; and if any other motes appear, they are also taken out. This part of the work is generally done with the but- ter among clean spring water, as the water keeps it from turning soft, and washes away any milk that may remain.

“ The butter is then weighed ; and for every stone, ten ounces of salt are taken (after having all the motes carefully picked out) and mixed with it. The salting process is carefully performed with the hand; as I have always found, that if salt is not properly mixed and incorporated with the butter at the time of salt- ing, it never keeps so well. I am very particular in this part of the work, the salt being weighed with the same weight the butter is weighed with. In May and June, eacli stone of butter will take one ounce of salt more; and after the middle of August, it takes one less than the above-mentioned quantity. The butter thus salted is put into a clean well-seasoned kit, and a handful of salt shaken on the top, which- keeps it from turning mouldy, or winding, till next week, when the butter is again made as above, and put into the same kit, on the top of what was put in the week be- fore, without stirring it, and a handful of salt shaken upon the top. The same process is continued weekly till the kit is full ; after which it is covered up, and set aside till my customer sends for it. It may be proper, however, to examine the kit occasionally, to see that it does not let out the pickle ; as butter stand- ing without pickle soon spoils. Indeed, butter salted in this way does not require pickle poured on it, un- less the kit is defective.

9

484

CHAP. III. OF CURING MEAT, &C.

c I never use saltpetre, since butter made as above always retains the same sweet taste till used, which generally happens within twelve months after it is made.” — N. B. In this butter there are twenty-four pounds to the stone.

To freshen Salt Butter. — Churn it anew in sweet niilk, — a quart to the pound. It gains in weight.

To improve rancid Butter. — Wash it, melt it gra- dually, skim it, and put to it a slice of charred toast, or some bits of charcoal.

To roll Butter for a Cheese-Course, or for Break- fast, and to garnish Supper-Dishes. — Have two wood- en fluted spoons, such as are used for lifting butter. Wash and boil them as often as wanted. Dry them well, and rub them with a bit of butter to clean them perfectly ; then, between them lightly roll up bits of butter in form of corks, fir-cones, small pine-apples, shells, &c. Butter is used in many ways for garnish- ing salads of meat or fish, ham, eggs, anchovies, &c. It looks best when squirted in little tufts, or like delicate coral branches, or open lace, or fine basket- work.

OF MAKING CHEESE.

Many parts of our island, from the delicate quality of the natural pastures, ought to furnish the very best cheese. We can indeed perceive no good reason why the cheese of Scotland and Wales should not equal that of Switzerland and Lombardy. Considerable improvements have indeed been made in this tardy branch of our rural economy ; but, notwithstanding the zeal with which the Highland Society has lately taken up this subject, the range of improvement is still limited. Though one occasionally sees very ex- cellent cheese in private families, little that is good comes to market, except the Ayrshire cheese, and it is not, after all, a very delicate cheese for the table. The low price that cheese gives in those remote parts of the country, where the milk most resembles that from which the Swiss and Parmesan cheese is made, makes the farmer’s wife still consider all the s-vveet milk that goes to her cheese as so much butter lost ;

7

CHAP. IV. — MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS, &C. 489

a pound of rice in five quarts of water, and when cool enough, wash in this, using the rice for soap. Have another quantity ready, but strain the rice from this, and use it with warm water, keeping the rice-water strained off for a third washing, which, at the same time stiffens the chintz, and brightens the colours.

To clean Printed Calico Furniture. — Shake and brush it with a long-haired brush, rub with clean flan- nel, and fold it carefully in large folds. Crumb of bread will clean it also.

To scour Blankets. — Boil a pound of good mottled soap, and put as much of it into a tub as with a solution of pearl-ashes will be enough to make a strong lather. Pour boiling water over, and wash the blankets till the lather becomes useless. Repeat this till a clear lather comes off them. Less soap may be used the second time, and very little the last time ; but the water must be as hot as possible, and the blankets fully covered with it, else they will thicken.

To clean fine Laces. — Fix the lace in a tent, and with a soft brush and a solution of white soap gently clean it. Pour clean water in which a bit of alum is dissolved over it, to clear it, and afterwards go over it with thin starch on the wrong side. Iron it on the same side, and with a bodkin open it all out at the edges. Lace-Veils are to be steeped in a solution of white soap, and gently squeezed out, and afterwards boiled in water and white soap till quite clean ; then rinsed, first in hot and next in cold water, afterwards run through a very thin solution of starch, and then drawn and pinned nicely out to dry.

Black Veils. — Wash them gently in warm water and ox-gall. Rinse in fair water in which a bit of glue or gum arabic is dissolved, and pin them out. A decoc- tion of logwood will improve the colour. Steep them in it.

To wash Silk Stockings. — Wash with white soap and hot water, and scald them in the same. Rinse in cold water, and dip in water in which a drop of blue or a bit of cudbear, or pink dye, is put, according to the tinge wanted. Rub them till dry with clean flannel ; no mangling is required, and the lustre is brighter.

To take Spots of Paint from Cloth and Silks. — Dip a

490 CHAP. IV. — MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS, &C.

pen in spirit of turpentine, and touch the spot as soon after it is stained as possible. When dry, rub the place.

To take Stains out of Silk. — Scrape French chalk over the spot, and repeat this till the grease coines out.

To take out Iron-Moulds. — Hold the spot stretched wet over a jug of hot water, and rub it with salt of lemons, or juice of sorrel, and salt; then wash it im- mediately, lest the acid injure the fabric of the cloth.

To take out Stains of Wine, Fruit, c^c. — Wash well, rub with starch, and expose the linen to the sun till the stains come out. Exposing the spot, slightly wet- ted, to the fumes of burning sulphur for an instant, will remove these stains. A common match will an- swer the purpose.

To remove Milderv. — Rub the spots with soap, and scrape some fine chalk over this. Rub it in, and ex- pose the cloth to the sun. Repeat this till the spots disappear.

Clothes- Closets. — These small apartments should be lined with wood very closely fitted ; furnished with shelves and wooden pegs, on which to suspend ladies-’ dresses, and things which folds would injure. Tur- pentine, cedar-shavings, Russia leather, &c. should be strewed about them, and green linen curtains should be drawn closely round the shelves, on Avhich pieces of charcoal may be laid.

Fur, — to preserve. — Sew the articles closely up in linen of a close texture, with camphor or Russia leather about it. Air them occasionally before the fire.

Ink-Spots. — Wash these immediately, first in cold water, then in soap and water. Use also lemon-juice or vinegar. Oil of vitriol will take ink from maho- gany. Rub it quickly out, and put a little oil on the spot.

To clean Marble Slabs and Chimney-Pieces. — Mix verdigris and pumice-stone with new-slaked lime in soap-ley. Make a paste of this mixture, and rub one Way with a woollen rag. Wash and repeat this till the stain comes out. It is not, however, easy to take out these stains.

To clean papered Rooms. — Clear away the dust with bellows and a long hair-brush ; cut a stale loaf into

CHAP. IV. MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS, &C. 491

eight pieces; and, beginning at the top of the wall, rub downwards in even strokes, as if laying on paint, one way. Throw away the bread as soon as it is dirty, and take a fresh piece. Go over the whole room in this manner.

To clean Paint. — Brush off the dust ; and, with ox- gall and whitening, scour the paint, rubbing it hard to restore the gloss ; or use mottled soap made into a strong ley.

Obs. — -Sponge is well suited for this, and, indeed, all domestic purposes of cleaning, whether dishes, plate, floor-cloths, or mahogany.

To take Grease from papered Walls or Paper. — Ap- ply dry hot flannel to the spot, then rub it over with hot spirit of turpentine. Repeat this till the grease is removed. If turpentine would injure the colours in the paper, lay several folds of blotting-paper on the spot, and apply a hot piece of iron over that, till the grease is absorbed by the blotting-paper.

To clean Floor-Cloths. — Sweep and rub them ; then wash with soap-leys, using sponge or flannel. Rub up with dry flannel. A little wax may be used, which both improves the appearance and preserves the sur- face.

To polish Mahogany. — Nothing improves mahogany so much as daily brisk rubbing ; but various prepara- tions are in use. Break down two or more ounces of bees’-wax, and melt it in an earthen pipkin, take a half-pint of oil of turpentine, an ounce of alkanet- root, and a very little rose-pink ; pour this on the wax when ready to boil ; stir it up and let it cool ; rub a very little on furniture (previously cleaned), and polish with dry flannel.

Obs. — Linseed-oil, cold-drawn, was wont to be used for mahogany ; but the taste of the day is for light- coloured furniture, and, accordingly, oil which deepens the colour rapidly is not so much used. Two parts linseed-oil, with one of turpentine, make a good fur- niture-composition for tables. Wax prevents the ac- tion of the light, and keeps wood of a lightish colour for many years. Various pastes and varnishes are em- ployed to colour and polish mahogany, which, with the exception of wax, if we wish to preserve the wood

492 CHAP. IV. — MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS, &C.

of its first colour, or of oil to polish, %ve conceive of little utility, farther than as they may contribute to beguile the toil of the polisher.

To preserve Polished Steel. — Smear with mutton- suet, and dust over with unslalced lime. A paste of lard or fowl’s-grease, camphor, and black-lead, will also preserve steel. Caoutchouc-varnish is the most effectual coating for steel, but it is too expensive for domestic purposes.

To clean Steel Grates. — Rub the bars clean while still warm, if it be possible ; then clear with emery- paper, or polish by hard rubbing, using a little dry emerjr, or finely-pounded Bath brick. When very dirty, a thin paste, made of emery and boiled soap, will be found useful.

To clean Knives and Forks. — Use a board covered with leather. Bath brick is the best thing known for cleaning knives. Wash off the grease and dry the knives as soon as they come from table ; but do not use water too hot. Two knives may easily be cleaned at once, taking one in each hand, holding them back to back, and p-ubbing in different directions. Wipe forks very well, and plunge the prongs into a jug or other small vessel filled with brick-dust or fine sand, which may be kept compact with a mixture of damp moss. Clean between the prongs with a piece of leather tied to a stick; wipe off all dust, and rub them up.

To clean Plate and Plated Articles. — Clean the plate very well, using a sponge, with soap-leys and boiling water, brushing all the carved places. Dry and rub with plate-powder, or the very finest whitening, either wetted with spirits or dry. Rub up with the hand, soft leather, or hare’s-foot. The longer it is rubbed the brighter it will look. Brush the powder carefully from all the cut places. Plated goods should be kept in flannel or baize, or buried in bran, never allowed to get damp or dirty, nor brushed more than can be avoided. Spirit of wine, or good strong spirit, is the best thing to clean them with. When candlesticks are smeared with wax or grease, do not scrape, but pour boiling water on the parts before cleaning them.

To clean Pcrvter Vessels and Tin Covers. — Keep these always free of damp by wiping and drying them

CHAP. IV.— MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS, &C. 493

before the fire after they are used. Clean with the finest whitening and sweet oil, not water.

Directions for cleaning Brilannia-Metal Goods.— Take a piece of fine woollen cloth ; upon this put as much sweet oil asAvill prevent its rubbing dry ; — with this rub them ฆwell on every part — then wipe them smartly with a soft dry linen rag until they are quite clean, and rub them up with soft wash-leather and whitening. This simple method will preserve the co- lour as long as the articles endure.

Obs. — Washing them in boiling water and soap, just before they are rubbed with wash-leather and whiten- ing, would take off the oil more effectually, and make the carving look brighter.

To preserve Gilding. — In summer it must be covered with slips of soft writing-paper. Never rub gilding. Use the bellows and a long soft hair brush ; or, if this will not do, a piece of wadding or some cotton-wool.

To clean Looking-Glasses and other Glass. — Wash with warm water and sponge ; then wash with spirits, and dust the glass with powder-blue in a rag, and rub it up with a piece of soft calico, and afterwards with an old silk handkerchief.

To wash Wine-Decanters. — Use lukewarm water, a few bits of soap, and a little pearl-ashes, with sponge tied to the end of a stick to rub off the crust that forms on the glass. Dry them thoroughly.

To clean Japanned Goods. — Wash with sponge, us- ing soap and warm water, and rub up with a dry cloth. If the things still look greasy, dust a little powder- blue or fine whitening on them, and rub them again. Oil will take marks out of paper-trays. Urns ought to be well dried, rubbed when brought from the table, and kept covered with an woollen cloth.

To get Oil out of Wood and Slone. — Mix fuller’s- earth with soap-lees, and scour the places frequently with this. — N. B. Fuller’s earth does well for carpets.

To take Rust out of Fire-Irons. — Cover with sweet oil, rubbing it hard in, and next day rub with powder of unslaked lime till the rust is removed, or emery will do very well. Rub with a spungy piece of wood.

To clean China and Glass. — Use pearl-ashes or ful- ler's-earth in fine powder, and rub the things well.

x

494 CHAP. IV.— MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS, &C.

To take Stains out of Mourning Dresses. — Boil a handful of fig-leaves in two quarts of water, till re- duced to a pint. Strain and apply this with sponge.

Honey-Water for the Hair. — Mix three drachms of tincture of ambergris, and one of tincture of musk, with a little spirit of wine. Afterwards add a pint of spirit of wine, or strong spirits, and shake them well and often.

Lip-Salve. — Put four ounces of the best olive-oil in a bottle, with a half-ounce of picked alkanet-root ; stop the bottle, and set it in the sun till the oil is co- loured ; strain it into an earthen pipkin in which an ounce of white wax and one of mutton-suet are placed ; melt this by the fire, and perfume with a drop of oil of rhodium, or bergamot, or lavender ; pour it off the sediment into very small gallipots.

Paste for chopped Hands. — Make a paste of fresh lard, honey, yolks of eggs, and a little of the fine dust of oatmeal or bean-flour : it may be perfumed with a drop of essence of lemon, &c.

Cold Cream for the Skin. — Take two ounces of oil of sweet almonds, a drachm of white wax, and one of spermaceti. Melt them in an earthen pipkin, and stir in a mortar till quite smooth and cold. Add orange- flower or rose-water till the mixture is as thin as double cream. Keep in a gallipot covered with leather.

An excellent Shoe- Blacking. — Eight ounces of ivory- black, six of treacle, two of spermaceti-oil, and three pints of coarse vinegar or alegar; a quarter-ounce of vitriolic acid may be added. These things must be wrell mixed. The vinegar made hot may be poured over the other ingredients.

Liquid Japan Blacking. — Mix wTith four ounces of ivory-black, a large spoonful of sweet oil ; then put to these twro ounces of sugar and a little vinegar ; make a paste of the blacking. Add an ounce of sulphuric and one of muriatic acid, and nearly a pint of good vinegar. Mix them well.

To extinguish Fire in Female Dresses. — So many fatal accidents arise from light dresses catching fire, that every receipt-book intended for females should contain the following necessary cautions: — 1. Let it be diligently impressed upon the mind of every fe-

CHAP. IV.— MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS, &C. 495

male, that flame uniformly tends upwards; that every article of her dress will consume much more rapidly if held upright, than if laid along the floor ; and that her life may depend on her presence of mind, should her clothes unhappily catch fire. 2. Give in- stant alarm by pulling the bell (which is generally near the fire-place), by screaming, or any other means; but, if possible, avoid opening the door, for both the movement of the figure, and the current of air ad- mitted, -would increase the rapidity of the flames. 3. This alarm may be given while the female is at the same instant sitting down by the rug, attempting to tear off the articles of dress which are on fire, and rolling herself in the rug or carpet, if the latter is not nailed down. She may also catch at any piece of baize, or vessel of water within reach ; and, if very active, may even turn her clothes over her head, to her shift, and thus arrest the progress of the flames. 4. The most ready and effectual assistance a spectator in general can give, will beto turn the clothes of the sufferer to her shift over her head, and hold them firm thus, till wrappers, cold water, &c. are procured. 5. A man may quick- ly strip off his coat and wrap it round the female. 6. Let the sufferer, even if she fail to pull away the burning articles, or to extinguish the fire by rolling on the floor, and wrapping herself in the hearth-rug, (which is generally always ready), still protect her bo- som and face, by lowering her face and crossing her hands and arms over those parts. 7- A piece of green or scarlet baize, called a Jire-exlingtiisher, is kept in some sitting rooms and nurseries, and should be in univer- sal use while thin muslin and cotton dresses continue to be worn. As its name and uses are familiarly known, though it serve as a table or piano-forte cover, it can be instantly seized on an emergency. 8. If, in spite of all exertions, the person is injured, let one assistant throw cold water plentifully over the parts, while another supplies water, and a third cuts off the clothes. Continue the affusion, or apply wet cloths constantly to the parts, (if they cannot be wholly im- mersed in water) till medical advice is obtained.

THE END.

INDEX. [omitted]







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