(or mulagatoney, mullaghee-tanny, malaca-tawney, malachatauni, malagatany, malakatanni, mulkatany, mullagatawney, mullagatawny, mulligatawney, mullikatauny, mulligatawny, malagatawny)
Any soup made hot with curry spices. (Acton 1845, Mrs.B, etc.)
Known in England at least since 'The Sporting Magazine' of 1798; "I supped ... in his house on Mulagatoney or pepper-water." (OED)
The name Mulligatawny is from the Tamil language of South East India, Sri Lanka and Malaysia, meaning 'pepper water', though spiced soup in those regions is more commonly called 'rasam'. The original dish was entirely vegetable, usually based on lentils, but the name is now given to variants based on chicken or beef.
Modern Pakistani Muligatawny Soup
Original Receipt from 'The Cook's Oracle' by William Kitchiner (Kitchiner 1830)
Curry, or Mullaga-tawny Soup (No. 249.)
Cut four pounds of a breast of veal into pieces, about two inches by one; put the trimmings into a stew-pan with two quarts of water, with twelve corns of black pepper, and the same of allspice; when it boils, skim it clean, and let it boil an hour and a half, then strain it off; while it is boiling, fry of a nice brown in butter the bits of veal and four onions; when they are done, put the broth to them; put it on the fire; when it boils, skim it clean; let it simmer half an hour; then mix two spoonfuls of curry, and the same of flour, with a little cold water and a tea-spoonful of salt; add these to the soup, and simmer it gently till the veal is quite tender, and it is ready; or bone a couple of fowls or rabbits, and stew them in the manner directed above for the veal, and you may put in a bruised eschalot, and some mace and ginger, instead of black pepper and allspice.
Original Receipt from 'Pot-luck; or, The British home cookery book' by May Byron (Byron 1914)
160. MULLIGATAWNY SOUP (Hertfordshire)
Fry some onion and carrot in butter till they become a light brown, then add a small piece of apple, some sultanas, coconut, chutney, Harvey's sauce, a pinch of salt and pepper, a tablespoonful of curry powder, a little curry paste, and about a quarter of a pint of strong stock, and let simmer for about an hour.
151. MULLIGATAWNY (Kent, 1809)
Take four onions sliced small and a head of garlic, fry them a light brown, then put them into a stewpan with the meat, which should befowl oranywhite meat. Three spoonfuls of curry powder and two of flour mixed together, likewise a spoonful of lemon juice and cayenne pepper to your taste. Pour over it a pint of boiling water and let it simmer slowly for a short time, then add a sufficient quantity of broth made without vegetables to make a tureen of Mulligatawny. The ingredients must then stew together an hour. To be served up with a dish of rice as for curry. Cold fowl will dress this way extremely well
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