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Vine's Shop Goods, 1907

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TITLE: Saleable shop goods for counter-tray and window
AUTHOR:Frederick T Vine
PUBLISHER:The 'Baker and Confectioner'
DATE:1907
THIS VERSION: This transcript is based on the online version at archive.org, digitized by Google from the collections of Harvard University and uploaded to the Internet Archive by user "tpb". This is an Optical Character Recognition scan, it has been partly edited, but still contains very significant errors.


Saleable shop goods for counter-tray and window
Frederick T. Vine
(Including "Popular Penny Cakes.")

A PRACTICAL BOOK FOR ALL IN THE TRADE.
BY
FREDK: T. VINE.

"Compton Dene", Author of Practical Pastry, " Savoury Pastry" " Ices, " Cakes, and How to Make Them ' Biscuits for Bakers ' Practical Bread-making, Christmas Puddings, &c., &c.

FOURTH EDITION.

London:
Office of the "BAKER AND CONFECTIONER,
6i & 62, Chancery Lane, W.C.

1907.

PREFACE TO THE FOURTH EDITION.

?T is with great pleasure that I comply with the request made to me by Mr. F. T. Vine to write a few words of introduction to the Fourth Edition of " Saleable Shop Goods " - not that any such introduction is at all necessary, for Mr. Vine is, either under his own name or the pseudonym of" Compton Dene," the best known and most widely read of any writers of bakers' manuals, and " Saleable Shop Goods " is, I should think, the best known and most widely read of all these manuals. Probably there has been no book published for bakers of which so many copies have been sold in such a short time as " Saleable Shop Goods."

The causes of this popularity are not far to seek " Saleable Shop Goods " is in great demand, because the articles whose manufacture it describes are ' Shop Goods," and are " Saleable." It gives instructions for making just the thing that most bakers want to make, and may feel pretty safe about selling when they have made. But if the subject of the book is one cause of its popularity, another must be found in the manner in which that subject is treated. Mr. Vine's directions are always clear, succinct, and precise. There is no verb&ge, no padding, and no possibility of mistaking what is meant The book is as thoroughly practical in its method as it is in its subject

This fourth edition is practically a reprint of the third, which was very considerably enlarged, and included a good many new recipes and illustrations. There are, in fact, no fewer than 263 of the one and 131 of the other, without counting the attractive frontispiece! There is no doubt that this edition will have as good a reception as its predecessors, and turn out to be as saleable as the goods it refers to.

EDITOR, " BAKER AND CONFECTIONER."

Ingredients for Small Goods.

HE ingredients necessary for small goods are numerous and varied, and consequently would occupy a considerable amount of space to note them ever so briefly. Therefore, I shall only notice a few of the principal, commencing with flour.

In many of the recipes, Vienna flour is particularly mentioned, and in those I would very strongly advise its use. Of course, I do not confine you to any one particular brand of Vienna. They are numerous enough in all conscience to become bewildering. But there is a certain peculiarity about Vienna flour that is absent from nearly all others, and I know of only one flour that comes at all near to it, and that is "Ogilvies." It is made by Ogilvies Royal Flour Mills, Canada, and a few years back was imported into this country in large quantities, but I have not seen much of it this last year or two. But no doubt it could be obtained if there was any demand for it.

Vienna flour, like almost everything else, is imported into this country in various grades, usually three: i, o, oo; but sometimes this is reversed, and the oo comes first, o second, and i third. The price of these grades varies from one shilling to two shillings, so that the highest price is usually the best, but not always. However, for the purposes of small goods, you cannot use too good a flour, even in the commonest class of goods. The better the flour the brighter and clearer will be the appearance of your goods. So I would always advise, no matter how poor the goods or common the other ingredients, that you use good flour in their production.

Should you, however, seldom handle Vienna flour in business, I would counsel you never to use American patents unless you temper their harshness with a soft, white, home-milled flour; and it is often far better to use a good soft English flour than American. Therefore, try your hand at selecting from the samples of your local millers or factors a flour suitable for small goods, and I have no doubt they will encourage you to do so by keeping the selected marks up to standard. Remember that it is simply impossible to turn out any class of goods twice alike unless you pay some attention to the selection of the materials you use; and this applies more particularly to the flour than to anything else you may use, as it forms, as you know, the largest bulk that is used in every mixture. For instance, if you receive a different brand of American flour from a different mill every week, how would it be possible for you to turn out the same class of goods from them without first trying several mixtures and altering the other ingredients to make good some deficiency of the flour? Therefore, is it not easier to take one brand and keep it all the year round, if possible? And there are only two ways that this can be successfully accomplished, and that is to use Vienna, or flour milled by a good local miller, who will stake his reputation upon the brand. There are, I know, many such firms in this country, and they are probably as weU known to you, and only await your orders to execute them.

In fermented goods, of course, a stronger flour is necessary, but even here " American Patents " are better with a mixture of home-milled flour, and give better results.

To the small goods hand there is perhaps no more vexing ingredient to use than the fat, and where the " Biscuits " is not the " boss " there are sometimes many swear words hustling around the bakehouse to relieve him of some of his superfluous fury, which he would feel inclined to wreak upon the unhappy traveller who has beguiled the " boss " into trying some particular curse of a compound of fat that is guaranteed to be ten times better than ever butter knew how to be. Now, to the veriest novice in the trade, it must be at once apparent that butter for all kinds of confectionery takes first place, and if your business is first-class, do not be deluded into purchasing anything else; and remember that there are butlers and butters. If you pay a low price, do not be deceived - you are only getting an inferior article for your money. No one can trade for the fun of the thing, and very few are in it for the benefit of their health. Usually folks trade to make money, even if they do not always do so; and, therefore, if you buy cheap stuff - not butters only, but other goods - you must remember that the seller is getting some profit and bought it even cheaper than you. But this does not always follow, as it may be an odd parcel that the dealer is doubtful of and intends to realise as soon as possible. Do not let me be misunderstood. What I mean by cheap is to buy goods that are offered for considerably less than current market prices, for usually there is certain to be something wrong or it would not be oflfered.

Pure butters have always a peculiarly distinctive flavour, which no amount of sophistication has been able to produce in any other fat, although I admit that they have come very near to it of late years. Still, no matter what the substitute may be, it is different to butter in more ways than one, and when once customers have acquired the taste for the pure article, it will be a very long time before you can persuade them to take anything else; and, mark my words, in the change you will miss some of the old faces, and consequently have to hustle around to hunt up some new ones. A very good thing to use with pure butter when the price is too heavy for your trade, is pure lard, which has a sweetness peculiarly its own. r am aware that there is a large amount of stuff sold under the name of Lardine, at a low price, but this contains very little pure lard, being mostly made from mutton fat and oil of very doubtful origin, and the consequence is that it very soon goes wrong, and is worse than the cheapest substitute you can buy; but, like everything else, there are more than one brand of this, and prices as usual are various. I am aware that there are many of my readers who have to make a large lump for a id., and then it is excusable for them to buy correspondingly cheap materials. That being the case, I would advise you to procure samples and quotations from respectable firms, and select froili them those best suited for your purposes. I have used at different times almost all of the many kinds of fat that are offered for confectionery purposes with varying results, which I do not feel called upon to give in these pages. Suffice to say that there have been some that I have not wanted a second time, and I have no doubt my readers will soon find out which these are, and like me - will not want any more.

A little advice I would tender to those of my readers who are compelled by circumstances to deal in these cheap fats as substitutes is to select that which contains the most fat, and is sweetest to the taste and smell; much of this cheap fat has an abundance of water mixed in which, of course, is dear at any price. Then, again, another dealer will seek your trade, and assert as an inducement that milk is churned up with the fat, but remember that all the milk is not fat, only a small portion of it, and that in purchasing milk you are paying a very dear price for that commodity, even though it has been churned with fat to resemble butter; and it would be much cheaper and more profitable to buy oil than milk, where fat is required for confectionery purposes. There are at present on the market many kinds of solidified oil (if I may so term it) which answer admirably for almost all classes of goods, and which can be used in conjunction with pure butter in even the best goods, using it in varying quantities to meet the exigencies of your trade. The taste and smell being almost neutral, there is no reason why you should not add these to your mixtures, remembering always that, as a general rule, they contain only oil, and that usually of vegetable origin. However, as I said before, purchase your supply from respectable firms, obtaining the maximum of fat for the minimum of expenditure.

Sugar at the present time is cheap, in spite of the recently imposed duty, and pulverised can be bought at a very low figure - I believe as low as i8s. per cwt. - which, for all small goods, will answer admirably. True, it is foreign, and only owing to the fatherly care of the different Governments in giving bounties for exported sugars to make up any deficiency in cost of production, at the same time taxing the people to pay for it. If figured out, I think it means that all the peoples of the earth pay about Jd. per lb. upon all the sugars eaten by John Bull, and so enable him to indulge his sweet tooth to his heart's content, for which, no doubt, he is truly thankful. But I regret to state that his pleasure will soon come to an end, for owing to the efforts of the Government, they have at last succeeded in convincing the foreigner of his folly, with the result that the British public in general, and the confectioner in particular, will soon have the satisfaction of paying from 4s. to 6s. per cwt. more for their sugar, and, considering the vast amount consumed in this country, the extra cost - which will really go into the pockets of the foreigner - will be something immense, and the benefit that we are supposed to get out of this sacrifice will prove to be purely imaginary.

A word of caution is necessary to bakers, as a good deal of the sugar that reaches the baker is adulterated with ground glucose. Of course, this is not at all harmful, but certainly it is not so sweet as sugar ought to be. However, a sure test is to take a little of the suspected sugar and put it into a wineglass, and fill up the glass with hot water. If pure, the water will remain clear, while, if adulterated with glucose, it would be white and cloudy.

Fruit wdbld, of course, be bought in the regular way from the wholesale dealers who cater for the confectioners, and the market would invariably govern the price. I would certainly counsel you not to buy the cheapest that are offered, for after all they might prove the dearest in the end. Let the currants be small, bright, and fleshy. and before use see to it ihkt they are properly rubbed, washed, dried, and carefully picked over free from strigs and stones, or you may probably get into some serious trouble with your customers, as it is a very objectionable experience to close one's teeth on top of a stone; but with care this can, of course, be avoided. They are usually rubbed in a currant sieve, and then washed through two or three waters; then dried on sacks; afterwards picked over on a flat tin to remove stones and strigs.

But in large establishments a fruit washing or cleaning machine is a necessity. I illustrate two of different types. Fig. I: This is made either for hand or power, and will

Fig. I.- Currant Washing and Drying Machine.

wash and dry currants effectually at the rate of about a hundredweight per hour, more or less, according to the size of the machine. Sultanas can also be cleaned in the same machine, simply changing the sieve, and slightly raising the agitators to prevent them from unduly pressing the fruit, and so breaking it. The drying drum is an excellent arrangement, driven at a high rate of speed. ' It drives out all moisture in a very few minutes. Fig. 2 is an entirely different machine: it cleans the fruit in a perfectly dry state, and the capacity varies according to the size of the machine, although all the machines do the work equally well. The " Double Conical " hand-power machine illustrated will thoroughly clean dry 5 lbs. of currants or sultanas per minute, but the same size machine, driven by power, will clean just double that quantity, and the larger size ''Conical" 40 lbs. per minute. These machines, when driven by power, can be fitted with a fruit feeding apparatus, into which the boxes of fruit are emptied as imported, and need no further attention, as the motion of the machine not only breaks

Fig. 2.- Caleb Duckworth's Double Conical Fruit Cleaner, for hand.

up all the lumps but feeds the fruit regularly into the machine. These machines are specially suited for medium and better class fruit, but the very common qualities are all the better for being washed. Further particulars will be supplied by the makers, whose address will be found in the advertisement pages.

Fig. 3.- The Edinburgh Peel Cutter. (

Peel - orange, lemon, and citron - is required f uses in the confectionery trade, and unless yot ready cut, it will be necessary to cut it as require by hand or machine. I illustrate a machine purpose (Fig. 3). It is of well-known make, and had either for hand or power, suitable for either small or large trades, and is very useful for the work. These machines cut either fine or coarse by simply shifting or setting the knives for the purpose required.

Chemicals, essences, and spices: Let these be of the best procurable, taking care to deal only with those firms who court publicity in the trade Press; remember they make a special study of the confectionery trade, and can consequently fill your requirements to the best advantage, and are able to give you better or more advantageous terms than you could otherwise obtain. Prices will be found to vary considerably, and - take my word for it - are an excellent gauge of the quality offered, which, of course, must be left to your individual judgment.

Eggs: These need very few words from me - they are the same all the world over. But in the course of your business remember that an egg that is medium in size, and has a very dark, rich yellow yolk, is the sort that is most profitable to buy. No matter if they are the "fresh " or "pickles," the size and colour of the yolk are the principal factors that should govern you in the selection, and all eggs that have pale and small yolks should be avoided, or you will assuredly have to use some of the many egg colours upon the market to impart the rich egg colour to your goods to make them saleable.

At the present time a considerable quantity of almonds are being used by the trade, and where those procured ready for use prove unsatisfactory and unreliable, I would advise you to buy them in bulk and prepare them yourself. In the old days the almonds had to be pounded down in a mortar, which, of course, meant" a considerable amount of labour, but at the present time there are several machines upon the market that will do the work expeditiously and well. A very efficient little machine for the purpose is that illustrated at Fig. 4; it has just been introduced by Messrs. Mathews & Co., and I have no hesitation in saying that it will prove of great advantage to the trade, enabling the pastrycook to grind his almonds as he requires them, and so ensuring the better flavour, so apparent and appreciated in freshly ground almonds. Besides grinding, it will also shred either fine or coarse. There are three sets of steel roHers to each machine, and they can be changed in a few minutes; it is simply clamped to the table when required for use; there are no complicated parts to get out of order, and it is a very useful and compact little machine.

Fig. 4. - Universal Almond Slicer and Grinder.

Of course, when only a small quantity is required, they can be procured from any respectable supply house, and so also can desiccated cocoanut, walnuts, colours, and the hundred-and-one etceteras that go to the production of smalls. The price and quality must be left to your own individual judgment; but never buy the cheapest, as that is sure to prove dearest in the end.

I think, for all practical purposes, I have said enoqgh about the ingredients. I will now give instructions wr the preparation of some few things that will be necessary for the goods described in the following pages; and for convenience, and also to facilitate reference, the recipes are all numbered.




No. 1.- Soda Floor.

lbs. fine " Whites " floor. 12 ozs. cream of tartar. 6 ozs. bicarbonate of soda.

Mode, - Weigh the flour into the flour-sieve on the board, and set a fine hair or wire sieve inverted upon the top of the flour. Put the cream and soda into the fine sieve and rub it through on to the flour, as shown in the illustration. Fig. 5. Well mix it into the flour, and

Fig. 5. - Showing how the Ctiemicals should be Rubbed through to the Flour.

run it through the flour-sieve two or three times to well mix. "Store in a large box or tub in a dry place for use as required. To make a self-raising flour to bag for sale, add another 28 lbs. of flour and 4 ozs. of dry salt in fine powder. This will sell at 2d. per lb.

A baking powder for many purposes will be necessary, and I give you here a standard mixture:

No. 2.- Baking Powder.

I lb. tartaric acid. 2 lbs. cream of tartar.

3 lbs. carbonate of soda.

Mode. - Sieve the whole of the chemicals through a fine hair or wire sieve four or .five times, to thoroughly

well mix, and store in tins for use as required. It is very necessary that all the ingredients be thoroughly dry before being mixed together. In a general way this mixture is termed " i," "2," '3," because of the proportions of ingredients used in its composition. If you have not fijot a dry place to store it in, it would be advisable to mix only half the quantity, as it is very liable to cake in the tin, and then it will require to be sifted again. I would particularly caution my readers not to sell this, as it is very strong, and rather expensive.

Should any of my readers contemplate going in for baking powder in a wholesale way, I would advise them to put down a machine sifter and mixer, as is here illustrated, Fig. 6. It is self-containing, and is a very effective

Fig. 6. - Gardner's Patent Sifter and Mixer for Hand.

machine, first sifting and reducing all lumps of soda and acids and then mixing the powder, or whatever is fed into it. The machine illustrated is for hand, but they are also built for treating a larger quantity of material for power. The following will be found a first-class recipe for baking powder in large quantities, and if carefully mixed and packed will keep a considerable time without caking together in the packets.

No. 3.- Baking Powder for Packing. 30 lbs. carbonate of soda. 20 lbs. cream of tartar.

lbs. tartaric acid. 30 lbs. ground rice.

lbs. starch powder.

Mode, - Weigh down on the board, mix well, and then run it through the machine two or three times, and scale into packets for sale at from 6d. to 8d. per lb. I do not know how this will work out under the Sale of Food and Drugs Acts, but as there is nothing of a deleterious nature in its composition, and everything is perfectly pure and wholesome, I do not think there would be any fear from that direction, and I merely suggest it as a thought that occurred to me as I was copying the recipe. In any case, I would counsel you to use only the best of drugs for this purpose.

No. 4.- Royal Icing.- Glac Royal.

This icing is employed for the decoration of all kinds of cakes and pastry by piping, and it can be employed with advantage in place of either of the other icings for covering or masking if you do not happen to have the other kinds, or having sufficient do not care to make any other kind. It is rather difficult to give any definite quantities, as the quantity of egg white varies considerably with the size of the eggs. However, to surmount that, I have measured the whites and then added sugar. The following will be found to give excellent results:

% Iint white of eggs. 3 lbs. best icing suar.

A pinch of blae. Tablespoonfiil of acetic acid.

Mode, - Put the sugar into a thoroughly clean basin, and after carefully separating the whites from the yolks, add them with the acid to the sugar, and beat up with a wooden spoon or spatula till it will stand, up firm and staunch in the pan, and you are almost able to lift the whole of it upon the spoon and turn it upside down without dropping any of it out upon the board. It can be coloured by the addition of a few drops of vegetable colour. This icing is very seldom flavoured, as the grease from the essential oils does not improve the appearance of the icing; and should you desire to flavour do not add it to the icing before it is ready for use. Desiccated whites of eggs - ., dried whites, gelatine and gum - are sometimes used for the same purpose as fresh whites when eggs are dear.

Instructions for using desiccated whites are supplied by the makers. The following is the method employed with gelatine:

I quart water. 2% ozs. sheet gelatine.

Mode, - Put the water into a stewpan, stand it over the fire, and bring it to the boil, then drop in the gelatine and stir till dissolved. Then bottle for use as required. Or you can put the gelatine and the water into a large jug, cover with a sheet of paper, and stand just inside the oven mouth for an hour or so, when it would be quite dissolved and ready for use. It is used in exactly the same way as fresh whites, but do not use the gelatine hot; the colder the better.

No. 5 -Fondant Icing.

7 1138. loaf sugar. X ' cream of tartar,

i pints water

Fig. 7. - Method of Creamicg Fondant Idcg on Marble Slab.

Mode, - Put all together in a bright stew-pan or skillet, and set it over a brisk fire or gas stove. Break down all the lumps with a palette knife or wooden spatula, and boil it up to the degree of " blow," 235 by Collier's thermometer. Have a perfectly clean slab, and pour the boiling sugar upon it; let it cool a little; then

with a large wooden spatula proceed to rub into the mass of hot sugar with it, describing somewhat of a circle (Fig. 7), till it presents the appearance of a white, creamy, semi-opaque-looking mass, and has some semblance to well beaten up cake-icing; scrape it altogether in the centre of the slab; well mix, and put away into jars or tins for use as requir. It will keep good for an indefinite period. When wanted for use take the quantity required, put it into a gallipot, add a dash of cold water, and set it on the oven-stock to melt it. It should be used warm, and be about the consistency of cream. It can be coloured and flavoured as desired for all purposes.

No. 6.- Vienna Icing, or Batter Oream. I lb. best fresh batter. i % lbs. icing sugar.

% piot rum.

Mode, - Carefully wash the butter free from salt, put it into a clean basin, and proceed to beat it to a cream with a large wooden spoon, warming it upon the oven stock if necessary; run the icing sugar through a fine sieve on to a sheet of paper, and gradually mix it into the butter with the spirit, beating it continually as you do so; and when you have beaten it all in smooth it is ready. This icing can be coloured to any required tint, by the simple addition of the vegetable colours commonly used in the trade. It is advisable only to make up the quantity required, as it will go rancid if kept too long. Should you have any quantity left over, it can, of course, be used up upon any subsequent occasion, by simply beating it up in exactly the same way that you would have to were it ordinary cake icing. Any other kind of spirits, wines, hqueurs, or essences can be used in the place of the rum, if desired for flavouring.

No. 7.- Water Icing.

This is a quick and expeditious icing, useful at all times for coating or masking all kinds of goods; it dries very quickly, and with a nice pearly-glazed surface. Take a clean pot, and put into it i lb. of icing sugar, or more, according to the quantity required; add some boiling

hot water; stir and beat into a paste of the consistency most suitable to the purpose for which you are going to use it. After being once prepared, you can colour and flavour as you may deem necessary for your purpose; it can be used either hot or cold. The more you beat at it, the better it will be for all purposes.

No. 8.- White Oream Filling, called "Oholee." 10 whites of eggs. i % lbs. loaf sugar.

I oz. gelatine. Flavouring.

Mode, - Soak the gelatine (" Nelson's " or Swinborne's shred) in i pint of cold water for a couple of hours, or until soft. Put the sugar into a clean stewpan, add J pint more water, and stand it over the gas ring; run down to syrup, and then boil up to ball, about 250 F., by thermometer; then add in the soaked gelatine, and boil again about seven minutes, and take care it does not boil over. In the meantime, let your assistant break ten large whites into a sponge cake machine, add a pinch of cream of tartar, and beat up to a good stiflf foam. When the mixture has boiled sufficiently, take off and rub against the side of the pan to cream it slightly, and stir it into the mass; when the heat has gone off a little, and the whites are well whipped up, proceed to pour the hot sugar syrup gradually to the whites, turning the machine all the time. When you have got in all tie syrup, and your cream is dry and bulky, take out the wires and lift out of the machine into jars with your hand, for use as required.

This is a very useful cream for filling the centres of cream buns, Eclairs, sandwiches, &c. It can be coloured and flavoured with the whole range of colours and flavours accessible to the pastrycook, but where possible the colours and flavours should be added to the syrup before being mixed in with the whipped whites. It is useful to use in place of boiled meringue, for piping the many fruit designs on fancies. It will stand for a considerable time, and on this account is particularly useful. It can be kept for at least a week in a cool place.

No. 9.- Pastry Oustard dream.

1 plot new milk. X 1 sugar.

2 0Z8. Vienna flour. 2 ozs. fresh butter.

3 yolks of eggs. Vanilla flavouring.

Mode, - Put the sugar and milk into a clean stewpan and bring it to the boil; put the flour into a basin with the yolks of eggs, and wet up to a smooth batter, using a little cold milk if necessary; then pour the boiling milk into the basin, stirring well all the time; return to the stewpan, add the butter, and stir it over the fire till it thickens; pour into a clean jar, and (when cold) mix in a few drops of flavouring extract, and use as directed. This cream is used extensively for all kinds of filling, such as cream buns, Eclairs, sandwiches, or Swiss rolls, and general outside work. Any kind of flavouring can be used, and you can colour it if required. It will keep good about seven days in a cool place.

No. 10.- Almond Paste for Fitchett Oakes and Insides.

2 lbs. ground almonds. 8 to lo eggs.

3 % lbs. caster sugar. Essence of vanilla.

Method, - Weigh the almonds and sugar on to the board or slab, and mix them well together; then make a bay, break in the eggs, add the essence, and make up into rather a stiff paste, drying it over with sugar. When you have wet it up, weigh off three J-lb. pieces; keep one piece plain, and to one % lb. add a few spots of vegetable green colour, well mix it through the paste, and if of a bright colour, it will do. Then colour another J lb. a bright red with carmine. When you have mixed the colours in, roll. them out separately, and cut off about the size of peas; dust them slightly, and roll them a little to round them; and when all are prepared, spread them on a sheet of paper, and dry for at least twentyfour hours before being required for use. If you leave them to dry in the bakehouse, I would suggest the peel handles overhead as being a very convenient place to dry them, apd before use you could give them a shake round the flour sieve to remove all dust. Unless you dry the paste before mixing into the batter, you will find

that instead of neat spots of colour it will be streaky, and the almond paste would be inclined to go syrupy. For all kinds of inside work - whether used plain, or coloured for special purposes - the proportions given in this mixture will be found to give the best results.

No. 11.- Almond Paste (Tellow).

I lb. ground almpnds. 2 lbs. palvprised sugar.

4 to 6 whole eggs.

Mode. - Mix the sugar and almonds together dry on the board; make a bay, and break in the eggs; then make up into rather a firm paste, according to the purpose to which you desire to use it.

No. 12. -Almond Paste (White).

Take the same proportions given above, but instead of using whole eggs use whites only. Another way is to use diluted gelatine or gum tragacanth, or, as it is generally called in this country, gum dragon, in place of egg whites.

This white paste is very useful for colouring to any shade you like, for the purpose of making flowers, etc., but it is not marzipan, which is made as follows:

No. 13.- Marzipan.

I lb, ground almonds. i lb. pulverised sugar.

Orange flower water.

Mode, - Mix the sugar and almonds together dry on a sheet of white paper, and add a few drops of orange flower water; then put the whole into a clean stewpan and stand it over a low fire; take a wooden spatula, or spoon, and stir the mixture gently over the fire until it is a compact mass, and will not adhere to the fingers. When done, turn it out on to your slab or board, and knead it over with fine sugar till cold, when it is ready for use. This paste can be coloured any desired tint by adding vegetable colours.

No. 14.- English Marzipan.

I lb. loaf sugar. lb. ground swtet almonds.

i pint cold water. Pinch of cream of tartar.

3 yolks of eggs.

Mode, - Put the sugar, water, and cream of tartar into a stewpan, and reduce to syrup over the fire, and then boil up to "ball" - about 235 by Collier's thermometer; rub it against the side of the stewpan with a wooden spoon, and when it begins to assume an opaque look, pour it into a basin in which you have previously mixed the yolks and ground almonds; mix thoroughly and turn out on the board; dust over with fine sugar, and when cold use as required.

No. 15.- Fludge; or, Prepared Jam for Masking. Take a 2-quart stewpan, quite clean, and put into it I lb. of apricot jam and 3 gills of hot water, and rub well together; add the juice of i lemon, and set it over the fire or gas ring; wet up 2 heaped tablespoonsful of arrowroot or cornflour with a little cold water, and when the diluted jam boils gradually mix in the cornflour and stir over the fire till it is thick and transparent. A little syrup can be added to this mixture if not sweet enough. Colour and flavour as desired. This is a good way to make jam go a long way, and is useful for many purposes of outside decoration, especially for glacing the meringue fruits that are laid on to Genoese, besides being useful for sandwiching all kinds of cakes together.

No. 16.- How to Colour Sugar or Gocoanut.

This process will answer for cocoanut as well as sugar, or, for that matter, any other material that you may desire to colour. The sugar must first be warmed in the oven mouth, taking care that you do not make it too hot or brown it. Having warmed your sugar, spread it over a newspaper, and take your colour, sprinkle it all over the sugar, taking care not to have it too weak, then rub it between your hands till all the sugar is equally stained; then dry it in the hot closet or under the prover, or on the oven-stock, turning it over two or three times while it is drying to prevent it caking together. When well dried, break up all lumps by running it through a coarse sieve; leave it to get perfectly cold; then put away in canisters for use as required.

There are a variety of coloured sugars that are useful for every day use, and these should be prepared during your leisure, dried thoroughly, and stored ready for use as required; and it is not at all a bad plan to have these coloured sugars stored in glass stoppered bottles, when, of course, they are easily distinguishable, and save some considerable time when required for use. I would advise you to use nothing but pure vegetable colours for all trade purposes; they cost a trifle more to buy, but at the same time there will be no after trouble, which might prove rather expensive.

Perhaps it is needless for me to remind you that, with every colour used, you must take a clean sheet of paper, and do not forget to wash your hands, or you may be making some very peculiar colours.

Note. - The cocoanut will not require warming.

No. 17.- Paris Sandwich.

1% lbs. flour. y lb. butter.

yi lb. sugar. 2 eggs.

Milk. Essence of lemon.

Dust volatile. Mode. - Weigh flour, butter, and sugar on to the board, and rub together. Take a piece of volatile in your hand, and rub it on a fine wire sieve (Fig. 8) till you have about

Fig. 8. - How the Volatile is rubbed up in the Sieve.

as much as will cover a sixpence; add it to the mixture on the board. Make a bay, break in the eggs, a few drops of essence of lemon; add sufficient milk to make a medium paste. Divide out into four equal-sized pieces

on the scale; then divide each piece into two, and mould up round under your hands. You will now have eight pieces. Take one of the pieces and roll it out to the size of a large meat plate with a small rolling-pin, keeping it as round as possible, and lay it on to a clean greased tin, putting two rounds on each tin. Now spread a thin layer of raspberry jam over the centre, taking care not to go to within an inch of the edge all round. Now roll out another round to the same size and lay it over the top of the jam; crimp round the edge the same as shortbread, then dock over the top with a large biscuit docker; wash over and dredge with sugar, and bake in a moderate oven. When done, cut into eight, and sell at id. each section. This will turn out four sandwiches, each sandwich cutting up into eight pieces.

No. IS.-Vanilla Oream Sandwich.

I lb. butter. i lbs. pulverised sugar,

i lbs. soda flour. ii lbs. plain flour.

8 eggs. Milk.

Essence of vanilla.

Mode. - Procure eight deep round crinkled sandwich pans (Fig. 9), grease them with some clean lard, and dust them out with flour. Sieve the flours together on

Fig. 9. -Deep Crinkled Sandwich Pan.

the board, put the butter and sugar into a bowl, and cream up in the usual manner; add a little egg colour, and essence of vanilla to nicely flavour; add the eggs two at the time, beating well after each addition of eggs, and, when all are in, add the flour, and wet to a very soft cake-batter consistency with milk; divide the batter equally into the eight prepared pans, spread out with a palette knife, and bake in a warm oven. When done, turn out on to clean wires, and leave to get cold till the next day. Then take a sharp knife and slice

each cake in half, as shown in the illustration (Fig. 10); lay each slice separately and in pairs on your board; then spread lightly with some apricot jam, and on the jam spread a layer of Pastry Cream No. 9 flavoured vanilla, and put them together in their original places. The part coming in contact with the tin during baking is

Fig. 10. - Showing methqd of slicing Cakes to sandwich together

the top, which proceed to ice over with white water or fondant icing, and cut up into eight pieces, which sell for id. each; or, you can sell the whole sandwich uncut for 6d.

No. 19.-- Alexandria Sandwiches. I lb. sugar. i lb. flour.

I pint eggs. Mode, - Break the eggs, and turn them into a sponge cake machine; warm, and add the sugar, and beat well for about twenty minutes. When well beaten up, take out the wires, sieve, and mix in the flour with your hand; fill into ordinary Victoria sandwich pans, spread out thin with a palette knife, and bake in a moderate oven. When done, turn out on to wires, or a sack, and leave to get

cold. When cold - the next day for preference - sandwich two of them together in the usual way with some bright pink plum and apple jam, trim round the edges with a sharp knife, and spread some more preserve over the top. Now roll down a piece of the Almond Paste No. II to about in. thick, and lay it over the top of the jam; trim off even with the cake, and then take some of the Butter Cream No. 6, keep it as white as you can, and spread a thin layer over the top of the almond paste, and then turn over on to some various coloured nonpareils, commonly called "hundreds and thousands," taking care

Fig. ii.-Laying the red lines across the white Iced Sandwich.

that too many do not adhere to the cream; then, with a sharp knife, cut up each sandwich into twelve equal sections, set them on to a wire as you cut them out, and the easiest way to make the cleanest cut is to dip the knife, which must be very sharp, into a pot of hot water, wiping the blade on a cloth every time you make a cut, and if the points cut jaggy and rough, trim them off before you place them on the wire. Having cut them all up, take some more of the butter-cream icing, and let it be pale ivory or yellow-coloured; put it into a papr

corney, and pipe an A upon the top of each; then put a border round the edge of the sandwich, decorate with a few spots of pink cream upon the border, and they are ready for sale. Price id. each.

No. 20.- Neapolitan Sandwich.

2 lbs. Vienna flour. i lb. soda flour (No. i).

i lbs. sugar. i jl lbs. butter.

eggs. Milk.

Fig. 12. - Drawing the knife across first time.

Mode, - Sieve the flours well together on the board; cream up the butter and sugar in the usual manner, beating in the eggs two at the time. When all are in, mix in the flour, and wet to cake-batter consistency with milk; spread three parts of the mixture into small plain round threepenny sandwich tins with a palette knife, and bake. Then add to the remaining batter a few drops of carmine sufficient to colour it rather a bright red, and well mix it in; then spread the coloured batter into half the number of greased sandwich tins you used for the plain mixture, and bake in a

moderate oven. When done, turn out on to a dean sack. Now spread some greengage jam over one of the plain rounds; place a red one on that. Then spread some more greengage jam over the red, and place another plain round upon that. Continue so till you have sandwiched them all together; trim round the edges with a sharp knife. Now take some white water or fondant icing, and ice over the top and sides with it; colour a little water or fondant icing pink, or red, with carmine, and put it into

Fig. 13. - Drawing knife across second time, in opposite direction, to finish.

a paper cornet or bag and tube, and run lines across the top of each about J in. apart, as shown in Fig. 11, and when you have done them, take a knife and draw it across the lines, as shown in Fig. 12. Then draw the knife in the reverse way between the first lot of drawings, as shown in Fig. 13, and the sandwich is complete, and can be sold whole for 6d. each, or cut up into eight penny pieces. The marbling on top of these sandwiches

FOR Counter Tray and Window.

can, of course, be applied to all kinds of cake, and the colours can be varied to suit any kind of cakes or decoration; besides, with a little practice, you can use two or more colours for lines, besides the plain ground icing.

No. 21.- Scotch Oatcakes (Rich). 19 lbs. medium oatmeal. 3 lbs. flour.

I lb. sugar. 4 lbs. butter.

3 ocs. carbonate of soda. i4. ozs. tartaric acid.

I OS. salt. Milk.

Mode. - Mix all the dry ingredients together on the board, then rub in the butter, and make a bay; dough

Fig. 14.- Oatcake Cutter.

-with milk, scale off into 10 oz. pieces, mould up into rounds, and roll out thin with a small rolling-pin, to about the size of a pudding-plate; trim round the edges with a cutter; then cut into quarters, or have a cutter made for the purpose, as shown in the illustration Fig. 14); plate on to clean biscuit wires, and bake in a moderate oven. You will have to be very careful with the baking, for these goods very soon catch, and are spoilt. Should the quantity be too large, you can divide the mixture by either two, four, or eight: of course, taking care to divide the whole of the ingredients. Sell at two a id.

No. 22.-Oateftkes (No. 2). 6 Ibf. soda flour. 6 lbs. medium to fine oatmeal.

2X lbs. lard. i % ois. salt.

% OK. carbonate of soda. % oz. tartaric acid.

Buttermilk.

Mode, - Weigh the flour and meal on to the board, add the salt in fine powder, and rub the soda and acid through a fine sieve; mix all together on the board; then rub in the fat, make a bay, and dough with buttermilk. Scale oflf into 8-oz. pieces, mould up round under your hand; then roll down in a thin cake about the size of a cheese-plate, keeping the edges smooth and the cakes as round as you can; trim round with a large plain, round cutter, divide each round into four with a sharp knife or scraper, plate on to clean biscuit wires or tins, and bake in a moderate oven. If preferred sweet, yi lb. of sugar can be added to this mixture. Sell at twoa id.

No. 23.- Oatcakes (No. 3). 9 lbs. fine oatmeal. 3 lbs. flour.

3 lbs. lard. 2% ozs. soda. 2ji ozs. salt. B atter;Ki4jg g.

Mode, - Proceed exactly the same as directed in the previous mixture; weigh same weight; mould up, pin, and cut out; plate, and bake in a moderate oven. Sell at two a id.

No. 21- Oatcakes (No. 4). 9 lbs. oatmeal. 2 lbs. soda flour.

2 lbs. lard. 2 ozs. salt.

Mode, - Same as before. These cakes can be cooked on the hot-plate if desired; but very great care must be taken in cooking, or you will burn them. Sell at two aid.

No. 25.-Oatcakes, Plain (No. 5).

4 lbs. fine oatmeal. % lb. lard or butter. i oz. salt. Water.

Mode, - Weigh on to the board, and rub the fat intothe meal; make a bay and wet into rather a stiff dough. Scale off into 4j-oz. pieces, mould up round, flatten out with your rolling-pin about as thick as a penny piece, cut them in halves with a knife and bake them on your hot plate, turning them oyer and taking care that you do not bum them in the cooking. When done, stack, and dry out under the prover or in the hot closet. Sell at two a id.

No. 26.- Scotch Oat Oakes (Plain).

lo lbs. oatmeal. i lbs. flour,

I lb. butter. i ozs. baking powder (No. 2).

I ox. salt, in fine powder. Milk.

Mode. - Exactly the same as before directed.

No. 27.- Bice Boas.

1 lb. butter. i lb. sugar.

3 lbs. flour. I ox. volatile.

cz. soda. 6 eggs.

I pint milk.

Mode. - Break down the volatile in a mortar, with a little milk. Put the sugar and butter into a mixing bowl, and stand on the stock to Varm and get soft; then cream well up, adding in the eggs in the usual way. When all are in, add the volatile and a few drops of essence of lemon; sieve the soda well with the flour, add it to the batter, and mix to cake-batter consistency with the remainder of the milk. Have ready some flat, greased tins; fill the batter into a savoy bag, and lay out in sixty-eight lumps; double tin, and bake in a hot oven. These are very old-fashioned favourites, and usually sell wherever introduced. Sell at id. each.

No. 28.- Brioclie Loaves.

2 lbs. flour. J4 lb. sugar.

X lb. butter. i oc cream of tartar.

4 ox. carbonate of soda. 2 eggs.

Milk Mode. - Rub the soda and cream through a fine sieve, and mix with the flour on the board; then rub in the butter and sugar, and make a bay. Break in the eggs, and add a few drops of essence of lemon and a little milk; wet into a nice dough, not too soft; divide into thirty pieces, and mould up into little cottage loaves under your hands, putting the tops on as you do so. When all are moulded up, wash over with egg; plate on to clean tins, and bake in a warm oven. When done,

Saleable Shop (oods

sell at id. each; or, instead of making only thirty, make sixty, and sell at two for id. The small ones may, perhaps, prove the most popular, and, if desired, you can make half of each kind.

• Fig. 1 5. -Salver of Biioche Loaves.

No. 29.- Penny Shortbreads.

2 lbs. flour. iX lbs sugar.

I lb. butter. 2 eggs.

Milk. Essence of lemon.

Colour. Dust volatile.

Mode, - Weigh the flour, sugar, and butter on to the board; add a few drops of essence, and about as much

Fig. 16. - Penny Shortbread.

volatile as you can lay on a sixpence, and rub together; make a bay, break in the eggs, add a little egg colour, and dough with milk. Be careful not to make it too

slack; let it lie for an hour; then scale off into J-lb. pieces, divide each piece into two, and mould up round under your hands. It will give you forty pieces. Now proceed to work them out into the oval shape peculiar to penny shortbread; crimp the edges with your fingers and thumb, and set them on to clean tins as you do so. Cut a thin slice of peel for the centre, press it firmly into the paste and bake very carefully in a very hot oven; a very few minutes will suffice. DotCt burn them. They are sometimes blocked out of impressions cut in wooden blocks for the purpose, as illustrated in Fig. 17, and then no peel is put on the centre.

4 lbs. flour. 1% lbs. butter. Milk.

Fig. 17.- Penny Shortbread Block.

No. 30.- Half-pensy Shortbreads.

2 lbs. sugar.

% oz. baking powder (No. 2). Essence of lemon. E colour. Mode, - Weigh the flour, powder, sugar and butter on to the board, and rub together with your hands; make a bay, pour in about a pint of milk, add sufficient egg

Fig. 18.- Plain Shprtbread Cutter.

Fig. 19. - Crinkled Shortbread Cutter.

colour to give it the right tint, and a few drops of essence of lemon, and wet up into a moderately tight paste, using

more milk if necessary. Let it lie for half-an-hour when wet up; then roll down in a sheet, and cut out with a plain or crinkled shortbread cutter (Figs. i8 and 19), plate on to clean tins and bake in a moderate oven. When done, stack on to wires for sale at two aid. If you prefer to cut them out with the plain cutter, you can pinch the edges, or better still depute the job to your apprentice for practice.

No. 31.- Scotch Buns.

2 lbs. flour. % lb. butter.

% lb. sugar. Yz lb. sultanas.

I oz. cream of tartar. % oz. carbonate of soda.

4 eggs. Milk.

Mode, - Weigh the flour, cream, and soda on to the board; make a bay, lay the sultanas around the outside, put the butter and sugar in the bay, and rub down till smooth; then add the eggs, a few drops of essence of lemon, and sufficient milk to make rather a firm dough, but not tight. Now divide the mixture into twenty-five long buns (see illustration, Fig. 20), laying them direct

Fig. 20.- Tin of Scotch Buns ready for the Oven.

from the board on to the tin as rough as possible. They should be about 5 ins. long. Wash slightly over with egg, taking care not to wash out the roughness of your buns; then dredge sugar over, and bake in a very hot oven on double tins. Sell at id.

FOR Counter- Tray and Window.

No. 32.- Cnrraat Oakes.

4 lbs. flour. ij lbs. sugar.

I lb. currants. ' lo ozs. butter.

I j ozs. cream of tartar. oz. carbonate of soda.

Essence of mixed spice. Milk.

Colour.

Mode. - Sieve the soda and cream through a fine sieve to the flour, and then well sieve to mix. Cream up the butter and sugar with some egg colour, add in a little milk, and beat in the same way as you would eggs. Mix in the flour, fruit, and essence with milk, and wet to a nice soft cake batter. Grease a clean flat tin, lay out from 30 to 50 round cake hoops, lining each hoop round with a strip of white paper. Spoon the mixture equally amongst the whole of the tins, dust slightly with sugar from a dredger, double tin, and bake in a warm oven. Be careful that you do not let the cakes take on too much colour in the oven. Sell at id. each.

No. 33.- Madeira Cakes.

iji lbs. soda flour (No. i). 4 lb. butter. 10 ozs. sugar. 5 eggs.

Essence of lemon. Milk.

Mode, - Cream up the butter and sugar, adding the eggs in the usual way; add a few drops essence, mix in the flour with milk, and lay out into round papered hopps, same as No. 32; dust sugar over, lay a thin strip of peel, and bake in a moderate oven. It will make from two to three dozen cakes, according to locality. Sell at id.

No. 34.- Gocoannt Oakes. Take the mixture No. 33, add a couple of ounces of desiccated cocoanut to the mixture, and lay out into papered hoops, same as before directed; sprinkle some desiccated cocoanut over, and bake in a warm oven. Sell at id. each.

No. 35.- Devonshire Cakes.

4 lbs. flour. I lb. butter,

iji lbs. sugar. i lb. currants.

I oz. carbonate of soda i oz. cream of tartar.

8 eggs. Milk.

Mode, - Weigh the flour, soda, and cream upon the board and mix; then add the butter and sugar, and rub together upon the board; make a bay and break in the eggs; add about i pint of milk, and wet it up by rubbing it well together with both your hands, adding more milk if required. It must be well rubbed. When finished, it is just like a very smooth cake batter; mix in the currants, and proceed to fill it into large size round crinkled tins with a palette knife, as shown in the illustration (Fig. 21);

Fig. 21. - How the Pans are filled with Batter for Devonshire Cakes

dust over with sugar, and bake in a warm over. Sell at I d. each. This mixture will make about four dozen cakes.

No. 36.- Ginger Oakes.

3 lbs. Vienna flour. % lbs. butter.

i lbs. sugar. % lb. ground ginger.

3 eggs. % pint milk.

Mode, - Rub the butter, sugar, flour, and ginger all together upon the board; make a bay, break in the eggs, add the milk and wet into a nice dough; let it lie for a short time. Roll down into sheets a quarter of an inch in thickness,' and cut out with a plain round cutter about four inches in diameter; as you cut them out, place on to clean greased tins, and bake in a warm oven. Do not, under any consideration, use volatile in these cakes, or you will spoil them. The goodness will impart sufficient lightness to these goods. During the winter months these cakes, as a rule, meet with ready sale, especially if you make them warm with ginger. A few drops of essence of lemon is by some called an improvement. Sell at id. each.

No. 37.- Cap Oakes.

2 lbs. soda flour (No. i). i lb. sugar.

lb. currants. ib. butter.

X lb. peel (cut fine). 10 eggs.

Mode, - Cream up the butter and sugar, beating in the eggs in the usual manner; mix in the flour, fruit, and peel with the milk to a nice batter, not too soft, and spoon into greased cup-pans; place on to flat tins and bake in a warm oven.

The cup-pans are made three or six riveted upon a sheet of tin (see illustration. Fig. 22). They are displayed

Fig. 22. - Cup Moulds on Plate.

in the windows round side uppermost, and have a very nice appearance; so be very careful with the baking. Sell at id. each.

No. 38.- Prince of Wales' Oakes.

Yz lbs. flour. 2 lbs. sugar.

% lb. lard. 6 ozs. ground rice.

yi ozs volatile. 3 eggs.

Mode, - Rub the fat and sugar into the flour upon the board, make a bay, and break in the eggs. Break the volatile down in a mortar with a little milk, turn into the bay, add sufficient milk to make into a nice workable dough. Scale into 4-oz. pieces, divide in two, and mould up round under your hands. When you have rolled them all up, roll out in lengths with your hands, tie into lover's knots of equal size, bash down with your hand, wash over with milk, turn on to dust lump sugar, place on to greased tins, and bake in a warm oven. These are a very large, attractive article, and look extremely nice and tempting for the money. Try them. Sell at id. each.

No. 39.-Swi8S Oakes.

2% lbs. flour. 6 ozs. lard.

i lb. sugar. I oz. volatile. Essence of lemon. % pint milk.

Mode, - Break the volatile down in a mortar with a little milk. Rub the butter and sugar into the flour upon the board; make a bay, break in the eggs, add the volatile t and milk, and wet into dough. Scale off into 4-oz. pieces, divide in two, mould up round, flatten out with your hand, mark in diamonds over their surfaces with a scraper; wash over with egg and milk, turn on to coarse granulated sugar; place on to clean greased tins, and bake in a warm oven. Sell at id. each, or, half the size, for halfpenny goods.

Fig 23.--Napoleon Cake Tin.

No. 40.- Napoleons.

1 lb. butter. I lb. sugar.

2 lbs. flour. 1% lbs. currants. X lb. peel. % oz. volatile. 10 eggs. Milk.

Mode,-Qt2im up the butter and sugar, adding the eggs in the usual way. Break the volatile down in a mortar with a little milk, and beat it well into the mixture; then mix in the flour and fruit, using sufficient milk to form a nice workable cake batter. Grease some Napoleon tins (see illustration. Fig. 23) and fill them with a palette knife, dredge a little sugar over and bake in a warm oven. This will make sixty cakes. Of course, should any mixture prove too large for your trade, it 5an be proportionately reduced. Sell at id. each.

No. 41.-Oitron Oakes.

zYz lbs. soda flour (No. i). 1%. lbs. sugar. I lb. butter. lo eggs.

Mode, - Cream up the butter and sugar in a pan, as previously directed, adding in the eggs; then mix in the flour, with milk, to a nice batter; grease some medium-sized citron cake pans (Fig. 24), and spoon the batter into them, or use a palette knife; dust over with sugar, lay a thin slice of citron peel on top, and bake in a warm oven. Sell at id. each.

Fig. 24.- Citron Cake Pan.

No. 42.- Berlin Oakes.

ZYz lbs. flour. iX lbs sugar.

% lb. butter. 2% lbs. currants.

2 ozs. baking powder (No. 2). Yz oz. ground mixed spice.

5 eggs. I quart milk.

Mode, - Sift the baking-powder well with flour on the board; rub in the butter, and make a bay; put in the sugar, lay the currants round the edge, break in the eggs, and wet into dough with the milk. Lay a sheet of paper over a clean flat tin, and lay out the mixture in sixty ovalshaped buns; dust slightly with some granulated sugar, lay on a thinly cut slice of peel, and bake in a hot oven. Sell at id. each.

No. 48.- Exhibition Cakes. 2% lbs. soda flour (No. i). %, lbs. sugar. lb. butter. % lb. currants.

5 eggs. Milk.

Mode, - Cream up the butter and sugar in the usual manner, adding in the eggs; mix in the flour and currants, with milk, to a nice cake-batter consistency;

then fill ordinary patty pans with a palette knife, and bake in a warm oven. Sell at id. each.

No. 44.- Bock Oakes. 2 lbs, Vienna flour. i lb. sugar.

i, lb. butter. %, lb. currants.

I oz. cream of tartar. % oz. carbonate of soda.

4 eggs. Milk.

Mode. - Sieve the soda, cream, and flour well tcether upon the board and make a bay, laying the currants round the outside; cream up the butter and sugar in a

Fig 25.- Working off Rock Cake?.

bowl, adding the eggs in the usual manner; when you have beaten it upjight, turn out into the bay, add milk, and make into dough, not too tight or too slack; lay out in twenty-five or twenty-eight rou buns upon a greased flat tin with forks, as shown in the illustration (Fig. 25); dredge sugar over, and bake in a very warm oven. Sell at id., or make half the size for Jd. ones.

No. 45.- Queen Cakes.

I lb. butter. i lb. sugar.

I lb. eggs (weighed in their 2i lbs flour, shells). I oz. volatile.

Milk. Essence of lemon.

Mode,- Break the volatile down in a mortar with a little milk; sieve the flour upon the board; cream up the butter and sugar, adding the gs in the usual manner; beat in the volatile and a few drops essence of lemon; mix in the flour with milk, and fill into id. or Jd. Queen Cake pans (see illustration, Fig. 26); sprinkle

Triangle.

Crescent. Square.

Heart.

Diamond.

Round.

Cutlet.

Hexagon. Oblong.

Fig. 26.- Queen Cake. Pans.

Cutlet.

a few currants on top, and bake in a warm oven. Sell at id. each, or use the smallest size pans for d. cakes.

No. 46.- Pomid Cakes.

1 lb. butter.

2 lbs. soda flour (Nj. i). ii lbs. cunants.

eggs. Essence of lemon.

i lbs. sugar.

I lb. plain flour,

X lb. peel.

Dust volatile.

Mode, - Sieve the flours together on the board; cream up the butter and sugar, adding the eggs; then mix in the other ingredients with milk to a nice cake batter; lay out into round papered hoops; dust sugar over, and bake in a moderate oven. Sell at id. each.

No. 47.- Brunswick Oakes. i lb. butter. lb. sugar,

i lbs. flour. 6 ots. currants.

M OS. volatile. 5 eggs.

Afode. - Break the volatile down in a mortar, with a little milk; sieve the flour on to the board; make a bay,, laying currants round; cream up the butter and sugar, adding the eggs; turn out into the bay, and wet up into dough. Scale off into J-lb. pieces; break into five; mould up round; bash down with the palm of your hand; wash over with egg and milk; turn on to dust lump sugar; place on to clean, greased tins; bake in a hot oven. Sell at id. each.

No. 48.- Bice Oakes.

2 lbs. flour. I lb, sugar.

)i lb. butter. oz. volatile.

6 eggs. Milk.

Mode, - Crtam up the butter and sugar, adding the eggs in the usual manner; mix in the volatile, broken down in a mortar, with a little milk; add a few drops of essence of lemon; mix in the flour with milk; lay out

Fig. 27.--Rice Cake Pan.

into deep round penny pans (see illustration. Fig. 27); dust over with a little semolina or sugar from a dredger; bake in a warm oven. Sell at id. each.

iX lbs. flour. )i lb. butter. ji oz, volatile. Essence of orange.

.- Orange Oakes.

( lb. sugar. X lb. ground rice. 4cggs. J4 pint milk. Little saffron.

Mode.- Weigh the flour upon the board; rub in butter and sugar; break the volatile down in a mortar; make a bay, break in the eggs, add the essence, and a few drops of saffron colouring, with the volatile and milk, and wet into dough. Scale off in 2-oz. pieces; divide in two; mould up round; place on to greased tins, and bake in a solid oven. Sell at id. each.

No. 50.- Albert Cakes.

% lbs. soda flour (No. i). %, lb. butter, lo ozs. sugar. 6 ozs. currants.

3 eggs. Milk.

Mode, - Cream up the butter and sugar, adding the eggs in the usual manner; mix in the flour and fruit with milk, and All into small round crinkled pans; dust sugar over from a dredger; lay a small slice of citron on each cake, and bake in a warm oven. Sell at id. each.

No. 51.- Brighton Oakes.

3 lbs. flour. iX lbs. sugar. r8 ozs. butter. i oz. volatile. 12 eggs. Milk.

Essence of lemon. Mode, - Break the volatile down in a mortar with a little milk; cream up the butter and sugar, adding the gs in the usual manner; add a few drops of essence of lemon; beat in the volatile, and mix in the flour with milk. Lay out in id. round-papered tins, dredge some sugar over, and sprinkle a few currants on top, and bake in a warm oven.

No. 52.- Ginger Oakes.

6 lbs. flour. 2 lbs. butter.

4 lbs. pulverized sugar. 6 ozs. ground ginger. 3 gills milk. Dust vol.

Mode. - Weigh the flour on to the board; rub in the butter and sugar; make a bay, put in the ginger and dust vol.; make into dough with the milk. Roll down in a sheet upon the board -in. thick, and cut out with a plain round cutter; place on to a clean greased tin, and bake in a warm oven. Keep stored in air-tight tins, or these cakes will go soft and spoil. Particular care must

be taken with the tins, as these cakes will pick up all the dirt left on them.

No. 53.- African Oakes.

lb. sHgar.

2 lbs. soda flour (No, i), 6 ozs. butter.

3 eggs.

Mode, - Cream up the butter and sugar, adding the eggs in the usual manner; mix in the flour with the milk, rather stiff, but not too tight; turn on to the board, dry over, and scale off into 5j-oz. pieces; divide in two; mould up round; flatten out under your hand; cut once

Fig. 28.- Penny African Cake.

across the top with a scraper; wash over with egg and milk, turn over on to coarse sugar-nibs, and place on to flat greased tins, and bake in a hot oven. Sell at id. each.

No. 54.--Ooffee Cream Oakes.

1% lbs. Vienna flour. 14 ozs. sugar. Milk.

% lb. butter.

4 eggs.

Essence of vanilla.

Mode, - Weigh the flour on to the board, and rub in the butter and sugar; make a bay, break in the eggs, add a few drops of flavouring essence, and wet up into a nice pliable paste; roll down into a thin sheet, and cut out into biscuits with a round crinkled cutter two inches in diameter, and as you cut them out set them on to clean flat tins and bake them rather pale in a moderate oven. When done, shoot off on to a wire and leave to get cold. While the biscuits are cooling make up the Butter Cream

No. 6; beat it up well, and flavour nicely with vanilla; then make up.

No. 55.- Ooffee Almond Paste.

% lb. fine caster sugar. X Ih ground sweet almonds.

2 ozs. cornflour. ggs

Coffee extract.

Mode. - Weigh the ground almonds, sugar, and cornflour on to the board, and mix them well together dry; make a bay, break in two or three eggs and add sufficient coffee extract to well flavour and colour, and wet up into a paste that can be handled nicely, regulating the number of gs according to their sifc. When wet up, roll down in a sheet and cut out, withthe same cutter used for the biscuits, just half the number of pieces as you did biscuits from the other paste, and as you cut them out set them aside. When you have the number, let them stand a short time; then take one of the biscuits, and spread over some of the prepared butter cream; place on the cream one piece of the coffee flavoured almond paste, and on that another biscuit spread with butter cream, and set them on to wires as you do them. When all are done, take some water icing coloured with a little coffee extract, and ice over the biscuits or cakes on the top with it; place a small, round, well roasted almond in the centre to imitate the coffee berry, and they are complete. Sell at id. each. Take care not to cut these biscuits too thick, and look to it that you do not catch the biscuits round the edges when you bake them, or they will eat bitter and have a very unpleasant appearance.

No. 56.- Seed Cakes.

3li lbs. soda flour (No. i).

j( lb. butter.

iX ls. sugar. 8 eggs. Carraway seeds.

Mode, - Weigh the flour on the board; make a bay; lay the seeds round; put the butter and sugar into the bay, and rub together till smooth, adding the eggs. When you have them all in, make into rather a soft dough or batter, with milk; fill into penny oval pans, with a

palette knife; sprinkle a few seeds over the top, then dredge some sugar over, and bake in a warm oven.

No. 57.- Shrewsbury Cakes.

2 lbs. Vienna flour. i lb. sugar.

j( lb. butter. i ok. volatile.

3 eggs. Milk.

Essence of lemon.

Mode, - Rub the butter and sugar into the flour; break the volatile down in a mortar with a little milk; break the eggs into the bay, add the volatile, a few drops of essence of lemon, and wet into dough with milk. Scale off into 5-0Z. pieces; divide into two; mould up round, and roll out into 3 in. lengths; flatten out with your hand; wash over with milk, turn on to dust lump sugar, plate on to clean, greased tins; lay a slice of citron peel on top, and bake in a warm oven. Sell at id. each.

No. 58.- Norwich Cakes. 2 lbs. flour. j( lb. sugar.

lb. butter. lb. currants.

I oz. cream of tartar. oz. carbonate of soda.

4 eggs. Milk.

Mode. - Sift the cream and soda into the flour upon the board; cream up the butter and sugar, adding in the eggs; then mix in flour and currants with milk, and fill into square greased pans, about 3 ozs. for each cake, and bake in a moderate oven. id. each.

Fig. 29.- Vicloiia Cake Pan.

No. 59.- Victoria Cakes. I lb. butter. i lb. sugar.

2j( lbs. flour. I oz. volatile.

8 eggs. Pint milk.

Mode, - Break down the volatile as previously

directed; cream up the butter and sugar in a pan, adding in the eggs; add the volatile, and a few drops of essence of lemon; put in the flour and make into batter with milk. Fill into round, crinkled pans with a palette knife, dust over with sugar, and sprinkle a few currants on top; bake in a warm oven. Sell at id. each.

No. 60.- Elgin Cakes.

1 ji lbs. flour. 6 ozs. suar.

4 ozs. butter. oz. baking-powder (N-j. 2),

2 eggs. Milk.

Mode, - Sift the baking-powder with the flour; make a bay, put in the butter and sugar, and- rub together till smooth, then break in the eggs; add the milk, and wet into a nice dough; divide into twenty-four pieces. Place them rough on tins, wash over with egg, sprinkle some coarse sugar over, and bake in a hot oven. It will be necessary to double tin these cakes, or they will burn and spoil at the bottom before they are cooked through. Sell at id. each.

Fig. 30. - Penny Lisburn Cakes (showing how folded up).

No. 61.- Lisburn Oakes.

2 lbs. flour. lb. butter. lb. sugar. 4 oz. volatile.

3 eggs. Milk.

Mode. - Break the volatile down in a mortar with a little milk; rub the butter and sugar into the flour on the

board and make a bay, break in the eggs, add the volatile, and sufficient milk to form rather a stiff paste, yet not tight. Scale off into 3-oz. pieces; mould up round under your hand; then roll out about, the size of a tea-saucer with your rolling-pin; lay a spot of apricot jam in the centre; then fold over each side to form squares, as shown in the illustration (Fig. 30); keep the folded side up, and wash over with egg and milk; turn on to dust loaf sugar, and place on to clean greased tins, nearly close together, allowing only just room for the cakes to swell, and bake in a moderately hot oven; take off the tins on to a wire with a palette knife; and sell at id. each.

Fig. 31. - Morton Sponge Cake Machine and Arm Beater for Butter Batters.

No. 62.- Nun's Oakes. I lb. soda flour (No. i). i lb. plain flour.

iX lbs. sugar.

I lb. butter.

whites of eggs.

Essence of cinnamon.

M0de, - Sieve the flours together upon the board; cream up the butter and sugar in a bowl, addipg in the egg whites, the same as you would whole eggs; beat in the essence of cinnamon; then mix in the flours with milk; fill into shallow patty pans, dust over with sugar, and bake in a warm oven. Sell at id. each.

No. 63.- Alexander Cakes.

I lb. butter. iX lbs. sugar.

2i lbs. soda flour (No. i). i lb. sultanas. % lb. chopped lemon peel. lo eggs. Milk.

Mode, - Cream up the butter and sugar, adding in the eggs in the usual manner; mix in the flour, currants, and peel, and mix into batter with milk; lay out on to greased tins in rather rough buns, about 3 ozs. in each one; dust sugar over, lay on a slice of citron peel, and bake on double tins in a hot oven. Sell at id. each.

No. 64.-Batter Cakes.

I do not know why these are called butter cakes, unless it is to prove the rule of contrariness, as they contain no butter.

3 lbs. flour. lb. lard. 2 OZS. carbonate of sod?

1 %, lbs. sugar.

2 OZS. ground mixed spice. Milk.

Mode. - Rub the lard, sugar, and soda into the flour upon the board; mix in the spice; make a bay, and pour in sufficient milk to make a nice workable dough. Let it lie a short time on the board; then roll down in sheets and cut out ith a plain round cutter; place on to greased tins, wash over with milk, and bake in a moderate oven. Keep in airtight tins or show glasses, or they will go soft on exposure to the air. Each cake should weigh, when baked, about 2 J ozs. Sold at id. each.

No. 65.- Dover Cakes.

I lb. sur.

lb. plain flour.

X lb. peel.

Spice.

Mode. - Sift the flours together upon the board; add th fruit and peel; break the eggs into a bowl; cream up the butter and sugar in a bowl, adding the eggs in the usual manner; add a few drops of essence of lemon, and

I lb. butter.

I lb. £oda flour (No. l).

I lb. currants.

eggs.

Essence of lemon.

about as much spice as you could lay on a sixpence, just enough to flavour, without colouring the mixture. Thea mix in fruit, peel, and flour with milk, to a nice workable batter; fill it out into penny round Dover cake pans; set on to a tin, and bake to a nice colour in a moderate oven. Sell at id. each, seven for 6d., or four for 3jd.

No. 66.- Osborne Oakes. I lb. sugar. i lb. flour.

I lb. eggs (weighed in their Esse ace of pear, shells).

Mode, - Put the sugar into a mixing bowl or sponge cake machine, and break in the eggs; beat well for about twenty minutes, then add a few drops of the essence.

Fig. 32.- CiiDkled Dariole Mould.

and mix in the flour; butter some small crinkled dariole moulds, and dust them out the same as you would for id. sponge cake; then fill in a spoonful of the mixture; set on to flat baking plates, and bake to a nice colour in a moderate oven, taking care that the cakes do not take on too much colour. Sell at id. each.

No. 67.- Leamingtons. % lb. butter. i lb. sugar.

% lb. soda flour (No. i). lb. plain flour.

6 ozs. currants. 2 ozs. peel.

6 eggs. Milk.

Mode, - Sift the flours together on the board, add the fruit and peel chopped fine; break the eggs into a pot; cream up the butter and sugar in a bowl, adding the

eggs in the usual manner, and a few drops of essence of lemon. Then mix in the flour, fruit, and peel, using sufficient milk to form a nice workable cake batter; fill

Fig. 33. - Leamington Pan.

it into the ordinary long penny Leamington cake pans; dredge sugar over, and bake in a moderate oven. Sell at id. each.

No. 68.- Albert Ga.kes.

2 lbs. flour. j( lb. sugar.

i lb. butter. lb. currants.

1 oz. volatile. 2 eggs.

Modg. - Break the volatile down in a little milk in a •mortar; rub the butter, sugar, and flour together on the board; make a bay, break in the eggs, add the volatile, and wet into dough with milk. Scale off into 8-oz.

Fig. 34.- Turning Albert Cakes on to Sugar Nibs.

pieces; divide into four, and mould up round under your hand; flatten out on the board; wash over with milk, and turn on to rather coarse sugar nibs; place on to greased tins, lay a slice of lemon peel on top, and bake in warm oven. Sell at id. each.

No. 69.- Bristol Cakes.

1 lb. sugar. lb. butter,

2 lbs. jioda flour (No. i). 6 ozs. currants. 6 ozs. sultanas. 4 eggs.

Mode, - Cream up the butter and sugar in the usual manner, adding in the eggs; then mix in the flour and fruit with milk to a nice cake-batter consistency; and fill into ordinary large, square penny pans; strew a handful of chopped blanched almonds over; dredge with sugar; place on a flat tin; and bake in a warm oven. When done, sell at id. ekch. Should almonds happen to be dear, as they sometimes are, you can use those . nuts so much liked by juveniles, called monkey nuts, blanched and chopped the same as almonds.

No. 70.- Duchess Cakes. I lb. butter. i lb. sugar.

'i lb. soda flour. lb. plain flour.

i lb. pineapple chips. % lb. angelica.

8 eggs. Milk.

Fig. 35.- Penny Duchess Cake.

Mode. - Chop up the crystallised pineapple chips and angelica into pieces about the size of peas; sieve "the flours together on the board; cream up the butter and sugar, beating in the eggs; then add a few drops of essence of vanilla; mix in the flour and 'fruit to ordinary cakebatter consistency with milk; fill into round. pans with a palette knife, place oh to flat tins, and bake to a pale colour in a moderate oven. When done, turn out on to a wire; and when cold ice over with Vienna Icing No. 6, spreading it pn quite thin . and smooth; then put some of the icing, coloured pink, into a bag with a

star tube, and decorate the ckes with festooas round the edges; lay a cherry in the centre. Sell at id. each.

No. 71.- Kensington Cakes,

2 lbs. soda floar. lo ozs. butter.

ozs.. sugar. 8 ozs. sultanas.

6 6z. currants. 4 ozs. pe:l.

6 eggs. Milk.

Mode, - Weigh the flour, fruit, and peel on to the board, cutting the peel up ratfier fine; cream up the butter and sugar, adding the eggs in the usual manner; mix in the flour and fruit with milk butter out some medium-sized round patty pans, and fill them with the mixture, using a palette knife for that purpose; dust over with sugar, lay a thin slice of peel on the top, set them on a baking-plate, and bake in a moderate oven. Sell at id. each.

No. 72.- Italian Oakes.

I %, lbs. Vienna flour. i H. sugar.

% lb. butter. X • volatile.

a eggs. Milk.

Fig. 36.--Penny Italian Cake.

Mode, - Breaks the volatile down in a mortar with a little milk; rub the butter and sugar into the flour upon the board; make a bay, break in the eggs, add a few drops of vanilla, the milk, vol., and wet into a nice pliable dough. Scale off into 5-oz. pieces, divide in two, and mould up round under your, hand; flatten out with a rolling-pin, and lay in a spoonful of marmalade; fold over, turnover fashion, and pinch round the outside edges with your fingers", the same as for shortbread; place on to clean, greased tins as you do them; wash Over

with milk and dredge sugar over; bake in a warm oven. Sell at id. each.

No. 73.- Gtordon Ca.kes.

3 lbs. flour. I lb, sugar.

lb. batter. i lb. sultanas.

1 oz. volatile. 3 eggs.

Mode. - Rub the butter, sugar, and flour well together upon the board; make a bay in the centre; break in the eggs; add the volatile, broken down in a mortar, with a little milk, a wee pinch of spice; and wet up into a nice workable dough with milk. Let it lie for a few minutes; then divide into four pieces, and roll- each piece out into sheets, 5 ins. wide and 16 ins. long; wash over with water, dust slightly with sugar, and then divide the sultanas equally all round; sprinkle them upon the sugared sheets, roll up, Swiss-roll fashion, and cut off pieces with a sharp . knife, making sixty-four pieces altogether; lay them on to clean greased tins, allowing plenty of room for them to spread; splash with water, dredge sugar over, and bake in a warm oven. Sell at id. each.

No. 74.- Penny Turkish Cakes.

2)4 lbs. flour. I lb. sugar.

lb. butter. i cz. baking-powder (No. 2).

8 eggs. Milk.

Mode, - Sieve the baking-powder well with the flour on the board; cream up the butter and sugar; add the eggs in the usual manner; mix in the flour, with milk, to a nice cake-batter consistency. Have some small, deep, crescent-shaped tins, and flU them with about 2 ozs. of the mixture; dust sugar over from the dredger, lay a thin slice of citron peel on top, and bake in a warm oven.

No. 75.- Gocoanut Cakes.

2 lbs. soda flour (No. i). i lb, sugar.

lb. butter. X ' desiccated cocoanut.

4 eggs. Milk.

Mode. - Cream up the butter and sugar in a bowl, adding the eggs in the usual manner; mix in the flour

and cocoanut, with milk, to a proper consistency; fill into id. round papered hbops, set on a clean flat tin; sprinkle a little desiccated cocoanut over the top, and bake in a warm oven. This mixture will make fortytwo cakes.

No. 76.- Favourites.

2 lbs. flour. lb. sogar.

4 Ih butter. lb. currants.

X lb. cherries. X 1 Pl

X OS. baking-powder (No 2). 6 eggs.

Mode.-Creaim up the butter and sugar, adding the eggs,, as usual; cut up the cherries and peel rather fine; sieve the baking-powder with the flour; mix flour, fruit, and peel in the bowl, with milk, to cake-batter consistency; butter ordinary penny Leamington pans, dust out with flour, and fill them about three-parts full with a palette knife; dredge sugar over, and bake in a moderate oven. Sell at id. each.

Fig. 37.- Penny Cinnamon Cake.

No. 77.- Oinnamon Cakes.

iX Ibi flour. i lb. sugar.

6 OES. butter. 4 ozs. golden syrup.

i OS. baking-powder (No. 2). j oz. cinnamon.

Mode, - Cream the butter, sugar and treacle well in a bowl; sieve the baking-powder with the flour; add the spice into the butter and sugar; mix the flour in with milk, and spoon out into square greased tins, about 2 ozs. for id. cakes; lay half a blanched almond on top, and bake in a moderate oven. Sell at id. each.

No. 78.- Balderstone Cakes.

I lb. flour. )i lb. sugar.

6 ozs. butter. oz. baking-powder (No 2).

I egg. Milk.

Mode. - Sieve the baking-powder into the flour; rub butter and sugar into the flour on the board; make a bay, break in the egg, add milk, and make into dough. Roll down in a sheet, and cut with ordinary shortbread cutter; thin out a little, lay a spoonful of mincemeat in the centre, fold over turnover fashion, wash over with milk, turn on to dust loaf sugar, place on to greased tins, and bake in a warm oven.

No. 79.- Cuban Cakes.

4 lbs. flour.

lb. butter.

4 z- carbonate of soda.

i lbs. sugar.

I oz. cream of tartar.

Fig 38.- Cutting out Cuban Cakes with Ring Paste Cutter.

Mode. - Mix the cream and soda with the flour on the board; make a bay, put in the butter and sugar, and rub together till quite smooth; then wet up into rather a firm dough with milk. Let it lie for a short time, then roll down in sheets, and cut out with a 4-in. ring cutter, as shown in the illustration (Fig 38); wash over with milk, and turn on to desiccated cocoanut; place on to clean greased tins; bake in a warm oven. When done, sell at id. each.

These cutters are now very reasonable in price, and

can be had for either rings, as illustrated, with plain or crinkled edges, oval and square - a very great boon for soft or hard doughs.

If you have no ring cutter, cut out the cakes with a 4-in. cutter, and then take out the centres with a smaller one, thus making them into rings.

No. 89.Imperials.

iX lbs. sugar. iX lbs. flour,

lo eggs.

Mode, - Beat the sugar and eggs with a wire egg-whisk, the same as sponge cakes, till they are very thick; then mix in the flour with your hand j put the batter into a savoy or lady's finger bag, and lay out on paper, crescent shape, taking care to have them all alike as nearly as

Fig. 39.- Penny Imperials.

possible. When you have laid out the whole of the batter, dust sugar over, then shake oflf all surplus sugar, put on to clean tins, and bake to a nice colour, without drying, in a warm oven. When done, lay the cakes face downward upon a clean sack, laid over the board, and, with a brush and hot water, damp the back of the paper two or three times, when the cakes will easily come off the paper. Lay them aside on a wire to dry for a short time, then spread one cake with a little apricot jam, and set another one upon it, making one from two. When you have fixed them all together, melt some of the Fondant Icing (No. 5) in a small stewpan, and colour it a pale yellow, flavoured pine - it should be pretty liquid. Fix each of the cakes separately upon a fork or skewer, and plunge them into the fondant; drain for a little, and

then set them on wires. When you have gladd or masked them, and all surplus icing is drained away, leaving your cakes comparatively dry, set them on to a clean wire or tray, and with a little ordinary cake icing, coloured pink, decorate the top or best side with neat designs, put on with a small tube and bag. Sell at id. each.

Any other kind of preserve can be used for sandwiching them together. The cakes, when finished, should be about 4 ins. long and i J ins. wide.

Fig. 40.- Plain and Crinkled Dariole Moulds.

No. 81.- Penny Balmorals.

I lb. sugar. i lb. flour.

eggs. Mode, - Beat the sugar and eggs well together in a sponge-cake machine for about twenty minutes; when well up, mix in the flour, and spoon it into small, crinkled dariole moulds (Fig. 40), and bake in a moderate oven.

Fig. 41. - How to Ice the Sides of Criterion Cakes.

No. 82.- Criterion Oa.kes. Take the mixture given in No. 8i; grease plain dariole moulds with butter, and dust them out with sugar and

flour, the same as for sponge cakes; drop a few finely chopped cherries and pistachio kernels into each tin; lay a spoonful of the batter on top; set on a thick sheet of paper on a flat tin, and bake in a moderate oven. When done, turn out on to a wire to cool; melt a little Fondant (No. 5) in a jar, colour it pink with a little carmine, and flavour rose. Now take each cake separately in your hand, and mask over the sides only with the fondant icing, using a brush for the purpose (see illustration. Fig. 41); set them, as you mask them, upon a wire to drain, laying a clean sheet of paper under to catch any surplus icing that may run ofl". Sell at id. each.

No. 83.- Vanilla Cakes. I lb. butter. i lb. sugAr.

I lb. eggs (weighed in their i lbs. soda flour (No. i). shells). Essence of vanilla.

Mode, - Cream up the butter and sugar in a pan, adding the eggs in the usual manner; mix in sufficient essence to flavour pretty strong, as it bakes out very much; add the flour, and wet into ordinary cake-batter consistency with milk. Butter some large oval crinkled patty pans and fill in the mixture with a palette knife; dust over with a coarse granulated sugar, and bake in a moderate oven.

Fig. 42.- Penny Portugal Cake. No. 84.- Portugal Cakes.

7 lbs. flour. 3 lbs. moist sugar (light).

2 lbs. currants. i % lbs. butter and lard.

2 ozj. volatile. 10 eggs.

Pint miik.

Mode, - Rub the butter into the flour on the board, and

make a bay in the centre; break the volatile down in a mortar, with a little milk; put the sugar in the bay, lay the currants round, break in the eggs, pour in the volatile and milk, and wet into dough. Let it lie for a short time; then scale off into i-lb. pieces. Break seven out of each lump, and mould up round; flatten out to oval shape under your hand, and mark them crossways, with a scraper, on top; wash over with milk and egg, turn on to coarse loaf sugar, place on to clean greased tins, and bake in a hot oven. Sell at id. each.

Fig. 43. - Morton's Improved " Griffiths' Sponge Cake Machine.

No. 85.- Setar Cakes. Ji lb. butter. i lb. sugar

iji lbs. soda fiour (No. i). lb. ginger chips. 3 eggs. Milk.

Mode, - Mince up the ginger chips rather fine; cream up the butter and sugar, mixing in the eggs, then add the ginger chips and flour; wet to cake-batter consistency with milk; spoon it into ordinary round penny cake hoops, papered; sprinkle some fine sugar over from a dredger, and bake in a warm oven on double tins, and sell at id. each.

No. 86.- Hastings Favourites.

I lb. batter. I X lbs. flour. Milk.

I lb. sugar.

VoUUle. Essence of lemon.

Mode, - Cream up the butter and sugar, adding the eggs in the usual manner; add a few drops of essence and just as much volatile as you can lay on a sixpence without spilling mix in the flour with a little milk; put the mixture into a savoy bag having a large tube, and lay out on to paper in cakes 3 ins. long, and about I Yz ins. wide. Bake in a warm oven to a nice golden colour. When done, take from the paper by damping, and ice over the flat side with a little Fondant Icing (No. 5), flavoured with a little oil of lemon. Sell at id. each.

No. 87.- MalTom Cakes.

% lb. butter. i lb. sugar.

i lbs soda flour (No. i). i lb. plain flour,

% lb. sultanas. % lb. peel.

6 eggs. Milk.

Mode. - Sieve the flours together upon the board, weigh the sultanas, and shred up the peel rather fine; cream up the butter and sugar; add in the eggs. When well beaten, mix in the flour and fruit with milk to cakebatter consistency; then have ready some large shallow cake rings, a little smaller than muffin hoops, say 3 ins. in diameter, and put about 3 ozs. of the batter into each; spread it out thin with a palette knife, and sprinkle a few sugar plums upon the top. Bake in a warm oven; they will not require much baking. When done, loosen them from the tin with a palette knife, and sell at id. each.

No. 88.- Derby Cakes.

Take the previous given mixture, leaving out the fruit and peel; lay out the rings upon a clean greased baking plate, lay a diamond cut from orange peel in the centre, and sprinkle a few currants round it; lay in the batter, and thin it out smooth with the palette knife. Bake in a warm oven. Sell at id. each.

No. 89.- PalBrce Cakes. 2 lbs. Vienna flour. i lb. butter.

I lb. sugar. i( lbs. currants.

X lb. drained orange peel. i oz. baking powder (No. 2). 8 eggs. Milk.

Fig. 44.- Salver of Palace Cake.

Mode. - Sieve the baking-powder, with the flour, upon the board; cut up the peel rather small; weigh down the currants upon the flour; cream up the butter and sugar, adding the eggs, as previously directed. When well beaten, mix in the flour, fruit, and peel to proper consistency with milk, and spread on a flat tin, covered with white paper, and having a wooden frame fitted all round the inside edges of the tin. It should be about I in. thick when baked. Sprinkle finely-chopped al

monds thickly over the top, and bake in a moderate oven. When baked and cold, cut up into 2-in. squares, pile up on a salver, as shown in the illustration (Fig. 44), and sell at id. each, or, if you like, lod. per lb.

No. 90.- Olevelaad Cakes.

yi lb. sugar.

4 ozs. currants.

oz. baking-powder (No. 2).

1% lbs. flour. 6 ozs. butter. 2 ozs. peel. 2 eggs.

Mode. - Sieve the baking-powder, with the flour, on to the board; make a bay, put in the butter and sugar, lay the fruit round, and the peel chopped fine; break in the eggs, and rub till quite smooth; then add sufficient milk to form a nice paste, not too tight. Lay a sheet of paper over a clean greased tin, and lay the mixture out in thirty-two oval cakes, using a spoon to put them into shape j dredge a little fine sugar over from a dredger, lay on a slice of peel and two or three split almonds, and bake in a warm oven. Sell at id. each.

No. 91.- Apricotines,

I V lbs- sugar. iX lbs. eggs.

1% lbs. flour. Essence of lemon.

Mode, - Take a clean pot; balance it on your scales; then put on the i % lbs., and proceed to break the eggs. When you have the quantity required, turn them into a sponge-cake machine, warm, and add the sugar, and then beat well up in the usual manner. When well beaten up, take out and drain the wires, clean off with your hands, sieve and mix in the flour. Put the batter into a savoy bag, and lay out on to sheets of paper in round drops about the size of an egg; dust over with sugar, take hold of the two corners of the sheet of paper nearest to you, and shake off all surplus sugar; lay the sheets of cakes upon flat tins, and bake in a warm oven, taking care not to dry them. When done, remove from the paper by damping the back of the paper with water the same as you would ordinary savoy fingers, and as you remove them set them on to wires, keeping each one separate.

byGaogle

When you have taken them all off the papers, take some apricot jam, spread it over the flat sides, and sandwich together, and set on to wires. When all. are sandwiched together, divide them into three equal lots; make up some Water Icing (No. 7). Leave it white, and ice over one lot of them with it. The easiest and best way to ice them is to take up the biscuit in your left hand, and then spread some of the icing over one side with a small palette knife; just spread it over the top, and do

Fig. 45. - Morton Whisk for Hand Power, showing the Wires partly withdrawn.

not trouble to ice all over the top, and as you ice them return them to the wire; place half a cherry on the centre of the icing, and they are complete. Now to the icing add a few spots of carmine, and ice another lot over with the pink icing, placing a small cut cube of glac6 pineapple in the centre. Now colour the remainder of the

icing with some chocolate colour, and ice over the remainder of the " Apricotines " with it; place a quarter of a shelled walnut in the centre, and they are complete. Sell at id. each.

No. 92.- Mascottes. Take the same mixture given for "Apricotines" (No. 91), and prepare it in the same way as there directed, and when the batter is ready put it into a savoy bag, having a slightly smaller tube than used for the other goods, and lay the batter out on to sheets of paper in the shape of a horseshoe, keeping them as even as possible and not too large, and when you have filled the sheet, sugar over, take hold of the corners and shake off all surplus sugar; put on to clean tins and bake in a moderate oven. When done, turn over on to a clean cloth or sack; damp the paper with some water and take them off; lay them aside separately, and when you have removed all of them, sandwich two of them together with a little greengage jam. When sandwiching these together, a little time spent on pairing them will add considerably to the appearance of the finished article. When all are sandwiched together, take some Water Icing (No. 7), coloured chocolate and flavoured vanilla, and ice them over on one side; set them on a wire as you ice them over, and lay a sheet of paper under to save any icing that might drain off. When you have iced them all over, you must make up some ordinary cake icing, and colour portions of it pink, green and yellow, leaving some of it white; now pipe some small pink and white roses, and set one of each on the centre of the Mascottes, and with the other coloured icing put in some foliage and one or two other flowers. The idea being just to get just a small spray of flowers on the centre or toe of the horseshoe, and when you have done them all stack on to a salver when dry, and sell at 2d. each. If you cannot pipe the roses, they can be obtained from the wholesale houses at a fairly cheap rate, and the roses being ready the veriest novice with a little taste can make them look very neat and effective.

No. 93.Elidmey8, or Bognons.

These are made from the same batter, and are nearly the same shape as the " Mascottes," but not quite, the idea being to get them as near the shape of an ordinary sheep kidney as you can. They are laid out on to paper from a plain round tube, giving just a squeeze, then a twist, and another squeeze, which will form the two fat ends. Don't make them too large. When you have laid them all out, sugared over, and baked, take them off the paper, and sandwich two together with plum and apple jam. When all have been sandwiched, proceed to ice them over on one side, which, of course, should be that which is most like a kidney, with some Water (No. 7) or Fondant (No. 5) Icing coloured chocolate and flavoured vanilla; set them on wires to drain, and when dry, take some of the butter cream or Vienna Icing (No. 6), keep it white, and from a paper corney lay a spot of the cream in between the two fat ends of your kidneys. If carefully done, you will have a very excellent imitation of a sheep's kidney.

No. 94.- Penny Clarendon Oakes.

4 lbs. flour i lbs. sugar.

j( lb. butter. 2 lbs. currants.

X lb. peel. 2 ozs. cream of tartar.

1 oz. carbonate of soda. 6 eggs.

Modi, - Sieve the cream and soda into the flour on the board, weigh the currants, and shred up the peel very fine; cream up the butter and sugar, adding the eggs in the usual manner; mix in the flour, fruit, and peel, with milk, to a cake-batter consistency; have some extra large penny cake hoops laid on a tin and .papered, fill in about 4 ozs. of the batter for each cake, dredge sugar over, and bake in a warm oven. A little egg colour will be found a great improvement:

No. 95.- Brighton Oakes.

2 lbs. flour. lb. sugar. lb. butter. i oz. volatile.

Mode, - Break the volatile down in a mortar with a

FOR Counter- Tray and Window.

little milk; rub the butter and sugar into the flour; make a bay, pour in the milk and volatile, and wet into a dough. Let it lie for a couple of days, and then roll down in sheets, about in. thick; dock all over the sheet with a " captain " docker, and cut out with a 3-in. crinkled cutter; place on to greased tins, wash over with milk, and bake in a warm oven. Sell at id. each.

No. 96. -Triangle Gakes.

1 lb. flour. ij lbs. fine wholemeal )i lb. butter. lb. sugar.

2 OES. baking-powder (No. 2 eggs.

2). Milk.

Mode, - Sieve the baking-powder with the flour, and mix thoroughly with the wholemeal on the board; make a bay, put in the butter, sugar, and eggs, and then rub till quite smooth; then add milk, and wet into rather a soft paste. Scale off" into J-lb. pieces, divide in three, and

Fig. 46. -Penny Triangle Cake.

mould up round under your hand, flatten them out with a rolling-pin, and fold up, " Coventry " fashion, as shown in the illustration (Fig. 46); keep the folded side upwards; wash over with egg, place on to clean greased tins, nearly close together, and bake in a moderate oven. When done, sell at id. each.

No. 97.- Oriental Oakeg.

I lb. sugar. 14 ozs. flour.

eggs. Essence of lemon.

Mode, - Beat up the sugar and eggs in a bowl or machine, the same as for sponge cakes; then mix in the

flour, and spread it over a sheet of paper; spread over a clean tin; bake in a warm oven. When done, turn it off the paper on to a clean sack laid on the board; go over with the wash-brush, dipped in hot water, and remove the paper; spread some apricot preserve over the sheet, and roll it up tightly, the same as for " Swiss roll "; roll it in the sack to kee it in round form, and stand aside till next day. Then prepare the Vienna Icing (No. 6), and cut up the roll into 2-in. sections, standing them upon one end. Now take the Vienna icing, and thinly mask each section over with it; then roll in desiccated cocoanut, coloured pink, and it is ready for sale at id. each.

Fig. 47.- Penny Oriental Cake.

In some localities there would be very little trouble in obtaining double this price for them, and I would advise you to get it if you can.

No. 98.- Penny Langley Cakes.

2 lbs. flour. lb. sugar.

6 czs. butter. 5 ozs. currants,

j oz. volatile. 2 tgg.

Mode, - Break the volatile down in a mortar with a little milk; rub the butter and sugar into the flour; make a bay, lay the currants round, break in the eggs, add the volatile, and sufficient milk to form a workable paste, not too tight. Scale off in 7-oz. pieces, divide in two, mould up round under your hand, lengthen them out, pointed at each end, flatten under the pin, fold over both ends to the centre; press slightly to keep the paste in position; wash over with milk; turn on to dust sugar, and place on to greased tins. Bake in a warm oven.

No. 99.- Penny Datch Oakes. 2 lbs. ordinary bread dough. X ' sugar. j4 lb. butter. % lb. black treacle.

Essence of lemon. Spice.

Mode. - Spread the bread dough over the board; lay on the butter, sugar, and treacle, and rub it well till it forms a smooth, compact mass; then add the spice and essence, and thoroughly well mix. Now prepare about thirty small dome-shaped pans by greasing, and fill the

Fig. 48.- Salver of Penny Dutch Cakes.

mixture into them; stand them on a baking-plate; let them prove, and then bake in a moderate oven. When done, turn out upon a wire, dust sugar over from a dredger, and sell at id. each.

No. 100.- Clippard Cakes. 7 lbs. flour. 2 lbs. sugar.

I lb. lard. 2 ozs. volatile.

Mode. -Break the volatile down in a mortar with a little milk; rub the fat and sugar into the flour on the board; make a bay, turn in the dissolved volatile and wet into dough with milk. Let it lie for a while; then roll down in sheets, and cut out with a large, plain, round cutter; wash over with milk, and turn on to coarse granulated sugar;

plate on to greased tins, and bake in a warm oven. When done, sell at id. each. These goods are rather common; but if you get them up nicely and take pains, they have a remarkably good appearance, and, after all, it is the appearance that sells them.

No. 101.- Lavington Oakes.

3 lbs. 'flour. I lb, sugar.

ji lb. butter. j lb. currants.

ii ozs. baking powder 3 eggs.

(No. 2). Milk.

Fig, 49.- Morton Sponge Cake Machine for Power.

Mode. - Sieve the baking-powder well with the flour upon the board; make a bay, put in the sugar and butter, add a few drops essence of lemon, break in the eggs and wet into a nice, soft, free dough with milk. Shape up about 24 ozs. of the dough with a spoon on the board,

and lay it upon clean greased tins; lay a thin slice of i orange peel upon each cake, and bake in a moderate oven. When done, sell at id. each.

No. 102.Tavi8tock Oakes.

2( lbs. soda floor (No. i). lb. sugar.

4 lb. butter. i oz. mixed spice.

3 eggs. • Milk.

Mode. - Cream up the butter and sugar in a pan with the ground spice; add the eggs in the usual manner; then mix in the flour vrith milk, and fill into large round crinkled pans with a palette knife; dust sugar over, and bake in a warm oven. Sell at id. each.

No. I03.-Baston Cakes. I lb. sugar. i lb. flour.

lo eggs.

NOT£S.

Fig. 50.- Penny Easton Cake.

Mode, - Beat up the sugar and eggs same as for sponge cakes; and then mix in the flour; roll down a sheet of puflfpaste trimmings, and cover the bottom of a baking-plate with it (the space covered should be about 15 ins. by 27 ins.); upon the top of the paste sprinkle rather thickly 3 lbs. of currants, and then on top of that spread the sponge cake batter, and bake in a moderate oven. When done, stand aside to get cold; then cut up into

2-in. diamonds; ice over with Water Icing (No. 7), and sell at id. each section.

No. 104.- Penny Adelaide Oakes.

ii lbs. flour. % lb. sugar.

6 ozs. .butter. 6 ozs. currants.

% oz. volatile. 2 eggs.

Milk. Mode. - Rub the butter and sugar into the flour; add the currants; make a bay, break in the eggs, add the volatile in fine powder, with sufficient milk to form a nice dough; roll down in sheets, and cut out with a round crinkled cutter; place on to greased tins, and bake in a warm oven. When done, remove from the tins with a palette knife; then give the flat side a thin coating of Water Icing (No. 7), coloured pink and flavoured rose.

Fig. 51. - Tin of Coda Cakes proved and baked.

No. 106.- Ooda Oakes. 4 lbs. of ordinary bun )i lb. sugar,

dough (No. 213). lb. butter.

I lb. sultanas. 4 yolks of eggs.

Elssence of lemon.

Mode. - Spread the bun dough out on the board; lay the butter and sugar in the centre; break in the yolks; and rub together upon the board till it is a smooth mass, then add a few drops of essence of lemon and mix in the

sultanas; scale oflf into 5-oz. pieces; divide into two, and mould up round under your hand; set them on to a highedge tin-crummy (see illustration, Fig. 51); dab each one as you put it into position, with a little clean fat, to prevent them sticking together; wash over with egg and milk; prove and bake in a moderate oven. When done, sell at id. each.

No. 106.Timi8 Oakes.

ij lbs. flour. lb. sugar.

Z8. butter. oz. baking-powder (No. 2).

X oz. volatile. 2 eggs.

Mode, - Sieve the baking-powder well with the flour; break the volatile down in a mortar with a little milk; cream up the butter and sugar, adding the volatile and eggs in the usual manner. Then mix in the flour with milk to a nice free cake-batter consistency; grease a clean flat tin, and lay the batter out in gieces weighing about 2j4 ozs. each; wash them carefully over with egg, brushing them up to the centre, and bake in a warm oven. Sell at id. each.

No. 107.-aibraltar Oakes.

ilbs. soda flour (No. i), lb. sugar. 4 lb. butler. 3 eggs.

Mode, - Cream up the butter and sugar in the usual manner, beating in the eggs; then add the flour, and wet into cake-batter consistency with milk. Have some long, deep, oval pans buttered; strew a few currants into the tins and lay a good large spoonful of the batter on top; then strew over some coarse sugar nibs, and bake in a warm oven. Sell at id. each.

No. 108.-Penn7 MUk Oakes.

2 lbs. bread dough. X b. butter.

2 ozs. sugar.

Mode, - Rub the butter and sugar into the dough upon the board till it forms a smooth compact mass; then let it lie aside for one hour; at the end of that time give it a good knock over on the board, and when it has recovered

' itself, scale it off into 7-oz. pieces, divide in half and mould up round; flatten out with a rolling-pin to 4 ins. in diameter, set them on clean tins; dock three or four times with a fork, and prove in a steam press. When well proved, wash over with white of egg, and bake; when half baked, turn over (see illustration, Fig. 52) and

I finish baking upside down. When done, take off the tins and pile, glazed side upwards. These are a very

' tasty kind of teacake, and are usually split in half, toasted and buttered in the same way as muffins.

Fig. 52.- Turning Milk Cakes when half cooked. No. 109.- Edinburffh Cakes.

I lb. butter.

I lb. sugar.

2 lbs. soda flour (No. i).

lb. currants.

Mode, - Weigh the flour

lb. sultanas. X lb. peel. 8 eggs. Milk.

and fruit upon the board;

shred up the peel, lemon and orange, very fine; break the eggs; cream up the butter and sugar in a bowl; add the eggs two at the time, beating them well in; then mix in the flour and fruit, with sufficient milk to form a cake batter. Have ready some small square cake pans, about half as large again as sponge-cake frames, and the same shape, and put in about 3 ozs. of the mixture into each; flatten out a little with a palette knife, and sprinkle about a dozen red and white sugar-plums over each cake; and bake in a moderate oven. Sell at id. each; excellent

value. In baking, be very careful not to dry the cakes in the oven.

No. 110.- Scotch Oakes.

i4 lbs. flour. oz. baking-powder (No. 2).

I lb. sugar. 3 egs.

ji lb. butter. Milk.

Mode, - Sieve the baking-powder with the flour on the board; make a bay, put in the sugar and butter, and rub together till smooth; then add the eggs, a wee drop of milk, and make a rather stiff dough; roll down in sheets, and cut out with a plain round cutter; pinch round the edges with your fingers; lay a thin slice of peel in the centre, and bake in a warm oven. Sell at id. each.

No. 111.- Oopington Oakes.

2)4 lbs. soda flour (No. i). i lb. sultanas.

1)4 lbs. sugar. 10 eggs.

iX lbs. butter. Milk.

Mode. - Sieve the flour on the board, add the sultanas, put the butter and sugar into a bowl and beat to a light cream, adding the eggs in the usual manner; then mix in tjie flour with milk to a medium batter, stiff enough to stand up well, and not run flat the same as ordinary cakebatter would. Now take some ordinary oval patty pans; grease them, and fill with the batter, using a palette knife to smooth them off with; dust sugar over from a dredger; set on to flat tins, and bake in a moderate oven. Sell at id. each.

No. 112. -German Oakes.

4 lbs. flour. 2 ozs. volatile.

i lbs. moist sugar. 3 eggs.

)i lb. lard. Milk.

Mode, - Break the volatile down in a mortar with a little milk; rub the fat into the flour on the board; make a bay, put in the sugar, break in the eggs; add the volatile and sufficient milk to form a nice workable dough. Scale off into 5-oz. pieces, divide in two and mould up round under your hands; roll out to about 4 ins. in length, and flatten out with a rolling-pin; wash over with

milk, and turn on to castor sugar; plate on to clean greased tins and bake in a hot oven. Sell at id. each.

No. 113.- Opera GaJceF.

1)4. lbs. pulverised sugar. U lb. soda flour (No. i). Milk.

I lb. butter. 1)4 lbs. flour. 10 eggs.

Mode, - Sieve the flours together on a sheet of paper on the board; cream up the butter and sugar in a bowl, adding in the eggs one at the time, and beating well after each addition of eggs. When all are in, add the flour and bring to cake-batter consistency with milk; lay a sheet of paper over a flat tin, and spread the batter over about an inch thick, fixing an upset along the bottom of the tin to prevent it running, and bake in a moderate oven. When done, slide off the tin on to a wire and leave to get cold, for preference till a day old. Then slide it off on to the board, strip off the paper, and cut up in slips about I J ins. wide; when you have cut up the whole of the sheet, take a sharp knive and slice it in halves, spread on about a quarter of an inch of the mixture No. 1 14, and then place the other slice of cake on top, press together, and trim along the edges. When all are sandwiched togetier make up some white water icing, and colour a portion red in another pan with carmine. Now take one slip of of the cake and ice it half over with the white icing, using a palette knife to spread it on with, and going the whole length of the strip. Then turn the strip round, and proceed to ice the other half with the red icing, and when all are iced over, proceed to cut it up into square pieces. When all are cut up, place half a cherry on the centre of the icing, with two pieces of angelica cut diamond shape to represent leaves, and they are ready for sale. Price id. each.

No. 114.- Opera Conserve.

i lbs. apricot jam. % lb. sugar.

Essence of jargonelle pear and ratafia.

j4 lb. eround almonds. I lb. cuce crumbs. Carmine colouring.

Mode. - Put the apricot jam and sugar into a clean

stewpan, add half a pint of water and set it over the fire; bring to the boil and simmer gently for about half-anhour; then rub it through a fine sieve into a basin and leave till nearly cold; then colour a deep red with carmine, and flavour delicately with a few drops of pear and ratafia, remembering that you have to add another I % lbs. to it. When you think you have the flavour that will be appreciated, add the almonds and cake crumbs, which should form a paste that will spread easily but will not run, and use as previously directed. Cake crumbs for this can be made by rubbing down a Madeira or other stale cake, and putting it through your flour sieve, and if you have a surplus, it can be kept in a covered tin.

-Saratoga Gakes.

2 lbs.

flour.

% lb. butter.

sugar.

I oz. baking-powder

3 eggs

Fig. 53. Showing bow the Saratoga Cakes are cut for sandwiching together.

Mode. - Sieve the baking-powder with the flour upon the board; cream up the butter and sugar, adding the eggs in the usual manner; mix in the flour with milk to ordinary cake-batter consistency; then fill the mixture into deep dariole moulds and bake in a moderate oven. When cooked, turn out, let get cold, then slice them into four (Fig. 53) with a sharp knife; sandwich together

again with apricot jam; then run a spoonful of white fondant icing (No. 5) over the top of each cake. Sell at id. each.

No. 116.- Baadola Bnns.

2 lbs. flour.

lb. sugar.

oz. carbonate of soda.

i lb. butter.

I oz. cream of tartar.

Mode. - Sift the cream and soda into the flour on the board; make a bay, put in the butter and sugar, add a few drops of essence of lemon, break in the eggs, and rub on the board till smooth. Make into a nice, mellow dough with milk, and lay out into, twenty-eight round buns on greased tins. When you have laid out all the buns, with your finger work a hole in the centre, forming each bun into a ring, and bake in a warm oven. When done, remove from the tins with a palette knife; open one side of the bun with a sharp knife, lay on a little raspberry jam, damp the bun slightly with water, and dredge fine sugar over, taking care not to put on too much sugar. Sell at id. each.

Fig. 54. - Tray filled with Flour and impressions made ready for Muffins.

No. 117.- Muffins. 10 lbs. flour. % lb. potatoes.

3 ozs. yeast. 2 ozs. salt.

4 qts. water.

Mode. - Procure the potatoes as floury as possible, wash clean and cook, strain dry, and smash them up in a clean lard pail or other suitable vessel; add a quart

of water, stir up, and strain throusjh a fine sieve, to take out all the potato peel and large lumps. Now make up to four quarts, at a timperature of 96" F.; dissolve the yeast (some good • brand of distillery) in a little water, add it to the remainder, and then thoroughly beat in the flour with your hand or a large wooden spatula, and when you have formed it into a smooth, elastic

Fig. 55. - Working the Mufiin up on side of the Tub.

paste, stand it in a warm place, covered up with a cloth, and let it rise for two hours. Crush the salt to fine powder under your rolling-pin, or rub it through a wire sieve; add it into your sponge, and give it another good beating with the spatula, and let it stand covered for another hour and a half; then give another beating; let it stand, and give another and final beating, prior to working off - say, altogether, four beatings in six hours.

When ready, it should be very tough and elastic. Now proceed to work it off as follows. Fill a rather shallow tray with flour; press down rather firmly, and then make sixteen or twenty-four indentions (Fig. 54) in it with the end of your rolling-pin, wooden docker, or a patty pan. The batter being now ready, give it a good beat up; then take a long-handled, flat-bowled wooden spoon in your right hand, dip it into the batter at the

Fig. 56. - Taking from Spoon with a Palette Knife to fill into the impressions.

side of the tub and take up about two ounces; work it round against the side of the tub (Fig. 55), in something like the same way you would meringues; and then take it out of the spoon with a large palette knife in your left (Fig. 56) and drop into one of the indentions in the tray of flour, and proceed till you have filled them all. Begin at the first one, and gather all the outsides to the centre, squeezing them together; but avoid knocking out more proof than possible. Dust some boards (which should be a size suitable to fit your press or proving cupboard) pretty liberally with cones, and as

FOR Gounter-Tray and Window.

you form up the muffins lay them upon it, closing downwards, and 3 or 4 ins. apart, to allow for proving. When you have filled the tray (Fig. 57) stand them into a press, or proving cupboard, to prove, and proceed to fill the indentations again, continuing the process till you have

Fig, 57. - A Board or Tray of Muffins ready to prove.

used up the whole of the batter. By that time, those first put into the press would be large enough, and nice and light; but be careful not to overprove them. Light up your hot-plate (Fig. 58, or 59), and let it get thoroughly hot; the time necessary will, after once or twice, be easily judged; then take a greasy cloth and thoroughly clean the hot-plate; also slightly grease the muffin hoops; lay

Fig. 58 - Hiirs " Acme" Gas Hot-Plate.

them out on the plate, take a tray of the muffins, and with a flat piece of tin, or slice, kept expressly for the purpose, place one of the muffins carefully in each hoop, without knocking out any of the proof. It will immediately swell to the size of the hoop; and when the underside is cooked to a nice colour, turn over gently, hoop

and all, with a long flexible palette knife; as they are turned, shift them on to the other half of the stove; brush off all the burnt cones with a brush; place more hoops into the positions occupied by the previous lot, and fill with muffins, as before directed; then take off those that are cooked; placed on to clean board; remove the hoop; brush off the cones with a clean brush - not the one used for the stove; stack up, and sell at id. each, four for 3jd., or seven for 6d.

The stove will require only once greasing, and that very slightly at first. The grease is not put on to prevent the muffins from sticking, only to clean the plate.

Fig. 59.- Gas Hot-plate on Table Legs.

It is very necessary that you use good flour for muffin work. I would advise half good coloury American patents (not too harsh), and half Vienna; yet I have seen very good results obtained with "town whites" and "Vienna"; and a passable muffin can be made from "households," but then, of course, the colour is not very grand, and I would not advise you to use it, as no doubt you will wish to pride yourself upon the quality of your productions.

;No. lia-Pikelets.

In some parts of the country this is the name that a muffin is known under, while in some parts crumpets have to answer to it. However, a pikelet proper would be made in exactly the same way as a muffin, but be considerably larger, and are usually baked without hoops. Therefore, if the instructions given in the preceding recipe are followed, you cannot go very far wrong in their production.

No. 119.- Ommpets.

Take the same mixture as given for muffins, but use only half the quantity of flour, and i J ozs. salt; give the batter a good beating up about every hour after the first two hours, and keep it comfortably warm, for cold would be fatal to success. Lay out the hoops (which are in most cases slightly smaller than those used for muffins) in loose order upon the hot-plate; give the batter a good beat up with the spatula; then dip out a cupful of the batter, using a saucer to prevent it dropping all over the plate, and pour about half a cupful of the batter in each hoop (it should be soft enough to run out smooth without any aid from the palette knife); and by the time you have filled about two dozen hoops, those first filled will be ready to turn; but do not turn them before the tops have a dry, glassy skin over; then pass a broad, flexible palette knife under them and turn over smartly on to another part of the hot-plate. By the time you have turned the whole of them, those first turned will be sufficiently cooked to take off the plate; take off on to clean trays, and pile up in sevens, ready for sale.

By the time you have turned over the first lot laid out, you should have another set of tins laid out ready for filling in the centre of the plate, and fill them before you bake the first lot, if possible; then turn those over from the centre to the outside of the plate, and continue along as quickly as you can cook them, smartness being a desideratum in crumpet baking.

The batter must be well beaten up every time you lay out a lot of crumpets, or they will be blind. It is very

necessary to keep off any direct draught from the muffins or crumpets, as that will spoil them in more ways than one.

No. 120.- Scotch or Griddle Scones.

Mode, - Take the same mixture given for milk scones (No. 126), omitting the currants, and scale off into

Fig. 60. - A handful of Scones preparing to lay out

-OZ. pieces; mould up round, and divide into four with a Scotch scraper. As you cut them out, lay two

Fig. 61.- Ho the Scones are laid on the Plate.

together and place them on the bottom of a tin or board, dusted with cones; lay them out separately upon your hot-plate, and, when cooked on one side, turn over with a palette knife. If you find your plate burning them, lower the gas a little, or raise it if it does not cook them properly. When done, sell at id. each.

As the operation of baking is somewhat complicated, I think, perhaps, fuller instructions, with some few sketches, will be very useful in assisting those of my readers who are strange to the work.

The best stove to cook these scones on in a small business would be a gas hot-plate (Fig. 58 or 59). Two types of hot-plates will be found illustrated in these pages: Fig. 58 is a hot-plate only, and Fig. 59 has, besides the hot-plate, two gas rings for cooking purposes; both styles of plate can be set on a table or upon legs

FigI 62.- Showing how the Scones are turned.

framed together for the purpose; the same principle of heating is adopted in both plates so far that they are heated by gas with some arrangement of atmospheric burners. Now, if you light up your stove when you commence to wet up the scones, it will be hot enough to cook them by the time you have worked them off. You have placed them in pairs upon the bottom of a fiat tin; now take up three or four pairs in your left hand (Fig. 60); then with your right separate and lay them out on the plate (Fig. 61) in rows of five or six, according to size of your stove, and the second row coming as shown in the drawing. When you have filled the plate, and they have been cooked sufficiently on one side, take a large palette knife, and turn each one over into your hand, thus (Fig. 62), and then lay it upon the plate, uncooked side down, and by the time you have turned the last scone, the first one turned would be nearly cooked. Of course, this refers to a beginner. After you have cooked these scones daily for a while, you will be able to turn the whole plateful in less than ten seconds, in which time they will most certainly not be cooked. The great thing is to cook them through without giving your goods too much colour, and to this end you may probably have to lower the gas.

No. 121.-Fritters.

3 pints milk. lb. currants.

8 eggs. J4 lb. butter.

2 lbs. flour. X 11 sugar.

Mode. - Run the fat to oil on the oven stock; break the eggs into a bowl, add the sugar, a pinch of salt, and beat well together with a wire egg-whisk. Wet up the flour with the milk into a smooth batter; mix in the fat, and then the beaten-up eggs and currants; stir up well; lay out some muffin hoops upon the hot-plate, and then ladle some of the batter into them from a cup or ladle; when cooked on one side, turn over with the palette knife, and cook on the other; take up on to wires, and dust over with powdered sugar. If you have no hot-plate, procure some small pans similar to sandwich pans, well grease with clean lard, spoon the batter into them, and bake in a warm oven. Sell at id. each; or smaller, two a id.

No. 122.- Pancakes.

For these take the same mixture, leaving out the currants, and cook them on the hot-plate without hoops; when cooked on one side, turn over with the palette knife, dust sugar over, and roll up. Same price as above.

A commoner variety can be made as follows:

No. 123.-Pancakes (No. 2).

3 ji pints new milk. i lb. flour.

X lb sugar. i lb. soda flour (No. i).

lb. butter. 4 eggs.

Mode, - The same as No. 121, but they must be worked off as quickly as possible, or all the virtue will be gone from the soda flour, which is used, as you are no doubt aware, to save ggs. Should you essay to cook these in a frying-pan, it will not be necessary to add any fet into the batter, but if baked on the gas or other hotplate, the fat is a very necessary ingredient. Sell these at same price; but, of course, you can give more for money, or, to put it another way, make them larger.

No. 124.- Cream Sultana Scones.

4 lbs. Vienna flour. % lb. s'ugar. % lard. i sultanas.

2% ozs. cream of tartar. i oz. carbonate of soda.

Milk. Essence of lemon.

Fig. 63.- Round of Cream Sultana Scones.

Mode, - Weigh the flour on the board; take a fine hair or wire sieve, invert it over the top of the flour, and then place;the chemicals on the bottom of the sieve; rub them through with your hand, or a piece of wood shaped for the purpose; now add the sugar and lard, with a few drops of essence, and proceed to rub the whole together dry. Make a bay, lay the sultanas round the outside, pour about three pints of milk into the bay, and dough not too tight; dry over; scale off into twelve pieces, weighing lb. each; mould up round under your hand, roll out with a small rolling-pin to about the size of a tea-plate, and, with a Scotch scraper, divide into four sections. Place each section close together, and set them in rounds upon a tin, allowing plenty of room between each round; wash over with egg, and bake in a warm oven. When done, sell at id. each, or 4 for 3d. Of course, you can make these rounds just half the size, and sell them at two a id. if your trade will not warrant penny scones; there would be only the extra labour of production.

No. 125.- Plum Heavies.

Wet up the mixture given for Cream Scones (No. 1 24), and, when mixed, take a large rolling-pin and roll it down in a sheet about J in. thick, and cut out with a plain 2-in. round cutter. As you cut them out, set them on to clean greased plates, wash over with egg, and bake in a warm oven. When done, sell at two a id. It is usual to put sultanas into these; but if objected to they can, of course, be omitted, and currants substituted. These are sometimes made plain, cut out very small, and sold at 3d. per dozen.

No. 126.- Milk or Turned Scones.

4 lbs. soda flour (No. i). 6 ozs. lard.

6 ozs. sugar. 8 ozs. currants.

X oz. salt. Milk and water, or buttermilk.

Mode, - Weigh the flour on the board; make a bay, put in the fat and sugar, and rub together till smooth; then dough with half milk and water, mixing in the currants. Scale off into i-lb. pieces, divide in four, and roll up round under your hands; roll out with a small rolling-pin to about 4 ins. in diameter; dock with a captain's docker, and place on to warm clean tins, wash over with egg, let them stand a few minutes, and then run into a warm oven. When set, and partially cooked, turn them over with a palette knife, and finish baking. By turning these scones over, you obtain that effect so often seen in many shop windows of late years. They are, generally speaking, called turned scones, by which name some of my readers may know them.

No. 127.- Halfpenny Milk Scones.

4 lbs. soda flour (No. i). X 1 '

X lb. sugar. X ' powdered salt.

Milk and water, or buttermilk.

Mode, - Dough same as directed in the previous recipe; scale into 14-oz. pieces, mould up round, and thin out to size of a pudding plate with a rolling-pin, keeping them as near to the same size as possible; then divide each round into eight sections, using a Scotch scraper for the purpose, and, when you have divided all, wash over with egg, and plate each one separately upon a clean tin; put into the oven, and, when partially cooked, turn over, egg side down, and finish baking. When done, sell at two for id. You must not overcook these goods, as they are usually toasted and buttered before being eaten. When turning your scones, take particular care to turn them soon enough; if you leave them too long, you would be liable to dry too much to get the egged side to take on the desired colour. Another way is to scale off into 7-0Z. pieces, mould up round under your hand, flatten out with your rolling-pin to about 6 inches in diameter, divide into four with a scraper, set them on to clean tins, wash over with egg; put into a warm oven and partially cook; turn over with a palette knife, and finish baking.

No. 128.- Wholemeal Scones.

3 lbs. fine wholemeal. I lb. flour. lb. butter.

i lb. sugar.

2 ozs. cream of tartar.

I oz. carbonate of soda.

Mode, - Weigh the flour and meal on to the board; add the cream and soda, rubbed through a fine sieve to break down all lumps, and mix altogether; then well rub in the butter and sugar; make a bay, and wet up with milk, not too tight. Scale off into 1 2-oz. pieces, and mould up round under your hands; flatten out with your rolling-pin, a little thinner than ordinary scones, and divide into four with the scraper; set them on to wires, five across, not too close together, as shown in the illustration (Fig. 64), and run into a warm oven; turn over when half-cooked, and cook thoroughly. Sell at id. each, or four for 3d. They can be set crumby on a flat tin, the same as cream scones, and washed over with egg; but I find the.first method to sell the best. Sometimes these are rolled out round, washed with egg, and turned.

Fig. 64. - Showing how the Meal Scones are placed on the Wire;

No. 129.Sapennalt Extract Scones.

2 lbs. granulated wheatmeal. j lb. supermalt extract. 2 lbs. households flour. 2 ozs. cream of tartar.

i lb. butter. i oz. carbonate of soda.

X oz. salt (in fine powder).

Mode. - Weigh the meal and flour on the board; then add the cream and soda; run through a fine sieve and well mix; rub the fat in and make a bay; put the malt extract into a pan, add the salt, and dissolve it in a drop of warm water; put it into the bay and dough with milk; roll down in a sheet about % in. thick, and cut out with a triangle cutter; place on to clean tins; stamp on the word " Malt "; wash over with milk and egg, and bake in a moderate oven. These scones are really Ai, and sell very well whenever introduced. Price id. each; cut rather smaller than ordinary scones.

No. 130.- Lebel Cakes.

I lb. sugar.

ji lb. butter.

li lbs. soda flour (No.

lb. plain flour. I lb. sultanas. I). 6 eggs.

Mode. - Sieve the flour on to the board, and weigh the sultanas to it; cream up the butter and sugar, adding the eggs in the usual manner; then mix in the flour and fruit with milk, to form a nice workable cake-batter; fill the mixture into rather large Leamington tins, and sprinkle some desiccated cocoanut and sugar over; bake in a warm oven. When done, sell at id. each.

No. 131.Norfolk Cakes.

iji lbs. soda flour (No. i). 4 lb. sultanas. U lb. sugar. X Ih. peel.

i lb. butter. 3 eggs.

lb. currants. Milk.

Mode, - Weigh the flour and fruit upon the board, and shred up the peel very fine; cream up the butter and sugar, adding the eggs in the usual manner; then mix in the flour, fruit and peel, using a drop of milk to make it a proper consistency; then fill it into round crinkled Victoria pans; dust sugar over, and bake in a moderate oven. When done, sell at id. each.

No. 132.-'Frampton Oakes.

I oz. volatile.

2 eggs.

2Vlbt. flour. lb. sugar. lb. butter.

Mode, - Rub the butter .and sugar into the flour; break the volatile down in a mortar with a little milk; make a bay on the board, break in the eggs, pour in the volatile and milk, and wet into a free dough. Scale off into lo-oz. pieces; mould up round, and roll out to about the size of a large dinner plate, and put them on to clean tins; dock all over with a biscuit docker, and bake rather slack in a quick oven. When done, spread jam on one piece, and put another on top, forming a sandwich; dust sugar over, and cut into eight pieces. Sell at id. each.

No. 133.- Torcas Cakes.

4lb8.plainbandoagh(No.2i3). X 1 sugar. X lb. butter. 4 yolks eggs.

Mode, - Rub the fat and sugar into the dough with the yolks of eggs, till quite smooth; let it lie to prove; then

Fig. 65.- Round Patty Pan.

scale off into 6-oz. pieces, divide in two, mould up round under your hand; put the pieces into plain round patty pans (Fig. 65), having rather high edges; wash over with egg, and prove. When well proved, bake in a warm oven. These should appear like Fig. 66 when cooked. Sell at id. each.

Fig. 66.- Penny Torcas Cakes.

No. 131Vincent Cakei.

1%, lbs. flour. % OS. baking-powder (No. 2).

% lb. sugar. 2 eggs.

lb. butter. Milk.

Mode, - Sieve the baking-powder with the flour upon the board; make a bay, weigh in the butter and sugar, break in the eggs, and wet into a firm dough with milk. Scale off into 8-oz. pieces, divide into five, and mould up

round under your hands, flatten out with a rolling-pin, lay in a spoonful of marmalade, fold over turnover fashion, wash over with milk, turn on to dust loaf sugar, place on to clean tins, and bake in a warm oven. When •done, sell at id. each.

No. 135.- Clatter Oakes. 1 lbs. flour. 6 ozs. butter.

5 ozs. sugar. oz. volatile.

2 egs. Milk.

FiG. 67.- Working oflF Clatter Cakes.

Mode. - Break the volatile down in a little milk, rub the butter and sugar into the flour; make a bay, break in the eggs, add the volatile, and milk sufficient to form rather a firm dough. Take a couple of forks in your hands, and pull off" sufficient to form a cake about 2 ozs. in weight. Wash over with egg, dust over with sugar from a dredger and place on to greased tins. Bake in a warm oven. Sell at id. each.

No; 136.- Apple Oakes.

2 lbs. flour. lb. sugar.

i lb. butter. oz. baking-powder (No. 2).

2 eggs. Milk.

Mode, - Sieve the baking-powder with the flour, rub in the butter and sugar; make a bay, break in the eggs, and wet into dough with milk. Scale off into -lb. pieces, break into four, mould up round under your hand, flatten out with a rolling-pin; lay in a spoonful of Apple Conserve (No. 137), fold up into a round ball,, flatten out, taking care not to break them to let out the apple, wash over with milk, turn on to dust loaf sugar, place on to clean greased tins, and bake in a warm oven. Sell at id. each.

No. 137.- Apple Ooxisenre.

2 lbs. good cooking apples. i lb. loaf sugar.

% oz. grated nutmeg. I lemon.

Mode, - Rub the yellow zest of the lemon upon the sugar; peel and core the apples, throwing them into cold, water as you do them. When all are ready, put them into a bright stewpan with the sugar, the juice of the lemon, and the grated nutmeg, and cook over the stove till quite dry; then put it aside in jars till required for use, as directed in the previous recipe.

No. 138.- Schooner Oakes.

i) lbs. sugar.

I % ozs. cream of tartar.

4 lbs. flour. I lb. butter. % OS. carbonate of soda.

Mode, - Sieve the cream and soda well with the flour on the board; cream up the butter and sugar in a pan,, adding the eggs in the usual manner. When all are in, mix in the flour with sufficient milk to form ordinary cake-batter; lay out in rather large oval cake hoops laid on a flat tim, papered; dust over with coarse sugar, and bake in a warm oven. Sell at id. each.

No. 139 -Fancy Oakes.

I lb. butter. i lb. sugar.

% lbs. flour. i oz. luiking powder (No. 2).

7 eggs. Milk.

Mode, - Sieve the baking-powder with the flour; cream up the butter and sugar, adding the eggs in the usual manner; then mix in the flour with milk, and put the

batter into a savoy bag, and lay out (see Fig. 68) upon paper laid on tins in small scrolls. When you have laid out all the batter, wash over with egg, and bake in a moderate oven. When done, remove from the paper, fix two together by spreading jam on one, and then ice over with Fondant Icing (No. 5), coloured a very pale pink, and when dry pipe with ordinary cake icing. Sell at id. each.

Fig. 68. - Laying out Fancy Cakes.

No. I40.-Tottenham Oake (No. 1). This cake is made by two different methods. I give them both, and then you can use whichever you think will suit your respective trades. The first will be the sponge cake method.

I lb. sugar. ii lbs. flour.

X lb. sultanas. % oz. volatile.

i pint water. 8 egs.

Mode, - Beat up the sugar and eggs the same as directed for sponge cakes in a machine (Fig. 69) or bowl; dissolve the volatile in the water by pounding it in a mortar, and when the eggs and sugar are well beaten, add the liquid and volatile, and stir well in; mix in the sultanas and flour with your hand, stirring lightly; spread the batter on a high-edged papered flat tin, about i in. in thickness, using " upsets " all round the edge of the cake tin, and bake in a moderate oven. When done, ice over with Water Icing (No. 7), and mark it off" into squares, and then divide each square into triangles, to make two penny pieces, first calculating the cost and your profit, so that you cut sufficient pieces from the sheet to repay you well for the trouble.

Fig. 69.- Griffith Sponge Cake Machine for Power.

The next is a different kind of mixture, which may, perhaps, be termed richer, because it contains fat, whereas really it is the cheapest mixture, and turns out the largest quantity of cake, which is more generally appreciated.

No. 141.- Tottenham Cake (No. 2). 2 lbs. soda flour (No. i). 10 ozs. batter.

I lb. plain flour. Essence.

ii lbs. sugar. Colour.

lb. sultanas. Milk.

Mode. - Sieve the flours together on the board; cream

up the sugar and fat in a bowl, adding a little colour and essence, and beating in a drop of milk. When ready, stir in the flour, making a nice smooth cake-batter, not too soft, which spread on a tin, and bake. Ice over, and cut out the same as directed in the previous recipe.

SK'iil'R E ¥5

Fig. 70.- Square Sponge Cake Frame.

No. 142.- Boyal Cakes. I lb. sngar. i lb. flour.

I lb. eggs (weighed in their shells).

Mode, - Beat the sugar and eggs together, the same as directed for sponge cakes; stir in the flour; spread over a sheet of white paper, laid out smoothly on a large flat tin, and bake in a warm oven. It will not take long to cook. When done, turn on to a sack, remove the paper by using a wash brush and water; then cut the sheet in half, and spread with raspberry jam. Sandwich together; then cut up into 2-in. squares; ice over with Fondant Icing (No. 5), and sell at id. each.

Fig 71.- Round Sponge Cake Frames.

No. 143.- Queen Cakes. 1% lbs. flour. I lb. (eggs (in their shells).

I lb. butter. % o. volatile.

I lb. sugar. % pint milk.

Mode, - Weigh the butter, sugar, and flour upon the board, and rub together; make a bay, break in the eggs, add the volatile (broken down in a mortar with the milk).

and then rub well together upon the board till you have a smooth, compact cake-batter mass; then fill into ordinary penny or halfpenny Queen cake pans, sprinkle a few currants, and dredge sugar over the top. Bake in a warm oven.

No. 144.- Balio Cakes.

2 lbs. floar. % oz. volatile.

I lb. sugar. 6 eggs.

ijylbs. batter. Milk.

Mode, - Break the volatile down in a little milk; cream up the butter and sugar, beating in the eggs and volatile; then add the flour (sifted), and mix to cake batter consistency with milk; fill into deep, plain, round patty pans; dredge sugar over, and lay on a slice of thinly shred orange peel. Bake to a nice colour in a warm oven. Sell at id. each.

Fig. 72. - Rope Shape Sponge Frames.

No. 145.- Penny Sponge Cakes.

yi, lbs. cas:er sugar. 1% lbs. fine flour.

eggs. Essence of lemon.

Mode, - Break the eggs separately, smelling each as you do so, to prevent the possibility of a bad one being used, which would probably spoil the whole mixture; and, as you break them, put them into a copper pan or other mixing bowl or machine, together with the sugar, which should have been previously dried and warmed by being placed iipon a sheet of paper in the mouth of the oven, upon the " stock,'' or other convenient place. Now stand the pan containing the sugar and eggs into another large pan, or any other suitable vessel, partly filled with hot water, and beat it (sugar and eggs) well up with a wire egg-whisk for twenty minutes, when it should have a nice creamy colour, rich looking, and tolerably firm in consistency. Take it out of the hot water and beat till

FOR Counter- Tray and Window.

cold. First sieve, and then add the flour, stirring it well but lightly in with your hand, or a large iron spoon. When thoroughly mixed, it is ready to be put to the many and various purposes for which sponge batter is required. For penny "sponge cakes,'' the tins or pans must be prepared as follows, and upon closely following these instructions the success of your getting a bright and decent-looking article, fit for sale, depends. The " frames," "pans," or tins," as they are variously ternled, are made in a variety of shapes, the principal ones of which I am enabled to illustrate. In the old days they were either square (Fig. 70) or round (Fig. 71), and even now these are in pretty general demand; but should any of my readers desire to introduce any other shapes as a novelty in their respective neighbourhoods, they will have the variety illustrated from which to make a selection.

Fig. 73.- Fluted Sponge Frames.

Take a clean pound jam or marmalade jar, or " gallipot," and half fill it with equal quantities of lard and butter; stand it on the " oven-stock," or on the side of the stove, to run down to oil; then pour off all the clear oil into another and clean "gallipot," and throw away all the "sediment" or "dross" left in the "gallipot" you melted the fat in. While the fat is cooling down a little, proceed to wipe out the frames " very carefully and thoroughly with a clean cloth; then grease them with a clean brush, using the butter you have previously melted and poured off clear. Rub it well into the " frames " with the brush till it is quite white, and then smooth it out over each space of the "frames" with your brush, taking care that you do not lay it on too thick, or you will spoil the cakes; again, if you do not

use enough, the cakes will stick to the frames, and spoil that way. After you have thoroughly greased or buttered the " frames," they will require to be dusted out first with fine sugar, and then with flour sifted through a fine hair sieve upon a sheet of paper. Take up each " frame ''' separately at both ends, and well shake through the sugar, giving it a smart tap upon the board, to knock out all the surplus. They should be well covered and quite white; then dust each " frame " again with some

Fig. 74.- Cross.fluted SpoDge Frames.

fine flour, and fill in the batter prepared as previously directed; dust sugar over from a dredger, and bake to a nice colour in a moderate oven. These cakes are done as soon as you can move or lift them from the " frames." This quantity of batter will fill about nine "frames." To some of my readers this will appear as a sort of cart-before-the-horse arrangement, but I must impress it upon you that the "frames" must be prepared first.

Fig. 75. - Diamond-shaped Sponge Frames.

How TO Make your own Whisk.

Procure from the ironmongers sixpennyworth of No. 1 7 tin wire. Now take a flat piece of wood, about 15 ins. long and 6 or 8 ins. wide - the top or side of a sultana

box would do admirably - and bind the wire loosely round the board lengthwise thus:

The Wife bound round the Board.

till you have nearly used up the whole of the wire. Take it off the wood, and with a hammer and a 7-lb. weight knock each turn of the wire, at one end only, quite flat, thus:

Fig. 77. - Taken o£f the Board and hammered for the Handle.

This is, of course, to form the handle. Gather the closed ends in your hand, and proceed to bind the remainder of the wire round the handle, commencing in the centre, or rather, where you propose for the top of the handle. You must bind all the surplus wire round to form the handle as tightly and as close together as the thread on a cricket bat or reel of cotton. It is bound tightest by taking a couple of turns with the surplus wire (shown in Fig. 77) round a piece of board, and placing it under your feet, as shown in Fig. 78 (see next page). Then take the whisk in your hands, and you will be surprised at the ease with which you can bind it and the tightness with which you can wind the wire. When you have wound the whole length of the handle, thread the end of the wire through one of the double ends, and put on a little solder; this will keep it perfectly firm, and you have a whisk that will last a life-time. If you are unable to fix on the solder, a tinsmith or gas6tter will do it for a few pence, and therefore you have nothing to fear on that point. I think when you have completed your

whisk you will admit you have the strongest and most serviceable, besides the cheapest one you ever handled.

Of course, you can make it larger or smaller as you desire, using also thicker or thinner wire; but that I have given will prove very serviceable for all purposes for which a whisk is required.

There is another way of making a whisk. Fold the wires as I directed, and then draw the handle into the handle of an old saucepan; cut off to convenient length, and then drop some solder in the handle to keep it firm. But I prefer the method first described, as being lighter in use and more workmanlike in appearance.

Fig. 78.- Binding the Wire round to form the Handle.

For many years the wire whisk enjoyed undisputed sway in the bakehouses and kitchens, and perhaps even now there are many who have never heard about anything else, and, having heard, would put it down as something of a crime to use a machine to beat up sponge cake batters.

I do not think these remarks would be complete with out some reference to the sponge cake machines, many of which are illustrated in these pages, and are now in almost universal use. I will not attempt to particularise any on machine, as within the last few years they have greatly increased in numbers. The first, I believe, to make its appearance was the " Griffiths "; then another

similar machine, but having several improved features; then came " Hunt's," commonly known as the "Climax"; then the " Morton," on quite another principle; then the " Waddle," a regular wobbler, similar, but not exactly like the " Morton." The " Cadish," I think, comes to us from Germany, and is made on the principle of the old handbeating method; and I believe, where it is used, gives universal satisfaction. There is also a double "Cadish," driven by power, having two bowls and two whisks, which both beat at the same time. Then there is the American " Keyston," which has made very little headway in this country, and many others of different types and make. The latest is an improved " Griffiths," made by Morton. The movement is the same as in the old machine, but the top frame is cast in one piece, and, of course, is considerably stronger than the old style, as the illustration which appears on page 64 will show you.

There are also dozens of different arrangements for the same purpose, but they are small, and more suitable for domestic purposes. From this array surely my readers will select the machine they think best adapted to their own particular trade; adding in conclusion, that they are made in all sizes varying from i to 1000 eggs - wide enough range, in all conscience, say you.

No. 146.- Othello Cakes.

I lb. sugar. i lb. flour.

eggs.

Mode, - Beat up in a machine or bowl, the same as directed for sponge cakes; then fill into ordinary crinkled Victoria pans, and bake in a warm oven; when done, turn out on to a wire, then ice each one separately with Fondant Icing (No. 5), coloured with melted chocolate, and flavoured with a few drops of essence of vanilla. Sell at id. ach.

No. 147.- Desdemona Cakes.

The same as No. 146, but iced over with plain white Fondant (No. 5), and further decorated with a bright pink jube and four nicely cut leaves of angelica. Same price.

No. 148.- Rosalind Cakes.

These are exactly the same as No. 146, but iced with pink Fondant (No. 5), flavoured rose, and decorated with a jube and angelica leaves.

The best way to cut out the leaves from angelica, either glac or crystallised, is to cut out a slip about half an inch wide, and the length of the angelica; slit it in two lengthwise, so that it will be only half the thickness, and then cut it out crosswise, thus:

Fig. 79. - Showing how to cut Leaves from Angelica.

As will be seen, you have the correct diamond-shaped leaves required, equal in size, and with very little waste, which is a consideration.

No. 149.- Lafayette Sandwiches.

Take the sponge cake batter (No. 145), and lay it out into plain or crinkled greased sandwich pans (Figs. 80 or 81);

Fig. 80. - Plain Sandwich Pan,

smooth off level with the palette knife, and bake in a moderate oven. When done, turn out on to a clean sack laid over the board; spread jam over one piece, and then place another round on top; cut into eight sections, and sell at id. each section, or the whole round for 6d. If properly beaten up and mixed, a pound batter will turn out twelve rounds or six sandwiches; but, of course, this depends upon how large you have to make them for money.

Sometimes your customers will require these iced, in which case use either the Fondant (No. 5) or Water Icing (No. 7) - of course, taking care not to give too much for money, as this little addition has generally to be done at the same price as the plain. Sugar can be dredged over from the dredger if the tops look at all unsightly; but, again, you do not get any extra for it, so take care never to have them unsightly or damaged, if you can help it.

Fig. 81.- Crinkled Sandwich Pan.

No. 150.- A Oheap Sponge Cake Mixture.

2% lbs. flour. 2 lbs granulated sugar.

eggs i pints warm water.

I oz. baking-powder (No. 2).

Mode, - Put the eggs, sugar, and water into the machine (Fig. 82), and beat up well in the usual way. When

Fig, 82.- Giiffith Sponge Cake Machine.

well beaten up, stir in the flour in which you have pre viously sifted the baking-powder. This batter must be handled very lightly, as it contains baking-powder, and

to over handle them mars their appearance very considerably.

As a rule, these cakes can be turned out equal to the better class goods, so far as their appearance goes, but, of course, they certainly are in no way equal to them.

No. 151.- Fairies' Oakes.

Take the same mixture given for No. 146, and bake in the same tins. Then ice over with white fondant, and roll in pink-coloured sugar sand. Further decorate by piping four white leaves, and a pink rose in the centre, with cake icing. Sell at id. each.

The name of these cakes, about twenty years ago, when I first became acquainted with them, was " Fairy Cakes "; but as someone has laid forcible hands upon that name, and registered it, I can do no more than alter mine as above.

No. 152.- Florida Cakes.

Same as No. 146. Iced over with Fondant (No. 5), coloured, and flavoured orange. Sell at id. each.

No. 153.- Surprises. Bake these exactly the same as No. 146, and then mask over with diluted apple jam, and roll the sides in long shred up almonds; place a split almond on the centre of the top. Sell at id. each. The only surprise about these is that they sell. The strip cocoanut can be used in place of the almonds if desired. If almonds are dear, shred pinoni nuts can be used in their place.

No. 154.-Polkas.

Bake the same mixture (No. 146) in small plain round dariole moulds. When cooked, mask over with diluted apricot jam, and roll in shred-up pistachio kernels, and shred almonds, coloured red with cochineal; on top place four halves of almonds to represent leaves, and finish with half a glac cherry in the centre, id. each.

No. 155.- Genoese Cakes.

lyi lbs. sugar. i lb. butter.

2 lbs. soda flour (No. i). 12 eggs.

2 lbs. plain flour i pint water.

Essence of almonds.

Mode, - Put the butter into a jar, pot, or other suitable vessel, and stand it at the side of the stove or on the oven stock, to run down to oil, without getting too hot; break the eggs carefully into a machine or mixing bowl; put in the sugar, and beat for twenty minutes; add the water, then pour in the melted butter, give the mixture a good stir round, and mix in the flour with your hand, having taken the precaution to run it through a sieve two or three times to well mix, or your cake will be holey. Spread the mixture over a large flat high-edged tin, and bake in a moderate oven. When done, cut up with a sharp knife into any desired shape, slice, sandwich together with preserve, ice over with Fondant Icing (No. 5) of various colours and flavours, and sell at id. each.

Fig. 83.- Penny Gateau.

No. 166.- Penny Gkiteanx. Take the sponge cake mixture (No. 145), fill it into plain dariole moulds, as illustrated on page 62, and bake in a moderate oven. When done, remove from the pans and set them on to wires. Dilute some apricot jam with water and make it hot on the fire, when it will run smoothly from the spatula it is ready; dip each of the sponge cakes into it, and after they have drained a little roll them in desiccated cocoanut. Set them bottom upwards upon a wire, and cut out four diamond-shaped leaves of angelica (see Fig. 79); set these upon the top with a glacd cherry in the centre, as shown in the illustration (Fig. 83), and then sell.

No. IST.-Spice Cakes.

2 lbs. bnn dough (No. 213). 6 ozs. sugar.

X lb. butter. i oz. mixed spice.

X lb. orange peel. 2 eggs.

Mode, - Chop up the peel rather fine; rub the butter, sugar, and spice, with the eggs well into the dough on the board. Then mix in the peel, and scale off into 3-0Z. pieces; mould up round, and flatten out with a rolling-pin. Have some large greased hoops laid on a clean flat tin, and put a piece of the dough in each; prove them in the press, and bake in a warm oven. When done, glaze over with bun glaze, and sell at id. each. A very attractive looking article

No. 158.- Bice Cakes. 2% lbs. soda flour (No i). i lb. sugar.

yi, lb. butter. MUk.

5eggEg

Egg colour. Essence of lemon.

Fig. 84.- Rice Cake Pan.

Mode, - Prepare some small round crinkled pans (Fig. 84) by greasing them (you will require about six dozen); cream up the butter and sugar with a few drops of essence of lemon and a spot of egg colour, beating in the eggs in the usual manner; when all are in, add the flour, and make to cake-batter consistency with milk; fill into the scollop tins with a palette knife, and bake in a warm oven. Sell at two aid.

No. 159.- Bthardo Cakes.

W i lbs. flour. yi lb. butter. oz. baking-powder (No 2). 3 eg. Mi)k.

I lb. sugar.

6 ozs. desiccated cocoanut.

Mode, - Sieve the baking-powder with the flour upon the board; make a bay, lay the cocoanut round, weigh the sugar and butter into the bay, break in the eggs, and rub well together till smooth; then mix in the flour with milk, not too soft. Scale off into 4 J-oz. pieces; divide into two, and mould up under your hands; then roll out in about 4-in. lengths, and turn them into rings; flatten, -wash over with milk, turn on to dust loaf sugar, and bake in a warm oven. Sell at id.

No. 160.- Empress Cakes. I lb. batter. i lb. sugar.

2 lbs. soda flour (No. i). lb sultanas. % lb. currantf. 8 eggs.

Mode, - Cream up the butter and sugar, adding the ggs, then mix in the flour and fruit with milk, to form a cake batter. Fill this mixture into small square caketins, about 2 ozs. for each cake; sprinkle finely-chopped almonds over the top, and bake in a warm oven. Sell at id. each.

No. 161.- Ginger Cakes.

1 lb. sugar. lb. butter.

2 lbs. soda flour (No. i). % lb. ginger chips. 6 eggs. Milk.

Mode, - Cut up the ginger chips into small pieces, cream up the butter and sugar, adding the eggs in the usual nanner; then mix in the ginger chips and flour with milk to cake-batter consistency, and fill into round or oval-papered hoops, about 2j ozs. for penny cakes; dust sugar over from a dredger, and bake in a warm oven. Ginger chips can be purchased from some of the many bakers' or confectioners' sundrymen, at prices varying from 45 d. to yd. per lb.

No. 162.- Cherry Cakes. )i lbs. soda flour (No. i). yi lb. plain flour. )l lbs. sugar. lb. butter.

% lb. sultanas. % lb. glac cherries.

8 eggs. Milk.

Mode, - Sieve the flours on to the board, weigh the fruit, and cut up each cherry into four or more pieces.

Cream up the butter and sugar, add in the eggs in the usual manner; then mix in the fruit and flour with milk to cake-batter consistency; then fill the batter into oval papered pans placed on clean, greased tins, and bake in a moderate oven. When done, ice over with Water Icing (No. 7), and then dust over with some red sugar sand.

No. 163.- Newgan Cakes. Roll down a sheet of puff-paste trimmings very thin, and large enough to cover a large flat tin; dock it all over, and then prepare the following mixture: lb. butter. iX lbs. sugar.

2 lbs. soda flour (No. i). currants.

5 eggs. Milk.

Mode, - Cream up the butter and sugar, adding the eggs and a little egg colour; then mix in the fruit and flour with milk to cake-batter consistency, and spread it over the sheet of puff paste previously laid over the tin and bake in a moderate oven. When done, ice over with Water Icing (No. 7), and then cut up into sections about 3 ins. by I Ji ins. Sell at id. each.

Fig. 85.- Plain Round Dariole Tin.

No. 164. -Calais Cakes.

2 lbs. bun dough (No. 213). X sugar. )i lb. butter. i lb. sultana?.

4 yolks of eggs.

Mode. - Lay the bun dough on the board and rub in the butter, sugar, and egg yolks. When well mixed, add the sultanas, ' and dust over; let it lie to prove, then

give it a dry over, and let it lie for another hour. At the end of that time, scale off into 5 oz. pieces, divide in two and mould up round under your hand. Have some large size dariole moulds (Fig. 85); take each piece of dough separately in your hand, and with a sharp knife notch all round the sides; set them on to a clean flat tin, and

Fig. 86.- Penny Calais Cakes.

cover them up with one of the dariole tins in the same way that you would ordinary flower-pot bread; prove slightly, and bake in a moderate oven to a nice colour. Sell at id. each.

No. 165.- Vienna Oakes. % lb. butter. % lb. sugar.

1% lbs. soda flour (No. i). 4 eggs. Mflk.

Mode. - Cream up the butter and sugar in the usual manner, beating in the eggs; then mix in the flour with milk; spread the batter over a high-edge tin, and bake in

Fig. 87.- Vienna Cake.

a moderate oven. When cooked, it should be about i J ins. thick. Cut up into two-inch squares, slice in halves, sandwich together with jam, and ice ovei with Water

Icing (No. 7). Then decorate with the Vienna Icing (No. 6), in different colours, piping on the coils (as shown in Fig. 87) with a bag and star tube. Sell at id. each.

No. 168.- Oream Squares.

I lb. butter. i)( lbs. sugar.

ij( lbs. VieoDa flour. 6 ozs. soda flour (No. i).

8 eggs. MUk.

Essence of lemon.

Mode, - Sieve the flours together on the board; put the butter and sugar into a mixing bowl, and cream them up in the usual manner, adding the eggs two at the time, beating well after each addition of eggs. When all are in, add the flour, and wet to cake-batter consistency with milk; then spread the whole of the batter over a sheet of paper laid on a flat tin; put an upset along the bottom to prevent it running off, and bake in a moderate oven. When cooked, it should be about i in. in thickness; slide it off on to a wire, and leave it to get cold. The next day slide it on to the board, strip off the paper, and then proceed to cut it up into 2-in. strips with a very sharp knife. Now take each strip separately, slice it down the centre vertically, and sandwich them together again with some butter cream, or Vienna Icing (No. 6), in which some crushed macaroons have been mixed. When you have sliced and sandwiched the strips together, or as many of them as you require, cut them up into squares. When cut up, have some butter cream flavoured almond and coloured red, and mask all four sides with a thin coat; then roll it in roasted flaked almonds, and set them on a tray as you do them; make up a little Water Icing (No. 7),colouredand flavoured chocolate, and spread a little on top of each square; put some of the red Vienna icing into a bag having a star tube, and press out a star at each corner and one in the centre; put a small silver drag on the centre one, and they are complete for sale, price id. each; or, if you live in a better neighbourhood, you will have no difficulty in obtaining 2d. for them; or, if not sufficient profit according to the cost of the raw materials, you can cut them smaller. No doubt there is

some considerable amount of time consumed in preparation, but with practice you will be surprised at the number you can prepare in a very short time.

No. 167. - Coffee Oakes.

4 lbs. flour. 2 lbs. sugar.

ii lbs. butter. 10 eggs.

Milk. Mode, - Rub the butter and sugar into the flour on the board; make a bay, break in the eggs, add a drop of milk, rub well together, and then mix into dough. Have ' it quite smooth, and then let it lie for a short time. Afterwards roll out in rather thin sheets, and cut out with a large plain round cutter; place on to very clean tins, and bake to a very pale colour in a moderate oven. When done, sell at id. each. If preferred, they can be cut smaller and sold at two a id.

No. 168.- Raspberry Oakes. lU Ibf. flour. i lb. sugar.

ji lb. butter. i at, baking-powder (No. 2).

2 eggs. Milk.

Essence of lemon.

Fig. 88.- Penny Raspberry Cake.

Mode. - Sift the baking-powder with the flour upon the board; make a bay, put in the butter and sugar, and rub together till smooth; then break in the eggs, add a little milk, and wet into dough. Then scale off" into 2 J-oz. pieces, roll up under your hands, flatten out with a i rolling-pin; lay in a spoonful of good-flavoured raspberry jam, splash, and fold over turnover fashion, pinch along ' the edges, which keep to the top; flatten out. Wash over with egg and milk, turn on to coarse sugar nibs.

place on to clean greased tins, and bake in a moderate oven to a nice colour. Sell at id. each.

No. 169.- Ordraff Oakes.

2 lbs. flour. % lb. batter. % oz, cinnamon. X oz. volatile.

% lb. sngar. i lb. golden sjrup X OS. ground ginger. 3 eggs.

Mode, - Weigh the flour on to the board, and make a bay; put the butter and sugar into a a bowl and beat to a cream; break the volatile down in a little milk in a mortar; add it to the butter and sugar with the ginger and cinnamon; beat well, then add the treacle; beat in the eggs one at the time; then turn the whole into the flour on the board, and mix into soft dough with milk. Let it lie a short time; then weigh off into 5-oz. pieces; divide in half, and mould up round under your hand; flatten out to four inches in diameter with a rolling-pin, and place on to clean greased tins. Wash over with egg and milk, lay a split almond in the centre, and bake in a warm oven. When done, shift them carefully with a large palette knife while hot, and sell at id. each.

3 lbs. I lb, sugar. lb. butter.

Mode, - Break

Fig. 89.- Sugaring Gala Cakes.

No. 170.- Gkda Oakes.

flour. 1% ozs. of volatile.

MUk. Essence of lemon, the volatile in a mortar with a

Jittle milk; rub the butter and sugar into the flour, and make a bay on the board, pour in the volatile, add a few drops of essence, and wet into a fairly tight dough. Roll down a sheet on the board, and cut out with a medium-size oval crinkled cutter; wash over with egg and milk, and turn on to coarse granulated sugar, as shown in the illustration (Fig. 89); place on to greased tins, lay a slice of thinly-cut orange peel in the centre, and bake in a hot oven. When done, sell at id. each.

Fig. 90.- Beating up Almond Cakes. No. 171.- Penny Almond Oakes.

5 lbs. caster sugar. 2 lbs. ground almonds.

( lb. ground rice. 2 oss. fine flour.

Whites of eggs.

Mode, - Sift the sugar, almonds, rice, and flour all together into a clean pan or bowl; break about twenty eggs, according to size, carefully separating the whites and reserving the yolks for a future purpose. Now add a few of the whites to the ingredients in the bowl, and rub them well together with your hand, the same as ordinary cake batter, and, as the mixture stiffens up with continued rubbing, add in more whites, till you have a paste of proper consistency. Then lay the paste out upon wafer paper with a spoon, taking care to have them large enough, round and smooth; lay six or seven pieces of shred whole blanched almonds on the top of each; splash each one separately with water, and bake in a moderate ovao to a nice colour. It is immaterial whether you cook these cakes dry right through; for if

you keep them long enough they ill dry completely and naturally, in much the same way as a m-ingue would. Trim off the wafer paper; and if you want to be extra nice, and have not made your cakes too large, you can take off half the wafer paper from the bottom, using a very sharp knife. The size of eggs varies to such an extent that it is impossible to give exact quantity required; and in order to arrive at the proper consistency, I would advise you to make repeated trials, by bakings pieces at different times as you add in the eggs. Make the size suitable to your locality and trade - anything from three quarters of an ounce to two ounces.

Fig. 91. - Improved Centreless Arm Beater for Batter Batters.

Nearly every bakehouse with any pretension for small goods will have an arm beater in connection with the sponge cakes, if not as a separate machine, and for butter batters they are a very great convenience, doing the work of hand, beating with regularity, and now that a new pattern (see illustration. Fig, 91) has been put upon the market, it should come into more general use. They are also excellent for beating up macaroons and almond cakes.

No. 172.Ezmonth Oakes.

i lbs. sugax. j( lb. butter.

2 lbs. flour, i pints of egg yolks.

Mode, - Run the butter to oil, without making it too hot, at the mouth of the oven. Put the egg yolks and sugar into a sponge cake machine; add half a teacup of warm water, and beat till it forms a good thick cream; then put in the butter; give it a good beat up; take out the wires, and carefully mix in the flour. Then fill the mixture into crinkled dariole moulds, nicely greased, and bake in a moderate oven. When done, turn out of the moulds on to wires, and then dip them into some rosecoloured and flavoured Fondant Icing (Mo. 5), and roll, while wet, into some finely-chopped almonds or desiccated cocoanut, coloured green. Sell at id. each.

No. 173.- Wickle Cakes.

ii lbs. Vienna flour. lb. batter.

i lbs. soda flour (No. i). yi lb. sugar.

Mode, - Rub the butter and sugar into the flour, and wet into paste with water. Let it lie aside; then roll down in sheets, dock aP over, and cut out with a round crinkled cutter; sheet some patty pans with the pieces, and bake rather pale in a moderate oven. When done, lay a spoonful of different flavoured jams into them. Then make a custard with

I pint new milk. 3 ozs. sugar.

4 yolks of eggs. 2 ozs. flour.

Put the milk into a clean stewpan, beat the egg yolks, flour and sugar togetlier in a clean basin, and when the milk boils, pour it upon the eggs and sugar, stirring all the time. Then return it to the stewpan, and cook till it thickens. Lay a spoonful of the custard upon each cake, and sprinkle some coloured sugar over. Sell at id. each.

No. 174.Elegg Oakes.

i lbs. soda flour (Ni. i). 6 ozj. currants. lb. sugar. 2 ozs. p:el.

6 ozs. butter. 3 eggs.

Mode. - Shred up the peel very fine; cream up the

butter and sugar, adding the eggs; then mix in the peel, fruit, and flour, with milk, to a nice cake-batter consistency, and fill into 2-in. square tins (Fig. 92). Dust sugar over, and bake in a warm oven.

Fig. 92.- Square Penny Cake Pan.

No. 175.- Penny Lnnch Oakes.

3 lbs. bun dough (No. 213) i lb. currants. j( lb. sugar. jK lb. peel.

lb. butter. 2 eggs.

Mode. - Shred up the peel very fine. Spread the dough on the board; lay on the butter and sugar; brek the eggs, and rub well together till smooth. Then mix in the fruit and peel, and fill about 2j4 ozs. into clean, round, greased hoops; set on a flat tin, prove and bake, and when done wash over with bun glaze.

-Penny Rock Cakes.

2i lbs flour.

lb. currants.

sugar.

I oz. volatile.

. butter.

. . 4 eggs.

Mode. - Break the volatile down in a little milk in a mortar; rub the sugar and butter into the flour on the board; make a bay, break the eggs, add the dissolved volatile and sufficient milk to form rather a stiff dough. Let it lie for a few minutes, and then proceed to work it off with two forks as rough as possible, and about 3 ozs. in weight. Place on to clean tins, dust sugar over, and bake in a hot oven.

I lb. butter. i lbs. sugar.

No. 177.- Lemon Cakes.

3 lbs. soda flour (No. i).

8 eggs.

FOR Countek-Tray and Window.

Mode, - Cream up the butter and sugar in a pan or bowl as previously directed, adding the eggs when well beaten up; mix in the flour with milk to form rather a weak cake-batter. Then lay it out into ordinary lemon cake pans (Fig. 93), and bake in a warm oven. When cooked, turn out on to wires, slice in halves lengthwise; spread it with pastry Custard Cream (No. 9), and sandwich together; then ice over with white Fondant (No. 5); set a piece of angelica on the centre. Sell at id. each.

Fig 93. - Lemon Cake Pan.

No. 178.-Thurlow Oakes.

I lb. butter. i lb. currants.

I lb. sugar. i lbs. sultanas.

% lb. soda flour (No. i). % lb. peel.

I I lb, flour. 10 eggs.

Mode, - Sieve the flours well together upon the board; weigh the fruit, and shred the peel up very fine; cream up the butter and sugar, adding the eggs; then mix in the flour and fruit, with milk to form a nice cake batter. Have a large wooden frame set upon a flat tin and papered with white paper; spread the batter thinly over, and bake in a moderate oven. When done, cut up into 2j in. squares, which sell at id. each. You must observe very particular caution in baking this cake, as it makes a very great difference to the appearance whether it is baked in a warm or cold oven. Bake quick in all cases: that is the secret.

No. 179.- Best Leamington Oakes. i lbs. butter. I lb. flour.

% lbs. sugar. 20 eggs.

I lb. soda flour (No. i). Milk.

Mode. - Sieve the flours well together upon the board; beat the butter and sugar well together in a pan, adding the eggs by degrees. When all are in, add the flour, and mix into cake-batter consistency with a little milk; then spoon it out into ordinary penny Leamington tins, dredge sugar over, bake in a warm oven.

No. 180.- Naples Qakes.

I lb. flour. 8 eggs.

Mode,- Bejft up the sugar and eggs, the same as for sponge cakes, in a machine or with a wire egg-whisk; then mix in the flour; put into a savoy bag, and lay out in medium-sized round cakes on sheets of paper; dredge sugar over; let them stand for a few minutes, and bake in a warm oven. When done, remove from the paper by

I lb. sugar.

No. 94.- Spreading the Jam oq Naples Cakes.

damping, spread some apricot jam (Fig. 94) on the flat side of one biscuit, place another on top, and sell at id. each.

Oream Puff; Chonx-flenrs; £clairf. There has always seemed some small mystery connected with Cream Buns and Eclairs, but, after all, they, like everything else, turn out to be simple enough to make when you know how. The number of folks that are always writing me for information upon this subject leads me to think that not very many know how to make them. In many establishments, where the pastry-cook

turns them out every day, they pass along in the usual routine of work without trouble or comment; but where few are made, and then not often, the "Biscuits" will assume some amount of secrecy about them that is really appalling. Yet, after all, there is nothing much in them, and a few trials should make you perfect in their production. But there is some skill required to take it from the fire just at the right moment, and then to beat the eggs in sufficiently, and lay the buns out in equal sizes; the baking, also, must be very carefully carried out. But I will endeavour to convey the instructions further on. Here is a recipe for ordinary cream buns.

F16. 95.- Beating the Eggs into the Choux Paste. No. 181.- Ordinary dream Buns.

I pint water. 4 lb. lard or butter.

% lb. Vienna flour. 10 eggs.

Little salt. Volatile.

Mode. - Put the water, lard, and salt into a stewpan, and bring to the boil over a gas-ring; then sift and mix in the flour with a wooden spoon, and set it over the fire for about five minutes, stirring it continually till it becomes a stiff paste, and you can lift the whole of it out of the pan. Take it off the fire, and let it stand for a few

minutes; then place the stewpan firmly down on to the table, holding the handle firmly with the left hand (see ig- 95) while you add m the eggs, one at the time, beating it up well with the wooden spoon after each addition of eggs. When you have thoroughly well beaten in the eggs, add i oz. of volatile in fine powder (or a oz. of powder, made with i ozs. carbonate soda and 2 ozs. cream of tartar, can be used), and mix it well in with the spoon. The mixture is now ready for

Fig. 96. - Laying out the Cream Buns.

laying out, and in order to cook the buns to perfection a special tin should be procured of the usual dimensions, so far as width and length are concerned, but having an edge at least 4 ins. high all round, and then another tin must be used to act as a tight-fitting lid. Lay out the mixture with the spoon, sliding it off with the fourth finger of the left hand (see Fig. 96). The size will, of

FOR Counter- Tray and Window.

course, be governed by the locality you live in, but for high-class trades this mixture will produce 45 buns. When you have laid them all out, place on the lid, laying a brick or two upon it to keep it in position, and set it into a moderate oven and bake for about twenty minutes. When you have put them into the oven, do not touch them till you think they are properly cooked, which will not be till the time I have stated. When cooked, take from the oven, and place them on to wires to cool; when cold, slit them with a sharp knife near the bottom, and lay in a spoonful of whipped flavoured and sweetened cream for first-class trades, and dust over with pulverised sugar. Sell at 2d. each.

In order to keep up with the times it may be necessary for many of my readers to sell these goods at id. each. Then you will not use cream for the fiUing, but substitute in its place either "Choice" (No. 8), or Pastry Cream (No. 9). Of course, you will not be able to make so many buns from the mixture, which can be economised by leaving oTit a couple of eggs, and using an extra quantity of volatile, but I do not recommend it; you had much better rest satisfied with smaller profits.

No. 182.- Gomflonr Cream Buns ("Petits chonx h, la Compens ").

I pint milk. 8 ozs. cornflour.

6 ozs. batter. 10 eggs.

Mode. - Wet up the cornflour in a basin with half the milk; put the remainder of the milk and butter into a stewpan and bring to the boil; then pour both together, stirring well all the time, and cook to a smooth paste. Remove from the fire, and allow the heat to go off" a little; then add the eggs, one at a time, beating well after each addition of eggs; then when all the eggs are • in, lay out very small on to a baking plate to form about fifty buns, and bake as previously directed. This mixture will give you a very fine puff, small, and very smooth. They are principally used for filling out with well-whipped cream, and then are dipped into melted chocolate fondant, and allowed to dry before being sold or served.

IOTES.

Cflgitized by VOOQ IC

Price either id. or 2d.; if the former, fill with either " Choice " (No. 8), or Pastry Cream (No. 9). The latter, of course, contains cream flavoured vanilla.

No. 183.--Aiiother Becipe.

1 pint water. 6 ozs. cornflour.

2 ozs. butter. 5 whole eggs and 4 whites.

Mode, - Exactly the same as in the previous recipe. It will be noticed that this mixture does not contain so much goodness as the previous recipes, and on that account a little more is put upon the outside. They will rise up like an inverted tea-cup, and, when cooked, crisp witheut being too much browned. They are dipped in thick syrup, and then rolled in desiccated cocoanut, and dusted with fine sugar, and are generally termed Cocoanut Puff Balls. Do not make them too large.

No. 184 -Eclairs,

These are made from a similar mixture to the Cream Buns, and in an emergency either of the mixtures given can be used for the purpose.

% pint milk. %, lb. margarine.

% pint water. 2 ozs. sugar.

% lb. Vienna flour. 10 eggs.

Pinch cream and soda.

Mode, - Put the milk, water, and margarine into a stewpan, and bring to the boil over the fire or gas-ring, sift the sugar and flour together and stir it into the boiling liquor with a wooden spoon, and then cook over the fire for about five minutes, or until you can lift the mass from the pan with the spoon. Then stand it off the stove on to the board, and add in the eggs one at the time beating well after each addition of eggs. When you have got in all the eggs, add a pinch of cream of tartar and soda, beat it well through the batter. Now put the whole into a savoy bag, having a plain round tube, and then proceed to lay the batter out on to clean fiat tins, something like a finger biscuit in shape (see Fig. 97). When you have laid them all out, put into the oven, and bake to a nice .colour. When done, split them open down the side with k sharp knife and lay in a spoonful of either No. 8 or

No. 9, using a psilette-knife for the purpose; then melt some chocolate fondant, dip each Eclair into it, set on to a wire drainer to dry; then sell. Price either id. or 2d., according to size and locality. These are the ordinary Chocolate Eclairs, Eclairs au Chocolat of the shops.

Fig. 97. - Laying out the Eclairs.

There are many other varieties more particularly in request for ball-suppers, and such like functions; but as the mixture and process of making is exactly the same, I shall merely indicate the variety, and give instructions for their embellishment.

No. 185- Eclairs au Oaf. Exactly the same, using a coffee-flavoured cream for

the inside with coffee fondant for outside, in the place of vanilla cream and chocolate.

No. 186.- £olair8 an OarameL As their name implies, these are dipped into sugar, boiled up to a caramel, and then rolled into fine sugar nibs either white or stained pink with cochineal, and dried before being served.

No. 187.- Eclairs anx Amandes. Take the Eclairs, and after you have dipped them into syrup proceed to roll them into finely shred-up almonds, either plain or browned in the oven on a clean tin.

No. 188.- Eclairs anx Confitures.

Instead of filling these with either of the creams given, you use any kind of fruit jelly, jam, or conserve, and ice them over with suitably coloured fondants, according to taste.

No. 189.- tSclairs k Tltalienne.

In this case the paste is laid out in small, crescent-like shapes; then washed over with egg, and very liberally dusted with shred -up almonds and nib sugar, and then baked. When done and cold, they are slit open down the side with a sharp knife, and a spoon of coffee-flavoured cream is laid in. These goods are very high-class, and are seldom made for shop sale.

No. 190.- Petits Ohonx k la Comtesse.

These are really a very small variety of the cream bun; but I have kept them last to show the distinction, instead of putting them with the cream buns. Generally speaking, they would be filled, are very small, about the size of walnuts, and when cooked, either round or oval, and will weigh about 4 lbs. to the bushel; but, of course, when they have the cream fillings heavy fondants and different garnishing upon them, they weigh much heavier, and are better appreciated by the public.

Petits Choux k la Comtesse are very small round puffs baked nicely dry, without burning or scorching the paste, and then dipped into chocolate fondant and filled with

some rich vanilla-flavoured cream. All the other varieties are simply named and made as the eclairs; but are, of course, round or egg-shaped, and not too large, the idea being that they are very tasty little confections and much appreciated by the fair sex. They are immensely popular at ball-suppers, soirees, &c., and come in for a fair patronage when displayed for sale on the counter; and, when nicely made and cooked, are a credit to the shops they come from.

No. 191.- Genoese (Best).

3 lbs. flour. 2 ihs. butter.

2 lbs. sugar. i quart eggs.

Mode. -Put the butter into a clean pan, and run it to oil on the oven-stock; put the eggs and sugar into a sponge cake machine, and beat it up well, the same as for sponge cakes; when well beaten up, turn in the butter, and give it a mix in the batter. Then takeout the wires, and mix in the flour with your hand; have ready two tins, with sheets of white paper laid smoothly upon them, and a wooden upset along the bottom; divide the batter equally between the two; spread it out smoothly with a palette knife, and bake in a moderate oven. When done, turn off the tins on to a wire, and leave for forty-eight hours before you proceed to cut it up.

No. 192.- Genoese (No. 2).

3 Ibi. flour. ii lbs. butter.

2 lbs. sugar, i pints egg.

Mode, - Same as for No. 191.

No. 193.- Genoese (No. 3).

i4 Ibi. flour. iX lbs. butter.

ij4 lbs. soda flour (No. i). i pint eggs.

lU lbs. sugar. Milk.

Mode. - Sieve the flour well together on the board; cream up the butter and sugar in a bowl, adding the eggs the same as for cake-batter; when all are in, add and mix in the flour, using sufficient milk to bring it to a soft cake-batter consistency; then bake the same as directed in the previous mixings.

No. 194.-00110086 (No. 4).

3 lbs. soda Baur (No. i). i lb. butter.

ii lbs. sugar. 8 eggs.

Mode, - Exactly the same as directed in No. 193, but more milk will be required, and being rather poor it must be cooked in a warmer oven, and never be used for best goods.

No. &95. " Bnssianfl for full Prico Trado.

Take either of the previously given Genoese and lay out two thin sheets of the required size on papered flat tins; then add to a portion of the mixture a little carmine colour - sufficient to colour it a brilliant pink; then colour another portion with caramel to a chocolate colour, and leave another portion plain; this will give you three dififerent coloured pastes, besides the two plain sheets for the top and bottom. Spread the coloured portions on paper not too thick, and bake. Let the whole of it stand for twenty-four hours to get cold; then take the two coloured cakes and the plain one; remove the paper and cut up into irregular pieces, mixing them up on the board by your side; lay the two sheets together and trim them both to the same size, and thin them down if too thick; then spread them over with preserve. Now take some sort of preserve - say plum without stones, for instance - and dilute it with warm water; add a few drops of noyeau, and sprinkle it upon the irregular pieces, taking care not to make . it too moist, just sufficient to bind the mass together only; lay this in a layer upon the top of one of the plain sheets on which you spread the jam, keeping it about an inch thick, press down firm with your hands, when you have laid it all over. Half a quartern of rum is generally sprinkled over the top, and upon that is laid the other sheet of Genoese, jam side down. Lay a board upon the top with a weight upon it to press it into a compact mass. It now remains to be cut up (which is generally done the next day) into convenient sections. When cut up, proceed to

ice them over with pink and white fondant or water icing. Price id, or 2d., according to locality and size of the sections cut. It is sometimes iced over before being cut up; take the sheet of cake after it is pressed firm, and ice over with white fondant; then marble it by dipping a feather into carmine and going over the top of the icing with it; then cut up in sections. Sometines the sheet will be iced with pink and white icing, and it is laid out by going across the top with a lipped pan, pouring the icing out over the top in narrow lines or running it out of a paper coney, afterwards crossing the hnes with the point of a knife, as show in the illustrations (Figs. 11, 12, and 13). This gives to the whole a very pretty appearance, and must be done quickly. If you find the icing sets, just stand it under the prover, or in the oven mouth for a few minutes to soften.

No. 196.- Bussian Sandwiches (2).

In the majority of bakehouses, or kitchens, where any considerable amount of " smalls " are turned out, it is usual to have what is generally known as a " shonkey tub," which, of course, may be an ordinary lard pail, or a large ferment tub, regulated by the amount of your trade. Into this tub will go all kinds of cake trimmings, spoilt goods, tin scrapings, and the dozens of other things that go to make up the waste of the bakehouse. Usually all spoilt goods would be rubbed down dry and so put away; but if your trade is quick you can damp it down with some simple syrup and let it stand. If it stands long enough, and contains a good proportion of sugar, it will ferment, get strong, and taste what we generally call " twangy "; that is, the fermentation will produce some sort of a flavour resembling spirits, which is much appreciated by the public. This is only, however, the preliminary operation. To transform it into something suitable for a medium, or full-price trade, something more will be necessary. The contents of your tub will probably be in a semi-liquid state. Take out what you deem necessary for your purpose and lay it on the board, stirring up the tub before turning it out. Add to the " shonkey " some ordinary

preserve, and a few spots of essence of Jargonelle pear, and some colour, and well mix it together. Now take some stale cake, plain and coloured if you have any (if not, some can be made for the purpose), and cut it up into neat irregular cubes, and lay them beside the stuff on the board. Now take two thin sheets of Genoese, and trim them thin and even, if they are not so; spread them thinly over with some preserve (plum and apple, or other ordinary jam will do); then lay a thick sheet of brown paper over a board, and place one sheet of the Genoese upon it, jam side up; then place a wooden frame all round the edge, and after you have mixed the dry stuflf with the wet, proceed to press it evenly over the sheet of Genoese, distributing the coloured cake all over the sheet, press it down well, and when you have laid on about iji ins. of shonkey," turn over the other sheet of Genoese, jam side down; lay a sheet of paper over the top; then cover with another board, and place some weights on to press it down firm; leave it so for at least a day, and then cut up. Take a sharp knife, and with a rule calculate out the size of your pieces - the usual size is I in. wide and 3 ins. long. Having calculated out the size of your pieces, take some water icing, and, using either white or coloured as preferred, ice over the top of the cake, which should first be cut up into 3-in. strips, or less according to the size of the sheet, avoiding waste: then when iced over, cut up into fingers i in. wide; set them on to wires as you cut them out, and they are ready for sale. This is Russian in its original form. It is now made in a variety of ways, and the term Russian was applied to this because it seemed to contain rum or punch.

Another way to tarn out a small quantity of " Russian' is to bake some of the Cake Mixture (No. 197) in sixpenny sponge sandwich tins, spreading it in even with a palette knife and not too thick, and do not over cook it. When done, turn on to a cloth laid over the board, and leave it to get cold; when cold, or the next day for preference, slice it in half with a sharp knife; this will give you two

rounds; if too thick trim down, and take oflf any thickness that there may be on either sheet. When trimmed off, having prepared the flats, spread them over with some preserve, and then pile on the "shonkey" in the same way as directed for the larger sheet; press it down rather firmly and then trim oflf the edges evenly all round. Take some white water icing and ice over the top. then put a little pink-coloured water icing into a small paper corney, and run lines across the white top; then with the point of a sharp knife draw it across the wet icing transversely with the lines already upon the top of the cake, and then draw the knife in the opposite direction; if carefully done, the effect will be very pretty, and when you have succeeded in working two colours, you can try a third, and even a fourth, if you like. Having marbled the top of your cake, take a very sharp knife and cut the round in halves; then cut up each half into quarters, and each of the quarters into three penny pieces - that will give you twelve pieces out of the round; trim off the points of each section, and set them on to a wire or tray, and when the icing is set, it is ready for sale.

The following mixture will answer for the purpose of this sandwich, and, if you do not happen to have any stale by you, it can be used for the purpose of cutting up.

No. 197.- BussiaiL Oake Mixture. i lbs. butter. X ' carbonate of soda.

2J4 lbs. sugar. 16 eggs.

4i lbs. flour. MUk.

)i OS. cream of tartar. Essence of lemon.

Mode, - Sieve the cream and soda well with the flour, breaking it down under the palette knife before adding it to the flour; cream up the butter and sugar in the usual way, adding the eggs a few at the time. When all are in, add the flour and bring to cake-batter consistency with milk; spread into ordinary sixpenny sponge sandwich tins, or lay sheets of paper over flat tins, and spread the batter over the paper about J in. thick, and after placing an upset along the foot of the tin; bake in a moderate oven. Should you require to make up some red cake, all that is necessary is to add some liquid

carmine or cochineal to the batter, and well mix it in and bake in the same way. When adding colour to cake batters, care should be exercised not to add too much, and be very careful with the chemicals, and weigh them correctly, as any excess of soda may turn your colour into yellow, instead of red as you intended.

No. 198.- Battenburg Oake. Take the Genoese cake batter (Nos. 191 or 192), divide it in two; colour one half pink with carmine, and leave the other plain; spread separately over a sheet ofpaper and bake to about one inch thick. When done, take oflf the paper, and cut up into square strips; then lay them alternately chess-board fashion, sandwiching them together with any kind of preserve - for the bottom layer, say two white and one red in the centre; for the second, two red and a white in the centre; and on top of that the same as the bottom layer. When you have fixed them all together so (Fig. 98), make up the Almond Paste (No. 11), roll it out in a sheet, and after spreading some preserve upon

Fig. 98. - Showing how the Battenburgs are built before being enveloped in Almond Paste.

the built-up square of cake, roll it round outside of the cake. Pinch along the edges and decorate with the point of a knife or skewer, by scratching a design upon it. The almond paste must not be too thick, or it will not look nice. Then either cut the cake up into inch sections, or sell whole at is. pec lb.

No. 199. -Fruit Fancies.

Cut out all kinds of shapes from a sheet of Genoese paste (No. 191), taking care to have as little waste as you possibly can, and spread a little preserve over the top of each. Then make up the Italian boiled meringue (No. 205), fill it into a savoy bag having a plain round tube, and pipe different sorts of fruit upon each, for instance, half a pear, apple, or peach, and as you do them stand aside on a wire. When you have finished the whole, have

Fig. 99. - Stand showing various Fancies.

ready some hot diluted apricot jam, rubbed through a hair sieve to take out all skin or " Fiudge" (No. 15); and after you have put the bloom on to the fruit with a little carmine or vegetable colours, dip them into the hot diluted jam or " fludge," and set them on to wires to drain. Sometimes you may prefer to slice up the Genoese, and sandwich it together again with preserve; then to glac them with

dififerent coloured fondants, and afterwards pipe on the fruits, and lastly dip them in the diluted jam or " fludge."

No. 200.- Fricett Cakes. i4 lbs. pulverised sugar. iX lbs. butter.

2 lbs. flour. I lb. soda flour (No. i).

ii lbs. almond paste (No. lo). lo eggs. Milk.

Mode, - Sieve the flours well together on the board, scale the fat and sugar into a mixing-bowl, and break the eggs. Take ij lbs. of the almond paste, prepared as directed in No. lo, at least twenty-four hours before required, and lay it with the flour. Take two good level baking plates, clean them ofl", and cover with sheets of paper; have an upset that will fit tight. Having prepared your tins, proceed to cream up the butter and sugar in the usual way, beating in the eggs two at the time. When all are in, add the flour and almond paste, and wet to cake -batter consistency with milk; divide the batter into two equal portions, and spread each portion over the two tins about in. thick, fix the upset across the tin to prevent it running, and then bake in a moderate oven. When done, take away the upset and slide the cakes off on to wires, and stand aside to get cold. The next day proceed to cut it up as follows: - Take one sheet of the cake, slide it on to the board, take off" the paper, and with a sharp knife cut it up into 3j4-in. strips. Take three of the strips and sandwich them together with apricot jam, and then take some plain almond paste (No. lo) and roll it down in a sheet about in. thick; spread some apricot jam over the sheet and wrap it round the three slices of cake, trim it off" evenly, and it is ready for sale. It can be further decorated by pinching the two top edges similar to shortbread, and can be made just half the size if preferred. It can be cut out and sold at is. per lb., and, when cut, the different coloured almond paste shows up first class, and it will eat nice.

No. 201.- Qlacd Genoese.

Take a sheet of best Genoese (No. 191), not too thick, and cut it up into fancy shapes; slice them in halves, and

sandwich together with apricot or apple preserve; now prepare some Fondant Icing (No. 5), coloured and flavoured as required; let it warm, and when about as thick as cream take up a piece of the Genoese to be iced, and insert a fork in the bottom; dip into the hot icing, then take off with another fork, as shown in the illustration (Fig. 100), and lay on a wire drainer, glace side upwards; proceed thus till you have glaced over the whole of the Genoese.

Fig. too.- Clacking Genoese Pastry.

No. 202.- Genoese Marzipan.

Take some Genoese, and then cut it up into fancy shapes; have some moulds or impressions cut in wood or metal, and then take either of the almond pastes or marzipans (see Nos. 10, 1 1, 1 2, 13 ori4), and press into the impressions, keeping them hollow; fill the shaped almond paste with cream (No. 8), pastry cream (No. 9), or preserve. Spread some jam over the Genoese, and set one of the almond paste shapes on top. When you have finished the whole, proceed to glace over in the same

way, as directed in No. 201, and further decorate with Glace Royal (No. 4), by piping, also with preserved or glace fruits and angelica.

No. 203.- AfricaiiB.

I lbs. Vienna flonr. 10 ozs. batter.

f( lb. sugar.

4 yolks and 2 eggs.

Essence of lemon. Mode, - Weigh the flour, sugar, and butter on to the board, and rub together; make a bay, and break in the eggs; flavour with essence of lemon, and wet into a fairly tight paste. Roll down half of the paste to about i in. in thickness, and cut out with a 3-in. round crinkled cutter. Set them on a sheet of paper laid on a flat tin; then take an African forcer, put in a round star plate; then fill up with the paste, and lay it out off the forcer in lengths on the board; cut it up and lay in rings upon the flat pieces of paste already set upon the tin;

Fig. ioi. - Africans prepared ready for sale.

lay a short piece across, as shown in Fig. loi, and bake in a warm oven. When done, place them on to wires, and lay a spoonful of different coloured jams in each side of the crosspiece, and sell at id. each. Sometimes almond paste is run through the forcer, and used in the

Elace of biscuit paste; but that is seldom, and the ottoms must always be a biscuit paste. . If almond paste is used for the rings, it will be necessary for you to cut them smaller, and be very careful with the baking, as they very soon burn.

No. a04.- Meringues. 8 whites of eggs. i lb. dust loaf sugar.

Mode, - Very great care must be exercised in making these, as the least suspicion of grease on any of- the utensils, or yolk in the whites, will mar your success. Therefore, first of all see that your copper mixing-pan and wire egg-whisk are thoroughly cleansed before you commence your work. To cleanse the copper bowl eflfectively take about yi, oz. of tartaric acid and a pint of water; turn this into the bowl, and then take a lump of salt and well rub out the copper till quite bright; then

Fig. 102.- Shaping up ordinary Shell Meringues.

well rinse with cold water, and wipe dry with a clean cloth. Now carefully break in the whites, taking care that you do not get any yolks into it, add a pinch of salt in fine powder, and with a wire egg-whisk beat up into a stiff, staunch foam. When it is beaten up so firm that it will bear the weight of an egg, then sift and mix in the sugar, which should be quite cold, with your hand, taking care not to over-mix, or stir up too much; it should stand up firm in the pan. To lay them out take an iron spoon in your right hand, take up a small portion of the batter in the spoon, and work it up round on the side of the bowl (see Fig. 102)

NOl'Bfi.

and then lay it out upon a sheet of paper, drawing the tail or top up to a point, and curl it round and over similar to a hand-coated chocolate cream. When you hare filled the sheet of paper with meringues, dust over with a small handful of sugar; transfer the sheet of meringues on to the bottom of a baking plate, and cook or dry in a cool oven, without closing the door. Cook to a pale straw or golden colour.

These are the ordinary meringue shells, and require a good deal of practice to turn them out to perfection.

Meringues should always be beaten up and laid out in a cool place; and the pinch of salt or cream of tartar will very much aid the process of beating up.

Should you desire a larger or smaller quantity, you will either multiply or reduce the ingredients, till you obtain the required quantity, remembering always that one good size egg white will take 2 ozs. of sugar.

To take the meringues off the paper, turn them carefully upside down on a clean sack, and damp the paper over with the wash-brush dipped in warm water; then fold the paper in halves; proceed to remove the meringues, and as you do so press in the bottom with your thumb or the handle of the palette knife, taking care not to break them when doing so; and I would advise you not to make the indention too large, for remember you may, in the course of your business, have to fill them with beaten-up cream. If necessary, dry them after taking from the paper. These shells are usually sold at two a id., or, filled with cream, 2d. each - that is, of course, two meringues with cream in the centre and pressed firmly together.

No. 205.- Italian or Boiled Meringue.

2 lb?, loaf sugar. 12 cr 14 whites of eggs.

Mode, - Put the sugar into a clean bright skillet or stewpan; add half a pint of water and a small pinch of cream of tartar, and boil up to a stiff ball degree, about 250 F, by thermometer. While the sugar is coming up to this degree, break the whites carefully into a clean copper, or enamelled mixing bowl, and beat up into a stiff,

staunch foam; then take the sugar when it has reached the desired degree, pour it gradually into the beaten-up whites and continue beating to well mix, and use as directed. Any kind of flavouring essence or colour can be added in the last stages of manufacture. If you do not use the whole of it, it can be preserved in a covered jar for a few days, but then, when using, be very careful not to stir it about too much, or it will be spoilt. There is only one machine whisk that will deal with meringues, and that is the " Cadish." It beats up with the natural

Fig. 103.- Small Cadish Whisk for Hand.

movements of the arm, and will fetch the whites up to perfection. If your trade is large enough, I would advise you to obtain some few of the many machines now upon the market for lightening manual labour. They will certainly pay for the outlay, and prove beneficial to the users in the long run.

No. 206.- Meringue Mashrooms.

For these, take the mixture given as No. 204, and after you have it prepared, put a plain tube (Fig. 105) into a savoy bag, regulating the size as desired; put a cork into the tube to prevent the meringue running

out, and then fill it with the meringue. Have some sheets of white paper, and lay out first the stalks, which should be kept as long and upright as possible without being too bulky (Fig. io6, A). When you have laid out sufficient stems or stalks for your purpose, put them at once into the oven, taking care not to shake them over when sliding the tin off the peel, and leave

Fig. 104,- Cadish Whisk for Power.

them to dry; then fill up your bag again, and proceed to lay out the tops or heads, which is done by keeping the tube pretty close to the paper, and laying out in small, dome-shaped pieces (Fig. 106, B), varying in size from the small button mushroom to something a little more matured; dust them over lightly with a handful of sugar, and dry them off in the oven. When dry sufficiently,

strip off the paper by damping it with a little water, and as you take the stems off the paper roll the damp end into a little cocoa, and lay them on to wires to dry; then take off the tops, and, when all are off, dip the flat side into some cocoa to imitate the dark under part of the mushroom. When you have ddne them all, proceed to

Fig. 105.- Plain Savoy Tube.

fix them together, as shown at C and D (Fig. 106), and they are ready for sale. A little spot of icing may be necessary to fix them together - but not always, the water in most cases being sufficient. Sometimes a little cocoa is dusted over them before they arc baked, to imitate the earth and bloom usually found on the real article.

Fig. 106.- Meringue Muihrooms. A, The Sttlk. B, The Head. C and D, Showing how they are fixed together.

No. 207.- Meringue Boats. This is another kind of meringue, which is used principally for boats and other similar goods that are required to dry white with a smooth surface. The particular

merit of the mixture is that it is easily prepared, and you are not so likely to fail with it as you would with Italian meringue. It can also be coloured to any required shade with vegetable colours; but the colours must always be added in at first and never introduced after you have partially beaten it up, or you may in all probability obtain streaky-looking meringues, which are not at all what you require.

3 lb), pulverised sugau i pint whites of eggs.

Picch cream of tartar. Mode, - First procure, and then scour out thoroughly, a Morton No. 2 (for this size mixture) sponge cake ma

FiG. 107.- How to lay th Boats oflF the Board.

chine and wipe it out dry. Then prepare three or four flat baking plates by rubbing them off clean, and then slightly grease them with a little clean lard; then dust them over with flour, and stand aside ready for use. Now very carefully break the whites into a pot, and, when you have sufficient, fix up your machine, turn in the whites, add the sugar and a pinch of cream of tartar, and proceed to beat them up to a good stiff foam (it requires from

twenty to forty minutes' good hard turning to fetch it up); and when you have got it up, to tell if you have reached the proper degree, just dip the point of your finger into it and draw up some of the mixture to a point, turn the point into the air, and if it stands up well without drooping, it is ready to lay out. So lake out the wires, clean them off with your fingers, taking care not to knock the mixture down more than you can possibly help. Now have ready a piece of smooth board about a foot long, 3j ins. wide, and just as thick as you can hold in your hand in the way shown in the illustration (Fig. 107). Now take up spoonfuls of the meringue out of the machine

Fig. 108 -How the Boats are laid on the Tin.

and lay it upon the board a little more than an inch thick in the centre and less at the edges, smoothing it off with the palette knife. Lay one of the previously prepared tins fiat on the "board and lengthwise with the board, and proceed to lay out the boats as follows: Hold the board with the meringue upon it in your left hand between the tips of your thumb and fingers, taking care that they do not come above the sides of the board and resting it upon your arm (see illustration). Take your palette knife in your right hand, and with it take off a piece of the pieringue the length of your, board, lay it back on to the bottom edge of the board, then take it

upon the palette knife and drop it gently on to your tms, drawing the palette knife away gently to leave the ridge down the centre; then take off another piece of meringue, and as you empty your board, draw your palette knife down with the meringue in front of it, and, if you notice you will see that the meringue rolls over and so shape itself to exactly what is required, and consequently you have only to take them off the bottom, and carefully drop them on to the flat tins, drawing the edge of the knife away gradually to leave the necessary ridge down the centre; fill the tin in the way shown in Fig. 108 and about eight in each row; and when all your tins are full, put them into a cool oven and bake or dry crisp. When done, take them off the tins with a palette knife, and stack on to the wires, and sell at two a penny. If this quantity is too large for your consumption, they may be kept for a considerable time in either show glasses or tin canisters.

No. 208.- Dream Memories.

These are made with the same mixture. After you have prepared your tins and beat up the meringue, put it into a savoy bag having a plain, round tube (Fig. 105), and lay out upon the tins in fingers about 3 ins. long. Keep them fat at each end, but not so fat as you would a savoy finger; and when you have filled them, sprinkle them over lightly with desiccated cocoanut and bake or dry in a cool oven. The process of baking will brown the cocoanut and leave the meringue nice and white. When done, remove from the tins with a palette knife, and stack on to wires for sale at four aid.; or, you can spread a little preserve upon one and so sandwich two together, and then sell at two a penny. Remember that all the jam is extra, so do not be too liberal with it. Another thing, it will soften the meringue, and so spoil the goods if kept too long exposed to the air.

No. 209.-Star8. These are also made from the same mixture (No. 207). Prepare the tins in the same way, and after you have beaten

up the mixture, put a star tube (No. 109) into a savoy bag and lay out small stars upon the tins, and when you have filled the tins, dry off in a cool oven. These sell at eight a penny; so you must look to it and not lay them too large, remembering at the same time that the heat of the oven will swell them somewhat. These are usually made in various colours - white, red, green, and chocolate - and are sometimes sold at so much per pound; but as that should work out at something like 2s., it is much the best way to sell them by count. Of course, if you make them too large to retail at this price, there is nothing to prevent you selling less for money. If they are well dried out, they will keep for a considerable time in show-glasses or biscuit tins.

Fig. 109. - Star Meringue Tube.

Again let me caution you to add in the colour with the white of egg before you put in the sugar, or you may have a contretemps and the colours, if afterwards mixed in, are liable to be streaky, and sometimes run out.

No. 210.- Decorated Meringues.

These are made from either Italian or ordinary meringue, laid out npon sheets of paper, in artistic shapes, which are dried, and then further embellished with more meringue, piped on to heighten the designs; or they are piped in Royal icing with glace fruits and angelica, or, in fact, anything that is eatable. But remember, in this connection, that neatness must govern all you put upon it. In the first place, the meringue is small and light, therefore do not let the decoration altogether hide up the character of your sweetmeat, for a . design does not need to be heavy to be effective; a little

NOTIS.

coloured sugar, and a few silver or gold dragees, look very effective for this class of work.

Everyone has some pet design that he wishes to inflict upon the public; therefore, I will content myself by merely giving these few general observations, and not particularise any one method of decoration.

No. 211.- Ice Gakes.

These are made either from Italian meringue (No. 205) or from the mixture given for Meringue Boats (No. 207). It is filled into a savoy-bag having a star tube, and

Fig. 1 10,- Laying out Ics Cakes from a Bag.

laid out in short rope-like cakes, about four inches in length (see Fig. 110) upon a waxed tin and dried in a cool oven.

Another way, when only a small quantity of boatshape ice cakes are desired, is to take a dough-scraper and large palette knife. A portion of Italian meringue is taken upon the knife from the side of the bowl; then shape and lengthen out upon the edge of the scraper (see Fig. in), laying them off the edge of the scraper on to a waxed tin, and dry in the hot closet,

prover, or oven. When laid out they are something like a large banana, but perfectly straight and having three sharp edges, two on the tin and another upon the top, forming a ridge right down the centre. The goods can be coloured, the usual colour being pink, which forms a pleasing contrast with the white. The colour is added into the boiled syrup before you mix it into the beaten-up whites.

Fio. III.- Laying off Ice Cakes.

No. 212.- Hot Gross Buns. This recipe is exactly the same as the small one (No. 213), but the quantity of essence is given, also the weight of fruit, and I always use finely-chopped peel for hot cross buns. This is my special recipe, which has given very general satisfaction to all who have tried it: 6 qrts. milk. 9 lbs. sugar.

6 qrti. water. 6 lbs. butter.

ii lbs. compressed distillery 2.1bs. currants.

yeast. I tablespoonfiil essence of lemon.

I lb. malt extract. 2 tablespoonsful essence of

I qrt. eggs. mixed spice.

li lbs. peel. Flour as required.

Mode, - Stir the sponge as follows: - Warm the milk and water up to 110 F.; in this dissolve 6 lbs. of the sugar, the malt extract and yeast; turn it into the trough and " pen" off a portion of the flour; stir a very slack sponge, which should be ready in less than two hours; do not take it before it drops in exactly the same way as a bread sponge, it should drop about 2 ins.; break the eggs; weigh the fruit, peel, and remainder of the sugar; put the fat into a bowl or pot, and run it to oil upon the oven stock, or inside the door, but take care not to get it too hot. Rub ij4 ozs. of salt through a fine wire sieve upon

the board. When the sponge is ready - and, I repeat, do not under any consideration take it before it is, or your work will be spoilt - add in the melted fat, eggs, sugar, chopped peel, and the essence, and stir till thoroughly mixed. Then, stir in sufficient flour to make a nice mellow dough, not too soft to run or too tight - a medium roll-dough consistency would be about the thing most suitable. Then mix in the fruit and let it lie to prove for yi hours. Dry it over at the end of that time and throw out upon the board, covering it over with some clean open Vienna sacks, or other suitable cloths. Have all the tins cleaned and your prover warmed, and then begin to scale off into 6-oz. pieces, which break in two for penny buns, and mould up round under your hand, setting about twenty-four on to each tin as you do them, putting them into the prover as fast as you fill the tins. Having filled say a dozen tins, take the first tin filled and cross it with the cross, and continue with the next till you have them all crossed. Now put on the steam and prove the buns to the desired size, then bake in a hot oven. When they are baked wash them over with a wash made of i quart of milk, 6 eggs, and lb. sugar, beaten well together- or some Bun Glaze (No. 215) - gives infinitely better results. Take the buns off the tins on to wires, and, when the steam has gone off, pack into trays and boxes edgewise. Do not crush them or spoil their appearance in any way if possible. During the time you have been occupied with crossing and proving the first dozen tins, your assistants should have filled a second dozen, so that as soon as you take a tin out of the prover you have another ready to put into its place, always keeping the prover full, crossing them as soon as ready. If you follow along as fast as you can you will find they will work along smoothly and well. For halfpenny buns scale 6J-oz. pieces and break into four. A tin holding two dozen penny buns will only hold forty halfpenny ones. This recipe will make about forty shillingsworth of penny currant buns at sixteen a shilling, and, of course, considerably less if halfpenny or plain buns are made.

You will find malt extract a great improvement to your buns, for not only will it help to hasten along fermentation, but it will aid considerably in keeping your buns moist, and assist their flavour to a very marked degree.

System of Work. One man should stir the sponge; then when the dough is made and thrown out on the board he should set away another sponge. When on the board a lad should be able to scale off fast enough to keep two going moulding up and tining - the " boss" or " foreman," weighing all ingredients, setting the sponges, docking them, proving, baking, and directing the work generally. Another lad should take the tins from the peel off the oven stock, wash them over, carry away, and clean the tins. By working everything in rotation you will find it come ready to hand without a hitch.

Fig. 112. - The Blades before being Sharpened; two required.

It is impewtive that you keep the bakehouse at a nice comfortable temparature throughout the night, and avoid cold draughts of every description, especially when the dough is on the boards, or the consequence will be disappointment and unnecessary delay.

How TO Make a Bun Docker. Take two thin pieces of hard wood about 3 ins. long, 2ji ins. wide, and j(-in. thick. The sides of a cigar box would supply it very well, and then with a fine sharp meat-saw cut a slot in each piece (as shewn on Fig. 112). Now by reversing one piece, and fixing the two slots together, you form a cross. Having made the blades, the next thing is to get a solid piece of wood about 3 ins.

Salbablb Shop Goods

square, and i ins. thick, and with the saw cut a groore evenly in it, in which to thtly fix the cross. Have four long French nails, and drive them into the block, one between each blade of the cross, as shown in the engraving (Fig. 1 1 3), and then file them up to sharp points; have some glue melted and fix in the blades, sharpen up with a knife, and your docker is complete. You will find this wooden cross far and away before any made of metal you can use for the purpose, as it will not cut the buns into four separate pieces, but only just sufficient for your requirements.

Fig. 113.- The Block in which to fix the Blade (Fig. 112),

No. 213.- Buns.

I qrt. of milk. ii lbs. sugar.

I qrt. water. i lb. fat.

X lb. compressed distillery 4 eggs, yeast. Salt.

Flour.

Mode, - Heat the milk and water up to about 90' F.; dissolve i lb. of the sugar and the yeast in it; put it into a clean lard pail, and stir in sufficient flour to form a soft

smootti batter sponge; cover over, and set it in a warm place to come up, and drop in the usual manner. When ready - but you must not take it till it has dropped - add the remainder of the sugar, the fat run to oil on the oven stock, about J4 oz. of salt in fine powder, and the eggs. Beat the whole of this well together, and make up into a suitable size dough with flour; turn out on the board, and well dust it over; return to the bowl or pail, and let it stand to well prove. This is a plain dough; it can be turned into any of the goods preceding or following in which bun dough is directed to be used.

No. 211- Pnny Giurrant Buns.

To the above quantity add i % lbs. to 2 lbs of currants, a few drops of essence of lemon, and mixed spice; mix well in and prove; then scale off into 6-oz. pieces; divide each piece in two; mould up round under your hands, and place on to greased tins; prove, and bake in a warm oven. When done, glaze over with some Bun Glaze (No. 215) while they are hot. This quantity will turn out about one hundred id. buns.

No. 215.- '€kaiptoii Dene's" Bun Qlaze.

I lb. leaf gelatine. 3 lbs. raw sugar.

4 qrts. water. Black Jack (No. 216).

Mode, - Soak the gelatine and sugar in 2 quarts of the water, and when soft add the remainder of the water and run down on the stove; give it a steady boil for about ten minutes, taking care it does not come over the top of the stewpan; then colour with some Black Jack" or burnt sugar; strain through a piece of linen, and put into jars for use. When required, take a portion of the glaze and put it into a suitable sized tin pot; add a little water, and run down on the oven-stock; wash your buns over while hot, and do not pack up till the glaze has set. It will keep for a considerable time, taking the precaution to cover over to keep out the dust and dirt.

No. 216.-Black Jack.

Usually this would be made from any kind of sugaffgoods that have gone wrong in the shop, and are

unsaleable; but then care must be used, or you may get a very objectionable flavour in from somewhere. To make it from sugar, the following will be found easy and economical. Take a half-quartern bread tin and fill it nearly full of sugar (pulverised, caster, or raw), and set it into the oven. Leave it there till it is cooked quite black; stir up to make sure that all your sugar has cooked black, and, when it looks like black treacle, gradually fill up the tin with water, and set it into the oven to dissolve. Then thin it a little more, and bottle for use. Remember that a little of this goes a very long way, and, some care must be exercised in using it. It will keep for a considerable time, if kept corked and in a cool place.

No. 217.- Twopenny Bath Buns.

3 lbs. plain bun dough lb. loaf sugar.

(No. 213). yi lb. butter.

i lb. peeL 3 yolks of eggv.

Mode, - Spread the dough over the board, and rub in the fat, yolks, and peel, with a few drops of essence of lemon; then tighten up with a handful of flour, and mix in the sugar, broken into convenient size lumps. When well mixed, lay out the buns in rough lumps, about 2j4 ozs. in weight, on to clean greased tins, prove,, wash over with egg, lay on some rough sugar, then bake in a moderately hot oven. When done, glaze round the sides with bun glaze. If you desire penny buns, use only half the quantity of added goodness, and do not make them quite as large.

No. 218.- Ohelsea Buns.

Take about 6 lbs. of the plain Bun Dough (No. 213), and tighten it up with flour; add in a few drops of essence of lemon and a little egg colour. Give the dough, when mixed, a little " proof "; then roll it out in a sheet and brush over with melted lard, dredge sugar over from the dredger; roll up, Swiss roll fashion, and cut up into ij-in. sections; set them on to a flat tin, edgewise (Fig. 114), and when you have filled the tin, place an upset along the end of the tin; prove; dust sugar over

when proved sufficiently, and bake in a warm oven. When done, sell at id. each.

Fig. 1 14. - Showing how the Chelsea Buns are arranged on the Tin.

No. 219.- Fermented Scones. To 2 lbs. of plain Bun Dough (No. 213) add and mix in oz. cream of tartar, and a handful of sultanas; divide into three, and mould up round under your hand; flatten out to scone size with the rolling-pin, and cut into four; place on to clean tins; prove till large enough; then wash over, and bake. In some localities these are preferred to the cream sultana scones (No. 124), and they are somewhat larger looking for money.

No. 220.- Savarins. Plain bun dough, rather slack, with a little more egg colour, sugar and fat added, scaled off into 4-oz. pieces, divided into two, moulded up found under your hands.

Fig. II S-Savarin Cake Mould.

flatten a little, and press your thumbs through the centre, forming rings, and then placed in Savarin cake pans, see Fig. 115), well greased; prove, and bake. When

done, dip them into hot diluted apricot jam; drain on wires, dust sugar over. Sell at id. each.

No. 221.- Greamlet Buns. Take plain Bun Dough (No. 213); scale off into 3-oz. pieces; divide in two and mould up round under your hand; roll them to oval shape; prove them on a cloth; when large enough, proceed to cook them in hot fat, 'the same as directed for Dough Nuts; take up, drain on a cloth, and let them get cold. Then take a sharp knife, make a cut into the side, and scoop out a portion of the centre; fill the cavity with well-whipped sweetened and flavoured cream; close together again, and sell at id. each.

Fig. 116.- Pan of Dough Nuts cooked in the Oven.

No. 222.- Tea Oakes.

Made from plain bun dough; scaled off anything between 6 ozs. and 8 ozs., according to locality; moulded up round, and flattened out with the rolling-pin, and placed in greased hoops or tins set on flat tins; stab each cake twice in the centre right through to the tin with the dough knife; prove till of size suitable for your purpose, and bake. When cooked, glaze over with Bun Glaze (No. 215), and sell at 2d. each.

No. 223.- Dough Nuts. Take plain Bun Dough (No. 213); scale off into 5-oz. pieces; divide in two, and mould up round under your

hand; flatten with the palm of your hand; lay in a spot of jam, and fold up as round as possible, taking care not to squeeze the jam through the skin; place them on to a cloth, closings down, and prove; when large enough proceed to cook them. Take a large shallow iron or tin pan half filled with lard, and set in the

Fig. 117. - Dough Nut Dipper or Drainer.

oven, when you shut her down; when the fat is hot, put in a dozen or more of the dough nuts (Fig. 1 1 6), and return them to the oven; when cooked sufficiently on one side, draw up to the mouth, turn over, and return to the oven to finish cooking. When done, take up with a drainer (Fig. 1 17) on to a clean sack; then roll them in sugar, and sell at id. each.

Fig. 118.- Dough Nut Cooker and Drainer.

These are sometimes cooked over the fire in Fig. 118, or on a gas-ring (Fig. 119); but for reasons of economy I

would advise you to follow the instructions first given, and cook them in the oven.

No. 224. -Isle of Wight Dough Nuts. These are made exactly the same as No. 223, but instead of preserve, about a dozen currants are used in the centres.

Fig. 119. - Pan of Dough Nuts cooked oa Gas-ring.

No. 225.- Coffee Busks. I pint water. lb. butter.

I pint milk. lb. sugar.

3 ozs. yeast 4 eggs.

Pinch of salt. Little grated nutmeg.

Flour.

Mode, - Take the milk and water and heat them up to about 80 F.; put it into a bowl, add the sugar, and then dip out a little of the liquor and dissolve the yeast in it mix all together, and then stir in sufficient strong flour to form a weak batter, cover over, and stand in a warm place to come up and drop in the usual way. When ready, add the butter (melted), about a % oz of salt in fine powder, and sufficient grated nutmeg to nicely flavour; break in the eggs, and beat the batter well together with your hand; then tighten it up with some more flour, keeping it about the same as ordinary bun dough; put it back into the bowl, cover over, and leave it to prove. When well proved, turn out on to the board and dry it over on the board; cover over, and when it recovers itself, scale off into 2-lb. pieces, and if any over, divide it amongst them, and then mould up round; set

them on the board, and then roll each piece out under your hand to about 25 ins. long, and as you roll them out, set them on to clean greased flat tins about 2 ins. apart; keep them as straight as possible and of equal length. When you have filled the tin, place an upset along the bottom, dock them with a fork right through to the tin and down the centre, wash over with a little melted butter, and prove. They should be proved about the same as an ordinary bun, and when proved properly, bake in a moderate oven, taking care not to burn them. When done, slide off the tin on to a wire and leave to get stale. To finish them, a day or two afterwards cut up into lengths, and then slice up the lengths into pieces about yi in. thick, using a very sharp knife, and avoid crushing them; set them on to a clean tin and brown them in the oven, and dry thoroughly under the prover or in a hot closet. These goods should eat crisp when finished. Sell at lod. per lb.

Fig. 12a- Tin half full of Halfpenny Milk Rolls.

No. 228.- Halfpenny Milk Bolls, or Tops and Bottoms Take the plain Buri Dough (No. 213), and scale off into I -lb. pieces; divide each piece into eight and mould up round under your hands; set them on to tins crummy; place an upset along the bottom and prove; when large enough, bake; and when done, slide off on to a clean

wire. These can be sold when new at two a id. for milk rolls; when stale, cut them up into the sections; and then cut each roll into two, making virtually tops and bottoms of them; place on to wires and dry them in the oven. You can sell these rusks at four a id., or lod. per lb.

No. 227.- Brioche B&tons.

Properly speaking, these are neither brioche nor bitons; but for the want of a name that would be at once original and comprehensive, I have selected it.

2 Ibt. Vienna flour. i os. carbonate of soda.

6 ozs. butter. 3 eggs.

lb. sugar. Milk.

1 oz. cream of tartar. Essence of lemon.

Mode, - Weigh the flour on to the board, put the cream and soda into a fine hair or wire sieve, and run it through to the flour; rub in the butter and sugar, and make a bay; break in the eggs, add a few drops essence of lemon, and wet up into paste with a little milk. Scale ofl" into 2-oz. pieces, and divide into two; mould up round under your hands, and, as you mould them up, set them on the board; and when you have moulded them all up, proceed to roll them out under your hands about 4 ins. in length, pointed at each end and fat in the centre, and as you do them set them on to clean tins. When all are done, wash over with egg, and cut them down the centre with a sharp knife, going the whole length of the baton, and cutting rather deep. When you have cut them all, bake in rather a warm oven to a nice colour, and sell at two a id. These goods eat light and crisp, and go well with a cup of tea or coffee, and they are not altogether amiss with ice cream.

No. 228.- Baba Cakes.

Take a piece of ordinary Bun Dough (No. 213), and to every pound of dough add

2 ozs. butter. 2 ozs. sugar. 2volksofeggs Essence of lemon. X lb. sultanas. X 11 currants.

2 ozs. peel, chopped fine.

Mode, - Lay the dough upon the board and rub in thoroughly the sugar, butter, and yolks of eggs; when well mixed, tighten up with a little Vienna flour, and then mix in the fruit. Let it lie to prove, then scale off into 4-0Z. pieces; divide in two, and mould up under your hand; grease some plain round dariole moulds; put one piece of the dough into each mould, stand on a tin, and prove in a press. When well proved, bake to a nice colour in a warm oven, and when done and quite hot, dip each cake separately into some plain hot weak syrup, and stand them upside down upon wires to drain. Sell at id. each.

Fig. 121. - Penny Baba.

No. 229.- Oream Oakes.

Take the same dough as prepared for Babas (No. 228), leaving out the fruit and peel; put into the same moulds, prove, and bake; then dip in syrup, and roll in coarse granulated sugar. Now take a sharp knife, and cut each cake in half when cold, and spread some well-whipped and sweetened cream upon one piece; fix it together in its original position, and sell at id. each. These cakes can also be baked in patty pans, and cut longitudinally, and then the cream spread on, and squeezed slightly out round

the edges. It is not advisable to use too much cream, or to prepare too many at one time. " Cholee" (No. 8) or Vienna Icing (No. 6) is sometimes used for these goods in the place of cream.

No. 230.- French Muffins. 8 lbs. flour. 3 ozs. cremm of tmrtar.

i( lb. lard. 2 ozs. caibonate of loda.

% lb. sugar. i quart bread sponge.

I quart milk.

Mode. - Sieve the cream and soda with the flour, rub in the fat and sugar, and make a bay. Now pour in a quart of bread sponge, well broken up, and a quart of milk, and wet into dough. Scale off into 7-oz. pieces. Divide into two and mould up round under your hands. Flatten out to about four inches with a small rolling-pio, and set them on tins. Let them stand for half-an-hour, wash over with white of egg, and bake in a warm oven. When the muffins are half cooked, turn them over with a palette knife and cook on the other side. When done, pile up on a wire and sell at id. each.

No. 231.- Fenny Swiss Bolls.

These goods have come more to the front lately, and are popular with the public, possibly because the public think they are getting more for their money, or more probably because they are a more dainty confection to handle and eat than the old-time large, and sometimes unsightly, Swiss roll was. But to satisfy the public and supply them at a profit is the first concern of the pastrycook, and I venture to say that by following these instructions you will not only please your customers, but, what is of more importance, earn some profit. In the first place, take a thick flat tin, measuring 16 ins. by 29 ins., and one that does not " buckle " in the oven; over the tin splash some clean water, and then lay a sheet of clean newspaper over, bringing it up the edges on the three sides. Having prepared your tin, or tins, according to the quantity you require - but the mixture is given for one tin only - fix up your sponge-cake machine, and then weigh down the following:

ozs. caster sugar, lo ozs. flour.

ozs. eggs. Mode - Balance a can on the scales; then add on 1 5 ozs., and break sufficient eggs to make the weight; then turn them into the machine, add the sugar, and beat up in the usual way for about twenty minutes. When well beaten up, take out the wires, and drain them clean; then sieve and mix in the flour with your hand; turn the whole of the batter out on to the paper previously laid over the tin. Then spread out the batter as evenly as you can with a palette knife, and bake in a warm oven. When done, turn it off on to a clean bag, previously laid over the board, paper side up, wash over the paper with some clean water, and strip it off. Dilute some jam - raspberry, greengage, or apricot - with sufficient warm water to enable you to spread it evenly and thinly over the sheet of sponge with a palette knife, and take particular care to spread it all over; then take a sharp knife, and

Fig. 122. - How the sheet is cut up into penny sections, previous to rolling up.

cut the sheet right down the centre lengthwise of the sheet, and then cut each half again down the centre; that will give you four long strips of the cake, about 3j ins. wide, and the length of the tin. Now carefully divide each strip into eight, and cut them up with a sharp knife; this will give you thirty-two pieces, as shown in the illus

tration (Fig. 122); but understand that you are to cut the eight cuts across the four strips without moving the sheet from the sack; then, when you have cut the sheet up, proceed to roll up each piece separately (see Fig. 123),

Fig. 123.- Method of roUiog up. A, Starting the roll up; B, With one turn; C, Rolled ready for sugaring over.

placing them close together on the sack as you do so, and be careful not to roll them up too tight - just a couple of turns will usually be sufficient, and keep the closings down. When all are rolled up, wash over with a little water, and roll them in granulated sugar, set them on to wires as you do them, and they are ready for sale at id. each.

No. 232.-Oardinal Bolls. For this take exactly the same mixture given in the previous recipe, spread over the tin, and bake; turn off of the tin on to a cloth, spread on the board, strip off the paper, spread over with some diluted greengage jam, and cut up into thirty-two pieces, and roll up as before directed. Then take a little weak jelly, colour it with carmine, and wash the rolls over carefully with it, taking care that you do not damp them too much, or have the colour streaky; roll them in granulated sugar, and they are ready for sale at id. each.

No. 283.- Tuletide Logs.

These are generally known as ' logs' and their sale is not confined to Christmas by any means; they eat very well, and sometimes sell well, while at other times they may hang on hand. Take the same mixture given for No. 231; beat up, spread over a sheet of paper, and bake; turn off the tin, damp and strip off the paper, spread over with diluted apricot jam, and cut up into thirty-six pieces - that is, nine 4's instead of eight 4s, and roll them up a little tighter; and when you have rolled them all up set them on a wire and leave to get cold. When cold, make up some Butter Cream No. 6, flavour vanilla and colour it chocolate; put it into a piping bag having a small star tube, and pipe the cream upon the rolls from end to end, and covering it pretty thick; then put a little yellow water icing over each end, and when that is dry mark out the veins upon the end of the logs with a small camel'shair pencil, using carmine for the purpose; a little caster sugar dredged over them gives an appearance of frost. The result should be a very good imitation of a log of wood. Sale price, 2d. each.

No. 234.- Lemon dream Bolls.

Make up the same mixture given for No. 231; spread over the tin and bake. When done, turn off on to a dean cloth and remove the paper in the usual way; then spread over some butter cream (coloured yellow and flavoured strongly with lemon) using a little acid to sharpen it slightly; then cut up the sheet in the usual way into thirty-six pieces, using a very sharp knife; roll up each piece separately, and lay them close together on the cloth; colour some plain syrup yellow, and then wash over the rolls with it, and roll them in coarse, granulated sugar; set them on a wire ready for sale at id. each. If you spread the butter cream over while the sheet of cake is warm, you will be able to spread it on very thin; and I must remind you that this is necessary, as the cream is more expensive than jam.

No. 235.- Orange Oream Boll. This is the same as the lemon, with the exception that

you flavour your cream with orange, and use a spot or two of cochineal or carmine with the yellow to produce an orange colour. The rolls should be washed with plain water, syrup, or egg, and then rolled in granulated sugar stained orange, as No. i6. Sell at id. each, four for 3jd., or seven for 6d.

No. 236.- Swiss Rollettes.

For this take the mixture given as No. 231, spread it over a sheet of paper laid over the tin, and bake. When done, turn over on to a clean cloth or sack, and wash over with water, strip off the paper, and spread over with apricot jam; then cut up into thirty-two squares, as previously directed. Now take one of the squares, and turn it round so that the point will face you, as shown in the illustration. Fig. 124, at A, and roll in over the

Fig. 124. - A, The square turned rouDd ready to roll, rolled. C, The roll finished.

B, Pattially

point, as shown at B, and finish rolling till you have it like C; then sprinkle a little desiccated cocoanut over the jam at each end; dredge some sugar over, and sell at id. each.

No. 287.- Peitits Tours.

Formerly these were small fancy biscuits, very similar to routs, fanacifully decorated, and served for iigh teas, ball suppers, wedding breakfasts, and high-class functions generally, and, at the present time, they ace pcincipaly made from Genoese, cut very small, and glaced over withdiflGBtent colom'ed fondants, and decorated with piping, drags, glace fruits, and angelica, and are serveid in ornamental crimped paper cases. The decoration should iUways be neat and effective, the colours delicate and pleasing to tempt the eye, and the flavouring must be exquisite to please the palate. To simplify matterjs I give souae halfdozen specimens.

No. 238.- Petits Fours aiSrC a Claf(.

Before you commence on these I would advise you to carefully read through the instructions, and see that you have all the various ingredients and etceteras in stock, or you may And, when half-way through, that something necessary for the proper carrying out of the instructions is missing. First, make up either of the Genoese pastes, Nos. 191, ja, or 193, nicely bake, und leajve to get cold. When rea(%:, 'which wHl probably be the next day, take your sheet of cake and cut off two slips about an inch wide with a very sharp knife, and trim down to about I in. in thickness. Slice each slip down the centre, and then sandwich them together again with some Vienna Icing (No. 6), to which has been added oome finelypowdered macaroons, and, well flavoured with coffee extract, spread ome of the same icing over the top, and then cut up each slip into inch squares. Now take a piece of the Almond Paste (No. 11) and block out sufficient small stars from a wooden block made for the purpose, lay a spot of bright apple jelly on top of each, and place tme of the moulded stars upon it. Now colour some Fondant (No. 5) with ome cdffee extract, and dip each of the petits fours into it. Drain on a wire, and, when et, make up a little Butter Cream (No. 6); colour it with coffee, keeping it paler than the

fondant glace; fill it into a paper corney, and neatly decorate the petits fours, similar to that shown in the Frontispiece. Set a silver dragee on top, drop them into paper cases without damaging, and they are complete.

No. 239.- Petits Fonrs Glac aux Fraises.

Take a slip of Genoese paste, as directed in the previous recipe, about i in. wide, and trim it to in. thick; slice it down the centre, and sandwich together again with some bright apple jelly, nicely flavoured with strawberry; then cut up into diamonds, and, when you have cut out the number required, melt some Fondant (No. 5), and keep it as white as possible. Dip the pieces of Genoese into it, and drain them on a wire, and leave to set. While they are drying, take a little of the flavoured apple jelly, and stiffen it up into a paste, with sugar; form this paste up into small pieces, about the size of strawberries, and then fold each of these centres into a thin envelope of almond paste, keeping the strawberry shape as natural as possible, and, as you do them, stand aside. When you have made one strawberry for each piece of Genoese you have prepared, proceed to colour them as naturally as you can with a little yellow and carmine colour, using a camel's hair pencil for the purpose, then glaze them over with some clear gum, insert a string into each, and set them on to the cut-out pieces of Genoese paste. Then colour some Royal icing a rich strawberry colour with carmine, and decorate, as shown in the Frontispiece; drop them into paper cases, and they are ready to serve.

No. 240.- Petits Fours Glac aux Pistachios.

Scald, blanch and dry about lb. of pistachio kernels; select the largest and greenest of them, and when you have about half; cut them up into long neat fillets, and as you cut them up, lay aside on a clean sheet of paper. Put the remainder into a marble mortar, and break them down smooth; add ( lb. of Almond Paste (No. 11) into the mortar, and colour with a spot of vegetable green colour, and rub the whole together till smooth, when take out on to a clean plate. Now cut out

some rounds of Genoese paste with a vegetable cutter, about i ins. in diameter, and take out the centres with a smaller size cutter; spread round the inside of the ring with some apple jelly, and then fill up with the prepared pistachio paste, and raise it up into a dome shape in the centre. Now go all over the outside with some apricot jam, and roll the sides into the shred pistachio kernels that you have reserved for the purpose. Melt some Fondant (No. 5), colour it a delicate green with vegetable colour, and dip the top of each into it; drain it slightly, and take care that it does not run down the side. Then make up some cake icing (No. 4), and decorate, as shown in the Frontispiece. Drop into cases, and it is ready for sale.

No. 241.- Petits Fours aiac6s k Noix de Oacao. Make up lb. of icing sugar with J lb. of fine dessicated cocoanut into a medium paste with whites of eggs, and then shape them up into small round pyramids, about I y ins. high, and not too large at the base; and, as you shape them, stand them on to a sheet of waxed paper laid on a flat tin, and when you have used up the whole of the paste, mask them over with some stiff apple jelly, and then envelope each pyramid in a thin casing of Almond Paste (No. 11). When you have completed the whole, melt some white Fondant (No. 5), and dip the pyramids into it; drain on a wire. When dry, take some Vienna Icing (No. 6), colour it a bright pink with carmine, and pipe round the top in neat festoons (see Frontispiece), with a tassel between; fix on some small silver dragdes, dip the bottom into chocolate fondant, drop into paper cases, and they are completed.

No. 242.- Petits Fours aux Noiz.

Cut out some ovals of Genoese paste (not too large), slice them up, and sandwich thm together again with some Vienna Icing (No. 6), to which has been added some crushed macaroons, and, when you have the desired quantity, mask them over with some apricot jam. Prepare some Fondant Icing (No. 5), and colour it a very

delicate ivory colour, with a little yellow and carmine; dip each of the petits fours into it, and drain on a wire. When dry, make up some Glac Royal (No. 4), colour it chocolate, and pipe a neat des upon it, as shown in the Frontispiece; then set half a shelled walnut on top, drop into the case, and it is ready for sale.

teo. 24S.-PMtB Fbtdrs OIU6b k la Violette.

Take some crystallised violets, and crush them up under the rolling-pin, and mix part of them into some violet-flavoured stiffened apple jelly, and make up into marbles a little larger than cherries, and lay them aside on a sheet of paper to dry. ow cut out some smaU round pieces of Genoese, about 1 ins. in diameter, slice in halves, and sandwich together with some apple jelly; then glac them over with ome white foddant, and roll the sides into the remaining crushed violets, set them on to wires, dip the prepared balls into the fondant, and set them on to the centre of the Genoese paste; place a large crystallised violet on the top with a couple of leaves cut from angelica. Then make up some cake icing (No. 4), colour it violet, and proceed to pipe a design upon them, similar to that shown in the Frontispiece, drop them into cases, and sell. The price of these goods varies from 2s. to 4s. per dozen, according to the amount of work that i put into them.

Paper cases, specially made for these goods (see Frontispiece), can be procured from the stationer's, and, if a large quantity is required, you can have your name and address printed upon them, which should prove a very good advertisement.

Ko. 244.- cliinitzens,

I X !bi. Vienna flour. )i lb. mgar.

lb. butter. 7 yolks and X e.

Mode. - Weigh the flour on to the board and rub in the butter and sugar; make a bay, put in the yolks and egg, and wet up into a fairly stifl" paste. Divide it in two and then divide each piece into three, having one of the three pieces about twice the weight of the other two.

Take the largest piece and roll it out under your had long enough to go down your tin and about as thick as an ordinary broom handle; then flatten it out to about three inches in width and the whole length of the tin. This forms the flat bottom shown in the sketch A (Fig. 125).

Fig. is.-rrSchimtMns. A, Showiog the Paste prepared for i FilUog. BjA Schmitien cut off, seady for sale.,

Then roll out the other two pieces and press them up at the sides as shown on the same sketch, forming a trench. Pinch down each side the same as you would a thick cake of shortbread, and then work off the other piece in the same way, placing both slips on to the same tin. Put a piece of the paste across the bottom and top of each slip as high as the sides, and let it be Arm. Run it into the oven to partially cook, and while it is in the oven prepare this mixtpre.

Nou 245.fMiiiiitzen Fillini.

iX lbs. Pftes sigaf. 7 whites of egg.

ji lb. whole blanched tlnch of cream of tartar,

almonds.

Mode. - Weigh the almonds on to the board, and roll them under the rolling-pin, breaking them up to about the size of flne desiccated cocoanut; put them into a medium-sized stewpan, add the sugar, whites of eggs, and a pinch of cream of tartar; beat them well together with a wooden spoon; then set the pot over the stove, and

beat the mixture together till it gets warm, but not hot, and, when well beaten up, draw your strips from the oven, spread some raspberry jam down the centre, and divide the filling equally between the two slips; spread it out even with a palette knife, return to the oven, and finish cooking. When done, draw from the oven, let it stand a few minutes; then slide the two slips oflf the tin on to the board, and, with a sharp knife, cut each slip up into sections (B, Fig. 125), and sell at id. each. It is necessary for you to cut up the slips before they get cold, or it will be very brittle and chip considerably when cut.

No. 246.- Torkshire Parkins (1). 7 lbs. flour. 3 lbs. coarse oatmeal.

2 lbs. batter. 2) lbs. raw sugar.

6 lbs. treacle. 4 ois. mixed spice.

4 ozs. ground ginger. 3 ozs. carbonate of soda.

Mode, - Sieve the soda with the flour, mix in the oatmeal, and rub in the fat. Make a bay; turn in the sugar, add the spice, ginger, and treacle, and make into dough. Let it lie for a short time; then give it a good knead over, then take a portion and roll out in a sheet with a rolling-pin, and cut out with a 3-in. plain round cutter. Splash a clean greased tin slightly with water and plate them on it, not too close together; wash over with milk and place a split almond in the centre, and bake in a moderate oven. When done and cold, pile on to a wire or tray, and sell at id. each.

No. 247,- Yorkshire Parkins (2). 14 lbs. fine oatmeal. 4 lbs. treacle.

I lb. sugar. i lb. butter.

1 oz. ground ginger. 2 oss. baking-powder (No. 2).

Mode, - Same as directed in the previous recipe.

No. 248.- Yorkshire Parkins (8).

2 lbs. medium oatmeal. lb. flour. I lb. butter. I lb. treacle.

i lb. sugar. 2 ozs. mixed peel.

X oz. ground ginger. oz. baking-powder (No. 2).

( oz. allspice.

Mode - Sieve the baking-powder with the flour and

mix it with the oatmeal on the board; make a bay; warm the butter and treacle. Turn the sugar, butter, and treacle into the bay; add the spice and ginger, and make into dough, then roll out and proceed as directed in No 246, and sell at same price.

No. 249.-Yorksiire Parkins (4). i lbs. flour. ii lbs. treacle.

i lb. butter. 14 ozs. oatmeal.

ozs. sugar. i os. spice and ground ginger.

( oz. baking-powder (No, 2). Mode, - Proceed exactly as directed in No. 246, and work off in the same way.

' No. 250.-Thick Parkin.

7 lbs. medium oatmeal. $i lbs. flour.

7 lbs. treacle. lb. raw sugar.

i lb. butter. 2 ozs. baking-powder (No. 2).

3 ozs. ground ginger.

Mode, - Same as directed for the Yorkshire Parkins, No. 246, but instead of cutting out with a cutter, lay it over a baking plate about i-in. thick, put an upset along the foot of the tin, and very carefully bake in a moderate oven. Cut out and sell at 8d. per pound. Really, after all, thick parkin is nothing more than gingerbread made partially with oatmeal; and I would suggest that the addition of peel, cherries, fruit, almonds, &c., would make a very pleasing variety.

No. 251.- Thick Gingerbread.

lbs "A'' syrup. i lb. ash.

( lb. hard. i quart water.

Mode, - Put the " treacle " or " A ' Syrup into a large tub that will hold three or four times the quantity; then put the " hard " into an old iron saucepan, add a pint of water, and stand inside the oven to dissolve; when dissolved turn into the treacle, and stir well in with a wooden bat; then dissolve the " ash " in another pint of water, and stir that also to the treacle. It will probably froth up, and will need stirring till it has subsided. The next day proceed to stir into the prepared treacle sufficient flour (Households), to form rather a stiff dough; cover up and

Stand ak in a cool place. The longer this dough stands the better will be the resultant gingerbread. In the old days it was always a rule to put away the gingerbread sponges early in the spring, and then it wouM be in. prime condition for use about September; but at the present time it would, most probably be deemed ripe in from one to three months. At any rate, give it as long as you possibly can, remembering always - the longer the better.

Fig. 126.- Showing how the Gingeibread is blocked out

When you desire to bake some, take a portion of the dough from the tub on to the board, add some carraway seeds, and tighten up with flour.

Take a lump of the tightened dough, about 2 lbs.; mould.it over; dust out the block; press the mass of dough well in, and with a sharp thin knife cut it off into the block (Fig. 126); fill up the block with a piece more of the dough, pressing well in; then knock out on to the board, and place the piece upon a thick high-edge tin; an ordinary sized tin will take eight halfpenny cakes, or six penny ones, or used to do so. When the tin is full, place wooden upsets along the bottom; dock each cake twice with a three-pronged iron fork right to the tin; wash over with water and bake in a moderate oven. It will take about thirty minutes to bake, and should not be touched till quite set, or it will drop immediately and be spoilt. When done, take from the oven and wash over with Bun Wash (No. 215) to give it a very high gloss; leave it on the tin to get cold, and then cut up into sections for sale. Blocks (Figs. 127 and 128)

for gingerbread can be purchased from any oT the coi fectioners machinists advertising in these pages. Ustiany two impressions are cut into one block, the halfpenny on one side and the penny on the other. In some places it is usual to have your name down the centre, but of course, in that case, it will be necessary to have the blocks specially cut for the purpose.

Fig. 127.- Penny Gingerbread Block..

This is the ordinary plain lump gingerbread that was so much in vogue a few years ago, but of late years it has gone considerably out of sight. Why it should have done so is perhaps to be explained by the very much greater variety of confectionery before the public. But 1 do not think that is the reason - which I believe is, because the same attention is not bestowed upon its manufacture now as formerly, and the sponges are not given sufficient time to ripen.

If you propose to make this gingerbread, and have no block it can be rolled down in a sheet upon the board, taking care not to get too much flour underneath it, and then, by rolling the sheet upon the rolling-pin, to transfer it to the tin by simply unrolling it. Afterwards mark the top over in diamonds with the wheel of a paste jigger, and do not forget to dock well all over to the tin with a three-pronged fork.

Another way is to roll down the sheet, and chop out the squares with a cutter made for the purpose, after

wards placing them on the tins close together, in the same manner that you do the blocks. These cutters are somewhat quicker than the block, but do not give so good an

Fig. 128.- Gingerbread Block.

impression to the gingerbread. However you may fill your tins, be careful not to get too much dry flour underneath, and pay very careful attention to the docking. That will let out the air, and go far towards preventing your gingerbread from blowing.

A word as to ash and hard. These are good oldfashioned names, known by heart to bakers of thirty years ago, and, when the baker applied to the chemist, easily understood. But at the present time they call them something else. When you desire "ash," take ordinary common lump soda, or, as the chemists call it, crude sodium carbonate, and for the " hard " ordinary ground alum sulphate of aluminum). If readers will bear this in mind, it will save them a good deal of trouble.

Note. - It may not be generally known, but I would call your attention to the fact, that some three years back a baker was prosecuted and fined for selling gingerbread made by a similar process. At the same time, I may say that a considerable quantity of gingerbread is still made from the same process; but there will always be the liability until some enterprising baker appeals, and gets the conviction set aside if he can.

There are several kinds of goods the old-fashioned baker turned out of this dough besides the thick gingerbread.

No. 252.- Parliaments.

Take the gingerbread dough (No. 251) and tighten up; add ground ginger to taste; let it stand a short time on the

board; then roll down in a thin sheet and chop out with a Parliament cutter (Fig. 1 29); plate on to clean greased tins, and bake in a moderate oven. These goods were, at one time, very popular at the fairs and fetes held in all parts of

Fig. 129. - Parliament Gingerbread Cutter.

England, but, owing to the abolition of the fairs, they are very seldom met with at the present time. Sell at two a id. As will be seen by the illustration (Fig. 129) the cutter is square, with crinkled edges, about 6 ins. by 3j ins., and can be procured from our bakery-fitting friends.

No. 253.- Fairings.

Take some of the same dough, and, after you have tightened it up, roll down in very thin sheets, wash over with water, chop out with a plain round cutter and then turn them upside down upon a scale-plate full of small carraway comfits; pick up, turn over, and plate on to greased tins; bake in a moderate oven. Sell at four aid.

The comfits are, no doubt, to be obtained at the present day from the wholesale confectioners. But, in case you may not know what they are, I will try to explain. You are all, no doubt, aware of those small sweets that go by the name of "Hundreds and thousands"; that being so, I may say that the comfits are very little larger, but, instead of round, they are long, and each sweet contains a carraway seed. I will caution you, however, they are not sugar plums, but very much smaller, and are variously coloured. I believe their price is 6d. per lb.

Not Eg.

Ho. 251 - Rich Bloek GingexlirMid.

8 Ibi. flour. 1)4 lbs. batter.

1)4 tbs. raw sogar. 2 lbs. mixed peeL

2 oa. gromd ginger. I oe ground muied spioe.

Mode. - Weigh the flour on to the board, and rub the fat into it; make a bay, lay the peel round (cut fine), put the sugar and spice into it, and wet up with worked treacle (No. 251) (of course, before the flour is added) into a tight dough; let it lie a short time. Then take your 6d. or is. block; dust them out with flour, scale off the dough into i-lb. pieces, mould them up round, flatten out to the size of the shilling block, and press it well upon it, keefHng the dough perfectly square with the edges of the block; then take off, and place on to thick high-edge tins. Tins that we used for this purpose were about -in. in thickness, and would hold twelve is. cakes, four across and three do¥ra; dock well with a fork; fix an upset firmly along the bottom, or foot of the tin; wash over, and bake in a cool oven. When cooked, glaze over with Bun Wash (No. 2 1 5), whil hot, and then cut out and sell at is. or 6d. per

Fio. 130.- IS. and 6d. Gingerbread Block.

square, as the case may be. Sixpenny cakes are made in exactly the same way, but, of course, are only half the size. Whole blanched almonds, cherries, sultanas, preserved fruits, and ginger can be added in the place of the peel as required; but if you add these, you will have to weigh the lumps smaller to recompense you for it, especially if you use cherries, almonds, or the more expensive preserved fruits.

No. 255.-Anothor Bich Gingerbread.

6 lbs. flour. I lb. raw sugar.

( lb. butter. i ozs. ground ginger.

I oz. ground mixed spice.

Mode. - Exactly the same as No. 254, using the prepared treacle (No 251) before any flour is added in. Peel, fruit, almonds, &c., can be added as required; give I lb. 2 ozs. for IS. lumps.

No. 256.- Best Block Gingerbreaxl.

8 lbs. flour. 2 ozs. carbonate of soda,

i lbs. raw sugar. 1 oz. tartaric acid.

1 lb. lard. 5 ozs. ground ginger.

Treacle.

Mode. - Rub the soda and acid through a fine sieve, to break down the lumps; add it to the flour with the fat and rub it well in; make a bay, put in the ground ginger and sugar, and dough with plain treacle; let it lie about forty eight hours; then proceed to work it off in the same way as directed in No. 212. Bake and glaze over in the same way.

No. 257.Scotch Gingerbread

i lbs. flour. 4 lb. sugar.

I lb. soda flour. j oz. ground ginger.

ii lbs. treacle. X o- ground mixed spice.

lb. butter. 6 eggs.

i pint Scotch ale.

Mode. - Sift the flours well together on the board. Put the butter, sugar, treacle, spice, and ginger into a mixing bowl, and cream up; add the eggs one at a time, beating them well in; then add and mix in the flour with the Scotch al6 to cake-batter consistency. Now have ready greased some ordinary square twopenny bread pans, and sprinkle some blanched shred up almonds into . the bottom, and then scale lb. of the mixture into it; place on to a flat tin, and bake in a cool oven. When done, turn out and sell at 6d. each, or double the size for IS. cakes. I remember once upon a time, where the " biscuits " never used Scotch ale for this mixture, but in its place some milk; at the same time he could never

make it without - for they sold very good ale in that neighbourhood, and he used to appreciate it - d'ye ken?

No. 258.- Honey Gingerbread.

I lb. brown honey. I lb. flour.

% lb. butter. % lb. soda flour.

% lb. raw sugar. % oz. ground cinnamon.

4 eggs.

Mode.-r-%evt the flours well together; cream up the sugar, honey, cinnamon, and butter in a bowl the same

Fig. 131. - Balmoral Tin for Honey Gingerbread.

as cake-batter, well beating in the eggs; when all the eggs are in, add the flour and dough with milk; grease some Balmoral tins (Fig. 131), and scale 10 ozs. of the mixture into them for sixpenny cakes; place on a flat tin and bake in a cool oven. Shilling or threepenny ones can be made if desired.

No. 259 - Gingerbread from Soda Floor.

I oz. ground ginger. X oz. mixed spice. About I pint water.

4 lbs soda flour (Xo. i). 2 lbs. plain flour. Treacle, or ' A " syrup.

Mode. - Sieve the flours on the board, and make a bay; add the ground ginger and spice, and wet up nto a good stiff dough. It will take about 3 lbs. of "A" syrup, but if that cannot be procured, I would advise you to use % lb. black treacle, and 2j lbs. of golden syrup, let it lie a couple of hours, then give it a good knead over, and proceed to work off in the same way as directed for No. 251; tin, dock well with a fork, and bake in a moderate oven. Glaze over while hot with Bun Wash (No. 215), then when cold, cut out into penny or halfpenny pieces, and sell.

out with a plain round cutter; splash a tin with water, lie on the snaps, wash over with water and bake in a moderate oven. When done, take from the oven before they are quite cold, turn them over with a palette knife, and leave them on the tins to get cold; p'ack off on to trays or wires, and sell at four aid. It is very necessary that you turn the snaps over before they are quite set, as, being very brittle, they will break all to pieces. These goods are suitable for wholesale trade, to sell at 2d. per dozen. They stand the air very well, but, of course, if exposed too long to the atmosphere, they will go soft. If packed in tins, a layer of paper should be placed between each layer of snaps. Keep them in air-tight tin canisters.

No. 263.-Best Brandy Snaps.

6 lbs. flour 2 lbs. butter.

6 lbs. raw sugar. Essence lemon.

6 lbs. treacle. i oz. spice.

Mode. - Exactly as the preceding mixture. These are much better than those first given, and are more suitable for better class trades. Should a larger quantity be desired, it will be necessary for you to double or treble the mixture. In some localities it is usual to curl these snaps, and it is accomplished in this fashion: a clean peel handle is laid across some convenient place - a couple of fiour barrels or the oven stock to the board - and then when the snaps are drawn from the oven, after they have stood a few minutes, are taken off with the palette knife and curled round the peel handle, but when engaged upon curling them, remember those in the oven, as they very soon burn and spoil. Another way to curl them is just before they are cold, take off the tin, and instead of turning them over fiat on to the tin, curl them up with your thumb and fingers, laying them on to a wire or board as you do them. You will have to be very slippery over this job, as they very soon get brittle, and then you would succeed in breaking considerably more than you ' curl."





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