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Guide to Modern Cookery, 1903

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TITLE: Guide to Modern Cookery
AUTHOR: Auguste Escoffier
PUBLISHER: William Heinemann, London
DATE: 1903 (This edition from 1907)
THIS VERSION: Based on the online edition at archive.org, digitized from a book in the collection of Cornell University. This is an Optical Character Recognition scan, it has been partly edited, but still contains very significant errors.

Although Escoffier is considered the man who, more than any other, defined French cuisine and made it truly great, this 'Cook to Emperors and Emperor of Cooks' in fact spent most of his working life in England.


GUIDE TO MODERN COOKERY
BY
A. ESCOFFIER
OF THE CARLTON HOTEL


LONDON
WILLIAM HEINEMANN

1907

PREFACE
If the art of Cookery in all its branches were not undergoing a process of evolution, and if its canons could be once and for ever fixed, as are those of certain scientific operations and mathematical procedures, the present work would have no raison d'etre; inasmuch as there already exist several excellent culinary text-books in the English language. But everything is so unstable in these times of progress at any cost, and social customs and methods of life alter so rapidly, that a few years now suffice to change completely the face of usages which at their inception bade fair to outlive the age - so enthusiastically were they welcomed by the public.

In regard to the traditions of the festal board, it is but twenty years ago since the ancestral English customs began to make way before the newer methods, and we must look to the great impetus given to travelling by steam traction and navigation, in order to account for the gradual but unquestionable revolution.

In the wake of the demand came the supply. Palatial hotels were built, sumptuous restaurants were opened, both of which offered their customers luxuries undreamt of theretofore in such establishments.

Modern society contracted the habit of partaking of light suppers in these places, after the theatres of the Metropolis had closed; and the well-to-do began to flock to them on Sundays, in order to give their servants the required weekly rest. And, since restaurants allow of observing and of being observed, since they are eminently adapted to the exhibiting of magnificent dresses, it was not long before they entered into the life of Fortune's favourites.

But these new-fangled habits had to be met by novel methods of Cookery - ^better adapted to the particular environment in which they were to be practised. The admirable productions popularised by the old Masters of the Culinary Art of the preceding Century did not become the light and more frivolous atmosphere of restaurants; were, in fact, ill-suited to the brisk waiters, and their customers who only had eyes for one another.

The pompous splendour of those bygone dinners, served in the majestic dining-halls of Manors and Palaces, by liveried footmen, was part and parcel of the etiquette of Courts and lordly mansions.

It is eminently suited to State dinners, which are in sooth veritable ceremonies, possessing their ritual, traditions, and - one might even say - their high priests; but it is a mere hindrance to the modern, rapid service. The complicated and sometimes heavy menus would be unwelcome to the hypercritical appetites so common nowadays; hence the need of a radical change not only in the culinary preparations themselves, but in the arrangements of the menus, and the service.

Circumstances ordained that I should be one of the movers in this revolution, and that I should manage the kitchens of two establishments which have done most to bring it about. I therefore venture to suppose that a book containing a record of all the changes which have come into being in kitchen work - changes whereof I am in a great part author^may have some chance of a good reception at the hands of the public, i.e., at the hands of those very members of it who have profited by the changes I refer to.

For it was only with the view of meeting the many and persistent demands for such a record that the present volume was written.

I had at first contemplated the possibility of including only new recipes in this formulary. But it should be borne in mind that the changes that have transformed kitchen procedure during the last twenty-five years could not all be classed under the head of new recipes; for, apart from the fundamental principles of the science, which we owe to Careme, and which will last as long as Cooking itself, scarcely one old-fashioned method has escaped the necessary new moulding required by modern demands. For fear of giving my work an incomplete appearance, therefore, I had to refer to these old-fashioned practices and to include among my new recipes those of the former which most deserved to survive. But it should not be forgotten that in a few years, judging from the rate at which things are going, the publication of a fresh selection of recipes may become necessary; I hope to live long enough to see this accomplished, in order that I may follow the evolution, started in my time, and add a few more original creations to those I have already had the pleasure of seeing adopted; despite the fact that the discovery of new dishes grows daily more difficult.

But novelty is the universal cry - novelty by hook or by crook ! It is an exceedingly common mania among people of inordinate wealth to exact incessantly new or so-called new dishes. Sometimes the demand comes from a host whose luxurious table has exhausted all the resources of the modern cook's repertory, and who, having partaken of every delicacy, and often had too much of good things, anxiously seeks new sensations for his blase palate. Anon, we have a hostess, anxious to outshine friends with whom she has been invited to dine, and whom she afterwards invites to dine with her.

Novelty ! It is the prevailing cry; it is imperiously demanded by everyone.

For all that, the number of alimentary substances is comparatively small, the number of their combinations is not infinite, and the amount of raw material placed either by art or by nature at the disposal of a cook does not grow in proportion to the whims of the public.

What feats of ingenuity have we not been forced to perform, at times, in order to meet our customers' wishes ? Those only who have had charge of a large, modern kitchen can tell the tale. Personally, I have ceased counting the nights spent in the attempt to discover new combinations, when, completely broken with the fatigue of a heavy day, my body ought to have been at rest.

Yet, the Chef who has had the felicity to succeed in turning out an original and skilful preparation approved by his public and producing a vogue, cannot, even for a time, claim the monopoly of his secret discovery, or derive any profit therefrom. The painter, sculptor, writer and musician are protected by law. So are inventors. But the chef has absolutely no redress for plagiarism on his work; on the contrary, the more the latter is liked and appreciated, the more will people clamour for his recipes. Many hours of hard work perhaps underlie his latest creation, if it have reached the desired degree of perfection.

He may have forfeited his recreation and even his night's rest, and have laboured without a break over his combination; and, as a reward, he finds himself compelled, morally at least, to convey the result of his study to the first person who asks, and who, very often, subsequently claims the invention of the recipe - to the detriment of the real author's chances and reputation.

This frantic love of novelty is also responsible for many of the difficulties attending the arrangement of menus; for very few people know what an arduous task the composing of a perfect menu represents.

The majority - even of those who are accustomed to receptions and the giving of dinners - suppose that a certain routine alone is necessary, together with some culinary practice, in order to write a menu; and few imagine that a good deal more is needed than the mere inscription of Courses upon a slip of pasteboard.

In reality the planning of these alimentary programmes is among the most difficult problems of our art, and it is in this very matter that perfection is so rarely reached. In the course of more than forty yearo' experience as a chef, I have been responsible for thousands of menus, some of which have since become classical and have ranked among the finest served in modern times; and I can safely say, that in spite of the familiarity such a period of time ought to give one with the work, the setting-up of a presentable menu is rarely accomplished without lengthy labour and much thought, and for all that the result is not always to my satisfaction. From this it may be seen how slender are the claims of those who, without any knowledge of our art, and quite unaware of the various properties belonging to the substances we use, pretend to arrange a proper menu.

However difficult the elaboration of a menu may be, it is but the first and by no means the only difficulty which results from the rapidity with which meals are served nowadays. The number of dishes set before the diners being considerably reduced, and the dishes themselves having been deprived of all the advantages which their sumptuous decorations formerly lent them, they must recover, by means of perfection and delicacy, sufficient in the way of quality to compensate for their diminished bulk and reduced splendour. They must be faultless in regard to quality; they must be savoury and light. The choice of the raw material, therefore, is a matter demanding vast experience on the part of the chef; for the old French adage which says that " La sauce fait passer le poisson " has long since ceased to be true, and if one do not wish to court disapprobation - often well earned - the fish should not be in the slightest degree inferior to its accompanying sauce.

While on the subject of raw material, I should like, en passant, to call attention to a misguided policy which seems to be spreading in private houses and even in some commercial establishments; I refer to the custom which, arising as it doubtless does from a mistaken idea of economy, consists of entrusting the choice of kitchen provisions to people unacquainted with the profession, and who, never having used the goods which' they have to buy, are able to judge only very superficially of their quality or real value, and cannot form any estimate of their probable worth after the cooking process.

If economy were verily the result of such a policy none would object to it. But the case is exactly the reverse; for, in the matter of provisions, as in all commercial matters, the cheapest is the dearest in the end. To obtain good results, good material in a sufficient quantity must be used, and, in order to obtain good material, the latter should be selected by the person who is going to use it, and who knows its qualities and properties. Amphitryons who set aside these essential principles may hope in vain to found a reputation for their tables.

It will be seen that the greater part of the titles in this work have been left in French. I introduced, or rather promulgated this system, because, since it is growing every day more customary to write menus in French, it will allow those who are unacquainted with the language to accomplish the task with greater ease. Moreover, many of the titles - especially those of recent creations - are quite untranslatable. As the index, however, is in English, and in every case the order number of each recipe accompanies the number of the page where it is to be found, no confusion can possibly arise. I have also allowed certain French technical terms, for which there exist no English equivalents, to remain in their original form, and these will be found explained in a glossary at the end of the book.

I preferred to do this rather than strain the meaning of certain English words, in order to fit them to a slightly unusual application; and in so doing I only followed a precedent which has been established on a more or less large scale by such authors of English books on French cooking as Francatelli, Gouff^, Ranhoffer, etc.

But the example for such verbal adoptions was set long ago in France, where sporting and other terms, for which no suitable native words could be found, were borrowed wholesale from the English language, and gallicised. It is therefore not unreasonable to apply the principle to terms in cookery which, though plentiful and varied in France, are scarce in this country.

To facilitate the reading of the recipes, all words which are not in common use, and of which the explanation will be found in the Glossary, are italicised in the text.

In concluding this preface, which, I fear, has already overreached the bounds I intended for it, I should like to thank those of my lady clients as well as many English epicures whose kind appreciation has been conducive to the writing of this work. I trust they will favour the latter with the generous consideration of which they have so frequently given the author valuable proofs, and for which he is glad of an opportunity of expressing his deep gratitude.

CONTENTS

PART I
FUNDAMENTAL ELEMENTS CHAPTER I
PAGE
FONDS DE CUISINE ........ I
CHAPTER II THE LEADING WARM SAUCES ..... • '5
CHAPTER III
THE SMALL COMPOUND SAUCES ... . . 24
CHAPTER IV
COLD SAUCES AND COMPOUND BUTTERS ..... 48
CHAPTER V
SAVOURY JELLIES OR ASPICS . ...... 59
CHAPTER VI THE COURT-BOUILLONS AND THE MARINADES . . . -64
CHAPTER VII \J/: ELEMENTARY PREPARATIONS ..... 70
CHAPTER VIII THE VARIOUS GARNISHES FOR SOUPS . . . . 87
CHAPTER IX GARNISHING PREPARATIONS FOR RELEVis AND ENTR]£eS . . 92
CHAPTER X
U^DING CULINARY OPERATIONS . .... 97
xii CONTENTS
PART II
RECIPES AND MODES OF PROCEDURE
CHAPTER XI
PAGE
HORS-D'CEUVRES . . . . . . ., .137
CHAPTER XII
EGGS ....... . . 164
CHAPTER XIII SOUPS .......... 197
CHAPTER XIV
FISH .......... 260
CHAPTER XV RELEVilS AND ENTRIES OF BUTCHER'S MEAT .... 352
CHAPTER XVI RELEVES AND ENTRIES OF POULTRY AND GAME .... 473
CHAPTER XVII ROASTS AND SALADS ........ 605
CHAPTER XVIII VEGETABLES AND FARINACEOUS PRODUCTS .... 624
CHAPTER XIX SAVORIES .......... 678
CHAPTER XX ENTREMETS. (SWEETS) . . ..... 687
CHAPTER XXI
ICES AND SHERBETS ..... 788
CHAPTER XXII
DRINKS AND REFRESHMENTS . . . . . . .816
CHAPTER XXIII FRUIT-STEWS AND JAMS, .,,... 820

GLOSSARY

Abats, stands for such butcher's supplies as heads, hearts, livers, kidneys, feet, &c.
Aiguillettes, see No. 1755.
Ailerons, see No. 1583.
Amourettes, see No. 1288.
Anglaise, to treat k I'Anglaise, see No. 174.
Anglaise, to cook k I'Anglaise, means to cook plainly in water.
Anglaise, a preparation of beaten eggs, oil and seasoning.
Attereaux, see No. 12 19.
Baba-moulds, a kind of small deep cylindrical mould, slightly wider at the top than at the bottom.
Bain-Marie, a hot-water bath in which utensils containing various culinary preparations are immersed to keep warm, or for the purpose of poaching or cooking.
Barquettes, see No. 314.
Biscottes, a kind of rusks.
Blanch, Blanched, see No. 273.
Brandade, see No. 127.
Brunoise-fashion, see Cut below.
Canapis, see No. 316.
Caramel Stage, see Stages in the Cooking of Sugar, below.
Casserole (En), see No. 250.
Cassolette, a kind of hot hors-d'oeuvre, moulded to the shape of a small drum.
apes, a kind of mushroom (Boletus edulis).
Chartreuse-fashion, see No. 1220.
Chiffonade, see No. 215.
Chinois, a very small green candied orange.
Chipolata, a kind of small sausages.
Choux, a kind of cake made from Pate k Choux, q.v.
Cisel, Ciseled, to cut a vegetable after the manner of a chaff-cutting machine.
Clothe, Clothed, Clothing {of moulds), see No. 916.
Coeotte {En), see No. 250.
Concass, Concassed, to chop roughly.
xiv GLOSSARY
Contise, to incise a piepe of meat at stated intervals, and to insert slices of truffle, or other substance, into each incision.
Crepinettes, see No. 14 lo.
Croustade, see No. 2393.
Croutons, pieces of bread of various shapes and sizes, fried in butter. In the case of aspic jelly, croutons stand for variously shaped pieces used in bordering dishes.
Cut, Brunoise-fashion = to cut a product into small dice.
Cut, Julienne-fashion = to cut a product into match-shaped rods.
Cut, Paysanne-fashion = to cut a product into triangles.
Dariok-moulds, small Baba-moulds, q.v.
Darne, see No. 184.
Daubilre, an earthenware utensil used in the cooking of Daubes.
icarlate (A P), salted meat is said to be k I'^carlate when it is swathed in a coat of scarlet jelly.
Escarole, Batavia chicory.
Feuilletis, a kind of puffs made from puff-paste.
Flute (French, soup), a long crisp roll of bread.
Fondue, (i) a cheese preparation; (2) a pulpy state to which such vegetables as tomatoes, sorrel, &c., are reduced by cooking.
Fumet, a kind of essence extracted from fish, game, &c.
Galette, a large quoit, made from puff-paste or short-paste, &c.
Gaufrette, a special wafer.
Ginoise, see No. 2376.
Gild, Gilding, Gilded (i) to cover an object with beaten eggs, by means of a brush j (2) to give a golden sheen to objects by means of heat.
Gratin, Gratined, see No. 268 to 272 inclusive.
Hatelet, an ornamental skewer; the word sometimes stands for Attereaux.
Julienne, Julienne-fashion, see Cut.
Langoustine, a small variety of the Spiny Lobster.
Large-Ball Stage, see Stages in the Cooking of Sugar, below.
Large-Crack Stage, see Stages in the Cooking of Sugar, below.
Large-Thread Stage, see Stages in the Cooking of Sugar, below.
Maddoine, a mixture of early-season vegetables or fruit.
Madeleine-mould, a mould in the shape of a narrow scallop-shell.
Manied (said of butter), see No. r5i.
Marinade, see No. i68.
Meringue, see No. 2382. Meringued =C02X&&. with meringue.
Mirepoix, see No. 228.
Mise-en-place, a general name given to those elementary preparations which are constantly resorted to during the various stages of most culinary operations.
Morue, Newfoundland or Iceland salt-cod.
Mousses, a class of light, hot or cold preparations of fish, meat, poultry, game, etc., and sweets, moulded in large moulds in sufficient quantities for several people.
GLOSSARY XV
Mousselines, same as above, but moulded in small quantities at a time,
enough for one person. Mousserons, a kind of mushroom. Nappe Stage, see Stages in the Cooking of Sugar, below. Orgeat, a beverage made from syrup and almonds. Oxalis, a Mexican vegetable, aUied to sorrel, of which the roots principally
are eaten. Paillettes au Parmesan, see No. 2322.
Palmettes, palm-shaped pieces of puif-paste, used in decorating. PanSs i PAnglaise, treated k I'Anglaise, see Anglaise. Pannequets, see No. 2403. Papillate, see No. 1259. P&te i Choux, see No. 2373. Paupiette, a strip of chicken, of fish fillet, or other meat, garnished with
forcemeat, rolled to resemble a scroll and cooked. Paysanne-fashion, see Cut. Pluches, the shreds of chervil, used for soups. Po'ele, Peeling, see No. 250. Peek (A Id), see No. 395. Pralin, see No. 2352.
Pralined, having been treated with Pralin, q.v. Printanier (Eng. Vernal), a name given to a garnish of early-season
vegetables, cut to various shapes. Profiterolles, see No. 218. R&ble, the back of a hare. Ravioli, see No. 2296. Ribbon Stage, see No. 2376. Rissole, to fry brown. Salpicon, a compound of various products, cut into dice, and, generally,
cohered with sauce or forcemeat. Sautt, Sauttd, a process of cooking described under No. 251. Saute, a qualifying term applied to dishes treated in the way described
under No. 251. Savarin-mould, an even, crown-shaped mould. Small- Ball Stage, see Stages in the Cooking of Sugar, below. Small-Crack Stage, see Stages in the Cooking of Sugar, below. Small- Thread Stage, see Stages in the Cooking of Sugar, below. Souffli, name given to a class of light, hot or cold preparations of fish,
meat, poultry, game, etc., and sweets, to which the whites of eggs are
usually added if the preparation is served hot, and to which whisked
cream is added if the preparation is served cold. Soup-Flute, see Flute. Stages in the Cooking of Sugar: -
Small-Thread'j .
Large-Thread J-See No. 2344.
Small-Ball J
xvi GLOSSARY
Stages in the Cooking of Sugar {continued): -
Large-Ball ^
Small-Crack L, .^
Large-Crack f^^ ^°- ³44 Caramel J
Nappe, see No. 2955. Subrics, see No. 2137. Suprtme, a name given to the fillet of the breast of a fowl. The term has
been extended to certain of the best parts of fish, game, etc. Terrine, a patty.
Terrine a P&te, a special utensil in which patties are cooked. Tomatid. Preparations are said to be tomatdd when they are mixed
with enough tomato purde for the shade and flavour of the latter to
be distinctly perceptible in them. Vesiga, the dried spine-marrow of the sturgeon. Zest, the outermost, coloured, glossy film of the rind of an orange or
lemon.

PART I

FUNDAMENTAL ELEMENTS OF COOKING

CHAPTER I

FONDS DE CUISINE

Before undertaking the description of the different kinds of dishes whose recipes I purpose giving in this work, it will be necessary to reveal the groundwork whereon these recipes are built. And, although this has already been done again and again, and is wearisome in the extreme, a text-book on cooking that did not include it would be not only incomplete, but in many cases incomprehensible.

Notwithstanding the fact that it is the usual procedure, in matters culinary, to insist upon the importance of the part played by stock, I feel compelled to refer to it at the outset of this work, and to lay even further stress upon what has already been written on the subject.

Indeed, stock is everything in cooking, at least in French cooking. Without it, nothing can be done. If one's stock is good, what remains of the work is easy; if, on the other hand, it is bad or merely mediocre, it is quite hopeless to expect anything approaching a satisfactory result.

The workman mindful of success, therefore, will naturally direct his attention to the faultless preparation of his stock, and, in order to achieve this result, he will find it necessary not merely to make use of the freshest and finest goods, but also to exercise the most scrupulous care in their preparation, for, in cooking, care is half the battle. Unfortunately, no theories, no formulae, and no recipes, however well written, can take the place of practical experience in the acquisition of a full knowledge concerning this part of the work - the most important, the most essential, and certainly the most difficult part.

In the matter of stock it is, above all, necessary to have a sufficient quantity of the finest materials at one's disposal. The master or mistress of a house who stints in this respect thereby deliberately forfeits his or her right to make any remark
whatsoever to the chef concerning his work, for, let the talent or merits of the latter be what they may, they are crippled by insufficient or inferior material. It is just as absurd to exact excellent cooking from a chef whom one provides with defective or scanty goods, as to hope to obtain wine from a bottled decoction of logwood.

The Principal Kinds of Fonds de Cuisine (Foundation Sauces and Stocks)

The principal kinds of fonds de cuisine are:¦ -

1. Ordinary and clarified consommes.
2. The brown stock or " estouffade," game stocks, the bases of thickened gravies and of brown sauces.
3. White stock, basis of white sauces.
4. Fish stock.
5. The various essences of poultry, game, fish, &c., the complements of small sauces.
6. The various glazes: for meat, game, and poultry.
7. The basic sauces: Espagnole,- Veloute, Bechamel, Tomato, and Hollandaise.
8. The savoury jellies or aspics of old-fashioned cooking. To these kinds of stock, which, in short, represent the
buttresses of the culinary edifice, must now be added the following preparations, which are, in a measure, the auxiliaries of the above: -
1. The roux, the cohering element in sauces.
2. The " Mirepoix " and " Matignon " aromatic and flavouring elements.
3. The " Court-Bouillon " and the " Blancs."
4. The various stuffings.
5. The marinades.
6. The various garnishes for soups, for relev^s, for entries, &c. ("Duxelle," " Duchesse," " Dauphine," Pate a choux, frying batters, various Salpicons, Profiteroles, Royales CEufs fil6s, Diablotins, Pastes, &c.).

I- ORDINARY OR WHITE CONSOMME

Quantities for making Four Quarts.
3 lbs. of shin of beef.
lb. of leeks and i stick of celery. 3 lbs. of lean beef.
lb. of parsnips.
1 1 lbs. of fowls' carcases. i medium-sized onion with a
I lb. of carrots. clove stuck in it.
I lb. of turnips.

FONDS DE CUISINE 3

Preparation. - Put the meat into a stock-pot of suitable dimensions, after having previously strung it together; add the poultry carcase, five quarts of water, and one-half oz. of grey salt. Place the stock-pot on a moderate fire in such a manner that it may not boil too quickly, and remember to stir the meat from time to time. Under the influence of the heat, the water gradually reaches the interior of the meat, where, after having dissolved the liquid portions, it duly combines with them. These liquid portions contain a large proportion of albumen, and as the temperature of the water rises this substance has a tendency to coagulate. It also increases in volume, and, by virtue of its lightness, escapes from the water and accumulates on the surface in the form of scum. Carefully remove this scum as it forms, and occasionally add a little cold water before the boil is reached in order that, the latter being retarded, a complete expulsion of the scum may be effected. The clearness of the consomm^ largely depends upon the manner in which this skimming has been carried out. Then the vegetable garnishing is added. The scum from these is removed as in the previous case, and the edge of the stock-pot should be carefully wiped to the level of the fluid, so as to free it from the deposit which has been formed there. The stock-pot is then moved to a corner of the fire where it may continue cooking slowly for four or five hours. At the end of this time it should be taken right away from the fire, and, after half a pint of cold water has been added to its contents, it should be left to rest a few minutes with a view to allowing the grease to accumulate on the surface of the liquid, whence it must be carefully removed before the consomm^ is strained. This last operation is effected by means of a very fine strainer, placed on the top of a white tureen (clean and wide), which should then be placed in a draught to hasten the cooling of the consomm6. The tureen should not on any account be covered, and this more particularly in summer, when rapid cooling is a precautionary measure against fermentation.

Remarks upon the Different Causes which Combine to Influence the Quality of a Consomme

It will be seen that I have not made any mention in the above formula of the meat and the vegetables which have helped to make the consomm^, my reason being that it is preferable to remove them from the stock-pot only after the broth has been strained, so as not to run the risk of disturbing the latter.

The quality of the meat goes a long way . towards settling the quality of the consomme. In order that the latter be perfect, it is essential that the meat used should be- that of comparatively old animals whose flesh is well set and rich in flavour. This is a sine qua non, and the lack of meat coming from old animals in England accounts for the difficulty attaching to the making of a good consomm^ and savoury sauces in this country. Cattle in England are killed at an age varying from three to four years at the most; the meat thus obtained has no equal for the purpose of roasts and grills, and anything approaching it is rarely met with on the Continent. But when this same meat is used for boiling or braising, it does not contain enough juice or flavour to yield a satisfactory result.

This shortcoming is furthermore aggravated by a fault that many commit who are employed in the making of consommes and stock. The fault in question consists in cooking the bones simultaneously with the meat. Now to extract that gelatinous element from bone which produces the mellowness characteristic of all good consommes, it is necessary that the gelatigenous bodies should be cooked for twelve hours at least, and even after that time has elapsed they are still not entirely spent. On the Continent the quality of the meat easily compensates for this technical error, but such is certainly not the case in England, where five hours' stewing only results in a flat and insipid consomm^.

I therefore believe that, in the case of either consomme or stock, the formulas of which I shall give later, it would be advisable for the bones to stew at least twelve hours, and this only after they have been well broken up, while the quantity of water used should be so calculated as to suffice exactly for the immersion of the meat that must follow. The contents of this first stock-pot should include half of the vegetables mentioned, and the consomm6 thus obtained, after having been strained and cooled, will take the place of the water in the recipe, in accordance with the directions I have given above.

The Uses of White Consomme

., White consomme is used in the preparation of clarified consommes, in which case it undergoes a process of clarifying, the directions for which will be given later. It also serves as the liquor for thick soups, poached fowls, &c. It must be limpid.

FONDS DE CUISINE 5

as colourless as possible, and very slightly salted, for, whatever the use may be for which it is intended, it has to undergo a process of concentration.

2- THE PREPARATION OF CLARIFIED CONSOMME FOR CLEAR SOUPS

Qwantities for making four quarts. - Five quarts of ordinary consomm^, one and one-half lbs. of very lean beef, the white of an egg, one fowl's carcase (roasted if possible). First, mince the beef and pound it in a mortar with the fowl's carcase and the white of egg, adding a little cold white consomm^. Put the whole into a tall, narrow, and thick-bottomed stewpan; then gradually add the cold, white broth, from which all grease has been removed, that the whole may be well mixed. Then the stewpan may be put on the fire, and its contents thoroughly stirred, for fear of their burning at the bottom. When boiling-point is reached, move the stewpan to a corner of the fire, so that the soup may only simmer, for anything approaching the boil would disturb the contents. A good hour should be enough to properly finish the consomm^, and any longer time on the fire would be rather prejudicial than the reverse, as it would probably impair the flavour of the preparation. Now carefully remove what little grease may have collected on the surface of the consomm^, and strain the latter through muslin into another clean stewpan. It is now ready for the addition of the garnishes that are to form part of it, which I shall enumerate in due course.

Remarks upon Clarifications

For clarified consommes, even more than for the ordinary kind, it is eminently advisable that the meat should be that of old animals. Indeed, it is safe to say that one lb. of meat coming from an animal of eight years will yield much better consomm^ than two lbs. would, coming from a fattened animal of about three or four years. The consomm^ will be stronger, mellower, and certainly more tasty, as the flesh of young animals has absolutely no richness of flavour.

It will be seen that I do not refer to any vegetable for the clarification. If the white consomm^ has been well carried out, it should be able to dispense with all supplementary flavouring, and, the customary error of cooks being rather to overdo the quantity of vegetables - even to the extent of disguising the natural aroma of the consomm^ - I preferred to entirely abandon the idea of vegetable garnishes in clarifications, and thus avoid a common stumbling-block.

3- CHICKEN CONSOMME

White chicken consomm6 is prepared in exactly the sam.e way as ordinary white consomm^. There need only be added to the meat, the quantity of which may be lessened, an old hen or a cock, slightly coloured on the spit or in the oven.

For the clarification, the quantity of roast fowl-carcases used may be increased, provided the latter be not too fat. The process, however, is the same as in the clarification of ordinary consommds.

The colour of chicken consomm6 should be lighter than that of the ordinary kind - namely, a light, amber yellow, limpid and warm. ^

4- FISH CONSOMME

These consommes are rarely used, for Lenten soups with a fish basis are generally thick soups, for the preparation of which the fish fumet whereof I shall give the formula later (Formula No. ii) should avail. Whenever there is no definite reason for the use of an absolutely Lenten consomm^, it would be advisable to resort to one of the ordinary kind, and to finish off the same by means of a good fish essence extracted from the bones of a sole or whiting. An excellent consomm6 is thus obtained, more palatable and less flat than the plain fish consomm^.

If, however, one were obliged to make a plain fish consomm^, the following procedure should be adopted: -

Clarification of Fish Consomme

Quantities for making Four Quarts. - Four and one-half quarts of ordinary fish fumet having a decided taste; one-half lb. of good fresh caviare, or pressed caviare.

Mode of Procedure. - Pound the caviare and mix the resulting pulp with the cold fish fumet. Put the whole into a saucepan, place it on the open fire, and stir with a spatula until the contents reach the boil. Then move the saucepan to a corner of the fire, and let the consomm^ simmer gently for twenty minutes, after which strain it through muslin with great caution, and keep it well covered and in the warmth, so as to prevent the formation of a gelatinous film on the surface.

Fish consommi^s are greatly improved by the addition of

PONDS DE CUISINE 1

such ftfothatics as saffron or curry, both of which considerably add to their quahty.

' 5- GAME CONSOMME

The necks, breasts, and shoulders of venison and of hare, old wild rabbits, old pheasants, and old partridges may be used in the production of game consommes. An ordinary consomm^ may likewise be made, in which half the beef can be replaced by veal, and to which may be added, while clarifying, a succulent game essence. This last method is even preferable when dealing with feathered game, but in either case it is essential that the meat used should be half-roasted beforehand, in order to strengthen the fumet.

The formula that I give below must therefore only be looked upon as a model, necessarily alterable according to the resources at one's disposal, the circumstances, and the end in view.

Quantities for making Four Quarts of Plain Game Consomme.

3 lbs. of neck, shoulder, or breast i medium-sized leek and 2 sticks

of venison. of celery.

I J lbs. of hare-trimmings. i bunch of herbs with extra I old pheasant or 2 partridges. thyme and bay leaves.

4 oz. of sliced carrots, browned in i onion, oven-browned, with 2

butter. cloves stuck into it.

J lb. of mushrooms, likewise browned in butter.

Liquor. - Five and one-half quarts of water.

Seasoning. - One oz. of salt and a few peppercorns, these to be added ten minutes previous to straining the consomm^.

Time allowed for cooking. - Three hours.

Mode of Procedure. - Proceed in exactly the same way as for * ordinary consommes, taking care only to half-roast the meat, as I pointed out above, before putting it in the stewpan.

The Clarification of Game Consommes

The constituents of the clarification of game consommes vary according to the kind of consomm^ desired. If it is to have a partridge flavour, one partridge should be allowed for each quart of the consomm^, whereas if its flavour is to be that of the pheasant, half an old pheasant will be required per each quart of the liquid. Lastly, in the case of plain game consommes, one lb. of lean venison, hare, or wild rabbit should be allowed for each quart of the required consomm6.

Mode of Procedure. - Whatever be the kind of game used, the latter must be thoroughly boned and the meat well pounded, together with the white of an egg per four quarts of consomm^. About two oz. per quart of dried mushrooms should now be added if they can be procured, while the bones and the remains or carcases of game should be browned in the oven and completely drained of all grease. The whole can now be mixed with the cold game consomm^. The clarification is then put over an open fire (stirring incessantly the while), and as soon as the boil is reached the saucepan must be moved to a corner of the fire, where its contents niay gently boil for three-quarters of an hour. The fat should then be removed, and the consomm^ strained through muslin, after which cover up until wanted.

6- SPECIAL CONSOMMES FOR SUPPERS

The consommes whose formulae I have just given are intended more particularly for dinners. They are always finished off by some kind of garnish, which, besides lending them an additional touch of flavour, gives them their special and definite character when they are served up in the diner's plate.

But the case is otherwise with the consommes served for suppers. These, being only served in cups, either hot or cold, do not allow of any garnishing, since they are to be drunk at table. They must therefore be perfect in themselves, delicate, and quite clear.

These special consommes are made in a similar manner to the others, though it is needful to slightly increase the quantity of meat used for the clarification, and to add to that clarification the particular flavour mentioned on th.e menu - to wit, a few stalks of celery, if the consomm^ is a celery one; a small quantity of curry, if the consomm6 is given as " ^ ITndienne "; or a few old roast partridges if it is to be termed " Consomm^ au fumet de perdreau "; and so on.

The means by which one may vary the aroma of consommes are legion, but it is highly important, what aroma soever be used, that the latter be not too pronounced. It ought only to lend a distinctive and, at the same time, subtle finish to the consomm6, which, besides sharpening the latter, should increase its succulence.

When the consomm^ is served cold it ought to have the qualities of an extremely light and easily-melting jelly, barely firm; but when it is too liquid, it rarely gives that sensation of perfection and succulence to the palate of the consumer which the latter expects. When too firm and too gelatinous it is positively disagreeable; therefore, if it is to be relished, it should be just right in respect of consistency.

FONDS DE CUISINE 9

7- BROWN STOCK OR "ESTOUFFADE"

Quantities for making Four Quarts.

4 lbs. of shin of beef (flesh and
lb. of minced carrots, browned

bone). in butter.

4 lbs. of shin of veal (flesh and
lb. of minced onions, browned

bone). in butter.

i lb. of lean, raw ham. i faggot, containing a little pars I lb. of fresh pork rind, rinsed ley, a stick of celery, a small

in tepid water. sprig of thyme, and a bay

leaf.

Preparation. - Bone and string the meat, and keep it in readiness for the morrow. Break the bones as finely as possible, and, after having besprinkled them with a little stock-fat, brown them in an oven; also stir them repeatedly. When they are slightly browned, put them in a conveniently large saucepan with the carrots, the onions, and the faggot. Add five quarts of cold water, and put the saucepan on an open fire to boil. As soon as the boil is reached skim carefully; wipe the edge of the saucepan; put the lid half on, and allow the stock to cook gently for twelve hours; then roughly remove the fat; pass the liquid through a sieve, and let it cool.

This being done, put the meat in a saucepan just large enough to hold it. Brown it a little in some stock-fat, and clear it entirely of the latter. Add half a pint of the prepared stock, cover the saucepan, and let the meat simmer on the side of the fire until the stock is almost entirely reduced. Meanwhile the meat should have been repeatedly turned, that it may be equally affected throughout. Now pour the remainder of the stock, prepared from bones, into the saucepan, bring the whole to the boil, and then move the saucepan to a corner of the fire for the boiling to continue very slowly and regularly with the lid off. As soon as the meat is well cooked the fat should be removed from the stock, and the latter should be strained or rubbed through a sieve, after which it should be put aside to be used when required.

Remarks Relative to the Making of Brown Stock. - Instead of stringing the meat after having boned it, if time presses, it may be cut into large cubes before browning. In this case one hour and a half would suffice to cook it and to extract all its juice.

Whether brown or white, stock should never be salted, because it is never served in its original state. It is either reduced in order to make glazes or sauces - in which case the concentration answers the purpose of seasoning - or else it is used to cook meat which miist be salted before being cooked, and which, therefore, imparts the necessary salt to its surrounding liquor.

Brown stock ought to be the colour of fine burnt amber, and it must be transparent. It is used in making meat-glazes after reduction, also to moisten meat for braising and to prepare brown sauces.

8- BROWN GAME STOCK

There is no difference between the game consommes and game stock, or, otherwise stated, ordinary game consomme and brown game stock are one and the same thing. The distinction lies in the ultimate use of this preparation; it is clarified, as we have shown (Formula 5), if it be intended for a clear soup, and it is used in its original state if it is to be used for a thick game soup, for a sauce, or for reducing.

9- BROWN VEAL STOCK

Brown veal stock requires the same quantities of shin and trimmings of veal as white veal stock (Formula 10). The time allowed for cooking is, however, a little shorter, and this operation may be completed within eight hours. This stock is mostly used as the liquor for poultry and poeled game, while it may also serve in the preparation of thickened veal stock. Being quite neutral in taste, it lends itself to all purposes, and readily takes up the aroma of the meat with which it may happen to be combined. It is admirably suited to the poaching of quails, and nothing can supplant it in this particular.

,0- WHITE STOCK, VEAL AND POULTRY STOCK

Quantities for -making Four Quarts.

8 lbs. of shin of veal, or lean and 5J quarts of cold water.

fresh veal trimmings. 4 oz. of leeks strung with a stick

I or 2 fowls' carcases, raw if they of celery.

are handy. i faggot, including i oz. of

12 oz. of carrots. parsley, i bay leaf, and a

6 oz. of onions stuck with a clove. of parsley, i bay leaf, and a

Preparation. - Bone the shins, string the meat, break up the bones as small as possible, and put them in a stewpan with the water. Place on an open fire, allow to boil, skim carefully, and then move to a side of the fire to cook very gently for

FONDS DE CUISINE ii

five hours. At the end of this time put the stock into another stewpan, add the meat and the vegetables, add water, if necessary, to keep the quantity of liquid at five quarts, let it boil, and allow it to cook slowly for another three hours, after which remove all grease from the stock, pass the latter through a fine strainer or a colander, and put it aside until wanted.

Remarks upon White Stock. - One should contrive to make this stock as gelatinous as possible. It is therefore an indispensable measure that the bones be well broken up and cooked for at least eight hours. Veal never yields such clear stock as beef; nevertheless, the consomm^ obtained from veal should not be turbid. It must, on the contrary, be kept as clear and as white as possible.

Poultry Stock is made by adding two old fowls to the above veal stock, and these should be put into the liquor with the meat.

Fish Stock

u- WHITE FISH STOCK

Quantities for making Four Quarts.

4 lbs. of trimmings and bones of 2 oz. of parsley, root or stalks.

sole or whiting. J bottle of white wine.

I lb. of sliced, blanched onions.

Preparation. - Butter the bottom of a thick, tall stewpan, put in the blanched onions and the parsley-stalks, and upon these aromatics lay the fish remains. Add the juice of a lemon, cover the stewpan, put it on the fire, and allow the fish to exude its essence, jerking the pan at intervals. Moisten, in the first place, with the white wine; then, with the lid off, reduce the liquid to about half. Now add four quarts of cold water, bring to the boil, skim, and. then leave to cook for twenty minutes, only, on a moderate fire. The time allowed is ample for the purpose of extracting the aromatic and gelatinous properties contained in the bones, and a more protracted stewing would only impair the savour of the stock.

Remarks upon White Fish Stock. - The formula which I give above diverges considerably from that commonly used, for, as a rule, fish stock is diluted far too much, and is stewed for much too long a time. I have observed that fish stock may be greatly improved by rapid cooking, and it was this consideration that led me to dilute it scantily, so as to avoid prolonged reduction. It is likewise necessary to remember that in order to make perfect fish stock, only the sole or whiting should be used. In a case of emergency, however, i.e., if the supply of the latter were to run short, a quarter of their weight of brill bones might be added to them. But all other kinds of fish should be avoided in the preparation.

12- FISH STOCK WITH RED WINE ""

This stock is comparatively rarely used, because, in practice, it is naturally obtained in the cooking of the fish itself, as, for instance, in the case of the " Matelotes." Be this as it may, with the recent incursion of a custom which seems to demand, ever more and more, the serving of fish without bones, the following formula will be worthy of interest, as it is likely that its need will henceforth be felt with increasing urgency.

Fish fumet with red wine may be prepared from all freshwater fish, as well as from the remains of sole, whiting, chickenturbot, and brill. It is generally better, however, to have recourse to the bones and remains of that fish which happens to be constituting the dish - that is to say, the bones and trimmings of sole in a stock for fillet of sole, the bones and trimmings of a chicken-turbot in a fumet for a chicken-turbot, and so on. The preparatory formula remains the same, whatever the kind of fish used may be.

Quantities for making Four Quarts of Fumet with Red Wine. - Four lbs. of bones, heads, and trimmings of the fish to be served; three-quarters lb. of minced white onions; three oz. of parsley stalks, two bay leaves, four small sprigs of thyme, and four cloves of garlic; two bottles of red wine and five pints of water.

Mode of Procedure. - Put all the above-mentioned ingredients in a thick and tall stewpan, boil, skim carefully, and allow to cook twenty to thirty minutes on a moderate fire; then strain the stock through a colander into a tureen, to be used when required.

Remarks upon Fish Stock with Red Wine. - This stock stands reduction far better than white fish stock. Nevertheless, I urge the advisability of trying to obtain the required quantity without reduction. In its preparation, one may use some mushroom parings, as in the case of white stock, if these are handy, and they will be found to lend an agreeable flavour to the fish fumet.

FONDS DE CUISINE 13

13- VARIOUS ESSENCES

As their name implies, essences are stock which hold a large proportion of a substance's aroma in a concentrated form. They are, in fact, ordinary stock, only less diluted, with the idea of intensifying the flavour of the treated ingredients r hence their utility is nil if the stock which they are intended to finish has been reasonably and judiciously treated. It is infinitely simpler ta make savoury and succulent stock in the first place than to produce a mediocre stock, and finally complete it by a specially prepared essence. The result in the first instance is better, and there is economy of time and material.

The most one can do is to recommend, in certain circumstances, the use of essences extracted from particularly wellflavoured products, as, for instance, mushrooms, truffles, morels, and celery. But it would be well to remember that, nine times out of ten, it is preferable to add the product itself to the stock during the preparation of the same than to prepare essences.

For this reason I do not think it necessary to dilate upon the subject of essences, the need of which should not be felt in good cooking.

14- VARIOUS GLAZES

The various glazes of meat, fowl, game, and fish are merely stock reduced to the point of viscosity. Their uses are legion. Occasionally they serve in decking dishes with a brilliant and unctuous coating which makes them sightly; at other times they may help to strengthen the consistence of a sauce or other culinary preparation, while again they may be used as sauces proper after they have been correctly creamed or buttered.

Glazes are distinguished from essences by the fact that the latter are only prepared with the object of extracting all the flavour of the product under treatment, whereas the former are, on the contrary, constituted by the whole base of the substance itself. They therefore have not only its savour, but also its succulence and mellowness, whereby they are superior to the essences, and cooking can but be improved by substituting them for the latter. Nevertheless, many chefs of the old school do not permit the use of glazes in culinary preparations, or, rather, they are of opinion that each cooking operation should produce them on its own account, and thus be sufficient unto itself. Certainly, the theory is correct when neither time nor cost is limited. But nowadays the establishments are scarce where these theories may be applied, and, indeed, if one does not make an abuse of glazes, and if they be prepared with care, their use gives excellent results, while they lend themselves admirably to the very complex demands of modern customs.

15- MEAT OLAZE

Meat glaze is made by reducing brown stock (Formula 7) in a large stewpan upon an open fire. As often as the stock is appreciably reduced, during ebullition, it may be transferred to smaller stewpans, taking care to strain it through muslin at each change of stewpan. The glaze may be considered sufficiently reduced when it evenly veneers a withdrawn spoon. The fire used for reducing should gradually wane as the concentration progresses, and the last phase must be effected slowly and on a moderate fire.

When it is necessary to obtain a lighter and clearer glaze, the brown veal stock (Formula No. 9) should be reduced instead of the " Estouffade."

16- POULTRY QLAZE

Reduce the poultry base indicated in Formula 10, and proceed in exactly the same way as for meat glaze (Formula 15).

17- GAME QLAZE

Use the game base (Formula 8), and proceed as for meat glaze (Formula 9).

18- FISH QLAZE

This glaze is used less often than the preceding ones. As it is only used to intensify the savour of sauces, it is sufficient for this purpose to prepare a white fish stock (Formula 11), which may be diluted with the stock already prepared, and which may be reduced according to the requirements. The name of fish fumet or fish essence is given to this preparation; its flavour is more delicate than that of fish glaze, which it replaces with advantage.

CHAPTER II

THE LEADING WARM SAUCES

Warm sauces are of two kinds: the leading sauces, also called " mother sauces," and the small sauces, which are usually derived from the first-named, and are generally only modified forms thereof. Cooking stock only includes the leading sauces, but I shall refer to the small hot sauces and the cold sauces at the end of the auxiliary stock.

Experience, which plays such an important part in culinary work, is nowhere so necessary as in the preparation of sauces, for not only must the latter flatter the palate, but they must also vary in savour, consistence and viscosity, in accordance with the dishes they accompany. By this means, in a well-ordered dinner, each dish differs from the preceding ones and from those that follow.

Furthermore, sauces must, through the perfection of their preparation, obey the general laws of a rational hygiene, wherefore they should be served and combined in such wise as to allow of easy digestion by the frequently disordered stomachs of their consumers.

Car^me was quite justified in pluming himself upon the fact that during his stay at the English Court his master - the Prince Regent - had assured him that he (Careme) was the only one among those who had served his Highness whose cooking had been at all easy of digestion. Carlme had grasped the essential truth that the richer the cooking is, the more speedily do the stomach and palate tire of it. And, indeed, it is a great mistake to suppose that, in order to do good cooking, it is necessary to be prodigal in one's use of all things. In reality, practice dictates fixed and regular quantities, and from these one cannot diverge without upsetting the hygienic and sapid equilibrium on which the value of a sauce depends. The requisite quantities of each ingredient must, of course, be used, but neither more nor less, as there are objections to either extreme.

Any sauce whatsoever should be smooth, light (without being liquid), glossy to the eye, and decided in taste. When these conditions are fulfilled it is always easy to digest even for tired stomachs.

An essential point in the making of sauces is the seasoning, and it would be impossible for me to lay sufficient stress on the importance of not indulging in any excess in this respect. It too often happens that the insipidness of a badly-made sauce is corrected by excessive seasoning; this is an absolutely deplorable practice.

Seasoning should be so calculated as to be merely a complementary factor, which, though it must throw the savour of dishes into relief, may not form a recognisable part of them. If it be excessive, it modifies and even destroys the taste peculiar to every dish - to the great detriment of the latter and of the consumer's health.

It is therefore desirable that each sauce should possess its own special flavour, well defined, the result of the combined flavours of all its ingredients. ^

If, in the making of sauces, one allowed oneself to be guided by those principles which are the very foundation of good cookery, the general denunciation of sauces by the medical faculty would be averted; and this denunciation no sauce deserves if it be carefully prepared, conformably with the laws prescribed by practice and its resulting experience.

The Roux

The roux being the cohering element of leading sauces, it is necessary to reveal its preparation and constituents before giving one's attention to the latter.

Three kinds of roux are used - namely, brown roux, for brown sauces; pale roux, for velout^s, or cream sauces; and white roux, for white sauces and Bdchamel.

19- BROWN ROUX

Quantities for making about One lb. - Eight oz. of clarified butter, nine oz. of best-quality flour.

Preparation. - Mix the flour and butter in a very thick stewpan, and put it on the side of the fire or in a moderate oven. Stir the mixture repeatedly so that the heat may be evenly distributed throughout the whole of its volume.

The time allowed for the cooking of brown roux cannot be precisely determined, as it depends upon the degree of heat

LEADING SAUCES 17

employed. The more intense the latter, the speedier will be the cooking, while the stirring will of necessity be more rapid. Brown roux is known to be cooked when it has acquired a fine, light brown colour, and when it exudes a scent resembling tha;t of the hazel-nut, characteristic of baked flour.

It is very important that brown roux should not be cooked too rapidly. As a matter of fact, among the various constituent elements of flour, the starch alone acts as the cohering principle. This starch is contained in little cells, which tightly constrain it, but which are sufficiently porous to permit the percolation of liquid and fatty substances. Under the influence of moderate heat and the infiltered butter, the cells burst through the swelling of the starch, and the latter thereupon completely combines with the butter to form a mass capable of absorbing six times its own weight of liquid when cooked.

When the cooking takes place with a very high initial heat the starch gets burned within its shrivelled cells, and swelling is then possible only in those parts which have been least burned.

The cohering principle is thus destroyed, and double or treble the quantity of roux becomes necessary in order to obtain the required consistency. But this excess of roux in the sauce chokes it up without binding it, and prevents it from despumating or becoming clear. At the same time, the cellulose and the burnt starch lend a bitterness to the sauce of which no subsequent treatment can rid it.

From the above it follows that, starch being the only one from among the different constituents of flour which really effects the coherence of sauces, there would be considerable advantage in preparing roux either from a pure form of it, or from substances with kindred properties, such as fecula, arrowroot, &c. It is only habit that causes flour to be still used as the cohering element of roux, and, indeed, the hour is not so far distant when the advantages of the changes I propose will be better understood - changes which have been already recommended by Favre in his dictionary.

With a roux well made from the purest starch - in which case the volume of starch and butter would equal about half that of the flour and butter of the old method - and with strong and succulent brown stock, a Spanish sauce or Espagnole may be made in one hour. And this sauce will be clearer, more brilliant, and better than that of the old processes, which needed three days at least to despumate. 20- PALE ROUX

The quantities are the same as for brown roux, but cooking must cease as soon as the colour of the roux begins to change, and before the appearance of any colouring whatsoever.

The observations I made relative to brown roux, concerning the cohering element, apply also to pale roux.

21- WHITE ROUX

Same quantities as for brown and pale roux, but the time of cooking is limited to a few minutes, as it is only needful, in this case, to do away with the disagreeable taste of raw flour which is typical of those sauces whose roux has not been sufficiently cooked.

22- BROWN SAUCE OR ESPAQNOLE

Quantities Required for Four Quarts. - One lb. of brown roux dissolved in a tall, thick saucepan with six quarts of brown stock or estouffade. Put the saucepan on an open fire, and stir the sauce with a spatula or a whisk, and do not leave it until it begins to boil. Then remove the spatula, and put the saucepan on a corner of the fire, letting it lean slightly to one side with the help of a wedge, so that boiling may only take place at one point, and that the inert principles thrown out by the sauce during despumation may accumulate high up in the saucepan, whence they can be easily removed as they collect.

It is advisable during despumation to change saucepans twice or even three times, straining every time, and adding a quart of brown stock to replace what has evaporated. At length, when the sauce begins to get lighter, and about two hours before finally straining it, two lbs. of fresh tomatoes, roughly cut up, should be added, or an equivalent quantity of tomato pur^e, and about one lb. of Mirepoix, prepared according to Formula No. 228. The sauce is then reduced so as to measure four quarts when strained, after which it is poured into a wide tureen, and must be kept in motion until quite cool lest a skin should form on its surface.

The time required for the despumation of an Espagnole varies according to the quality of the stock and roux. We saw above that one hour sufficed for a concentrated stock and starch roux, in which case the Mirepoix and the tomato are inserted from the first. But much more time is required if one is dealing with a roux whose base is flour. In the latter case six hours

LEADING SAUCES 19

should be allowed, provided one have excellent stock and wellmade roux. More often than not this work is done in two stages, thus: after having despumated the Espagnole for six or eight hours the first day, it is put on the fire the next day with half its volume of stock, and it is left to despumate a few hours more before it is finally strained.

Summing up my opinion on this subject, I can only give my colleagues the following advice, based upon long experience: -

1. Only use strong, clear stock with a decided taste.

2. Be scrupulously careful of the roux, however it may be made. By following these two rules, a clear, brilliant, and consistent Espagnole will always be obtained in a fairly short time.

23- HALF GLAZE

This is the Espagnole sauce, having reached the limit of perfection by final despumation. It is obtained by reducing one quart of Espagnole and one quart of first-class brown stock until its volume is reduced to nine-tenths of a quart. It is then put through a strainer into a bain-marie of convenient dimensions, and it is finished, away from the fire, with one-tenth of a quart of excellent sherry. Cover the bain-marie, or slightly butter the top to avoid the formation of a skin. This sauce is the base of all the smaller brown sauces.

24- LENTEN ESPAGNOLE

Practical men are not agreed as to the need of Lenten Espagnole. The ordinary Espagnole being really a neutral sauce in flavour, it is quite simple to give it the necessary flavour by the addition of the required quantity of fish fumet. It is only, therefore, when one wishes to conform with the demands of a genuine Lent sauce that a fish Espagnole is needed. And, certainly in this case, nothing can take its place.

The preparation of this Espagnole does not differ from thai of the ordinary kind, except that the bacon is replaced by mushroom parings in the Mirepoix, and that the sauce must be despumated for only one hour.

This sauce takes the place of the ordinary Espagnole, for Lenten preparations, in every case where the latter is generally used, in Gratins, in the Genevoise sauce, &c.

c 3 25-ORDINARY VELOUTE SAUCE

Quantities Required for Four Quarts. - One lb. of pale roux (Formula 20), five quarts of white veal stock (Formula 10).

Dissolve the roux in the cold white veal stock and put the saucepan containing this mixture on an open fire, stirring the sauce with a spatula or whisk, so as to avoid its burning at the bottom. Add one oz. of table-salt, a pinch of nutmeg and white powdered pepper, together with one-quarter lb. of nice white mushroom parings, if these are handy. Now boil and move to a corner of the fire to despumate slowly for one and a half hours, at the same time observing the precautions advised for ordinary Espagnole (Formula 22). Strain through muslin into a smaller saucepan, add one pint of white stock, and despumate for another half hour. Strain it again through a tammy or a sieve into a wide tureen, and keep moving it with a spatula until it is quite cold.

I am not partial to garnishing Velout^ Sauce with carrots, an onion with a clove stuck into it, and a faggot, as many do. The stock should be sufficiently fragrant of itself, without requiring the addition of anything beyond the usual condiments. The only exception I should make would be for mushroom parings, even though it is preferable, when possible, to replace these by mushroom liquor. But this is always scarce in kitchens where it is used for other purposes; wherefore it is often imperative to have recourse to parings in its stead. The latter may not, however, be added to the stock itself, as they would blacken it; hence I advise their addition to the Veloute during its preparation.

26- VELOUTE DE VOLAILLE

This is identical with ordinary Velout^, except that instead of having white veal stock for its liquor, it is diluted with white poultry stock. The mode of procedure and the time allowed for cooking are the same.

26a- FISH VELOUTE

Velout^ is the base of various fish sauces whose recipes will be given in Part II.

Prepare it in precisely the same way as poultry velout^, but instead of using poultry stock, use very clear fish fumet, and let it despumate for twenty minutes only. (See fish fumet No. n.)

LEADING SAUCES it

27- ALLEMANDE SAUCE OR THICKENED VELOUTE

Allemande Sauce is not, strictly speaking, a basic sauce. However, it is so often resorted to in the preparation of other sauces that I think it necessary to give it after the Velout^s, from which it is derived.

Quantities Required for One Quart.

The yolks of 5 eggs. ^ the juice of a lemon.

I pint of cold white stock.
pint of mushroom liquor.

I quart of Velout^, well despumated.

Mode of Procedure. - Put the various ingredients in a thickbottomed saut^-pan and mix them carefully. Then put the pan on an open fire, and stir the sauce with a metal spatula, lest it burn at the bottom. When the sauce has been reduced to about one quart, add one-third pint of fresh cream to it, and reduce further for a few minutes. It should then be passed through a fine strainer into a tureen and kept moving until quite cold.

Prepared thus, the Allemande Sauce is ready for the preparation of the smaller sauces. Butter must only be added at the very last moment, for if it were buttered any earlier it would most surely turn. The same injunction holds good with this sauce when it is to be served in its original state; it should then receive a small addition of cream, and be buttered so that it may attain its required delicacy; but this addition of butter and cream ought only to be made at the last moment, and away from the fire. When a thick sauce has any fat substance added to it, it cannot be exposed to a higher temperature than 140 degrees Fahrenheit without risking decomposition.

28- BECHAMEL SAUCE

Quantities Required for Four Quarts.

I lb. of white roux. § oz. of salt, i pinch of mignon 4J quarts of boiling milk. ette, and grated nutmeg, and

j lb. of lean veal. i small sprig of thyme.

I minced onion.

Preparation. - Pour the boiling milk on the roux, which should be almost cold, and whisk it well so as to avoid lumps. Let it boil, then cook on the side of the fire. Meanwhile the lean veal should have been cut into small cubes, and fried with butter in a saucepan, together with the minced onion. When the veal has stiffened without becoming coloured, it is added to the Bechamel, together with salt and the other aromatics. Let the sauce stew for about one hour in all, and then pass it through a tammy into a tureen; butter the top, lest a crust should form.

When Bechamel is intended for Lenten preparations, the veal must be omitted.

There is another way of making the sauce. After having boiled the milk, the seasoning and aromatics should be added; the saucepan is then covered and placed on a corner of the stove, so as to ensure a thorough infusion. The boiling milk must now be poured on to the roux which has been separately prepared, and the sauce should then cook for one quarter of an hour only.

29- TOMATO SAUCE

Quantities Required for Four Quarts.

5 oz. of salted breast of pork, 2 oz. of butter, ^ oz. of salt, i

rather fat. oz. of sugar, a pinch of

6 oz. of carrots cut into cubes. pepper.

6 oz. of onions cut into cubes. 10 lbs. of raw tomatoes or 4 I bay leaf and i small sprig of quarts of same, mashed.

thyme. 2 quarts of white stock. 5 oz. of flour.

Preparation. - Fry the pork with the butter in a tall, thickbottomed saucepan. When the pork is nearly melted, add the carrots, onions, and aromatics. Cook and stir the vegetables, then add the flour, which should be allowed to cook until it begins to brown. Now put in the tomatoes and white stock, mix the whole well, and set to boil on an open fire. At this point add the seasoning and a crushed clove of garlic, cover the saucepan, and place in a moderate oven, where it may cook for one and one-half hours. At the end of this time the sauce should be passed through a sieve or tammy, and it should boil while being stirred. Finally, pour it into a tureen, and butter its surface to avoid the formation of a skin.

Remarks. - A pur^e of tomatoes is also used in cookery; it is prepared in precisely the same fashion, except that the flour is omitted and only one pint of white stock is added.

30- HOLLANDAISE SAUCE

Quantities Required for One Quart. - One and one-half lbs. of butter, the yolks of six eggs, one pinch of mignonette pepper and one-quarter oz. of salt, three tablespoonfuls of good vinegar.

Preparation. - Put the salt, the mignonette, the vinegar, and as much water in a small saucepan, and reduce by three-quarters on the fire. Move the saucepan to a corner of the fire or into

LEADING SAUCES 23

a bain-marie, and add a spoonful of fresh water and the yolks. Work the whole with a whisk until the yolks thicken and have the consistence of cream. Then remove the saucepan to a tepid place and gradually pour the butter on the yolks while briskly stirring the sauce. When the butter is absorbed, the sauce ought to be thick and firm. It is brought to the correct consistence with a little water, which also lightens it slightly, but the addition of water is optional. The sauce is completed by a drop of lemon juice, and it is rubbed through a tammy.

Remarks. - The consistence of sauces whose processes are identical with those of the Hollandaise may be varied at will; for instance, the number of yolks may be increased if a very thick sauce is desired, and it may be lessened in the reverse case. Also similar results may be obtained by cooking the eggs either more or less. As a rule, if a thick sauce be required, the yolks ought to be well cooked and the sauce kept almost cold in the making. Experience alone - the fruit of long practice - can teach the various devices which enable the skilled worker to obtain different results from the same kind and quality of material.

CHAPTER III

The Small Compound Sauces

Remarks. - In order that the classification of the small sauces should be clear and methodical, I divide them into three parts.

The first part includes the small brown sauces; the second deals with the small white sauces and those suited to this part of the classification; while the third is concerned with the English sauces.

The Small Brown Sauces

31- SAUCE BIQARRADE

This sauce is principally used to accompany braised and poeled ducklings. In the first case, the duckling's braising stock, being thickened, constitutes a sauce. In the second case, the stock is clear, and the procedure in both cases is as follows: -

1 . After having strained the braising stock, completely remove its grease, and reduce until it is very dense. Strain it once more through muslin, twisting the latter; then, in order to bring the sauce to its normal consistence, add the juice of six oranges and one lemon per quart of sauce. Finish with a small piece of lemon and orange rind cut regularly and finely. Juliennefashion, and scalded for five minutes.

2. Strain the poeling stock, for duck or ducks, through linen; entirely remove the grease, and add four pieces of caramel sugar dissolved in one tablespoonful of vinegar per one-half pint of stock, the juice of the oranges and the lemon and the Julienne of rinds, as for the braised-ducklings sauce indicated above.

THE SMALL COMPOUND SAUCES 25

32- SAUCE BORDELAISE

Put into a vegetable-pan two oz. of very finely minced shallots, one-half pint of good red wine, a pinch of mignonette pepper, and bits of thyme and bay. Reduce the wine by three-quarters, and add one-half pint of half-glaze. Keep the sauce simmering for half an hour; despumate it from time to time, and strain it through linen or a sieve. When dishing it up, finish it with two tablespoonfuls of dissolved meat glaze, a few drops of lemon-juice, and four oz. of beef-marrow, cut into slices or cubes and poached in slightly salted boiling water. This sauce may be buttered to the extent of about three oz. per pint, which makes it smoother, but less clear. It is especially suitable for grilled butcher's meat.

33- CHASSEUR SAUCE (Escoffier's Method)

Peel and mince six medium-sized mushrooms. Heat onehalf oz. of butter and as much olive oil in a vegetable-pan; put in the mushrooms, and fry the latter quickly until they are slightly browned. Now add a coffeespoonful of minced shallots, and immediately remove half the butter; pour one-half pint of white wine and one glass of liqueur brandy into the stewpan; reduce this liquid to half, and finish the sauce with: one-half pint of half-glaze, one-quarter pint of tomato sauce, and one tablespoonful of meat-glaze. Set to boil for five minutes more, and complete with a teaspoonful of chopped parsley.

34- BROWN CHAUD=FROID SAUCE

Put one quart of half-glaze into a saut^-pan with one-fifth pint of truffle essence. Put the pan on an open fire, and reduce its contents; while making same absorb one and one-half pints of jelly - the latter being added to the sauce in small quantities.

The degree of reduction in this sauce is a good third, but, to be quite certain, a test of its consistence may be made by allowing it to cool a little. After the reduction, carefully taste, and rectify the seasoning if necessary; mix a little Madeira or Port with the sauce, away from the fire, and strain through muslin or, preferably, through a Venetian-hair sieve. Stir the sauce now and then while it cools, until it is sufficiently liquid, and at the same time consistent enough to coat immersed solids evenly with a film of sauce. Its use will be explained among the formulae of the different kinds of Chaud-froids. 35- VARIETIES OF THE CHAUD-FROID SAUCE

For Ducks. - Prepare the sauce as above, adding to it (for the prescribed quantity) one-half pint of duck jumet obtained from the carcases and remains of roast duckling, and finish it, away from the fire, with the juice of four oranges and a heaped tablespoonful of orange rind, cut finely. Julienne-fashion, and scalded for five minutes.

For Feathered Game. - Treat the Chaud-Froid sauce as indicated in No. 34, adding one-half pint of the fumet of the game constituting the dish in order to lend it that game's characteristic taste. Observe the same precaution for the cooling.

For Fish. - Proceed as in No. 34, but (i) substitute the Espagnole of fish for the half glaze; (2) intensify the first Espagnole with one-half pint of very clear fish essence; (3) use Lenten jelly instead of meat jelly.

Remarks upon the Use of Chaud-Froid Sauces. - The chaudfroid sauce may be prepared beforehand, and when it is wanted it need only be gently melted without heating it in the least. It ought simply to be made sufficiently liquid to give a good coating to substances immersed in it.

36 -DEVILLED SAUCE

Put in a vegetable pan two oz. of sliced shallots and onethird pint of white wine. Reduce the latter to two-thirds, add one-half pint of half-glaze, reduce to two-thirds, season strongly with cayenne pepper, and strain through muslin. This sauce may be served with grilled fowls or pigeons. It also forms an excellent accompaniment to re-dished meat which needs a spicy sauce.

37-"ESCOFFIER" DEVILLED SAUCE

This sauce, which may be bought ready-made, is admirably fitted to accompany grilled fish and grills in general. In order to make it ready, all that is needed is to add its own volume of fresh butter to it, the latter being previously well softened so as to ensure its perfect mixture with the sauce.

38- QENEVOISE SAUCE

Heat two oz. of butter in a stewpan; insert one lb. of Mirepoix (No. 228) without bacon. Slightly brown, add two lbs. of head of salmon and remains or bones of fish, and stew with lid on for twenty minutes. Let the stewpan lean slightly to

THE SMALL COMPOUND SAUCES 27

one side, so that the butter may be drained; moisten with one bottle of excellent red wine; reduce the latter by half; add one pint of Lenten Espagnole, and allow to cook gently for half an hour.

Rub the sauce through a sieve, pressing it so as to extract all the essence. Let it rest awhile; carefully remove the fat which has risen to the surface, and add one liqueur-glass of burnt brandy, one-half pint of red wine, and as much fish fumet. Boil again, then move stewpan to the side of fire to despumate for one and one-half hours. Frequently remove what the ebullition causes to rise to the surface, this second period of cooking being only to ensure the purification of the sauce. If the ebullition has been well effected, the sauce should reach the proper degree of reduction and despumation at the same moment of time. It is then strained through muslin or tammy, and it is finished at the last minute with a few drops of anchovy essence and four oz. of butter per quart of sauce.

N.B. - The Genevoise Sauce, like all red-wine sauces, may be served without being buttered. It is thus clearer and more sightly in colour, but the addition of butter in small quantities makes it mellower and more palatable.

38a- REMARKS ON RED=WINE SAUCES

In the general repertory of cooking we also have, in the way of red-wine sauces, the " Bourguignonne," "Matelote," and " Red- Wine " sauces, which are closely allied to the " Genevoise," and only differ from it in details of procedure.

The " Bourguignonne " Sauce is composed of red-wine accompanied by aromatics, and reduced by half. In accordance with ordinary principles, it is thickened by means of three oz. of manied butter per quart of reduced wine. This sauce is buttered with four oz. of butter per quart, and is especially regarded as a domestic preparation for poached, moulded, and hard-boiled eggs.

"Matelote" Sauce is made from Court-bouillon, with red wine which has been used for cooking fish. This Courtbouillon, with the mushroom parings added, is reduced by two-thirds, and is thickened with one pint of Lenten Espagnole per pint of the reduced Court-bouillon.

This sauce should be reduced by a third, strained through a tammy, and finished by means of two oz. of butter and a little cayenne per pint of sauce.

The Red-Wine Sauce resembles the two preceding ones in so far as it contains mirepoix browned in butter and diluted with red wine. The wine is reduced by half, thickened by a pint of Lenten Espagnole per pint of the reduction, and the sauce is despumated for about twenty minutes. It is strained through a tammy, and finished, when ready, by a few drops of anchovy essence, a Httle cayenne, and two oz. of butter per pint of sauce.

39- QRAND-VENEUR SAUCE

Take one pint of Poivrade Sauce (No. 49) and boil it, adding one pint of game stock to keep it light; reduce the sauce by a good third; remove it from the fire, and add four tablespoonfuls of red-currant jelly. When the latter is well dissolved, complete the sauce by one-quarter pint of cream per pint of sauce.

This sauce is the proper accompaniment for joints of venison.

40- ITALIAN SAUCE

Ordinary Italian Sauce. - Put into a stewpan six tablespoonfuls of Duxelles (see No. 223), two oz. of very lean, cooked ham, cut very finely, brunoise-fashion, and one pint of halfglaze tomat^e. Boil for ten minutes, and complete, at the moment of dishing up, with one teaspoonful of parsley, chervil, and tarragon, minced and mixed.

Lenten Italian Sauce. - Same preparation, only (i) omit the ham, and (2) substitute Lent Espagnole (combined with fish fumet made from the fish for which the sauce is intended) for half glaze with tomatoes.

41- THICKENED GRAVY

Boil one pint of poultry or veal stock (according to the nature of the dish the gravy is intended for). Thicken this sauce by means of three-quarters oz. of fecula, diluted cold, with a little water or gravy, and pour this leason into the boiling gravy, being careful to stir briskly.

The thickened gravy with the veal-stock base is used for choicest pieces of butcher's meat; that with a poultry-stock base is for fillets of poultry.

42- VEAL GRAVY TOMATE

Add to one pint of veal stock two oz. of pur6e and onequarter pint of tomato juice, and reduce by a fifth. Strain the gravy through linen. This gravy is for butcher's meat.

THE SMALL COMPOUND SAUCES 29

43- LYONNAISE SAUCE

Finely mince two oz. of onions and brown them slightly in two oz. of butter. Moisten with one-quarter pint of white wine and as much vinegar; almost entirely reduce the liquid; add one and one-half pints of clear half-glaze, and set to cook slowly for half an hour. Rub the sauce through a tammy.

N.B. - The onion may be left in the sauce or not, according to the preparation for which it is intended and the taste of the consumer.

44- MADEIRA SAUCE

Put one and one-half pints of half-glaze into a saut^-pan, and reduce it on a brisk fire to a stiff consistence. When it reaches this point, take it off the fire and add one-fifth pint of Madeira to it, which brings it back to its normal consistence. Rub through a tammy, and keep it warm without allowing it to boil.

45- MARROW SAUCE

Follow the proportions as indicated under " Sauce Bordelaise " (No. 32) for the necessary quantity of this sauce, the Marrow Sauce being only a variety of the Bordelaise. Finish it with six oz. per quart of beef marrow, cut into cubes, poached and well drained, and one teaspoonful of chopped parsley, scalded for a second. If the sauce is to accompany vegetables, finish it, away from the fire, with three oz. of butter, and then add the cubes of marrow and the parsley.

46- PIQNONS SAUCE

Take the necessary amount of Poivrade Sauce prepared according to Formula No. 49, and let it boil. Now, for one pint of sauce, prepare an infusion of juniper berries, with onequarter pint of water and two oz. of concassed berries; one oz. of grilled fir-apple kernels, and one oz. of raisins, stoned and washed, and left to soak in tepid water for about an hour. Finish the sauce, when dishing up, by adding the infusion of juniper berries strained through linen, the grilled kernels, the soaked raisins, and one-eighth pint of Madeira wine.

This sauce is specially suited to joints of venison.

47- PERIQUEUX SAUCE

Prepare a " Sauce Mad^re " as explained in No. 44, and add to the half-glaze, to be reduced, half its volume of very strong veal stock, and keep it a little denser than usual. Finish this sauce by adding one-sixth pint of truffle essence and tliree oz. of chopped truffles per quart of Madeira Sauce. It is used for numerous small entries, timbales, hot pit^s, &c.

48- PIQUANTE SAUCE

Put into a vegetable pan two oz. of minced shallots, onequarter pint of vinegar, and as much white wine. Reduce the liquid by a good half, and add one pint of half-glaze; set the sauce to boil, and despumate it for half an hour. At the last moment finish it, away from the fire, with two oz. of gherkins, one oz. of capers, and a teaspoonful of chervil, parsley, and tarragon, mixed; all the ingredients to be finely chopped. This sauce generally accompanies grilled or boiled pork, and cold meat re-dished and minced which needs spicy flavouring.

49- ORDINARY POIVRADE SAUCE

1. Heat two oz. of butter in a ste'wpan, and insert one lb. of raw Mirepoix (No. 228). Fry the vegetables until they are well browned; moisten with one-quarter pint of vinegar and one-half pint of Marinade (Formula 169); reduce to two-thirds; add one pint of Espagnole Sauce, and cook for three-quarters of an hour. Ten minutes before straining the sauce, put in a few crushed peppercorns. If the pepper were put in the sauce earlier, it might make it bitter.

2. Pass the sauce through a strainer, pressing the aromatics; add a further one-half pint of Marinade, and despumate for one-quarter of an hour, keeping it simmering the while. Strain again through tammy, and finish the sauce, when ready for dishing, with two oz. of butter.

This sauce is suitable for joints marinaded or not.

50- POIVRADE SAUCE FOR VENISON

Fry, with two oz. of butter and two oz. of oil, one lb. of raw Mirepoix (No. 228) to which are added four lbs. of wellbroken bones and ground-game trimmings. When the whole is well browned, drain the grease away, and dilute with one pint of vinegar and one pint of white wine. Reduce this liquid by three-quarters, then add three quarts of game stock and a quart of Espagnole Sauce. Boil, cover the saucepan, and put into a moderate oven, where it should stay for at least three hours. At the end of this time take out the saucepan and pour its contents into a fine sieve placed over a tureen; press the remains so as to expel all the sauce they hold, and pour the

THE SMALL COMPOUND SAUCES 31

sauce into a tall, thick saucepan. Add enough game stock and Marinade, mixed in equal parts, to produce three quarts in all of sauce, and gently reduce the latter while despumating it. As it diminishes in volume, it should be passed through muslin into smaller saucepans, and the reduction should be stopped when only a quart of sauce remains.

N.B. - This sauce, like red-wine sauces, may be served as it stands. It is brilliant, clear, and perhaps more sightly thus, but the addition of a certain quantity of butter (four oz. per quart) makes it perfectly mellow, and admirably completes its fragrance.

51- PROVEN9ALE SAUCE

Peel, remove the seeds, press and concass twelve medium tomatoes. Heat in a sautd-pan one-fifth pint of oil, until it begins to smoke a little; insert the tomatoes seasoned with pepper and salt; add a crushed garlic clove, a pinch of powdered sugar, one teaspoonful of chopped parsley, and allow to melt gently for half an hour. In reality, true Proven9ale is nothing but a fine fondue of tomatoes with garlic.

52- ROBERT SAUCE

Finely mince a large onion and put it into a stewpan with butter. Fry the onion gently and without letting it acquire any colour. Dilute with one-third pint of white wine, reduce the latter by one-third, add one pint of half-glaze, and leave to simmer for twenty minutes. When dishing up, finish the sauce with one tablespoonful of meat glaze, one teaspoonful of mustard, and one pinch of powdered sugar. If, when finished, the sauce has to wait, it should be kept warm in a bain-marie, as it must not boil again. This sauce - of a spicy flavour - is best suited to grilled and boiled pork. It may also be used for a mince of the same meat.

53- ESCOFFIER ROBERTS SAUCE

This sauce may be bought ready-made. It is used either hot or cold. It is especially suitable for pork, veal, poultry, and even fish, and is generally used hot with grills after the equivalent of its volume of excellent brown stock has been added to it. It may also be served cold to accompany cold meat.

54- ROUENNAISE SAUCE

Prepare a " Bordelaise " sauce according to Formula No. 32. The diluent of this sauce must be an excellent red wine. Fqr one pint of sauce, pass four raw ducks' livers through a sieve; add the resulting pur^e to the Bordelaise, and heat the latter for a few minutes in order to poach the liver. Be careful, however, not to heat the sauce too much nor too long, lest the liver be cooked. Serve this sauce with duckling h la Rouennaise.

55- SALMIS SAUCE

The base of this sauce, which rather resembles the cullis, is unchangeable. Its diluent only changes according to the kind of birds or game to be treated, and whether this game is to be considered ordinary or Lenten.

Cut and gently brown in butter five oz. of Mirepoix (Formula 228). Add the shin detached from the limbs and the chopped carcase of the bird under treatment, and moisten with one pint of white wine. Reduce the latter to two-thirds, add one-half pint of half glaze, and boil gently for three-quarters of an hour. Pass through a strainer, while pressing upon the carcase and the aromatics, with the view of extracting their quintessence, and thin the cullis thus obtained by means of one-half pint of game stock or mushroom liquor, if the game be Lenten. Now despumate for about one hour, finally reduce the sauce, bring it to its proper consistency with a little mushroom liquor and truffle essence, rub it through tammy, and butter it slightly at the last moment.

56- TORTUE SAUCE

Boil one-half pint of veal stock, adding a small sprig of sage, sweet marjoram, rosemary, basil, thyme, and as much bay, two oz. of mushroom parings, and one oz. of parsley. Cover and allow to infuse for half an hour. Two minutes before straining the infusion, add four concassed peppercorns.

After straining through fine linen, add one-half pint of halfglaze and as much tomato sauce (away from the fire) with four tablespoonfuls of sherry, a litde truffle essence, and a good pinch of cayenne.

N.B. - As this sauce must be spicy, the use of cayenne suggests itself, but great caution should be observed, as there must be no excess of this condiment.

57_VENISON SAUCE

Prepare a Poivrade sauce for game, as explained in No. 50. Finish this sauce with two tablespoonfuls of red-currant jelly, previously dissolved, and mixed with five tablespoonfuls of

THE SMALL COMPOUND SAUCES 33

fresh cream per pint of sauce. This addition of cream and redcurrants must be made away from the fire. Serve this sauce with big ground-game.

Small White and Compound Sauces.

58- AMERICAN SAUCE

This sauce consists of lobster prepared "k I'Am^ricaine " (see No. 939). As it generally accompanies a fish, the meat of the lobster or lobsters which have served in its preparation is sliced and used as the garnish of the fish.

59- ANCHOVY SAUCE

Put into a small stewpan one pint of unbuttered " Normande Sauce " (No. 99), and finish it, away from the fire, with three oz. of anchovy butter, and one oz. of anchovy fillets, washed, well sponged, and cut into small pieces.

60- AURORE SAUCE

Into one-half pint of boiling velout^ put the same quantity of very red tomato pur^e (No. 29), and mix the two. Let the sauce boil a little, pass it through a tammy, and finish, away from the fire, with three oz. of butter.

61- LENTEN AURORE SAUCE

This sauce is made like the preceding one, i.e., with the same quantities of velout6 and tomato puree, replacing ordinary velout^ by fish velout6.

63- BEARNAISE SAUCE

Put into a small stewpan one teaspoonful of chopped shallots, two oz. of chopped tarragon stalks, three oz. of chervil, some mignonette pepper, a pinch of salt, and four tablespoonfuls of vinegar. Reduce the vinegar by two-thirds, take off the fire, let the stewpan cool a little, and add to this reduction the yolks of five eggs. Now put the stewpan on a low fire and gradually combine with the yolks six oz. of melted butter. Whisk the sauce briskly, so ^s to ensure the cooking of the yolks, which alone, by gradual cooking, effect the leason of the sauce.

When the butter is combined with the sauce, rub the latter through tammy, and finish it with a teaspoonful of chervil parings and chopped tarragon leaves. Complete the seasoning with a suspicion of cayenne. This sauce should not be served yery hot, as it is really a mayonnaise with butter. It need tjnly

D be tepid, for it would probably turn if it were over-heated. Serve it with grilled, butcher's meat and poultry.

63- BEARNAISE SAUCE WITH MEAT GLAZE, OTHERWISE VALOIS SAUCE OR FOYOT SAUCE

Prepare a B^arnaise sauce as explained in No. 62. Complete it with three tablespoonfuls of dissolved pale meat glaze, which may be added in small quantities at a time. Serve it with butcher's meat.

64- BEARNAISE TOMATEE SAUCE OR CHORON SAUCE

Proceed in exactly the same way as for B^arnaise No. 62. When the sauce is made and rubbed through tammy, finish it with one-third pint of very red tomato pur^e. In this case the final addition of chervil and tarragon should not be made.

This is proper to " Tournedos Choron," but it may accompany grilled poultry and white, butcher's meat.

6s- BERCY SAUCE

Heat two oz. of chopped shallots. Moisten with one-half pint of white wine and as much fish fumet, or, when possible, the same quantity of fish liquor, the latter being, of course, that of a fish similar to the one the sauce is to accompany. Reduce to a good third, add one-third pint of velout^, let the sauce boil some time, and finish it, away from the fire, with four oz. of butter (added by degrees), a few drops of fish glaze, half the juice of a lemon, and one oz. of chopped parsley.

Serve with medium-sized poached fish.

66- BUTTER SAUCE

Mix two oz. of sifted flour with two oz. of melted butter. Dilute with one quart of boiling water, salted to the extent of one-quarter oz. per quart. Stir briskly to ensure a perfect leason, and do not allow to boil. Add immediately the yolks of six eggs mixed with one-quarter pint of cream and the juice of half a lemon. Rub through a tammy, and finish the sauce with five oz. of best fresh butter.

Be careful that the sauce does not boil after it has been thickened.

67- BONNEFOY SAUCE, OR WHITE BORDELAISE SAUCE

Put in a stewpan two oz. of minced shallots and one-half pint of Graves, Sauterne, or any other excellent white Bor

THE SMALL COMPOUND SAUCES 35

deaux. Reduce the wine almost entirely, add one-quarter pint of velout^, let it simmer twenty minutes, and rub it through a tammy. Finish it, away from the fire, with six oz. of butter and a little chopped tarragon.

Serve it with grilled fish and grilled white meat.

68- CAPER SAUCE

This is a derivative of the Butter Sauce described under No. 66, and there need only be added two tablespoonfuls of capers per pint of sauce. It frequently accompanies boiled fish of all kinds.

69-CARDINAL SAUCE

Boil one pint of Bechamel, to which add one-half pint of fish fumet and a little truffle essence, and reduce by a quarter. Finish the sauce, when dishing up, with three tablespoonfuls of cream and three oz. of very red lobster butter (No. 149).

This sauce is poured over the fish.

70- MUSHROOM SAUCE

If this be intended for poultry, add one-fifth pint of mushroom liquor and eight oz. of button-mushroom heads turned or channelled and cooked, to one pint of very stiff Allemande Sauce.

If it be intended for fish, take one pint of fish velout^, thickened wfth the yolks of four eggs, and finish it with mushroom liquor, as above.

The sauce that I suggest for poultry may also be used foi fish, after adding the necessary quantity of fish fumet.

71- CHATEAUBRIAND SAUCE

Put one oz. of chopped shallots, a sprig of thyme and a bit of bay, one oz. of mushroom parings, and one-quarter pint of white wine into a stewpan. Reduce the wine almost entirely, add one-half pint of veal gravy, and reduce again until the liquid only measures one-quarter pint. Strain through muslin, and finish the sauce away from the fire with four oz. of butter " Mattre d'Hotel " (No. 150), to which may be added a little chopped tarragon. Serve with grilled fillet of beef, otherwise " Chdteaubriand."

72- WHITE CHAUD-FROID SAUCE

Boil one pint of velout^ in a stewpan, and add three-quarters pint of melted white poultry jelly. Put the stewpan on an open

D 2 fire, reduce the sauce by a third, stirring constantly the while, and gradually add one-half pint of very fresh cream. When the sauce has reached the desired degree of consistency rub it through a tammy, and stir it frequently while it cools, for fear of a skin forming on its surface, for if this happened it would have to be strained again. When dishing up, this sauce should be cold, so that it may properly coat immersed solids and yet be liquid enough to admit of the latter being easily steeped into it.

73- ORDINARY CHAUD=FROID SAUCE

Proceed exactly as above, substituting Allemande Sauce for the velout6, and reducing the quantity of cream to one-quarter pint. Observe the sam.e precautions while cooling.

74- CHAUD = FROID SAUCE, A L'AURORE

Prepare a white Chaud-Froid (No. 72). The same may be coloured by the addition of fine red tomato pur^e - more or less to match the desired shade - or by an infusion of paprika, according to the use for which it is intended. This last product is preferable when not too deep a shade is required.

75- CHAUD = FROID SAUCE, AU VERT=PR6

Add to the velout^ of the white Chaud-Froid sauce, at the same time as the jelly, an infusion prepared thus: - Boil onequarter pint of white wine, and add to it one pinch of chervil stalks, a similar quantity of tarragon leaves, chives, and parsley leaves. Cover, allow infusion to proceed away from the fire for ten minutes, and strain through linen.

Treat the sauce as explained, and finish with spinach-green (No. 143). The shade of the sauce must not be too pronounced, but must remain a pale green. The colouring principle must therefore be added with caution and in small quantities, until the correct shade is obtained. Use this sauce for Chaud-froids of fowl, particularly that kind distinguished as " Printanier ."

76- LENT CHAUD=FROID SAUCE

Proceed as for white Chaud-Froid, using the same quantities, and taking note of the following modifications: -

1. Substitute fish velout^ for ordinary velout^.

2. Substitute white fish jelly for poultry jelly.

Remarks. - I have adopted the use of this ordinary ChaudFroid sauce for the glazing of fillets and escalopes of fish and shell-fish, instead of cleared Mayonnaise, formerly used, which

THE SMALL COMPOUND SAUCES 27

had certain inconveniences - not the least being the oozing away of the oil under the shrinkage of the gelatine. This difficulty does not obtain in the ordinary Chaud-Froid, the definite and pronounced flavour of which is better than that of tlie cleared Mayonnaise.

77- "ESCOFFIER" CHERRY SAUCE

This sauce may be bought ready-made. Like the Roberts Sauce, it can be served hot or cold. It is an excellent adjunct to venison, and even to small ground-game. Saddle of venison with this sauce constitutes one of the greatest dainties that an epicure could desire.

78- CH5VRY SAUCE

In one-half pint of boiling poultry stock put a large pinch of chervil pluches, tarragon and parsley leaves, a head of young pimpernel (the qualification here is very important, for this aromatic plant grows bitter as it matures), and a good pinch of chives. Cover up, and let infusion proceed for ten to twelve minutes; then add the liquid (strained through linen) to one pint of velout6. Boil, reduce by a quarter, and complete it with two oz. of Green Butter (No. 143). Chivry Sauce is admirably suited to boiled or poached poultry.

79-CREAM SAUCE

Boil one pint of Bechamel Sauce, and add one-quarter pint of cream to it. Reduce on an open fire until the sauce has become very thick; then pass through tammy. Bring to its normal degree of consistency by gradually adding, away from the fire, one-quarter pint of very fresh cream and a few drops of lemonjuice. Serve this sauce with boiled fish, poultry, eggs, and various vegetables.

80- SHRIRIP SAUCE

Boil one pint of fish veloute or, failing this, Bechamel sauce, and add to it one-quarter pint of cream and one-quarter pint of very clear fish fumet. Reduce to one pint, and finish the sauce, away from the fire, with two oz. of Shrimp Butter (No. 145) and two oz. of shelled shrimps' tails.

81- CURRY SAUCE

Slightly brown the following vegetables in butter: - Twelve oz. of minced onions, one oz. of parsley roots, four oz. of minced celery, a small sprig of thyme, a bit of bay, and a little mace. Sprinkle with two oz. of flour and a teaspoonful of curry pepper. Cook the flour for some minutes without letting it acquire any colour, and dilute with one and one-half pints of white stock. Boil, cook gently for three-quarters of an hour, and rub through a tammy. Now heat the sauce, remove its grease, and keep it in the bain-viarie. Serve this sauce with fish, shell-fish, poultry, and various egg-preparations.

N.B. - This sauce is sometimes flavoured with cocoa-nut milk in the proportion of one-quarter of the diluent.

82- DIPLOMATE SAUCE

Take one pint of Normande Sauce, prepared according to No. 99, and finish it with two oz. of lobster butter and three tablespoonfuls of lobster meat, and truffles cut into small, regular tubes.

83- HERB SAUCE

Prepare one pint of white-wine sauce (No. in). Finish it away from the fire with three oz. of shallot butter, a tablespoonful of parsley, chervil, tarragon, and chives, chopped and mixed. Serve this sauce with boiled or poached fish.

84- GOOSEBERRY SAUCE

Prepare one pint of butter sauce. Formula No. 66. Meanwhile put one lb. of green gooseberries into a small copper saucepan containing boiling water. Boil for five minutes, then drain the gooseberries, and put them in a little stewpan with one-half pint of white wine and three oz. of powdered sugar. Gently cook the gooseberries, rub them through a tammy, and add the resulting pulp to the butter sauce. This sauce is excellent with grilled mackerel and the poached fillets of that fish.

85-HUNQARIAN SAUCE

Gently fry in butter, without colouring, two tablespoonfuls of chopped onions seasoned with table-salt and half a teaspoonful of paprika. Moisten with one-quarter pint of white wine, add a small faggot, reduce the wine by two-thirds, and remove the herbs.

Finish with one pint of ordinary or Lenten Velout^, according to the use for which the sauce is intended, and boil moderately for five minutes. Then rub the sauce through a tammy, and complete it with two oz. of butter. Remember this sauce should be of a tender, pink shade, which it must owe to the paprika alone.

THE SMALL COMPOUND SAUCES 39

It forms an ideal accompaniment to choice morsels of lamb and veal, eggs, poultry, and fish.

86- OYSTER SAUCE

Take one pint of Normande Sauce, finish it as directed in that recipe, and complete it with one-quarter pint of reduced oyster liquor, strained through linen, and twelve poached and trimmed oysters.

87- IVORY SAUCE, OR ALBUFERA SAUCE

Take the necessary quantity of Supreme Sauce, prepared as explained in No. 105a. Add to this four tablespoonfuls of dissolved, pale, meat glaze per quart of sauce, in order to lend the latter that ivory-white tint which characterises it. Serve this sauce chiefly with poultry and poached sweet-bread.

88- JOINVILLE SAUCE

Prepare one pint of Normande Sauce (No. 99), as given in the first part of its formula, and complete it with two oz. of shrimp butter and two oz. of crayfish butter. If this sauce is to accompany a fish k la Joinville, which includes a special garnish, it is served as it stands. If it is served with a large, boiled, ungarnished fish, one oz. of very black truffles cut Julienne-fashion should be added. As may be seen, Joinville Sauce differs from similar preparations in the final operation where crayfish and shrimp butter are combined.

89- MALTESE SAUCE

To the Hollandaise Sauce, given under No. 30, add, when, dishing up, the juice of two blood oranges (these late-season oranges being especially suitable for this sauce) and half a coffeespoonful of grated orange-rind.

Maltese Sauce is the finest for asparagus.

90- MARINIERE SAUCE

Take the necessary quantity of Bercy Sauce (No. 65), and add, per pint of sauce, one-quarter pint of mussel liquor and a leason composed of the yolks of three eggs.

Serve this with small poached fish and more particularly with mussels.

91- MORN AY SAUCE

Boil one pint of Bdchamel Sauce with one-quarter pint of the fumet of that fish which is to constitute the dish. Reduce by a good quarter, and add two oz. of Gruy^re and two oz. of grated Parmesan.

Put the sauce on the fire again for a few minutes, and ensure the melting of the cheese by stirring with a small whisk. Finish the sauce away from the fire with two oz. of butter added by degrees.

92- MOUSSELINE SAUCE

To a Hollandaise Sauce, prepared as explained (No. 30), add, just before dishing up, one-half pint of stiffly-whipped cream per pint of sauce.

93- MOUSSEUSE SAUCE

Scald and wipe a small vegetable-pan, and put into it onehalf lb. of stifHy-mamed butter, properly softened. Season this butter with table-salt and a few drops of lemon-juice, and whisk it while gradually adding one-third pint of cold water. Finish with two tablespoonfuls of very firm, whipped cream. This preparation, though classified as a sauce, is really a compound butter, which is served with boiled fish. The heat of the fish alone suffices to melt it, and its appearance is infinitely more agreeable than that of plain, melted butter.

94- MUSTARD SAUCE

Take the necessary quantity of butter sauce and complete it, away from the fire, with one tablespoonful of mustard per pint of sauce.

N.B. - If the sauce has to wait, it must be kept in a bainmarie, for it should not on any account boil. It is served with certain smafl grilled fish, especially fresh herrings.

95- NANTUA SAUCE

Boil one pint of Bechamel Sauce, add one-half pint of cream, and reduce by a third. Rub it through^a tammy, and finish it with a further addition of two tablespoonfuls of cream, three oz. of very fine crayfish butter, and one tablespoonful of small, shelled crayfishes' tails.

96- NEWBURQ SAUCE

First Method {with Raw Lobsters). - Divide a two lb. lobster into four parts. Remove its creamy parts, pound them finelv with two oz. of butter, and put them aside.

THE SMALL COMPOUND SAUCES 41

Heat in a saut^pan one and one-half oz. of butter and as much oil, and insert the pieces of lobster, well seasoned with salt and cayenne. Fry until the pieces assume a fine, red colour; entirely drain away the butter, and add two tablespoonfuls of burnt brandy and one-third pint of Marsala or old Sherry.

Reduce the wine by two-thirds, and wet the lobster with onethird pint of cream and one-half pint of fish fumet. Now add a faggot, cover the saut^pan, and gently cook for twentyfive minutes. Then drain the lobster on a sieve, remove the meat and cut it into cubes, and finish the sauce by adding the creamy portions put aside from the first. Boil so as to ensure the cooking of these latter portions; add the meat, cut into cubes, and verify the seasoning.

N.B. - The addition of the meat to the sauce is optional; instead of cutting it into cubes it may be stewed and displayed on the fish constituting the dish.

97- SECOND METHOD (WITH COOKED LOBSTER)

The lobster having been cooked in a Court-bouillon, shell the tail and slice it up. Arrange these slices in a saut^pan liberally buttered at the bottom; season them strongly with salt and cayenne, and heat them on both sides so as to effect the reddening of the skin. Immerse, so as to cover, in a good Sherry, and almost entirely reduce same.

When dishing up, pour on to the slices a leason composed of one-third pint of fresh cream and the yolks of two eggs. Gently stir, away from the fire, and roll the saucepan about until the leason is completed.

Originally, these two sauces, like the American, were exclusively composed of, and served with, lobster. They were one with the two very excellent preparations of lobster which bear their name. In its two forms lobster may only be served at lunch, many people with delicate stomachs being unable to digest it at night. To obviate this serious difficulty, I have made it a practice to serve lobster sauce with fillets or Mousselines of sole, adding the lobster as a garnish only. And this innovation proved most welcome to the public.

By using such condiments as curry and paprika, excellent varieties of this sauce may be obtained, which are particularly suited to sole and other white Lenten fish. In either of these cases it is well to add a little rice " k I'lndienne " to the fish. 98- NOISETTE SAUCE

Prepare a Hollandaise Sauce according to the recipe under No. 30. Add two oz. of hazel-nut butter at the last moment. Serve this with salmon, trout, and all boiled fish in general.

99- NORMANDE SAUCE

Put in a saut^pan one pint of fish veloute, three tablespoonfuls of mushroom liquor, as much oyster liquor, and twice as much sole fumet, the yolks of three eggs, a few drops of lemonjuice, and one-quarter pint of cream. Reduce by a good third on an open fire, season with a little cayenne, rub through a tammy, and finish with two oz. of butter and four tablespoonfuls of good cream.

This sauce is proper to fillet of sole " k la Normande," but it is also frequently used as the base of other small sauces.

100- ORIENTAL SAUCE

Take one pint of American sauce, season with curry, and reduce to a third. Then add, away from the fire, one-quarter pint of cream per pint of sauce.

Serve this sauce in the same way as American Sauce.

loi- POULETTE SAUCE

Boil for a few minutes one pint of Sauce Allemande, and add six tablespoonfuls of mushroom liquor. Finish, away from the fire, with two oz. of butter, a few drops of lemon-juice, and one teaspoonful of chopped parsley. Use this sauce with certain vegetables, but more generally with sheep's trotters.

102-RAVIQOTTE SAUCE

Reduce by half, one-quarter pint of white wine with half as much vinegar. Add one pint of ordinary velout^, boil gently for a few minutes, and finish with one and one-half oz. of shallot butter and one teaspoonful of chervil, tarragon, and chopped chives. This sauce accompanies boiled poultry and certain white " abats."

103- REGENCY SAUCE

If this sauce is to garnish poultry, boil one pint of Allemande Sauce with six tablespoonfuls of mushroom essence and two tablespoonfuls of truffle essence. Finish with four tablespoonfuls of poultry glaze.

THE SMALL COMPOUND SAUCES 43

If it is to garnish fish, substitute for the Allemande Sauce some fish velout^ thickened with egg-yolks and the essences of mushroom and truffle as above. Complete with some fish essence.

104- SOUBISE SAUCE

Stew in butter two lbs. of finely-minced onions, scalded for three minutes and well dried. This stewing of the onions in butter increases their flavour. Now add one-half pint of thickened Bechamel; season with salt and a teaspoonful of powdered sugar. Cook gently for half an hour, rub through a tammy. and complete the sauce with some tablespoonfuls of cream and two oz. of butter.

105- SOUBISE SAUCE WITH RICE

The same quantity as above of minced onions, scalded and well drained. Garnish the bottom and the sides of a tall, medium stewpan with some thin rashers of fat bacon. Insert the onions, together with one-quarter lb. of Carolina rice, one pint of white consomm^, a large pinch of powdered sugar, and the necessary salt. Cook gently in the front of the oven for three-quarters of an hour. Then pound the onions and rice in a mortar, rub the resulting pur^e through a tammy, and finish with cream and butter as in the preceding case.

N.B. - This sauce, being more consistent than the former, is used as a garnish just as often as a sauce.

106- SOUBISE SAUCE TOMATEE

Prepare a soubise in accordance with the first of the two above formulae, and add to it one-third of its volume of very red tomato pur^e.

Remarks.

1. The Soubise is rather a cullis than a sauce; i.e., its consistence must be greater than that of a sauce.

2. The admixture of B6chamel in Soubise is preferable to that of rice, seeing that it makes it smoother. If, in certain cases, rice is used as a cohering element, it is in order to give the Soubise more stiffness.

3. In accordance with the uses to which it may be put, the Soubise Tomatde may be finally seasoned either with curry or paprika. io6a-SUPREME SAUCE

The salient characteristics of Supreme Sauce are its perfect whiteness and consummate delicacy. It is generally prepared in small quantities only.

Preparation. - Put one and one-half pints of very clear poultry stock and one-quarter pint of mushroom cooking liquor into a saut^pan. Reduce to two-thirds; add one pint of "poultry velout^ "; reduce on an open fire, stirring with the spatula the while, and combine one-half pint of excellent cream with the sauce, this last ingredient being added little by little.

When the sauce has reached the desired consistence, strain it through a sieve, and add another one-quarter pint of cream and two oz. of best butter. Stir with a spoon, from time to time, or keep the pan well covered.

107-VENETIAN SAUCE

Put into a stewpan one tablespoonful of chopped shallots, one tablespoonful of chervil, and one-quarter pint of white wine and tarragon vinegar, mixed in equal quantities. Reduce the vinegar by two-thirds; add one pint of white wine sauce (No. Ill); boil for a few minutes; rub through a tammy, and finish the sauce with a sufficient quantity of Herb Juice (No. 183) and one teaspoonful of chopped chervil and tarragon. This sauce accompanies various fish.

I08-VILLER0Y SAUCE

Put into a sautepan one pint of Allemande Sauce to which have been added two tablespoonfuls of truffle essence and as much ham essence.

Reduce on an open fire and constantly stir until the sauce is sufficiently stiff to coat immersed solids thickly.

109- V5LLEROY SOUBISEE SAUCE

Put into a sautepan two-thirds pint of Allemande Sauce and one-third pint of Soubise pur^e (Formula 105). Reduce as in the preceding case, as the uses to which this is put are the same. Now, according to the circumstances and the nature of the SQlid it is intended for, a few teaspoonfuls of very black, chopped truffles may be added to this sauce.

no- VILLEROY TOMATEE SAUCE

Prepare the sauce as explained under No. 108, and add to it the third of its volume of very fine tomato puree. Reduce in the same way.

THE SMALL COMPOUND SAUCES 45

Remarks. - i. Villeroy sauce, of whatsoever kind, is solely

used for the coating of preparations said to be " ^ la Villeroy."

2. The Villeroy Tomat^e may be finally seasoned with curry

or paprika, according to the preparation for which it is intended.

Ill- WHITE WINE SAUCE

The three following methods are employed in making it: -

1 . Add one-quarter pint of fish fumet to one pint of thickened Velout^, and reduce by half. Finish the sauce, away from the fire, with four oz. of butter. Thus prepared, this white wine sauce is suitable for glazed fish.

2. Almost entirely reduce one-quarter pint of fish /wmei. To this reduction add the yolks of four eggs, mixing them well in it, and follow with one lb. of butter, added by degrees, paying heed to the precautions indicated under sauce Hollandaise No. 30.

3. Put the yolks of five eggs into a small stewpan and mix them with one tablespoonful of cold fish-stock. Put the stewpan in a bain-marie and finish the sauce with one lb. of butter, meanwhile adding from time to time, and in small quantities, six tablespoonfuls of excellent fish fumet. The procedure in this sauce is, in short, exactly that of the Hollandaise, with this distinction, that here fish fumet takes the place of the water.

Hot English Sauces

1 12- APPLE SAUCE

Quarter, peel, core, and chop two lbs. of medium-sized apples; place these in a stewpan with one tablespoonful of powdered sugar, a bit of cinnamon, and a few tablespoonfuls of water. Cook the whole gently with lid on, and smooth the pur^e with a whisk when dishing up.

Serve this sauce lukewarm with duck, goose, roast hare, &c.

113- BREAD SAUCE

Boil one pint of milk, and add three oz. of fresh, white bread-crumb, a little salt, a small onion with a clove stuck in it, and one oz. of butter. Cook gently for about a quarter of an hour, remove the onion, smooth the sauce with a whisk, and finish it with a few tablespoonfuls of cream.

This sauce is served with roast fowl and roast feathered game. 114- CELERY SAUCE

Clean six stalks of celery (only use the hearts), put them in a sautepan, wholly immerse in consomm6, add a faggot and one onion with a clove stuck in it, and cook gently. Drain the celery, pound it in a mortar, then rub it through a tammy and put the pur^e in a stewpan. Now thin the purde with an equal quantity of cream sauce and a little reduced celery liquor. Heat it moderately, and, if it has to wait, put it in a bain-marie.

This sauce is suited to boiled or braised poultry. It is excellent, and has been adopted in French cookery.

115- CRANBERRY SAUCE

Cook one pint of cranberries with one quart of water in a stewpan, and cover the stewpan. When the berries are cooked drain them in a fine sieve through which they are strained. To the puree thus obtained add the necessary quantity of their cooking liquor, so as to make a somewhat thick sauce. Sugar should be added according to the taste of the consumer.

This sauce is mostly served with roast turkey. It is to be bought ready-made, and, if this kind be used, it need only be heated with a little water.

116- FENNEL SAUCE

Take one pint of butter sauce (No. 66) and finish it with two tablespoonfuls of chopped fennel, scalded for a few seconds. This is principally used with mackerel.

117- EGG SAUCE WITH MELTED BUTTER

Dissolve one-quarter pound of butter, and add to it the necessary salt, a little pepper, half the juice of a lemon, and three hard-boiled eggs (hot and cut into large cubes); also a teaspoonful of chopped and scalded parsley.

118- SCOTCH EGG SAUCE

Make a white roux with one and one-half oz. of butter and one oz. of flour. Mix in one pint of boiling milk, season with salt, white pepper, and nutmeg, and boil gently for ten minutes. Then add three hot hard-boiled eggs, cut into cubes (the whites and the yolks).

This sauce usually accompanies boiled fish, especially fresh haddocks and fresh and salted cod.

THE SMALL COMPOUND SAUCES 47

119- HORSE-RADISH OR ALBERT SAUCE

Rasp five oz. of horse-radish and place them in a stewpan with one-quarter pint of white consomm^. Boil gently for twenty minutes and add a good one-half pint of butter sauce, as much cream, and one-half oz, of bread-crumb; thicken by reducing on a brisk fire and rub through tammy. Then thicken with the yolks of two eggs, and complete the seasoning with a pinch of salt and pepper, and a teaspoonful of mustard dissolved in a tablespoonful of vinegar.

Serve this sauce with braised or roast beef - especially fillets.

119a- PARSLEY SAUCE

This is the Butter Sauce (No. 66), to which is added, per pint, a heaped tablespoonful of freshly-chopped parsley.

120- REFORM SAUCE

Put into a small stewpan and boil one pint of half-glaze sauce and one-half pint of ordinary Poivrade sauce. Complete with a garnish composed of one-half oz. of gherkins, one-half oz. of the hard-boiled white of an egg, one oz. of salted tongue, one oz. of truffles, and one oz. of mushrooms. All these to be cut Julienne-fashion and short.

This sauce is for mutton cutlets when these are " k la Reform."

CHAPTER IV

COLD SAUCES AND COMPOUND BUTTERS

121- AIOLI SAUCE, OR PROVENCE BUTTER

Pound one oz. of garlic cloves as finely as possible in a mortar, and add the yolk of one raw egg, a pinch of salt, and one-half pint of oil, letting the latter gradually fall in a thread and wielding the pestle meanwhile, so as to effect a complete amalgamation. Add a few drops of lemon juice and cold water to the sauce as it thickens, these being to avoid its turning.

Should it decompose while in the process of making or when made, the only thing to be done is to begin it again with the yolk of an egg.

I22~ANDAL0USE SAUCE

Take the required quantity of Mayonnaise sauce (No. 126) and add to it the quarter of its volume of very red and concentrated tomato pur6e, and finally add two oz. of capsicum cut finely. Julienne-fashion, per pint of sauce.

123- BOHEMIAN SAUCE

Put in a bowl one-quarter pint of cold Bechamel, the yolks of four eggs, a little table salt and white pepper. Add a quart of oil and three tablespoonfuls of tarragon vinegar, proceeding as for the Mayonnaise.

Finish the sauce with a tablespoonful of mustard.

i24~QEN0A SAUCE

Pound in a mortar, and make into a smooth, fine paste, one oz. of pistachios and one oz. of fir-apple kernels, or, if these are not available, one oz. of sweet almonds; add one-half tablespoonful of cold Bechamel. Put this paste into a bowl, add the yolks of six eggs, a little salt and pepper, and finish the sauce with one quart of oil, the juice of two lemons, and proceed as for the Mayonnaise.

COLD SAUCES AND COMPOUND BUTTERS 49

Complete with three tablespoonfuls of pur^e of herbs, prepared with equal quantities of chervil, parsley, tarragon, and fresh pimpernel, scalded for one minute. Cool quickly, press so as to expel the water, and pass through a fine sieve.

Serve this sauce with cold fish.

125 -QRIBICHE SAUCE

Crush in a basin the yolks of six hard-boiled eggs, and work them into a smooth paste, together with a large tablespoonful of French mustard, the necessary salt, a little pepper, and make up the sauce with one pint of oil. Complete with one dessertspoonful of parsley, chervil, and tarragon (chopped and mixed), as many capers and gherkins, evenly mixed, and the hard-boiled whites of three eggs, cut short, Julienne-fashion.

This sauce is chiefly used with cold fish.

126-- MAYONNAISE SAUCE

Put in a basin the yolks of six raw eggs, after having removed the cores. Season them with one-half oz. of tablesalt and a little cayenne pepper. Gradually pour one-fifth pint of vinegar on the yolks while whisking them briskly. When the vinegar is absorbed add one quart of oil, letting the latter trickle down in a thread, constantly stirring the sauce meanwhile. The sauce is finished by the addition of the juice of a lemon and three tablespoonfuls of boiling water - the purpose of the latter being to ensure the coherence of the sauce and to prevent its turning.

Mayonnaise prepared in this way is rather liquid, but it need only be left to rest a few hours in order to thicken considerably. Unless it be exposed to too low a temperature, the Mayonnaise, prepared as above, never turns, and may be kept for several days without the fear of anything happening to it. Merely cover it to keep the dust away.

Remarks. - In the matter of sauces there exist endless prejudices, which I must attempt to refute: -

1. If the sauce forms badly, or not at all, the reason is that the oil has been added too rapidly at first, before the addition of the vinegar, and that its assimilation by the yolks has not operated normally.

2. It is quite an error to suppose that it is necessary to work over ice or in a cold room. Cold is rather deleterious to the Mayonnaise, and is invariably the cause of this sauce turning in winter. In the cold season the oil should be slightly

E warmed, or, at least, kept at the temperature of the kitchen, though it is best to make it in a moderately warm place.

3. It is a further error to suppose that the seasoning interferes with the making of the sauce, for salt, in solution, rather provokes the cohering force of the yolks.

Causes of the Disintegration of the Mayonnaise: -

1. The too rapid addition of the oil at the start.

2. The use of congealed, or too cold, an oil.

3. Excess of oil in proportion to the number of yolks, the assimilating power of an egg being limited to two and one-half oz. of oil (if the sauce be made some time in advance), and three oz. if it is to be used immediately.

Means of Bringing Turned Mayonnaise Back to its Normal State. - Put the yolk of an egg into a basin with a few drops of vinegar, and mix the turned Mayonnaise in it, little by little. If it be a matter of only a small quantity of Mayonnaise, one-half a coffeespoonful of mustard can take the place of the egg-yolk. Finally, with regard to acid seasoning, a whiter sauce is obtained by the use of lemon juice instead of vinegar.

127- CLEARED MAYONNAISE SAUCE

Take the necessary quantity of Mayonnaise and gradually add to it, per one and one-half pints of the sauce, one-half pint of cold and rather firm melting aspic jelly - Lenten or ordinary, according to the nature of the products for which the sauce is intended.

Remarks. - It is this very Mayonnaise, formerly used almost exclusively for coating entries and cold relevees of fish, filleted fish, escalopes of common and spiny-lobster, &c., which I have allowed the Lenten Chaud-froid (see remarks No. 76) to supersede.

138- WHISKED MAYONNAISE

Put into a copper basin or other bowl three-quarters pint of melted jelly, two-thirds pint of Mayonnaise, one tablespoonful of tarragon vinegar, and as much rasped and finely-chopped horse-radish. Mix up the whole, place the utensil on ice, and whisk gently until the contents get very frothy. Stop whisking as soon as the sauce begins to solidify, for it must remain almost fluid so as to enable it to mix with the products for which it is intended.

This sauce is used principally for vegetable salads.

COLD SAUCES AND COMPOUND BUTTERS 51

129- RAVIQOTE SAUCE, OR VINAIGRETTE

Put into a bowl one pint of oil, one-third pint of vinegar, a little salt and pepper, two oz. of small capers, three tablespoonfuls of fine herbs, comprising soine very finely chopped onion, as much parsley, and half as much chervil, tarragon, and chives. Mix thoroughly. The Ravigote accompanies calf's head or foot, sheep's trotters, &c.

Two or three tablespoonfuls of the liquor with which its accompanying solids have been cooked, i.e., calf's head or sheep's trotters liquor, &c., are often added to this sauce when dishing up.

130- REMOULADE SAUCE

To one pint of Mayonnaise add one large tablespoonful of mustard, another of gherkins, and yet another of chopped and pressed capers, one tablespoonful of fine herbs, parsley, chervil, and tarragon, all chopped and mixed, and a coffeespoonful of anchovy essence.

This sauce accompanies cold meat and poultry, and, more particularly, common and spiny lobster.

131- GREEN SAUCE

Take the necessary quantity of thick Mayonnaise and spicy seasoning, and add to these, per pint of sauce, one-third pint of herb juice, prepared as indicated hereafter (No. 132).

This is suitable for cold fish and shell fish.

132- VINCENT SAUCE

Prepare and carefully wash the following herbs: - One oz. each of parsley, chervil, tarragon, chives, sorrel-leaves, and fresh pimpernel, two oz. of water-cress and two oz. of spinach. Put all these herbs into a copper bowl containing salted, boiling water. Boil for two minutes only; then drain the herbs in a sieve and immerse them in a basin of fresh water. When they are cold they are once more drained until quite dry; then they must be finely pounded with the yolks of eight hard-boiled eggs. Rub the pur^e thus obtained through a sieve first, then through tammy, add one pint of very stiff Mayonnaise to it, and finish the sauce with a dessertspoonful of Worcestershire sauce. Cold English Sauces

133- CAMBRIDGE SAUCE

Pound together the yolks of six hard-boiled eggs, the washed and dried fillets of four anchovies, a teaspoonful of capers, a dessertspoonful of chervil, tarragon, and chives, mixed. When the whole forms a fine paste, add one tablespoonful of mustard, one-fifth pint of oil, one tablespoonful of vinegar, and proceed as for a Mayonnaise. Season with a little cayenne; rub through tammy, applying pressure with a spoon, and put the sauce in a bowl. Stir it awhile with a whisk to smooth it, and finish with one teaspoonful of chopped parsley.

It is suited to cold meats in general; in fact, it is an Anglicised version of Vincent Sauce.

134- CUMBERLAND SAUCE

Dissolve four tablespoonfuls of red-currant jelly, to which are added one-fifth pint of port wine, one teaspoonful of finely-chopped shallots, scalded for a few seconds and pressed, one teaspoonful of small pieces of orange rind and as much lemon rind (cut finely. Julienne-fashion, scalded for two minutes, well-drained, and cooled), the juice of an orange and that of half a lemon, one teaspoonful of mustard, a little cayenne pepper, and as much powdered ginger. Mix the whole well.

Serve this sauce with cold venison.

135-QLOUCESTER SAUCE

Take one pint of very thick Mayonnaise and complete it with one-fifth pint of sour cream with the juice of a lemon added, and combine with the Mayonnaise by degrees; one teaspoonful of chopped fennel and as much Worcester sauce.

Serve this with all cold meats.

136- MINT SAUCE

Cut finely. Julienne-fashion, or chop, two oz. of mint leaves. Put these in a bowl with a little less than one oz. of white cassonade or castor sugar, one-quarter pint of fresh vinegar, and four tablespoonfuls of water.

Special sauce for hot or cold Iamb.

COLD SAUCES AND COMPOUND BUTTERS 53

137- OXFORD SAUCE

Make a Cumberland sauce according to No. 134, with this difference: that the Julienne of orange and lemon rinds should be replaced by rasped or finely-chopped rinds, and that the quantities of same should be less, i.e., two-thirds of a teaspoonful of each.

138- HORSE-RADISH SAUCE

Dilute one tablespoonful of mustard with two tablespoonfuls of vinegar in a basin, and add one lb. of finely-rasped horseradish, two oz. of powdered sugar, a little salt, one pint of cream, and one lb. of bread-crumb steeped in milk and pressed. Serve this sauce very cold.

It accompanies boiled and roast joints of beef.

Compound Butters for Grills and for the Completion of

Sauces

With the exception of those of the shell-fish order, the butters, whose formuL-E I am about to give, are not greatly used in kitchens. Nevertheless, in some cases, as, for instance, in accentuating the savour of sauces, they answer a real and useful purpose, and I therefore recommend them, since they enable one to give a flavour to the derivatives of the Velout6 and Bechamel sauces which these could not acquire by any other means.

With regard to shell-fish butters, and particularly those of the common and spiny lobster and the crayfish, experience has shown that when they are prepared with heat (that is to say, by melting in a bain-marie a quantity of butter which has been previously pounded with shell-fish remains and afterwards strained through muslin into a basin of iced-water where it has solidified) they are of a finer colour than the other kind and quite free from shell particles. Biit the heat, besides dissipating a large proportion of their delicacy, involves considerable risk, for the slightest neglect gives the above preparation quite a disagreeable taste. To obviate these difficulties I have adopted a system of two distinct butters, one which is exclusively colorific and prepared with heat, and the other which is prepared with all the creamy parts, the trimmings and the remains of common and spiny lobsters, without the shells, pounded with the required quantity of fresh butter and passed through a sieve. The latter is used to complete sauces, particularly those with a Bechamel base to which it lends a perfect savour.

I follow the same procedure with shrimp and crayfish butters, sometimes substituting for the butter good cream, which, I find, absorbs the aromatic principles perhaps better than the former. With the above method it is advisable to pass the butter or the cream through a very fine sieve first and afterwards through tammy, so as to avoid small particles of the pounded shell being present in the sauce.

139- BERCY BUTTER

Put into a small stewpan one-quarter pint of white wine and one oz. of finely-chopped shallots, scalded a moment. Reduce the wine by one-half, and add one-half lb. of butter softened into a cream; one teaspoonful of chopped parsley, two oz. of beef marrow cut into cubes, poached in slightly salted water and well drained, the necessary table-salt, and, when dishing up, a little ground pepper and a few drops of lemon-juice.

This butter must not be completely melted, and it is principally served with grilled beef.

140- CHIVRY OR RAVIQOTE BUTTER

Put into a small saucepan of salted, boiling water six oz. of chervil, parsley, tarragon, fresh pimpernel, and chives, in equal quantities, and two oz. of chopped shallots. Boil quickly for two minutes, drain, cool in cold water, press in a towel to completely remove the water, and pound in a mortar. Now add one-half lb. of half-melted butter, mix well with the pur^e of herbs, and pass through tammy.

This butter is used to complete Chivry sauce and other sauces that contain herb juices, such as the Venetian, &c.

140a- CHATEAUBRIAND BUTTER

Reduce by two-thirds four-fifths pint of white wine containing four chopped shallots, fragments of thyme and bay, and four oz. of mushroom parings. Add four-fifths pint of veal gravy, reduce the whole to half, rub it through tammy, and finish it away from the fire with eight oz. of Maitre d' Hotel butter (No. 150) and half a tablespoonful of chopped tarragon.

141- COLBERT BUTTER

Take one lb. of Maitre d'Hotel butter (No. 150) and add six tablespoonfuls of dissolved, pale meat glaze and one teaspoonful of chopped tarragon.

Serve this sauce with fish prepared a la Colbert.

COLD SAUCES AND COMPOUND BUTTERS 55

142- RED COLOURING BUTTER

Put on to a dish any available remains of shell-fish after having thoroughly emptied and well dried them in the oven. Pound them until they form a fine powder, and add their weight of butter.

Put the whole into a saucepan and melt in a bain-marie, stirring frequently the while. When the butter is quite clarified strain it through muslin, twisting the laFter over a tureen of icedwater in which the strained butter solidifies. Put the congealed butter in a towel, press it heavily so as to expel the water, and keep cool in a small bowl.

Remarks. - A very fine and decided red colour is obtained by using paprika as a condiment for sauces intended for poultry and certain butcher's meats, in accordance with the procedure I recommend for the Hongroise. But only the very best quality should be used - that which is mild and at the same time produces a nice pink colour without entailing any excess of the condiment. Among the various kinds of paprika on the market I can highly recommend that of Messrs. Kotangi, which I have invariably found satisfactory.

143- GREEN COLOURING BUTTER

Peel, wash, -and thoroughly shake (so as to get rid of every drop of water) two lbs. of spinach. Pound it raw and then press it in a strong towel, twisting the latter so as to extract all the vegetable juice. Pour this juice into a saut^pan, let it coagulate in a bain-marie, and pour it on to a serviette stretched over a bowl in order to drain away the water. Collect the remains of the colouring substance on the serviette, making use of a palette-knife for the purpose, and put these into a mortar; mix with half their weight of butter, strain through a sieve or tammy, and put aside to cool. This green butter should in all cases take the place of the liquid green found on the market.

144- VARIOUS CULLISES

Finely pound shrimp and crayfish shells, and combine with these the available creamy parts and spawn of the common and spiny lobsters; add one-quarter pint of rich cream per lb. of the above remains, and strain, first through a fine sieve and then through tammy. This cullis is prepared just in time for dishing up, and serves as a refining principle in certain fish sauces. 145- SHRIMP BUTTER

Finely pound any available shrimp remains, add to these their weight of butter, and strain through tammy. Place in a bowl and put aside in the cool.

146- SHALLOT BUTTER

Put eight oz. of roughly minced shallots in the corner of a clean towel, and wash them quickly in boiling water. Cool, and press them heavily. Then pound them finely with their own weight of fresh butter and strain through tammy.

This butter accentuates the savour of certain sauces, such as Bercy, Ravigote, &c.

147- CRAYFISH BUTTER

Pound, very finely, the remains and shells of crayfish cooked in Mirepoix. Add their weight of butter, and strain through a fine sieve, and again through tammy, so as to avoid the presence of any shell particles. This latter precaution applies to all shellfish butters.

148 -TARRAGON BUTTER

Quickly scald and cool eight oz. of fresh tarragon, drain, press in a towel, pound in a mortar, and add to them one lb. of butter. Strain through tammy, and put aside in the cool if it is not to be used immediately.

149- LOBSTER BUTTER

Reduce to a paste in the mortar the spawn, shell, and creamy parts of lobster. Add their equal in weight of butter and strain through tarnmy.

150- BUTTER A LA MAiTRE D'HOTEL

First manie and then soften into a cream one-half lb. of butter. Add a tablespoonful of chopped parsley, a little salt and pepper, and a few drops of lemon-juice.

Serve this v-ith grills in general.

151- MANIED BUTTER

Mix, until perfectly combined, four oz. of butter and three oz. of sifted flour. This butter is made immediately before the time of dishing up, and is used for quick leasons like the Mat^ lotes, &c.

COLD SAUCES AND COMPOUND BUTTERS 57

The sauce to which manied butter has been added should not boil if this can possibly be avoided, as it would thereby acquire a very disagreeajjle taste of raw flour.

iSia-MELTED BUTTER

This preparation, which is used principally as a fish sauce, should consist of butter, only just melted, and combined with a little table-salt and a few drops of lemon-juice. It should therefore be prepared only at the last minute; for, should it wait and be allowed to clarify, besides losing its flavour it will be found to disagree with certain people.

152- BUTTER A LA MEUNIERE

Put into a frying-pan the necessary quantity of butter, and cook it gently until it has acquired a golden tint and exudes a slight smell of nut. Add a few drops of lemon-juice, and pour on the fish under treatment, which should have been previously sprinkled with concussed parsley.

This butter is proper to fish " kla Meuni^re " and is always served on the fish.

IS3- MONTPELLIER BUTTER

Put into a saucepan containing boiling water equal quantities of watercress leaves, parsley, chervil, chives, and tarragon (six oz. in all), one and one-half oz. of chopped shallots, and onehalf oz. of spinach leaves. Boil for two minutes, then drain, cool, press in a towel to expel water, and pound in a mortar with one tablespoonful of pressed capers, four oz. of gherkins, a garlic clove, and the fillets of four anchovies well washed.

Mix this paste with one and one-half lbs. of butter; then add the yolks of three boiled eggs and two raw eggs, and finally pour in, by degrees, two-fifths pint of oil. Strain through a fine sieve or through tammy, put the butter into a basin, and stir it well with a wooden spoon so as to make it smooth. Season with table-salt and a little cayenne.

Use this butter to deck large fish, such as salmon and trout; but it is also used for smaller pieces and slices of fish.

Remarks. - When this butter is specially prepared to form a. coat on fish, the oil and the egg yolks are omitted and only butter is used. 154- BLACK BUTTER

Put into a frying-pan the necessary amount of butter, and cook it until it has assumed a brown colour and begins to smoke. At this moment add a large pinch of concussed parsley leaves and spread it immediately over the object to be treated.

15s- HAZEL-NUT BUTTER

Put eight oz. of shelled hazel-nuts, for a moment, in the front of the oven, in order to slightly grill their skins and make them easily removable. Now crush the nuts in a mortar until they form a paste, and add a few drops of cold water with a view to preventing their producing any oil. Add their equivalent in weight of butter and rub through tammy.

156- PISTACHIO BUTTER

Put into boiling water eight oz. of pistachios, and keep them on the side of the fire until the peel may be easily removed. Drain, cool in cold water, clean the pistachios, and finely pound while moistening them with a few drops of water. Add two oz. of butter and pass through tammy.

157- PRINTANIER BUTTER

These butters are made from all early-season vegetables, such as carrots, French beans, peas, and asparagus heads.

When dealing with green vegetables cook quickly in boiling, salted water, drain, dry, pound with their weight of butter, and rub through tammy.

With carrots: Mince and cook with consomme, sugar, and butter until the diluent is quite reduced. After cooling they are pounded with their own weight of butter and rubbed through tammy.

CHAPTER V

Savoury Jellies or Aspics

Jellies are to cold cookery what consommes and stock are to hot. If anything, the former are perhaps more important, for a cold entree - however perfect it may be in itself - is nothing without its accompanying jelly.

In the recipes which I give hereafter I have made a point of showing how melting jellies may be obtained, i.e., served in a sauce-boat simultaneously with the cold comestible, or actually poured over it when the latter lies in a deep dish - a common custom nowadays.

This method of serving cold entries, which I inaugurated at the Savoy Hotel with the " Supreme de Volaille Jeannette," is the only one which allows of serving a jelly in a state of absolute perfection.

Nevertheless, if a more solid jelly were required, either for the decking of cold dishes or for a moulded entree, there need only be added to the following formulse a few gelatine leaves - more or less - according to the required firmness of the jelly.

But it should not be forgotten that the greater the viscosity of the jelly the less value will the same possess.

The various uses of jellies are dealt with in Part II. of this work, where the formulas of their divers accompanying dishes will also appear.

158- ORDINARY ASPICS

Stock for Ordinary Aspic. - Quantities for making Four Quart';.

4 lbs. of strung knuckle of veal. 3 calf's feet, boned and blanched.

3 lbs. of strung knuckle of beef.
lb. of fresh pork rind, well

3 lbs. of veal bones, well broken blanched and with fat re up. moved.

Mode of Procedure. - Put the meats in a very clean and welltinned stockpot or stewpan. Add eight quarts of cold water, boil, and skim after the manner indicated under No. i. Having well skimmed the stock add one oz. of salt, put it on the side of the fire, and let it boil gently for four hours. Then remove the meat, talcing care not to disturb the stock. Carefully remove the fat, and garnish with one-half lb. of carrots, six oz. of onions, two oz. of leeks, a stick of celery, and a large faggot. Put the whole back on to the fire and cook gently for a further two hours. Strain through a sieve into a very clean basin and leave to cool.

Clarification of Aspic. - When the stock, prepared according to the above directions, has cooled, the grease that has formed on its surface should be removed. Then pour off gently into a stewpan of convenient size in such a way as to prevent the deposit at the bottom of the basin from mixing with the clear liquor. Test the consistence of the aspic, when it should be found that the quantities given above have proved sufficient to form a fairly firm jelly. If, however, this be not the case, a few leaves of gelatine steeped in cold water should be added, being careful not to overdo the quantity. Now add to the stock two lbs. of lean beef (first minced and then pounded together with the white of an egg), a little chervil and tarragon, and a few drops of lemonjuice. Place the saucepan on an open fire, stir its contents with a spatula until the liquid begins to boil, remove it from the fire, and place it on the side of the stove, where it may boil gently for half an hour.

At the end of this time take the saucepan off the fire and remove what little grease has formed on the aspic while cooking. Strain through a serviette stretched and fastened across the legs of an overturned stool, and let the aspic fall into a basin placed between the legs. Ascertain whether the liquid is quite clear, and if, as frequently happens, this be not the case, what has already been strained should once more be passed through the serviette, renewing the operation until the aspic becomes quite transparent.

Flavouring the Aspic. - The aspic obtained as above is limpid, has an agreeable savour, and is the colour of fine amber. It now only requires flavouring according to the tastes of the consumer and the purpose for which it is intended. For this operation it should be allowed to become quite tepid, and the following quantities of choice wine are added to it, viz.: -

If the wine is of a liqueur kind, such as Sherry, Marsala, Madeira, &c., one-fifth pint per quart.

If it is another kind of wine, for example, champagne, hock, &c., one-fourth pint per quart.

The wine used should be very clear, free from any deposit, and as perfect as possible in taste.

SAVOURY JELLIES OR ASPICS 6i

159- CHICKEN ASPIC

The quantities of meat are the same as for ordinary aspic; there need only be added to it either two oven-browned hens, or their equivalent in weight of roasted fowl carcases, and poultry giblets if these are handy. It is always better, however, to prepare the stock with the hens and giblets and to keep the carcases for the clarification. This clarification follows the same rules as that of the ordinary aspic, except that a few roasted-fowl carcases, previously well freed from fat, are added to it.

In the case of this particularly delicate aspic, it is more than ever necessary not to overdo the amount of gelatine. It should be easily soluble to the palate in order to be perfect.

160- GAME ASPIC

Prepare this aspic stock in exactly the same way as that of ordinary aspic, only substitute game, such as deer, roebuck, doe, or hare, or wild rabbit (previously browned in the oven), for the beef. When possible also add to this stock a few old specimens of feathered game, such as partridges or pheasants that are too tough for other purposes and which suit admirably here.

The clarification changes according to the different flavours which are to be given to the aspic. If it is not necessary to give it a special characteristic, it should be prepared with the meat of that ground game which happens to be most available at the time, adding to the quantity used roast carcases of feathered game, the respective amounts of both ingredients being the same as for ordinary aspic. If, on the other hand, the aspic is to have a well-defined flavour, the meat used for the clarification should naturally be that producing the flavour in question, i.e., either partridge or pheasant, or hazel-hen, &c.

Some aspics are greatly improved by being flavoured with a small quantity of old brandy. Rather than use an inferior kind of this ingredient, however, I should advise its total omission from the aspic.

Without aromatisation the aspic, though imperfect, is passable; but aromatised with bad brandy it is invariably spoilt.

LENTEN ASPICS

161- FISH ASPIC WITH WHITE WINE

The stock for this aspic is prepared in precisely the same manner as fish stock, No. i . The stewpan need not, however, be buttered previous to the insertion of the onions, parsley-stalks. and fish-bones. If the aspic is not required to be quite white, a little saffron may be added to it, as the aroma of this condiment blends so perfectly with that of fish.

When the stock is prepared its consistence should be tested, and rectified, if necessary, by means of gelatine. The quantity of this substance should on no account exceed eight leaves per quart of aspic, and, at the risk of repeating myself, I remind the reader that the less gelatine is used the better the aspic will be.

The clarification should be made with fresh caviare if possible, but pressed caviare is also admirably suited to this purpose. The quantities are the same as for the clarification of fish consomm6. No. 4.

In flavouring white fish aspics either dry champagne or a good Bordeaux or Burgundy may be used. Take care, however -

1. That the wine used be of an unquestionably good quality.

2. That it be only added to the aspic when the latter is already cold and on the point of coagulating, as this is the only means of preserving all the aroma of the wine.

Finally, in certain cases, a special flavour may be obtained by the use of crayfish, which are cooked, as for bisque, then pounded, and added to the fish stock No. 11 ten minutes before straining it. A proportion of four little crayfish k bisque per quart of aspic is sufficient to secure an excellent aroma.

162- FISH ASPIC WITH RED WINE

This aspic stock is the Court-bouillon with red wine No. 165, which has served in cooking the fish for which the aspic is intended; this fish is generally either trout or salmon; sometimes also, but less commonly, a carp or a pike.

This stock must first of all have its grease thoroughly removed; it should then be poured carefully away, reduced if necessary, and the required quantity of gelatine added. This cannot be easily determined, as all gelatines are not alike, and the stock may have contracted a certain consistence from its contact with the fish. One can, therefore, only be guided by testing small quantities cooled in ice, but care should be taken that the aspic be not too firm.

The clarification of this aspic is generally made with white of egg in the proportion of one white per quart. The white, half-whisked, is added to the cold stock, and the latter is put over an open fire and stirred with a spatula. As soon as it boils the aspic is poured through a serviette fixed on to

SAVOURY JELLIES OR ASPICS 63

the legs of an overturned stool. The first drippings of the fluid are put back on to the serviette if they do not seem clear, and this operation is repeated until the required clearness is obtained.

It almost invariably happens that, either during the cooking of the fish or during the clarification, the wine loses its colour through the precipitation of the colouring elements derived from the tannin.

The only way of overcoming this difficulty is to add a few drops of liquid carmine or vegetable red; but, in any case, it is well to remember that the colour of red-wine aspic must never be deeper than a sombre pink.

CHAPTER VI

The Court-bouillons and the Marinades

163- COURT= BOUILLON WITH VINEGAR

Quantities Required for Five Quarts.

5 quarts of water. f lb. of carrots.

\ pint of vinegar. i lb. of onions.

2 oz. of gray salt. A little thyme and bay. \ oz. of peppercorn.^. 2 oz. of parsley stalics.

Preparation. - Put into a saucepan the water, salt, and vinegar, the minced carrots and onions, and the parsley, thyme, and bay, gathered into a bunch. Boil, allow to simmer for one hour, rub through tammy, and put aside until wanted.

Remariis. - Put the peppercorns into the court-bo^iillon only twelve minutes before straining the latter. If the pepper were in for too long a time it would give a bitterness to the preparation. This rule also applies to the formula; that follow, in which the use of peppercorns is also required.

This court-bouillon is principally used for cooking trout and salmon, as well as for various shell-fish.

164- COURT=BOUiLLON WITH WHITE WINE

Quantities Required for Two Qtiarts.

I quart of white wine. i large faggot.

I quart of water.
oz. of gray salt.

3 oz. of minced onions. A few peppercorns.

Preparation. - This is the same as for the court-bouillon with vinegar, except that it is boiled for half an hour and is strained through tammy.

Remarks. - If the court-bouillon has to be reduced the quantity of salt should be proportionately less. This preparation is principally used for poaching fresh-water fish.

i65-COURT=BOUILLON WITH RED WINE

Use the same quantities as for court-bouillon with white wine, taking care -

I. To replace white wine by excellent red wine.

COURT-BOUILLONS AND MARINADES 65

2. To add four oz. of minced carrots.

3. To apportion the wine and water in the ratio of twothirds to one-third.

Preparation. - The same as that of the former, with the same time for boiling.

Remarks. - If the court-bouillon is to be reduced, the salt should be less accordingly. When the court-bouillon with red wine is to constitute an aspic stock, fish fumet with enough gelatine takes the place of the water.

The uses of court-bouillon with red wine are similar to those of the white-wine kind.

166- PLAIN COURT- BOUILLON

The quantity of court-bouillon is determined by the size of the piece which it is to cover. It is composed of cold, salt water (the salt amounting to a little less than one-half oz. per quart of water), one-quarter pint of milk per quart of water, and one thin slice of peeled lemon in the same proportion. The fish is immersed while the liquor is cold; the latter is very slowly brought to the boil, and as soon as this is reached, the receptacle is moved to the side of the fire, where the cooking of the fish is completed.

This court-bouillon, which is used with large pieces of turbot and brill, is never prepared beforehand.

167- SPECIAL COURT- BOUILLON, OR BLANC

This preparation is a genuine court-bouillon, though it is not used in cooking fish.

The Quantities Required for Five Quarts of this Court-bouillon are: -

A little less than 2 oz. of flour. The juice of 3 lemons or ^ pint of

ij oz. of grey salt. good vinegar.

5 quarts of cold water.

Gradually mix the flour and the water; add the salt and the lemon juice, and pass through a strainer. Set to boil, and stir the mixture the while, in order to prevent the flour from precipitating; as soon as the boil is reached, immerse the objects to be treated. These are usually calf's head or foot, previously blanched; sheep's trotters, cocks' kidneys or combs, or such vegetables as salsify, cardoon, &c.

Remarks upon the Use of Court-bouillon.

I. Court-bouillon must always be prepared in advance for all fish, the time for poaching which is less than half an hour, except turbots and brills.

F 2. When a fish is of such a size as to need more than half an hour's poaching, proceed as follows: - Place under the drainer of the fish-kettle the minced carrots and onions and the faggot; put the fish on the drainer, and cover it with water and vinegar, or white wine, in accordance with the kind of court-bouillon wanted and the quantity required. Add the salt, boil, and keep the court-bouillon gently simmering for a period of time fixed by the weight of the fish. The time allowed for poaching the latter will be given in their respective formulae.

3. Fish, when whole, should be immersed in cold courtbouillon; when sliced, in the same liquor, boiling. The exceptions to this rule are small trout " au bleu " and shell-fish.

4. If fish be cooked in short liquor the aromatics are put under the drainer and the liquid elements of the selected courtbouillon (as, for example, that with red or white wine) are so calculated as to cover only one-third of the solid body. Fish cooked in this way should be frequently basted.

5. Court-bouillon for ordinary and spiny lobsters should always be at full boiling pitch when these are immersed. The case is the same for small or medium fish " au bleu."

6. Fish which is to be served cold, also shell-fish, should cool in the court-bouillon itself; the cooking period is consequently curtailed.

Marinades and Brines.

Marinades play but a small part in English cookery, venison or other ground-game being generally preferred fresh. However, in the event of its being necessary to resort to these methods of preparation, I shall give two formulae for venison and two for mutton.

The use of the marinade for venison is very much debated. Certainly it is often desirable that the fibre of those meats that come from old specimens of the deer and boar species be softened, but there is no doubt that what the meat gains in tenderness it loses in flavour. On the whole, therefore, it would be best to use only those joints which come from young beasts.

In the case of the latter, the marinade may well be dispensed with. It would add nothing to the savour of a haunch of venison, such as may be got in England, while it would be equally ineffectual in the case of the roebuck or hare. A summary treatment of these two, with raw marinade, may well be adopted, as also for deer.

COURT-BOUILLONS AND MARINADES 67

As for cooked marinade, its real and only use lies in the fact that during stormy summer weather it enables one to pre. serve meat which would otherwise have to be wasted. It may, moreover, be used for braised venison, but this treatment of game is very uncommon nowadays.

168- COOKED MARINADE FOR VENISON

Quantities Required for Five Quarts.

^ lb. of minced carrots. i faggot, including i oz. of pars J lb. of minced onions. ley stalks, 2 sprigs of rose 2 oz. of minced shallots. mary, as much thyme, and

I crushed garlic clove. 2 bay leaves.

Preparation. - Heat one-half pint of oil in a stewpan, add the carrots and onions, and fry them while stirring frequently. When they begin to brown add the shallots, the garlic, and the faggot, then one pint of vinegar, two bottles of white wine, and three quarts of water. Cook this marinade for twenty minutes, and add a further two oz. of salt, one-half oz. of peppercorns, and four oz. of brown sugar. Ten minutes afterwards pass it through a strainer and let it cool before inserting the meats.

N.B. - In summer the marinade very often decomposes, because of the blood contained by the meat under treatment in it. The only means of averting this is to boil the marinade every two or three days at least.

169- RAW MARINADE FOR BUTCHER'S MEAT OR VENISON

This marinade is prepared immediately before using. The meat to be treated is first salted and peppered on all sides, then it is put in a receptacle just large enough to hold it, and laid therein on a litter of aromatics, including minced carrots and onions, a few chopped shallots, parsley stalks, thyme, and bay in proportion to the rest. Now sprinkle the meat copiously with oil and half as much vinegar; cover the dish with oil-paper, and put it somewhere in the cool. Remember to turn the meat over three or four times a day, covering it each time with a layer of vegetables.

This marinade is very active, and is admirably suited to all butcher's meat and venison, provided these be not allowed to remain in it for too long a time. It is very difficult to say how long the meat must stay in these marinades; the time varies according to the size and quality of the joints, and the taste of the consumer, &c. All that can be said is that three hours should be sufiScient to marinade a cutlet or escalope of roebuck,

F 2 and that for big joints such as saddle or leg the time should not exceed four days.

170- MARINADE FOR MUTTON, ROEBUCK-STYLE

This is exactly the same as cooked marinade, No. 168. There need only be added one oz. of juniper berries, a few sprigs of rosemary, wild thyme, and basil, two extra garlic cloves, and one quart less of water.

171- MARINADE WITH RED WINE FOR MUTTON

By substituting red wine for white in the preceding formula - the quantity of the liquid equalling that of the water - and by slightly increasing the quantity of aromatics, an excellent marinade for mutton is obtained, which in summer enables one to preserve meat, otherwise perishable, for some days.

172- BRINE

Quantities Required for Fifty Quarts.

56 lbs. of gray salt. 6 lbs. of saltpetre.

50 quarts of water. 3I lbs. of brown sugar.

Mode of Procedure. - Put the salt and the water in a tinned copper pan, and put it on an open fire. When the water boils, throw in a peeled potato, and, if the latter float, add water until it begins to sink. If, on the contrary, the potato should sink immediately, reduce the liquid until it is able to buoy the tuber up. At this stage the sugar and saltpetre are added; let them dissolve, and the brine is then removed from the fire and is allowed to cool. It is then poured into the receptacle intended for it, which must be either of slate, stone, cement, or well-jointed tiles. It is well to place in the bottom of this reservoir a wooden lattice, whereon the meats to be salted may be laid, for, were the immersed objects to lie directly on the bottom of the receptacle, the under parts would be entirely shielded from the brine.

If the meats to be salted are of an appreciable size, they should be inoculated with brine by means of a special syringe. Without this measure it would be impossible to salt regularly, as the sides would already be over-saturated before the centre had even been properly reached.

Eight days should be allowed for salting a piece of beef of what size soever, above eight or ten lb., since the process of inoculation equalises the salting.

Ox-tongue intended for salting, besides having to be as

COURT-BOUILLONS AND MARINADES 69

fresh as possible, must be trimmed of almost all the cartilage of the throat, and carefully beaten either with a beater or roller. Then it must be pricked on all sides with a stringneedle, and immersed in the liquid, where it should be slightly weighted by some means or other in order to prevent its rising to the surface. A medium-sized tongue would need about seven days' immersion in the brine.

Though brine does not turn as easily as the cooked marinades, it would be well, especially in stormy weather, to watch it and occasionally to boil it. But, as the process of boiling invariably concentrates the brine, a little water should be added to it every time it is so treated, and the test of the potato, described above, should always be resorted to.

CHAPTER VII

I. Elementary Preparations

Before broaching the question of the numerous preparations which constitute the various soup, relev6, and entree garnishes, it will be necessary to give the formulae of the elementary preparations, or what are technically called the mise en place. If the various operations which go to make the mise en place were not, at least summarily, discussed here, I should be compelled to repeat them in each formula for which they are required - that is to say, in almost every formula. I should thus resemble those bad operators who, having neglected their mise en place, are obliged to make it in the course of other work, and thereby not only run the risk of making it badly, but also of losing valuable time which might be used to better advantage.

Elementary preparations consist of those things whereof one is constantly in need, which may be prepared in advance, and which are kept available for use at a moment's notice.

173- ANCHOVIES (FILLETS OF)

Whether they be for hors d'oeuvres or for culinary use, it is always best to have these handy.

After having washed and well wiped them, in order to remove the white powder resulting from the little scales with which they are covered, they should be neatly trimmed to the shape of extended oblongs. Then detach the fillets from the bones by gentle pulling, divide each fillet lengthwise into three or four smaller fillets, put the latter into a small narrow dish or a little bowl, and cover them with oil. The fillets may also be kept whole with a view to rolling them into rings.

174- ANQLAISE (FOR EQO=AND-BREAD-CRUMBINQ)

It is well to have this always ready for those dishes which are to be panes a I'anglaise, or as many of the recipes direct: treated a I'anglaise.

ELEMENTARY PREPARATIONS 71

It is made of well-whisked eggs, salt, pepper, and one dessertspoonful of oil per couple of eggs.

Its Uses. - The solids to be panes a I'anglaise are dipped into the preparation described above, taking care that the latter coats them thoroughly; whereupon, according to the requirements, they arerolled either in bread-crumbs or in fine raspings. From this combination of egg with bread-crumbs or raspings there results a kind of coat which, at the moment of contact with the hot fat, is immediately converted into a resisting crust. In croquettes this crust checks the escape, into the fat, of the substances it encloses, and this is more especially the case when the croquettes contain some reduced sauce, or are composed of raw meats or fish whose juices are thereby entirely retained. A solid prepared a I'anglaise and cooked in fat should always be put into the latter when this is very hot, so as to ensure the instantaneous solidification of the egg and breadcrumbs.

N.B. - Objects to be treated a I'anglaise are generally rolled in flour before being immersed in the anglaise, for the flour helps the foregoing to adhere to the object.

The crust formed over the solid thus acquires a density which is indispensable.

174a- AROMATICS

Aromatics play a very prominent part in cookery, and their combination with the condiments constitutes, as Grinod de la Reyni^re said, "the hidden soul of cooking." Their real object, in fact, is to throw the savour of dishes into relief, to intensify that savour, and to give each culinary preparation its particular stamp.

They are all derived from the vegetable kingdom; but, while some are used dry, others are used fresh.

The first-named should belong to the permanent kitchen stock; they are: sage, basil, rosemary, sweet marjoram, thyme, and bay.

Also to be included in the permanent stock are: cinnamon, ginger, juniper-berries, nutmeg, cloves, mace, and vanilla.

The last-named comprise those aromatic herbs used fresh, such as: parsley, chervil, tarragon, pimpernel, and common savory; while, under this head, there may also be included: bits of common- and Seville-orange rind and zests of lemon rind.

174b- SEASONING AND CONDIMENTS

Seasonings are divided into several classes, which com. prise: - 1. Saline seasonings. - Salt, spiced salt, saltpetre.

2. Acid seasonings. - Plain vinegar, or the same aromatised with tarragon; verjuice, lemon juice, and common- or Sevilleorange juices.

3. Hot seasonings. - Peppercorns, ground or concassed pepper, or mignonette; paprika, curry, cayenne, and compound spices.

4. Saccharine seasonings. - Sugar and honey. Condiments are likewise subdivided, the three classes

being: -

(i) The pungents. - Onions, shallots, garlic, chives, and horseradish.

2. Hot condiments. - Mustard, gherkins, capers, English sauces, such as Worcester, Harvey, Ketchup, Escoffier's sauces, &c.; the wines used in reductions and braisings; the finishing elements of sauces and soups.

3. Fatty substances. - Most animal fats, butter, vegetable greases (edible oils and cocoanut butter).

Remarks. - In cookery it should be borne in mind that both excellence and eatableness depend entirely upon a judicious use and a rational blending of the aromatics, seasonings, and condiments. And, according as the latter have been used and apportioned, their action will be either beneficial or injurious to the health of the consumer.

In the matter of seasoning there can be no question of approximation or half measures; the quantities must be exact, allowing only of slight elasticity in respect of the various tastes to be satisfied.

175- CLARIFIED BUTTER

A certain quantity of clarified butter should always be kept ready and handy.

To prepare this butter, put one lb. to melt in a saucepan large enough to hold twice that amount. Place the saucepan on the side of the fire, over moderate heat; remove all the scum which rises to the surface, and, when the butter looks quite clear and all foreign substances have dropped to the bottom, put the liquid carefully away and strain it through muslin.

176- FAQQOTS (BOUQUETS QARNIS)

The name "faggot" is given to those little bunches of aromatics which, when the contrary is not stated, are generally composed (in order to weigh one ounce) of eight-tenths oz. of

ELEMENTARY PREPARATIONS 73

parsley stalks and roots, one-tenth oz. of bay leaves, and onetenth oz. of thyme. These various aromatics are put neatly together so that no sprig of the one sticks out beyond the others, and they are properly strung together.

177- CHERVIL

Chopped Chervil. - Clean the chervil and remove the stalks; wash, dry it well while tossing it, then chop it finely and put it aside on a plate in the cool, if it is not for immediate use.

Concussed Chervil. - Proceed as above, except that, instead of chopping it, compress it between the fingers and slice it after the manner of a chaff-cutter. Concussed and chopped chervil are, if possible, only prepared at the last moment.

Chervil Pinches. - The pluches are greatly used in the finishing off of soups. They are, practically, the serrated portions only of the leaves, which are torn away in such a manner as to show no trace of the veinings. They are immersed in water, and at the last moment withdrawn, so as to be added, raw, to either soups or boiling consommes.

178- RASPINGS

Golden raspings are obtained by pounding and passing through a fine sieve bread-crusts which have been previously well dried in the oven.

White ruspings are similarly prepared, except that very dry, white crumb is used.

179- PEELED, CHANNELLED, AND ZESTED LEMONS

Lemons are greatly used in cookery, as dish and comestible garnish. When a whole lemon is used for marinades of fish, for the " bluncs," &c., it is well to peel it to the pulp, i.e., to remove the peel and the whole of the underlying white. The lemon is then cut into more or less large slices, according to the use for which it is intended.

The rind of a lemon thus peeled may be cut into bits and used in this form as the necessity arises. When cutting it up, flatten the rind inside uppermost on the table, and, with a very sharp and flexible knife, remove all the white; then slice the remaining peel (which constitutes what is called zest) into strips about one inch wide, and cut these laterally in fine juliennefashion.

Scald the resulting bits for five minutes, cool them, drain them carefully, and put them aside until wanted. Sometimes, instead of cutting julienne-fashion, the zest may be finely chopped, but the rest of the process remains the same. Lemons are channelled by means of a little knife, or a special instrument for the purpose, which excises parallel ribbons from the surface of the rind and lays the white bare. A lemon channelled in this way is cut in two, lengthwise with the core; its two extremities are removed, and the two halves are cut laterally into thin, regular slices to look like serrated half-discs.

The lemon may also be cut at right angles to the core.

Fried fish, oysters, and certain game are generally garnished with lemon slices fashioned according to the taste of the cook; but the simplest, and perhaps the best, way is to cut the lemon through the centre, after having trimmed the two ends quite straight, and then to remove the rind roughly from the edge.

For whatever purpose the lemon be intended, it should be, as far as possible, only prepared at the last moment. If it must be prepared beforehand, it would be well to keep it in a bowl of fresh water.

1 80- SHALLOTS

Chopped Shallots. - Clean the shallots, and, by means of a very sharp knife, cut them lengthwise into thin slices; let these cling together by not allowing the knife to cut quite through them, and, this done, turn them half round and proceed in the same way at right angles to the other cuts.

Finally, cut them laterally, and this will be found to produce very fine and regular, small cubes.

Ciseled Shallots. - The name " ciseled shallots" is often erroneously given to those shallots resulting from the above process.

But ciseled shallots are merely laterally sliced, the result ot which operation is a series of thin, regular discs. Ciseled or chopped shallots should, when possible, only be prepared when required; if, however, they must be treated in advance, they should be kept somewhere in the cool until wanted.

181-SPICES

Strictly speaking, spices include cinnamon, nutmeg, ginger, mace; and the many varieties of peppers and pimenta, cayenne, paprika, &c.

These various condiments are found ready-made on the market, and they need only be kept dry in air-tight boxes in order to prevent the escape of their aroma.

But there is another kind of preparation, in cookery, to which the name of spice or all-spice is more especially given.

ELEMENTARY PREPARATIONS 75

Nowadays several market varieties of this preparation exist, and vie with each other for custom, though in most cases they deserve it equally well.

Formerly this was not so, and every chef had his own formula.

The following is a recipe for the spice in question, which would be found useful if it had to be prepared at a moment's notice: -

Obtain the following, very dry.

5 oz. of bay leaves. 4 oz. of cloves.

3 oz. of thyme (half of it wild, if 3 oz. of ginger-root,

possible). 3 oz. of mace.

3 oz. of coriander. 10 oz. of mixed pepper (half black

4 oz. of cinnamon. and half white).

6 oz. of nutmeg. i oz. of cayenne.

Put all these ingredients into a mortar and pound them until they are all able to pass through a very fine sieve. Put the resulting powder into an air-tight box, which must be kept dry.

Before being used, this spice is generally mixed with salt (No. 188).

182- FLOUR

For whatever use the flour is intended, it is always best to sift it. This is more particularly necessary in the case of flour used for coating objects to be fried; for the latter, being first dipped into milk, must of necessity let a few drops of that liquid fall into the flour they are rolled in. Lumps would therefore form, which might adhere to the objects to be fried if the flour were not sifted.

183- HERB JUICE

This is to finish or intensify certain preparations.

To prepare it, throw into a small saucepan of boiling water some parsley, chervil, and tarragon and chive leaves, in equal quantities, according to the amount of juice required.

Set to boil for two minutes, drain, cool, press the herbs in a towel, twisting the latter; pound very finely, and extract the juice from the resulting paste by twisting a strong towel round it.

Keep this juice in the cool.

1 84- BREAD - CRUMBS

Thoroughly rub, in a closed towel, some stale bread-crumb previously well broken up. Pass it through a fine sieve or colander, according as to whether it is required very fine o^ not, and put it aside in a convenient receptacle. i8s- CHOPPED ONION

Cut the onion finely, like the shallots, but if it is to be minced with a view to making it even finer, it should be freed of its pungent juice, which would cause it to blacken with exposure to the air.

To accomplish this, put the onion in the corner of a towel, pour plenty of cold water over it, and twist the towel in order to express the water. By this means the onion remains quite white.

i86- TURNED OR STONED OLIVES

There are special instruments for stoning olives, but, failing these, cut the fruit spirally from the stone with the point of a small knife.

Keep the olives in slightly salted water.

187- PARSLEY

Chopped Parsley. - If parsley be properly chopped, no juice should be produced. If, on the contrary, the operation be performed badly, it amounts to a process of pounding which, perforce, expresses the juice.

In the latter case the particles cohere, and they are sprinkled with difficulty over an object. To remedy this shortcoming, wash the choppings in fresh water, as in the case of the onion, pressing in a similar manner so as to expel the water.

Concussed Parsley is that kind which is roughly chopped. When a culinary preparation is dressed with concussed parsley, the latter should be added to it a few moments before serving, in order to undergo a slight cooking process; whereas chopped parsley may be strewn over a dish at the last moment.

It should be remembered that parsley, when quite fresh and used in moderation, is an excellent thing; but, should it have remained too long in the heat, it becomes quite insufferable.

I cannot, therefore, too strongly urge the advisability of using it in the freshest possible state, and it would even be wiser to discard it entirely than to be forced to ignore this condition.

Parsley Sprays. - These are chiefly used in garnishing dishes, and it is well for the purpose to make as much use as possible of the curled-leaf kind, after having removed the long stalks. Keep the sprays in fresh water until required.

Fried Parsley. - This consists of the sprays, well drained of watei»after washing, and immersed for an instant in very hot fat. The moment it is fried carefully drain it, salt it, and place

ELEMENTARY PREPARATIONS 77

it in a clean towel, where it may get rid of any superfluous grease. It is used to dress fried viands.

188- SALT

Two kinds of salt are used in cooking, viz., grey, or sea-salt, and rock-salt. Grey-salt is used more especially for Brines and in the preparation of ices, as its grey colour does not allow of its being used indiscriminately.

Be this as it may, many prefer it to rock-salt for the salting of stock-pots, roasts, and grills. For the last two purposes it is crushed with a roller, without being pounded, and the result should be such that every grain is distinctly perceptible to the touch.

This salt, in melting over a roast or a grill, certainly imparts a supplementary flavour to the latter which could not be got with the use of rock-salt.

Rock-salt. - This is found on the market in the forms of cooking and table-salt. If the kitchen is only supplied with cooking salt, the quantity required for several days should be dried, pounded in the mortar, and passed through a fine sieve; and then put aside in a dry place for use when wanted. Even table-salt, as it reaches one from the purveyor, sometimes needs drying and passing through a sieve before being used.

Spiced Salt. - This condiment, which serves an important purpose in the preparation of pies and galantines, is obtained from a mixture of one lb. of table salt with three and one-half oz. of spices (No. 181).

This kind of salt should be carefully kept in a very dry place.

2. The Various Kinds of Garnishes for Soups, Releves, AND Entrees, Hot or Cold

stuffings AND FORCEMEATS

189- VARIOUS PANADAS FOR STUFFINGS

Panadas are those preparations which go to make the leason of forcemeats and which ensure their proper consistence when they are cooked. They are not necessary to every forcemeat; for the mousseline kind, which are the finest and lightest, do not require them. Nevertheless, they are useful for varying the taste and the uses of forcemeats, and I thought it advisable to introduce them here. The reader will thus be able to use either forcemeats with a panada base or mousseline forcemeats; in accordance with the requirements and his resources. 190- A. BREAD PANADA

Put one-half lb. of the crumb of bread and one-half oz, of salt into one-half pint of boiling milk. When the crumb has absorbed all the milk, place the saucepan over a brisk fire and stir with a spatula until the paste has become so thick as not to cling any longer to the end of the spatula. Turn the contents of the saucepan into a buttered platter, and lightly butter the surface of the panada in order to avoid its drying while it cools.

191- B. FLOUR PANADA

Put into a small saucepan one-half pint of water, a little salt, and two oz. of butter. When the liquid boils add five oz. of sifted flour thereto, stirring the while over a brisk fire until it reaches the consistence described in the case of bread panada. Use the same precautions with regard to cooling.

192- C. FRANQIPAN PANADA

Put into a stewpan four oz. of sifted flour, the yolks of four eggs, a little salt, pepper, and nutmeg. Now add by degrees three oz. of melted butter and dilute with one-half pint of boiled milk. Pass through a strainer, stir over the lire until the boil is reached; set to cook for five minutes while gently wielding the whisk, and cool as in the preceding cases.

193- CHICKEN FORCEMEAT WITH PANADA AND BUTTER

Remove the tendons from, and cut into cubes, one lb. of chicken-meat. Pound, and add one-third oz. of salt, a little pepper and nutmeg. When the meat is well pounded remove it from the mortar, and place in its stead one-half lb. of very cold panada (see No. 190). Finely pound this panada, and then add one-half lb. of butter thereto, taking care that the two ingredients mix thoroughly. Now put in the chicken-meat, and wield the pestle vigorously until the whole mass is completely mixed. Finally, add consecutively two whole eggs and the yolks of four, stirring incessantly the while and seeing that each egg is only inserted when the one preceding it has become perfectly incorporated with the mass. Rub through a sieve, put the forcemeat into a basin, and smooth it with a wooden spoon.

Test the forcemeat by poaching a small portion of it in salted, boiling water. This test, which is indispensable, allows of rectifying the seasoning and the consistence if necessary. If it be found that the forcemeat is too light, a little white of egg could

ELEMENTARY PREPARATIONS 79

bft mingled with it; if, on the ether hand, it should be too stiff add a little softened buttef.

N.B. - By substituting for chicken veal, game, or fish, &c., any kind of forcemeat may be made; for the quantities of the other ingredients remain the same whatever the basic meat may be.

194- CHICKEN FORCEMEAT WITH PANADA AND CREAM

(For Fine Quenelles.)

Finely pound one lb. of chicken-meat after having removed the tendons, and seasoned with one-quarter oz. of salt, a little pepper and nutmeg.

When the meat has been reduced to a fine paste, add, very gradually, two oz. of white of egg. Finish with seven oz. of Frangipan panada (No. 192), and work vigorously with the pestle until the whole is amalgamated. Strain through a fine sieve, put the forcemeat into a vegetable-pan sufficiently large to allow of ultimately working it with ease, and place it on dee for a good hour.

This done, stir the forcemeat (still on the ice) for a few seconds with a wooden spoon, then add, in small quantities at a time, one pint of raw cream. At this stage complete the preparation by adding thereto one-half pint of whipped cream. It should then be found to be very white, smooth, and mellow. Test as directed in the preceding recipe, and add a little white of egg if it be too light, and a little cream if it be too stiff.

N.B. - This forcemeat may be prepared from all butcher's meats, game, or fish.

195- FINE CHICKEN FORCEMEAT OR " MOUSSELINE "

Remove the tendons from, trim, and cut into cubes, one lb. of chicken-meat. Season with one oz. of salt, a little pepper and nutmeg.

Finely pound, and, when it is reduced to a paste, gradually add the whites of two eggs, vigorously working with the pestle meanwhile.

Strain through a fine sieve, put the forcemeat into a vegetable-pan, stir it once more with the wooden spoon for a moment or two, and combine with it, gradually, one pint of thick, fresh cream, working with great caution and keeping the receptacle on ice.

Remarks Relative to Mousseline Forcemeat. - This, like the preceding forcemeats, may be prepared from any kind of meat. The addition of the white of egg is not essential if the meats used already possess a certain quantity of albumen; but without the white of egg the forcemeat absorbs much less cream.

This forcemeat is particularly suited to preparations with a shell-fish base. Incomparably delicate results are obtained by the process, while it also furnishes ideal quenelles for the purpose of garnishing soup. In a word, it may be said of mousseline forcemeat that, whereas it can replace all other kinds, none of these can replace it.

N.B. - Mousseline forcemeats of all kinds, with meat, poultry, game, fish, or shell-fish, may be made according to the principles and quantities given above.

196- PORK FORCEMEAT FOR DIVERS USES

Remove the tendons of, and cut into large cubes, two lbs. of fillet of pork, and the same weight of fresh, fat bacon. Season with one and three-quarter oz. of spiced salt (No. 188), chop the fillet and bacon up, together or separately, pound them finely in the mortar, and finish with two eggs and two tablespoonfuls of brandy.

This forcemeat is used for ordinary pies and terrines. Strictly speaking, it is " sausage-meat." The inclusion of eggs in this forcemeat really only obtains when it is used to stuff joints that are to be braised, such as stuffed breast of veal; or in the case of pies and terrines. The addition of the egg in these cases prevents the grease from melting too quickly, and thus averts the drying of the forcemeat.

197- FORCEMEAT FOR QALANTiNES, PIES AND TERRINES

Remove the tendons from, and cut into cubes, one lb. of fillet of veal and as much fillet of pork; add to these two lbs. of fresh, fat bacon, also cut into cubes. Season with three oz. of spiced salt, chop the three ingredients together or apart, and then finely pound them. Finish with three eggs and three tablespoonfuls of burnt brandy, strain through a sieve, and place in a basin.

When about to serve this stuffing, add to it a little fumat corresponding with the meat that is to constitute the dish. For terrines, pies, and galantines of game, one-quarter or one-fifth of the forcemeat's weight of gratin stuffing (proper to the game under treatment) is added.

198- VEAL FORCEMEAT WITH FAT OR GODIVEAU

Remove the tendons from, and cut into cubes, one lb. of fillet of veal; also pare, i.e., detach skin and filaments from, two lbs.

ELEMENTARY PREPARATIONS 8i

of the very dry fat of kidneys of beef. First, chop these up separately, then combine and pound them in the mortar. Season with one-half oz. of salt, a little pepper, some nutmeg, and pound afresh until the veal and fat become a homogeneous mass. Now add four eggs, consecutively, and at intervals of a few minutes, without ceasing to pound, and taking care only to insert each egg after the preceding one has been properly mixed with the mass. Spread the forcemeat thus prepared on a dish, and put the latter on ice until the next day.

The next day pound once more, and add little by little fourteen oz. of very clean ice (in small pieces); or, instead, an equal weight of iced water, adding this also very gradually.

When the godiveau is properly moistened, poach a small portion of it in boiling water in order to test its consistence. If it be too firm, add some more ice to it; if, on the other hand, it seem too flimsy, add a little of the white of an egg. For the uses of godiveau and quenelles see No. 205.

199- VEAL FORCEMEAT WITH FAT AND CREAM

Chop finely and apart one lb. of very white fillet of veal, with tendons removed, cut into cubes, and one lb. of the fat of pared kidney of beef.

Combine the veal and the fat in the mortar, and pound until the two ingredients form a fine and even paste. Season with onehalf oz. of salt, a little pepper, and some nutmeg, and add consecutively two eggs and two yolks, after the manner of the preceding recipe and without ceasing to pound. Strain through a sieve, spread the forcemeat on a dish, and keep it on ice until the next day.

Next day pound the forcemeat again for a few minutes, and add to it, little by little, one and one-half pints of cream.

Test as before, and rectify if necessary, either by adding cream or by thickening with the white of an egg.

200-CHICKEN FORCEMEAT FOR GALANTINES, PIES AND TERRINES

The exact weight of chicken-meat used as the base of this forcemeat determines the quantities of its other ingredients. Thus the weight of meat afforded by a fowl weighing four lbs. is estimated at twenty oz. after deducting the fillets which are always reserved. Hence the quantities for the forcemeat are regulated thus: -

Chicken-meat, twenty oz.; lean pork, eight oz.; fillet of veal,

G eight oz.; fresh, fat bacon, thirty oz.; whole eggs, five; spiced salt, two oz.; brandy, one-fifth pint.

Chop up, either together or apart, the chiclien-meat, the veal, the pork, and the bacon. Put all these into the mortar, pound them very finely with the seasoning, add the eggs consecutively, and, last of all, pour in the brandy.

Remarks

1 . The quantity of spiced salt varies, a few grammes either way, according as to whether the atmosphere be dry or damp,

2. According to the purpose of the forcemeat, and with a view to giving it a finer flavour, one may, subject to the resources at one's disposal, add a little raw trimmings of foie gras to it; but the latter must not, in any case, exceed one-fifth of the forcemeat in weight,

3. As a rule, forcemeat should always be rubbed through a sieve so as to ensure its being fine and even.

4. Whether the foie gras be added or not, chicken forcemeat may always be completed with two or three oz. of chopped truffles per lb. of its volume.

201- GAME FORCEMEAT FOR PIES AND TERRINES

This follows the same principles as the chicken forcemeat, i.e., the weight of the game-meat determines the quantities of the other ingredients. The proportions are precisely the same as above as regards the veal, the pork, the bacon, and the seasoning. The procedure is also the same, while the appended remarks likewise apply.

202- QRATIN FORCEMEAT FOR ORDINARY HOT, RAISED PIES

Put into a saut^pan containing one oz. of very hot butter, onehalf lb. of fresh, fat bacon, cut into large cubes, brown quickly, and drain on a dish.

Quickly brown in the same butter one-half lb. of fillet of veal cut like the bacon and drain in the same way.

Now rapidly brown one-half lb. of pale, calf's liver, also cut into large cubes. Put the veal and the bacon back into the sautepan with the liver, add the necessary quantity of salt and pepper, two oz. of mushroom parings, one oz. of truffle parings (raw if possible), chopped shallots, a sprig of thyme, and a fragment of bay. Put the whole on the fire for two minutes, drain the bacon, the veal, and the liver, and put the gravy aside. Swill the saut6pan with one-quarter pint of Madeira,

ELEMENTARY PREPARATIONS 83

Pound the bacon, veal, and liver quickly and finely, while adding consecutively six oz. of butter, the yolks of six eggs, the gravy that has been put aside, one-third pint of cold, reduced Espagnole, and the Madeira used for swilling.

Strain through a sieve, place in a tureen, and smooth with the wooden spoon.

N.B. - To make a gratin forcemeat with game, substitute for the veal that game-meat which may happen to be required.

203-PIKE FORCEMEAT FOR QUENELLES A LA LYONNAISE

Forcemeats prepared with the flesh of the pike are extremely delicate. Subject to circumstances, they may be prepared according to any one of the three formulae (Nos. 193, 194, 195). There is another excellent method of preparing this forcemeat which I shall submit here, as it is specially used for the preparation of pike forcemeat k la Lyonnaise.

Pound in a mortar one lb. of the meat of a pike, without the skin or bones; combine with this one-half lb. of stiff frangipan, season with salt and nutmeg, pass through a sieve, and put back into the mortar.

Vigorously work the forcemeat in order to make it cohere, and gradually add to it one-half lb. of melted beef-fat. The whole half-pound, however, need not necessarily be beef-fat; beef-marrow or butter may form part of it in the proportion of half the weight of the beef-fat.

When the forcemeat is very fine and smooth, withdraw it from the mortar and place it in a bowl surrounded with ice until wanted.

204- SPECIAL STUFFINGS FOR FISH

These preparations diverge slightly from the forcemeats given above, and they are of two kinds. They are used to stuff such fish as mackerel, herring, shad, &c., to which they lend a condimentary touch that makes these fish more agreeable to the taste, and certainly more digestible.

First Method. - Put into a bowl four oz. of raw, chopped milt, two oz. of bread-crumb, steeped in milk and well pressed, and one and one-half oz. of the following fine herbs, mixed in equal quantities and finely chopped: - Chives, parsley, chervil, shallots, sweet basil, half a garlic clove (crushed), then two whole eggs, salt, pepper, and nutmeg.

Chop up all these ingredients together so as to mix them thoroughly.

Second Method. - Put into a bowl four oz. of bread-crumb

Q 3 steeped in milk and well pressed; one-half oz. of onion and onehalf oz. of chopped shallots, slightly cooked in butter, and cold; one oz. of raw mushrooms, chopped and well pressed in a towel; a tablespoonful of chopped parsley; a piece of garlic the size of a pea, crushed; salt, pepper, and nutmeg, and two eggs. Mix it as above,

205- FORCEMEAT BALLS OR QUENELLES

Divers ways of Moulding and Poaching them. - Whatever be the required size or shape of quenelles there are four ways of making them: - (i) By rolling them; (2) by moulding them with a spoon; (3) by forming them with a piping-bag; (4) by moulding them by hand into the shape of a kidney.

1. To roll quenelles it is necessary to keep the forcemeat somewhat stiff, and therefore this process could not well apply to the mousseline forcemeats. Place one-quarter lb. of forcemeat, when ready, on a floured board, and, with hands covered in flour, roll the preparation until it has lengthened itself into the form of a sausage, the thickness of which depends upon the required size of the intended quenelles.

Cut up the sausage of forcemeat laterally with a floured knife, and roll each section with the finger-ends until the length it assumes is thrice that of its diameter. The balls should be put aside on a floured tray as soon as they are made.

The Poaching of Rolled Quenelles. - When all the forcemeat has been used up, the balls are gently tilted into a saucepan containing boiling, salted water, so calculated in quantity as to allow of their not being too tightly squeezed. The saucepan is covered and kept on the side of the fire until all the balls have risen to the surface and are almost out of the water. They are then removed with a skimmer and placed in a bowl of cold water.

At last, when they have properly cooled, they are carefully drained on a cloth and put aside on a dish until required.

When the quenelles are needed for immediate use it would be better not to cool them.

2. To Mould Quenelles with a Spoon. - This method may be applied to all forcemeats, and allows of the balls being much softer, as the forcemeat need not be so stiff. First, butter the sautepan or the tray, whereon the balls are to be laid, by means of a brush, and let the butter cool.

Put the sautepan on the table in front and a little to the right of one; on the left, place the sautepan or bowl containing the forcemeat, and on the further side of the buttered saut^

ELEMENTARY PREPARATIONS 85

pan there should be a receptacle containing hot water, into which the spoon used for moulding is inserted. For ordinary quenelles two coffee-spoons are used, one of which is kept in the hot water as stated above. Now, with the other held in the left hand, take up a little of the forcemeat (just enough to fill the spoon); withdraw the second spoon from the hot water and place it, with its convex side uppermost, on the other spoon .

This smoothens the upper surface of the forcemeat. Now, with the help of the second spoon, remove the whole of the contents of the first spoon, and overturn the second spoon on the spot in the tray or saut^pan which the ball is intended to occupy. The second spoon, being at once moist and hot, allows the forcemeat to leave it quite easily in the shape of a large olive. Renew this operation until the whole of the forcemeat has been used.

The Poaching of Spoon-moulded Quenelles. - When all the balls have been moulded, place the tray on the side of the stove and pour enough boiling, salted water over them to moisten them abundantly. Leave them to poach, and from time to time move the tray; then, when they have swollen sufficiently and seem soft and firm to the touch, drain them. If they are to be used at once they should be placed directly in the sauce. If they have been prepared in advance, it would be well to cool them as directed under rolled quenelles.

3. To Form Quenelles with a Piping-bag. - This process is especially recommended for small, fine, and light forcemeat balls intended for soup garnish. For, besides being extremely quick, it allows of making them in any desirable size or shape.

Butter a tray or a saut^pan, and leave to cool. Put the forcemeat into a bag fitted with a pipe at its narrowest end. The pipe may be grooved or smooth, and its size must be in accordance with that intended for the proposed balls. Now squeeze out the latter, proceeding in the usual way and laying them very closely.

The Poaching of Quenelles m,ade by the above Process, with ordinary or Mousseline Forcemeat. - These quenelles are poached in exactly the same way as the spoon-moulded ones.

The Poaching of Godiveau Quenelles made with a Piping-bag. - These quenelles or balls are laid on a piece of fine, buttered paper, which in its turn is placed upon a buttered tray. The godiveau must not be too stiff, and the balls are laid by means of the piping-bag side by side and slightly touching one another. When the tray is covered push it into a very moderate oven for a few minutes. The balls are poached when a thin dew of grease may be seen to glisten on their surfaces. On the appearance of this dew withdraw them from the oven and overturn the tray, carefully, upon a marble slab, taking care that the tray does not press at all upon the balls, lest it crush them. When the latter are nearly cold the paper which covers them is taken off with caution, and all that remains to be done is to put them carefully away on a dish until they are wanted.

4. To Mould Forcemeat with the Fingers. - This excellent process is as expedient as that of the bag, and it produces beautifully shaped balls. Place on the edge of a table, in front of one, a saucepan three-quarters full of boiling, salted water, the handle of the receptacle being turned to the far side. Now take a piece of string one yard in length, double it over, and tie the free ends to a weight of two lbs., letting the two strands twist round each other.

This done, there should be a loop at the top of the string. Put this loop round the handle of the saucepan, and draw the string diametrically across the latter, letting the weight pull the string tightly down on the side opposite to the handle. When this has been effected the operator, with his left hand, takes some of the forcemeat, smoothening it with a spoon, and, placing the spoon near the string with his right, first finger, he removes from its extremity a portion of the preparation about equal to the intended size of the balls. This portion of the forcemeat remaining suspended on his first finger, the operator now scrapes the latter across the string, and the ball falls beneath into the saucepan containing the water. When all the stuffing has been moulded in this way the saucepan is placed on the fire to complete the poaching of the balls, and the precautions indicated in the preceding processes are observed.

CHAPTER VIII

The Various Garnishes for Soups.

ROYALES.

206- ORDINARY ROYALE

Put one oz. of chervil into one pint of boiling consomm6, cover the saucepan, and let infusion proceed away from the fire for twenty minutes. Now pour this infusion over two eggs and six yolks, beaten briskly in a basin, and mix with the whisk. Strain through muslin, and carefully remove therefrom the froth that has formed. Pour into buttered moulds; poach in a bain-marie, as in the case of cream, and take great care that the water in the bain-marie does not boil.

According to the way in which the royale is to be divided, it may be poached either in large or small "Charlotte" moulds; but the latter, large and small alike, must be well buttered.

If the preparation be put into large moulds, thirty-five or forty minutes should be allowed for poaching; if, on the other hand, the moulds are small, about fifteen minutes would suffice.

Always let the royale cool in the moulds.

207- DESLIQNAC OR CREAM ROYALE

Boil one pint of thin cream, and pour it, little by little, over one egg and six yolks, well whisked in a basin. Season with a little salt and nutmeg, strain through muslin, and, for the poaching, follow the directions given above.

208- CHICKEN ROYALE

Finely pound three oz. of cooked white chicken-meat, and add thereto three tablespoonfuls of cold Bechamel. Put this paste in a bowl, season with a little salt and a dash of nutmeg, dilute with one-fifth pint of cream, and strain through tammy.

Thicken this preparation with one egg and the yolks of three, and poach in small or large moulds, in accordance with the procedure already described.

209- GAME ROYALE

Finely pound three oz. of the cooked meat of that game which gives its name to the preparation, and add three tablespoonfuls of cold Espagnole Sauce and one-fifth pint of rich cream, in small quantities at a time. Warm the seasoning with a very little cayenne, strain through tammy, thicken with one egg and three yolks, and poach as before.

210- FISH ROYALE

Stew in butter four oz. of fillet of sole cut into cubes, or the same quantity of any other fish suited to the nature of the intended soup. Cool, pound finely, and add, little by little, two tablespoonfuls of cold Bechamel and one-quarter pint of cream. Season with salt and a pinch of nutmeg, and strain through tammy. Thicken by means of the yolks of five eggs, and poach in large or small moulds.

211- CARROT OR CRECY ROYALE

Stew gently in butter five oz. of the red part only of carrots. Cool, crush in a mortar, and gradually add two tablespoonfuls of Bechamel and one-fifth pint of rich cream. Season with table-salt and a pinch of castor sugar, and deepen the tint of the royale with a few drops of vegetable red. Strain through tammy, thicken with one egg and four yolks, put into moulds, and poach.

212- FRESH PEAS OR ST. GERMAIN ROYALE

Cook one-half lb. of fresh, small peas in boiling water with a bunch of chervil and a few leaves of fresh mint. Pass through a sieve, and dilute the resulting' pur^e (in a saucepan) with two-fifths of its volume of the liquor it has been cooked in and one-fifth of cream. Add a little sugar, the necessary salt, one egg, and two yolks. Pass through a fine strainer, and poach in well-buttered moulds.

213- VARIOUS ROY ALES

Royales may also be made with leeks, celery, &c., the procedure being as follows:¦ -

Finely mince six or seven oz. of the chosen vegetable; stew

THE VARIOUS GARNISHES FOR SOUPS 89

the same gently and thoroughly in butter, and strain through tammy. Add to the resulting pur^e three tablespoonfuls of Bechamel, one-fifth pint of cream, two eggs, and four yolks. Put into large or small moulds, and poach.

Remarks. - In order that these royales may have the required delicacy, I should urge the reader not to exceed the prescribed quantities of eggs and yolks, these being so calculated as to exactly produce the density required.

214- THE DIVIDINQ-UP OF ROYALES

When the poaching is done take the mould or moulds out of water, and leave the royale to cool in them. Do not turn out the moulds whilst the preparation is hot, as it would surely scatter. It only assumes the necessary solidity for being divided up by means of the aggregation and contraction of its various constituents during the cooling process.

If the royale has been poached in small moulds, slightly trim the cylinders of royale, divide them up laterally into discs, and stamp them uniformly with a plain or indented fancy cutter.

// the royale has been poached in large moulds, withdraw it from these, and place it on a serviette; trim the tops, cut into half-inch slices, and stamp with small, fancy cutters of different shapes. These little divisions of royale must always be stamped very neatly and quite regularly.

215- CHIFFONADE

The name " Chiffonade ^' is given to a mince of sorrel or lettuce, intended as a complement for such soups as " Potage de sant^," " le Germiny," &c., or various clear consommes like "Julienne."

To prepare Chiffonade, first carefully shred the sorrel or lettuce, and remove therefrom all the leaf-ribs. Carefully wash the leaves, and squeeze the latter tightly between the fingers of the left hand and the table. Now cut them into fine strips with a sharp knife.

If the chiffonade be intended for a consomm^, add it to the latter half an hour before dishing up; it is thus actually cooked in the soup itself. If, as is most often the case, it be intended for a thick soup, it is better to let it melt well in butter, to moisten it with a little consomm^, and to let it boil for ten minutes before adding it to the soup.

Whatever the purpose be for which it is made, chiffonade should always be prepared with very tender sorrel or lettuce. 216- DIRECTIONS FOR SOUP WITH PASTES

Vermicelli and the various Italian pastes should measure about three oz. per quart of consomm^. They should first be thrown into boiling, salted water, where they are left to poach for three minutes, whereupon they are drained, cooled, and their cooking is completed in the consomm^.

The parboiling of these pastes is necessary in order to get rid of the little agglomerations of flour which adhere to them, and which would otherwise make the consomm^ cloudy.

Tapioca, sago, salep, &c., should also be apportioned at about three oz. per quart. But this is only an average, for the quality of this kind of products varies greatly, and it is best to choose the goods of an excellent maker, and, in order to avoid surprises, to abide by that choice.

These products need no parboiling; they are merely sprinkled into the boiling consomm^ while stirring the latter, and they are left to cook until the soup is quite clear. The boiling should be gentle, and the scum should be removed as often as it forms.

The time allowed for cooking naturally varies in accordance with the quality of the goods, but the absolute transparency of the consomm^ is an infallible sign of its having been completed.

Brazilian, Japanese, and other pearls are used in the same quantities, but they should poach for thirty minutes if required to be very transparent.

217- THREADED EGGS

Beat up three eggs in a bowl, season with salt and pepper, and strain through a sieve. Now pour the eggs into a fine strainer, hold same over a saut^pan containing some boiling consomm^, and shift it about in such wise as to let the egg fall in threads into the boiling liquid beneath, and thus immediately coagulate. Drain the egg-threads very carefully lest they break.

218- PROFITEROLLES FOR SOUPS

These consist of little choux about the size of a large hazelnut, stuffed with some kinds of pur^e, such as that of foie gras with cream, or of chicken, or of vegetables, &c. Four frofiterolles should be allowed for each person.

To make profiterolles, put a few tablespoonfuls of "pate a choux " without sugar (No. 2374) into a piping-bag fitted with

THE VARIOUS GARNISHES FOR SOUPS 91

a smooth pipe, whose orifice should be about one-quarter inch in diameter. Squeeze out portions of the preparation on to a tray, so as to form balls about the size of a small hazel-nut; gild by means of beaten egg applied with a fine brush, and cook in a moderate oven.

Do not take the profiterolles from the oven until they are quite dry.

CHAPTER IX Garnishing Preparations for Releves and Entr]&es.

219- POTATO CROQUETTES

Cook quickly in salted water two lb. of peeled and quartered potatoes. As soon, as they seem soft to the finger, drain them, place them in the front of the oven for a few minutes in order to dry them, and then tilt them into a sieve lying on a cloth, and press them through the former without rubbing.

Place the pur^e in a saut^pan; season with salt, pepper, and nutmeg; add one oz. of butter, and dry; i.e., stir over a brisk fire until the pur^e becomes a consistent paste.

Take off the fire, complete with the yolks of three eggs, well mixed with the rest, and turn the paste out on to a buttered dish, taking care to spread it in a rather thin layer, so as to precipitate its cooling. Butter the surface to prevent the preparation's drying.

To make croquettes, equal portions of this paste, i.e., portions weighing about one and one-half oz. of it, are rolled on a flour-dusted board into the shape of a cork, a ball, or a quoit. These are now dipped into an Anglaise (No. 174) and rolled in bread-crumbs or raspings, the latter being well patted on to the surface of the croquettes, lest they should fall into the frying fat. Let the patting also avail for finishing off the selected shape of the objects. These are then plunged into hot fat, where they should remain until they have acquired a fine, golden colour.

220- DAUPHINE POTATOES

Prepare as above the required quantity of paste, and add thereto per lb. six oz. of pate k choux without sugar (No. 2374).

Mix the two constituents thoroughly.

Dauphine potatoes are moulded in the shape of small cylinders, and they are treated a I' Anglaise, like the croquettes.

GARNISHING FOR RELEVJiS AND ENTRIES 93

221- DUCHESSE POTATOES

These are the same as the croquettes, though they are differently treated. They are made on a floured board in the shape of diminutive cottage-loaves, little shuttle-shaped loaves, small quoits, and lozenges or rectangles. They are gilded with beaten egg, and when their shape is that of quoits, rectangles, or lozenges, they are streaked by means of a small knife.

After this operation, which is to prevent the gilding from blistering, they are baked in the oven for a few minutes previous to being used in dressing the dishes they accompany.

222- MARQUISE POTATOES

Take one lb. of croquette paste and add thereto six oz. of very red, reduced tomato-pur^e. Pour this mixture into a bag fitted with a large, grooved pipe, and squeeze it out upon a baking-tray in shapes resembling large meringues.

Slightly gild their surfaces with beaten egg, and put them into the oven for a few minutes before using them to dress the dish.

223- ORDINARY OR DRY DUXELLE

The uses of Duxelle are legion, and it is prepared thus: - Slightly fry one teaspoonful of onions in one tablespoonful of butter and oil mixed. Add to this four tablespoonfuls of mushroom stalks and parings, chopped and well pressed in a towel with the view of expelling their vegetable moisture. Stir over a brisk fire until the latter has completely evaporated; season with salt, pepper, and nutmeg, and one coffeespoonful of wellchopped parsley, mixing the whole thoroughly.

Transfer to a bowl, cover with a piece of white, buttered paper, and put aside until wanted.

224- DUXELLE FOR STUFFED VEGETABLES (Tomatoes, Mushrooms, &c.)

Put six tablespoonfuls of dry duxelle into a small stewpan, and add thereto three tablespoonfuls of half-glaze sauce containing plenty of tomato, crushed garlic the size of a pea, and two tablespoonfuls of white wine. Set to simmer until the required degree of consistence is reached.

]Sj_B. - A tablespoonful of fine, fresh bread-crumbs may be added to the duxelle in order to thicken it. 225- DUXELLE FOR GARNISHING SMALL PIES, ONIONS, CUCUMBERS, ETC.

To four tablespoonfuls of dry duxelle add four tablespoonfuls of ordinary pork forcemeat (No. 196).

226 - MAINTENON (preparation used in stuffing preparations k la Maintenon)

Put one pint of Bechamel into a vegetable-pan with onehalf pint of Soubise (No. 104), and reduce to half while stirring over a brisk fire. Thicken, away from the fire, by means of the yolks of five eggs, and add four tablespoonfuls of minced mushrooms, either cooked in the ordinary way or stewed in butter.

227- MATIQNON

This preparation serves chiefly for covering certain large joints of butcher's meat, or fowl, to which it imparts an appropriate flavour. It is made as follows: - Finely mince two medium carrots (the red part only), two onions, and two sticks of celery taken from the heart. Add one tablespoonful of raw lean ham, cut paysanne-fashion, a sprig of thyme, and half a leaf of bay, crushed.

Stew in butter, and finally swill the saucepan with two tablespoonfuls of Madeira.

228- MIREPOIX

The purpose of Mirepoix in culinary preparations is the same as that of Matignon, but its mode of use is different.

Its constituents are the same as those of the Matignon, but instead of being minced they are cut up into more or less fine dice, in accordance with the use for which the preparation is intended.

Instead of the ham, fresh and slightly-salted breast of pork may be used, while both the ham and the bacon may be excluded under certain circumstances.

229- FINE OR BORDELAISE MIREPOIX

Coarse Mirepoix, which are added to certain preparations in order to lend these the proper flavour, are generally made immediately before being used, but this is not so in the case of the finer Mirepoix, which chiefly serves as an adjunct to crayfish and lobsters, This is made in advance, and as follows: -

GARNISHING FOR RELEVES AND ENTREES 95

Cut into dice four oz. of the red part only of carrots, the same quantity of onion, and one oz. of parsley stalks. In order that the Mirepoix may be still finer, these ingredients may now be chopped, but in this case it is advisable to thoroughly press them in a corner of a towel, so as to squeeze out their vegetable moisture, the mere process of stewing not being sufficient for this purpose.

Should this water be allowed to remain in the Mirepoix, more particularly if the latter must be kept some time, it would probably give rise to mustiness or fermentation.

Put the ingredients into a small stewpan with one and onehalf oz. of butter and a little powdered thyme and bay, and stew until all are well cooked. This done, turn the preparation out into a small bowl, heap it together with the back of a fork, cover it with a piece of white, buttered paper, and put aside until wanted.

230- VARIOUS SALPICONS

This term stands for a certain preparatory method applied to a series of preparations.

Salpicons are simple or compound. Simple if they only contain one product, such as the meat of a fowl, or of game, butcher's meat, foie gras, various fish, ham or tongue, mushrooms, truffles, &c. Compound if they consist of two or more of the above-mentioned ingredients which may happen to combine suitably.

The preparatory method consists in cutting the various ingredients into dice.

The series of preparations arises from the many possible combinations of the products, each particular combination bearing its own name.

Thus Salpicons may be Royal, Financier, Chasseur, Parisien, Montglas, &c.; of whichever kind, however, Salpicons are always incorporated with a vehicular sauce which is in accordance with their constituents.

231- BATTER FOR VARIOUS FRITTERS

Put into a bowl one lb. of sifted flour, one-quarter oz. of salt, one tablespoonful of oil or melted butter, and the necessary quantity of barely lukewarm water. If the batter is to be used at once mix the ingredients by turning them over and over without stirring with the spoon, for this would give the preparation an elasticity which would prevent its adhering to immersed solids. Should the batter be prepared beforehand, however, it may be stirred, since it loses its elasticity when left to stand any length of time.

Before using it add the whites of two eggs whisked to a froth.

232- BATTER FOR VEGETABLES (Salsify, Celery, &c.)

Put one lb. of sifted flour into a bowl with one-quarter oz. of salt and two tablespoonfuls of oil or melted butter. Dilute with one egg and the necessary quantity of cold water. Keep this batter somewhat thin, do not stir it, and let it rest for a few hours before using.

333- BATTER FOR FRUIT AND FLOWER FRITTERS

Put one lb. of flour into a bowl with one-quarter oz. of salt and two tablespoonfuls of oil or melted butter. Dilute gradually with one-quarter pint of beer and a little tepid water.

When about to use the batter mix therewith the whites of two eggs whisked to a froth.

N.B. - Keep this batter thin, if anything, and above all do not stir overmuch.

234- BATTER FOR OVEN-GLAZED FRUIT FRITTERS

Mix one lb. of flour with two tablespoonfuls of oil, a grain of salt, two eggs (added one after the other), the necessary quantity of water, and one oz. of sugar. Keep this preparation in a lukewarm place to let it ferment, and stir it with a wooden spoon before using it to immerse the solids.

Remarks. - Batter for fruit fritters may contain a few tablespoonfuls of brandy, in which case an equal quantity of the water must be suppressed.

235- PROVEN^ALE (preparation for stuffing cutlets a la Provencale)

Put one pint of Bechamel into a vegetable-pan and reduce it until it has become quite dense. Thicken it with the yolks of four eggs, and finish it away from the fire with a crushed piece of garlic as large as a pea, and one-quarter lb. of grated cheese.

CHAPTER X Leading Culinary Operations

236- THE PREPARATION OF SOUPS

The nutritious liquids known under the name of Soups are of comparatively recent origin. Indeed, as they are now served, they do not date any further back than the early years of the nineteenth century.

The soups of old cookery were, really, complete dishes, wherein the meats and vegetables used in their preparation were assembled. They, moreover, suffered from the effects of the general confusion which reigned in the menus of those days. These menus seem to have depended in no wise, for their items, upon the progressive satisfaction of the consumers' appetites, and a long procession of dishes was far more characteristic of the meal tlian their judicious order and diversity.

In this respect, as in so many others, Careme was the reformer, and, if he were not, strictly speaking, the actual initiator of the changes which ushered in our present methods, he certainly had a large share in the establishment of the new theories.

Nevertheless, it took his followers almost a century to bring soups to the perfection of to-day, for modern cookery has replaced those stodgy dishes of yore by comparatively simple and savoury preparations which are veritable wonders of delicacy and taste. Now, my attention has been called to the desirability of drawing up some sort of classification of soups, if only with the view of obviating the absurdity of placing such preparations as are indiscriminately called Bisque, Pur^e, CuUis, or Cream under the same head. Logically, each preparation should have its own special formula, and it is impossible to admit that one and the same can apply to all.

It is generally admitted that the terms Veloutes and Creams, whose introduction into the vocabulary of cookery is comparatively recent, are peculiarly well suited to supplant those of Bisque and Cullis, which are steadily becoming obsolete, as well as that too vulgar term Puree. Considerations

H of this kind naturally led me to a new classification of soups, and this I shall disclose later.

I shall not make any lengthy attempt here to refute the arguments of certain autocrats of the dinner-table who, not so many years ago, urged the total abolition of soups. I shall only submit to their notice the following quotation from Grimod de la Regni^re, one of our most illustrious gastronomists: " Soup is to a dinner what the porch or gateway is to a building," that is to say, it must not only form the first portion thereof, but it must be so devised as to convey some idea of the whole to which it belongs; or, after the manner of an overture in a light opera, it should divulge what is to be the dominant phrase of the melody throughout.

I am at one with Grimod in this, and believe that soups have come to stay. Of all the items on a menu, soup is that which exacts the most delicate perfection and the strictest attention, for upon the first impression it gives to the diner the success of the latter part of the meal largely depends.

Soups should be served as hot as possible in very wkrm plates, especially in the case of consommes when these have been preceded by cold hors-d'oeuvres.

Hors-d'oeuvres are pointless in a dinner, and even when oysters stand as such they should only be allowed at meals which include no soup.

Those hors-d'oeuvres which consist of various fish, smoked or in oil, and strongly seasoned salads, leave a disagreeable taste on the consumer's palate and make the soup which follows seem flat and insipid if the latter be not served boiling hot.

Classification of Soups

This includes (i) clear soups, (2) thick soups, (3) special soups of various kinds, (4) classical vegetable soups, including some local preparations.

237- CLEAR SOUPS

Clear soups, of whatever nature the base thereof may be, whether butcher's meat, poultry, game, fish, shell-fish, or turtle, &c., are made according to one method only. They are always clear consommes to which has been added a slight garnish in keeping with the nature of the consomm^.

LEADING CULINARY OPERATIONS 99

238- THICK SOUPS

These are divided into three leacling classes as follows: - (i) The Purees, Cullises, or Bisques. (2) Various Veloutt^s. (3) Various Creams.

Remarks. - Though the three preparations of the first class are practically the same, and, generally speaking, the Cullises and the Bisques may be considered as purees of fowl, game, or shell-fish, it is advisable to distinguish one from another by giving each a special name of its own.

Thus the word Puree is most suitably applied to any preparation with a vegetable base. The term Cullis is best fitted to preparations having either poultry, game, or fish for base, while bisque, in spite of the fact that in former days it was applied indiscriminately to purees of shell-fish, poultry, pigeons, &€., distinctly denotes a pur^e of shell-fish (either lobster, crayfish, or shrimp, &c.).

In short, it is imperative to avoid all ambiguities and to give everything its proper name, or, at least, that name which identifies it most correctly.

239- PUREES

Farinaceous vegetables, such as haricot-beans and lentils, and the floury ones, such as the potato, need no additional thickening ingredient, since the flour or fecula which they contain amply suffices for the leason of their purees.

On the other hand, aqueous vegetables like carrots, pumpkins, turnips, celery, and herbs cannot dispense with a thickening ingredient, as their purees of themselves do not cohere in the least.

Cohering or Thickening Elements; their Quantities, - In order to effect the coherence of vegetable purees, either rice, potato, or bread-crumb cut into dice and fried in butter may be used.

The proportion of these per pound of vegetables should be respectively three oz., ten oz., and ten oz. Bread-crumb dice, prepared as described above, were greatly used in old cookery, and they lend a mellowness to a puree which is quite peculiar to them.

The Dilution of Purees. - Generally this is done by means of ordinary white consomm6, though in certain cases, as, for instance, if the soup is a Lenten one, milk is used.

The Finishing.- When the purees have been strained and brought to the required consistence they should be boiled and stirred. Then they are placed on the side of the fire to simmer

H 2 for twenty-five or thirty minutes. It is at this stage that they are purified by means of the careful removal of all the scum that forms on their surface.

When dishing up complete them, away from the fire, with three oz. of butter per quart of soup, and pass them once more i^hrough a strainer.

Puree Garnishes. - These are usually either small fried crusts, small dice of potato fried in butter, a chiffonade, some kind of little brunoise, or, more generally, chervil pluches.

240- CULLISES

Cullises have for their base either poultry, game, or fish.

The thickening ingredients used are: -

For fowl, two or three oz. of rice, or three-quarters pint of poultry velout6 per lb. of fowl.

For game, three or four oz. of lentils, or three-quarters pint of game Espagnole per lb. of game.

For fish, a clear panada made up of French bread soaked in boiling salted milk. Use five oz. of bread and one good pint of milk per lb. of fish. Having strained and made up the Cullises, boil them while stirring (except in the case of fish cullises, which must not boil, and must be served as soon as they are made), then place them in a bain-marie and butter their surfaces lest a skin should form.

At the last moment complete them with two or three oz. of butter per quart.

The garnish of poultry or game cullises consists of either small dice of game or fowl-fillets, which should be kept aside for the purpose; a fine julienne of these fillets, or small quenelles made from the latter, raw.

The garnish of fish cuUis is generally fish-fillets poached in butter and cut up into small dice or in julienne-fashion.

241- BISQUES

The invariable base of Bisques is shell-fish cooked in mirepoix.

Their thickening ingredients are, or may be, rice, fish velout^, or crusts of bread fried in butter, the proportion being three oz. of rice, ten oz. of bread-crusts, or three-quarters pint of fish velout^ per lb. of shell-fish cooked in mirepoix (No. 228).

When the soup is strained, treat it in precisely the same way as the cullises.

The garnish consists of small dice of the meat from the

LEADING CULINARY OPERATIONS loi

shell-fish used. These pieces should have been put aside from the first.

242- THE VELOUTES

These differ from the purees, cullises, and bisques in that their invariable thickening element is a velout^ whose preparation is in harmony with the nature of the ingredients of the soup, these being either vegetables, poultry, game, fish, or shell-fish.

The Preparation of the Veloute. - Allow three and one-half oz. of white roux per quart of the diluent. This diluent should be ordinary consomm^ for a velout^ of vegetables or herbs, chicken consomm^ for a poultry veloutd, or very clear fish fumet for a fish or shell-fish velout^. The procedure is exactly the same as that described under No. 26 of the leading sauces.

The apportionment of the Ingredients. - In general, the quantities of each constituent are in the following proportion: - Velout^, one-half; the pur^e of the substance which characterises the soup, one-quarter; the consomm^ used to bring the soup to its proper consistence, one-quarter. In respect of finishing ingredients, use, for thickening, the yolks of three eggs and one-fifth pint of cream per quart of soup.

Thus for four quarts of poultry velout^ we arrive at the following quantities: -

Poultry velout^, three pints; puree of fowl obtained from a cleaned and drawn hen weighing about three lbs., one quart; consomm^ for regulating consistence, one quart; leason, twelve yolks and four-fifths pint of cream.

Rules Relative to the Preparation. - If the velout^ is to be of lettuce, chicory, celery, or mixed herbs, these ingredients are scalded for five minutes, drained, gently stewed in butter, and added to the prepared veloute in which their cooking is completed.

If carrots, turnips, onions, &c., are to be treated, finely mince them, stew them in butter without allowing them to acquire any colour, and add them to the veloute.

If fowl be the base, cook it in the velout^. This done, withdraw it, remove the meat, finely pound same, and add it to the veloute, which is then rubbed through tammy.

In the case of fish the procedure is the same as for fowl. For game, roast or saute the selected piece, bone it, finely pound the meat, and combine the latter with the velout^, which should then be rubbed through tammy.

For shell-fish, cook these in a mirepoix, finely pound them together with the latter, add to the veloute, and pass the whole through tammy, The Completing of Veloute. - Having passed the soup through tammy, bring it to its proper degree of consistence with the necessary quantity of consomm^, boil while stirring, and place in a bain-marie.

At the last moment finish the soup with the leason and two oz. of butter per quart of liquid.

Garnish for Veloute. - In the case of vegetables: Chiffonade, fine printaniers, or brunoise.

For fowl and game: The fillets of one or the other, poached and cut into small dice or in julienne-fashion; little quenelles made with the raw fillets, or either fowl or game royales.

For fish: Small dice or fine julienne of fish fillets poached in butter.

For shell-fish: Small dice of cooked shell-fish meat put aside for the purpose.

Remarks. - In certain circumstances these garnishes are increased by means of three tablespoonfuls of poached rice per quart of the soup.

243- THE CREAMS

Practically speaking, the preparation of the creams is the same as that of the veloutes, but for the following exceptions: -

1. In all circumstances, i.e., whatever be the nature of the soup, velout^ is substituted for clear Bechamel.

2. The correct consistence of the soup is got by means of milk instead of consomm^.

3. Creams do not require egg-yolk leasons.

4. They are not buttered, but they are finished with one-fifth or two-fifths pint of fresh cream per quart.

Creams allow of the same garnishes as the veloutes.

244- SPECIAL SOUPS AND THICKENED CONSOMMES

These are of different kinds, though their preparation remains the same, and they do not lend themselves to the requirements of veloutes or creams. I should quote as types of this class the Ambassador, a I'Americaine, Darblay, Faubonne, &c.

The same holds good with thickened consommes, such as " Germiny," " Coquelin," &c.

245- VEGETABLE SOUPS

These soups, of which the " Paysanne " is the radical type, do not demand very great precision in the apportionment of

LEADING CULINARY OPERATIONS 103

the vegetables of which they are composed; but they need great care and attention, notwithstanding.

The vegetables, in the majority of cases, must undergo a long stewing in butter, an operation the object of which is to expel their vegetable moisture and to saturate them with butter.

In respect of others which have a local character, the vegetables should be cooked with the diluent, without a preparatory stewing.

246- FOREIGN SOUPS

In the course of Part II. of this work I shall allude to certain soups which have a foreign origin, and whose use, although it may not be general, is yet sufficiently common. If only for the sake of novelty or variety, it is occasionally permissible to poach upon the preserves of foreign nations; but apart from this there exist among the recipes of foreigners many which can but enrich their adopter, besides being generally appreciated. 2. Braising, Poaching, Sautes, and Poeling.

Except for the roasts, grills, and fryings, which will be discussed later, all culinary operations dealing with meat are related to one of the four following methods: Braising, poeling, poaching, and sautes.

These four methods of cooking belong, however, to the sauces, and this explains how it is that the latter hold such a pre-eminent position in French cookery.

Before devoting any attention to particular formulae, which will be given in the second part of this work, it seemed desirable to me to recapitulate in a general way the theory of each of these cooking methods. These theories are of paramount importance, since it is only with a complete knowledge of them that good results may be obtained by the culinary operator.

247- ORDINARY BRAISINQS

Of all the various culinary operations, braisings are the most expensive and the most difficult. Long and assiduous practice alone can teach the many difficulties that this mode of procedure entails, for it is one which demands extraordinary care and the most constant attention. Over and above the question of care and that of the quality of meat used, which latter consideration is neither more nor less important here than in any other cooking operation, there are also these conditions to be fulfilled in order that a good braising may be obtained, namely, that excellent stock should be used in moistening, and that the braising base be well prepared.

Meats that are Braised. - Mutton and beef are braised in the ordinary way, but veal, lamb, and poultry are braised in a manner which I shall treat of later.

Meat intended for braising need not, as in the case of roasts, be that of young beasts. The best for the purpose is that derived from an animal of three to six years of age in the case of beef, and one to two years in the case of mutton. Good meat is rarely procured from animals more advanced than these in years, and, even so, should it be used, it would not only be necessary to protract the time of cooking inordinately, but the resulting food would probably be fibrous and dry.

Properly speaking, meat derived from old or ill-nourished beasts only answers two purposes in cookery, viz., the preparation of consommes and that of various kinds of stock.

LEADING CULINARY OPERATIONS 105

The Larding of Meats for Braising. - When the meat to be braised is ribs or fillet of beef, it is always interlarded, and consequently never dry if of decent quality. But this is not the case with the meat of the rumps, or with leg of mutton. These meats are not sufficiently fat of themselves to allow of prolonged cooking without their becoming dry. For this reason they are larded with square strips of bacon fat, which should be as long as the meat under treatment, and about half an inch thick. These strips of fat are first seasoned with pepper, nutmeg, and spices, besprinkled with chopped parsley, and then marinaded for two hours in a little brandy. They should be inserted into the meat equidistantly by means of special larding needles. The proportion of fat to the meat should be about three oz. per lb.

To Marinade Braisings. - Larded or not, the meats intended for braising gain considerably from being marinaded for a few hours in the wines which are to supply their moistening and the aromatics constituting the base of their liquor. Before doing this season them with salt, pepper, and spices, rolling them over and over in these in order that they may absorb the seasoning thoroughly. Then place them in a receptacle just large enough to contain them, between two litters of aromatics, which will be detailed hereafter; cover them with the wine which forms part of their braising-liquor, and which is generally a white or red " vin ordinaire," in the proportion of one-quarter pint per lb. of meat, and leave them to marinade for about six hours, taking care to turn them over three or four times during that period.

The Aromatics or Base of the Braising. - These are thickly sliced and fried carrots and onions, in the proportion of one oz. per lb. of meat, one faggot, including one garlic clove and one and one-half oz. of fresh, blanched bacon-rind.

To Fry, Prepare, and Cook Braised Meat. - Having sufficiently marinaded the meat, drain it on a sieve for half an hour, and wipe it dry with a clean piece of linen. Heat some clarified fat of white consomm^ in a thick saucepan of convenient size, or a braising-pan, and when it is sufficiently hot put the meat in the saucepan and let it acquire colour on all sides. The object of this operation is to cause a contraction of the pores of the meat, thereby surrounding the latter with a species of cuirass, which prevents the inner juices from escaping too soon and converting the braising into a boiling process. The frying should, therefore, be a short or lengthy process according as to whether the amount of meat to be braised be small or large, Having properly fried the meat, withdraw it from the braising-pan, cover it with slices of larding-bacon if it be lean, and string it. In the case of fillets and ribs of beef, this treatment may be dispensed with, as they are sufficiently well supplied with their own fat.

Now pour the marinade prepared for the meat into the braising-pan, and place the meat on a litter composed of the vegetables the marinade contained. Cover the pan and rapidly reduce the wine therein. When this has assumed the consistency of syrup add sufficient brown stock to cover the meat (it being understood that the latter only just conveniently fills the pan), cover the braising-pan, set to boil, and then put it in a moderate oven. Let the meat cook until it may be deeply pricked with a braiding needle without any blood being drawn. At this stage the first phase of braising, whereof the theory shall be given hereafter, comes to an end, and the meat is transferred to another clean utensil just large enough to hold it.

With respect to the cooking liquor, either of the two following modes of procedure may now be adopted: -

1. If the liquor is required to be clear it need only be strained, over the meat, through muslin, while the braising-pan should be placed in the oven, where the cooking may go on until completed, interrupting it only from time to time in order to baste the meat. This done, thicken the liquor with arrowroot, after the manner of an ordinary thickened gravy (No. 41).

2. If, on the contrary, a sauce be required, the liquor should be reduced to half before being put back on the meat, and it is restored to its former volume by means of two-thirds of its quantity of Espagnole sauce and one-third of tomato pur^e, or an equivalent quantity of fresh tomatoes.

The cooking of the meat is completed in this sauce, and the basting should be carried on as before. When it is cooked - that is to say, when the point of a knife may easily be thrust into it without meeting with any resistance whatsoever - it should be carefully withdrawn from the sauce; the latter should be again strained through muslin and then left to rest, with a view to letting the grease settle on the surface.

Carefully remove this grease, and rectify the sauce with a little excellent stock if it is too thick, or by reduction if it is too thin.

The Glazing of Braised Meat. - Braised meat is glazed in order to make it more sightly, but this operation is by no means essential, and it is quite useless when the meat is cut up previous to being served.

I.EADING CULINARY OPERATIONS 107

To glaze meat place it as soon as cooked in the front of the oven, sprinkle it slightly with its cooking liquor (gravy or sauce), and push it into the oven so that this liquor may dry. Being very gelatinous, the latter adheres to the meat, while its superfluous water evaporates, and thus coats the solid with a thin film of meat-glaze. This operation is renewed eight or ten times, whereupon the meat is withdrawn from the oven, placed on a dish, and covered until it is served.

Various Remarks relative to Braising. - When a braised meat is to be accompanied by vegetables, as in the case of beef a la mode, these vegetables may either be cooked with the meat during the second braising phase, after they have been duly coloured in butter with a little salt and sugar, or they may be cooked separately with a portion of the braising-liquor. The first procedure is the better, but it lends itself less to a correct final dressing. It is, therefore, the operator's business to decide according to circumstances which is the more suitable of the two.

I pointed out above that the cooking of braised meat consists of two phases, and I shall now proceed to discuss each of these, so that the reader may thoroughly understand their processes.

It has been seen that meat, to be braised, must in the first place be fried all over, and this more particularly when it is very thick. The object of this operation is to hold in the meat's juices, which would otherwise escape from the cut surfaces. Now, this frying produces a kind of cuirass around the flesh, which gradually thickens during the cooking process until it reaches the centre. Under the influence of the heat of the surrounding liquor the meat fibres contract, and steadily drive the contained juices towards the centre. Soon the heat reaches the centre, where, after having effected a decomposition of the juices therein collected, the latter release the superfluous water they contain. This water quickly vaporises, and by so doing distends and separates the tissues surrounding it. Thus, during this first phase, a concentration of juices takes place in the centre of the meat. It will now be seen that they undergo an absolutely different process in the second.

As shown, the disaggregation of the muscular tissue begins in the centre of the meat as soon as the temperature which reaches there is sufficiently intense to vaporise the collected juices. The tension of the vapour given off by the latter perforce increases by dint of finding no issue; it therefore exerts considerable pressure upon the tissues, though now its direction is the reverse of what it was in the first place, i.e., from the centre to the periphery.

Gradually the tissues relax under the pressure and the effects of cooking, and, the work of disaggregation having gradually reached the fried surface, the latter also relaxes in its turn and allows the constrained juices to escape and to mix with the sauce. At the same time, however, the latter begins to filter through the meat, and this it does in accordance with a wellknown physical law, namely, capillarit}'^. This stage of the braising demands the most attentive care. The braising-liquor is found to be considerably reduced and no longer covers the meat, for the operation is nearing its end. The bared meat would, therefore, dry very quickly, if care were not taken to baste it constantly and to turn it over and over, so that the whole of the muscular tissue is moistened and thoroughly saturated with the sauce. By this means the meat acquires that mellowness which is typical of braisings and distinguishes them from other preparations.

I should be loth to dismiss this subject before pointing out two practices in the cooking of braisings which are as common as they are absolutelv wrong. The first of these is the " pinca^e " of the braising base. Instead of laying the fried meat on a litter of aromatics, likewise fried beforehand, many operators place the meat, which they often omit to fry, on raw aromatics at the bottom of the braising-pan. The whole is sprinkled with a little melted fat, and the aromatics are left to fry, on one side only, until they begin to burn on the bottom of the receptacle.

If this operation were properlv conducted it might be tolerated, even though aromatics which are only fried on one side cannot exude the same savour as those which are fried all over. But nine times out of ten the frying is too lengthy a process; from neglect or absent-mindedness the aromatics are left to burn on the bottom of the pan, and there results a bitterness which pervades and spoils the whole sauce.

As a matter of fact, this process of " pingage " is an absurd caricature of a method of preparing braisings which was very common in old cookery, the custom of which was not to prepare the braising-liquor in advance, but to cook it and its ingredients simultaneously with the meat to be braised. This method, though excellent, was very expensive, the meats forming the base of the braising-liquor consisting of thick slices of raw ham or veal. The observance of economy, therefore, long ago compelled cooks to abandon this procedure. But routine has

LEADING^CULINARY OPERATIONS 109

perpetuated the form of the latter without insisting upon the use of its constituents, wliich were undoubtedly its essential part. Routine has even, in certain cases, aggravated the first error by instituting a habit consisting of substituting bones for the meats formerly employed - an obviously ridiculous practice.

In the production of ordinary consomme (No. i) we saw that bones, even when taken from veal, as is customary in the case of braising-liquor, require, at the very least, ten to twelve hours of cooking before they can yield all their soluble properties. As a proof of this it is interesting to note that, if bones undergo only five or six hours of cooking, and are moistened afresh and cooked for a further six hours, the liquor of the second cooking yields more meat-glaze than that of the first; though it must be admitted that, while the latter is more gelatinous, it has less savour. But this gelatinous property of bones is no less useful to braisings than is their savour, since it is the former that supplies the mellowness, which nothing can replace and without which the sauce can have no quality.

Since, therefore, the longest time that a braising can cook is from four to five hours, it follows that^ if bones be added thereto, their properties will scarcely have begun disaggregating when the meat is cooked. They will, in fact, have yielded but an infinitesimal portion of these properties; wherefore their addition to the braising is, to say the least, quite useless.

It now remains to be proved that the above method is bad from another point of view.

I suppose I need not fear contradiction when I assert that, in order that a braising may be good, its sauce should be short and correspondingly substantial; also that the sauce obtained from a piece of meat moistened with a quart of liquid cannot be so good as that resulting from the moistening of a pint only.

It is more particularly on this account that I advise a braising utensil which can only just hold the meat, for since, in the firfat stage, the meat is only moistened with the braising-liquor, the smaller the receptacle may be the less liquor will it require, and the latter will in consequence be the tastier. Hence, if bones be added to the braising, the utensil must necessarily be larger, and a greater quantity of braising-liquor must be used. But this liquor will not be nearly so savoury as that obtained from the process I recommend; in fact, it will be but a rather strong broth, quite unfit for the impregnation of the meat, and the final result will be a tasteless lump of fibre instead of a succulent braising.

I must apologise to the reader for my insistence with regard to these questions, but their importance is such that success is beyond reach in the matter of brown sauces and braisings unless the above details have been thoroughly grasped. Moreover, the explanations given will afford considerable help in the understanding of operations which I shall give later; therefore it is to be hoped that the examination of the theories involved, however long this has been, will prove of use and assistance.

248- BRAISING OF WHITE MEATS

The braising of white meats as it is now effected in modern cookery is, strictly speaking, not braising at all, inasmuch as the cooking is stopped at the close of the first of the two phases which I mentioned when discussing brown braisings. True, old cookery did not understand braising in the way that the modern school does, and under the ancient regime large pieces, especially of veal, were frequently cooked until they could almost be scooped with a spoon. This practice has been generally, though mistakenly, eschewed, but its name-survives.

White braisings are made with the neck, the saddle, the loin, the fillets, the fricandeaus, and the sweet-bread of veal, young turkeys and fat pullets, and sometimes, though less frequently, relev^s of lamb, hindquarters or saddle. The procedure is the same for all these meats; the time of cooking alone varies in accordance with their size. The aromatics are the same as those of the brown braisings, but the frying of them is optional.

The moistening liquor is brown veal stock (No. 9).

Mode of Procedure. - Except for the veal sweet-bread, which is always blanched before being braised, the meats or poultry to be treated may always be slightly stiffened and browned in butter, on all sides. This is not essential in all cases, but I think that when they do undergo something of the kind they dry less quickly. Now place them in a utensil just large enough to hold them and deep enough to keep the lid from touching them. Place the aromatics under them and moisten with a little veal stock; set to boil on a moderate fire, and reduce the veal stock with the lid on. When this stock has assumed the consistence of a glaze, add a further similar quantity of fresh stock, and reduce as before. The third time moisten the veal until it is half covered, and push the pan into a moderate oven.

The meat needs constant basting while it cooks, in order to avoid its drying; and, as the stock is very gelatinous, it forms a coating on the surface which resists the evaporation of the contained juices; for these, being insufficiently constrained by the slight frying the meat has undergone, tend to vaporise under the influence of the heat.

LEADING CULINARY OPERATIONS iii

It is for this reason that the stock must be reduced to a glaze before finally moistening. If the moistening were all done at once, the liquor would not be sufficiently dense to form the coating mentioned above, and the meat would consequently dry on being set to cook.

Braised white meat is known to be cooked when, after having deeply pricked it with a braiding needle, it exudes an absolutely colourless liquid. This liquid denotes that the piece is cooked to the centre, and as a result thereof the blood has decomposed.

There lies the great difference between brown braisings and white-meat braisings. The latter are practically roasts, and they should not be made with any but young poultry or meats, very fat and tender, for they cannot go beyond their correct time of cooking, which equals that of roasts, without immediately losing all their quality. A quarter of an hour too much in the cooking of a kernel of veal weighing about six lbs. is enough to make the meat dry and unpalatable, and to thoroughly spoil it, whereas a brown braising cannot be over-cooked, provided it do not burn.

White braised meats are generally glazed, and this process is especially recommended for larded pieces, which, though less common nowadays than formerly, can still claim many votaries.

249- POACHINQS

However nonsensical it may sound, the best possible definition of a poaching is a boiling that does not boil. The term -poach is extended to all slow processes of cooking which involve the use of a liquor, however small. Thus the term poach applies to the cooking in court-botiillon of large pieces of turbot and salmon, as well as to fillets of sole cooked with a little fish fumet, to hot mousselines and mousses, cooked in moulds, to quenelles which are cooked in salted water, to eggs announced as "poached," to creams, various royales, &c. It will readily be seen that among so many different products, the time allowed for the cooking in each case must differ sometimes widely from the rest. The treatment of them all, however, is subject to this unalterable principle, namely, that the poaching liquor must not boil, though it should reach a degree of heat as approximate as possible to boiling-point. Another principle is that large pieces of fish or poultry be set to boll in cold liquor, after which the latter is brought to the required temperature as rapidly as possible. The case may be the same with fillets of sole, or poultry, which are poached almost dry; but all other preparations whose mode of cooking is poaching gain by being immersed in liquor which has reached the required temperature beforehand.

Having regard to the multitudinous forms and kinds of pro^ ducts that are poached, it would be somewhat difficult to state here the details and peculiarities proper to each iti the matter of poaching; I think, therefore, I should do better to leave these details to the respective recipes of each product, though it will now be necessary to disclose the way of poaching poultry, if only with a view to thoroughly acquainting the reader with the theory propounded above.

Properly prepare the piece of poultry to be poached, and truss it with its feet folded back alongside of the breast.

If it is to be stuffed, this should be done before trussing.

If it is to be larded or studded, either with truffles, ham, or tongue, rub it when trussed on the fillets and legs with half a lemon, and dip the same portions of its body (namely, those to be larded or studded) for a few moments in boiling white stock. The object of this operation is to slightly stiffen the skin, thus facilitating the larding or studding.

The Cooking of the Piece of Poultry. - Having stuffed, larded, or studded it, if necessary, and having, in any case, trussed it, place it in a receptacle just large enough to hold it, and moisten with some excellent white stock previously prepared.

Set to boil, skim, put the lid on, and continue the cooking at a low simmer. It is useless to work too quickly, as the operation would not be shortened a second by so doing. The only results would be: -

1. Too violent evaporation, which would reduce the liquor and disturb its limpidness.

2. The running of a considerable risk of bursting the piece of poultry, especially when the latter is stuffed.

The fowl, or whatever it may be, is known to be cooked when, after pricking the thick of the leg close to the "drumstick," the issuing liquid is white.

Remarks. - (a) The need of poaching poultry in a receptacle just large enough to hold the piece is accounted for as follows: (i) The piece must be wholly immersed in the stock during the cooking process. (2) As the liquor used is afterwards served as an accompanying sauce to the dish, the less there is of it the more saturated does it become with the juices of the meat, and, consequently, the better it is.

(b) (i) The white stock used in poaching should be prepared beforehand, and be very clear.

LEADING CULINARY OPERATIONS 113

(2) If the piece of poultry were set to cook with the products constituting the stock, even if these were more than liberally apportioned, the result would be bad, for inasmuch as a fowl, for example, can only take one and one-half hours, at the most, to cook, and the time required for extracting the nutritious and aromatic principles from the constituents of the stock would be at least six hours, it follows that the fowl would be cooking in little more than hot water, and the resulting sauce would be quite devoid of savour.

250- POELINQS

Poelings are, practically speaking, roasts, for the cooking periods of each are the same, except that the former are cooked entirely or almost entirely with butter. They represent a simplified process of old cookery, which consisted in enveloping the object to be treated, after frying it, in a thick coating of Matignon. It was then wrapped with thin slices of pork fat, covered with buttered paper, placed in the oven or on a spit, and basted with melted butter while it cooked. This done, its grease was drained away, a;nd the vegetables of the matignon were inserted in the braising-pan wherein the piece had cooked, or in a saucepan, and were moistened with excellent Madeira or highly seasoned stock. Then, when the liquor had thoroughly absorbed the aroma of the vegetables, it was strained, and its grease was removed just before dishing up. This excellent method is worthy of continued use in the case of large pieces of poultry.

Preparation of Peeled Meats. - Pl&ce in the bottom of a deep and thick receptacle, just large enough to hold the piece to be poeled, a layer of raw matignon (No. 227). The meat or piece of poultry is placed on the vegetables after it has been well seasoned, and is copiously sprinkled with melted butter; cover the utensil, and push it into an oven whose heat is not too fierce. Set it to cook gently in this way, after the manner of a stew, and frequently sprinkle with melted butter.

When the meats or the pieces of poultry are cooked, the utensil is uncovered so that the former may acquire a fine colour; then they are transferred to a dish which should be kept covered until taken to the table. Now add to the vegetables (which must not be burned) a sufficient quantity of brown veal stock (No. 9), transparent and highly seasoned; set the whole to boil gently for ten minutes, strain through a serviette, carefully remove all grease from the poeling stock and send it to the table in a sauceboat at the same time as the meat or poultry, which, by the bye, is generally garnished. Remarks on Poelings. - It is of paramount importance that these be not moistened during the process of cooking, for in that case their savour would be the same as that of braised white meats.

Nevertheless, an exception may be made in the case of such feathered game as pheasants, partridges, and quails, to which is added, when nearly cooked, a small quantity of burnt brandy.

It is also very important that the vegetables should not have their grease removed before their moistening stock is added to them. The butter used in the cooking absorbs a large proportion of the savour of both the vegetables and the meat under treatment, and, to make good this loss, it is essential that the moistening stock remain at least ten minutes in contact with the butter. At the end of this time it may be removed without in the least impairing the aroma of the stock.

Special Poelings known as "En Casserole," or "En Cocotle." - The preparations of butcher's meats, of poultry, or game, known as "en casserole " or "en cocotte," are actual poelings cooked in special earthenware utensils and served in the same. Generally, preparations known as " en casserole " are simply cooked in butter, without the addition of vegetables.

When the cooking is done, the piece under treatment is withdrawn for a moment, and some excellent brown veal stock (No. 9) is poured into the utensil. This is left to simmer for a few minutes; the superfluous butter is then removed; the piece is returned to the earthenware utensil, and it is kept hot, without being allowed to boil, until it is dished up.

For preparations termed "en cocotte," the procedure is the same, except that the piece is garnished with such vegetables as mushrooms, the bottoms of artichokes, small onions, carrots, turnips, &c., which are either turned or regularly pared, and half cooked in butter before being used.

One should endeavour to use only fresh vegetables, and these should be added to the piece constituting the dish in such wise as to complete their cooking with it.

The earthenware utensils used for this purpose improve with use, provided they be cleaned with clean, fresh water, without any soda or soap. If new utensils have to be used, these should be filled with water, which is set to boil, and they should then undergo at least twelve hours' soaking. For the prescribed time this water should be kept gently boiling, and then the utensil should be well wiped and soaked anew, in fresh water, before being used.

LeadinC culinary operations 1 15

251- THE SAUTES

What characterises the process we call " saut^ " is that the object treated is cooked dry - that is to say, solely by means of a fatty substance such as butter, oil, or grease.

Sautes are made with cut-up fowl or game, or with butcher's meat suitably divided up for the purpose.

All products treated in this way must be frizzled - that is to say, they must be put into the fat when it is very hot in order that a hardened coating may form around them which will keep their juices within. This is more particularly desirable for red meats such as beef and mutton.

The cooking of fowl sautes must, after the meats have been frizzled, be completed on the stove or, with lid off, in the oven, where they should be basted with butter after the manner of a roast.

The pieces are withdrawn from the utensil with a view to swilling the latter, after which, if they be put back into the sauce or accompanying garnish, they should only remain therein a few moments or just sufficiently long to become properly warm.

The procedure is the same for game sautes.

Sautes of butcher's meats (red meats), such as tournedos, kernels, cutlets, fillets, and noisettes, are always effected on the stove; the meats are frizzled and cooked with a small quantity of clarified butter.

The thinner and smaller they are, the more rapidly should the frizzling process be effected.

When blood appears on the surface of their raw side, they should be turned over; when drops of blood begin to bedew their other side, they are known to be cooked.

The swilling of the utensil obtains in all sautes. After having withdrawn the treated product from the saucepan, remove the grease and pour the condimentary liquid (a wine), that forms part of the accompanying sauce, into the saucepan.

Set to boil, so that the solidified gravy lying on the bottom may dissolve, and add the sauce; or simply add the swilling liquid to the prepared sauce or accompanying garnish of the saut^. The utensil used must always be just large enough to hold the objects to be treated. If it be too large, the parts left uncovered by the treated meats burn, and swilling is then impossible, whence there results a loss of the solidified gravy, which is an important constituent in the sauce.

Sautes of white, butcher's meats, such as veal and lamb, must also be frizzled in hot fat, but their cooking must be completed gently on the side of the fire, and in many cases v>'ith lid on. Preparations of a mixed nature, which partly resemble sautes and partly braisings, are also called sautes. Stews, however, is their most suitable name.

These dishes are made from beef, veal, lamb, game, &c., and they are to be found in Part II. under the headings Estouffade; Goulah; Sautt^s: Chasseur, Marengo, Bourgeoise; Navarin; Civet; &c.

In the first stage of their preparation, the meats are cut up small and fried like those of the sautes; in the second, slow cooking with sauce or garnish makes them akin to braised meats.

3. Roasts, Grills, Fryings. Roasts.

Of the two usual methods of roasting, the spit will always be used in preference to the oven, if only on account of the conditions under which the operation is effected, and whatever be the kind of fuel used - wood, coal, or gas.

The reason of this preference is clear if it be remembered that, in spite of every possible precaution during the progress of an oven roast, it is impossible to avoid an accumulation of vapour around the cooking object in a closed oven. And this steam is more particularly objectionable inasmuch as it is excessive in the case of delicately flavoured meats, which latter are almost if not entirely impaired thereby.

The spitted roast, on the contrary, cooks in the open in a dry atmosphere, and by this means retains its own peculiar flavour. Hence the unquestionable superiority of spitted roasts over the oven kind, especially in respect of small feathered game.

In certain circumstances and places there is no choice of means, and, nolens volens, the oven has to be used; but, in this case at least, all possible precautions should be observed in order to counteract the effects of the steam above mentioned.

252- LARDING BACON FOR ROASTS

Poultry and game to be roasted ought generally to be partly covered with a large thin slice of larding bacon, except those pieces of game which in special cases are larded.

The object and use of these slices are not only to shield the fillets of fowl and game from the severe heat of the fire, but also to prevent these from drying while the legs, which the heat takes much longer to penetrate than the other parts, are cooking. The slices of bacon should therefore completely cover the

LEADING CULINARY OPERATIONS 117

breasts of fowl and game, and they should be tied on to the latter by means of string.

In some cases roasts of butcher's meat are covered with layers of veal- or beef-fat, the object of which is similar to that of the bacon prescribed above.

253- SPITTED ROASTS

The whole theory of roasts on the spit might be condensed as follows: -

In the case of butcher's meat, calculate the intensity of the heat used according to the piece to be roasted, the latter's size and quality, and the time it has hung. Experience, however, is the best guide, for any theory, whatever be its exactness, can only give the leading principles and general rules, and cannot pretend to supply the place of the practised eye and the accuracy which are the result of experience alone.

Nevertheless, I do not say with Brillat Savarin that a roaster is born and not made; I merely state that one may become a good roaster with application, observation, care, and a little aptitude.

The three following rules will be found to cover all the necessary directions for spitted roasts: -

1 . All red meats containing a large quantity of juice should be properly set, and then, according to their size, made to undergo the action of a fire capable of radiating a very penetrating heat with little or no flame.

2. In the case of white meats, whose cooking should be thorough, the fire ought to be so regulated as to allow the roast to cook and colour simultaneously.

3. With small game the fuel should be wood, but whatever fuel be used the fire ought to be made up in suchwise as to produce more flame than glowing embers.

254- OVEN ROASTS

The degree of heat used for each roast must be regulated according to the nature and size of the latter after the manner of spitted roasts.

An oven roast, in the first place, should always be placed on a meatstand, and this should be of such a height that at no given moment during the cooking process the meat may come in contact with the juices and fat which have drained from it into the utensil beneath. Failing a proper stand, a spit resting upon the edges of the utensil may be used.

No liquid of any kind, gravy or water, need be put in the baking-pan. The addition of any liquid is rather prejudicial than otherwise, since by producing vapour which hangs over the roast it transforms the latter into a stew.

Remarks. - Whether spitted or in the oven, a roast must always be frequently basted with a fatty substance, but never with any other liquid.

255- THE GRAVY OF ROASTS

The real and most natural gravy for roasts is made from the swilling of the baking- or dripping-pan, even if water be used as the diluent, since the contents of these utensils represent a portion of the essential principles of the roast fallen from it in the process of cooking. But to obtain this result neither the utensils nor the gravy ought to have burned; the latter should merely have solidified, and for this reason a roast cooked in a very fierce oven ought to be laid on a pan only just large enough to hold it, so that the fat may not burn.

The swilling can in any case only produce a very small quantity of gravy, consequently, when it happens that a greater quantity is required, the need is met beforehand by preparing a stock madte from bones and trimmings of a similar nature to the roast for which the gravy is required. The procedure for this is as follows: -

Place the bones and trimmings in a pan with a little fat and literally roast them. Then transfer them to a saucepan, moisten so as to cover with tepid, slightly-salted water, and add thereto the swillings of the pan wherein they were roasted. Boil, skim, and set to cook gently for three or four hours, according to the nature of the products used. This done, almost entirely remove the grease, strain through muslin, and put aside for the purpose of swilling the dripping- or baking-pan of the roast.

Swilling. - Having removed the roast from the spit or oven, take off a portion of the grease from the baking- or drippingpan, and pour into it the required quantity of prepared gravy. Reduce the whole by half, strain through muslin, and almost entirely remove grease.

It is a mistake to remove all the grease from, and to clarify, the gravy of roasts. Treated thus they are certainly clearer and more sightly, but a large proportion of their savour is lost, and it should be borne in mind that the gravy of a roast is not a consomm^.

In the matter of roast feathered game, the accompanying gravy is supplied by the swilling of the utensil, either with water or a small quantity of brandy. This is a certain means of obtaining a gravy whose savour is precisely that of the game; but occasionally veal gravy is used, as its flavour is neutral.

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and it therefore cannot impair the particular flavour of the reduced game gravy lying on the bottom of the utensil. The use of stock prepared from the bones and trimmings of game similar to that constituting the dish is also common.

256- THE DRESSING AND ACCOMPANIMENTS OF ROASTS

As a rule, a roast ought not to wait. It ought only to leave the spit or oven in order to be served. All roasts should be placed on very hot dishes, slightly besprinkled with fresh butter, and surrounded by bunches of watercress (this is optional). The gravy is invariably served separately.

Roasts of butcher's meat and poultry are dished up as simply as possible.

Small roasted game may be dished up on fried slices of breadcrumb masked with gratin stuffing (No. 202).

When lemons accompany a roast, they should be served separately. Pieces of lemon that have once served to garnish a dish must not be used, for they have mostly been tainted by grease.

The mediaeval custom of dishing game with the plumage has been abandoned.

Roast feathered game a I'anglaise is dished up with or without potato chips, and the three adjuncts are gravy, breadcrumbs, and bread-sauce.

In northern countries game roasts are always accompanied either by slightly sugared stewed apples, or by cherry or apricot jam.

257- GRILLS

Those culinary preparations effected by means of grilling belong to the order called cooking by concentration. And, indeed, in almost all cases, the great object of these operations, I might even say the greatest object, is the concentration, in the centre, of the juices and essences which represent, most essentially, the nutritive principles of the products cooked.

A grill, which is, in short, but a roast on an open fire, stands, in my opinion, as the remote starting-point, the very genesis of our art.

It was the primeval notion of our forefathers' infantile brains; it was progress born of an instinctive desire to eat with greater pleasure; and it was the first culinary method ever employed.

A little later, and following naturally, as it were, upon this first attempt, the spit was born of the grill; gradually, intelligence supplanted rude instinct; reason began to deduce effects from supposed causes; and thus cooking was launched forth upon that highroad along which it has not yet ceased steadily to advance.

Fuel for Grills. - That mostly used, and certainly the best for the purpose, is live coal or small pieces of charcoal. Whatever fuel be used, however, it is essential that it produce no smoke, even though the grill fire be ventilated by powerful blowers which draw the smoke off. More especially is this necessary, though I admit the contingency is rare, when artificial ventilation has to be effected owing to the fire's burning in the open without the usual help of systematic draughts; for if smoke occasioned by foreign substances or by the falling of the fat itself on to the glowing embers were not immediately carried away, either artificially or by a convenient draught, the grills would most surely acquire a very disagreeable taste therefrom.

The Bed of Charcoal. - The arrangement of the bed of charcoal under the grill is of some importance, and it must not only be regulated according to the size and kind of the products to be grilled, but also in such wise as to allow of the production of more or less heat under given circumstances.

The bed should therefore be set in equal layers in the centre, but varying in thickness according as to whether the fire has to be more or less fierce; it should also be slightly raised on those sides which are in contact with the air, in order that the whole burning surface may radiate equal degrees of heat.

The grill must always be placed over the glowing fuel in advance, and it should be very hot when the objects to be grilled are placed upon it, otherwise they would stick to the bars, and would probably be spoiled when turned.

Grills Classified.

Grills may be divided into four classes, of which each demands particular care. They are: (i) Red-meat grills (beef and mutton); (2) White-meat grills (veal, lamb, poultry); (3) Fish; (4) Grills coated with butter and bread-crumbs.

258- RED MEAT GRILLS

I submit as a principle that the golden rule in grills is to strictly observe the correct degree of heat which is proper to each treated object, never forgetting that the larger and richer in nutrition the piece of meat, the quicker and more thorough must be its initial setting.

I have already explained, under braisings, the part played by, and the use of, rissoling or setting; but it is necessary to revert to this question and its bearing upon grills.

If large pieces of meat (beef or mutton) are in question, the

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better their quality and the richer they are in juices, the more resisting must be the rissoled coating they receive. The pressure of the contained juices upon the rissoled coating of this meat will be proportionately great or small according to whether the latter be rich or poor, and this pressure will gradually increase with the waxing heat.

If the grill fire be so regulated as to ensure the progressive penetration of heat into the cooking object, this is what happens: -

The heat, striking that surface of the meat which is in direct communication with the fire, penetrates the tissues, and spreads stratiformly through the body, driving the latter's juices in front of it. When these reach the opposite, rissoled, or set side of the meat, they are checked, and thereupon, absorbing the incoming heat, effect the cooking of the inner parts.

Of course, if the piece of meat under treatment is very thick, the fierceness of the fire should be proportionately abated the moment the initial process of rissoling or setting of the meat's surface has been effected, the object being to allow the heat to penetrate the cooking body more regularly. If the fierceness of the fire were maintained, the rissoled coating on the meat would probably char, and the resulting thickness of carbon would so successfully resist the passage of any heat into the interior that, in the end, while the meat would probably be found to be completely burnt on the outside, the inside would be quite raw.

If somewhat thinner pieces are in question, a quick rissoling of their surfaces over a fierce fire, and a few minutes of subsequent cooking, will be all they need. No alteration in the intensity of the fire need be sought in this case.

Examples. - A rumpsteak or Chateaubriand, in order to be properly cooked, should first have its outsides rissoled on a very fierce fi.re with a view to preserving its juices, after which cooking may proceed over a moderate fire so as to allow of the gradual penetration of the heat into the centre of the body.

Small pieces such as tournedos, small fillets, noisettes, chops, may, after the preliminary process of outside rissoling, be cooked over the same degree of heat as effected the latter, because the thickness of meat to be penetrated is less.

The Care of Grills while Cooking. - Before placing the meats on the grill, baste them slightly with clarified butter, and repeat this operation frequently during the cooking process, so as to avoid the possible drying of the rissoled surfaces.

Grilled red meat should always be turned by means of special tongs, and great care should be observed that its surface be not torn or pierced, lest the object of the preliminary precautions be defeated, and the contained juices escape.

Time of Cooking. - This, in the case of red meats, is arrived at by the following test: if, on touching the meat with one's finger, the former resist any pressure, it is sufficiently cooked: if it give, it is clear that in the centre, at least, the reverse is the case. The most certain sign, however, that cooking has been completed is the appearance of little beads of blood upon the rissoled surface of the meat.

259- WHITE-MEAT GRILLS

That superficial rissoling which is so necessary in the case of red meats is not at all so in the case of white, for in the latter there can be no question of the concentration of juices, since these are only present in the form of albumen - that is to say, in the form of juices " in the making," so to speak, which is peculiar to veal and lamb.

For this kind of grills keep a moderate fire, so that the cooking and colouring of the meat may take place simultaneously.

White-meat grills should be fairly often basted by means of a brush, with clarified butter, while cooking, lest their outsides dry.

They are known to be cooked when the juice issuing from them is quite white.

360- FISH QRILLS

Use a moderate fire with these, and only grill after having copiously sprinkled them with clarified butter or oil. Sprinkle them similarly while cooking.

A grilled lish is cooked when the bones are easily separated from the meat. Except for the fatty kind, such as mackerel, red mullet, or herrings, always roll fish to be grilled in flour before sprinkling them with melted butter. The object of so doing is to give them a golden external crust, which, besides making them more sightly, keeps them from drying.

261- THE GRILLING OF PRODUCTS COATED WITH BUTTER AND BREAD-CRUMBS

These grills generally consist of only small objects; they must be effected on a very moderate fire, with the view of enabling them to cook and acquire colour simultaneously. They should also be frequently besorinkled with clarified butter, and turned with care, so as not to break their coating, the object of which is to withhold their contained juices.

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262- FRYINGS

Frying is one of the principal cooking processes, for the number of preparations that are accomplished by its means is very considerable. Its procedure is governed by stringent laws and rules which it is best not to break, lest the double danger of failure and impairment of material be incurred.

The former is easily averted if one is familiar with the process, and paj's proper attention to it, while the latter is obviated by precautions which have every raison d'etre, and the neglect of which only leads to trouble.

The question of the kind of utensil to employ is not so immaterial as some would think, for very often accidents result from the mere disregard of the importance of this matter.

Very often imprudence and bluster on the part of the operator may be the cause of imperfections, the greatest care being needed in the handling of utensils containing overheated fat.

Utensils used in frying should be made of copper, or other resisting metal; they should be in one piece, oval or round in shape, and sufficiently large and deep to allow, while only halffilled with fat, of the objects being properly affected by the latter. The necessity of this condition is obvious, seeing that if the utensil contain too much fat the slightest jerking of it on the stove would spill some of the liquid, and the operator would probably be badly burnt.

Finally, utensils with vertical sides are preferable to those with the slanting kind; more especially is this so in large kitchens where, the work involving much frying, capacious receptacles are required.

263- FRYING FAT- ITS PREPARATION

Any animal or vegetable grease is suitable for frying, provided it be quite pure and possess a resisting force allowing it to reach a very high temperature without burning. But for frying on a large scale, the use of cooked and clarified fats, such as the fat of " pot-au-feu " and roasts, should be avoided.

A frying medium is only perfect when it is able to meet the demands of a protracted operation, and consists of fresh or raw fats, chosen with care and thoroughly purified by cooking.

Under no circumstances may butter be used for frying on a large scale, seeing that, even when thoroughly purified, it can only reach a comparatively low degree of heat. It may be used only for small, occasional fryings.

The fat of kidney of beef generally forms the base of the grease intended for frying on a large scale. It is preferable to all others on account of its cheapness and the great length of time it can be worked, provided it receives the proper care.

Veal-fat yields a finer frying medium, but its resistance is small, and it must, moreover, always be strengthened with the fat of beef.

Mutton-fat should be deliberately discarded, for, if it happen to be that of an old beast, it smells of tallow, and, if it be that of a young one, it causes the hot grease to foam and to overflow down the sides of the utensil, this leading to serious accidents.

Pork-fat is also used for frying, either alone, or combined with some other kind.

In brief, the fat of kidney of beef is that which is best suited to fryings on a large scale. Ordinary household frying, which does not demand a very resisting grease, may well be effected by means of the above, combined with an equal quantity of veal-fat, or a mixture composed of the fat of kidney of beef, veal, and pork in the proportions of one-half, one-quarter, and one-quarter respectively.

The grease used for frying ought not only to be melted down, but also thoroughly cooked, so that it may be quite pure. If insufficiently cooked, it foams on first being used, and so demands all kinds of extra precautions, which only cease to be necessary when constant heating at last rectifies it. Moreover, if it be not quite pure, it easily penetrates immersed solids and makes them indigestible.

All grease used in frying should first be cut into pieces and then put into the saucepan with one pint of water per every ten lbs.

The object of the water is to assist in the melting, and this it does by filtering into the grease, vaporising, and thereby causing the latter to swell. So long as the water has not completely evaporated, the grease only undergoes the action of liquefaction, i.e., the dissolution of its molecules; but its thorough cooking process, ending with its purification, only begins when all the water is gone.

The grease is cooked when (i) the membranes which enveloped it alone remain intact and are converted into greaves; (2) it gives off smoke which has a distinct smell.

At this stage it has reached such a high temperature that it is best to remove it from the fire for about ten minutes, so that it may cool; then it must be strained through a sieve, or a coarse towel, which must be tightly twisted.

264- THE VARIOUS DEGREES OF HEAT REACHED BY THE FRYING MEDIUM, AND THEIR APPLICATION

The temperature reached by a frying medium depends upon

LEADING CULINARY OPERATIONS 125

the latter's constituents and its purity. The various degrees may be classified as moderately hot, hot, very hot.

The expression " boiling hot " is unsuitable, seeing that fat never boils. Butter (an occasional frying medium) cannot overreach 248° F. without burning, whereas if it be thoroughly purified it can attain from 269° to 275° F. - a temperature which is clearly below what would be needed for work on a large scale.

Animal greases used in ordinary frying reach from 275° to 284° F. when moderately hot, 320° F. when hot, and 356° F. when very hot; in the last case they smoke slightly.

Pork-fat (lard), when used alone, reaches 392° F. without burning. Very pure goose dripping withstands 428° F.; and, finally, vegetable fats may reach, without burning, 482° F. in the case of cocoa-nut butter, 518° F. with ordinary oils, and 554° in the case of olive oil.

The temperature of ordinary frying fat may be tested thus: it is moderately hot when, after throwing a sprig of parsley or a crust of bread into it, it begins to bubble immediately; it is hot if it crackles when a slightly moist object is thrust into it; it is very hot when it gives off a thin white smoke perceptible to the smell.

The first temperature, " moderately hot," is used (i) for all products containing vegetable water the complete evaporation of which is necessary; (2) for fish whose volume exacts a cooking process by means of penetration, previous to that with concentration.

In the first degree of heat with which it is used the frying fat therefore only effects a kind of preparatory operation.

The second temperature, " hot," is used for all products wihich have previously undergone an initial cooking process in the first temperature, either for evaporation or penetration, and its object is either to finish them or to cover them with a crimped coating.

It is also applicable to those products upon which the frying fat must act immediately by concentration - that is to say, by forming a set coating around them which prevents the escape of the contained substances.

Objects treated with this temperature are: all those panes a I'anglaise or covered with batter, such as various croquettes, cromesquis, cutlets, and collops k la Villeroy, fritters of all kinds, fried creams, &c.

In this case the frying medium acts by setting, which in certain cases is exceedingly necessary.

I. If the objects in question are panes a I'anglaise, i.e., dipped in beaten eggs and rolled in bread-crumbs, the sudden contact of the hot grease converts this coating of egg and breadcrumbs into a resisting crust, which prevents the escape of the substances and the liquefied sauce contained within.

If these objects were plunged in a fat that was not sufficiently hot, the coating of egg and bread-crumbs would not only imbibe the frying medium, but it would run the risk of breaking, thereby allowing the escape of the very substances it was intended to withhold.

2. The same holds with objects treated with batter. Hence the absolute necessity of ensuring that setting which means that the covering of batter solidifies immediately. As the substances constituting these various dishes are cooked in advance, it follows that their second heating and the colouring of the coating {egg and bread-crumbs or batter) take place at the same time and in a few minutes.

The third temperature, " very hot," is used (i) for all objects that need a sharp and firm setting; (2) for all small objects the setting of ^^hich is of supreme importance, and whose cooking is effected in a few minutes, as in the case of whitebait.

265- FRYING MEDIUM FOR FISH

Every frying medium, used for work on a large scale, which has acquired a too decided colouring through repeated use, may serve in the preparation of fish even until its whole strength is exhausted.

Oil is best suited to the frying of fish, especially the very small kind, owing to the tremendous heat it can withstand without burning, for this heat guarantees that setting which is so indispensable.

Except in this case, however, the temperature of the frying medium should be regulated strictly in accordance with the size of the fish to be fried, in order that its cooking and colouring may be effected simultaneously.

Except Nonats and whitebait, which are simply rolled in flour, fish to be fried are previously steeped in slightly salted milk and then rolled in flour. From this combination of milk and flour there results a crisp coating which withholds those particular principles that the fish exude while cooking.

When finished, fried fish are drained, dried, slightly salted, and dished on a serviette or on paper, with a garnish of fried parsley-sprays and sections of channelled lemon.

266- THE QUANTITY OF THE FRYING MEDIUM

This should always be in proportion to the quantity or size

LEADING CULINARY OPERATIONS 127

of the objects to be fried, bearing in mind that these must always be entirely submerged.

Without necessarily exaggerating, the quantity should invariably be rather in excess of the requirements, and for this reason, viz., the greater the amount of fat, the higher will be the temperature reached, and the less need one fear a sudden cooling of the fat when the objects to be treated are immersed. This sudden cooling is often the cause of great trouble, unless one be working over a fire of such fierceness that the fat can return in a few seconds to the temperature it was at before the objects were immersed.

267- THE CARE OF THE FRYING MEDIUM

Every time a frying fat is used it should, after having been melted, be strained through a towel, for the majority of objects which it has served to cook must have left some particles behind them which might prove prejudicial to the objects that are to follow.

Objects that are " panes " always leave some raspings, for instance, which in time assume the form of black powder, while those that have been treated with flour likewise drop some of their coating, which, in accumulating, produces a muddy precipitate on the bottom of the utensil.

Not only do these foreign substances disturb the clearness of the fat and render it liable to burn, but they are exceedingly detrimental to the objects that are treated later.

Therefore, always strain the fat whenever it is used - in the first place because the proper treatment of the objects demands it, and, secondly, because its very existence as a serviceable medium depends upon this measure.

268- GRATINS

This culinary operation plays a sufficiently important part in the work to warrant my detailing at least its leading points.

The various kinds of the order " Gratins " are (i) the Complete Gratin; (2) the Rapid Gratin; (3) the Light Gratin; (4) Glazing, which is a form of Rapid Gratin.

269- COMPLETE GRATIN

This is the first example of the series; it is that whose preparation is longest and most tiresome; for its principal constituent, whatever this is, must be completely cooked. Its cooking must moreover be coincident with the reduction of the sauce, which is the base of the gratin, and with the formation of the gratin proper, i.e., the crimped crust which forms on the surface and is the result of the combination of the sauce with the raspings and the butter, under the direct influence of the heat.

In the preparation of complete gratin, two things must be taken into account: - (i) The nature and size of the object to be treated, and (2) the degree of heat which must be used in order that the coolcing of the object, the reduction of the sauce, and the formation of the gratin may be effected simultaneously.

The base of complete gratin is almost invariably ordinary or Lenten duxelle sauce (No. 223), in accordance with the requirements.

The object to be treated with the gratin is laid on a buttered dish, surrounded with slices of raw mushrooms and chopped shallots, and covered with duxelle sauce. The. surface is then sprinkled with raspings, and copiously moistened with melted butter. Should the piece be large, the amount of sauce used will be proportionately greater, and the reverse, of course, applies to medium or smaller sizes.

Take note of the following remarks in the making of complete gratins: -

1. If too much sauce were used in proportion to the size of the object, the latter would cook and the gratin form before the sauce could reach the correct degree of consistence by means of reduction. Hence it would be necessary to reduce the sauce still further on the stove, and thereby give rise to steam which would soften the coating of the gratin.

2. If the sauce used were insufficient, it would be reduced before the cooking of the object had been effected, and, more sauce having to be added, the resulting gratin would be uneven.

3. The larger the piece, and consequently the longer it takes to cook, the more moderate should be the heat used. Conversely, the smaller it is, the fiercer should the fire be.

When withdrawing the gratin from the oven squeeze a few drops of lemon-juice over it, and besprinkle it with chopped parsley.

270- RAPID QRATIN

Proceed as above, with duxelle sauce, but the products treated with it, viz., meats, fish, or vegetables, are always cooked and warmed in advance. All that is required, therefore, is to effect the formation of the gratin as quickly as possible.

To do this, cover the object under treatment with the necessary quantity of salt, besprinkle with raspings and butter, and set the gratin to form in a fierce oven.

LEADING CULINARY OPERATIONS 129

271- LIGHT QRATIN

This is proper to farinaceous products, such as macaroni, lazagnes, noodles, gnocchi, &c., and consists of a combination of grated cheese, raspings, and butter. In this case, again, the only end in view is the formation of the gratin coating, which must be evenly coloured, and is the result of the cheese melting. A moderate heat is all that is wanted for this kind of gratin.

Also considered as light gratins are those which serve as the complement of stuffed vegetables such as tomatoes, mushrooms, egg-plant, and cucumber. With these the gratin is composed of raspings sprinkled with butter or oil, and it is placed in a more or less fierce heat according to whether the vegetables have already been cooked or partially cooked, or are quite raw.

272- GLAZINGS

These are of two kinds - they either consist of a heavily buttered sauce, or they form from a sprinkling of cheese upon the sauce with which the object to be glazed is covered.

In the first case, after having poured sauce over the object to be treated, place the dish on another dish containing a little water. This is to prevent the sauce decomposing and boiling. The greater the quantity of butter used, the more intense will be the heat required, in Order that a slight golden film may form almost instantaneously.

In the second case, the sauce used is always a Mornay (No. gi). Cover the object under treatment with the sauce, besprinkle with grated cheese and melted butter, and place in fairly intense heat, so that a slight golden crust may form almost immediately, this crust being the result of the combined cheese and butter.

273- BLANCHINGS

The essentially unsuitable term blanchings is applied in the culinary technology of France to three classes of operations which entirely differ one from the other in the end they have in view.

1. The blanching of meats.

2. The blanching, or, better, the parboiling of certain vegetables.

3. The blanching of certain other vegetables, which in reality amounts to a process of cooking.

The blanching of meats obtains mostly in the case of calf's head and foot and the sweet-bread of veal, sheep's and lambs'

K trotters, and lamb's sweet-bread. These meats are first set to soak in cold, running water until they have quite got rid of the blood with which they are naturally saturated. They are then placed on the fire in a saucepan containing enough cold water to abundantly cover them, and the water is gradually brought to the boil.

For calf's head or feet, boiling may last for fifteen or twenty minutes; veal sweet-bread must not boil for more than ten or twelve minutes; while lamb sweet-bread is withdrawn the moment the boil is reached.

As soon as blanched, the meats are cooled in plenty of fresh water before undergoing their final treatment.

The blanching of cocks' combs is exceptional in this, namely, that after the combs have been cleansed of blood - that is to say, soaked in cold water, they are placed on the fire in cold water, the temperature of which must be carefully kept below 113° F. When this degree is approached, take the saucepan off the fire and rub each comb with a cloth, dusted with table-salt, in order to remove the skins; then cool the combs with fresh water before cooking them.

Many people use the blanching process with meats intended for " blanquette " or "fricassee." I regard this procedure as quite erroneous, as also the preliminary soaking in cold water.

If the meats or pieces of poultry intended for the abovementioned preparations be of a good quality (and no others should be used), they need only be set to cook in cold water, or cold stock, and gradually brought to the boil, being stirred repeatedly the while. The scum formed should be carefully removed, and, in this way, perfectly white meats and stock, with all their savour, are obtained.

As to meats or pieces of poultry of an inferior quality, no soaking and no blanching can make good their defects. Whichever way they are treated they remain dry, gray, and savourless. It is therefore simpler and better to use only the finest quality goods.

An excellent proof of the futility of soaking and blanching meats intended for "fricassees" and " blanquettes " lies in the fact that these very meats, if of good quality, are always perfectly white when they are braised, poeled, or roasted, notwithstanding the fact that these three operations are less calculated to preserve their whiteness than the kind of treatment they are subjected to in the case of "blanquettes" and " fricassees."

Mere routine alone can account for this practice of soaking

LEADING CULINARY OPERATIONS 131

and blanching meats - a practice that is absolutely condemned by common sense.

The term "blanching" is wrongly applied to the cooking of green vegetables, such as French beans, green peas, Brussels sprouts, spinach, &c. The cooking of these, which is effected by means of boiling salted water, ought really to be termed " a I'anglaise." All the details of the procedure, however, will be given when I deal with the vegetables to which the latter apply.

Lastly, under the name of " blanching," there exists another operation which consists in partly cooking certain vegetables in plenty of water, in order to rid them of any bitter or pungent flavour they may possess. The time allowed for this blanching varies according to the age of the vegetables, but when the latter are young and in season, it amounts to little more than a mere scalding.

Blanching is chiefly resorted to for lettuce, chicory, endives, celery, artichokes, cabbages, and the green vegetables; carrots, turnips, and small onions when they are out of season. In respect of vegetable-marrows, cucumbers, and chow-chow, blanching is often left to the definite cooking process, which should then come under the head of the "k I'anglaise" cooking.

After the process of blanching, the vegetables I have just enumerated are always cooled - that is to say, steeped in cold water until they are barely lukewarm. They are then left to drain on a sieve, previous to undergoing the final cooking process to which they are best suited, this generally being braising.

K 2 6. Vegetables and Garnishes Various Preparations.

274- THE TREATMENT OF DRY VEGETABLES

It is wrong to soak dry vegetables. If they are of good quality, and the produce of the year, they need only be put into a saucepan with enough cold water to completely cover them, and with one oz. of salt per five quarts of water.

Set to boil gently, skim, add the aromatic garnish, quartered carrots, onions, with or without garlic cloves, and a faggot, and set to cook gently with lid on.

Remarks. - If the vegetables used are old or inferior in quality, they might be put to soak in soft water; but this only long enough to swell them slightly, i.e., about one and one-half hours.

A prolonged soaking of dry vegetables may give rise to incipient germination, and this, by impairing the principles of the vegetables, depreciates the value of the food, and may even cause some harm to the consumer.

27s- BRAISED VEGETABLES

Vegetables to be braised must be first blanched, cooled, pared, and strung.

Garnish the bottom of a saucepan with blanched pork-rind, sliced carrots and onions, and a faggot, and cover the sides of the utensil with thin slices of bacon. Lay the vegetables upon the prepared litter, and leave them to sweat in the oven for about ten minutes with lid on. The object of this ovensweating is to expel the water. Now moisten enough to cover with white stock, and set to cook gently.

This done, drain, remove string, and cut to the shape required. Lay them in a saut^pan, and, if they are to be served soon, cover them with their reduced stock from which the grease has been removed.

If they are prepared in advance, simply put them aside in suitable basins, cover them with their cooking-liquor, which should be strained over them, boiling, and without its grease removed, and cover with buttered paper.

Adjuncts to Braised Vegetables

According to the case, the adjunct is either the braisingliquor, reduced and with all grease removed, or the same completed by means of an addition of meat-glaze.

LEADING CULINARY OPERATIONS 133

Occasionally, it may be the braising-liquor slightly thickened with half-glaze and finished with butter and the juice of a lemon.

276- LEASON OF GREEN VEGETABLES WITH BUTTER

First thoroughly drain the vegetables and toss them over the fire for a few minutes, in order to completely rid them of their moisture. Season according to the kind of vegetable; add the butter away from the fire, and slightly toss, rolling the saucepan meanwhile on the stove with the view of effecting the leason by means of the mixing of the butter with the treated vegetables.

377- LEASON OF VEGETABLES WITH CREAM

Vegetables to be treated in this way must be kept somewhat firm. After having thoroughly drained them, put them into a saucepan with enough boiling fresh cream to well moisten without covering them.

Finish their cooking process in the cream, stirring occasionally the while.

When the cream is almost entirely reduced, finish, away from the fire, with a little butter.

The leason may be slightly stiffened, if necessary, by means of a few tablespoonfuls of cream sauce.

278- VEGETABLE CREAMS AND PUREES

Purees of dry and farinaceous vegetables may be obtained by rubbing the latter through a sieve.

Put the purde into a sautdpan, and dry it over a brisk fire, adding one and one-half oz. of butter per pint of purde; then add milk or cream in small quantities at a time, until the purde has reached the required degree of consistence.

For purees of aqueous vegetables, such as French beans, cauliflowers, celery, &c., a quarter of their volume of mashed potatoes should be added to them in order to effect their leason.

In the case of vegetable creams, substitute for the thickening of mashed potatoes an equivalent quantity of succulent and stiff Bechamel sauce.

279- GARNISHES

In cookery, although garnishes only play a minor part, they are, nevertheless, very important, for, besides being the principal accompaniments to dishes, they are very often the adornment thereof, while it frequently happens that their harmonious arrangement considerably helps to throw the beauty of a fine joint or bird into relief.

A garnish may consist of one or more products. Be this as it may, its name, as a rule, distinctly denotes, in a word, what it is and how it is made.

In any case, it should always bear some relation to the piece it accompanies, either in the constituents of its preparation or with regard to the size of the piece constituting the dish.

I merely add that, since the constituents of garnishes are strictly denoted by the name the latter bear, any addition of products foreign to their nature would be a grave mistake. Likewise, the omission of any constituent is to be avoided, as the garnish would thereby be out of keeping with its specified character.

Only in very exceptional circumstances should any change of this kind be allowed to take place.

The constituents of garnishes are supplied by vegetables, farinaceous products, quenelles of all kinds, cocks' combs and kidneys, truffles and mushrooms, plain or stuffed olives, molluscs (mussels or oysters), shell-fish (crayfish, shrimps, lobster, &c.), butcher's supplies, such as lamb's sweet-bread, calf's brains, and calf's spine-marrow.

As a rule, garnishes are independent of the dish itself - that is to say, they are prepared entirely apart. At other times they are mixed with it, playing the double part of garnish and condimentary principle, as in the case of Matelotes, Compotes, Civets, &c.

Vegetables for garnishing are fashioned and treated in accordance with the use and shape implied by the name of the dish, which should always be the operator's guide in this respect.

The farinaceous ones, the molluscs and shell-fish, undergo the customary preparation.

I have already described (Chapter X.) the preparation of quenelles and forcemeats for garnishing. Other recipes which have the same purpose will be treated in their respective order.

PART II RECIPES AND MODES OF PROCEDURE

In Part I. of this work I treated of the general principles on which the science of cookery is founded, and the leading operations constituting the basis of the work.

In Part II. I shall proceed from the general to the particular - in other words, I shall set forth the recipes of every dish I touch upon, its method of preparation, and its constituent parts.

With the view of making reference as easy as possible, without departing from a certain logical order, I have adopted the method of classifying these recipes in accordance with the position the dishes they represent hold in the ordinary menu, and thus, starting with the hors-d'oeuvres, I go straight on _to the dessert. I was compelled, however, to alter my plan in the case of eggs, which never appear on the menu of a dinner save in Lent.

These I have therefore placed immediately after the horsd'oeuvres, which, like eggs, should only be served at luncheons, for reasons I shall explain later.

It will be seen that I have placed the Savouries before the Entremets, instead of after the Ices, as is customary in England. My reason for this apparent anomaly is that I consider it a positive gastronomical heresy to eat fish, meats, fowlremains, &c., after delicate Entremets and Ices, the subtle flavour of the latter, which form such an agreeable item in a dinner, being quite destroyed by the violent seasoning of the former.

Moreover, the very pretext brought forward in support of this practice, so erroneous from the gastronomical standpoint, namely, " that after a good dinner it is necessary to serve something strange and highly seasoned, in order to whet the diner's thirst," is its own condemnation.

For, if appetite is satiated and thirst is quenched, it follows that the consumer has taken all that is necessary. Therefore, anything more that he may be stimulated to take will only amount to excess, and excess in gastronomy, as in everything else, is a fault that can find no excuse.

At all events, I could agree to no more than the placing of the Savouries before mild Entremets, and, even so, the former would have to consist of light, dry preparations, very moderately seasoned, such as Paillettes with Parmesan, various kinds of dry biscuits, and small tartlets garnished with cheese souffle.

In short, if I expressed my plain opinion on the matter, I should advise the total suppression of Savouries in a dinner.

CHAPTER XI

hors-d'ceuvres General Remarks

The preparations described hereafter all belong to the order of cold hors-d'oeuvres. I did not deem it necessary to touch upon the hot kind, for, apart from the fact that these are very seldom served in England, at least under the head of horsd'oeuvres, they are mostly to be found either among the hot Entries or the Savouries proper.

Generally speaking, hors-d'oeuvres should only form part of a meal that does not comprise soup, while the rule of serving them at luncheons only ought to be looked upon as absolute.

It is true that restaurants k la carte deliberately deviate from this rule, but it should be remembered, in their case, that, in addition to the fact that " hors-d'oeuvres de luxe," such as caviare, oysters, plovers' and lapwings' eggs, &c., are mostly in question, they also find the use of hors-d'oeuvres expedient if only as a means of whiling away the customers' time during the preparation of the various dishes that may have been ordered.

Moreover, the hors-d'oeuvres enumerated are not subject to the same objection as those composed of fish, salads, and marinaded vegetables. The use of cold hors-d'oeuvres in these special cases is thus, to a certain extent, justified, but it is nevertheless to be regretted that an exception of this kind should degenerate into a habit, and that it should be made to prevail under circumstances which, in themselves, are insufficient warrant for the abuse.

In Russia it is customary to have a sideboard in a room adjoining the dining-room, dressed with all kinds of special pastries, smoked fish, and other products, and these the diners partake of, standing, together with strong liqueurs, before taking their seats at the table. The general name given to the items on the sideboard is " Zakouski." Caterers and hotel-keepers in different parts of the world, more zealous than judicious, introduced the custom of the zakouski without allowing for the differences of race, which are due, to some extent, to the influence of climate; and at first, probably owing to everybody's enthusiasm for things Russian, the innovation enjoyed a certain vogue, in spite of the fact that, in many cases, the dishes served resembled the Zakouski in name alone, and consisted of cold and very ordinary hors-d'ceuvres, served at the dining-table itself.

At length the absurdity of investing such common things as hors-d'oeuvres with an exotic title began to be perceived, and nowadays the occasions are rare when the Russian term is to be found on a menu; nevertheless, the custom unfortunately survives.

For my own part, I regard cold hors-d'oeuvres as quite unnecessary in a dinner; I even consider them counter to the dictates of common sense, and they are certainly prejudicial to the flavour of the soup that follows.

At the most, caviare might be tolerated, the nutty taste of which, when it is quite fresh, can but favourably impress the consumer's palate, as also certain fine oysters, provided they be served with very dry Rhine wine or white Bordeaux. But I repeat that hors-d'oeuvres consisting of any kind of fish, salad, marinaded vegetables, &c., should be strictly proscribed from the items of a dinner.

The custom of serving cold hors-d'oeuvres at lunch is, on the contrary, not only traditional, but indispensable, and their varied combinations, thrown into relief by tasteful and proper arrangement, besides lending a cheerful aspect to the table, beguile the consumer's attention and fancy from the very moment of his entering the dining-room. It has been said, with reason, that soups should foretell the dominant note of the whole dinner, and cold hors-d'ceuvres should in the same way reveal that of a luncheon.

Possibly it was with a sense of the importance of horsd'oeuvres, from this standpoint, that their preparation was transferred from the office (the exclusive concern whereof used, formerly, to be the hors-d'oeuvres) to the kitchen.

The results of this change manifested themselves immediately in prodigious variations and transformations of the hors-d'oeuvres, both in respect of their preparation and dishingup, so much so, indeed, that perhaps in no other department of culinary art has there been such progress of recent years.

Their variety is infinite, and it would be impossible to compute, even approximately, the number of combinations an ingenious artist could effect in their preparation, seeing that

HORS-D'CEUVRES 139

the latter embraces almost every possible use of every conceivable esculent product.

Well may it be said that a good hors-d'oeuvrier is a man to be prized in any kitchen, for, although his duties do not by any means rank first in importance, they nevertheless demand in him who performs them the possession of such qualities as are rarely found united in one person, viz., reliable and experienced taste, originality, keen artistic sense, and professional knowledge.

The hors-d'oeuvrier should be able to produce something sightly and good out of very little, and the beauty and attractiveness of a hors-d'oeuvre should depend to a much greater degree upon his work and the judicious treatment of his material than upon the nature of the latter.

Preparation for Hors-d'CEuvres

280- BUTTERS AND CREAMS

The seasoning of butters for hors-d'oeuvres is effected when dishing them up. When prepared in advance, they ought to be placed in a bowl and put aside somewhere in the cool, covered with a piece of clean paper.

281- ANCHOVY BUTTER

Wash twelve or fifteen anchovies in cold water, and dry them thoroughly. Remove the fillets from the bones, pound them smoothly with four oz. of butter, rub the whole through a fine sieve, smooth it with a spoon, and put it aside.

282- CAVIARE BUTTER

Pound three oz. of pressed caviare with four oz. of butter, and rub through a fine sieve.

283- SHRIMP BUTTER

Pound four oz. of shrimps with four oz. of butter; rub through a fine sieve first, then through muslin, after having softened the preparation.

This may also be made from the shelled tails of shrimps, which process, though it is easier, does not yield a butter of such delicate taste as the former.

284- CURRY BUTTER

Soften four oz. of butter in a bowl, and add thereto sufficient curry-powder to ensure a decided taste. The exact quantity of curry cannot be prescribed, since the quality of the latter entirely governs its apportionment. 285- CRAYFISH BUTTER

Cook the crayfish with mirepoix, as for Bisque. Finely pound the shells after having removed the tails, and add thereto four oz. of butter per two oz.; rub through a fine sieve first, then through muslin.

N.B. - The whole crayfish may be pounded, but the tails are usually laid aside with a view to supplying the garnish of the toasts for which the butter is intended.

286- RED -HERRING BUTTER

Take the fillets of three red-herrings; remove the skins, and pound finely with three oz. of butter. Rub through a fine sieve.

287- LOBSTER BUTTER

Pound four oz. of lobster trimmings and spawn, and a little of the coral with four oz. of butter. Rub through a fine sieve.

288- MILT BUTTER

Poach four oz. of milt in a covered and buttered saut^-pan, with the juice of half a lemon; pound in the mortar, and add to the preparation its weight of butter and a teaspoonful of mustard. Rub through a fine sieve.

289- MONTPELIER BUTTER (GREEN BUTTER)

See Compound Butter for Sauces (No. 153).

290- HORSE-RADISH BUTTER

Grate two oz. of horse-radish and pound with four oz. of butter. Rub through a fine sieve.

291- SMOKED SALMON BUTTER

Finely pound four oz. of smoked salmon with as much butter, and rub through a fine sieve.

292- PAPRIKA BUTTER

Soften four oz. of butter in a bowl, and mix therewith a small teaspoonful of paprika infused in a few drops of white wine or consomm^, with a view to strengthening the colour of the paprika.

HORS-D'GEUVRES 141

293- PIMENTO BUTTER

Pound four oz. of preserved or freshly-cooked capsicum; add as much butter thereto, and rub through a fine sieve.

294- CAVIARE CREAM

Pound four oz. of preserved caviare and add thereto, little by little, two tablespoonfuls of fresh cream and two oz. of softened butter. Rub through a fine sieve, and finish the preparation by an addition of three tablespoonfuls of whisked cream .

N.B. - This cream and those that follow often take the place of the butters in the preparation of hors-d'oeuvres. The addition of previously well-softened butter to these creams is necessary in order to make them sufficiently consistent when they cool.

295- LOBSTER CREAM

Pound four oz. of lobster trimmings, spawn, and coral, and add thereto three tablespoonfuls of fresh cream and two oz. of softened butter.

Rub through a sieve, and complete the preparation with whisked cream, as above.

296- GAME CREAM

Pound four oz. of cold, cooked game-meat with three tablespoonfuls of fresh cream and two oz. of softened butter. Rub through a sieve, and finish the preparation with three tablespoonfuls of whisked cream.

297- SMOKED SALMON CREAM

Finely pound four oz. of smoked salmon, and add thereto, little by little, three tablespoonfuls of fresh cream and two oz. of softened butter. Rub the whole through a sieve, and finish with an addition of three tablespoonfuls of whisked cream.

298- TUNNY CREAM

Finely pound four oz. of tunny in oil, and finish the cream similarly to that of the Smoked Salmon.

299- CHICKEN CREAM

Finely pound four oz. of cold fowl (white parts only) and add thereto two tablespoonfuls of fresh cream and two oz. of softened butter. Rub through a sieve, and finish with three tablespoonfuls of whisked cream.

N.B. - This cream ought to be made and seasoned with salt immediately before being served. 299a- MUSTARD SAUCE WITH CREAM

Put three tablespoonfuls of mustard in a bowl with a little salt, pepper, and a few drops of lemon-juice. Mix the whole and add, little by little, the necessary quantity of very fresh cream.

HORS-D'CEUVRES

300- ANCHOVY ALLUMETTES

Roll some puff-paste trimmings into rectangular strips two and one-half inches wide and one-eighth inch thick. Spread thereon a thin coating of fish stuffing, finished with anchovy butter; lay the anchovy fillets, prepared beforehand, lengthwise on this stuffing, and cut into pieces about one inch wide. Place the pieces on a baking-tray, and set to bake in the oven for twelve minutes.

301- ANCHOVY FILLETS

Cut each halved anchovy, which should have been previously ¦marinaded in oil, into two or three little fillets. Place them across each other in a hors-d'oeuvre dish^^ after the manner of a lattice; garnish with chopped parsley and the chopped white and yolk of a hard-boiled egg, alternating the colours. Put a few capers on the fillets, and besprinkle moderately with oil. Anchovy fillets may also be served on a salad of ciseled lettuce, for the sake of variety.

302- FRESH MARINADED ANCHOVIES

Take a few live anchovies, cleanse them, and put them in salt for two hours. This done, plunge them in smoking oil, where they may remain only just long enough to stiffen. Drain, place them in a moderately acid marinade, and serve on a hors-d'oeuvre dish with a little marinade.

303- ROLLED ANCHOVIES

Turn some fine olives and stuff them with anchovy butter; when quite cold, encircle them with a ring of anchovy fillet, kept whole.

304- ANCHOVY MEDALLIONS

Cut into discs, about the size of half-a-crown, potatoes boiled in water or baked beetroot. Cover their edges with fine

HORS-D'CEUVRES 143

anchovy fillets marinaded in oil, and garnish their centres either with caviare, chopped hard-boiled egg, or milt pur^e, &c.

305- ANCHOVY PAUPIETTES

Prepare some thick slices of blanched and marinaded cucumber, about the size of half-crowns, and hollow their centres slightly. Place rings composed of the fillets of anchovies in oil upon these slices, and fill up their centres with tunny cream or the cream of any fish or shell-fish.

306- ANCHOVY WITH PIMENTOS

Prepare some anchovy fillets in oil, and place them across each other in a lattice, using fillets of pimento alternately with those of the anchovies. Garnish in the same way as for anchovy fillets, i.e., with the chopped white and yolk of a hard-boiled egg, and chopped parsley.

307- NORWEGIAN ANCHOVIES OR KILKIS

These are found ready-prepared on the market. Place them on a hors-d'oeuvre dish with some of their liquor, and without any garnish.

308- SMOKED EEL

Serve it plain, cut into fillets.

309- EEL WITH WHITE WINE AND PAPRIKA

Divide the eel into lengths of three and one-half inches; poach these in exactly the same way as for matelote, but with white wine and paprika seasoning. Let them cool in their cooking-liquor; cut the pieces lengthwise into large fillets, and cover them with the liquor after all grease has been removed therefrom and it has been clarified and cleared.

310- EEL AU VERT

Stew in butter two oz. of sorrel, one-quarter oz. of parsley, as much chervil, a few tarragon leaves, a little fresh pimpernel, two oz. of tender nettle, one-quarter oz. of savory, a sprig of green thyme, and a few sage-leaves, all of which must be ciseled. Remove the skins from two lbs. of small eels, suppress the heads, and cut into pieces two inches long. Put these pieces with the herbs, stiffen them well, and add one pint of white wine and a little salt and pepper. Set to cook for ten minutes, thicken with the yolks of four eggs and a few drops of lemon-juice, and leave to cool in a bowl. This preparatigij pf eel is served very cold. 311- EEL AU VERT A LA FLAMANDE

Remove the skin from, and cut into small pieces, two lbs. of small eels. Stiffen the pieces in butter, moisten with one pint of beer, season, and set to cook for ten minutes. Add the herbs enumerated above, raw and roughly chopped. Once more set to cook for seven or eight minutes, thicken with fecula if the sauce is too thin, and transfer the whole to a bowl to cool. Serve very cold.

312- ARTICHOKES A LA QRECQUE

Take some very small and tender artichokes. Pare them, cut the leaves short, and plunge them into a large saucepan of acidulated water. Set to parboil for eight or ten minutes, drain, cool in fresh water, and drain once more in a sieve.

For twenty artichokes prepare the following liquor: - one pint of water, one-quarter pint of oil, a little salt, the juice of three lemons, a few fennel and coriander seeds^ some peppercorns, a sprig of thyme, and a bay-leaf. Set to boil, add the parboiled artichokes, and leave to cook for twenty minutes. Transfer to a bowl.

Serve these artichokes very cold upon a hors-d'oeuvre dish, accompanied by a few tablespoonfuls of their cookingliquor.

3i3~SMALL ARTICHOKE -BOTTOMS

Remove the leaves and the hearts of some little artichokes; trim their remaining bases, and plunge each as soon as trimmed into acidulated water lest they blacken. Cook them " au blanc " (No. 167), and leave them to cool in their liquor.

Drain them well, dry them, place them in a pan, and marinade them for twenty minutes in oil and lemon-juice. This done, garnish them, either with a salpicon thickened with mayonnaise, a milt or other pur^e, a small viacedoine, or a vegetable salad, &c. Place on a hors-d'ceuvre dish with a garnish of parsley sprays.

314- BARQUETTES

These are a kind of small Croustades with indented edges, made in very small, boat-shaped moulds, and they may be garnished in any conceivable way.

As their preparation is the same as that of Tartlets, see the latter (No. 387); also refer to " Frivolities " (No. 350).

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31S- SMOKED HAMBURG BEEF

Cut it into very thin slices; divide these up into triangles, and roll the latter into the shape of cones. The slices may also be served flat.

Dish up at the last moment, and serve very cold.

316- CANAPES AND TOAST

In the matter of hors-d'oeuvres, the two above names have the same meaning. The preparation consists of small slices of the crumb of bread, about one-quarter inch thick, slightly toasted and with a garnish on one of their sides. The garnish is subject to the taste of the consumer, the resources at the disposal of the cook, or the latter's fancy, which may here be fully indulged.

But the garnish, par excellence, for Canapes or Toast, is fresh butter combined with a fine mince of white roast chickenmeat, the meat of shell-fish or fish, or cheese, &c., as I pointed out above under the butters for hors-d'oeuvres.

Whatever be the garnish of Canapes or Toast, and even when it would be unreasonable to let butter form a part of it, as, for example, in the case of marinaded fish, anchovies, filleted herring, &c., it is always best to put plenty of butter on the pieces of toast while they are still hot, with the view of keeping them soft.

When the garnish consists of a pur^e, i.e., a compound butter, I should advise the use of a piping-bag fitted with a grooved pipe, for laying the preparation upon the toast. This method is both clean and expeditious, and lends itself to any fanciful arrangement which the varying shape of the toast may suggest.

The principal shapes given to the toast are as follows: round, square, rectangular, oval, triangular, crescented, starlike, crossed, &c.

They should never exceed one and one-half inches in diameter, and a corresponding size in the other shapes.

I shall only indicate here a few kinds of specially garnished toast, and leave the thousand and one other kinds for the operator himself to discover.

317- ANCHOVY TOAST

Make the pieces of toast oval. Cover with anchovy butter, and place thereon, lattice-wise, some fillets of anchovy cut to the length of the toast. Garnish the pieces of toast all round

L with the separately chopped whites and yolks of hard-boiled eggs, alternating the colours.

318- CAVIARE TOAST

Make the pieces of toast round; cover with caviare butter; garnish the edges with a thread of softened butter, laid on by means of a piping-bag fitted with a grooved pipe. Put fresh caviare in the centre.

319- SHRIMP TOAST

Make the pieces of toast round; cover with shrimp butter, and garnish by means of a border composed of shelled shrimps' tails with a caper in the centre.

320- CITY TOAST

Make the pieces of toast round, and cover with a thick coating of the following preparation, viz.: - Four oz. of fresh butter, softened; two oz, of fresh Gruy^re and two oz. of Parmesan, both grated; a dessertspoonful of cream, and a little salt and cayenne. Cover this preparation with two half-discs, which when juxtaposed are equal in circumference to the round of the toast. The half-discs should be cut respectively from a Lyons sausage and a Gruy^re cheese; both should be thin, and equal in thickness.

321- DANISH TOAST

Prepare some slices of brown bread, equal in thickness to the toast; but only heat, do not grill them. Spread some horseradish butter over them, and cover with alternate strips of smoked salmon, caviare, and filleted herrings marinaded in white wine. Now stamp the garnished slices with a sharp fancy-cutter, the shape of which is optional.

322- CRAYFISH TOAST

Make the pieces of toast crescented; cover with crayfish butter, deck the edges with a string of softened butter, and garnish with a crayfish's tail, cut into two lengthwise The two halves of the tail should be placed in the middle of each crescent, close together and with their thickest side innermost.

323- TONGUE TOAST

Prepare some slices of crumb of bread, equal in thickness, and toast them. Now garnish with a coating, half as thick

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as the slices themselves, of mustard butter. Cover the butter with thin slices of very red, salted tongue, and let the butter harden.

Stamp out the pieces of toast with a star-shaped fancy-cutter, which should be dipped from time to time in boiling water in order to facilitate the operation. Finally, make a rosette of mustard butter in the middle of each piece of toast.

324- LUCILE TOAST

Make the pieces of toast oval, cover with mustard butter, and border their edges with a line of finely chopped and very red tongue. Garnish the middle of each with chopped white chicken-meat, and in the centre drop a pinch of chopped truffle.

335- VARIOUS CAROLINES

These are very small 6clairs of pate a choux without sugar. When quite cold, garnish them inside with a pur^e, either of tongue, fowl, game, or foie gras, &c., then coat them thinly with a chaud-froid sauce in keeping with the pur^e forming the inside garnish.

When the sauce has cooled, glaze it, by means of a brush, with a little cold melted jelly, with a view to making it glossy.

N.B. ^Carolines are also used as a garnish for certain cold preparations, aspics, &c.

336- CAVIARE AND BLINIS

Caviare is undoubtedly the richest and most delicate of hors-d'oeuvres, granted, of course, that it be of good quality and consist of large, light-coloured, and transparent particles. Its price is always high, owing to the difficulty attending its importation. It is served very simply, either in a silver timbale or in its original receptacle, surrounded with ice, and accompanied by a dish of Blinis, whereof the preparation is as follows: -

Make a thin paste with one oz. of yeast and one lb. of sifted flour diluted with one pint of lukewarm milk. Leave this paste to ferment for two hours in a lukewarm atmosphere, and then add thereto one-half lb. of flour, the yolks of four eggs, a pinch of salt, one-half pint of tepid milk; mix the whole without letting it acquire any body, and finally add the whites of four eggs, whisked. Let the preparation ferment for half an hour, and, when about to serve, cook the Blinis quickly, after the manner of pancakes, in special little omeletpans. Dish them up very hot on a napkin.

L 2 Failing fresh caviare, the pressed and salted kind may also be used for hors-d'oeuvres. Some cooks serve finely-chopped onions with fresh caviare, but a worse practice could not be imagined. Fresh caviare, the flavour of which is perfect, does not need any supplementary condiment.

337- CELERY "A LA BONNE-FEMME"

Take equal quantities of very tender celery sticks and peeled, quartered and cored russet apples. Finely mince the celery and apples, season with a mustard-and-cream sauce, and place on a hors-d'oeuvre dish.

328- CELERY A LA QRECQUE

Select a few hearts of celery, very equal; trim, wash, and parboil them in acidulated water, as directed under "artichokes a la Grecque." Prepare the cooking-liquor from the same ingredients, using the same quantities thereof, and cook similarly.

Serve very cold on a crystal hors-d'oeuvre dish with a portion of the cooking-liquor.

329- CELERIAC

Quarter, peel, and cut the vegetable in julienne fashion. Prepare the seasoning with mustard, salt, pepper, and vinegar; add the julienne of Celeriac and mix thoroughly. When the roots are quite soft, a seasoning consisting of mustard-andcream sauce is preferable.

329a- MARINADED CEPES

Select some very small and fresh cepes. Parboil them for eight minutes, drain and cool them, put them into a basin, and cover them with the boiling marinade after having passed the latter through a strainer.

Marinade for Two lbs. of Cepes. - Put into a saucepan one pint of vinegar, one-third pint of oil, a crushed clove of garlic, a fragment of bay, and a little thyme, six peppercorns, a pinch of coriander, a few fennel leaves, and a small root of parsley. Set to boil for five minutes. Leave the mushrooms to marinade for five or six hours before using them.

329b- CHERRIES A L'ALLEMANDE

Take five lbs. of Morella cherries, put them into a bottle, as in the case of cherry brandy, and add thereto three cloves, a

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fragment of cinnamon, some grated nutmeg, and a sprig of tarragon. Pour over the cherries two quarts of vinegar, boiled with one-half lb. of brown sugar and properly cooled. Cork the bottle, and leave the fruit to macerate for a fortnight.

329c- BRAINS A LA ROBERT

Cook well-cleansed sheep's or lamb's brains in courtbouillon, and cool. Divide them up into thin and regular slices, and place them on a hors-d'oeuvre dish. Rub the brain remains through a fine sieve, combine the resulting pur^e with a mustard-and-cream sauce, and add thereto a fine julienne of the white part only of celery.

Cover the slices of brain with the sauce.

329d- CUCUMBER A LA DANOISE

Cut the cucumber to the shape of small cassolettes or barquettes, blanch and marinade them.

Garnish with a preparation composed of a purde of salmon mixed with fillets of herring and chopped, hard-boiled eggs in equal quantities.

Sprinkle a little chopped horse-radish over the garnish.

330- STUFFED CUCUMBERS

Prepare them as above, in the shape of small barquettes or cassolettes. Cook them, at the same time keeping them firm; marinade them for twenty minutes, when they are quite cold, in oil and vinegar, and garnish them, by means of a piping-bag, either with a thick purde, some mince-meat thickened with mayonnaise, or a small vegetable macedoine, &c.

331- CUCUMBER SALAD

Carefully peel the cucumbers, cut them into two lengthwise, remove their seeds, and mince finely. Place them in a bowl, sprinkle with table-salt, and leave them to exude their vegetable moisture for twenty-five minutes. This done, drain them, press them in a towel, season with pepper, oil, and vinegar, and add some chopped chervil.

332- CUCUMBER AND PIMENTO SALAD

Select some very fresh, medium-sized cucumbers, peel them, and cut them into pieces two inches in length. Cut these pieces spirally, beginning at their peripheries and working towards their centres; then cut them diametrally, so as to produce curved strips of the vegetable. Add an equal quantity of pimentos cut into strips, and season as in the case of cucumber salad.

333- YORK CONES

Cut slices from a York ham as thinly as possible, and trim them to the shape of triangles. Roll the triangles into cones, and garnish their insides (by means of a piping-bag fitted with a grooved pipe) with any butter or cream. (See Nos. 280 to 299.)

334- TONGUE CONES

Proceed as for York Cones.

335- MOULDED CREAMS

Prepare a hors-d'oeuvre cream in accordance with any one of the recipes (Nos. 294 to 299). Put this cream into very small, slightly-oiled, and ornamented moulds, and leave it to set in the cool or on ice. Empty the moulds, at the moment of dishing up, either directly upon a dish, on tartlets garnished with a pur^e in keeping with the cream, or on toast. With these moulded creams, endless varieties of delicate and recommendable little hors-d'oeuvres may be prepared, while in their preparation the moulds used in pastry for " petits fours " may serve a useful purpose.

336- SHRIMPS AND PRAWNS

Get these very fresh and serve them on boat-shaped horsd'oeuvre dishes, arranging them so that they overlap one another. Either garnish the middle of the dishes with curledleaf parsley, or lay the crustaceans directly upon parsley.

337- DUCHESSES

This hors-d'oeuvre is almost equivalent to the Carolines (No. 325), except that the shape of the Duchesses is that of little choux, about the size of a pigeon's egg, and that, as a rule, they are merely glazed with some melted jelly, and not covered with a chaud-froid sauce. Sprinkle them with chopped pistachios, and serve them very cold on ornamented dish-papers.

338- NANTUA DUCHESSES

Stuff the little choux, referred to above, with crayfish pur^e, and sprinkle them, again and again, with cold, melted jelly, in order to cover them with a transparent film.

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339- DUCHESSES A LA REINE

Stuff the little choux with a pur^e of fowl with cream. Glaze with jelly, as above, and sprinkle some very black, finelychopped truffles over the jelly.

340- DUCHESSES A LA SULTANE

Stuff the little choux with a pur^e of fowl, completed with pistachio butter. Glaze with jelly, and sprinkle a little chopped pistachio upon each little chou.

341- CAVIARE DUCHES5ES

Stuff with fresh caviare or caviare cream. Glaze with jelly and serve iced.

343- SMOKED-SALMON DUCHESSES

Stuff the little choux with a pur^e of smoked salmon and butter, and glaze them with a maigre jelly.

343- NORWEGIAN DUCHESSES

Stuff the choux with a pur^e of Kilkis and butter, and glaze with jelly.

344- KAROLY ECLAIRS

These are little Eclairs stuffed with a pur^e made from the entrails of woodcock with champagne. The pur^e is buttered and slightly seasoned. Cover the Eclairs with a brown chaudfroid sauce, mask them with game jelly, and serve them, iced, on ornamented dish-papers.

345- CRAYFISH EN BUISSON

Prepare them in accordance with the recipes " k la nage " or "k la marini^re," and serve them very cold.

346- MARINADED SMELTS

Fry some well-dried and floured smelts in oil; as soon as this is done, put them in a deep dish or a bowl. Add to the oil, per pint (which quantity should be allowed for every two lbs. of the fish), eight unpeeled garlic-cloves, an onion, and a carrot cut into thin, round slices, all of which vegetables should be slightly fried. Drain off the oil, moisten with onequarter pint of vinegar and as much water, and season with a little salt, two small pimentos, a small bay-leaf, a sprig of thyme, and a few parsley stalks. Dip the smelts for twelve minutes in this marinade, and transfer them to the dish, where they may be left to marinade for twenty-four hours. Serve very cold with a portion of the marinade.

347- FENNEL A LA QRECQUE

Same process as for artichokes and celery k la Grecque.

348- FRESH FIGS

Place them on a layer of very green leaves, and surround them with broken ice.

349- FOIE QRAS

If in the form of a sausage, cut it into thin slices. If potted, shape it into little shells, after the manner in which butter is sometimes served, only a little smaller. In all cases serve it iced, and as soon as it is ready.

350- FRIVOLITIES

I adopted the above term for those small, light, and elegant

little preparations, the radical types whereof are barquettes and tartlets, which often take the place of hors-d'oeuvres on a menu. The term seems plain, clear, and explicit, and no other could denote more happily this series of trifles which constitute mere gewgaws of the dining-table.

3Si_FROQS OR NYMPHS A L'AURORE

For various reasons, I thought it best, in the past, to substitute the mythological name " Nymphs " for the more vulgar term " Frogs " on menus, and the former has been universally adopted, more particularly in reference to the following " Chaud-froid k I'Aurore ":-

Poach the frogs' legs in an excellent white-wine courtbouillon. When cooled, trim them properly, dry them thoroughly in a piece of fine linen, and steep them, one after the other, in a chaud-froid sauce of fish with paprika, the tint of which should be golden. This done, arrange the treated legs on a layer of champagne jelly, which should have set beforehand on the bottom of a square, silver dish or crystal bowl. Now lay some chervil pluches and tarragon leaves between the legs in imitation of water-grasses, and cover the whole with champagne jelly to counterfeit the effect of water.

Send the dish to the table, set in a block of ice, fashioned as fancy may suggest.

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352- SALAD OF FILLETED SALTED HERRINGS

Remove the fillets whole; take off the skins; set to soak and then trim them. Dish, and cover them with the following sauce: - Add the pur^e of eight soft roes, moistened with two tablespoonfuls of vinegar, to four tablespoonfuls of mayonnaise. Season with onion, parsley, chervil, chives, and tarragon, all finely chopped; flavour moderately with cayenne.

353- FRESH HERRINGS MARINADED IN WHITE WINE

For twelve herrings, put one pint of white wine into a saucepan, with one-quarter pint of vinegar, an onion cut into thin slices, half a carrot cut into grooved roundels, a faggot, the necessary salt, and a few peppercorns. Set to boil gently for twenty minutes.

Place the cleaned herrings in a saut6-pan, pour the boiling marinade upon them, and let them poach for fifteen minutes.

Serve them very cold with the marinade, the roundels of carrot, and thin strips of onion.

354- LUCAS HERRINGS

Raise the fillets from fine salted herrings, soak them first in cold water, and then in milk for an hour.

Prepare a sauce as follows: - Beat up the yolks of two eggs in a bowl with salt and pepper and one tablespoonful of mustard; add five tablespoonfuls of oil and two of vinegar, proceeding as in the case of mayonnaise, and complete with shallots and one dessertspoonful of chopped chervil and gherkins. Season with cayenne, immerse the drained and dried fillets of herrings in this sauce, and send them to the table on a hors-d'oeuvre dish.

355- HERRINGS A LA LIVONIENNE

Take some fine salted herrings' fillets, clean them, and cut them into dice. Place these in a bowl, and add thereto, in equal quantities, some cold, boiled potatoes and russet apples cut into dice, parsley, chervil, and chopped fennel and tarragon. Season with oil and vinegar, salt and pepper; make the preparation into shapes resembling herrings, and place the heads and tails, which should have been put aside for the purpose, at each extremity of every supposed herring.

356- HERRINGS A LA RUSSE

Cut some fine, cleaned fillets of salted herrings into thin slices. Dish up, and alternate the rows of sliced fillets with rows of sliced, cold, boiled potatoes. Season with oil and vinegar, and finish up with chopped chervil, fennel, tarragon, and shallots.

357- HERRINGS WITH FRENCH BEANS

These hors-d'oeuvres can only be served at their best in the months of September and October, when the first shoals of herrings begin to appear. Dutch fishermen know of a means of salting and marinading this fish, which greatly increases its value, and it is not unusual to pay as much as two or three shillings for one in the early part of the season. They can only be kept a few days, but they form an excellent dish, and their flavour Is exquisite. Before serving them, it is only needful to skin them, whereupon they may be dished up with a little chopped parsley. Send a bowl of French beans to the table with them, the vegetables having been freshly cooked, kept somewhat firm, buttered, and not cooled. Some cooks serve the beans cold, in the form of a salad, but as a rule they are preferred hot with butter, while the herrings should be very cold.

358- OYSTERS

The best oysters to be had are those of Whitstable, Colchester, Burnham, and Zeeland. The green, French Marennes, which might equal the above, are not favoured by everyone on account of their colour. Ostend oysters are also excellent, but they are neither as delicate nor as fleshy as the English ones.

Oysters are the dish par excellence; their delicacy satisfies the most fastidious of epicures, and they are so easily digested that the most delicate invalid can partake of them freely. With the exception of caviare, they are the only hors-d'oeuvres which should ever appear on the menu of a well-ordered dinner.

Oysters ought to be served very cold; hence the prevailing custom of dishing them on ice. In England they are served plain on the flat half of the shell, whereas in France and elsewhere they are left in the hollow half, which is better calculated to retain the natural liquor of the oyster, held in high esteem by many. Send some slices of brown bread and butter to the table with the oysters.

The various methods of treating oysters will be given hereafter in the chapter dealing with fish. I have given them merely because consumers and caterers alike may wish to have them; but the real and be§t way of serving oysters is to send them to the table raw.

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359- ARDENNES HAM

This is served like smoked breast of goose, cut, raw, into thin and even slices.

360- CANTALOUP MELON

Melon makes an excellent hors-d'oeuvre for summer luncheons. It should be just ripe, and have a nice perfume. Serve it as fresh as possible.

361- ENGLISH MELONS

The English variety of melons is inferior in quality to the French.

Their shape is oval, their peel is yellow, thin, and smooth, and their pulp, which is white, more nearly resembles the water-melon than the melon in flavour.

362- MELON WITH PORT, MARSALA, OR SHERRY, &c.

Select a Cantaloup or other melon of the same kind as the former, and let it be just ripe. Make a round incision about the stalk, three inches in diameter; withdraw the plug thus cut, and through the resulting hole thoroughly remove all the pips by means of a silver spoon.

Now pour one-half pint of best Port, Marsala, or Sherry into the melon, replace the plug, and keep the melon for two or three hours in a cooler surrounded by broken ice. Do not cut the melon into slices when serving it. It should be taken to the table, whole, and then the piece containing the stalk is withdrawn and the fruit is cut into shell-like slices with a silver spoon, and served with a little of the accompanying wine upon iced plates.

363- VARIOUS MELONS

France produces a large variety of melons, of which the principal kinds are the Sucrins of Tours, the St. Laud melon, the black melons of the Carmes, &c. They are all excellent, and are served like the Cantaloups.

364- NATIVES WITH CAVIARE

This is a typically luxurious hors-d'oeuvre. Cook some little tartlet crusts for hors-d'oeuvre (No. 314). When about to dish up, garnish these with a tablespoonful of fine, fresh caviare; make a hollow in the latter and place therein a fine Whitstable oyster (cleared of its beard), seasoned with a little powdered pepper and a drop of lemon-juice. 365- SMOKED BREAST OF GOOSE

Cut it into the thinnest possible slices, and garnish with very green parsley.

366- PLAIN OLIVES

Olives of all kinds are suitable for hors-d'oeuvres, and they are served plain. Three or four varieties are known, all of which are excellent, provided they be fleshy, firm, very green, and moderately salted.

367- STUFFED OLIVES

For this purpose, select large Spanish olives and stone them, either by cutting them spirally, or by means of a special machine. In the place of the stone, put one of the butters or creams for hors-d'oeuvres (Nos. 280 to 299). Before serving these olives, it is well to let them rest awhile in a moderately warm atmosphere. For, since stuffed olives are generally kept in the cool, immersed in oil with which they become thoroughly saturated, it follows that the moment they are put into contact with a slightly higher temperature they will exude that oil. Wherefore, if the above precaution were not observed, by the time the olives reached the table they would, more often than not, be swimming in oil, when they would be neither nice nor appetising.

368- PLAIN LAPWINGS' AND PLOVERS' EGGS

Though the lapwing and the plover are different in respect of their plumage, they are, nevertheless, birds of similar habits and haunts, and their eggs are remarkably alike. The latter, which are a little larger than pigeons' eggs, have a lightgreen shell covered with black spots.

When cooked, the albuminous portions acquire a milky colour, and never assume the solidity of the whites of other eggs.

When served as a hors-d'oeuvre, these eggs are always boiled hard. Put them in a saucepan of cold water, and leave them to cook for eight minutes after the boil is reached. Cool them, shell their pointed ends, and serve them in a nest composed of watercress or curled-leaf parsley.

N.B. - Test the freshness of the eggs before boiling them by plunging them in a bowl of cold water. If they float, their freshness is doubtful, and they should be discarded.

HORS-D'CEUVRES 157

369- LAPWINGS' EGGS IN ASPIC

Decorate a border-mould according to taste, and let a thin coating of very clear aspic jelly set on the bottom of the utensil. Besprinkle the articles used in decorating with a few drops of melted jelly, in order to keep them from shifting; then cover them with a few tablespoonfuls of jelly, and let it set. On this coating of jelly arrange the shelled, hard-boiled lapwings' eggs with their points downwards, so that they may appear upright when the aspic is withdrawn from the mould. Fill up the mould by means of successive layers of melted jelly.

When about to serve, dip the mould into hot water; quickly wipe it, and then turn the aspic out on to a folded napkin lying on a dish.

370- LAPWINGS' EGGS A LA MODERNE

Boil the eggs soft; mould them in dariole-moulds, coated with jelly, and garnished in Chartreuse fashion. Heap a vegetable-salad, thickened with mayonnaise, in the middle of the dish, and place the eggs removed from their moulds all round.

371- LAPWINGS' EGGS A LA CHRISTIANA

Cook the eggs as above; shell them; slice a piece off their thicker ends to make them stand, and arrange them on a dish, placing them upon little tartlet-crusts, garnished with a foiegras purde.

For twelve eggs put two tablespoonfuls of foie-gras purde in a small saucepan; add thereto one tablespoonful of chopped truffles and as much melted jelly, the latter with a view to making the preparation more liquid. Take some of this preparation in a tablespoon and pour it over the eggs, taking care that each of these gets well covered with it. Let the coating set in the cool, and dish up the tartlets on a napkin, arranging them in the form of a circle with curled-leaf parsley as a centre-garnish.

372- LAPWINGS' EGGS A LA MOSCOVITE

Boil the eggs hard; cool and shell them. Prepare as many tartlet-crusts as there are eggs. When dishing up, garnish the tartlets with a coffeespoonful of caviare, and place one egg in the middle of each. 373- VARIOUS HARD-BOILED EGGS

With hard-boiled eggs for base, a large number of horsd'oeuvres may be made. I shall limit myself to a few only, which, by means of a small change in their form, garnish, or ornamentation, may be varied at will: -

Egg Discs. - Cut the eggs laterally into roundels one-third inch in thickness, and discard the two end-pieces of each egg, in order that the shapes may be almost uniform, and that the yolks may appear about the same size throughout. In the centre of each roundel make a little rosette of butter, by means of a small, grooved pipe. Different butters, such as the Shrimp, Montpellier, Caviare, and other kinds, may be used with the view of varying the colours.

Halved, Stuffed Eggs. - Take some very small, hard-boiled eggs; cut them into two, lengthwise; remove the yolk's, and trim the oval hollow of each of the remaining whites to the shape of an oblong, the edges of which may then be indented.

Garnish, either with a pur^e of tunny, salmon, milt, &c., or a hash or salpicon of lobster, shrimp, &c., thickened by means of a mayonnaise with jelly, or a fine viacedoine of vegetables with mayonnaise, or a pur^e composed of the withdrawn yolks combined with a little butter, some cold Bechamel sauce, and herbs.

Quartered, Stuffed Eggs. - The simplest way of doing this is to proceed as above, to stuff the halved white with a buttered pur^e, or a pur^e mixed with jelly, to leave the stuffing to set, and then to cut the halves in two.

Salad of Eggs. - With alternate rows of sliced eggs and either tomatoes, potatoes, cucumbers, or beetroot, and a saladseasoning composed of oil and vinegar or cream, a dozen different salads may be prepared, each of which constitutes an excellent hors-d'oeuvre.

374- LARK PATE

For this hors-d'oeuvre use the ready-made pate, which is obtained either in pots or crusts. Thoroughly set it by means of ice; turn it out of its receptacle, cut it into very small and thin slices, and arrange them on a hors-d'oeuvre dish with a little broken jelly in the middle.

375- MILD, GRILLED CAPSICUM

Grill the capsicum on a moderate fire until the skins are so scorched as to be easily removed.

HORS-D'CEUVRES 159

Now cut them up julienne-fashion, and season with oil and vinegar.

376- RADISHES

In the preparation of hors-d'oeuvres by the Icitchen, radishes are used chiefly as a garnish. When they constitute a horsd'oeuvre of themselves, their preparation is relegated to the pantry.

They are used especially in imitating the pendulous flowers of the fuchsia; sometimes, too, they are sliced and placed on cut cucumber to form a dish-border; but their uses in garnishing are as numerous as they are various.

377- AMERICAN RELISHES

These consist of divers kinds of fruit and of small onions and gherkins, prepared with vinegar, seasoned with sugar and cinnamon, and flavoured with cayenne.

They resemble what the Italians call " Aceto-dolce." This hors-d'oeuvre is accompanied by special cinnamon biscuits, and remains on the table throughout the meal.

378- RILLETTES AND RILLONS

Both these preparations, which belong to the province of the pork-butcher, may be found on the market.

The rillettes are served in their pots, and are always sent to the table very cold.

379- RED MULLET A L'ORIENTALE

Select small ones, as far as possible. Place them in an oiled pan, and add peeled and concussed tomatoes, parsleyroot, fennel, thyme, bay, a little garlic, peppercorns, coriander, and saffron, the latter being the dominating ingredient.

Cover the whole with white wine; salt moderately, set to boil, and then leave to poach on the side of the fire for twelve or eighteen minutes, in accordance with the size of the mullet.

Leave the fish to cool in their cooking-liquor, and serve them with a little of the latter and a few slices of peeled lemon.

380- SARDINES

The various kinds of sardines for hors-d'oeuvres may be found on the market.

381- SALADS

Salads for hors-d'oeuvres may consist of an endless diversity of products, and their preparation varies so that it would be impossible to prescribe fixed rules for the latter. I shall therefore restrict myself to saying merely that they should be made as light and as sightly as possible, in order that they may be in keeping with the general idea and purpose of hors-d'oeuvre.

382- QOTHA AND MILAN SALAMI

Cut these into very thin slices, and place them, one on top of the other, on a hors-d'oeuvre dish, in the form of a crown, with a sprig of curled-leaf parsley in the middle. They may also be laid flat upon a litter of parsley.

383- ARLES, BOLOQNE OR LARGE LYONS SAUSAGES

Cut these up and arrange them like the Salami.

384- FOIE-GRAS SAUSAGES

Cut into thin roundels and dish up with chopped aspic jelly as a centre-garnish.

385- SMOKED SALMON

Cut into triangular, thin slices; roll these into cones, and arrange in the form of a crown with curled-leaf parsley in the middle.

386- SPRATS

These are smoked sardines. Select the very fleshy ones, for there exist many kinds, a few of which are dry and quite flavourless.

In order to prepare them, suppress the heads and remove or leave on the skins, in accordance with the consumer's taste. Put them on a dish with some finely-chopped shallots, chopped parsley, and oil and vinegar, using a very little of each ingredient. Leave them to marinade for five or six hours, taking care to turn them over from time to time so as to thoroughly saturate them with the marinade.

387- TARTLETS AND BARQUETTES

These articles play an important part in the service of horsd'oeuvres, and represent the class I designated under the name of Frivolities.

The garnishes suitable for tartlets are likewise used with barquettes, the latter only differing from the former in their shape. The directions which follow below, and which should be carefully noted, apply equally to both.

HORS-D'CEUVRES i6i

Special Paste jor Tartlets and Barquettes. - Sift one lb. of flour on to a mixing-board; make a hole in the centre, into which put one-eighth oz. of salt, one-half lb. of cold, melted butter, one egg, the yolks of two, and a few drops of water. Mix the whole into a paste, handling it as little as possible; roll it into a ball, and put it aside in the cool for two hours.

The Preparation of Tartlet- and Barquette-crusts. - Roll out the paste to the thickness of one-eighth inch, and stamp it with an indented fancy-cutter into pieces of the same size as the tartlet-moulds to be used, which in this case are the same as for " petits fours," and, therefore, very small.

The fancy-cutter should be round for tartlets, and oval for barquettes. Lay the paste in the moulds, prick the parts lying on the bottom, lest they should blister, garnish the insides with pieces of kitchen-paper to protect the paste, and fill them with rice or flour. Bake in a moderate oven; remove the rice or flour, the sole object of which was to preserve the shape of the tartlets or barquettes; turn the latter out of their moulds, and set them to cool.

The Garnishes of Tartlets and Barquettes. - These may be divided into two classes, viz., (i) those with a compound butter for base, (2) those with an aspic jelly base.

The first class comprises all the garnishes I gave for Canapes and Toast, as also all those which the operator's fancy, taste, and inventiveness may devise.

The second class generally consists of a layer, on the bottom, of some kind of mousse, upon which a whole piece of a different colour from the mousse is placed, and which is then coated with a very clear jelly.

Example. - Garnish the bottom of a tartlet or barquette with a coating of pink, shrimp, crayfish or lobster mousse. Upon this lay a very white poached oyster, or a slice of hard-boiled egg, stamped with an indented fancy-cutter. In the centre of the yolk put a little lobster coral, and coat the whole with jelly to the level of the tartlet edges.

The explanations given above warrant my refraining from a more detailed discussion of these delicate preparations. Sufficient has been said to allow of any operator, with a little taste and inventiveness, easily making an endless variety of combinations.

388- TUNNY IN OIL

This is found on the market, and it may be served as it stands. It is very greatly used as a garnish for hors-d'oeuvres.

M 389- TUNNY WITH TOMATOES

Lay alternate slices of tunny and tomato upon a horsd'oeuvre dish, and between each slice lay a thin round of onion. Garnish the edge of the dish with a border composed of sliced potato, and sprinkle the whole with an ordinary salad seasoning.

390- MOCK TOMATOES

Select some about the size of a walnut, and peel them carefully. Press them in a piece of linen, and set them to marinade for half an hour in oil and vinegar. Then stick a small piece of parsley stalk into each tomato, in imitation of the stalk, and surround it with little leaves made from green butter by means of a small piping-bag.

391- TOMATOES A L'AMERICAINE

Select some firm, medium-sized tomatoes, and cut them into thin slices. Put them into a dish with salt, pepper, oil, and a few drops of vinegar, and leave them to marinade for twenty minutes. Then arrange them on a hors-d'oeuvre dish, garnishing the border with fine rings of onion.

392- TOMATOES A LA MONEQASQUE

Select some small tomatoes about the size of walnuts, and cut a slice from each in the region of the stalk. Squeeze out all their water and seeds, and viarinade them, inside, for twenty minutes. Prepare a mince of tunny with oil, and add thereto, per two oz. of the fish, half a tablespoonful of finelychopped onion, a tablespoonful of chopped parsley, chervil, and tarragon, and a small, hard-boiled egg, also chopped.

Thicken the whole with a tablespoonful of thick mayonnaise; put it into a bag fitted with a smooth, medium-sized pipe, and garnish the tomatoes with the preparation, using enough of the latter to form a kind of dome upon each tomato.

393_QUARTERED TOMATOES

Use medium-sized tomatoes, somewhat firm and with very smooth skins. Peel them and empty them, and then fill them, either with a fish puree cleared with jelly, or with a macedoine of vegetables thickened by means of a mayonnaise with jelly. Place on ice for half an hour, and cut the tomatoes into regular quarters. The tomatoes may also be cut into four, previous to stuffing them, whereupon they may, with the help

HORS-D*CElJVRES 163

of a piping-bag fitted with a grooved pipe, be filled with one of the compound butters.

394- MARINADED TROUT

Select some very small trout, clean and dress them, and poach them in a white-wine court-bouillon (No. 164) to which vinegar has been added in the proportion of one-third of its volume.

Leave the fish to cool in the liquor, and dish up with a few tablespoonfuls of the latter, placing some thin, grooved slices of lemon upon the fish.

M 2

CHAPTER XII

EGGS

Of all the products put into requisition by the art of cookery, not one is so fruitful of variety, so universally liked, and so complete in itself as the egg. There are very few culinary recipes that do not include eggs, either as a principal constituent or as an ingredient.

The many and various egg-preparations constitute chiefly breakfast or luncheon dishes; nevertheless, at a Lenten dinner they rriay be served as entries with advantage, for, at a time when fish, shell-fish, and water-game are the only resources in this respect, eggs form a pleasant and welcome change.

395- EQQS ON THE DISH

Eggs cooked in this way derive all their quality from the way in which the cooking process is conducted. They must be evenly cooked, on top and underneath, and should remain soft. An important condition of the process is that the eggs should be exceedingly fresh. After having heated sufficient butter in the dish to cover the whole of the bottom, break two eggs into it, baste the yolks with a little very hot butter, salt them slightly, and push them into the oven. As soon as the white of the eggs assumes a milky-white colour, they are cooked and should be withdrawn from the oven to be served immediately.

Great attention should be bestowed upon the cooking process, a few seconds more or less than the required time being sufficient to spoil the eggs. Special care ought to be taken that they do not cook either too much or too quickly, for it should be remembered that, even were the cooking checked before the proper time, the heat of the dish does, to a certain extent, make good the deficiency.

Eggs a la poele, which, in England, are called "fried eggs," are a variety of eggs on the dish, very often served on toast, or accompanied by sausages or fried bacon. They are

EGGS 165

cooked in an omelet-pan, trimmed neatly witli a fancy-cutter, and placed, by means of a spatula, upon the prepared toast.

About one-half oz. of butter should be allowed for every two eggs, which number constitutes the working-base of the following recipes.

396- BERCY EQQS

Put half of the butter to be used in a dish; let it melt, break the eggs, taking care not to burst the yolks; baste the latter with the rest of the butter, and season. Cook as directed - that is to say, until the whites are quite done and the yolks are glossy. Garnish with a small, grilled sausage, placed between the yolks, and surround with a thread of tomato sauce.

397- EQQS WITH BROWN BUTTER

There are two methods: (i) Cook the eggs in a dish as usual, and then cover them with one-quarter oz. of brown butter and a few drops of vinegar, which should be added after the butter.

(2) Put one-half oz. of butter into a small omelet-pan, and cook it until it is almost black. Break the eggs into it, season, cook, tilt them gently on to a dish, and besprinkle with a few drops of vinegar, with which the omelet-pan has been rinsed.

398- EQQS CHASSEUR

Cook the eggs as per No. 395. This done, garnish on either side with a tablespoonful of sliced chicken's liver, rapidly sauted and cohered with a little Chasseur sauce.

399- DEVILLED EQQS

Cook the eggs in the omelet-pan; turn them, after the manner of pancakes, taking care lest they break. Slide them gently into a dish, and besprinkle them with brown butter and a few drops of vinegar with which the omelet-pan has been rinsed.

400- EQQS A LA FLORENTINE

Garnish the bottom of a dish with spinach-leaves stewed in butter; sprinkle thereon two pinches of grated cheese; break the eggs upon this garnish, and cover them with two tablespoonfuls of Mornay sauce. Place in a fierce oven, so that the cooking and glazing of the eggs may be effected simultaneously. 401- EQQS AU QRATIN

Put a tablespoonful of very hot Mornay sauce into a dish. Break the eggs into it, cover them with Mornay sauce, sprinkle with grated cheese mixed with fine raspings, and cook in a fierce oven, in order that the eggs and the gratin may be done at the same time.

402- ISOLINE EGGS

Cook the eggs according to No. 395. Place between them, and all round the dish, some small, halved tomatoes k la Proven9ale. Put in the centre of each halved tomato a fine chicken's liver sauted with Madeira.

403- JOCKEY CLUB EGGS

Cook the eggs in an omelet-pan; tilt them gently on to a dish, and trim them with a round fancy-cutter. Place each egg upon a round, thin piece of toast, and then cover them with foie-gras pur6e. Arrange them in the form of a crown, on a dish, and pour into the middle a garnish of calf's kidneys cut into dice and sauted, and truflBes similarly cut, the latter being cohered by means of some dense half-glaze.

404- LULLY EQQS

Cook the eggs in an omelet-pan, and cut them with a round fancy-cutter. Place each egg on a slice of raw ham, cut to the same shape as the former, and fried in butter. Then place the egg and ham on toast similarly shaped and of the same size. Arrange the eggs in a circle round the dish, and garnish the middle of it with macaroni combined with concassed tomatoes stewed in butter.

405- MEYERBEER EQQS

Cook the eggs as in No. '395. Place a small, grilled sheep's or lamb's kidney between each yolk, and surround with a thread of P^rigueux sauce.

406- MIRABEAU EGGS

Substitute for ordinary butter, anchovy" butter. Break the eggs and cook them. Surround each yolk with anchovy fillets, and garnish each of these with a spray of parboiled tarragon leaves. Place a large olive stuffed with tarragon butter on either side of the yolks.

EGGS 167

407- OMER- PACHA EQQS

Garnish a dish with a large tablespoonful of minced onions cooked in butter and unbrowned. Break the eggs over the garnish, sprinkle them with a small tablespoonful of dry, grated Parrhesan cheese, and cook in a sufficiently fierce oven for a slight gratin to form as soon as the eggs are done.

408- PARMENTIER EGOS

Bake some fine Dutch potatoes in the oven. Open them, from above, with an oval fancy-cutter; remove the pulp from the inside, rub it through a sieve, and make a smooth pur^e of it. Half-fill the potato-shells with this pur^e, break an egg into each, besprinkle with cream, and cook in the oven. Replace the part of the baked shell removed in the first instance, and dish up on a napkin.

409- EQQS A LA PORTUQAISE

Put a tablespoonful of tomato fondue into a dish. Break the eggs upon this, season, and cook. Between the eggs and at each end of the dish put a little heap of tomato fondue, and on each of the heaps drop a pinch of chopped parsley.

410- EQQS A LA REINE

Cook the eggs in an omelet-pan, and trim them with a round fancy-cutter. Put each egg upon a small disc of Duchesse potatoes, of the same size as the egg, previously browned in the oven. Arrange the eggs in a circle round the dish; in the middle put a chicken mincemeat, and surround with a border of Supreme sauce.

Poached and Soft-boiled Eggs

All the recipes given hereafter apply equally to poached and soft-boiled eggs, wherefore I shall only mention ' ' poached ' ' in the titles, leaving soft-boiled to be understood.

411- PROCEDURE FOR POACHED EQQS

The one and only essential condition in this case is the use of perfectly fresh eggs, for it is quite impossible to expect an even poaching if this condition is not fulfilled.

(i) Have ready a saut^-pan containing boiling salted water (one-third oz. of salt per quart of water), slightly acidulated with vinegar. Break the eggs over that part of the water which is actually boiling. (2) In order that the eggs may poach freely, do not put more than eight or ten at a time into the same saut(^-pan; better even poach them six at a time, for then the poaching will be effected more equally.

(3) As soon as the eggs are in the water, let the latter simmer. The egg is poached when the white has enveloped the yolk, reassuming, as it were, the form of a raw egg, and when it may be touched without breaking. The usual time allowed for poaching is three minutes.

(4) Withdraw the eggs by means of a slice; dip them into cold water, trim their whites, and put them back into moderately warm water until ready to serve.

412- THE COOKING OF SOFT-BOILED EGQS

These ought to be very fresh, as in the case of poached eggs. With a view to equalising their cooking, it is a good plan to put them in a colander perforated with large holes, whereby they may be plunged into and withdrawn from the water together. Keep the water boiling; plunge the eggs therein as directed; leave them to cook for six minutes from the time the water has regained the boiling-point; drain, steep for a moment in a bowl of cold water, and shell the eggs carefully. Keep them in moderately-salted hot water until ready to serve.

413- THE DISHING OF POACHED AND SOFT-BOILED EGQS

There are many ways of doing this, viz.: - (i) On rusks of bread-crumb, slightly hollowed, ornamented according to taste (i.e., indented by means of the point of a small knife) and fried in clarified butter. Their shape is oval for poached eggs, and round for soft-boiled eggs, the latter being generally dished upright.

(2) On little, oval feuilletes for poached eggs, on feuilletes in the shape of indented crowns, or in small patties for softboiled eggs.

(3) In borders of forcemeat or other preparations, the kind of which is indicated by the name of the particular egg-preparation. These borders are laid on the dish by means of a pipingbag or by hand; they are either oval or round, plain or indented, poached or oven-browned, according to the nature of the preparation used.

(4) On tartlet-crusts which are garnished so as to be in keeping with the method of dressing the eggs.

EGGS 169

Remarks. - (i) Poached or soft-boiled eggs, when dished upon fried rusks, feuilletes, or tartlets, should, before being placed on the latter, be covered with sauce. Also before being treated with sauce they should be well drained.

(2) Having given the general outlines of the procedure, I shall now pass on to the particular recipes, stating them briefly, and reminding the reader that all of them apply equally to poached and soft-boiled eggs. Thus " Poached Eggs Mireille " stands for " Poached or Soft-boiled Eggs Mireille."

414- POACHED EQQS ARQENTEUIL

Garnish the bottom of some tartlet-crusts with asparagus cut into pieces and cooked, and six green asparagus-heads, about one and one-half inches in length, arranged like a star. Place an egg, coated with cream sauce mixed with half its volume of asparagus pur^e, upon each tartlet.

415- POACHED EGGS A L'AURORE

Coat the eggs with Aurora sauce, and dish them on oval feuilletes if poached, or upright on feuilletes in the shape of rings if soft-boiled.

416- POACHED EQQS EN BERCEAU

Bake some fine Dutch potatoes in the oven. Cut each potato in half, lengthwise, with the point of a small knife, and remove the pulp. Emptied in this way, the halved potatoes resemble little cradles. Coat the interior of each cradle with a fine chicken mincemeat mixed with cream, and place an egg coated with Aurora sauce in each.

417- POACHED EQQS A LA BOHEMIENNE

Garnish the bottom of some tartlet-crusts with a salpicon of foie-gras and truffles cohered with a few tablespoonfuls of the following sauce: - For six eggs, dissolve one teaspoonful of white-meat glaze; add thereto half a teaspoonful of truffle essence, and finish with a lump of butter about the size of a pigeon's egg. Take enough of this sauce to effect the cohering of the salpicon; coat the eggs with Hungarian sauce, and place one upon each garnished tartlet.

418- POACHED EQQS BOIELDIEU

Garnish the tartlets with a white-chicken-meat, foie-gras, and truffle salpicon cohered with poultry velout^. Coat the eggs with a reduced and thickened poultry gravy. 419- POACHED EGGS A LA BRUXELLOISE

Garnish some tartlet-crusts with braised, minced endives thicliened with cream. Place an egg, coated with cream sauce, upon each; sprinkle moderately with biscotte raspings, and set to glaze quickly in a fierce oven.

420- POACHED EGGS A LA CLAMART

Garnish some tartlet-crusts with small, green peas, cooked a la fran9aise (No. 2193), and mixed with finely ciseled lettuce which should have cooked with them. Place an egg, coated with cream sauce which has been finished with fresh-pea butter, upon each.

421- POACHED EGGS COLBERT

Garnish some tartlet-crusts with a macedoine cohered with Bechamel. Place a plainly-poached egg upon each, and send Colbert butter, separately, to the table with the tartlets.

422- POACHED EGGS A LA COMTESSE

Garnish some tartlet-crusts with white asparagus pur^e. Place an egg coated with AUemande sauce upon each, and sprinkle with very black chopped truffles.

423- POACHED EGGS GRAND DUC

There are two modes of procedure: - (a) Place the eggs on fried rusks, with a nice slice of truffle on each; arrange them in a circle round the dish, coat with Mornay sauce, and set to glaze in a fierce oven. On withdrawing the dish from the oven, put in the centre a garnish composed of asparagus-heads and a small faggot of the latter, very green and cooked. (b) Prepare a croustade, moulded in a flawn ring, the size of which must be in proportion to the number of eggs to be served. Arrange the eggs in a circle in the croustade, coat them with Mornay sauce, and set to glaze in a fierce oven. On withdrawing the croustade from the oven, garnish its centre with asparagus-heads and a small faggot as above.

424- POACHED EGGS MAINTENON

Garnish some tartlet-crusts with a Soubise k la Bechamel, slightly thickened by reduction. Coat the eggs with Mornay sauce, besprinkle with grated cheese, and place them in the crusts by means of a slice.

Set to glaze in a fierce oven, and, on withdrawing the dish

EGGS 171

from the oven, surround the crusts with a thread of melted meat-glaze.

435- POACHED EQQS MASS^NA

Heat some medium-sized artichoke-bottoms in butter. Slightly hollow them, if necessary, and garnish each with a tablespoonful of B^arnaise sauce. Place an egg, coated with tomato sauce, upon each artichoke-bottom; then place a slice of poached marrow upon each egg, and a little chopped parsley upon each slice of marrow.

426- POACHED EGGS MIREILLE

Slightly press some saffroned pilaff rice in buttered tartlet moulds.

Prepare as many pieces of toast of the same size as the tartlets, and fry them in oil. Place an egg, coated with cream sauce, finished with saffron, upon each. Turn the rice-tartlets out of the moulds, and arrange them in a circle on a dish, alternating them with the eggs on toast; put a cofifeespoonful of concussed tomatoes, stewed in butter and kept rather thick, upon each rice-tartlet.

427- POACHED EGGS MORNAY

Coat the eggs with Mornay sauce, and besprinkle with grated Gruy^re and Parmesan cheese mixed with fine raspings. Then, by means of a slice, carefully transfer the eggs to pieces of toast fried in oil. Arrange them in a circle on a dish, sprinkle each egg with a few drops of melted butter, and set to glaze quickly in a fierce oven.

428- POACHED EGGS D'ORSAY

Place the eggs upon toast fried in butter. Arrange them in a circle on a dish, and coat them with Chateaubriand sauce.

429- POACHED EGGS ROSSINI

Garnish some tartlet-crusts, each with a slice of foie gras (raw if possible) seasoned, dredged with flour, and fried in butter. Place an egg, coated with thickened veal gravy with Madeira, on each tartlet, and complete by means of a large slice of very black truffle on each egg.

430-^POACHED EGGS S^VIQNlfe

Prepare some thin rusks; fry them in clarified butter, and stuff them with a mince of braised lettuce. Place an egg on each stuffed rusk; coat with velout6 mixed with poultry essence; arrange in a circle on a dish, and complete by means of a ring of very black truffle on each egg.

431- POACHED EGGS VICTORIA

Garnish some tartlet-crusts with a salpicon made from three oz. of spiny-lobster meat and one-half oz. of truffles, cohered with three tablespoonfuls of Diplomate sauce. Place an egg, coated with Diplomate sauce, on each tartlet. Dish, and set to glaze in a fierce oven.

432- POACHED EGGS WITH RED WINE

These eggs may either be poached with red wine, or in the ordinary way.

In the first case, the wine used for poaching may serve to prepare the red wine or Bordelaise sauce (No. 32). In either case, the eggs are dished on oval rusks, slightly hollowed and fried in butter; they are coated with the sauce, after having been dished, and they are quickly glazed.

433- HARD-BOILED EGGS

Boiling eggs hard may seem an insignificant matter, but, like the other modes of procedure, it is, in reality, of some importance, and should be effected in a given period of time. If, for a special purpose, they have to be just done, it is pointless and even harmful to boil them beyond a certain time-limit, seeing that any excess in the boiling only makes them tough, and the whites particularly so, owing to their albuminous nature. In order to boil eggs uniformly, they should be put into a colander with large holes, whereby they may be plunged at the same moment of time into the boiling water. From the time the water regains the boiling point, eight minutes should be allowed in the case of medium-sized eggs, and ten minutes in the case of larger ones; but these times should never be exceeded. As soon as they are done drain the eggs and dip them in cold water, and then shell them carefully.

434- HARD-BOILED EGGS CAREME

Have ready beforehand a timbale crust (No. 2395), somewhat shallow.

For six hard-boiled eggs, slice four artichoke-bottoms of medium size, and stew them in butter; cut some truffles into slices, allowing four slices to each egg, and cut up the eggs

EGGS 173

into discs about one-half inch thick. Prepare also in advance one-half pint of Nantua sauce.

Garnish the crust with alternate layers of sliced artichokebottoms, egg-discs, and sliced truffles. Finish with a coating of sauce and a ring of sliced truffles.

Dish up the crust on a napkin.

435- HARD-BOILED EGOS CHIMAY

Cut the eggs, lengthwise, in two. Remove the yolks, pound them into a paste, and add thereto an equal quantity of dry Duxelle (No. '223). Fill the empty whites with the preparation; place them on a buttered ^raiin-dish; cover them with Mornay sauce; besprinkle with grated cheese; pour a few drops of melted butter upon the sauce, and set to glaze in a fierce oven.

436- HARD-BOILED EGOS IN CROQUETTES

Cut the eggs into small dice (white and yolks). Per six eggs add five oz. of cooked mushrooms and one oz. of truffles, cut into dice.

Thicken the whole with one-quarter pint of reduced Bechamel, and spread on a plate to cool.

When cold, divide the preparation into portions weighing about two oz.; roll these portions into balls on a floured mixingboard, and then shape them like eggs. Dip them into an anglaise (No. 174), taking care to cover them well with it, and then roll them in fine and fresh bread-crumbs, letting this operation avail for finishing off the shape. Put them into hot fat seven or eight minutes before dishing up; drain, salt moderately, place on a napkin, with a centre garnish of very green, fried parsley, and send a cream sauce to the table with them.

437- HARD-BOILED EGGS IN RISSOLES

Make a preparation of eggs, as for the croquettes, using a little more sauce. Roll some puff-paste trimmings to a thickness of one-quarter inch, and stamp it with a round indented cutter two and one-half inches in diameter.

Place a small tablespoonful of the preparation in the middle of each piece of paste; moisten slightly all round, and make the rissoles by folding the outside edges of the paste over one another to look like a closed purse, taking care to press them well together so as to join them, thus completely enclosing the preparation. Treat them a I' anglaise; put them into hot fat eight minutes before serving, and dish up on a napkin, with a centre garnish of parsley.

438- EQQS A LA TRIPE

For six eggs, finely mince two onions, and stew them in butter, without letting them acquire any colour. Add thereto one-half pint of Bechamel sauce, and set to cook gently for ten minutes. A few minutes before serving add the eggs, cut into large slices, to the sauce.

Dish up in a timbale.

439- EQQS A LA TRIPE, BOURQEOISE

For six eggs chop up two large onions and stew them in butter without colouration. Sprinkle them with one-half oz. of flour, moisten with one pint of boiling milk, and season with salt, pepper, and nutmeg.

Set to cook, gently, for twenty minutes; rub through a fine sieve or through tammy, and transfer the preparation to a saucepan, and heat it well. Dish up the eggs, which should be quartered, in a timbale, and cover them with the preparation of onions, very hot.

440- EQQS EN COCOTTE

The poaching of eggs en cocotte is done in the bain-marie.

Cocottes for eggs, which may be replaced by little china or plaited cases, are a kind of small saucepan in earthenware, in porcelain, or in silver, provided with a little handle. The time generally allowed for the cooking or poaching of eggs in this way is ten minutes, but this time is subject to variations either way. In order to accelerate the process I should advise the warming of the cocottes before the insertion of the eggs.

Mode of Procedure. - Having garnished the cocottes and broken the eggs into them, as directed in the recipes given hereafter, set them in a saut^-pan and pour therein enough boiling water to reach within one-half inch of the brims of the cocottes. Place in the oven and cover, just leaving sufficient opening for the steam to escape.

The eggs are done when the whites are almost set and the yolks are glossy. After having properly wiped the cocottes, dish them on a napkin or on a fancy dish-paper.

441- EQQS IN COCOTTE AU CHAMBERTIN

Prepare a red-wine sauce au Chambertin. Fill the cocottes, one-third full, with this sauce. Set to boil on a corner of the

EGGS 175

stove; break the eggs into the boiling sauce, season with a grain of salt, and put the cocottes, one by one, into a saute-pan containing the necessary quantity of boiling water.

Poach as directed, and set to glaze quickly at the last moment.

442- EQGS EN COCOTTE WITH CREAM

This preparation constitutes the radical type of this series of eggs, and, for a long time, was the only one in use. Heat the cocottes beforehand; pour a tablespoonful of boiling cream into each, followed by an egg, broken; season, and add two little lumps of butter, the size of peas. Place the cocottes in a bain-marie, and poach as before.

443- EaaS EN COCOTTE A LA JEANNETTE

Garnish the bottom and the sides of the cocottes with a thickness of one-third inch of chicken-forcemeat with cream, mixed with a fifth of its volume of foie gras. Break the egg over the middle, season, and poach in the usual way. When about to serve, surround the eggs with a thread of poultry velout^.

444- EQGS EN COCOTTE WITH GRAVY

Break the eggs into buttered cocottes. Season, poach, and, when about to serve, surround the yolks with a thread of reduced veal gravy.

445- EGGS EN COCOTTE A LA LORRAINE

Put a teaspoonful of breast of pork, cut into dice and fried, into each cocotte, also three thin slices of Gruy^re cheese and one tablespoonful of boiling cream. Break the eggs, season, and poach in the usual way.

446- EQGS EN COCOTTE A LA MARAICHERE

Garnish the bottom and sides of the cocottes with cooked spinach, chopped and pressed, and sorrel and lettuce leaves, both of which should be stewed in butter. Break the eggs, season, poach in the usual way, and, when about to send the eggs to the table, drop a fine chervil -pluche on each yolk.

447- EGGS EN COCOTTE WITH MORELS

Garnish the bottom and sides of the cocottes with minced morels fried in butter and thickened with a little reduced halfglaze. Break the eggs, season, poach, and surround the yolks with a thread of half-glaze when dishing up. 448- EQQS EN COCOTTE A LA SOUBISE

Garnish the bottom and sides of the cocottes with a coating of thick Soubise purde. Break the eggs, season, and poach. When dishing up, surround the yolks with a thread of melted meat-glaze.

449- MOULDED EGGS

These form a very ornamental dish, but the time required to prepare them being comparatively long, poached, soft-boiled, and other kinds of eggs are generally preferred in their stead. They are made in variously shaped moulds, ornamented according to the nature of the preparation, and the eggs are broken into them direct, or they may be inserted in the form of scrambled eggs, together with raw eggs poached in a hainmarie.

Whatever be the mode of preparation, the moulds should always be liberally buttered. The usual time allowed for the poaching of the eggs in moulds is from ten to twelve minutes, but when withdrawn from the bain-marie it is well to let the moulds stand awhile with the view of promoting a settling of their contents, which action facilitates the ultimate turning out of the latter.

Empty the moulds on small pieces of toast or tartlets, and arrange these in a circle round the dish.

450- MOULDED EGGS A LA CARIGNAN

Butter some Madeleine-moulds, shaped like elongated shells, and garnish them with a thin coating of chicken-stuffing or crayfish butter. Break the eggs in the middle of the forcemeat; season, place carefully in a bain-marie, and poach, with cover on, in the oven, leaving a small opening for the escape of the generated vapour. Empty the moulds on toast cut to the same shape as the moulds and fried in butter; arrange them on the dish, and coat with a Chateaubriand sauce.

451- MOULDED EGGS A LA DUCHESSE

Butter some baba-moulds; garnish the bottom of each with a large slice of trufHe; break an egg into each, and poach in the bain-marie. Turn out the moulds on to little fluted galettes made from Duchesse potatoes and coloured in the oven after having been gilded.

Dish up in the form of a crown, and coat with a thickened veal gravy.

EGGS t77

452- QALLI-MAR16, MOULDED EQQS

For four people: (i) Prepare five scrambled eggs, keeping them very soft; add thereto three raw, beaten eggs and one teaspoonful of capsicum, cut into dice. Mould this preparation in four little shallow cassolettes, well buttered, and poach in the bain-marie.

(2) Have ready and hot as many cooked artichoke-bottoms as there are cassolettes; the former should have had their edges fluted. Have also ready a " Rice k la Grecque " (No. 2253).

(3) Garnish the artichoke-bottoms with the rice; turn out the cassolettes upon the latter; arrange on a dish, and cover with highly-seasoned and buttered Bechamel sauce. Put the dish in a fierce oven, so as to glaze quickly, and serve immediately.

453- MOULDED EQQS A LA MORTEMART

Scramble five eggs, keeping them soft, and add thereto three raw, beaten eggs. Butter some shallow, timbale moulds; garnish their bottoms with a fine slice of truffle, and fill them with the preparation of eggs. Poach in a bain-marie.

Turn out each mould on a tartlet-crust, garnished with mushroom pur6e k la cr6me (No. 2079), and arrange in a circle on a round dish. Send a sauceboat containing some melted and buttered meat-glaze to the table with the eggs.

454- NEAPOLITAN MOULDED EQQS

Make a preparation consisting of scrambled eggs and Parmesan cheese, keeping it very soft; add thereto, per five scrambled eggs, two raw eggs. Fill some little, well-buttered brioche-moulds with this preparation, and poach in the bainmarie. As soon as their contents are properly set, turn out the moulds on to a buttered gratin dish, besprinkle with grated Parmesan cheese, and coat the eggs with reduced and buttered half-glaze, well saturated with tomato.

455- MOULDED EQQS PALERMITAINE

Butter some baba-moulds; garnish the bottoms with a slice of truffle, and besprinkle the sides with very red, chopped tongue. Put the moulds in ice for a while, in order that the tongue may set in the butter. Break an egg into each mould, season, and poach in the bain-marie. Turn out the moulds on tartlet-crusts garnished with macaroni with cream.

N 456- POLIQNAC MOULDED EQQS

Butter some baba-moulds, and garnish the bottoms with a slice of truffle. Break an egg into each; season, and poach in a bain-mane.

Turn out the moulds upon little round pieces of toast; arrange them in a circle on a dish, and coat the eggs with Maitre-d' Hotel butter, the latter being dissolved and mixed with three tablespoonf uls of melted meat-glaze per every one-quarter lb. of its weight.

457- PRINCESS MOULDED EQQS

Butter some narrow and deep dariole-moulds; garnish their bottoms with a slice of very black truffle, and their sides with a very thin coating of chicken forcemeat.

Make a preparation of scrambled eggs, asparagus-heads, and truffles cut into dice, keeping them very soft, and add thereto raw, beaten eggs in the proportion of one raw egg to every four scrambled.

Fill the moulds, two-thirds full, with this preparation; cover the eggs with a coating of forcemeat, and poach in a bain-marie for twelve minutes.

Turn out the moulds upon little, round pieces of toast; set these in a circle on a dish, and surround them with a thread of clear poultry velout6. Or the velout^ may be sent to the table separately, in a sauceboat.

458- PRINTANIER MOULDED EQQS

Butter some hexagonal moulds, and garnish them. Chartreuse-fashion, with cut-up, cooked vegetables, varying the shades. Break an egg into each mould; season, and poach in a bain-marie. Turn out the moulds upon little, round pieces of toast; arrange these in a circle on a dish, and pour in their midst a cream sauce finished by means of a Printanier butter with herbs, in the proportion of one oz. of butter to one-quarter pint of sauce.

459- SCRAMBLED EQQS

This dish is undoubtedly the finest of all egg-preparations, provided the eggs be not over-cooked, and they be kept soft and creamy.

Scrambled eggs are mostly served in silver timbales, but, in certain cases, they may also be dished in special little croustades, in little receptacles made from hollowed brioches, or in tartlet

EGGS 179

crusts. Formerly, it was customary to garnish scrambled eggs served in a silver timbale with small, variously-shaped pieces of toast, or with small scraps of puff-paste, cooked without colouration, and shaped like crescents, lozenges, rings, palmettes, &c. This method has something to recommend it, and may always be adopted. In old cookery, scrambled eggs were sanctioned only when cooked in a bain-marie. This measure certainly ensured their being properly cooked, but it considerably lengthened the procedure. The latter may therefore be shortened by cooking the eggs in the usual way, i.e., in a utensil in direct contact with the fire; but in this case the heat must be moderate, in order that, the process of cooking being progressive and gradual, perfect homogeneity of the particles of the eggs (effecting the smoothness of the preparation) may result.

460- METHOD OF SCRAMBLING EQQS

For six eggs, slightly heat one oz. of butter in a thickbottomed saut6-pan. Add the six eggs, beaten moderately, together with a large pinch of salt and a little pepper; place the pan on a moderate fire, and stir constantly with a wooden spoon, taking care to avoid anything in the way of sudden, fierce heat, which, by instantaneously solidifying the eggmolecules, would cause lumps to form in the mass - a thing which, above all, should be guarded against.

When, by cooking, the eggs have acquired the proper consistence, and are still smooth and creamy, take the saut6-pan off the fire, and finish the preparation by means of one and one-half oz. of butter (divided into small quantities) and three tablespoonfuls of cream. Only whisk the eggs to be scrambled when absolutely necessary.

N.B. - Having given the mode of procedure, which is unalterable for scrambled eggs, I shall now pass on, in the following recipes, to the various garnishes suited to this kind of dish. The quantities I give are those required for six scrambled eggs.

461- SCRAMBLED EQGS A LA BOHEMIENNE

Take one cottage brioche for every two eggs. Remove the tops of the brioches, and the crumb from the remaining portions, so as to form cases of these. Add one-half oz. of foie gras to the scrambled eggs, and half as much truffles, cut into dice, for every two eggs. Fill the emptied brioches with this preparation, and place a slice of trufifle coated with meat-glaze upon each.

N 2 462- SCRAMBLED EQQS WITH MUSHROOMS

Add to the scrambled eggs one oz. of cooked mushrooms cut into dice, or raw mushrooms, minced and sauted in butter, for every two eggs.

Dish in a timbale; put a fine, cooked, and grooved mushroom in the middle, and surround with a crown of sliced mushrooms, also cooked.

463- SCRAMBLED EGGS, CHASSEUR

Dish the scrambled eggs in a timbale. Hollow out the middle, and place therein a garnish of one fine chicken's liver, sauted, per every two eggs. Sprinkle a pinch of chervil and tarragon on the garnish, and surround with a thread of chasseur sauce (No. 33).

464- SCRAMBLED EGGS, CHATILLON

Dish the eggs in a timbale, and place a garnish of mushrooms in the centre. The mushrooms should first be minced raw, and then sauted in butter. Sprinkle a pinch of chopped parsley on the garnish, and surround with a thread of melted meat-glaze. Border the whole, close to the sides of the timbale, with small crescents of puff-paste, baked pale.

465- SCRAMBLED EGGS WITH SHRIMPS

Dish the scrambled eggs in a silver timbale. Place a little heap of shrimps' tails bound with a few tablespoonfuls of shrimp sauce in the middle, and surround with a thread of the same sauce.

466- SCRAMBLED EGGS WITH HERBS

Add to the scrambled eggs a tablespoonful of parsley, chervil pluches, chives, and tarragon leaves in equal quantities and chopped.

467- SCRAMBLED EGGS WITH CHEESE

Break the eggs, beat them, season, and add thereto, for every two eggs, one-half oz. of fresh grated Gruy^re cheese, and as much grated Parmesan. Cook the eggs in the usual way on a very moderate fire, in order to keep them creamy.

EGGS i8i

468- SCRAMBLED EGOS GRAND=MERE

Add to the scrambled eggs a tablespoonful of little crusts, cut into dice, fried in clarified butter, and prepared in time to be inserted into the eggs very hot. Dish in a timbale with a pinch of chopped parsley in the middle.

469- SCRAMBLED EGGS, GEORGETTE

Bake three fine Dutch potatoes, or six smaller ones, in the oven. Open them by means of an incision on their tops; withdraw the pulp from the interior with the handle of a spoon, and keep the remaining shells hot. Prepare the scrambled eggs in the usual way, and finish them away from the fire with one and one-half oz. of crayfish butter, and eight or ten shelled crayfish tails. Garnish the potato shells with this preparation, and dish up on a napkin.

470- SCRAMBLED EGGS FOR HOT LUNCHEON

HORS=D'(EUVRE

I only give one recipe of this kind, but the series may be extended at will without involving much deep research, since all that is needed for the purpose of variety is the modification of the garnish and a change in the souffle preparation. The mode of procedure remains unalterable. Prepare the scrambled eggs, and garnish them as fancy may suggest. Also make a " Souffl6 with Parmesan Cheese " (No. 2295a).

Put the scrambled eggs into a large tartlet-crust, cook without colouration, filling them only two-thirds full. Cover with the souffle preparation, taking care to make it project in a mound above the tartlets; place these on a tray, poach quickly in a hot oven, and glaze at the same time.

471- SCRAMBLED EGGS WITH MORELS

Add to the scrambled eggs some minced morels, sauted in butter and seasoned. Dish in timbales, and place a fine, cooked morel in the centre of each.

472- SCRAMBLED EGGS WITH MOUSSERONS

Proceed as for No. 471.

473- SCRAMBLED EGGS, ORLOFF

Break the eggs, beat them, and add thereto a little fresh, thick cream. Cook them in the usual way, and add three cray fishes' tails per every two eggs. Dish in little porcelain cases, place a fine slice of truffle in each of the cases, and arrange these upon a napkin lying on a dish.

474- SCRAMBLED EQQS A LA PIISmONTAISE

Add to the scrambled eggs, per every two of the latter, onehalf oz. of grated Parmesan cheese and a coffeespoonful of raw, grated. Piedmont truffles. Dish in a timbale, and garnish with a fine crown of sliced truffles of the same kind as the above.

475_SCRAMBLED EQQS A LA PORTUQAISE

Dish the eggs in a timbale, and place, in the middle, some fine, concassed tomatoes, seasoned and sauted in butter. Sprinkle a pinch of concassed parsley on the tomatoes, and surround with a thread of meat-glaze.

476- SCRAMBLED EQQS, PRINCESS MARY

Prepare some small timbales in dariole-moulds from puffpaste scraps, and bake them without colouration; also some little covers of puff-paste, stamped out with an indented fancycutter, two inches in diameter. Set the covers on a tray, gild them slightly, place on each a scrap of indented paste, and leave this uncoloured. Bake the timbales and the covers in a moderate oven.

Make a preparation of scrambled eggs and Parmesan cheese; add to this, away from the fire, two tablespoonfuls of reduced veloutd with truffle essence and truffles cut into dice.

Garnish the timbales, put a cover on each, and dish up on a napkin.

477- SCRAMBLED EQQS, RACHEL

Add some truffles, cut into dice, and some asparagus-heads to the scrambled eggs. Dish on a timbale; put a fine little faggot of asparagus-heads in the middle, and surround with a crown of sliced truffles.

478- SCRAMBLED EQQS, REINE MARQOT

Prepare the scrambled eggs in the usual way, and finish them with the necessary quantity of almond butter. Place this preparation in small tartlet-crusts, baked without colouration, and surround the tartlets with a thread of Bechamel sauce, finished with pistachio butter, the thread of sauce being close up to the edge of the tartlets.

EGGS 183

480- SCRAMBLED EQQS, ROTHSCHILD

Finely pound the remains of six crayfish (cooked in Mirepoix) the tails of which have been put aside, and add thereto, little by little, two tablespoonfuls of thick cream. Rub through tammy.

Add this crayfish cream to the six beaten eggs; season, and cook on a moderate fire with the object of obtaining a smooth, soft, and creamy preparation. Serve in a timbale and garnish, firstly with a small faggot of asparagus-heads placed in the middle of the eggs, secondly with crayfish tails arranged in a circle round the asparagus, and thirdly with large slices of very black truffles arranged in a crown around the crayfish tails.

481- SCRAMBLED EQQS WITH TRUFFLES

Add one tablespoonful of truffles, cooked in Madeira and cut into dice, to the scrambled eggs. Place these in a timbale, and garnish with a crown of sliced truffles.

Or place the preparation in tartlet-crusts, made from trimmings of puff-paste and baked without colouration, with a large slice of truffle on the eggs, in each tartlet.

482- FRIED EQQS

In the long series of egg-preparations, fried eggs are those which hold the least important place, for the fried eggs which are so commonly served at breakfasts in England and America are really eggs a la poele. The real fried egg is almost unknown in England and America. As a rule, the garnish given to this kind of eggs is served apart, while the latter are dished, either on a napkin or on pieces of toast, with a little fried parsley laid in the middle of the dish.

483- THE PREPARATION OF FRIED EQQS

Any fat, provided it be well purified, may be used for these eggs, but oil is the more customary frying medium. To do these eggs properly, only one should be dealt with at a time.

Heat some oil in an omelet-pan until it begins to smoke slightly; break the egg on a plate; season it, and let it slide into the pan. Then, with a wooden spoon, quickly cover up the yolk with the solidified portions of the white, in order to keep the former soft.

Drain the egg on a piece of stretched linen, and proceed in the same way with the other eggs until the required quantity has been treated. 484- FRIED EQQS A LA BORDELAISE

Prepare as many halved tomatoes k la Provenfale (see tomatoes) as there are eggs, adding a pinch of chopped shallots to each halved tomato. When cooked, garnish them with cepes, finely minced and sauted k la Bordelaise; place a fried egg on each garnished half-tomato, and arrange them in a circle on a dish, with fried parsley in the middle.

485- HARVESTERS' FRIED EGGS

Fry as many blanched rashers of breast of bacon as there are eggs. Arrange in a circle on a dish, alternating the rasher with the eggs. Garnish the centre with large peas, cooked with ciseled lettuce and finely-sliced potatoes.

486- FRIED POACHED EQQS

This kind is recommended, because it may be served with various garnishes- either vegetables of the same nature, a macedoine, vegetable purees, or divers cullises, sauces in keeping with the eggs, artichoke-bottoms, mushrooms, morels, &c. (sliced and sauted in butter), or tomato-fondue, &c.

After having properly drained and dried the poached eggs, which should have been prepared beforehand, dip them carefully in a Villeroy sauce (No. 108), and arrange them, one by one, on a dish. When the sauce has set, pass the point of a small knife round the eggs to remove any excess of sauce; take them off the dish to treat them with an anglaise (No. 174), and then roll them in very fine, fresh bread-crumbs.

Plunge them into very hot fat three or four minutes before serving; drain them on a piece of linen; salt slightly, arrange in a circle on a dish, and set the selected garnish in the middle.

487- FRIED EQQS A LA PORTUQAISE

Place each of the fried eggs upon a half-tomato k la Portugaise, i.e., stuffed with rice after having been previously half-baked in the oven. Arrange in a circle on a dish, and garnish the centre with concussed tomatoes sauted in butter.

488- FRIED EQQS A LA PROVEN9ALE

Put each fried egg on a half-tomato on a large, thick slice of egg-plant, seasoned, rolled in flour, and fried in oil. Set in a circle on a dish, with fried parsley in the centre.

EGGS 185

489- FRIED EGGS A LA ROMAINE

Place the eggs, fried in oil, on little, oval subrics of spinach. The preparation of spinach should have anchovy fillets, cut into dice, added to it.

490- FRIED EGGS A LA VERDI

Cut six hard-boiled eggs lengthwise. Remove the yolks, pound them with two oz. of butter, and add thereto two tablespoonfuls of thick, cold Bechamel, two tablespoonfuls of cooked herbs, and one tablespoonful of lean ham, cooked and chopped. Garnish each half-white of egg with a good tablespoonful of this preparation, and smooth it with the blade of a small knife, shaping it in such wise as to represent the other half of the egg. Dip each whole egg, thus formed, into an anglaise, and roll in fine, fresh bread-crumbs. Plunge in hot fat six minutes before serving, and dish on a napkin, with fried parsley in the centre. Send, separately, to the table a garnish composed of asparagus-heads .

491- FRIED POACHED EGGS A LA VILLEROY

Prepare the eggs, poached beforehand, as explained under No. 486. Fry them similarly, and dish them on a napkin, with a garnish of fried parsley in the centre.

Omelets

The procedure for omelets is at once very simple and very difficult, for tastes differ considerably in respect of their preparation. Some like them well done, others insist upon their being just done, while there are yet others who only enjoy them when they are almost liquid.

Nevertheless, the following conditions apply to all - namely, that there should be homogeneity of the egg-molecules; that the whole mass should be smooth and soft; and that it should be borne in mind that an omelet is in reality scrambled eggs enclosed in a coat composed of coagulated egg.

I take as my standard an omelet consisting of three eggs, the seasoning of which comprises a small pinch of table-salt and a little pepper, and which requires one-half oz. of butter for its preparation. The quantities of garnishing ingredients given below, therefore, are based upon this standard. 492- THE PREPARATION OF OMELETS

Heat the butter in the omelet-pan, until it exhales the characteristic nutty smell. This will not only lend an exquisite taste to the omelet, but the degree of heat reached in order to produce the aroma will be found to ensure the perfect setting of the eggs.

Pour in the beaten and seasoned eggs, and stir briskly with a fork, in order to heat the whole mass evenly. If the omelet is to be garnished inside, this ought to be done at the present stage, and then the omelet should be speedily rolled up and transferred to a dish, to be finished in accordance with the nature of its designation.

When the omelet is on the dish, a piece of butter may be quickly drawn across its surface, to make it glossy.

493- AONES SOREL OMELET

Stuff the omelet with one tablespoonful of mushrooms, minced and sauted in butter. Roll it up, and transfer it to a dish.

Then lay eight small slices of very red tongue upon it, letting their edges overlap; surround with a thread of veal gravy.

494- OMELET A LA BRUXELLOISE

Stuff the omelet with two tablespoonfuls of braised endives, ciseled and thickened with cream. Surround with a thread of cream sauce.

495- OMELET WITH CfePES

Finely mince two oz. of cepes; toss them in butter in an omelet-pan until they have acquired a brown colour; add thereto a pinch of chopped shallots, and toss them again for a moment.

Pour the eggs into the omelet-pan; make the omelet; dish up, and surround with a thread of half-glaze.

496- OMELET WITH MUSHROOMS

Mince two oz. of raw mushrooms; toss them in butter in an omelet-pan; add the eggs thereto, and make the omelet. Transfer it to a dish, lay three little cooked and grooved mushrooms upon it, and surround with a thread of half-glaze.

EGGS 187

497- OMELET A LA CHOISY

Stuff the omelet with two tablespoonfuls of braised lettuce; the latter should have been ciseled and cohered by means of cream sauce.

Roll and dish the omelet, and surround it with a thread of cream sauce.

498- OMELET A LA CLAMART

Stuff the omelet with two tablespoonfuls of fresh peas, bound by means of butter and combined with a portion of the lettuce used in cooking them, finely ciseled. Roll and dish the omelet, make an opening lengthwise in the centre, and fill the interspace with a tablespoonful of fresh peas.

499- OMELET WITH CRUSTS

Combine with the beaten and seasoned eggs two tablespoonfuls of small crusts, cut into dice, fried in clarified butter, and very hot.

Make the omelet very quickly.

500- OMELET WITH SPINACH

Stuff the omelet with two tablespoonfuls of spinach with cream, and surround with a thread of cream sauce.

501- OMELET A LA FERMIERE

Add to the beaten and seasoned eggs one tablespoonful of very lean, cooked ham cut into dice. Pour the eggs into the omelet-pan, and cook them quickly, taking care to keep them very soft. Let the outside harden slightly; tilt into the dish after the manner of a pancake, and besprinkle the surface with a pinch of chopped parsley.

502- OMELET AUX FINES HERBES

Add to the eggs one tablespoonful of parsley, chervil, chive, and tarragon leaves, all to be finely chopped and almost equally apportioned.

Make the omelet in the usual way.

503- OMELET WITH VEGETABLE MARROW FLOWERS

Add to the eggs one and one-half oz. of the calices of freshly-plucked and young vegetable-marrow flowers; cisel and stew them, and add thereto a pinch of chopped parsley. Surround the omelet with a thread of tomato sauce.

N.B. - This omelet may be made with oil, as well as with butter.

504- OMELET WITH CHICKEN'S LIVER

Stuff the omelet with two tablespoonfuls of chicken's liver, which should be cut into dice or finely sliced, seasoned, quickly sauted in butter, and cohered with half-glaze. Dish the omelet, make an opening lengthwise in the centre, and place one tablespoonful of chicken's liver, prepared as above, in the interspaces. Besprinkle with chopped parsley, and surround the omelet with a thread of half-glaze.

S05- OMELET WITH ARTICHOKE = BOTTOMS

Finely mince two small artichoke-bottoms (raw if possible), season them, and slightly colour them in butter. Add the beaten and seasoned eggs, and make the omelet in the usual way.

506- OMELET WITH YOUNG SHOOTS OF HOPS

Stuff the omelet with two tablespoonfuls of young shoots of hops, cohered with cream, and finish it in the usual way. Open it slightly along the top, and garnish with a few young shoots of hops put aside for the purpose.

The omelet may be surrounded with a thread of cream sauce, but this is optional.

507- OMELET A LA LYONNAISE

Finely mince half an onion, and cook it with butter in an omelet-pan, letting it brown slightly. Add the eggs, with which a large pinch of chopped parsley has been mixed, and make the omelet in the usual way.

508- OMELET MAXIM

Make the omelet in the usual way. Lay upon it alternate rows of crayfish tails and slices of truffle. Surround the omelet with a fine border of frogs' legs " sauted k la Meuni^re," i.e., seasoned raw, rolled in flour, and sauted in butter until quite cooked and well gilded.

EGGS 189

509- OMELET WITH MORELS

Mince and toss in butter two oz. of very firm morels. Two should be put aside, which, after having been cut in two, lengthwise, and sauted with the others, should be placed on a dish when the omelet is about to be made. Having dished the latter, place the four sauted and reserved pieces of morels upon it, and surround it with a thread of half-glaze.

510- OMELET MOUSSELINE

Beat the yolks of three eggs in a bowl with a small pinch of salt and a tablespoonful of very thick cream. Add thereto the three whites, whisked to a stiff froth, and pour this preparation into a wide omelet-pan containing one oz. of very hot butter. Saute the omelet, tossing it very quickly, and taking care to turn the outside edges of the preparation constantly towards the centre; when the whole mass seems uniformly set, roll the omelet up quickly, and dish it. This omelet should be sent to the table immediately.

510a- OMELET WITH MOUSSERONS

Mince two oz. of very fresh mousserons; toss them in butter in the omelet-pan; add thereto the eggs mixed with a pinch of chopped parsley; make the omelet, dish it, and surround it with a thread of half-glaze.

SI I- OMELET A LA NANTUA

Add to the omelet six little crayfishes' tails, each of which must be cut into three, and the whole mixed with a little Nantua sauce. Put two fine crayfishes' tails on the omelet, making them touch at their thicker ends, and surround with a thread of Nantua sauce.

512- OMELET PARMENTIER

Add a pinch of chopped parsley to the eggs, and, when about to pour the latter into the omelet-pan, add two tablespoonfuls of potato cut into dice, seasoned, sauted in butter, and very hot. Make the omelet in the usual way.

513- OMELET A LA PAYS ANNE

Frizzle with butter, in the omelet-pan, two oz. of breast of bacon cut into dice. Add to the eggs one tablespoonful of finely-sliced potatoes sauted in butter, one-half tablespoonful of ciseled sorrel stewed in butter, and a pinch of concussed chervil.

Pour the whole over the bacon-dice; cook the eggs quickly, keeping them soft; turn the omelet after the manner of a pancake, and tilt it immediately on to a round dish.

514- OMELET WITH ASPARAGUS=TOPS

Add one and one-half tablespoonfuls of blanched asparagustops, stewed in butter, to the omelet. Having dished the omelet, open it along the middle, and lay a nice little faggot of asparagus-tops in the interspace.

S15- OMELET A LA PROVEN9ALE

Rub the bottom of the omelet-pan lightly with a clove of garlic; put two tablespoonfuls of oil into the utensil, and heat it until it smokes.

Throw into the oil a fine, peeled, pressed, and pipped tomato, cut into dice and besprinkled with a pinch of concussed parsley. Cook it quickly, tossing it the while, and add it to the beaten and seasoned eggs. Make the omelet in the usual way.

N.B. - The nature of this preparation demands the use of oil in treating the tomato, but, failing oil, clarified butter may be used.

516- OMELET WITH KIDNEYS

Add to the omelet a tablespoonful of calf's or sheep's kidney, cut into dice, seasoned with salt and pepper, sauted quickly in butter, and cohered by means of half-glaze. Having dished the omelet, divide it down the middle, lay some reserved kidneydice in the interspace, and surround with a thread of half-glaze.

517- OMELET A LA ROSSINI

Add to the beaten and seasoned eggs one dessertspoonful of cooked foie gras and as much truffle, cut into small dice. Having dished the omelet, place in the middle thereof a small rectangular piece of heated foie gras, and two slices of truffle on either side of the latter. Surround it with a thread of halfglaze flavoured with truffle essence.

518- OMELET WITH TRUFFLES

Add to the omelet one tablespoonful of truffles, cut into dice. Make the omelet, dish it, and lay a row of fine slices of truffles upon it. Surround it with a thread of melted meat-glaze.

EGGS 191

519- HOT LAPWINGS' AND PLOVERS' EGGS

Note. - In the chapter on hors-d'oeuvres, where recipes were given which deal with lapwings' eggs, I made a few remarks relative to their freshness, and indicated the procedure for boiling them soft and hard.

520- SCRAMBLED LAPWINGS' EGGS

Proceed as for ordinary scrambled eggs, all the recipes given for the latter being perfectly applicable to lapwings' eggs. They require, however, very great care in their preparation, and it should be borne in mind that one ordinary hen's egg is equal to about three lapwings' eggs.

521- LAPWINGS' EGGS A LA DANOISE

Poach the eggs as directed in the recipe dealing with the process, and dish them up in tartlet-crusts garnished with a pur^e of smoked salmon.

522- OMELET OF LAPWINGS' EGGS

Proceed as for other omelets, but one ordinary hen's egg is generally added to every six lapwings' eggs in order to give more body to the preparation. All the omelet recipes already given may be applied to lapwings' eggs.

523- LAPWINGS' EGGS A LA ROYALE

Garnish' as many small tartlet moulds as there are eggs with chicken-forcemeat. Poach, turn out the moulds, and hollow out the centres of the tartlets in such wise as to be able to set an egg upright in each.

Place a soft- or hard-boiled egg on each forcemeat tartlet, coat the eggs with a light pur^e of mushrooms, besprinkle with chopped truffles, and arrange in a circle on a dish.

524- LAPWINGS' EGGS AU TROUBADOUR

Select as many large morels as there are eggs. Remove the stalks, and widen the openings of the morels; season them, and stew them in butter. Boil the lapwings' eggs soft.

Garnish each stewed morel with an egg; set them on little tartlet-crusts garnished with a light, foie-gras pur^e, and arrange them in a circle on a dish. Cold Eggs

The preparation of cold eggs is not limited by classical rules; it rests with the skill and artistic imagination of the operator, and, since fancifulness and originality are always closely allied to artistic imagination, it follows that the varieties evolved may be infinite.

Indeed, so various and numerous are the recipes dealing with this kind of egg-preparations that I must limit myself to a selection only of the more customary ones, culled as far as possible from my own repertory.

525- COLD EQQS ALEXANDRA

Take some cold, well-trimmed, poached eggs; dry them and cover them with a white chaud-froid sauce. Place a fine indented slice of truffle in the centre of each, and sprinkle with a cold, white, melted aspic jelly until they are thinly coated therewith. Slip the point of a small knife round each egg with the view of moving them more easily, and transfer them to oval tartlet-crusts made from puff-paste trimmings, baked without colouration.

Lay a border of caviare round the eggs; dish them in the form of a crown, and put some chopped jelly in the centre.

526- COLD EGGS A L'ANDALOUSE

Cover some cold, well-dried, poached eggs with a tomato pur^e combined with a full third of its volume of Soubise pur^e and one-half pint of melted aspic jelly per pint of sauce. Cut some pimentos, marinaded in oil, into very thin strips, and lay these, after the manner of a lattice, upon each egg.

Now garnish as many oiled, oval tartlet-moulds as there are eggs with tomato pur^e, thickened with jelly, and let the garnish set on ice. Turn out the moulds, and put an egg upon each of the tomato tartlets; arrange the latter in a circle on a dish surrounded with a chain composed of linked rings of onion, and garnish the centre with chopped, white jelly.

527- COLD EQQS ARGENTEUIL

Coat some well-dried, soft-boiled eggs, slightly cut at their base to make them stand, with a white chaud-froid sauce combined with a good third of its volume of asparagus-tops pur^e. Sprinkle repeatedly with cold, melted, white jelly, until a glossy coating is obtained.

ECGS 19 j

Garnish the centra 6f a dish with a salad of asparagus-tops; surround this with fine slices of cold potato, cooked in water and cut up with an even fancy-cutter, one inch in diameter, and arrange the eggs all round.

528- COLD EGGS CAPUCINE

Carefully dry some cold, poached eggs, and half-coat them lengthwise with a white chaud-froid sauce; complete the coating on the other side with a smooth pur^e of truffles, thickened with jelly. Leave these two coats to set, placing the eggs in the cool or on ice for that purpose.

Garnish the centre of a round dish with a small pyramid of cold, truffled Brandade of morue, and set the eggs round the latter.

529- COLD EQQS CARfeME

Cook the eggs on the dish, leave them to cool, and trim them with an even fancy-cutter, oval in shape. Place each egg on an oval tartlet-crust, garnished with dice of cooked salmon, cohered with mayonnaise.

Surround with a thread of caviare, and lay a thin slice of very black truffle on each egg.

530- COLD EGGS COLBERT

Garnish some small, oval moulds in Chartreuse fashion, i.e., like a draught-board. Put a small, cold, poached egg into each mould, fill up with melted, white jelly, and leave to set. Garnish the centre of a dish with a heaped vegetable salad; arrange the eggs taken from their moulds around this, and surround with a little chopped jelly.

531- COLD EGGS COLINETTE

Let a thin coat of white jelly set upon the bottom and sides of some small, oval moulds. Garnish the latter with some small dice, consisting of white of &gg and truffles, placing them so as to simulate a draught-board; now insert a very small, cold, poached egg into each mould, and fill up with a melted jelly.

Garnish the centre of a dish with a " Rachel " salad, encircled by a ring of sliced, cold potatoes, cooked in water, and place the eggs, removed from their moulds, all round. Border the dish with indented crescents of white jelly.

532- COLD EGGS WITH TARRAGON

Mould these in baba-moulds, or in porcelain cocottes; some times they may simply be dished up on small tartlet-crusts.

O The preparation consists of poached or soft-boiled eggs, garnished with blanched tarragon leaves, or coated or moulded with a very fine tarragon jelly.

533- COLD EGGS, FROU-FROU

Select soine very small poached eggs of equal size, cover them with a white chaud-froid sauce combined with about a third of its volume of a pur^e of hard-boiled egg-yolks.

Garnish the top of each egg with an indented ring of very black truffle, and surround the base of the eggs with a narrow ribbon composed of chopped truffles. Glaze with jelly, and leave to set on ice.

Prepare a salad of green vegetables (peas, French beans cut into dice or lozenges, asparagus-tops); thicken it with a very little mayonnaise mixed with melted jelly. Pour this preparation into an oiled mould, and leave it to set. For dishing, turn out the salad in the middle of a dish; surround the base with a line of chopped jelly; encircle the whole with the eggs, letting them rest on the jelly, and garnish the dish with a border of dice cut in very clear, white jelly.

534- COLD EGGS MOSCOVITE

Slightly level both ends of some shelled, hard-boiled eggs. Surround the tops and the bases with three little anchovy fillets, and place a bit of truffle just half-way along each egg. Eggs prepared in this way resemble little barrels, whereof the anchovy fillets imitate the iron hoops, and the bits of truffle the bungs. By means of a tubular cutter empty the eggs with care; garnish them with caviare, and shape the latter to a point, outside the edges of the egg.

Lay each egg in an artichoke-bottom, cooked white, and garnished with finely-chopped jelly, and arrange them in a circle on a dish with chopped jelly in the centre.

535- COLD EGGS A LA NANTUA

Prepare some hard-boiled eggs to resemble little barrels, after the manner described above. For every six eggs keep ready and cold eighteen crayfish cooked k la Bordelaise. Shell the tails, put two aside for each egg, and cut the remainder into dice; finely pound the bodies and remains, add thereto three

EGGS 195

tablespoonfuls of thick cream, and rub through tammy. Add to this cullis one tablespoonful of thick mayonnaise.

Bind the crayfish tails, cut into dice, with a few tablespoonfuls of this sauce, and garnish the eggs, emptied by the method indicated above, with the preparation of dice, making it stand out of the eggs in the shape of a small dome. Garnish each dome with a rosette composed of four halved crayfish tails and four truffle lozenges.

Glaze well with jelly; set the eggs upon artichoke-bottoms garnished with a mayonnaise with crayfish cullis, and arrange in a circle on a dish.

536- COLD EQQS POLIQNAC

Prepare some eggs a la Polignac, as explained under " Moulded Eggs," and leave them to cool. Select some moulds a little larger than those used in the cooking of the eggs; pour into each half a tablespoonful of melted, white jelly, and leave to set. Then put an egg into each mould, and fill up the space around the eggs with melted, white jelly.

Leave to set, turn out the moulds, arrange the mouldings on a dish, and surround them with dice of faintly coloured jelly.

537- COLD EQQS A LA REINE

Prepare some soft-boiled eggs, and leave them to cool. Take as many cottage brioches as there are eggs; trim them to the level of the fluting, and remove the crumb from the inside, so as to form little croustades of them. Garnish the bottom and the sides of these croustades with a fine mince of white chickenmeat, thickened with mayonnaise, and season moderately with cayenne. Place a shelled, soft-boiled egg in each croustade; coat thinly with mayonnaise slightly thickened by means of a jelly; lay a fine piece of truffle on each egg, and, when the sauce has set, glaze with jelly, using a fine brush for the purpose.

Dish up on a napkin.

538- COLD EQQS, RUBENS

Season some cooked young shoots of hops with salt and freshly-ground pepper; add thereto some chopped parsley and chervil, and a pur^e of plainly-cooked tomatoes combined with just sufficient jelly to ensure the cohesion of the hops. Mould in oiled tartlet-moulds.

o 2 Coat some well-dried, cold, poached eggs with white chaudfroid sauce; garnish with pieces of tarragon leaves, and glaze with jelly.

Turn out the tartlet-moulds; set an egg on each of the mouldings, and arrange them in a circle on a dish, placing between each egg a piece of very clear jelly, cut to the shape of a cock's comb.

Garnish the centre of the dish with chopped jelly.

CHAPTER XIII

SOUPS

Soups are divided into two leading classes, viz.: -

1. Clear soups, which include plain and garnished consommes.

2. Thick soups, which comprise the Purees, Velout^s, and Creams.

A third class, which is independent of either of the above, inasmuch as it forms part of plain, household cookery, embraces vegetable soups and Garbures or gratincd soups. But in important dinners - by this I mean rich dinners - only the first two classes are recognised.

When a menu contains two soups, one must be clear and the other thick. If only one is to be served, it may be either clear or thick, in which case the two kinds are represented alternately at different meals.

In Part I. of this work I indicated the general mode of procedure for consommes and thick soups; I explained how the latter might be converted from plain purees into veloutds or creams, or from velout^s into creams; and all that now remains is to reveal the recipes proper to each of those soups.

Remarks.- In the course of the recipes for consommes, given hereafter, the use of Royales (Nos. 206 to 213) and of Quenelles, variously prepared (Nos. 193 to 195), will often be enjoined. For the preparation of these garnishes, therefore, the reader will have to refer to the numbers indicated.

The quantities for the clear soups that follow are all calculated to be sufficient for a standard number of six people, and the quantity of Royales is always given in so many dariolemoulds, which contain about one-eighth pint, or baba-moidds, which hold about one-fifth pint.

Of course, it will be understood that the poaching need not necessarily have been effected in these moulds, for very small "Charlotte" moulds would do quite as well. But I had recourse to the particular utensils mentioned above, in order that there might be no sort of doubt as to the exact quantity of royale it would be necessary to prepare for any one of the soups.

Clear Soups and Garnished Consommes

539- CONSOMM6 ALEXANDRA

Have a quart of excellent chicken consomm6 ready; add thereto, in order to thicken it slightly, three tablespoonfuls of poached tapioca, strained through muslin, and very clear.

Put the folloM?ing garnish into the soup-tureen: One tablespoonful of white chicken-meat cut in fine julienne-fashion, one tablespoonful of small chicken quenelles, grooved and long in shape, and one tablespoonful of lettuce chiffonade.

Pour the boiling consomme upon this garnish, and send to the table immediately.

540- C0NS0MMI6 AMBASSADRICE

Have one quart of chicken consomm^ ready; also there should have been prepared beforehand, with the view of using them quite cold, three different kinds of royales, consisting respectively of truffle pur^e, tomato purde, and pur^e of peas, each of which should have been poached in a dariole-mould.

Cut these royales up into regular dice, and put them in the soup-tureen with one tablespoonful of chicken fillet and an equal quantity of small, freshly-cooked mushrooms, finely minced. Pour the boiling consommd over these garnishes, and serve at once.

541- CONSOMM^ ANDALOUSE

Prepare a baba-mould of royale made from tomato pur^e. When quite cold, cut it into dice, and put these in the souptureen with one small tablespoonful of cooked ham cut in julienne-fashion, one tablespoonful of boiled rice, with every grain distinct and separate, and two tablespoonfuls of threaded eggs (No. 217).

When about to serve, pour one quart of very clear chicken consomm^ over the garnish.

543- CONSOMME D'ARENBERG

With a small spoon-cutter, pick out a spoonful of carrot pellets and the same quantity of turnip pellets. Cook these vegetables by boiling them in consomm^, taking care that the latter be reduced to a glaze when the vegetables are cooked.

SOUPS 199

With the same spoon take the same quantity as above of very black truffle; also prepare a dariole-mould of royale made from asparagus heads, and a dozen small chicken-forcemeat quenelles, which should be moulded to the shape of large pearls.

Poach the quenelles, cut the royales up into slices, which must be stamped with an indented fancy-cutter, and put the whole into the soup-tureen with the carrots, turnips, and truffle pellets, and one tablespoonful of very green peas.

Pour a quart of chicken consomm^ over the garnish, and send to the table at once.

543- CONSOMME A LA BOHJ&MIENNE

Prepare three dariole-moulds of foie-gras pur^e, and twelve ¦profiterolles (No. 218) of the size of hazel-nuts, the latter being made very crisp.

When the royale is cold, cut it into little, regular squares, and put these into the soup-tureen.

When about to serve, pour over this garnish a quart of chicken consomm^, thickened by means of three tablespoonfuls of tapioca, poached and strained through linen.

Send the profiterolles to the table separately, and very hot.

544- CONSOMMlfe BOiELDIEU

Prepare eighteen chicken-forcemeat quenelles, moulded by means of a small teaspoon; some should be stuffed with foiegras pur^e, moistened with a little veIout6; others with chicken pur^e; and yet others with truffle pur^e - in short, six of each kind.

Place these, one by one, on a buttered saut6-pan; poach them, drain them, and put them in the soup-tureen with a tablespoonful of white chicken-meat, cut into dice.

When about to serve, pour one quart of chicken consomm^, thickened as above with tapioca, over the garnish.

545- CONSOMME BOUQUETlfeRE

Prepare a garnish of carrots and turnips, cut with the tubular cutter or with the spoon; French beans cut into lozenges, asparagus-heads, and green peas, all of which vegetables should be fresh and young. Cook each vegetable according to its nature, and put the whole into the soup-tureen.

When about to serve, pour over the garnish one quart of chicken consomm6 thickened with two tablespoonfuls of tapioca, poached and strained through fine linen. 546- CONSOMMI6 BOURDALOUE

Prepare a dariole-mould of each of the four following royales: -

1. Of a pur^e of haricot-beans with a slight addition of tomato.

2. Of a chicken pur^e moistened with velout6.

3. Of a puree of asparagus-tops combined with a few cooked spinach leaves, to deepen the colour.

4. Of a carrot pur^e (Pur^e Crecy).

Having poached and cooled the royales, cut them as follows: -

(i) Into dice, (2) into lozenges, (3) into little leaves, and (4) into stars.

Place them all in the ^oup-tureen, and, when about to serve, pour one quart of boiling and very clear chicken consomme over them.

547- POTAQE BORTSCH

Cut in julienne-fashion the heads of two leeks, one carrot, half of an onion, four oz. of the white of cabbage leaves, half a root of parsley, the white part of a stick of celery, and four oz. of beetroot; set the whole to stew gently in butter.

Moisten with one quart of white consommd and two or three tablespoonfuls of the juice of grated beetroot; add a small bunch of fennel and sweet marjoram, two lbs. of moderately fat breast of beef, and the half of a semi-roasted duck; set to cook gently for four hours.

When about to serve, cut the breast of beef into large dice, and cut the duck into small slices; finish the soup with onequarter pint of beetroot juice, extracted from grated beetroot pressed in linen, and a little blanched and chopped fennel and parsley. Put the beef dice and sliced duck into the soup, with twelve grilled and despumated chipolatas.

Serve, separately, a sauceboat of sour cream.

N.B. - The chipolatas may be replaced by very small patties with duck forcemeat, which should be served separately.

548- CONSOMME BRUNOISE

Cut into small dice the red part only of two small carrots, one small turnip, the heads of two leeks, a small stick of celery, and the third of an onion of medium size.

Season the vegetables moderately with salt and a pinch of sugar, and stew them in butter. Moisten with one-half pint

SOUPS 20 1

of consomm6, and complete the cooking of the Brunoise gently. Five minutes before serving, finish with one quart of boiling, ordinary consomm^, a moderate tablespoonful of peas, and the same quantity of French beans, cut into dice and kept very green.

Pour into the soup-tureen, and add a pinch of fine chervil pluches.

549- CONSOMME CARMEN

Prepare one quart of consomm^, to which add, while clarifying, one-quarter pint of raw tomato pur^e, in order to give it a faint, pink tinge.

Also peel and press a small and rather firm tomato; cut into dice, and poach the latter in some of the consomm^; put them in the soup-tureen with a small tablespoonful of mild capsicum, cut in fine julienne-fashion, and one tablespoonful of plainboiled rice.

When about to serve, pour the boiling consomm^ over the garnish, and add a small pinch of chervil pluches.

550- CONSOMME CASTELLANE

Prepare (i) one quart of game consomm6, flavoured with a fumct of woodcock; (2) two baba-moulds of royale, two-thirds of which consists of a pur^e of woodcock and one-third of lentils, with half the yolk of a hard-boiled egg, chopped and thickened with the usual leason.

Cut this royale into slices, about the size of a florin, onehalf inch thick. Put these into the soup-tureen, together with one tablespoonful of a julienne of roast woodcock fillets, and pour thereon the boiling game consomm^.

551- CONSOMME CELESTINE

Prepare one quart of chicken consomme, and add thereto three small tablespoonfuls of poached tapioca, strained through fine linen.

For the garnish make three pannequets (No. 2476) without sugar, and spread over each a thin coating of chicken forcemeat with cream. Place one on top of the other, sprinkle the layer of forcemeat on the uppermost one with finely-chopped, very black truffles, and place in the front of the oven for a few minutes, in order to poach the forcemeat.

Stamp the panncqtiets out with an even fancy-cutter about one inch in diameter. Put the pieces into a soup-tureen, and, \yhgn about to serve, pour in the boiling consornfp
Prepare (i) eighteen small ravioles (No. 2296) - six from spinach purde, six from foie-gras purde, and the remaining six from chopped mushrooms; (2) two small tablespoonfuls of tomato dice. Ten minutes before serving, poach the ravioles in boiling, salted water, and the tomato dice in some of the consomm^.

Put the ravioles and the tomato dice (well drained) into the soup-tureen, and pour over them one quart of consomm^ with a moderate addition of tapioca. Add a pinch of chervil pluches.

553- C0NS0MM6 AUX CHEVEUX D'ANGE

About two minutes before serving, plunge three oz. of very fine vermicelli, known as Angel's Hair (Cheveux d'Ange) into one quart of excellent, boiling consomm^.

An instant only is needed to poach the vermicelli, and the latter does not require to be blanched.

This soup, like those containing pastes, should be accompanied by freshly-grated Parmesan cheese.

554- CONSOMME COLBERT

Have ready one quart of excellent Printanier chicken consomm6 (No. 601). Also poach six small eggs in slightly salted and acidulated water. The eggs should be as small and as fresh as possible, both of which conditions are absolutely necessary for a proper poaching (see poached eggs. No. 411). Set these eggs in a small timbale with a little consomm^, and send them to the table with the Printanier. Having poured the latter into the plates, put one of the eggs into each of these.

555_CONSOMME COLOMBINE

Prepare a good tablespoonful of carrot pearls, and as many turnip pearls, keeping the latter very white. Cook them in the customary way, and put them in the soup-tureen with one tablespoonful of very green peas, one tablespoonful of a julienne of roast-pigeon fillets, and six poached pigeons' eggs, which latter should be sent to the table in a timbale at the same time as the consomm^.

Pour over the other garnish one quart of very clear, boiling, chicken consomm6, and serve immediately.

This soup can only appear on summer and spring menus, when the pigeons' eggs are in season.

SOUPS 203

556- croOte au pot

Prepare a freshly-cooked vegetable garnish for a stockpot: - Carrots and turnips cut into small sticks and trimmed; a few heads of leeks, and cabbage, parboiled, minced, and cooked in very fat oonsomm^.

Put these vegetables in a somewhat greasy broth for ten minutes.

Also prepare seven or eight crusts of French soup " flutes "; besprinkle them with stock grease, and dry them in the oven. Put the vegetable garnish into the soup-tureen; pour thereon one quart of consomm^ of the Petite Marmite (No. 589), and add to the dried crusts.

557- CONSOMM^ CYRANO

Prepare (i) one quart of consomm^ with a fumet of duck; (2) twelve small quenelles of duck forcemeat, which should be made flat and oval. Having poached the quenelles, drain them, and set them in a small, shallow earthen pan or timbale; sprinkle with a little grated Parmesan cheese and a few drops of chicken glaze, and set to glaze in the oven.

The quenelles are served separately in the pan in which they have been glazed, and the consomm^ is sent to the table in a soup-tureen.

558- CONSOMMjg DEMIDOFF

With the small spoon-cutter, pick out a good tablespoonful of carrot, and the same quantity of turnip pearls. Cook these vegetables in the customary way, and put them in the souptureen with one tablespoonful of truffle pearls, the same quantity of peas, and small, poached, chicken-forcemeat quenelles with herbs. Pour one quart of boiling chicken consomm^ over this garnish, and add a pinch of chervil pluches.

559- CONSOMME DESLIQNAC

Prepare (i) two small, stuffed lettuces, rolled into sausage form and poached; (2) two baba-moulds of royale with cream. Cut the royale into small, regular dice; trim the lettuce, and cut it into slices; put this garnish into the soup-tureen, and pour thereon one quart of boiling chicken consomm^, thickened with three tablespoonfuls of poached tapioca, strained through linen. Add a pinch of chervil pluches. 560- CONSOMMjg AUX DIABLOTINS

Cut a French soup " flute " into twelve slices one-quarter inch thick. Reduce about one-quarter pint of Bechamel to a thick consistence; add thereto, away from the fire, two heaped tablespoonfuls of grated Gruy^re cheese, and season with a little cayenne.

Garnish the slices of soup " flute " with this preparation, arranged in the form of a dome, upon a tray, and set it to glaze a few minutes before serving.

Pour one quart of chicken consomm^ into the soup-tureen, and add the diablotins.

561- CONSOMME DIPLOMATE

Roll into small sausage-form three oz. of chicken forcemeat, finished with crayfish butter. Poach the sausages, cut them into thin roundels, and put them into the soup-tureen with one dessertspoonful of very black truffle, cut in julienne-fashion.

Pour over this garnish one quart of boiling chicken consomme, thickened with two tablespoonfuls of poached tapioca, strained through linen.

562- CONSOMME DIVETTE

Prepare two baba-inoulds of royale made from crayfish velout^, eighteen small quenelles of smelt forcemeat, moulded to the shape of pearls, and one tablespoonful of small pearls of very black truffle.

Cut the royale into oval slices, and put these into the soup with the poached quenelles and the truffle pearls.

Pour one quart of very clear, boiling consommd over the garnish.

563- CONSOMME DORIA

Prepare the following garnish: - Thirty pellets of cucumber in the shape of large pearls; eighteen small quenelles of chicken forcemeat, long in shape and grooved; six little pellets, about the size of a large pea, of pate a choux, combined with grated cheese, rolled by hand; and one and one-half tablespoonfuls of Japanese pearls, poached in some of the consomm^.

Put the cucumber pellets, cooked in consomme, into the soup-tureen; add the poached quenelles and the Japanese pearls.

Four minutes before serving, plunge the pellets of fate a chotix into hot fat, keeping them crisp.

SOUPS

16^

When about to serve, pour over the garnish one quart of boiling chicken consommd; complete with a pinch of chervil pluches, and serve the little, fried pellets separately.

S64--CONSOMME DOUGLAS

With an even cutter, the size of a penny, cut up some braised and cooled sweetbread into twelve roundels one-third inch thick; with the same cutter cut out twelve more roundels from some cooked artichoke-bottoms, and put the whole into the souptureen with two tablespoonfuls of very green asparagus-heads.

When about to serve, pour one quart of boiling, highly seasoned, ordinary consomm^ upon the garnish.

565- C0NS0MM6 A L'ECOSSAISE

Prepare a special mutton broth, and, at the same time, cook a fine piece of breast of mutton for the garnish.

Per two quarts of broth, put into the soup-tureen four tablespoonfuls of pearl-barley, cooked very gently beforehand; two tablespoonfuls of French beans, cut into lozenges, and the breast of mutton cut into regular dice of one-half inch side, in the proportion of one tablespoonful for each person.

Pour the boiling mutton broth over this garnish, after having removed all the grease and strained it through linen.

566- CONSOMME FAVORITE

With a spoon-cutter, pick from out some violet potatoes eighteen pellets the size of small hazel-nuts, and cook them in salted water in good time for them to be ready for the dishing up of the soup. Put them in the soup-tureen with two tablespoonfuls of a julienne of artichoke-bottoms and the same quantity of cooked mushrooms, also cut in julienne-fashion.

Pour over the garnish one quart of chicken consomm^, thickened with three tablespoonfuls of poached tapioca strained through linen. Add a pinch of chervil pluches.

566a- CONSOMME A LA FERMIERE

Mince, somewhat finely, one small carrot, one small turnip, the heads of two leeks, and the half of an onion . Slightly stew these vegetables in one and one-half oz. of butter; moisten with one and one-half pints of white consomm^; add two oz. of parboiled cabbage, cut roughly into a julienne, and complete the cooking gently, taking care to remove all grease, with the view of obtaining a very clear consomm^.

Pour into the soup-tureen, and add a few thin slices of French soup " flute," slightly dried.

567- CONSOMME FLORENTINE

With fine chicken forcemeat make twenty-four small quenelles on a buttered tray, their shape being that of small Mecca loaves. To the forcemeat of six of these quenelles add some very finely chopped tongue; add white chicken-meat to that of another six; and to that of the remaining twelve add some very reduced spinach pur^e. The quenelles with spinach should number twice those with the other two ingredients, in order that the preparation may be in keeping with its designation " ^ la Florentine."

Poach the quenelles; put them in the soup-tureen with two tablespoonfuls of very green, cooked peas.

When about to serve, pour one quart of very clear, boiling chicken consomm^ over this garnish, and add a pinch of chervil pluches.

568- CONSOMME QAULOISE

Prepare two dariole-moulds of ham royale, and poach the latter in a small, well-buttered Charlotte mould. When quite cold, cut it into large lozenges, and put these into the souptureen with six small cocks' combs and six small cocks' kidneys (these latter as small as possible).

When about to serve, pour over this garnish one quart of chicken consomm^, thickened slightly with two tablespoonfuls of poached tapioca, strained through linen.

569- C0NS0MM6 QEORQE SAND

Have ready one quart of consomm^ flavoured with very clear fish fumet. Also prepare twelve small quenelles of whiting forcemeat, finished with crayfish butter; stew twelve morels, which should be left whole if very small, and cut into two if they are of medium size; twelve small slices of poached carps' milt, and twelve little roundels of French soup "flutes."

Put the poached quenelles and the stewed morels into the soup-tureen; pour therein the boiling, fish consomm^, and send the slices of carps' milt set on the roundels of French soup " flute " separately to the table.

SOUPS 207

570- CONSOMM^ GERMAINE

Prepare two dariole-moulds of royale made from a pur6e of very green peas, combined with a tablespoonful of Mirepoix stewed in butter, and a strong pinch of small, chervil pluches; eighteen small quenelles of chicken forcemeat with cream, moulded to the form of pastils.

When the royale is cold, cut it into regular roundels, and put these into the soup-tureen with the poached quenelles.

When about to serve, pour one quart of boiling chicken consomm^ over the garnish.

571- C0NS0MM6 QIRONDINE

Prepare (i) one quart of highly-seasoned beef consomm^; (2) two baha-moulds of ordinary royale made with whole eggs and combined with two tablespoonfuls of cooked and finelychopped lean ham; (3) three tablespoonfuls of a julienne of carrots (the red part only) stewed in butter, the cooking of which should be completed in the consomm6.

Put the royale, cut into large, regular lozenges, and the julienne of carrots into the soup-tureen, and pour in the boiling beef consomm^.

572- CONSOMM^ QRIMALDI

Have ready one quart of excellent ordinary consomm6, to which have been added, while clarifying, four tablespoonfuls of raw tomato pur^e, strained through fine linen.

Also prepare two dariole-moulds of ordinary royale, and three tablespoonfuls of a fine julienne of the white of celery, stewed in butter, finally cooked in the consomm^, and with all grease removed.

Put the royale, cut into large dice, and the julienne of celery into the soup-tureen, and pour thereon the boiling consomm^ with tomatoes.

573- CONSOMM^ IMP^RIALE

Prepare three dariole-moulds of mousseline forcemeat of fowl (No. 195), and put it to poach in a small Charlotte mould.

When quite cold, cut it, by means of a cutter, into roundels the size of a penny, and put these in the soup-tureen with six small blanched cocks' combs and three sliced cocks' kidneys, and two tablespoonfuls of very green peas.

Pour over this garnish one quart of chicken consomm^, thickened with three tablespoonfuls of poached tapioca strained through linen.

io8 GUIDE to MODERN COOKERY

574- CONSOMME A L'INDIENNE

Have ready one quart of ordinary consomm^ seasoned with curry. Also prepare three baba-moulds of royale made from cocoanut milk, and, when quite cold, cut into small dice.

Put this royale into the soup-tureen; pour on it the boiling consomm^ with curry, and send to the table, separately, four tablespoon fuls of Rice k I'lndienne (No. 2254).

575- CONSOMM6 A L'INFANTE

With some pate a choux (No. 2374) prepare eighteen frofiterolles of the size of hazel-nuts. Cook them, taking care to keep them very crisp, and stuff them when cold with pur^e de foie gras moistened with velout^.

Put two tablespoonfuls of a fine julienne of mild capsicum into the soup-tureen, and pour thereon one quart of boiling chicken consomm^, moderately thickened with poached tapioca strained through linen.

Serve the proflteroUes of foie gras separately, after having heated them in the front of the oven.

N.B. - The garnish of Consomm^ k I'lnfante may consist only of the profiterolles, and the julienne of capsicum may be suppressed; this is a matter of taste.

576- CONSOMME JACQUELINE

With a small spoon-cutter, pick from out some carrots twenty-four little oval pellets, which should be cooked in the consomme. Prepare two baba-moulds of royale with cream.

Put into the soup-tureen the pellets of carrots and the royale cut to the shape of pastils, one tablespoonful of peas, the same quantity of very green asparagus-heads, and one tablespoonful of rice.

When about to serve, pour one quart of boiling chicken consomme over this garnish.

576a- CONSOMME JULIENNE

Cut into fillets, two inches in length, the red part only of two medium-sized carrots, one medium-sized turnip, one leek, half a stick of celery, some cabbage leaves, and half an onion. Season these vegetables with a pinch of salt and as much castor sugar; stew them in one oz. of butter; moisten with one and one-half pints of white consomm^^ and then add two oz. of small parboiled cabbages, cut after the manner of the other vegetables.

Finish the cooking gently, removing the grease the while,

SOUPS 209

and complete with one small tablespoonful of very green, cooked peas, one tablespoonful of sorrel and lettuce chiffonade, and one pinch of chervil pluches.

577- C0NS0MM1& LORETTE

Have ready one quart of chicken consomm^. Also prepare two tablespoonfuls of a fine julienne of celery stewed in butter and cooked in the consomm^; twelve small " pommes k la lorette " (No. 2226), the size of hazel-nuts, and shaped like small crescents. These potatoes should be fried in hot fat four minutes before serving.

Put into the soup-tureen the julienne of celery, twelve small, freshly-poached cocks' kidneys, and one tablespoonful of a julienne of pimentos; pour the boiling consomm^ over this garnish; add a pinch of chervil pluches, and send the lorette potatoes to the table separately.

578- C0NS0MM6 MACDONALD

Prepare (i) one quart of highly seasoned beef consomm^; (2) two dariole-moulds of brain-pur^e royale; (3) two tablespoonfuls of cucumbers cut into small dice and cooked in consomm6 until the latter is reduced to a glaze; (4) five little ravioles garnished with chicken forcemeat combined with a third of its volume of spinach. Put these ravioles to poach in salted boiling water twelve minutes before serving.

Put into the soup-tureen the royale of brains cut into roundels one-third inch thick, the dice of cucumber, and the ravioles poached and well drained.

Pour the boiling beef consomm^ over this garnish just before serving.

579- CONSOMME MARGUERITE

Take two tablespoonfuls of chicken forcemeat with cream, and roll it into sausage-form on the floured mixing-board. Put the sausage to poach. Rub the yolk of an egg through a fine sieve, and cohere it with half a teaspoonful of raw forcemeat.

Having poached and cooled the chicken sausage, cut it into thin roundels, and stamp each roundel with a fancy-cutter to the shape of a marguerite. Arrange the marguerites on a dish, and lay in the middle of each a bit of the egg and forcemeat, in imitation of the flower-centre.

Put these marguerites into the soup-tureen with one tablespoonful of small, green asparagus cut into lengths of one inch. When about to serve, pour one quart of very clear, boiling chicken consomm^ over this garnish.

P

2 to GUTDE TO MODERN COOKERY

580- CONSOMME MARQUISE

Prepare one quart of good, ordinary consomm^, to which three sticks of celery have been added, while clarifying, in order that the taste of the celery may be very decided.

Make thirty small quenelles of chicken forcemeat combined with finely-chopped filberts, giving them the shape of pastils.

Poach these quenelles ten minutes before serving. Also poach in court-bouillon two calf's piths, and cut them into thin roundels.

Put the poached quenelles and the roundels of calf's piths into the soup-tureen, and pour thereon the boiling consommt^.

581- C0NS0MM6 MERC^DfiS

Prepare one quart of chicken consomm^ with pimentos, combined, at the last minute, away from the fire, with one-half pint of sherry.

Put into the soup-tureen two tablespoonfuls of capsicum, cut in fine julienne-fashion and short, and some small, freshlycooked cocks' combs.

When about to serve, pour the consomm6 over this garnish.

582- CONSOMM6 MESSALINE

Prepare one quart of chicken consomm^, and add thereto, while clarifying, one-quarter pint of tomato essence, obtained by reducing the moisture contained by the tomato to a syrup.

Put into the soup-tureen twelve small, freshly-poached cocks' ccmbs, two tablespoonfuls of Spanish capsicum cut into a julienne and poached in the consomm^ if fresh (this should have been previously grilled, with the view of removing the skins), and two tablespoonfuls of poached rice, every grain of which should be distinct.

Pour the boiling consomm^ over this garnish.

583- CONSOMME METTERNICH

Prepare one quart of game consomm^ with pheasant fumet. Also poach two dariole-moulds of royale, made from a purde of artichokes combined with some tablespoonfuls of the reduced game Espagnole. Cut this royale into dice; put these into a soup-tureen with one tablespoonful of a julienne of pheasant fillets, and pour thereon the boiling consomm^.

584- CONSOMME A LA MILANAISE

Cook in slightly salted boiling water two oz. of moderately thick macaroni. As soon as it is cooked, drain it, lay it on a piece of linen, and cut it into small rings. Also prepare one

SOUPS III

quarter pint of Bechamel, thickened with the yolk of one egg combined with one oz. of grated cheese, and l^eep it very dense.

Mix the rings of macaroni with this sauce; spread the whole on a dish, and leave to cool. Now divide up the preparation into portions the size of walnuts; roll these into balls, and then flatten them out to form quoits about the size of shillings. Treat these quoits with an anglaise, and very fine bread-crumbs, and plunge into hot fat four minutes before serving. Drain them when they have acquired a fine golden colour.

Pour one quart of boiling chicken consomme into the souptureen, and send to the table, separately, (i) the fried macaroni quoits; (2) one and one-half oz. of Gruy^re and Parmesan cheese, in equal quantities, grated and mixed.

585- CONSOMMjfe MIREILLE

Add one tablespoonful of very concentrated tomato pur^e to three oz. of chicken forcemeat; roll this preparation into the form of a somewhat large sausage, and poach it. When cold, cut it into roundels, one-quarter inch thick, and stamp each roundel with an oval fancy-cutter in the shape of a medallion. Put these medallions in the soup-tureen with two tablespoonfuls of saffroned pilaff rice (No. 2255), and, when about to serve, pour thereon one quart of very clear, boiling chicken consomm^.

586- CONSOMME MIRETTE

Make eighteen quenelles of chicken forcemeat in the shape of large pearls, and poach them. Prepare two tablespoonfuls of lettuce chiffonade (the heart of one lettuce cut julienne-fashion and stewed in butter); make eighteen paillettes with Parmesan (No. 2322), and put them in a very hot oven eight or ten minutes before serving.

Put the poached quenelles and the lettuce chiffonade into the soup-tureen; pour thereon one quart of boiling consomm^ of the Petite Marmite, and one pinch of chervil pluches.

Send the paillettes au Parmesan to the table separately, and have them very hot.

587- C0NS0MM6 MONTE CARLO

Make and poach thirty small quenelles of chicken forcemeat; cisel and stew in butter the heart of one lettuce; prepare twelve little profiterolles of pate a choux, the size of hazel-nuts, and cook them, taking care to keep them crisp.

Put the quenelles and the lettuce chiffonade into the souptureen; pour thereon one quart of very clear, boiling, chicken consomm^, and add a pinch of chervil pluches.

Serve the profiterolles separately and very hot. 588- CONSOMME MONTMORENCY

Have ready one quart of chicken consommt^ thickened with three tablespoonfuls of poached tapioca, strained through linen.

Prepare eighteen small grooved quenelles of chicken forcemeat. Poach, drain, and put them into the soup-tureen with two tablespoonfuls of very green asparagus-heads and two tablespoonfuls of poached rice, every grain of which should be distinct and separate.

589- CONSOMME A LA MOSCOVITE

Prepare one quart of sterlet or sturgeon consomm^, and add thereto some cucumber essence, obtained by pounding a cored and peeled cucumber, and straining the resulting pur^e through linen.

Put into the soup-tureen two tablespoonfuls of a julienne of salted mushrooms, one oz. of soaked vesiga cut into dice and cooked in broth, and pour thereon the boiling consomm^.

N.B. - Vesiga or the spine-marrow of the sturgeon ought to be soaked in cold water for a few hours in order to soften and swell it, after which it should be cut into dice and cooked in broth. For every four tablespoonfuls of cooked vesiga, one oz. of dry vesiga should be allowed.

590- CONSOMM6 NESSELRODE

Have ready one quart of game consomm6, prepared with hazel-hen fumet. Poach two baba-moulds of royale made from chestnut puree with two small tablespoonfuls of game salmis sauce added thereto; cut it into roundels half-inch thick, and trim these with a grooved fancy-cutter.

Put them into the soup-tureen with two tablespoonfuls of a julienne of hazel-hen fillets, the same quantity of a julienne of mushrooms, and pour thereon the boiling game consomm^.

591- CONSOMME AUX NIDS D'HIRONDELLES

The nests used for this soup are those of the esculent swallow, and their shape somewhat resembles that of the rind of a quartered, dry orange.

In the first place, prepare a chicken consomme containing a large proportion of nutritious principles. Set three nests to soak in cold water for twenty-four hours, the object being to swell the mucilaginous elements of which they are composed and to make them transparent.

When they have soaked sufficiently remove any pieces of feather which may have remained in them, using for this pur

SOUPS 213

pose the point of a needle, and, when the nests are quite clean, drain them and put them into the consomm^. At this stage set the consomm^ to boil, gently, for thirty or thirty-five minutes without interruption. During this time the gummy portions of the nests will melt into the consomm^, giving the latter its characteristic viscidity, and there will only remain visible those portions which, in the natural state, constitute the framework of the nests; that is to say, little threads not unlike superfine transparent vermicelli.

592- CONSOMME AUX CEUFS DE FAUVETTE

I introduced this consomm^ in honour of the illustrious singer, Adelina Patti.

It consists of a chicken consomm^, which should be made as perfect as possible, and a garnish composed of the poached eggs of small birds.

593- CONSOMME OLQA

Prepare one quart of excellent ordinary consomm6, and add thereto, when about to serve and away from the fire, one-quarter pint of port wine.

Also cut into a fine julienne the quarter of a small celeriac, the white of a leek, and the red part only of a small carrot. Stew this julienne in butter and complete its cooking in consomm^, reducing the latter to a glaze.

When about to serve put this julienne in a soup tureen, add a few tablespoonfuls of a julienne of salted gherkins, and pour thereon the consomm^ with port.

594- CONSOMME D'ORLlfeANS

Lay on a buttered tray ten small quenelles of ordinary chicken forcemeat, ten others of chicken forcemeat combined with a very red tomato pur^e, and ten more of the same forcemeat, combined with a pur^e of spinach, all the quenelles being grooved.

Ten minutes before serving poach these quenelles, drain

them, put them in the soup-tureen, and pour therein one quart

of chicken consomm^ thickened with three tablespoonfuls of

poached tapioca strained through linen. Add a pinch of chervil

pluches.

595- CONSOMME D'ORSAY

Prepare one quart of very clear chicken consomm^, also make fifteen small quenelles of pigeon forcemeat moulded to the shape of eggs by means of a very small spoon, and poach the yolks of ten eggs, taking care to keep them very soft. Put the quenelles and the poached yolks into the soup-tureen with a julienne of three fillets of pigeon and a tablespoonful of asparagus-heads, and pour thereon the boiling consomm^. Serve at once.

596- OX=TAIL SOUP

For Ten People. - Garnish the bottom of a small stock-pot or stewpan with one fine carrot and two medium-sized onions cut into roundels and browned in butter, and one faggot. Add two small ox-tails, or one of medium size weighing about four lbs. (The tails should be cut into sections, each of which should contain one of the caudal vertebras, and they should then be browned in the oven.) Also add two lbs. of gelatinous bones, broken very small and likewise browned in the oven.

Now proceed exactly as for brown veal stock (No. 9), taking note that the whole moistening must consist of no more than two and one-half quarts of ordinary broth and one quart of water.

Set to boil very gently for four and one-half or five hours. This done, strain the broth, which should be reduced to two and one-half quarts, and completely remove its grease. Transfer the largest sections of the tails, by means of a braiding-needle, one by one to another saucepan. Cover them with broth, and keep them warm for the garnish.

Finely chop one lb. of very lean beef; put this mince into a saucepan with the white of a leek cut into dice and half the white of an egg, and mix thoroughly. Add the broth, the grease of which has been removed, set to boil, stirring constantly the while, and then leave to simmer for one hour, which is the time required for the beef to exude all its juices and for the clarification of the broth.

While the clarification is in progress cut a small carrot in brunoise fashion, or turn it by means of a very small spoon. Cook this garnish in.a little water with butter, salt, and sugar.

A few minutes before serving strain the ox-tail broth through a napkin, put the sections of ox-tail and brunoise into the soup-tureen, and pour thereon the prepared broth. This soup may be flavoured with port or sherry, but this is optional. N.B. - If a thickened ox-tail soup be required add to the broth per every quart of it one-third of an oz. of arrowroot diluted with a little of the broth or some cold water.

597- CONSOMME PARISIENNE

Have one quart of chicken consomme ready.

For the garnish prepare two dariole-moulds of royale made

SOUPS 215

from a pur^e of ordinary julienne, a small macedoine of vegetables, comprising one heaped tablespoonful each of carrots and turnips divided up by means of a small grooved spoon and cooked in the usual way, one tablespoonful of small peas, the same quantity of fine French beans cut into lozenges, and one tablespoonful of asparagus-heads.

Cut the royale into regular roundels; put these in the souptureen with the macedoine of vegetables, and, when about to serve, pour thereon the boiling chicken consomm^. Add a pinch of fine chervil pluches.

598- LA PETITE MARMITE

For Ten People. - Prepare a consomm^ in a special earthenware stock-pot in accordance with the procedure indicated in recipe No. i, but with the following quantities, viz., two lbs. of lean beef and as much breast of beef, one marrow-bone tied in a muslin-bag, and the necks, the pinions, and the gizzards of six large fowls, these giblets being inserted in the stewpan one hour before dishing up.

Moisten with three and one-half quarts of water and add three-quarters of an oz. of salt. Set to boil, skim as indicated, and cook gently with the view of obtaining a very clear broth. One hour before serving add six oz. of carrots and the same quantity of turnips, both cut to the shape of large olives, five oz. of the white of leeks, and a heart of celery.

Cook a quarter of a very white, properly blanched cabbage, separately, in a saucepan with a little consomm^ and some stock grease.

When about to serve test the seasoning of the consomm6, which latter should be very clear; thoroughly clean the stewpan, which may even be covered with a clean napkin; withdraw the marrow-bone; take it out of its muslin-bag, and send it and the cabbage to the table separately, accompanied by a plate of small pieces of hot toast for the marrow.

599- THE POT=AU=FEU

Prepare this exactly like the Petite Marmite.

600- POULE AU POT, or Poule au Pot Henri IV

This is a variation of the Petite Marmite, in which a tender and very fleshy hen is substituted for the giblets of fowl.

Strictly observe the rule of never using a new earthenware stock-pot before having boiled water in it for at least twelve hours. Also bear in mind that earthenware stock-pots should be washed in hot water only, without any soda or soap. 6oi- CONSOMM^ PRINTANIER

Have ready one quart of chicken consomm^, also cut one carrot and one turnip into roundels one-half inch thick. With a tubular cutter one-eighth inch in diameter, cut these roundels into little rods, making a sufficient number to fill one tablespoonful with each vegetable. Cook these little rods in consomm6, and reduce the latter to a glaze.

Put the carrot and turnip rods into the soup-tureen with one tablespoonful of small peas, the same quantity of small French beans and asparagus-heads, the former cut into lozenges, ten roundels of sorrel leaves, and as many of lettuce leaves, the latter being poached in some consomm^. When about to serve pour the boiling consomm^ over these garnishes and add a large pinch of small chervil pluches.

602- CONSOMM6 PRINTANIER AUX QUENELLES

Prepare the printanier exactly as directed above, but slightly lessen the quantities of the vegetables constituting the garnish.

Make eighteen small quenelles of chicken forcemeat in the shape of little grooved meringues, and poach them ten minutes before dishing up.

Drain them, put them into the soup-tureen with the other garnishes, and pour thereon the boiling consomme.

603- CONSOMME AUX PROFITEROLLES

Prepare forty very dry frofiterolles (No. 28), and add an excellent chicken consomme to them at the last moment.

The frofiterolles may also be made to the size of walnuts, in which case they may be stuffed with a pur^e of chicken, foie gras, &c.

604- CONSOMME RACHEL

Prepare one quart of chicken consomme, and thicken it with three tablespoonfuls of poached tapioca strained through linen. With a round, even cutter stamp out twelve roundels of crumb of bread the size of pennies and one-half inch thick. Poach in consomm6 as many slices of very fresh beef-marrow as there are roundels of bread.

Six minutes before serving fry the roundels of bread in clarified butter, hollow out their centres, and place on each a slice of poached beef-marrow suitably trimmed.

Put three tablespoonfuls of a julienne of cooked artichoke bottoms into the soup-tureen, pour thereon the thickened consomm^, and add the roundels of bread garnished with marrow.

SOUPS 217

605- CONSOMMI6 R^JANE

Prepare one quart of excellent white consomm^, set it to boil, and add a julienne of the white of half a fowl and the heads of two leeks cut similarly to the fowl. Set to cook gently for ten minutes, taking care to disturb the consomm^ as little as possible, add three oz. of potatoes cut into a julienne, complete the cooking, and serve immediately.

606- C0NS0MM6 RENAISSANCE

Prepare one quart of clear chicken consomm^.

For the garnish make two dariole-moulds of royale with a pur^e of early-season herbs thickened with veloute and whole eggs; with a small grooved spoon-cutter pick out one tablespoonful of pellets from a turnip and the red part only of a carrot. Cook these vegetables in the usual way. Cut the royale with a grooved fancy-cutter into pieces of the shape of small leaves. Put the leaves of royale into the soup-tureen with the carrot and turnip pellets, one tablespoonful of very green peas, the same quantity of French beans cut into lozenges, one tablespoonful of asparagus-heads, and twelve very small particles of very white cauliflower. Pour the boiling consomm^ over these garnishes, and add a pinch of chervil pluches.

607- CONSOMME RICHELIEU

Have ready one quart of highly-seasoned beef consommd. Also (i) prepare twelve quenelles of chicken forcemeat moulded by means of a small coffee-spoon, proceeding as follows: - Line the spoon with a thin coating of the forcemeat, and in the middle lay some chopped, reduced, cold chicken aspic. Cover the jelly with a layer of forcemeat, shaping it like a dome; insert another spoon (first dipped in hot waterj under the quenelle, and place the latter upon a buttered saut^pan. Repeat the operation until the required number of quenelles have been moulded. Treated in this way, the quenelles, when poached, contain, so to speak, a liquid core. Five minutes before dishing up, poach the quenelles.

2. Cut six rectangles out of lettuce leaves; spread a thin layer of forcemeat over each; roll into paupiettes, and poach in some of the consomm^.

3. Prepare two tablespoonfuls of a coarse julienne of carrots and turnips, stew them in butter, and complete their cooking in the consomm^, which should be thoroughly cleared of grease.

Put the julienne, the paupiettes, and the stuffed quenelles into the soup-tureen; pour therein the boiling beef consomm^, and add a pinch of chervil pluches.

608- CONiSOMME ROSSINI

Prepare one quart of chicken consomm6, slightly thickened with two tablespoonfuls of poached tapioca strained through linen.

Make eighteen profiterolles, from pate a choux without sugar (No. 2374), to the size of hazel-nuts. Bake them in a moderate oven, keeping them very crisp, and garnish them, inside, with a foie-gras and truffle pur^e.

When about to serve, pour the consomm^ into the souptureen, and dish the profiterolles separately, after having placed them in good time in the front of the oven, so that they may reach the table very hot.

609- C0NS0MM6 ROTHSCHILD

Have ready one quart of game consomm^, prepared with pheasant fumet. Add thereto, when about to serve, one-quarter pint of reduced Sauterne. Make two dariole-moulds of royale from a preparation consisting of one-third of the whole of pur^e of pheasant, one-third of chestnut pur^e, and one-third of pheasant salmis sauce. Poach the royale; cut it into grooved roundels, and place these in the soup-tureen with one tablespoonful of a julienne of fillets of pheasant.

When about to serve, pour the boiling consomm^ over the garnish.

610- C0NS0MM6 SAINT HUBERT

Take one quart of game consomm^, prepared with venison fumet. Finish the consomm^, at the time of serving, with onequarter pint of Marsala.

Make three dariole-moulds of royale from a preparation consisting of one-third of the whole of venison pur^e, one-third of lentil pur^e, and one-third of reduced game Espagnole. Poach the royale in a small Charlotte mould, and, when it has cooled, cut it up. with a fancy-cutter of the shape of a cross. Put the crosses of royale into the soup-tureen with two tablespoonfuls of a julienne consisting of fillets of hare, and pour thereon the boiling consomme.

611- POT AGE SARAH BERNHARDT

Sprinkle three tablespoonfuls of tapioca into one quart of boiling chicken consomm6, and leave to poach gently for fifteen or eighteen minutes.

SOUPS 219

Make twenty small quenelles from chicken forcemeat, finished by means of crayfish butter, and mould them to the shape of small, grooved meringues. Poach these quenelles. Cut twelve roundels, the size of a penny, from a piece of beefmarrow, and poach them in the consomm6.

Put the drained quenelles and the poached roundels of marrow into the soup-tureen; add one tablespoonful of a julienne of very black truffles, and the same quantity of asparagus-heads. Pour the boiling consomm^, with tapioca, over this garnish.

612- CONSOMME s6VIQN6

Keep one quart of very clear chicken consomm^ very warm.

Prepare ten quenelles of chicken forcemeat, moulded by means of a small coffee-spoon, and poach them; also have ready four braised lettuces.

Put the quenelles, the lettuce cut into small sections and properly trimmed, and one tablespoonful of peas into the souptureen; pour therein the boiling consomm6 and a pinch of chervil pluches.

613- CONSOMM6 SOUVERAINE

Have ready one quart of chicken consomm^.

Make ten large quenelles from chicken forcemeat, and stuff them with a very fine brunoise, proceeding as follows: - Line a dessertspodh with a thin coat of forcemeat, and garnish the centre with the brunoise, previously cooked in consomm^, and cold. Cover the brunoise with a layer of forcemeat, shaping it like a dome; insert another dessertspoon dipped into hot water under the quenelle, and transfer the latter to a buttered saut6pan. Repeat the operation until the required number of quenelles have been moulded.

Allow eight minutes for the poaching of these quenelles; put them into the soup-tureen with two tablespoonfuls of peas; pour thereon the boiling consomm^, and add a pinch of chervil pluches.

614- TURTLE SOUP

With the exception of a few leading London restaurants, where a large quantity of this preparation is constantly in demand, turtle soup is very rarely prepared in the kitchens of catering establishments. It is more generally obtained readymade, either fresh or preserved, and as a rule of exceptional quality, from firms whose speciality it is to make it, and who deliver it in excellent condition.

From among the London firms who have deservedly earned. a reputation for this soup, " P6criaux " may be quoted as one whose produce is quite irreproachable.

When a comparatively small quantity of this soup is required, it is best to buy it ready-made; in the event of its being desirable to prepare it oneself, the following recipe will be found the simplest and most practical for the purpose.

Particulars of the Operation

The Slaughtering of the Turtle. - For soup, take a turtle weighing from 120 to 180 lbs., and let it be very fleshy and full of life.

To slaughter it, lay it on its back on a table, with its head hanging over the side. By means of a double butcher's hook, one spike of which is thrust into the turtle's lower jaw, -while the other suspends an adequately heavy weight, make the animal hold its head back; then, with all possible dispatch, sever the head from the body.

Now immediately hang the body over a receptacle, that the blood may be collected, and leave it thus for one and one-half or two hours.

Then follows the dismemberment: - To begin with, thrust a strong knife between the carapace or upper shell and the plastron or lower shell, exactly where the two meet, and separate the one from the other. The turtle being on its back, cut all the adhering flesh from the plastron, and put the latter aside. Now cut off the flippers; remove the intestines, which throw away, and carefully collect all the green fat. Whereupon cut away the flesh adhering to the carapace; once more remove all fat, and keep both in reserve.

The Treatment of the Carapace, the Plastron, and the Flippers. - The carapace and plastron, which are the outside bony framework of the turtle, constitute the only portions wherefrom the gelatinous flesh, used as the garnish of the soup, are obtained.

Saw the carapace into six or eight pieces, and the plastron into four.

Put these pieces with the flippers into boiling water or into steam, to blanch. Withdraw the flippers as soon as they are sufficiently stiff for their skin to be removed, and leave the pieces of carapace and plastron to blanch for five minutes, in order that they may admit of being scraped. Now cool the pieces of carapace and plastron and the flippers, and put them into a stewpan containing enough water to abundantly cover

SOUPS 221

them. Set to boil; garnish with vegetables, as in the case of an ordinary broth, and add a small quantity of turtle herbs.

Five or six hours should be allowed for the cooking of the carapace and the plastron, but the flippers, which are put to further uses in other culinary preparations, should be withdrawn at the end of five hours.

When the pieces are taken from the cooking-liquor, remove all the flesh from the bones, and cool the former; then trim it carefully, and cut it into little squares of one and one-half inches side. It is these squares together with the green fat (poached in salted water and sliced) which constitute the garnish of the soup.

The Preparation of Turtle Soup. - There are two modes of procedure, though their respective results are almost identical.

1. Make a broth of the flesh of turtle alone, and then add a very gelatinous beef consomm^ to it, in pursuance of the method employed when the turtle soup is bought ready-made.

This procedure is practically the best, more particularly if the soup has to be kept some time.

2. Make an ordinary broth of shin of beef, using the same quantity of the latter as of turtle. Also include half a calf's foot and one-half lb. of calf's shin per 3 lbs. of the beef. Add the flesh of the turtle, or, in the event of its being thought necessary to clarify, which operation I do not in the least advise, reserve it for that purpose.

The condiments and aromatics being the same for both methods, I shall now describe the procedure for method No. i.

The Ingredients of the Soup. - Put into a stewpan of convenient size the flesh of the turtle and its head and bones. Moisten partly with the cooking-liquor of the carapace, and complete the moistening, in the case of a turtle weighing 120 lbs., with enough water to bring the whole to 50 quarts. By this means a soup of about thirty to thirty-five quarts will be obtained at the end of the operation. Add salt in the proportion of one oz. per every five quarts; set to boil; skim, and garnish with twelve carrots, a bunch of leeks (about ten bound with a head of celery), one lb. of parsley stalks, eight onions with ten cloves stuck into them, two lbs. of shallots, and one head of garlic. Set to boil gently for eight hours. An hour before straining the soup, add to the garnish four strips of lemon-peel, a bunch of herbs for turtle, comprising sweet basil, sweet marjoram, sage, rosemary, savory, and thyme, and a bag containing four oz. of coriander and two oz. of peppercorns. Finally, strain the soup through a napkin; add the pieces of flesh from the carapace and plastron which were put aside for the garnish, and keep it until wanted in specially-made sandstone jars.

The Serving of the Soup. - When about to serve this soup, heat it; test and rectify its seasoning, and finish it off by means of a port wine glass of very old Madeira to every quart.

Very often a milk punch is served wkh turtle soup, the recipe being: -

Milk Punch. - Prepare a syrup from one-half pint of water and three and one-half oz. of sugar, the consistence at the boil being 17° (Baum^'s Hydrometer). Set to infuse in this syrup two orange and two lemon zests. Strain at the end of ten minutes, and add one-half pint of rum, one-fifth pint of kirsch, two-thirds pint of milk, and the juice of three oranges and three lemons. Mix thoroughly. Let it stand for three hours; filter, and serve cold.

6 15- CONSOMME TOSCA

Have ready one quart of chicken consomm6 thickened with three tablespoon fu Is of poached tapioca strained through linen.

Also prepare two tablespoonfuls of a julienne of carrots stewed in butter, the cooking of which is completed in the consomm^; ten small quenelles of chicken forcemeat, combined, in the proportion of one-third, with foie gras and chopped truffles; ten small, very crisp profiterolles, stuffed with a pur^e of chicken with pistachio kernels.

Put the quenelles and the julienne into the soup-tureen, pour therein the boiling consomm^, and send the profiterolles to the table separately, and very hot.

6i6- CONSOMME VERT PRE

Sprinkle two tablespoonfuls of tapioca into one quart of boiling corisomm^, and set to cook gently for a quarter of an hour.

Put into the soup-tureen one tablespoonful of asparagusheads, the same quantity of peas and of French beans cut into lozenges, a few roundels of sorrel leaves, and as many roundels of poached lettuce leaves.

Pour the boiling consomm^, with tapioca, over this garnish, and add a large pinch of chervil pluches.

SOUPS 223

617- C0NS0MM6 VILLENEUVE

Have ready one quart of chicken consomm^.

Prepare the following garnish: - Two small blanched lettuces, stuffed with chicken forcemeat combined with braised and chopped salted tongue; two dariole-moulds of ordinary royale, and two pancakes coated with a layer of chicken forcemeat, which should be placed in the front of the oven for a few moments with the view of poaching the forcemeat.

Put the cut-up lettuces, the pancakes cut into small, narrow lozenges, and the royale cut into pastils, into the soup-tureen; and, when about to serve, pour the boiling consomm^ over the whole.

Special Cold Consomm6 for Suppers

Remarks Relative to the Consommes. - I gave the recipes of these consommes in Part I. of this work (No. 6), and shall now, therefore, limit myself to the following remarks, which are of paramount importance: -

1. These consommes must be perfect in limpidness and quality.

2. The flavour which typifies them should be at once decided and yet not too pronounced.

3. When the flavour is imparted by a wine, the latter should be of the best possible quality. Rather than make use of inferior wines, the presence of which in the soup would tend to depreciate its quality, completely discard wine flavourings.

4. Supper consommes never contain any garnish.

618- CONSOMME A L'ESSENCE DE CAILLES

Use roast quails in the proportion of two for each pint of consomm^; the fillets may be reserved for a cold entree.

619- CONSOMME A L'ESSENCE DE CJ^LERl

It is impossible to state exactly how much celery should be used, the quantity being entirely subject to the more or less decided flavour of the vegetables at one's disposal.

Experience alone can guide the operator in this matter.

620- CONSOMM^ A L'ESSENCE DE MORILLES

Allow five oz. of small fresh morels, or three oz. of dry ones per quart of the consomm^. Pound them and mix them with the clarification. 621- CONSOMME A LESSENCE DE TRUFFLE

Use fresh truffles only in this case. Allow two oz. of peelings and trimmings per quart of the consomm^; pound them and mix them with the clarification.

622-CONSOMM6 AU FUMET DE PERDREAU

Proceed as in No. 618; allow one partridge for each quart of the consomm6.

623- CONSOMM6 AUX PAILLETTES D OR

Take a very superior chicken consomm^; add thereto, per quart, a glass of excellent liqueur brandy, and, in the same proportion, one gold-leaf cut into small spangles.

624- CONSOMME AUX PIMENTS DOUX

Add one-half oz. of fresh or preserved capsicum to every quart of the consomm^. The product should be pounded and mixed with the clarification.

625- CONSOMMlS A LA MADRILENE

Add four oz. of raw tomato and one oz. of capsicum to the consomm6 per every quart of the latter. Mix these ingredients with the clarification, and serve as cold as possible.

626- CONSOMME A LA PORTUQAISE

Add to the consomm^ for every quart one-third pint of raw tomato pur^e and one-sixth pint of tomato juice. Cook with lid on for twenty minutes, taking care not to let it reach the boil; strain through muslin, pressing lightly the while, and season moderately with cayenne. Set to cool, and serve very cold.

627- CONSOMMES AUX VINS

By adding a port wine glass full of the chosen wine to one pint of excellent cold chicken consomm^, the following series of consommes may be made: -

Consomm6 au vin de Chypre.

Consomm^ au vin de Mad^re.

Consommd au vin de Malvoisie.

Consomme au vin de Marsala.

Consomm^ au vin de Porto dor^.

Consomm^ au vin de Porto rose.

Consomm^ au vin de Samos.

Consomme au vin de Zucco.

SOUPS 225

628- qel6e AUX POMMES D'AMOUR

Proceed as for the " Consomm^ Portugaise," and use that variety of small tomatoes which, in Provence, are called " Pommes d'amour."

629- QELEE DE VOLAILLE A LA NAPOLITAINE

Proceed as for the " Consomm^ Portugaise," but finish it with one port wine-glassful of port or old Marsala per quart.

THICK SOUPS

In Part I., Chapter I., of this work I pointed out what thick soups consist of. I likewise touched upon the general rules which should be observed in the preparation of each class of these soups, and showed how most of them could, if necessary, be converted into and served as cullises, purees, bisques, velout^s, or creams. The principles governing these alterations are very simple, and after a moment's reflection the operator will thoroughly grasp their import. Be this as it may, the reader will find the necessary directions at the end of each recipe that admits of various methods of preparation.

With regard to those recipes which are not followed by any directions of the sort referred to, and which I simply class under the name of Potages, these are unalterable preparations which may only be served in accordance with the directions given. This being clear, the reader will understand that I have refrained from repeating the quantities of butter, cream, thickening ingredients, &c., in each recipe. These particulars having been given in Part I., it will be necessary to refer to that part of the book for them.

630- PUR^E DE GAROTTES, otherwise CR^CY

Cut one lb. of the red part only of carrots into fine slices; chop one onion, and put the whole into a stewpan with a sprig of thyme and two oz. of butter. Stew gently for twenty minutes, and season with a pinch of salt and sugar. Add the thickening ingredient, i.e., either two oz. of rice or five and one-half oz. of bread dice fried in butter; also add one and onehalf pints of white consomm^, and set to cook very gently.

Rub through tammy, test the consistence, despumate, and add butter when dishing up.

Ordinary garnish: small bread dice fried in butter.

Occasional garnish: poached Japanese pearls in tKe proportion of two tablespoonfuls per quart of the soup.

Q This soup may also be prepared as a cream or a veloutd k la Nivernaise (see No. 674).

631- pur6e de carottes au tapioca,

otherwise VELOURS

Make one pint of carrot pur^e as above, and poach two tablespoonfuls of tapioca in a pint of white consomm^.

When about to serve, and after having buttered the pur^e of carrots, mix therewith the prepared tapioca.

632- PUREE DE CI^LERNRAVE

Finely mince one lb. of celeriac; blanch it; thoroughly drain it, and stew it gently in one oz. of butter. Moisten with one quart of white consomm^; add two medium-sized potatoes, minced, and set to cook gently. Rub through tammy; despumate the pur^e gently for half an hour, and add butter when dishing up.

Garnish: small bread dice fried in butter.

633- PUREE DE CHOUX DE BRUXELLES, otherwise FLAMANDE

Parboil and drain one lb. of very fresh Brussels sprouts. Set them to stew gently in three oz. of butter; moisten with one pint of white consommd; for the leason add two medium-sized quartered potatoes, and complete the cooking.

Rub the whole through tammy, finish the pur^e with milk, despumate it in the usual way, and add butter when dishing up. Garnish with small bread dice fried in butter.

634- PUREE DE CHOUX-FLEURS, otherwise DUBARRY

Parboil one lb. of cauliflower divided into bunches.

Drain them and put them in a saucepan with one pint of boiled milk and two medium-sized minced potatoes for the thickening. Set to cook gently, rub through tammy, finish with boiled milk, despumate, and add butter.

Garnish with small bread dice fried in butter.

This soup may also be prepared as a velout^ or a cream with small pieces of cauliflower as garnish.

635_PUREE DE CROSNES, otherwise JAPONAISE

Parboil and drain one lb. of well-cleaned stachys. Stew them in one oz. of butter; moisten with one pint of boiled

SOUPS 227

milk or white consomm^, according as to whether the pur6e is to be a Lenten one or not; add two medium-sized minced potatoes, and complete the cooiting gently.

Rub through tammy, test the consistence, and add, if necessary, either a little boiled milk or some consomm^; despumate, and add butter.

Garnish with two tablespoonfuls of Japanese pearls poached in consomm^ or milk.

This soup may also be prepared as a velout^ or a cream.

636- PUREE DE FLAGEOLETS, otherwise MUSARD

Cook together with the ordinary aromatic garnish threequarters pint of dry flageolets, or, if they are in season, use twice that quantity of fresh ones.

Drain, pound, and moisten the pur^e with a little of the cooking-liquor of the flageolets, rub through tammy, and rectify the consistence with some white consomm6 and the necessary quantity of boiled milk. Despumate, and butter it when about to dish up.

Garnish with two tablespoonfuls of small bread dice fried in butter.

This soup may also be prepared as a velout^ or a cream, but for either of the latter it is preferable to use fresh flageolets, the garnish for both consisting of very small flageolets and chervil pluches.

637 -PURINE DE HARICOTS BLANCS, otherwise SOISSONNAISE

Cook in the usual way, that is" to say, with carrots, a faggot, and one onion stuck with a clove, a good half-pint of dry haricot beans.

Crush all these, moisten with a few tablespoonfuls of their cooking-liquor, and rub through tammy.

Rectify the consistence of the purde with the necessary quantity of white consomm^ and milk, despumate, add butter when about to dish up, and garnish with small bread dice.

This soup may also be prepared as a velout^ or a cream.

638- PUREE DE HARICOTS VERTS, otherwise CORMEILLES

Parboil one and one-half lbs. of French beans and keep them very green. After having well drained them, stew them for ten or twelve minutes in one oz. of butter, moisten with one pint of white consomm^, and add two medium-sized minced potatoes for the thickening.

Q 2 Set to cook gently, rub through tammy, rectify the consistence of the pur^e with a little boiled milk, despumate, and add butter when dishing up.

Garnish with two tablespoonfuls of cooked French beans cut into narrow lozenges.

This soup may also be prepared as a velout^ or a cream.

639- PUREE DE HARICOTS ROUGES, otherwise CONDE

Put a heaped pint of red beans into cold water, set to boil slowly, skim, add three oz. of carrots, one small faggot, one onion stuck with a clove, and a bottleful of boiling red wine. Set to cook gently.

Drain the beans and crush them in a mortar. Moisten the pur^e with a few tablespoonfuls of the cooking-liquor of the beans, rub through tammy, rectify the consistence of the purte with some white consomm^, follow the procedure of afl purees, and add butter when about to serve.

Garnish with bread dice fried in butter.

640- PUREE DE LENTILLES, otherwise CONTI

Soak three-quarters of a pint of lentils in lukewarm water for two hours. Put them in a stewpan with two oz. of very lean breast of bacon, blanched, cooled, and cut into dice, and one quart of white consomm^. Set to boil, skim, add three oz. of carrots, one onion, and one faggot, and cook very gently.

Drain the lentils, pound them together with the bacon, moisten the pur^e with a few tablespoonfuls of cooking-liquor, and rub through tammy. Rectify the consistence with some reserved cooking-liquor, then treat the pur^e in the usual way and add butter when about to serve.

Garnish with two tablespoonfuls of bread dice fried in butter and a pinch of chervil pluches.

N.B. - It should be borne in mind that the aromatic garnish used in cooking dry vegetables of what kind soever should be withdrawn before pounding the latter, that they may be rubbed through tammy.

641- PUR^E DE NAVETS, otherwise FRENEUSE

Finely mince one lb. of very firm turnips, parboil, driain, and stew them in one and one-half oz. of butter, the necessary salt, and one-half oz. of sugar, until they are almost completely cooked. Moisten with one-half pint of white consomm^, and

SOUPS 229

complete the cooking. Meantime, cook two medium-sized, peeled and quartered potatoes in some consomm^.

Now put the turnips and the potato into the same stewpan; crush them, and rub them through tammy. Bring the purde to the proper consistence by means of boiled milk, and finish it in the usual way.

Garnish with some small bread dice fried in butter.

This soup may also be prepared as a velout^ or a cream.

642- PUR^E D'OSEILLE ET DE VERMICELLE

A LA CREME

Sprinkle three oz. of well-separated vermicelli into one pint o£ boiling milk or white consomm6 (according as to whether the preparation be a Lenten one or not). Let the vermicelli poach gently "for twenty-five minutes, and then add four tablespoonfuls, of sorrel cooked in butter.

Rub the whole through tammy; finish the pur^e with sufficient milk or thin cream; heat until the boil is reached, and, when about to serve, complete by means of a leason composed of the yolks of two eggs and one-quarter pint of very fresh cream.

For the garnish, refer to the remarks under No. 646.

643- PUREE D'OSEILLE ET DE SAQOU A LA CREME

Proceed exactly as directed in the preceding recipe; but instead of vermicelli use three oz. of sago. Allow the usual time for cooking, and add the same quantity of sorrel cooked in butter.

Use the same quantities of milk or consommd in order to bring the pur^e to the proper consistence, and make use of a precisely similar leason.

644- PUREE D'OSEILLE ET DE SEMOULE A LA CR6ME

The same as the above, but use three oz. of semolina. All other particulars remain the same.

645_PUREE D'OSEILLE ET DE TAPIOCA A LA CREME

Procedure like that of No. 642, using instead of the vermicelli three oz. of tapioca.

646- REMARKS RELATIVE TO THE POSSIBLE VARIATIONS OF THE FOUR PRECEDING RECIPES

A large variety of this kind of soups may be prepared by using the quantity prescribed of salep, buckwheat, oatmeal, barley-meal, &c. These soups derive a particular and agreeable flavour from their cohering element.

The chief point to be remembered in their preparation is their consistence, which should be that of a thin cream.

When too thick, these soups are pasty and disagreeable; when too thin, they are insipid; hence the desirability of aiming at a happy medium.

Their garnish is exceedingly variable, the more preferable forms being small bread dice fried in clarified butter, pressed; peeled tomatoes cut into dice and tossed in butter; small printaniers, brunoises, juliennes, faysannes, or well-poached rice.

Thus, from the typical recipe of these soups, a whole series may be prepared, which need not be gone into separately here.

647- PURINE DE POIS AUX CROUTONS

Wash three-quarters of a pint of split peas in cold water and put them into a stewpan with one quart of cold water, a little salt, and one-half lb. of raw ham. Set to boil, skim, and add two oz. of mirepoix, the minced green leaves of three leeks, a fragment of thyme and bay, salt, and one-half oz. of sugar. Set to cook very gently.

Rub through tammy, bring the pur^e to the proper consistence by means of white consomm^, despumate it sufficiently, and add butter to it when dishing up.

Garnish with two tablespoonfuls of small bread dice fried in butter.

648- PUREE DE POIS FRAIS, otherwise SAINT-GERMAIN

The two following methods may be employed, viz.: -

(i) Cook quickly one and one-quarter pints of fresh peas, just shelled, in boiling, salted water. Drain them, pound them in a mortar, moisten the pur^e with one pint of white consomm^, and rub it through tammy. Bring it to the proper degree of heat, and add butter when about to serve. Prepared in this way, the puree should be of a perfect shade.

(2) Stew one and one-quarter pints of fresh peas in one and one-half oz. of butter, a little lettuce chiffonade, one and one-half oz. of the green part of leeks, a pinch of chervil, a little salt and sugar, and one-seventh pint of water.

Pound the peas as soon as they are cooked, moisten the pur^e with one pint of white consomm6, and rub through tammy. Bring the preparation to the proper degree of heat, and add butter at the last moment.

SOUPS 231

Treated thus, the iiur^e will be of a fainter shade than the preceding one, but i^s flavour will be more delicate.

Garnish, in both cases, with one and one-half tablespoonfuls of very green, fine peas, and some chervil fluches. This soup may also be prepared as a velout^ or a cream,

649- PUREE DE POIS FRAIS A LA MENTHE

Make the pur^e according to one of the above-mentioned methods, and add to the peas, while cooking, a faggot consisting of three little sprigs of fresh mint. Finish with consomm^, and add butter in the usual way.

Garnish with nice peas, as above, and some very tender mint-leaves, chopped, instead of the chervil fluches.

Remarks Relative to those Soups which have a Puree of Peas for Base. - A large number of soups may be made from purees of fresh peas; among others I may mention the following, with brief directions as to their constituents and garnish, viz.: -

650- POTAQE AMBASSADEURS

Pur^e of fresh peas, quite ready for soup; finish with a small tablespoonful of sorrel and lettuce chiffonade, and two tablespoonfuls of poached rice per quart of pur6e.

651- POTAQE CAMlfeLIA

Prepare this after the recipe of potage Lamballe; finish with one tablespoonful of. a julienne of the white of a leek and one tablespoonful of white chicken meat, cut julienne-fashion, per quart of the soup.

652- POTAQE FONTANQES

Puree of fresh peas ready for soup; add two tablespoonfuls of a chiffonade of sorrel and a pinch of chervil fluches per quart of the pur6e, and two tablespoonfuls of poached rice.

653- POTAQE LAMBALLE

Half of this consists of a finished pur^e of peas, and the other half of tapioca poached in consomm^ as for the ordinary " potage au tapioca."

654- POTAQE LONQCHAMPS

This is the " potage Fontange," kept somewhat clear, and with a garnish composed of one and one-half oz. of vermicelli, poached in consomm^, and a pinch of chervil fluches per quart of the soup. 655- POTAQE MARIQNY

Proceed as for " potage Fontange," and add a garnish of one tablespoonful of peas and one tablespoonful of fine French beans cut into lozenges.

656- POTAGE MARCILLY

Half of this consists of a pur^e of peas and the other half of^a pur^e of chicken. Prepare these purees in the usual way and mix them together when about to serve.

Garnish with two tablespoonfuls of Japanese pearls poached in consomm6 and twelve small quenelles of chicken forcemeat, in the shape of pearls, per quart of the soup.

657- POTAGE SAINT-MARCEAU

This is an ordinary puree of peas with butter, combined with two tablespoonfuls of a julienne consisting of the white of a leek and some chervil pluches per quart of the purde. This list could be considerably lengthened, but what there is of it amply suffices to show the great number of soups that may be obtained from the combination of other suitable products with the pur6e of peas and the modification of the garnish in each case.

658- PUREE DE POMMES DE TERRE, otherwise PARMENTIER

Finely mince the white of two medium-sized leeks, and fry them without colouration in one oz. of butter. Add three medium-sized peeled and quartered potatoes, one pint of white consomme, and cook quickly. The moment the potatoes seem soft to the touch crush them and rub them through tammy.

Finish the pur^e with some boiled milk or thin cream, heat until the boil is reached, and add butter when dishing up.

Garnish with two tablesponfuls of small bread dice fried in butter and some chervil pluches.

This soup may also be prepared as a velout^ or a cream.

659- PUR^E DE TOMATES, otherwise PORTUQAISE

Fry in one oz. of butter a somewhat finely-cut mirepoix consisting of one oz. of breast of bacon cut into dice, one-third of a carrot, half an onion, a fragment of thyme and bay. Add to this fried mirepoix eight medium-sized tomatoes, pressed and cut into pieces the size of a clove of garlic, a pinch of sugar, two and one-half oz. of rice, and one pint of white consomme.

SOUPS 233

Set to cook gently, rub through tammy, and finish with the necessary quantity of consomm6.

When about to serve complete the pur^e by adding thereto, away from the fire, two oz. of butter.

Garnish with two tablesponfuls of poached rice, each grain being separate, and the same quantity of peeled tomatoes cut into dice and briskly tossed in butter.

This soup may also be prepared as a velout^ or a cream.

660- PUREE DE TOMATES AU TAPIOCA, otherwise WALDfeZE

Prepare one and one-half pints of tapioca in white consomme, and keep it a little lighter than ordinary tapioca. Also press, peel, and cut into dice the pulp of three medium-sized, very red tomatoes; poach these dice in some consomm^ and mix them with the tapioca.

Or, failing fresh tomatoes, add to the tapioca two tablespoonfuls of concentrated tomato pur6e diluted in a bowl with some white consomm^.

Send two oz. of grated cheese to the table separately.

661- PUR^E DE TOPINAMEOUR, otherwise PALESTINE

Finely mince two lbs. of Jerusalem artichokes and stew them in one oz. of butter. Add five torrefied and crushed filberts, moistened with one pint of white consomm^, and set to cook gently. Rub through tammy; finish the purde with one-quarter pint of milk;, in which one tablespoonful of fecula has been diluted, cold. Set to boil and add butter when dishing up.

Garnish with small bread dice fried in butter.

This soup may also be prepared as a velout^ or a cream.

662- BISQUE D'ECREVISSES

(i) Cut into very small dice one oz. of carrot, one oz. of onion, and two parsley stalks. Add a fragment of thyme and bay; brown this mirepoix with butter, in a saut^pan; throw in fifteen crayfish for " Bisque " (their average weight being about one and one-third oz.), and toss them in the mirepoix until they acquire a very red colour. Sprinkle with two tablespoonfuls of burnt brandy and one-quarter pint of white wine, season with a large pinch of salt and a pinch of ground pepper, and set to reduce.

This done, moisten with one-quarter pint of white consomm^ and leave to cook for ten minutes. Also cook three oz. of rice in one and one-half pints of white consomm^.

(2) Shell the crayfishes' tails and put them aside; also re-serve eight carapaces. Drain the crayfishes of all their cookingliquor; finely pound them and their remains and the mirepoix. Add the rice, properly cooked, and the cooking-liquor of the crayfish, and rub through a sieve, first, and then through tammy. .

Add to the resulting purde one-half pint of white consomm^, set to boil, wielding a whisk the while, pass through a strainer, and then keep the preparation in a bain-marie, taking care to place a few lumps of butter on its surface lest a skin should form while the bisque is waiting to be served.

Finish the preparation when dishing up with two and onehalf oz. of butter, three tablespoonfuls of excellent thick cream, and a very little cayenne.

Garnish with the crayfish tails cut into dice, and the eight carapaces stuffed with a fish forcemeat with cream and poached seven or eight minutes previously.

This soup may also be prepared as a veloute or a cream.

663- BISQUE DE HOMARD

After substituting for the crayfish a raw lobster weighing three lbs., cut into small sections, the procedure is the same as that of No. 662. It is only necessary, therefore, to refer to that recipe for all particulars relating to preparation and quantities.

Garnish with the meat taken from the tail; this should have been kept aside and cut into small dice.

This soup may also be prepared as a velout6 or a cream.

664- BISQUE DE CREVETTES

The mode of procedure for this bisque, the mirepoix, the thickening ingredients, the moistening, and the finishing of the soup are identical with those of No. 662.

All that is needed, therefore, is to substitute for the crayfish two lbs. of raw shrimps.

Instead of using ordinary butter in finishing this bisque, use three oz. of shrimp butter. Garnish with twenty-five reserved tails, these being shelled and trimmed.

This soup may also be prepared as a veloutd or a cream.

665- COULIS DE QIBIER, otherwise AU CHASSEUR

Prepare six oz. of the meat of a wild rabbit, six oz. of that of a partridge, and six oz. of that of a pheasant. These meats should be roasted and their roast-cases swilled with a liqueur

SOUPS 235

glass of burnt brandy. The resulting gravy should be added to the soup.

Now finely pound these meats together with one-half pint of cooked and drained lentils. When the whole has become a smooth purde add the cooking-liquor of the lentils and the swillings referred to above and rub through tammy.

Finish the cullis with the necessary quantity of consomm6, heat it, and pass it through a strainer. Add butter at the last moment and season moderately.

Garnish with three tablesponfuls of small, very fresh mushrooms; these to be finely minced and tossed in butter.

666- COULIS DE QRIVES AU PAIN NOIR, otherwise A L'ARDENNAISE

Fry four fine thrushes in butter and complete their cooking in one pint of feathered game consomm6 containing five oz. of rye-bread dice fried in butter. These dice constitute in this case the thickening element of the soup. Remove and put aside the thrushes' fillets, finely pound the carcasses together with two juniper-berries, add the leason of bread dice, and rub through tammy.

Add to the resulting pur^e one-quarter pint of featheredgame consomm^, set to boil, and pass through a strainer. Finish the cullis with two and one-half oz. of butter and four tablespoonfuls of cream.

Garnish with the reserved fillets cut into thin slices or into a julienne.

667- COULIS DE GROUSE OU DE QELINOTTE

A L'ANCIENNE

Proceed as in No. 666 in so far as the preparatory details and the quantities are concerned, but take note of the following changes in other directions: -

(i) Substitute for the thrushes two grouse or two hazel-hens, taking care to discard the legs and the carcasses.

(2) Use ordinary bread dice instead of those of rye-bread.

668- COULIS DE LAPEREAU AU CURRIE

Cut the legs of a young wild rabbit into small pieces, stiffen these in butter, and put them into the stewpan with a few roundels of carrot and onion, one small faggot of parsley and celery, and one quart of white consomm^. Set to cook gently.

Also lightly brown in butter two tablesponfuls of chopped onion, besprinkle with one-half tablespoonful of fecula and a sufficient quantity of curry, moisten with the strained cookingliquor of the pieces of rabbit, bring to the boil, and set to simmer for seven or eight minutes. Rub through tammy and then despumate for twenty minutes, adding from time to time one or two tablespoonfuls of consomm^ with the view of promoting the clarification of the cullis. When about to serve finish the latter with three or four tablespoonfuls of cream.

Garnish with eighteen very small slices taken from the pieces of rabbit and two oz. of rice a I'lndienne, serving the latter separately.

669- COULIS DE PERDREAU A LA PUREE DE MARRONS, otherwise A LA MANCELLE

Split the shells of fifteen fine chestnuts, put them in a stewpan with water, boil them for five minutes, and shell and peel them quickly while they are still very hot. Then cook them gently in one-half pint of white consomm^ with one-third of a stick of celery, minced, and one piece of loaf-sugar.

Poele a partridge, remove the fillets for the purpose of garnish, bone the rest, and pound it finely together with the carcass and the poeling liquor. Add the chestnuts, pound the whole, and add some consomm6 to the resulting pur^e with the object of facilitating the rubbing through tammy. This done, add to the preparation about one-quarter pint of very clear game stock, bring the whole to the boil, pass it through a strainer, and finish the cullis, when dishing up, with a very little cayenne and one and one-half oz. of butter.

Garnish with the fillets of partridge cut into a small julienne.

670- COULIS DE VOLAILLE, otherwise A LA REINE

Poach in one quart of white consomm^ a cleaned fowl weighing about three lbs. and two oz. of rice previously blanched. Having cooked the fowl, withdraw it, raise its fillets, and put them aside. Bone the remainder and finely pound the meat. When the latter is a smooth paste mix therewith the rice, which should be very well cooked, add the necessary amount of white consomm6 to the pur^e, and rub through tammy. Bring the cullis to the boil and pass it through a fine strainer.

Finish the preparation, when dishing up, with a leason composed of the yolks of three eggs, one-sixth pint of cream, and three oz. of butter.

Garnish with the reserved fillets cut into small, regular dice.

This soup may also be prepared as a velout^ or a cream.

SOUPS 237

671- VELOUTI^ AQNfeS SOREL

(i) Prepare one and one-half pints of poultry velout^, keeping it somewhat thin,

(2) Clean, wash, peel, and quickly pound eight oz. of very fresh mushrooms, newly gathered if possible.

Rub through a fine sieve, and add the resulting pur6e of raw mushrooms to the velout^. Bring the whole to the boil once or twice, and this done rub through tammy immediately. Finish with the leason and add butter when dishing up.

Garnish with one tablespoonful of a julienne of raw mushrooms tossed in butter, one tablespoonful of chicken fillets, and as much salted tongue, both of which should also be cut in julienne-fashion .

N.B. - With regard to velout^s I remind the reader that the velout^ of ordinary consistence represents one-half of the soup, the pur^e typifying the latter represents one-quarter, while the consomm^ required to bring the soup to the correct degree of consistence should be in the proportion of the remaining quarter.

The leason, per quart of the soup, should consist of the yolks of three eggs and one-sixth pint of cream, while the average quantity of butter should measure about two and one-half oz. (see No. 242).

This soup may also be prepared as a cream.

672- VELOUTE DE BLANCHAILLE AU CURRIE

Bear in mind that this soup ought to be made and served within the space of twenty minutes, for if it be left to stand for however short a time, it will most probably turn, in spite of every possible precaution.

Cook three oz. of finely chopped onion in butter without colouration, besprinkle with one-half coffeespoonful of curry, moisten with one and one-half pints of boiling water, add a faggot, a pinch of salt, a few sprigs of saffron (or a little of it powdered), and two pz. of Viennese bread.

Set to boil for ten minutes; this done add three-quarters lb. of very fresh Blanchailles, and cook over a brisk fire.

Rub through a hair-sieve, finish by means of a leason consisting of the yolks of three eggs and one-fifth pint of cream, and pour the whole into the soup-tureen over some dried slices of bread (buttered), over rice, or over some previously poached vermicelli. Serve at once. 673- VELOUTE CARMELITE

Prepare one and one-half pints of fish velout^, stew four oz. of fillets of sole and the same quantity of fillets of whiting in one and one-half oz. of butter and lemon juice. Pound the fish, add it to the velout^, and rub through tammy.

Add the necessary quantity of consomm^, heat the velout^, and finish it, when about to serve, with a leason and butter.

Garnish with one tablespoonful of a julienne of poached fillets of sole and twelve small quenelles of smelt forcemeat.

This soup may also be prepared as a cream.

674- VELOUTE AUX CAROTTES, otherwise NIVERNAISE

Cut into thin slices one lb. of the red part only of carrots, season with a pinch of table-salt and twice that amount of castor-sugar, and stew in one oz. of butter.

Add one pint of ordinary thin velout6 and let the cooking of the carrots be completed therein. Rub through tammy, finish with one-half pint of white consomm^, set to boil, and complete the preparation, when dishing up, with the leason and butter.

Garnish with one and one-half tablespoonfuls of a fine brunoise of the red part of carrots.

This soup may also be prepared as a cream.

675_VELOUT]6 COMTESSE

Prepare one pint of ordinary velout6, parboil one and onehalf lbs. of white asparagus, and put them into the velout6. Complete the cooking gently. Rub through tammy, add onehalf pint of white consomm^, heat, and finish the preparation, when dishing up, with the leason and butter.

Garnish with one tablespoonful of a lettuce chiffonade and twelve small white asparagus-heads wherefrom all leaves have been removed.

This soup may also be prepared as a cream.

676- VELOUTE AU CONCOMBRES, otherwise DANOISE

Peel, remove the seeds from, mince, and stew in butter one lb. of parboiled cucumber. Add this to one pint of ordinary veloutd, which should have been prepared at the same time, and complete the cooking quickly. Rub through tammy, add the necessary quantity of white consomm^, heat, and finish the preparation, when dishing up, with a leason and butter in the usual quantities.

SOUPS 239

Garnish with small bread dice fried in butter. This soup may also be prepared as a cream.

677- VELOUTE CRESSONIERE

After having slightly parboiled them, stew one lb", of very fresh watercress leaves in one and one-half oz. of butter, add them to one pint of ordinary velout^. Set to simmer for seven or eight minutes, rub through tammy, add one and one-half pints of ordinary white consomm6, heat, and finish the preparation, when dishing up, with a leason and butter.

Garnish with one oz. of watercress leaves parboiled for three minutes.

This soup may also be prepared as a cream.

678- VELOUTE DAME = BLANCHE

Prepare one and one-half pints of clear poultry velout^. Also finely pound ten or twelve well-washed sweet almonds, moisten them, little by little, with one-sixth pint of fresh water, and rub through a strong towel, twisting the latter to assist the process.

Add this almond milk to the velout^, and finish the latter, when dishing up, with the leason and butter.

Garnish with one tablespoonful of the white of a chicken cut into small dice, and twelve small quenelles of chicken forcemeat (in the shape of pearls) poached just before dishing up.

679- VELOUTE D'ARTOIS

Prepare one pint of ordinary velout6, and mix therewith onehalf pint of a pur^e of haricot beans. Rub through tammy; add one-half pint of white consomm^; heat, and finish the whole, when dishing up, with the leason and butter.

Garnish with two tablespoonfuls of an ordinary julienne and a pinch of chervil pluches.

This soup may also be prepared as a cream.

680- VELOUTE D'EPERLANS

Prepare a thin panada with one pint of boiled milk and two and one-half oz. of crumbled bread. Season with a pinch of salt and a very small quantity of mignonette. Also stew gently, in one oz. of butter, two tablespoonfuls of chopped onion, two and one-half oz. of fillets of smelt, one-half lb. of fillets of sole, or the meat of a dory, and the juice of the quarter of a lemon. Add the fish, stewed in butter and pounded, to the panada, together with one-half pint of ordinary thin veloutd.

Rub through tammy; heat; season with a very little cayenne, and finish the whole, when dishing up, with an ordinary leason and one and one-half oz. of butter.

N.B. - I. In view of the decided flavour of the smelt, and the really disagreeable taste it imparts to a preparation which contains overmuch of it, its flesh should never exceed the proportion of one-third of the required quantity of fish. The remaining two-thirds should be supplied by a fish of neutral flavour, such as the sole or dory, both of which are admirably suited to this purpose.

2. The velout^ d'^perlans should, like almost all fish velout^s, be prepared as quickly as possible, and at the last moment. The process should not last longer than thirty minutes, for, if there be any delay, the preparation will turn and lose its flavour.

3. For this soup I elected to use a panada as the thickening element, instead of a fish velout^, the reason being that, were the latter used, the taste of fish would in the end be too pronounced.

681- VELOUTE D'^PERLANS JOINVILLE

Proceed in the matter of the base of the soup as in No. 680.

Finish the velout6 with an ordinary leason and one and onehalf oz. of shrimp butter.

Garnish with six crayfish tails, cut into four pieces, and one tablespoonful of a short julienne of truffles and mushrooms.

682- VEL0UT6 D'EPERLANS PRINCESSE

The same as above, with twelve small quenelles of smelt forcemeat with crayfish butter, and one tablespoonful of very green asparagus-heads per quart of veloutd.

683- VEL0UT6 AUX QRENOUILLES, otherwise SICILIENNE

Prepare one and one-half pints of delicate and rather thin fish velout^.

Trim fifteen or twenty frogs' legs; toss them in butter without letting them acquire any colour, and set them to poach for ten minutes in two tablespoonfuls of white wine and the juice of a lemon. Pound them in a mortar; add the resulting pur^e to the velout^; set to simmer for seven or eight minutes, and rub through tammy.

SOUPS 241

Heat the velout^, and finish it, when dishing up, with the ordinary leason %nd three and one-half oz. of best butter. Do not garnish this velout^. This soup may also be prepared as a cream.

684- VELOUTE DE HOMARD, otherwise CARDINAL

Prepare one and three-quarter pints of bisque de homard (No. 663), but substitute velout^ for the thickening with rice. Rub through tammy; heat, and complete, when dishing up, with two and one-half oz. of lobster butter and three-quarters oz. of red butter.

Garnish with two baba-moulds of a royale of lobster, cut by means of a fancy-cutter in the shape of a cross.

Shell-fish velout^s do not admit of an egg-yolk leason.

685- VELOUTE DE HOMARD A CLEVELAND

Break up two small live lobsters or one medium-sized one, and prepare it k I'Am^ricaine (see " Lobster k I'Amdricaine "). Reserve a few slices of the meat for garnishing purposes. Finely pound the rest with the shell; combine the pur^e with one quart of ordinary veloutd prepared beforehand, and add the lobster sauce. Rub through a sieve, first, then through tammy; heat without allowing to boil; add the required quantity of consomm^, and once more pass the whole through a strainer.

Complete, when dishing up, with three oz. of best butter.

Garnish with one-half tablespoonful of peeled tomato pulp, cut into dice and half-melted in butter, and the reserved slices of lobster cut into dice.

686 -VELOUTE DE HOMARD A L'INDIENNE

Prepare the lobster k I'Am^ricaine as above, and flavour it with curry. Preserve a sufficient quantity of meat from the tail to afford an abundant garnish.

For the rest of the process proceed exactly as the preceding recipe directs.

Garnish with the reserved meat cut into dice, and four tablespoonfuls of rice k I'lndienne; send the latter to the table separately.

687- VEL0UT6 DE HOMARD A L'ORIENTALE

Prepare a medium-sized lobster after the manner directed in " Homard k la Newburg with raw lobster" (see No. 948), and season with curry.

Reserve a few slices of the meat of the tail for the garnish;

R finely pound the remaining portions and the shell; add the lobster sauce, and combine the whole with one quart of ordinary velout^, kept somewhat light.

Rub through a sieve, first, then through tammy; heat the velout6 without letting it boil; add the necessary quantity of consomm^, and finish the preparation, when about to serve, with three oz. of butter.

Garnish with the reserved meat cut into dice, and two tablespoonfuls of rice k I'lndienne, each grain of which should be kept distinct and separate.

688- VEL0UT6 DE HOMARD AU PAPRIKA

Prepare a medium-sized lobster k I'Am^ricaine, and, in addition to the usual ingredients of the preparation, include two concassed tomatoes and two roughly chopped onions. Season with paprika.

For the rest of the operation, proceed exactly as directed under " Velout6 k la Cleveland."

Garnish with lobster meat cut into dice, two tablespoonfuls of rice, and one tablespoonful of pimentos cut into dice.

689- VEL0UT6 DE HOMARD A LA PERSANE

Proceed exactly as for " Velout^ de Homard k I'Orientale."

Garnish with lobster meat in dice, one tablespoonful of pimentos in dice, and two tablespoonfuls of pilaff rice, to which add a very little saffron.

Remarks relating to the Variation of these Veloutes. - By merely substituting an equivalent quantity of crayfish, shrimps, or crabs, for the lobster, the recipes dealing with veloutes of lobster, given above, may be applied to Veloutes of Crayfish, Shrimps, or Crabs.

It would therefore be pointless to repeat them, since all that is needed is to read crayfish, shrimps, or crabs wherever the word lobster appears.

Thus I shall only point out that the number of these veloutes may be increased at will, the only requisites being the change of the basic ingredient and the modification of the garnish,

690- VELOUTE AUX HUITRES

Prepare one quart of very delicate fish velout6, and bear in mind that the preparation must be made as speedily as possible. (See the remarks dealing with this question which follow upon the model recipe of the velout^ d'^perlans.)

SOUPS 243

Add to the velout^ the carefully collected liquor of the twenty-four oysters constituting the garnish, and complete, when about to serve^ with a leason and butter.

Garnish with four poached oysters (cleared of their beards) per each person.

691- VELOUT^ ISOLINE

Prepare one quart of poultry velout^. Complete it, when dishing up, with an ordinary leason and three oz. of crayfish butter.

Garnish with three tablespoonfuls of Japanese pearls poached in white consomm^.

692- VEL0UT1& MARIE LOUISE

Prepare one pint of poultry velout6; mix therewith one-half pint of barley cream (No. 712), and rub through tammy. Add one-half pint of white consomm^, and heat the velout^ without letting it boil.

Finish it, when about to serve, with a leason and butter. Garnish with one and one-half tablespoonfuls of best macaroni, poached and cut into dice.

This soup may also be prepared as a cream.

693- VELOUTE MARIE STUART

Prepare a poultry velout^ with barley cream, as above. Finish it, when about to serve, with a leason and butter.

Garnish with two tablespoonfuls of a brunoise, and the same quantity of fine pearl barley cooked in white consomm^.

This soup may also be prepared as a cream.

694- VELOUTE AU POURPIER

Proceed exactly as directed under " Velout6 Cressoni^re " (No. 677), but substitute purslain for the watercress.

695- VEL0UT6 A LA SULTANE

Prepare one quart of poultry velout^. Finish it, when dishing up, with a leason composed of the yolks of three eggs diluted with one-fifth pint of sweet-almond milk (made by pounding eighteen sweet almonds, mixing therewith one-fifth pint of water, and straining the whole through a twisted towel), and three oz. of pistachio butter. The velout^ should be of a pale green shade.

Garnish with small crescents of chicken forcemeat prepared with crayfish butter, kept of a pink shade. These crescents should be laid, by means of a piping-bag, upon thin roundels of truffle, and poached in consomm^.

This soup may also be prepared as a cream.

695a- COLD CHICKEN VELOUXfi FOR SUPPERS

The preparation of these veloutds requires the utmost care, but, as a rule, they are very much liked.

Prepare a white roux from one oz. of butter and one and one-sixth oz. of flour per quart of the moistening. Dilute with some very strong clear consomm^, thoroughly cleared of grease; boil, and despumate for one and one-half hours, adding meanwhile half as much consomm^ as served in the moistening of the velout6.

When the velout^ is thoroughly despumated and entirely cleared of grease, strain it through a silk sieve, and add, per quart, one-quarter pint of very fresh thin cream. Cool, stirring incessantly the while; once more strain the velout^ through the sieve when it is cold, and, if necessary, add some of the consomm^ already used, in order to give the velout^ the consistence of a thickened consomme. Serve it in cups, and see that it be sufficiently thin to not impaste the mouth of the consumer.

This velout^ is usually served as it stands, but it allows of various condimentary adjuncts. Such are: - Tomato and capsicum essences; crayfish, shrimp, or game creams. These creams or essences should be of consummate delicacy, and ought to lend only a very delicate flavour to the velout^.

696- CREME D'ARTICHAUTS AU BEURRE DE NOISETTE

Have ready one and one-half pints of Bechamel. Parboil, finely mince, and stew in butter four large artichoke-bottoms. Pound the latter; put them in the Bechamel, and rub the whole through tammy.

Add the necessary quantity of white consomm^ or milk, and set to heat without allowing to boil. Finish the preparation, when dishing up, with one-quarter pint of cream and one oz. of hazel-nut butter (No. 155).

Remarks relative to Creams. - I remind the reader here that (i) the thickening element of creams is a Bechamel prepared in the usual way (see No. 28); (2) in the preparation of a cream, of what kind soever, the Bechamel should constitute half of the whole, the basic ingredient a quarter, and the white consomm^ or milk the remaining quarter.

SOUPS 245

As a rule, they comprise no butter, but are finished by means of one-third pint of very fresh cream per quart. Be this as it may, if it be desirable to butter them, one may do so, but in very small quantities, and taking care to use the very best butter.

This class of soups is more particularly suited to Lenten menus.

697- CREME D'ASPERQES, otherwise ARQENTEUIL

Parboil for five or six minutes one and one-half lbs. of Argenteuil asparagus, broken off at the spot where the hard part of the stalk begins. Drain them, and set them to complete their cooking gently in one and one-quarter pints of previously prepared Bechamel.

Rub through tammy; add the necessary quantity of white consomm6, and heat without allowing to boil.

Finish with cream when dishing up.

Garnish with two tablespponfuls of white asparagus-heads and a pinch of chervil pluches.

698- CRfiME D'ASPERQES VERTES

Proceed exactly as for " Cr^me Argenteuil," but substitute green asparagus for Argenteuil asparagus.

699- CREME AU BL6 VERT, otherwise CI^RES

Put one lb. of dry, green wheat to soak in cold water for four hours. Then cook it slowly in one-half pint of water and as much white consomm^. Mix therewith one and one-quarter pints of Bechamel and rub through tammy.

Add the necessary amount of white consomm^ to the pur^e; heat the whole without boiling, and finish it with cream when dishing up.

Garnish with a pinch of chervil pluches.

This soup may also be prepared as a pur6e or a velout^.

700- CRfiME DE CELERI

Mince one lb. of the white of celery; parboil for seven or eight minutes; drain, and stew in one oz. of butter. Mix one and one-quarter pints of Bechamel with it; complete the cooking slowly, and rub through tanlmy.

Add one-half pint of white consommd; heat without allowing to boil, and finish the preparation with cream when about to serve.

Garnish with two tablespoonfuls of a brunoise of celery.

This soup may also be prepared as a purde or a veloutd. 701- CRfeME DE CERFEUIL BULBEUX, otherwise CHEVREUSE

Mince and stew in butter one lb. of bulbous chervil, and mix therewith one and one-quarter pints of Bechamel. Complete the cooking slowly; rub through tammy; add sufficient white consomme; heat, and finish with cream when dishing up. Garnish with one tablespoonful of a fine julienne of chicken fillets and the same quantity of a julienne of truffles.

This soup may also be prepared as a velout^.

702- CREME DE CHICOREE DE BRUXELLES, otherwise BRUXELLOISE

Take one lb. of very fresh chicory, and stew it for a good half-hour in one and one-half oz. of butter and the juice of one lemon.

Now mix one and one-quarter pints of Bechamel with it, and finish the cooking very slowly. Rub through tammy; add the necessary quantity of white consommd; heat, and complete with cream when serving.

Garnish with a julienne of Belgian chicory, stewed and well drained.

703- CREME D'EPINARDS, otherwise FLORENTINE

Quickly parboil one lb. of shredded and well-washed spinach to which a little sorrel may be added; drain, press, and add thereto one and one-half pints of somewhat thin Bechamel. Complete the cooking; rub the whole through tammy, and finish it with the necessary amount of fresh cream.

Garnish with a julienne of spinach, quickly parboiled and stewed in butter.

704- CRfiME DE FEVES NOUVELLES

Skin two-thirds lb. of new broad beans, freshly gathered, if possible. Cook them for ten minutes in boiling salted water containing a sprig of savory, and then add one and one-quarter pints of Bechamel. Complete the cooking of the broad beans in the Bechamel; rub through tammy; add one-half pint of white consomm^ or milk; heat without allowing to boil, and finish the preparation with cream when dishing up.

Garnish with very small skinned broad beans, split in two and parboiled with a sprig of savory.

This soup may also be prepared as a velout6.

SOUPS 247

70s- CREME D'IQNAMES, otherwise BRESILIENNE

Bake the yams in the oven, without peeling them. As soon as this is done, cut them in two, remove their pulp, and quickly rub the latter through a sieve while it is still hot. Dilute the pur^e with boiling milk or thin Bechamel in the proportion of one pint of the former and one-half pint of the latter per lb. of the pur6e. (This Bechamel should be made from one and one-half oz. of butter and one oz. of flour per quart of milk.)

Rub the whole through tammy, and finish the preparation in the usual way. Garnish with two tablespoonfuls of Japanese pearls, poached in consomm6.

This soup may also be prepared as a velout6.

706- CREME DE LAITUES, otherwise JUDIC

Parboil and stew in butter two medium-sized ciseled lettuces, the greenest leaves of which should have been discarded. Add these to one and one-half pints of Bechamel.

Rub through tammy; add one pint of white consomm^; heat, and finish as usual with cream.

Garnish with roundels of lettuce leaves, lightly coated with chicken forcemeat, a bit of truffle laid in their centre, and the whole poached at the last minute. /

This soup may also be prepared as a velout^.

707- CREME DE MAIS, otherwise WASHINGTON

Cook some fresh maize in salted water (or use the preserved kind if the fresh is out of season), and combine therewith an equal quantity of thin Bechamel. Rub through tammy; heat, and finish with cream when dishing up.

Garnish with grains of maize cooked in salted water.

This soup may also be prepared as a velout^ by substituting for the Bechamel an excellent poultry velo'ute.

708- CRfeME D'OSEILLE A L'AVOINE

Pour one-quarter lb. of oatmeal diluted with one-half pint of cold milk into one quart of slightly salted boiling milk. Stir over the fire until the boil is reached; move the stewpan to the side of the fire, and simmer for two hours.

This done, add six tablespoonfuls of a fondue of sorrel and butter; set to simmer again for one-quarter hour, and rub the whole through tammy.

Complete the operation after the manner common to all cieams. yop-CRfiME D'OSEILLE A L'ORQE

Proceed exactly as for No. 708, using the same quantities, but substituting barley-meal for oatmeal.

Remarks upon the Two above Creams. - They may also be prepared as velout^s. Their garnish may be greatly varied, and may consist of chiffonade of lettuce and sorrel; pressed peeled tomatoes, cut into dice and cooked in butter; poached rice or pastes {i.e., vermicelli, &c.); fine well-cooked pearl barley; brunoise; small printaniers, &c.

They belong, in fact, to the same order of soups as the purees of sorrel with pastes, the recipes of which were given earlier in the chapter.

710- CREME D'OXALIS

Peel and slice the oxalis roots, and half-cook them in salted water. Drain, add it to one and one-half pints of Bechamel, and complete its cooking gently in the sauce.

Rub through tammy; add one-half pint of white consomme, and finish after the manner of other creams. Garnish with chervil pluches.

This soup may also be prepared as a pur6e or a velout6.

711- CRBME DE RIZ

Wash one-half lb. of rice in cold water; blanch it; cool it, and cook it very gently in one quart of white consomm^. Crush in the mortar; rub through tammy, and dilute the rice pur^e with one pint of white consomm^. Heat and finish the preparation, when dishing up, with the necessary quantity of cream.

Or pour four tablespoonfuls of rice cream, diluted with onehalf pint of cold milk, into three pints of boiling milk; set to boil, stirring the while, and leave to cook very gently for twenty-five minutes. Rub through tammy, and finish the preparation, when dishing up, with the required quantity of cream.

This soup may also be prepared as a velout^.

712- crEme D'ORQE

Wash three-quarters lb. of coarse pearl barley in lukewarm water, and cook it gently for about two and one-half hours in one pint of white consomm6 containing one piece of the white part of a stick of celery.

Crush in a mortar; rub through tammy; dilute the pur^e of barley with one pint of white consomm^; heat, and finish the

SOUPS 249

preparation, when dishing up, with the necessary quantity of cream.

This soup may also be prepared with barley-meal, the procedure in that case being the same as that of the " Cr^me de Riz " above.

Garnish with very fine, well-cooked pearl barley.

This soup may also be prepared as a veloutd.

713- CRfeME DE VOLAILLE PRINCESSE

Mix one and one-half pints of thin Bechamel with one-half pint of chicken pur6e. Rub through tammy; add one-half pint of white consomm^ to the preparation, or the same quantity of boiled milk; heat without allowing to boil, and finish with cream when dishing up.

Garnish with twenty very small slices of chicken fillets, white asparagus-heads, and chervil pluches.

This soup may also be prepared as a velout^.

714- crBme reine-marqot

Mix one-half pint of chicken pur^e with one pint of thin Bdchamel. Rub through tammy; add one and one-half pints of white consomm6 and one-quarter pint of almond milk (No. 678). Heat without allowing to boil, and finish with cream.

Garnish with very small grooved quenelles of chicken forcemeat combined with one oz. of pistachio pur^e per three oz. of forcemeat.

This soup may also be prepared as a velout^.

715- POTAGE A L'AURORE

Wash one-quarter lb. of fine pearl barley in plenty of water. Put it into a stewpan with one quart of consomm^, as much water, a faggot comprising parsley, celery, and chervil, and set to cook very gently for five hours. While the cooking progresses, take care to remove all the skin which forms on the surface, in order that the cooking-liquor may remain very clear.

When the barley is well cooked, transfer it to another stewpan, and add to it four tablespoonfuls. of a thick and very red tomato pur^e, strained through muslin, and two tablespoonfuls of celery, minced in paysanne-fashion, stewed in butter, and finally cooked in consomm^.

This excellent soup should not be made too thick.

716- POTAQE baqration qras

Cut two-thirds lb. of very white fillet of veal into large dice, and stiffen these in butter without letting them acquire any colour. Add one and one-quarter pints of thin velout^ with a veal base, and set to cook very gently.

Finely pound the veal; dilute the pur^e with velout^, and rub through tammy. Add one pint of white consommd; heat without boiling, and complete the preparation, when dishing up, with a leason of the yolks of three eggs diluted with four tablespoonfuls of cream and two oz. of butter.

Garnish with thin macaroni cut into short lengths, and send some grated cheese to the table separately.

717- POTAQE BAQRATION MAIQRE

Prepare one and one-half pints of fresh velout^, and mix therewith one-quarter pint of mushroom velout^. (For making this, see " Velout6 Agn^s Sorel," No. 671.)

Heat without boiling; pass through a strainer, and finish, when about to serve, with the same leason as for ordinary velout^, and two and one-half oz. of butter. Garnish with one fillet of sole, poached very white, and cut into a julienne; twelve small quenelles of sole or whiting forcemeat finished with crayfish butter, and six crayfishes' tails cut into small pieces.

718- POTAQE CHOISEUL

Prepare a " pur^e Conti " (No. 640) with an excellent fumet of game.

Garnish with two tablespoonfuls of sorrel, ciseled and cooked in butter, and two tablespoonfuls of poached rice.

719- POTAQE COMPlfiQNE

Prepare a light " Pur^e Soissonaise "; butter it well, and add thereto as garnish three tablespoonfuls of ciseled sorrel cooked in butter, and chervil pluches.

720- POTAQE DERBY

Add one-half pint of Soubis6 pur^e (No. 104) to one pint of " Cr^me de Riz " (No. 711) flavoured with a very little curry. Rub the whole through tammy.

Add one-half pint of white consommd, and heat without boiling. Complete, when about to serve, with an ordinary leason and three oz. of butter.

Garnish with twelve small quenelles of chicken forcemeat combined with one-third of its volume of foie-gras purde, one tablespooriful of little truffle pearls, and an equal quantity of poached rice, each grain of which must be kept distinct and separate.

SOUPS 251

721- POTAQE A LA DIANE

Cook one-half lb. of lentils with the usual garnish. Roast two medium-sized partridges, keeping them slightly underdone, and remove their fillets. Complete the cooking of the partridges with the lentils, drained of their cooking-liquor, in one pint of game consomm^.

Prepare a royale (No. 209) with the reserved fillets.

When the birds are cooked, bone them; pound their meat, and add thereto the lentils and the cooking-liquor; rub through tammy.

Finish the pur^e with one and one-half pints of excellent thin game stock, and complete the soup, when dishing up, with two oz. of butter and two tablespoonfuls of reduced Madeira.

Garnish with the royale, cut into small regular crescents, and twelve small crescents of very black truffle.

722- POTAQE ELISA

Prepare one and one-half pints of poultry velout^, and rub it through tammy. Complete with one-half pint of white consomm^; heat without boiling, and finish, when dishing up, with an ordinary leason, two and one-half oz. of butter, and two tablespoonfuls of a fondue of sorrel.

733- POTAQE FAVORI

Prepare one pint of a velout6 of green asparagus; one-half pint of a velout^ of lettuce, and one-half pint of poultry velout^. Put all three into a stewpan; add thereto the necessary quantity of white consomm^ to bring the soup to the correct degree of consistence; heat without boiling, and pass through a strainer.

Finish the soup, when dishing up, with an ordinary leason and two oz. of butter. Garnish with one tablespoonful of a chiffonade of sorrel, and one tablespoonful of green asparagusheads.

724- POTAQE QERMINY

Cisel and melt in butter three oz. of shredded sorrel, and add thereto one and one-half pints of white consomm^. A few minutes before serving, pour into the consomm^ a leason composed of the yolks of six eggs diluted with one-quarter pint of cream; set on the fire and stir, after the manner of an English custard, i.e., until the preparation begins to show signs of boiling.

Finish, away from the fire, with two and one-half oz. of butter, and add a pinch of chervil pluches. Remarks concerning the Possible Variation of this Soup, - The mode of procedure adopted in the case of the Germiny could, if necessary, be appUed to all thick soups, and it would then constitute a class to which the term " Cream " would be better suited than it is at present to the soups thus designated.

Instead of the ordinary white consomm^, which is used in its preparation, a consomm6 may be used in which such vegetables as carrots, turnips, peas, &c., are cooked, the latter being reserved for the garnish, while the cooking-liquor is thickened with egg-yolks and cream in accordance with the quantities and directions given in the above recipe.

A carrot cream, a cream of fresh peas, or of asparagus-heads, prepared in this way, would be much more delicate than those prepared after the ordinary recipes.

The essential point in this series of soups is the leason; this should consist of enough egg-yolks to render the preparations sufficiently thick and creamy.

725- POTAQE AUX HERBES

Cut two oz. of sorrel leaves into a julienne, and stew them in butter with one oz. of watercress leaves, one oz. of chervi l ^ju£h^s, and young pi mpernel . Ad d one anHj a'ne-halt pints of water;, the necessary salt^ three medium-sized, pe'eled, and quartere d potatoes, an J'cook gently.

Drain and reserve the cooking-liquor; crush the potatoes; dilute the pur^e with the cooking-liquor, and rub through tammy. Set to boil, and finish, when dishing up, with three oz. of Printanier b utter with herbs, combined with a f ew leave s of swe et basil. - - -

Add a pinch of chervil pluches.

726- POTAQE JUBILEE, otherwise BALVET

Prepare, according to the directions given (No. 648), one and one-half pints of a purde of fresh peas, and add thereto onehalf pint of consommd of "La Petite Marmite." Set to boil, and finish with two oz. of butter.

Garnish with the vegetables from the Marmite, prepared as for Croute au Pot.

727- POTAQE LONQCHAMPS

Refer to the derivative soups of the " Pur^e de Pois " (No. 654). 738- POTAQE LAVALLIfiRE

Prepare one and one-half pints of " Cr^me de Volaille " (No. 713), finished with a leason of egg-yolks and cream; also

SOUPS 253

two-thirds pint of " Cr^me de C^leri," similarly finished, and combine the two creams.

Garnish, with twelve small profiterolles, stuffed with chicken forcemeat, and a royale of celery in dice.

729- POTAQE MADELEINE

Prepare and combine the following purees: - One-third pint of artichoke pur6e, one-fifth pint of haricot-bean pur^e, oneseventh pint of Soubise pur^e. Add one pint of white consomm^; set to boil; pass through a strainer, and finish, when dishing up, with two oz. of butter.

Garnish with two tablespoonfuls of sago poached in onehalf pint of white consomm^.

730- POTAQE MISS BETSY

Proceed exactly as for " Potage h I'Aurore " (No. 715), but (i) flavour potage Miss Betsy with curry; (2) substitute for the celery peeled, cored apples cut into dice and cooked in butter,

N.B. - Both these soups (Aurore and Miss Betsy) are subject to much variation. All that is needed is to alter the flavouring element and the garnish. Thus the quantity of tomato may be reduced by half, and combined with one-quarter lb. of peas and their cooking-liquor (the peas in this case being cooked in one pint of water with a little salt and sugar); or with the same quantity of French beans, asparagus-heads, or sorrel cooked in butter, &c.

731- POTAQE MONTESPAN

Add one-half pint of somewhat thick tapioca to one and onehalf pints of " Cr^me d'Asperges " (No. 697), prepared as directed. Garnish with very fine peas cooked in the English fashion.

732- POTAQE n6LUSK0

Mix one and one-half pints of rather liquid poultry velout^ with one-half pint of chicken purde. When serving, add an ordinary leason, and finish with two and one-half oz. of hazelnut butter.

Garnish with very small quenelles of chicken forcemeat combined with one tablespoonful of hazel-nut powder per three oz. of the forcemeat.

733- POTAQE PETIT DUC

Take a fine woodcock; raise and reserve one of its fillets, and roast it, taking care to keep it very underdone. Then remove the other fillet, and with it prepare two dariole-moulds of royale (No. 209). Finely pound what remains of the woodcock, and combine with the resulting pur^e one and one-half pints of game velout6 prepared with essence of woodcock. Cover the stewpan and place it in the bain-marie for thirtyfive minutes. Now rub the whole through tammy; heat without boiling, and finish, when dishing up, with one and one-half oz. of butter, one and one-half oz. of cooked foie-gras pur^e, diluted with a few tablespoonfuls of the soup, one and one-half tablespoonfuls of cream, and one and one-half tablespoonfuls of burnt liqueur brandy.

Garnish with the royale cut into dice, and the reserved fillet of woodcock, stiffened in butter at the last moment, and cut into thin slices.

734- POTAQE REQENCE

Prepare one quart of barley cream in accordance with the directions under No. 712. Finish it, when dishing up, with an ordinary leason and one and one-half oz. of crayfish butter.

Garnish with twelve small, grooved quenelles of chicken forcemeat finished with crayfish butter; one tablespoonful of small pearl barley, well cooked; and six small cocks' combs, freshly poached and very white.

735- POTAQE ROSSOLNIK

Prepare (i) one quart of light, poultry velout^ combined with cucumber juice; (2) ten pieces of parsley root and the same quantity of celery root, turned to the shape of small, new carrots, and split crosswise at their base; (3) twenty small lozenges of salted cucumber.

Parboil the roots and the cucumber lozenges for fifteen minutes, and add them to the velout^ when about to cook the latter. Cook the whole gently for forty minutes, despumating the velout^ the while. Finish with one and one-half tablespoonfuls of cucumber juice, and an ordinary leason.

Garnish with small chicken-forcemeat quenelles.

736_P0TAGE DE SANTE

Cook quickly, in salted water, three medium-sized, peeled, and quartered potatoes. When their pulps seem soft to the touch, drain them; rub them through a fine sieve, and dilute the resulting pur^e with one and one-half pints of white consomm^. Add two tablespoonfuls of sorrel melted in butter, and finish the preparation with an ordinary leason and one oz. of butter.

SOUPS 255

Garnish with very thin roundels of French soup-flute and chervil pluches.

737- POTAQE SIQURD

Prepafe one pint of " Velout^ Parmentier " and one pint of tomato velout^. Combine the two; heat, and finish, when dishing up, with two and one-half oz. of butter.

Garnish with twenty small quenelles of chicken forcemeat, combined with one coffeespoonful of chopped capsicum, or capsicum in dice, per three oz, of the forcemeat.

738- POTAQE SOLFERINO

Mince tlie white of two leeks, the third of a medium-sized carrot, and half an onion, and stew the whole in one and onehalf oz. of butter. Add one-half lb. of pressed tomatoes cut into pieces, two medium-sized, peeled potatoes, minced; moisten with two-thirds pint of white consomm^, and cook gently. Crush the vegetables; rub them through tammy; complete the pur^e with the necessary quantity of white consomm^; set to boil, and finish, when dishing up, with two and one-half oz. of butter.

Garnish with twelve little balls of potato, raised by means of the spoon-cutter, and cooked in salted water; two tablespoonfuls of French beans cut into lozenges; and some chervil pluches,

739- POTAQE VIVIANE

Prepare one quart of " Cr^me de Volaille " (No. 713), and finish it with the usual leason. Garnish with one tablespoonful of artichoke-bottom, cut into dice, the same quantity of carrot dice, both gently cooked in butter, and one tablespoonful of trufifle dice.

740- POTAQE WINDSOR

Blanch and cool one small, boned calf's foot, and cook it gently in a good white-wine mirepoix. Prepare one and onehalf pints of " Cr^me de Riz " (No. 711), and add thereto the cooking-liquor of the calf's foot, strained through muslin.

Finish this cream, when about to serve, with an ordinary leason, one and one-half tablespoonfuls of a slight infusion of turtle-soup herbs, and one and one-half oz. of butter.

Garnish with a julienne. oi half of the calf's foot and twenty small quenelles consisting of a pur^e of hard-boiled egg-yolks and chicken forcemeat, these two preparations being in the proportion of two-thirds and one-third respectively. 741- SOUPE AUX ABATIS DE VOLAILLE A L'ANGLAISE

Cut the necks into three, the gizzards into four, and the pinions into two. Brown one-half lb. of these giblets in a thick-bottomed stewpan with one oz. of butter. Sprinkle with one tablespoonful of flour; slightly colour the latter, and moisten with one quart of white consomm6 and one pint of water. Add a faggot containing one stick of celery, and set to cook gently for three hours.

When the pieces of giblets are cooked, drain them, trim them, and put them into a stewpan with one dessertspoonful of parboiled rice and a heaped tablespoonful of the white of celery, minced and fried in butter. Strain the cooking-liquor of the giblets, through a strainer, over the enumerated garnishes; set to cook gently for another quarter of an hour; season strongly with pepper, and serve.

742- SOUPE AUX CERISES

Stone two-thirds lb. of small, fleshy cherries, and put twenty aside for garnishing purposes. Put the others into a sugarboiler with two-thirds pint of hot water, a small strip of lemon rind, and a fragment of cinnamon, and set to boil quickly for eight minutes.

Also boil in another sugar-boiler one-half pint of Port or Bordeaux wine. Crush half of the cherry-stones in the mortar; put them into the boiled wine, and let them infuse, away from the fire.

Rub the cooked cherries through a fine sieve; dilute the pur6e with the juice thickened by means of one tablespoonful of fecula moistened with cold water; add the cherries put aside for the garnish, and one-half tablespoonful of castor sugar, and again set to boil for four minutes.

Complete the preparation with the infusion strained through muslin; pour it into the soup-tureen, and add a few biscottes.

For the sake of variety, lady's-finger biscuits may be substituted for the biscottes.

743- COCKY- LEEKI SOUP

Set half a fowl to cook very gently in one and one-half pints of light and clear veal stock with a few aromatics.

Also prepare a julienne of the white of three leeks; stew this in butter without colouration, and complete the cooking thereof in the cooking-liquor of the fowl, strained and poured carefully away.

SOUPS 257

Pour the preparation into the soup-tureen, and add the meat of the fowl, cut into a julienne.

Serve some stewed prunes separately, but this is optional.

744---SOUPE AUX FOIES DE VOLAILLE

Make a roux from one and one-half oz. of butter and as much flour. When it has acquired a nice, light-brown colour, moisten it with one quart of white consomm^ or brown stock, and set to boil, stirring the while.

Add one-half lb. of raw chickens' livers rubbed through e sieve, and set to cook for fifteen minutes. Rub the whole through tammy; season strongly with pepper; heat, and complete the preparation, at the last moment, with one-quarter lb. of sliced chickens' livers, tossed in butter, and one wineglass of good Madeira.

745- SOUPE JULIENNE DARBLAY

Cook quickly in salted water two small, peeled, and quartered potatoes. Drain them, rub them through a fine sieve, and dilute the pur^e with one and one-half pints of white consomm^. Add three tablespoonfuls of a julienne made in accordance with the above recipe; heat, and finish the preparation with an ordinary leason and one and one-half oz. of butter.

746- MINESTRONE

Brown the minced white of two small leeks and one-third of an onion, also minced, in one oz. of chopped, fresh breast of bacon, and one-half oz. of grated, fat bacon. Moisten with one and one-half pints of white consomm^, and add one-third of a carrot, one-third of a turnip, half a stick of celery, two oz. of small cabbage, and one small potato, or one-half of a medium-sized one, all of which vegetables must be finely minced.

About twenty-five minutes after the soup has started cooking, complete it with two tablespoonfuls of peas, a few French beans cut into lozenges, and one and one-half oz. of rice, or the same quantity of very thin macaroni broken into very small pieces.

This done, set to cook again for thirty minutes. A few minutes tJefore serving, add to the soup one small, crushed clove of garlic, three leaves of sweet basil, and a small pinch of chopped chervil pluches; mix the whole with one-half tablespoonful of grated bacon.

Send to the table, separately, at the same time as the soup some freshly grated Gruy^re.

S 747- MILLE-FANTI

First make the following preparation: - Beat two small eggs to a stiff froth, and mix therewith one and one-half oz. of the crumb of very good white bread, one oz. of grated Parmesan, and a little nutmeg. Boil one and two-thirds pints of white consomm^, and pour the above preparation therein, little by little, stirring briskly the while with the whisk. Then move the stewpan to the side of the fire, put the lid on, and set to cook gently for seven or eight minutes.

When about to serve, stir the soup with a whisk, and pour it into the soup-tureen.

748- MULLIGATAWNY SOUP

Cut a small fowl, or half a medium-sized one, into little pieces, and put these in a stewpan with a few roundels of carrot and onion, a small bunch of parsley and celery, one-half oz. of mushroom parings and one quart of white consomm^. Set to boil, and then let cook gently.

Also lightly brown in butter half a medium-sized onion, chopped; besprinkle it with one dessertspoonful of fecula and one coffeespoonful of curry; moisten with the cooking-liquor of the fowl, strained through a sieve; boil, and set to cook gently for seven or eight minutes. Now rub the whole through tammy, and leave it to despumate for twenty minutes, adding one tablespoonful of consomm^, from time to time, with the view of promoting the despumation, i.e., the purification of the soup.

When about to serve, finish the preparation with three or four tablespoonfuls of cream. Pour the whole into the souptureen; add a portion of the meat of the fowl, cut into thin slices, and serve separately two oz. of rice k I'lndienne.

749- SOUPE AUX QOMBOS OU OKRA

This soup is held in high esteem by Americans. It is served either with garnish, as I direct below, or as a consomm^, hot or cold, or in cups, after it has been strained.

Fry one medium-sized chopped onion in two oz. of butter, without letting it acquire any colour. Add one-quarter lb. of fresh lean bacon, or raw ham cut into medium-sized dice; fry for a few minutes, and add about one lb. of boned chickenmeat cut into large dice (the white parts of the chicken are used in preference); let these ingredients stiffen well; take care to stir fairly often, and moisten with two quarts of white chicken consomm^. Boil, and set to cook gently for twenty or twentyfive minutes with lid on.

SOUPS 259

Now add about one-half lb. of peeled gombo, cut in coarse paysanne-fashion, and three or four medium-sized tomatoes, peeled, concussed, and with their seeds withdrawn.

When the gombos are well cooked, carefully remove all grease from the preparation; test the seasoning, and, if necessary, add a few drops of Worcestershire sauce.

Garnish the soup with two or three tablespoonfuls of plainlycooked rice.

N.B. - This soup is excellent if it be finished with one-quarter pint of cream per quart. A cream of gombos may also be prepared, which may be garnished with the dice of chicken meat. In the latter case, the garnish of rice is optional.

750- SOUPE A LA PAYSANNE

Finely mince one small carrot, one small turnip, one leek, one-third of a stick of celery, one-third of an onion, and some cabbage leaves. Stew the vegetables in one oz. of butter; moisten with one and one-half pints of white consomm^, and set to boil. A few minutes having elapsed, add two small potatoes minced like the other vegetables, and complete the cooking gently. Send separately some roundels of soup-flutes.

751- SOUPE AUX POIREAUX ET POMMES DE TERRE,

otherwise A LA BONNE FEMME

Finely mince the white of four medium-sized leeks. Put this into a stewpan with one oz. of butter, and stew gently for a quarter of an hour. Then add three medium-sized quartered potatoes, cut into roundels the thickness of pennies. Moisten with one pint of white consomm6; add the necessary quantity of salt, and set to cook gently. When about to serve, finish the soup with one pint of boiled milk and one and onehalf oz. of butter; pour it into the soup-tureen, and add twelve roundels of French soup-flutes, cut as thinly as possible.

752- SOUPE AUX ROQNONS

Proceed exactly as for ' ' Soupe aux Foies de Volaille, ' ' but substitute for the garnish of sliced livers one of calf's or sheep's kidney cut into large dice, or sliced, and briskly tossed in butter just before dishing up.

Finish the soup similarly to the preceding one, i.e., with Madeira.

S 2

CHAPTER XIV

FISH

In matters culinary, fish comprise not only the vertebrates of the sea and river, but also the esculent Crustacea, mollusca, and chelonia, and one batrachian. Of course, the animals representing these various classes differ enormously in respect of their importance as articles of diet. Fresh-water fish, for instance, with the exception of salmon and some kinds of trout, are scarcely ever eaten in England; and the same applies to the frog. As regards salt-water fish, although certain species, such as the sole and the turbot, are in great demand, many other and excellent ones which are looked upon as inferior are seldom put into requisition by first-class cookery. Thus, Brill, Fed Mull&t, and Bass are not nearly so popular as they deserve to be, and never appear on a menu of any importance. No doubt. Fashion - ever illogical and wayward - exercises her tyrannical sway here, as in other matters of opinion; for it will be found, even when the distinctions among fish are once established, that there exist a host of incongruities in the unwritten law. Fresh cod is a case in point; should this fish appear on the menu of a grand dinner given by Royalty, the guests would not think it at all out of place; but if the chef of a large modern hotel ventured to include it among the items of a plain table-d'hote dinner he would most probably incur the scorn and indignation of his clientele.

This example, than which none could be better suited to our case, successfully shows that the culinary value of the fish has far less to do with the vogue the latter enjoys than the very often freakish whims of the public.

One can but deplore the arbitrary proscription which so materially reduces the resources at the disposal of a cook, more particularly at a time when the universally imperious cry is for novelty and variety in dishes and menus respectively; and one can only hope that reason and good sense may, at no remote period, intervene to check the purposeless demands of both entertainers and their guests in this respect.

FISH 261

Having regard to these considerations, I have omitted from this work, which is really a thesaurus of selected recipes and not a complete formulary, all those fish enumerated below, which are very rarely eaten in England, and the recipes for which could therefore serve no purpose: -

753 - SHADJchiefly served grilled.

754 - FRESH ANCHOVIES, extremely rare, and may be grilled or fried.

755 - EELS, considered as common, and principally used in the preparation of a pie held in high esteem by the frequenters of coffee-shops along the banks of the Thames. Small eels are also fried. ^But the many ways of dressing them which are common on the Continent are seldom practised in England.

756 - PIKE, plentiful and of excellent quality; only used in the preparation of forcemeat and quenelles; the directions for the latter will be given later. Albeit they are sometimes served crimped, or cooked whole in a court-bouillon au bleu, accompanied by parsley or caper sauce, &c. Small pike are generally prepared " a la Meuniere," or fried.

757 - CARP, in still less demand than the pike, and only prized for its milt. It must, however, be admitted that in England, more than anywhere else, I believe, this fish is too often spoilt by the taint of mud.

758 - DORADO, served boiled with any of the English fish sauces; but, in my opinion, it is best grilled, after the manner generally adopted in the South of France.

759 - STURGEON, very rare; it is braised, like veal. j5o - FERA, very scarce on the market; comes from the Swiss or Savoy lakes, and is only served 4 la Meuniere.

761 - GUDGEON, very abundant in all rivers, but never eaten. 762 - FROGS, the pet abomination of all classes of the population, with but few exceptions; nevertheless " Nymphes k I'Aurore," the recipe of which I gave among the hors-d'oeuvres, are generally appreciated.

763- FRESH HERRINGS, abundant and of excellent quality; seldom used in first-class cookery, except, perhaps, for their milt. Bloaters and kippered herrings are, with reason, preferred; of these I shall speak later.

764 - LAMPREYS, chiefly used in preparing pies similar to those referred to in No. 755.

765- FRESH -WATER HERRINGS, like the F^ra, come from Switzerland or Savoy, and are very scarce on the English market Prepared especially a la Meuriiere, 766 - LOTE, very scarce on the English market; only prized for its liver.

767 - MOSTELE, only caught in the region of Monaco; cannot bear transport; especially served k la Meuniere or a I'Anglaise.

768 - MUSSELS, only used as garnish.

769 - NONAT, replaced in England by whitebait, which it greatly resembles.

770 - PERCH, very moderately appreciated; chiefly served fried, when small, and boiled with some fish sauce when large.

771 - SKATE, generally served boiled, with caper sauce; occasionally with brown butter. The smaller specimens are better fried. Often offered for sale, crimped.

773 - SARDINES, generally of inferior quality; used in the preparation of sprats.

773^STERLET, almost unknown in England.

774 - TURTLE, with the exception of those firms which make this their speciality, is almost exclusively used in preparing Turtle Soup. The flippers are sometimes served braised au Mad^re.

I do not think it at all necessary to lay any further stress upon the series of preparations bearing the names of Croquettes, Cromesquis, Cotelettes (cotelettes here only mean those prepared from cooked fish, and which are really but a form of croquettes), Coquilles, Bouchees, Palets, &c., which may be made from any kind of cooked fish. These preparations are so well known that it would be almost superfluous to repeat their recipes.

775- DIVERS WAYS OF COOKING FISH

The divers ways of cooking fish are all derived from one or another of the following methods: -

(i) Boiling in salted water, which may be applied equally well to large pieces and slices of fish.

(2) Frying, particularly suited to small specimens and thin slices of larger ones.

(3) Cooking in butter, otherwise " h. la Meuniere," best suited to the same pieces as No. 2.

(4) Poaching, with short moistening, especially suited to fillets or small specimens.

(5) Braising, used particularly for large pieces.

(6) Grilling, for small specimens and coUops.

(7) Cooking au Gratin, same as grilling.

776- THE BOILING OF FISH IN SALTED WATER

The procedure changes according as to whether the fish is to be cooked whole or in slices. If whole, after having pro

FISH 263

perly cleaned, washed, and trimmed it, lay it on the drainer of the utensil best suited to its shape; i.e., a fish-kettle. Cover it with water, salt it in the proportion of one-quarter oz. of salt per quart of water, cover the utensil, and bring the liquid to the boil. As soon as this is done skim and move the kettle to the side of the fire, where the cooking of the fish may be completed without boiling.

If the fish is cut into slices, plunge these, which should never be cut too thin, into boiling salted water, and move the fish-kettle containing them to the side of the fire; complete their cooking slowly without allowing the water to boil.

The object of this process is to concentrate, inside the fish, all the juices contained in its flesh, whereof a large portion escapes when the cut fish is plunged in cold water gradually brought to the boil. If this method is not applied to large fish, cooked whole, the reason is that the sudden immersion of these in boiling water would cause such a shrinking of their flesh that they would burst and thereby be spoiled.

In the case of certain kinds of fish, such as Turbot and Brill, milk is added to the water in the proportion of one-eighth of the latter, the object being to increase the whiteness of the fish..

For the various kinds of Salmon and Trout, the courtbouillon (No. 163) is used in the place of salted water, but the general working process remains the same.

The boiled fish is dished on a napkin and drainer; it is garnished with fresh parsley; and the sauce announced on the menu, together with some plain-boiled and floury potatoes, is sent to the table separately.

777-THE FRYING OF FISH

In Part I. of this work I explained the general theory of frying (Chapter X., No. 26a); I shall now, therefore, only concern myself with the details of the operation in its relation to fish.

As a rule, frying should never be resorted to for very large fish or very thick slices of the latter, for, owing to the very high temperature that the operation enjoins, the outside of the fish would be dried up before the inside had even become affected.

If the fish to be fried is somewhat thick, it is best to cut several gashes in it, lengthwise and across, these being deeper and closer together the thicker the fish may be. The object of this measure is to facilitate the cooking, but the measure itself is quite unnecessary when dealing with small fish. In the case of flat-fish, partly detach the two underlying fillets on either side of the back-bone instead of gashing them.

All fish intended for frying (except Blanchailles and Whitebait) should first be steeped in salted milk, then rolled in flour before being plunged into the hot fat. If they be " panes a I'anglaise," however, as they generally are in England, the milk may be dispensed with, in which case, after they have been lightly coated with flour, they are completely dipped in an anglaise (No. 174) and afterwards rolled in white breadcrumbs. They should then be patted with the blade of a knife so as to ensure the cohesion of the whole coating, and, finally, the latter should be criss-crossed with the back of a knife with the view of improving the appearance when fried.

Fried fish are served either on a napkin, on a drainer, or on special dish-papers. They are garnished with fried parsley and properly trimmed half-lemons.

778- THE COOKING OF FISH A LA MEUNI6RE

This excellent mode of procedure is only suited to small fish or the slices of larger ones. Nevertheless, it may be resorted to for chicken-turbots, provided their weight do not exceed four lbs.

The operation consists in cooking the fish (or slices or fillets of fish) in the frying-pan with very hot butter, after having seasoned them and sprinkled them with flour. If the fish are very small, ordinary butter is used; if, on the other hand, they are large, the procedure demands clarified butter. When the fish is sufficiently coloured on one side, it is turned over for the completion of the operation. This done, it is transferred, by means of a spatula, to a hot dish, whereon, after having been salted, it is sent to the table.

It may be served as it is with a garnish of trimmed halflemons.

Fish prepared in this way are termed " dor^s " (gilded), "Soles dords," " Turbotins dor^s," &c., in order to distinguish them from those prepared a la Meuni^re.

If the fish is announced "a la Meuni^re," a few drops of lemon should be sprinkled upon it; it should be seasoned with salt and pepper, and garnished with concussed, scalded parsley. At the last moment a piece of butter, in proportion to the size of the fish, is put in the frying-pan, and is heated until it begins to brown slightly. This is poured over the fish immediately, and the latter is sent to the table at once while still

FISH 265

covered by the froth resulting from the contact of the butter with the parsley.

779- THE POACHING OF FISH

This method is best suited to sole, chicken-turbots, and brill, as well as to the fillets of various fish.

Having laid the fish to be poached in a baking-tray or a sautepan, either of which should have been previously buttered, season it moderately with salt and moisten with a little very white fish or mushroom fumet; very often the two latter are mixed. Cover the utensil, push it into a moderate oven, and baste from time to time, especially when a large fish is cooking. When the fish is done, drain it carefully, place it on a dish, and, as a rule, reduce the poaching-liquor and add it to the sauce. Poached fish are always served sauced; i.e., covered with the sauce which properly forms their accompaniment. More often than not they are garnished after the manner which will be described later.

I most emphatically urge: (i) the use of very little fish fumet for the poaching, but this fumet should be perfect and should, above all, not be cooked for longer than the required time; (2) that the fish be not covered with buttered paper as is often done, for nowadays a suitable paper is very rarely found. All papers found on the market are, owing to the chemical products used in their manufacture, liable to impart a more or less pungent smell to the objects they enclose, which in either degree would prove seriously prejudicial to the preparation.

These remarks not only apply to fish, but to all those objects with which paper was formerly used at some stage in their cooking process.

780- THE BRAISING OF FISH

This method is generally applied to whole or sliced salmon, to trout, and to chicken-turbot. Sometimes the fish treated in this way is larded on one side with strips of bacon-fat, truffles, gherkins, or carrots. The mode of procedure is exactly the same as that described under the " Braising of White Meats " (No. 248). Moisten these braisings in the proportion of onehalf with white wine or red wine (according as to how the fish is to be served), and for the other half use a light fish fumet. Place the fish on the drainer of a fish-kettle just large enough to hold the former, and moisten in such wise that the cookingliquor at the beginning of the operation does not cover more than three-quarters of the depth of the fish. Unless it be for a Lenten dish, the fish may be covered with slices of bacon while cooking. In any case, baste it often. Talie care not to close the lid down too tightly, in order that the liquor may be reduced simultaneously with the cooking of the fish.

When the operation is almost completed, take the lid off the fish-kettle with the view of glazing the fish; then take the former off the fire. Now withdraw the drainer with the fish upon it, and lay it athwart the top of the fish-kettle, and let it drain; tilt the fish on to a dish, and cover the latter pending its despatch to the table. Strain the stock remaining in the fish-kettle through a strainer; let it stand for ten minutes, remove all the grease that has formed on its surface, and use it to complete the sauce as I directed above.

Braised fish are generally accompanied by a garnish, the constituents of which I shall give in the particular recipes relating to braising.

781- THE GRILLING OF FISH

This method is best suited to' small fish, to medium-sized chicken-turbots, and to large-sectioned fish.

Unless they are very small, it is best to gash both sides of fish intended for grilling; the reasons given above for this measure likewise apply here.

All white and naturally dry fish should be rolled in flour and besprinkled with butter or very good oil before being placed on the grill to be exposed to the heat of the fire. The flour forms a crust around the fish, which keeps it from drying and gives it that golden colour quite peculiar to objects thus treated.

Salmon, trout, red mullet, mackerel, and herrings, the flesh whereof is fatty, need not be floured, but only besprinkled with melted butter.

Owing to the somewhat fragile texture of most fish, a special double gridiron is used, by means of which they may be turned without fear of damage. This gridiron is placed upon the ordinary grill. I have already given in Part I. of this work the radical principles of grilling (No. 257); to this, therefore, the reader is begged to refer.

Grilled fish are served on a very hot dish, without paper or a napkin; they are garnished with fresh parsley and grooved slices of lemon.

Butter k la Maitre d'Hotel, anchovy butter, devilled sauce, Roberts' sauce Escoffier, and butter k la Ravigote constitute the best adjuncts to grilled fish.

FISH 267

782- THE COOKING OF FISH AU QRATIN

I described all the details of this method under Complete Gratin (No. 269), to which I must ask the reader to refer. This process is best suited to small fish, such as sole, whiting, red mullet, chicken-turbot, &c.

783- THE CRIMPING OF FISH

Crimped fish is quite an English speciality. This method of preparation is applied more particularly to salmon, fresh cod, haddock, and skate. The first three of these fish may be prepared whole or in slices, while skate is always cut into more or less large pieces after it has been skinned on both sides.

In order to crimp a whole fish, it should be taken as it leaves the water. Lay it on something flat, and make deep lateral gashes on both its sides from head to tail. Allow a space of about one and one-half inches to two inches between each gash. This done, put the fish to soak in very cold water for an hour or so. When the fish is to be cooked sliced, divide it up as soon as it is caught, and put the slices to soak in very cold water, as in the case of the whole fish.

But does this barbarous method, which stiffens and contracts the flesh of the fish, affect its quality so materially as connoisseurs would have us believe ?

It is very difficult to say, and opinions on the matter are divided. This, however, is certain, that fish prepared in the way above described is greatly relished by many.

Whether whole or sliced, crimped fish is always boiled in salted water. Its cooking presents a real difficulty, in that it must be stopped at the precise moment when it is completed, any delay in this respect proving prejudicial to the quality of the dish.

Crimped fish is served like the boiled kind, and all the sauces suited to the latter likewise obtain with the former. Besides the selected sauce, send a sauceboat to the table containing some of the cooking-liquor of the fish.

SALMON (SAUMON)

Salmon caught on the Rhine, or Dutch salmon, is generally considered the most delicate that may be had, though, in my opinion, ihat obtained from certain English rivers, such, for instance, as the Severn, is by no means inferior to the foregoing. Here in England this excellent fish is held in the high esteem it deserves, and the quantity consumed in this country is considerable. It is served as plainly as possible, either boiled, cold or hot, grilled, or k la Meuni^re; but whatever be the method of preparation, it is always accompanied by cucumber salad.

The slices of salmon, however, thick or thin, large or small, take the name of " Darnes."

784- BOILED SALMON

Boiled salmon, whether whole or sliced, should be cooked in court-bouillon in accordance with directions given at the beginning of the chapter (No. 776). All fish sauces are suited to it, but more especially the following, viz.: - Hollandaise sauce, Mousseline sauce, Melted butter. Shrimp sauce, Nantua sauce. Cardinal sauce, &c.

Crimped salmon admits of precisely the same sauces.

78s- BROILED SALMON

Cut the salmon to be grilled in slices from one inch to one and one-half inches thick. Season with table-salt, sprinkle with melted butter or oil, and grill it for the first part on a rather brisk fire, taking care to moderate the latter towards the close of the operation. Allow about twenty-five minutes for the grilling of a slice of salmon one and one-half inches thick. Butter a la Maitre d'Hotel, anchovy butter, and devilled sauce Escoffier are the most usual adjuncts to grilled salmon.

786- SAUMON A LA MEUNI6RE

Having cut the salmon into moderately thick slices, season these, dredge them slightly, and cook them in the frying-pan with very hot clarified butter.

It is important that the salmon be set and that the cooking be rapid.

Serve it in either of the two ways indicated above (No. 778).

Various Ways of Preparing Salmon

In addition to the three methods of serving salmon described above, and those cold preparations with which I shall deal later, the fish in question lends itself to a whole host of dressings which are of the greatest utility in the varying of menus. The principles of these dressings I shall now give.

787- CADQEREE OF SALMON

Prepare one lb. of cooked salmon, cleared of bones and §kin, and cut into small pieces; four hard-boiled eggs cut into

FISH 269

dice; one lb. of well-cooked pilaff rice; and three-quarters pint of Bechamel flavoured with curry.

Dish in a hot timbale, alternating the various products, and finish with a coating of sauce.

788-COTELETTES DE SAUMON

Prepare some mousseline forcemeat for salmon, the quantity whereof will be in accordance with the number of cutlets to be made, and rub it through a coarse sieve. Line the bottom and sides of some buttered tin moulds, shaped like cutlets, with a coating one-half inch thick of the prepared forcemeat.

Fill the moulds to within one-third inch of their brims with a cold salpicon of mushrooms and truffles, thickened by means of reduced Allemande sauce, and cover this with the stuffing.

Set the cutlets to poach, turn out the moulds; treat the cutlets a I'anglaise, and cook them with clarified butter.

Arrange in a circle round a dish, put a frill on a piece of fried bread counterfeiting the bone of the cutlet, garnish with fried parsley, and send to the table, separately, a " Dieppoise " sauce. Shrimp sauce, or a pur^e of fresh vegetables, such as peas, carrots, &c. In the latter case, serve at the same time a sauce in keeping with the garnish.

789- COULIBIAC DE SAUMON

Preparation. - Have ready two lbs. of ordinary brioche paste without sugar (No. 2368). Stiffen in butter one and one-half lbs. of small salmon collops, and prepare one-sixth lb. of mushrooms and one chopped onion (both of which should be fried in butter), one-half lb. of semolina kache (No. 2292) or the same weight of rice cooked in consomm^; two hard-boiled eggs, chopped; and one lb. of vesiga, roughly chopped and cooked in consomm^.

For this weight of cooked vesiga about two and one-half oz. of dried vesiga will be needed, which should be soaked for at least four hours in cold water, and then cooked for three and one-half hours in white consomm^. It may also be cooked in water.

Roll the brioche paste into rectangles twelve inches long by eight inches wide, and spread thereon in successive layers the kache or the rice, the collops of salmon, the chopped vesiga, the eggs, the mushrooms, and the onion, and finish with a layer of kache or rice. Moisten the edges of the paste and draw the longest ends of it towards each other over the enu merated layers of garnish, and join them so as to properly enclose the latter.

Now fold the two remaining ends over to the centre in a similar way. Place the coulibiac thus formed on a bakingtray, and take care to turn it over in order that the joining parts of the paste lie underneath.

Set the paste to rise for twenty-five minutes, sprinkle some melted butter over the coulibiac, sprinkle with some very fine raspings, make a slit in the top for the escape of vapour, and bake in a moderate oven for forty-five or fifty minutes. Fill the coulibiac with freshly-melted butter when withdrawing it from the oven.

Darnes de Saumon

The few recipes dealing with " Darnes de Saumon," which I give below, may also be adapted to whole salmon after the size of the fish has been taken into account in measuring the time allowed for cooking.

790- DARNE DE SAUMON A CHAMBORD

As already explained, the term " darne " stands for a piece of salmon cut from the middle of that fish, and the size of a darne is in proportion to the number of people it is intended for.

Proceed after the manner directed under " The Braising of Fish " (No. 780); moisten in the proportion of two-thirds with excellent red wine and one-third with fish stock, calculating the quantity in such wise that it may cover no more than two-thirds of the depth of the darne. Bring to the boil, then set to braise gently, and glaze the darne at the last moment.

Garnish and Sauce. - Garnish with quenelles of truffled mousseline forcemeat for fish, moulded by means of a spoon; two large ornamented quenelles; truffles fashioned like olives; pieces of milt dipped in Villeroy sauce, treated a I'anglaise and fried when about to dish up; small gudgeon or smelts treated similarly to the milt, and trussed crayfish cooked in courtbouillon.

The sauce is a Genevoise, made from the reduced cookingliquor of the darne.

Dishing Up. - Surround the darne by the garnishes enumerated, arranging them tastefully, and pierce it with two hatelets, each garnished with a small truffle, an ornamented quenelle, and a crayfish.

Send the sauce to the table separately.

FISH 271

791- DARNE DE SAUMON A DAUMONT

Poach the dame in a court-bouillon prepared beforehand.

Dishing Up and Garnish. - Surround the darne by mediumsized mushrooms stewed in butter and garnished with small crayfish tails cohered by means of a few tablespoonfuls of Nantua sauce; small round quenelles of mousseline forcemeat for fish, decorated with truffles, and some slices of milt treated a I'anglaise, and fried when about to dish up.

Serve the Nantua sauce separately.

792- DARNE DE SAUMON A LUCULLUS

Skin one side of the darne, lard it with truffles, and braise it in champagne.

The Garnish Round the Darne. - Very small garnished patties of crayfish tails; small cassolettes of milt; small mousselines of oysters, poached in dariole-moulds .

Sauce. - The braising-liquor of the darne finished by means of ordinary and crayfish butter in equal quantities. Send it to the table separately.

793- DARNE DE SAUMON A NESSELRODE

Remove the spine and all other internal bones. Stuff the darne with raw lobster mousse stiffened by means of a little pike forcemeat.

Line a well-buttered, round and even raised-pie mould with a thin layer of hot-water, raised-pie paste (this is made from one lb. of flour, four oz. of lard, one egg, and a little lukewarm water), which should be prepared in advance and made somewhat stiff. Now garnish the inside of the pie with thin slices of bacon and place the darne upright in it. (To simplify the operation the darne may be stuffed at this stage.) Cover the pie with a' layer of the same paste, pinch its edges with those of the original lining, make a slit in the top for the steam to escape, and cook in a good oven.

When the pie is almost baked, prod it repeatedly with a larding-needle; when the latter is withdrawn clear of all stuffing the pie should be taken from the oven. This done, turn it upside down in order to drain away the melted bacon and other liquids inside it, but do not let it drop from the mould. Then tilt it on to a dish and take off the mould. Do not break the crust except at the dining-table.

5aMce .-^Serve an American sauce with the pie, the former being prepared from the remains of the lobsters used in making the mousse, finished with cream, and garnished with very fine oysters (cleared of their beards), poached when about to dish up. 794- DARNE DE SAUMON R^QfiNCE

Braise the dame in white wine in accordance with the? directions given in No. 780.

Garnish. - Surround the darne by spoon-moulded quenelles of whiting forcemeat prepared with crayfish butter, oysters cleared of their beards and poached, small, very white mushrooms, and poached slices of milt.

Normande sauce finished with truffle essence,

795- DARNE DE SAUMON A ROYALE

Braise the darne in Sauterne wine.

Garnish. - Bunches of crayfishes' tails, small quenelles of mousseline forcemeat for fish, small mushrooms, slices of truffle, and little balls of potato raised by means of the large, round spoon-cutter, and cooked a I'anglaise.

Send a Normande sauce separately.

796- DARNE DE SAUMON A VALOIS

Poach the darne in a white wine court-bouillon.

Garnish. - Potato balls raised with the spoon-cutter or turned to the shape of olives, and cooked in salted water, poached slices of milt, and trussed crayfish cooked in court-bouillon.

Send a Valois sauce separately.

797- MOUSSELINE DE SAUMON

In Part I. I dealt with the preparation of mousseline forcemeat (No. 195), and also the method of poaching spoon-moulded quenelles (No. 205). Now mousselines are only large quenelles which derive their name from the very light forcemeat of which they are composed. These mousseline quenelles are always moulded with the ordinary tablespoon, they are garnished on top with a fine, raw slice of the fish under treatment, and poached after the manner already described.

798- MOUSSELINE ALEXANDRA

Having made the salmon mousseline forcemeat, mould tha quenelles and place them, one by one, in a buttered saut^pan. Place a small, round and very thin slice of salmon on each, and poach them in a very moderate oven with lid on the utensil containing them.

Drain on a piece of linen, arrange them in a circle on a dish, place a slice of truffle upon each slice of salmon, coat with Mornay sauce, and glaze.

Garnish the centre of the dish with very small peas or asparagus-heads cohered with butter just before dishing up.

FISH 273

799- MOUSSELINE DE SAUMON A LA TOSCA

Combine one and one-half oz. of crayfish cream-cullis with each pound of the salmon mousseline forcemeat. Mould and poach as above, drain, and arrange in a circle on a dish.

Garnish each mousseline with a thin slice of milt cooked in lightly-browned butter, four crayfish tails cut lengthwise into two, and a slice of truffle at each end. Coat with a light Mornay sauce, finished with crayfish butter, and glaze quickly.

N.B. - In addition to these two recipes, all the garnishes suitable for fillets of sole may be applied to mousselines. Garnishes of early-season vegetable purees also suit them admirably, and therein lies an almost inexhaustible source of variety.

800-COLD SALMON

When salmon is to be served cold it should, as far as possible, be cooked, either whole or in large pieces, in the courtbouillon given under No. 163 and cooled in the latter. Pieces cooked separately may seem better or may be more easily made to look sightly, but their meat is drier than that of the salmon cooked whole. And what is lost in appearance with the very large pieces is more than compensated for by their extra quality.

In dishing cold salmon the skin may be removed and the fillets bared, so that the fish may be more easily decorated, but the real gourmet will always prefer the salmon served in its natural silver vestment.

In decorating cold salmon use pieces of cucumber, anchovy fillets, capers, slices of tomato, curled-leaf parsley, &c.

I am not partial to the decorating of salmon with softened butter, coloured or not, laid on by means of the piping-bag. Apart from the fact that this method of decoration is rarely artistic, the butter used combines badly with the cold sauces and the meat of the salmon on the diner's plate. Very green tarragon leaves, chervil, lobster coral, &c., afford a more natural and more delicate means of ornamentation. The only butter fit to be served with cold salmon is Montpellier butter (No. 153), though this, in fact, is but a cold sauce often resorted to for the coating of the cold fish in question.

Among the garnishes which suit cold salmon, I might mention small peeled, and emptied tomatoes garnished with some kind of salad; hard-boiled eggs, either wholly stuffed, or stuffed in halves or in quarters, barquettes, tartlets and cassolettes made from cucumber or beetroot, parboiled until almost completely cooked and garnished with a pur^e of tunny, of sar T dines, of anchovies, &c.; small aspics of shrimps or of crayfishes' tails; small slices of lobster, &c.

Almost all the cold sauces may accompany cold salmon.

8oi- SAUMON FROID, OU DARNE DE SAUMON FROID A LA ROYALE

Having drained and dried the salmon or the darne, remove the skin from one of its sides, and coat the bared fillets with a layer of a preparation of mousse de saumon, letting it lie rather more thickly over the middle than the sides. Coat the layer of mousse with mayonnaise sauce thickened by means of fish jelly, and leave to set.

Now let some clear fish jelly set on the bottom of the dish to be sent to the table; place the salmon or the darne on this jelly, and surround the piece with a border consisting of Montpellier butter, using for the purpose a piping-bag fitted with a grooved pipe.

Decorate the centre of the piece by means of a fine fleur-delys made from trufHes, and encircle it with two royale crowns made from anchovy fillets.

802- SAUMON FROID OU DARNE DE SAUMON A LA PARISIENNE

Remove the skin in suchwise as to leave the bared portion in the shape of a regular rectangle, equidistant from the tail and the head; or, in the case of a darne, occupying two-thirds of its surface.

Cover the bared portion with mayonnaise sauce thickened with fish jelly and leave it to set.

Now stand the piece on a small cushion of rice or semolina, shaping the latter like the piece itself; trim the sauced rectangle with a border of Montpellier butter, laid on by means of a piping-bag fitted with a small grooved pipe. Garnish the centre of the rectangle with pieces of lobster coral, the chopped, hardboiled white and yolk of an egg, chervil leaves, &c.

Encircle the piece with a border of small artichoke-bottoms, garnished, in the form of a dome, with a small macedoine of vegetables cohered with cleared mayonnaise.

Send a mayonnaise sauce to the table separatel}'^.

803- SAUMON FROID OU DARNE DE SAUMON FROID A LA RIGA

Prepare a salmon or a darne as in the preceding recipe, and dish it on a cushion in order that it may be slightly raised.

FISH 275

Surround it with grooved sections of cucumber hollowed to represent small timbales, well parboiled, marinaded with a fewdrops of oil and lemon-juice and filled with a vegetable salad thickened with mayonnaise; indented, halved eggs filled with caviare; and tartlets of vegetable salad cohered with mayonnaise, and garnished, each with a crayfish-shell stuffed with crayfish mousse; alternate these various garnishes, and encircle with a border of jelly dice.

804- SAUMON FROID, OU DARNE DE SAUMON FROID

EN BELLE-VUE

Skin the salmon or the darne, set the piece upright upon the belly side, and decorate the fillets with pieces of truffles, poached white of egg, chervil leaves, and tarragon, &c.

Coat the garnish with a little melted fish aspic so as to fix it.

This done, sprinkle the piece, again and again, with the same melted aspic jelly in order to cover it with a kind of transparent veil.

Place the piece thus prepared in a crystal receptacle similarly shaped to the fish, and fill the former to the brim with very clear, melted jelly.

When dishing up, incrust the receptable containing the fish in a block of clean ice which, in its turn, is laid on the dish to be sent to the table. Another way is to place the crystal utensil direct upon the dish and to surround the former with broken ice.

80s- SAUMON FROID, OU DARNE DE SAUMON FROID

AU CHAMBERTIN

Poach the salmon or the darne in a court-bouillon consisting of very clear fish fumet and Chambertin wine, in equal quantities, and leave to cool. Prepare an aspic jelly from the court-bouillon.

Skin and decorate the salmon or the darne and glaze it with white aspic jelly, exactly as directed above, in the case of the Belle- vue.

Dish in the same way, in a crystal receptacle, and fill the latter with the prepared aspic jelly. Serve on a block of ice, or with broken ice around the utensil.

806-SAUMON FROID, OU DARNE DE SAUMON FROID

A LA NORVEQIENNE

Skin and decorate the salmon or the darne, and glaze it with white aspic jelly precisely as in No. 804.

Let a coating of very clear jelly set on the bottom of the

T 2 dish to be sent to the table. Upon this aspic jelly lay a cushion the same shape as the fish, of semolina, or of carved rice.

Set the piece (salmon or darne), decorated and glazed, upon this cushion, and lay thereon a row of fine prawns, cleared of their abdominal shell.

Surround with a garnish of small cucumber timbales, well parboiled, marinaded, and garnished dome-fashion, with a pur^e of smoked salmon; halved, hard-boiled eggs, glazed with aspic; very small tomatoes, or halved medium-sized ones, peeled, pressed in the corner of a towel to return them to their original shape, stuck with a bit of parsley-stalk, and decorated with leaves of green butter moulded by means of the pipingbag; and small barquettes of cooked and marinaded beetroot, garnished with shrimps' tails cohered with mayonnaise.

Send a Russe sauce separately.

807- COTELETTES FROIDES DE SAUMON

Liberally butter some tin cutlet-shaped moulds. Line their bottoms and sides with a very red slice of salmon, as thin as a piece of cardboard. This slice should be long enough to project outside the brim of the mould to the extent of one-half inch.

Garnish the insides of the moulds with well-seasoned salmon meat, and draw the projecting lengths of salmon across this meat so as to enclose the latter and finish off the cutlets.

Arrange the moulds on a baking-tray; poach the cutlets, dry, in a moderate oven; turn them out of their moulds on to another tray as soon as they are poached, and let them cool. Then coat them with a half-melted aspic, and decorate them according to fancy, either with very green peas or a leaf of chervil with a bit of lobster coral in its centre - in a word, something simple and neat.

These cutlets, which are generally served at ball-suppers, may be dished on a tazza, on a cushion of rice, semolina, cornflour, or stearine, and laid almost vertically against a pyramid of vegetable salad cohered by means of mayonnaise with aspic. In this case the dish is finished ofif with a hatelet stuck into the middle of the pyramid.

The cutlets may also be arranged in a circle on a flat, shallow, silver or crystal dish, and covered with a delicate cold melted jelly.

Whatever be the selected method of dishing, always send to the table with the cutlet a sauceboat of cold sauce. 808- M^DAILLONS DE SAUMON

These medallions have the same purpose as the cutlets already described, and are prepared thus: -

FISH 277

Cut some small slices, one-third inch thick, from a fillet of salmon.

Arrange them on a buttered tray; poach them, dry, in a moderate oven, and cool them under a light weight.

Now trim them neatly, with an even cutter, oval or round, in accordance with the shape they are intended to have.

Coat them, according to their purpose, either with mayonnaise sauce or one of its derivatives, thickened with jelly, or a white, pink, or green chaud-froid sauce. Decorate it in any way that may be fancied, and glaze them with cold melted aspic jelly.

Dish after the manner described under " Cotelettes " (see

above).

809- MAYONNAISE DE SAUMON

Garnish the bottom of a salad-bowl with moderately seasoned, ciseled lettuce. Cover with cold, cooked and flaked salmon, thoroughly cleared of all skin and bones.

Coat with mayonnaise sauce, and decorate with anchovy fillets, capers, stoned olives, small slices or roundels or quarters of hard-boiled eggs, small hearts of lettuce, a border of little roundels of radish, &c.

810- SALADE DE SAUMON

This preparation comprises the same ingredients as the above, with the exception of the mayonnaise sauce. The decorating garnish is placed directly upon the salmon, and the whole is seasoned in precisely the same way as an ordinary salad.

TROUT.

From the culinary standpoint, trout are divided into two quite distinct classes, viz., large trout, whereof the typical specimen is Salmon-trout, and small or fresh-water trout.

811- TRUITE SAUMONEE (Salmon Trout)

In its many preparations, salmon-trout may be replaced by salmon, and all the recipes relating to the former may be adapted to the latter.

In any case, however, as its size is less than that of salmon, it is very rarely cut into darnes, being more generally served whole.

The few recipes that follow are proper to salmon-trout.

812- TRUITE A LA CAMBAC^RES

Select a male trout in preference; clean it, and remove its gills without opening it in th? region of the belly. Skin it on one side, starting at a distance of one inch from the head and finishing within two and one-half inches of the root of the tail.

Lard the bared portions with trufHes and the red part only of carrots cut into rods.

This done, spread out a napkin, lay the trout thereon, belly under, and, with a sharp knife, separate the two fillets from the bones, beginning in the region of the head and proceeding straight down to where the body converges towards the tail.

The spine being thus liberated, sever it at both ends; i.e., from the tail and the head, and withdraw it, together with all the adhering ventral bones. The intestines are then removed, the inside of the fish is well cleaned, the fillets are seasoned on their insides, and the trout is stuffed with a mousseline forcemeat of raw crayfish. The two fillets are drawn together, and the trout, thus reconstructed, is covered with thin slices of bacon and laid on the drainer of the fish-kettle and braised in Sauterne wine.

When the fish is done, remove the slices of bacon, glaze it, and dish it up. Surround it with alternate heaps of morels tossed in butter and milt k la Meuni^re.

Send to the table, separately, a fine Bechamel sauce, combined with the braising-liquor of the trout, strained and reduced, and finished with crayfish butter.

813- TRUITES SAUMONEES FROIDES

We are now concerned with a whole series of unpublished " Trout " preparations, which are at once of superfine delicacy and agreeable aspect, and which admit of clean and easy dishing.

Cook a trout weighing from two to three lbs. in courtbouillon, and let it cool in the latter. Then drain it; sever the head and tail from the body, and put them aside. Completely skin the whole fish, and carefully separate the two fillets from the bones.

Deck each fillet with tarragon and chervil leaves, lobster coral, poached white of eggs, &c., and set them, back to back, upon a mousse of tomatoes lying in a special, long white or coloured porcelain dish about one and one-half to two inches deep.

Replace the head and tail, and cover the whole with a coating of half-melted, succulent fish aspic, somewhat clear. Let the aspic set, and incrust the dish containing the trout in a block of ice, or surround it with the latter broken.

FISH 279

814- PREPARATION DE LA MOUSSE DE TOM AXES

This mousse, like those which I shall give later, is really a bavarois without sugar. Its recipe is exactly the same as that of the " bavarois of fruit," except with regard to the question of sugar.

Cook one-half lb. of tomato pulp (cleared of skin and seeds, and roughly chopped) in one oz. of butter. When the pulp has thoroughly mingled with the butter, add thereto two tablespoonfuls of velout^ thickened by means of eight leaves of gelatine per quart of the sauce.

Rub through tammy, and add to the preparation, when almost cold, half of its volume of barely-whipped cream. Taste the mousse; season with a few drops of lemon juice, and if it still seems flat, add the necessary salt and a very little cayenne.

N.B. - It will be seen that I prescribe cream only halfwhipped. This precaution, however, does not apply to "Mousse de Tomates " alone, but to all mousses. Wellwhipped cream imparts a dry and woolly taste to them, whereas, when it is only half-whipped, it renders them unctuous and fresh to the palate.

From the point of view of delicacy, the respective results of the two methods do not bear comparison.

815- OTHER PREPARATIONS OF TROUT after the same recipe

By proceeding exactly as directed in the foregoing recipe, and by substituting one of the following m,ousses for the "Mousse de Tomates," it will be found that considerable variety may be introduced into menus: -

1. Crayfish Mousse with fillets of trout, decked with crayfish tails and tarragon leaves.

2. Lobster Mousse with fillets of trout, decked with slices of lobster, coral, and chervil.

3. Shrimp Mousse with fillets of trout, decked with crayfish tails and capers.

4. Capsicum Mousse with fillets of trout, decked with strips of grilled capsicum.

5. Physalia Mousse with fillets of trout, decked with chervil, tarragon, and bunches of physalia around the fillets.

6. Green Pimentos Mousse with fillets of trout, decked with strips of green pimentos.

7. Early-season Herb Mousse with fillets of trout, decked with chopped, hard-boiled eggs, and chopped parsley.

8. Volnay Mousse with fillets of trout, decked with anchovy fillets, capers, and olives. 9. Chambertin Mousse with fillets of trout decked like No. 8.

N.B. - In the making of "Mousse au Vol nay " and " au Chambertin " the base of the preparations is supplied by cleared velout6, to which is added the reduced cooking-liquor of the trout.

All these recipes are equally suitable for sole or chickenturbot.

815a- ONDINES AUX CREVETTES ROSES

Prepare a very delicate trout mousse, mould it in egg-moulds, and garnish the centre with trimmed prawns' tails. Let the mousse set; then speedily turn the undines out of their moulds, and lay them in a deep entree-dish. Between each of them lay a few prawns, the tails of which should be shelled. Cover the whole, little by little, with some excellent, half-melted jelly; here and there add a few sprigs of chervil, and then fill up the dish with jelly, so as to completely cover the mousses.

816- FRESH-WATER TROUT

The best are those procured in mountainous districts, where the clear water they inhabit is constantly refreshed by strong currents.

The two leading methods of preparing them are called, respectively, " Au bleu " and " k la Meuni^re." Having already described the latter, I shall now give my attention to " Truite au bleu."

This preparation is held in very high esteem in Switzerland and Germany, where fresh-water trout are not only plentiful, but of excellent quality.

817- TRUITES AU BLEU

The essential condition for this dish consists in having live trout. Prepare a court-bouillon with plenty of vinegar (No. 163), and keep it boiling in a rather shallow basin.

About ten minutes before dishing them, take the trout out of water; stun them by a blow on the head; empty and clean them very quickly, and plunge them into the boiling liquid, where they will immediately shrivel, while their skin will break in all directions.

A few minutes will suffice to cook trout the average weight of which is one-third lb.

Drain them and dish them immediately upon a napkin, with curled-leaf parsley all round. Serve them with a HoUandaise sauce or melted butter.

FISH 281

N.B. - Fresh-water trout may also be served fried or grilled, but neither of these methods of preparation suits them so well as " ^ la Meuni^re " or " au bleu," which I have given.

SOLES.

Sole may be served whole or filleted, and a large number of the recipes given for the whole fish may be adapted to its fillets.

As a rule, the fillets are made to appear on the menu of a dinner owing to the fact that they dish more elegantly and are more easily served than the whole fish, the latter being generally served at luncheons.

Nevertheless, in cases where great ceremony is not observed at a dinner, soles may well be served whole, inasmuch as no hard-and-fast rule has ever obtained in this matter.

818- SOLE ALICE

This sole is prepared, or rather its preparation is completed, at tlie table.

Have an excellent fish fumet (No. 11), short and very white. Trim the sole; put it into a special, deep earthenware dish, the bottom of which should be buttered; pour the fumet over it and poach gently.

Now send it to the table with a plate containing separate heaps of one finely-chopped onion, a little powdered thyme, and three finely-crushed biscottes.

In the dining-room the waiter places the dish on a chafer, and, taking off the sole, he raises the fillets therefrom, and places them between two hot plates. He then adds to the cooking-liquor of the sole the chopped onion, which he leaves to cook for a few moments, the powdered thyme and a sufficient quantity of the biscotte raspings to allow of thickening the whole.

At the last minute he adds six raw oysters and one oz. of butter divided into small pieces.

As soon as the oysters are stiff, he returns the fillets of sole to the dish, besprinkles them copiously with the sauce, and then serves them very hot.

N.B. - In order to promote the poaching of the soles, more particularly when they are large, the fillets on the upper side of the fish should be slightly separated from the bones. By this means the heat is able to reach the inside of the fish very quickly, and the operation is accelerated. The sole is always laid on the dish with its opened side undermost - that is to say, on its back.

8 1 9- SOLE MORN AY

Lay the sole on a buttered dish; sprinkle a little fish fumet over it, and add one-half oz. of butter divided into small pieces. Poach gently.

Coat the bottom of the dish on which the sole is to be served with Mornay sauce; drain the fish, lay it on the prepared dish; cover it with the same sauce; sprinkle with grated Gruy^re and Parmesan, and glaze at a Salamander.

820- SOLE MORNAY DES PROVEN9AUX

This sole, which used to be served at the famous restaurant of the " Fr^res Proven9aux," was prepared, and always may be prepared, as follows: -

Poach the sole in fish fumet and butter, as directed in the preceding recipe; drain it, and place it on a dish; cover it with white-wine sauce; sprinkle liberally with grated cheese, and glaze quickly.

831- SOLE AU CHAMPAGNE

Poach the sole in a buttered dish with one-half pint of champagne. Dish it; reduce its cooking-liquor to half; add thereto one-sixth pint of veloutd, and complete with one and one-half oz. of best butter.

Cover the sole with this sauce; glaze, and garnish each side of the dish with a little heap of a julienne of filleted sole, seasoned, dredged, and tossed in clarified butter at the last moment in order to have it very crisp.

N.B. - By substituting a good white wine for the champagne, a variety of dishes may be made, among which may be mentioned: Sofes au Chablis, Soles au Sauterne, Sole au Samos, Sole au Chateau Yquem, &c., &c.

822- SOLE COLBERT

On the upper side of the fish separate the fillets from the spine, and break the latter in several places. Dip the sole in milk; roll it in flour; treat it a I'anglaise, and roll the separated fillets back a little, so that they may be quite free from the bones.

Fry; drain on a piece of linen; remove the bones, and fill the resulting space with butter a la Maitre d'H&tel.

Serve the sole on a very hot dish.

FISH 283

823- SOLE A LA DAUMONT

Bone the sole; i.e., sever the spine near the tail and the head; remove it, and leave those portions of the fillets which He on the remaining extremities of it intact. Garnish the inside with whiting forcemeat finished with crayfish butter, and rearrange the fillets in such wise as to give a natural and untouched appearance to the fish. Poach it on a buttered dish with one-sixth pint of white wine, the same quantity of the cooking-liquor of mushrooms, and one oz. of butter cut into small lumps.

Drain and dish the sole, and cover it with Nantua sauce. Place around it four mushrooms stewed in butter and garnished with crayfish tails in Nantua sauce; four small, round quenelles of whiting forcemeat with cream, decked with truflBes; and four slices of milt treated d I'anglaise and fried at the last moment.

824- SOLE DOREE

As I explained under " Fish k la Meuni^re " (No. 778), " Sole Dor^e " is a sole fried in clarified butter, dished dry, and garnished with slices of carefully peeled lemon.

825- SOLE DUQL^RE

All fish treated after this recipe, with the exception of soles, should be divided up.

Put the sole in a buttered dish with one and one-half oz. of chopped onion, one-half lb. of peeled and concussed tomatoes, a little roughly-chopped parsley, a pinch of table salt, a very little pepper, and one-eighth pint of white wine. Set to poach gently, and then dish the sole.

Reduce the cooking-liquor; thicken it with two tablespoonfuls of fish velout^; complete with one oz. of butter and a few drops of lemon juice, and cover the fish with this sauce.

826- SOLE GRILLEE

Season the sole; sprinkle oil thereon, and grill the fish very gently. Send it, garnished with slices of lemon, on a very hot dish.

827- SOLE QRILLEE, AUX HUITRES A L'AM^RICAINE

This sole may be either grilled or poached, almost dry, in butter and lemon juice. With the procedure remaining the same, it may also be prepared in fillets. Whatever be the mode of procedure, serve it on a very hot dish, and surround it at the last moment with six oysters poached in a little boiling Worcestershire sauce.

Cover the sole immediately with very hot fried bread-crumbs, and add thereto a pinch of chopped parsley.

828- SOLE A LA FERMlfeRE

Put the sole, seasoned, on a buttered dish with a few aromatics. Add one-third pint of excellent red wine, and poach gently with lid on.

Dish up; strain the cooking-liquor, and reduce it to half; thicken it with a lump of manied butter the size of a hazel-nut, and finish the sauce with one oz. of butter.

Encircle the sole with a border of mushrooms sliced raw and tossed in butter. Pour the prepared sauce over the sole, and set to glaze quickly.

829- SOLE A LA HOLLANDAISE

Break the spine of the sole by folding it over in several places. Put the fish in a deep dish; cover it with slightly salted water; set to boil, and then poach gently for ten minutes with lid on.

Drain and dish on a napkin with very green parsley all round. Serve at the same time some plainly boiled potatoes, freshly done, and two oz. of melted butter.

830- SOLE SAINT-QERMAIN

Season the sole; dip it in melted butter, and cover it with fresh bread-crumbs, taking care to pat the latter with the flat of a knife, in order that they may combine with the butter to form a kind of crust. Sprinkle with some more melted butter, and grill the fish gently so that its coating of bread-crumbs may acquire a nice golden colour. Dish the sole, and surround it with potatoes turned to the shape of olives, and cooked in butter.

Send a Bearnaise sauce to the table separately.

831- SOLE FLORENTINE

Poach the sole in a fish fumet and butter. Spread a layer of shredded spinach, stewed in butter, on the bottom of a dish; place the sole thereon; cover it with Mornay sauce; sprinkle with a little grated cheese, and set to glaze quickly in the oven or at a salamander.

833- SOLE MONTREUIL

Poach the sole in one-sixth pint of fish fumet, one-sixth pint of white wine, and one-half oz. of butter.

FISH 285

Drain as Soon as poached, and surround with potato-balls the size of walnuts, cooked in salted water, and kept whole. Cover the sole with white-wine sauce, and lay a thread of shrimp sauce over the garnish.

833- SOLE AU GRATIN

Partly separate the fillets from the bones on the upper side of the fish, and slip a lump of butter, the size of a walnut, under each.

This done, place the sole on a well-buttered gratin dish, on the bottom of which a pinch of chopped shallots and parsley has been sprinkled, together with one or two tablespoonfuls of Gratin sauce.

Lay four cooked mushrooms along the sole, and surround it with one oz. of raw mushrooms, cut into rather thin slices.

Add two tablespoonfuls of white wine; cover the sole with Gratin sauce; sprinkle with fine raspings followed by melted butter, and set the gratin to form in pursuance of the directions given under complete Gratin (No. 269).

When taking the sole from the oven, sprinkle a few drops of lemon juice and a pinch of chopped parsley upon it, and serve at once.

834- SOLE AU CHAMBERTIN

Season the sole and poach it on a buttered dish with onethird pint of Chambertin wine.

As soon as it is poached, drain it, dish it, and keep it hot. Reduce the cooking-liquor to half, add thereto a little freshlyground pepper and two or three drops of lemon-juice, thicken with a lump of manied butter the size of a walnut, and finish the sauce with one and one-half oz. of butter.

Cover the sole with the sauce, set to glaze quickly, and garnish both sides of the dish with a little heap of julienne of filleted sole, seasoned, dredged, and tossed in clarified butter at the last moment so that it may be very crisp.

835- Remarks concerning "SOLES AUX GRANDS VINS "

Taking recipe No. 834 as a model, and putting into requisition all the good wines of Burgundy and Bordeaux, the following varieties are obtained, viz.: - Soles au Volnay, au Pommard, au Romanee, au Clos-Vougeot, or soles au SaintEstfephe, au Chateau-Larose, au Saint-Emilion, &c., &c.

836- SOLE MONTGOLFIER

Poach the sole in one-sixth pint of white wine and as much of the cooking-liquor of mushrooms. Drain, dish, and cover it with a white wine sauce combined with the reduced cookingliquor of the sole and one tablespoonful of a fine pilienne of spiny lobster's tail, mushrooms, and very black truffles. Surround the sole with a border of little palmettes made from pufTpaste and cooked without colouration.

837- SOLE SUR LE PLAT

Partly separate the fillets from the bones on the upper side of the fish, and slip a piece of butter the size of a walnut under each.

Lay the sole on a liberally buttered dish, moisten with onefifth pint of the cooking-liquor of fish, and add a few drops of lemon-juice.

Cook in the oven, basting often the while, until the cookingliquor has by reduction acquired the consistence of a syrup and covers the sole with a translucent and glossy coat.

N.B. - By substituting for the mushroom cooking-liquor a good white or red wine, to which a little melted pale meat-glaze has been added, the following series of dishes may be prepared, viz.: - Sole sur le plat au Chambertin. Sole sur le plat au vin rouge, Sole sur le plat au Champagne. Sole sur le plat au Chablis, &c., &c.

838- SOLE REQENCE

Poach the sole in a little white wine and two-thirds oz. of butter cut into small pieces.

Drain the sole, dish it, and surround it with six quenelles of whiting forcemeat finished with crayfish butter, moulded by means of a small spoon; four poached oysters (cleared of their beards); four small cooked and very white mushrooms; four small truffles, turned to the shape of olives; and four small poached slices of milt. Cover the sole and the garnish with a Normande sauce finished with a little truffle essence.

839- SOLE PORTUQAISE

Poach the sole in white wine and the cooking-liquor of fish. Drain, dish, and surround with a garnish consisting of two medium-sized tomatoes, peeled, pressed, minced, cooked in butter, and combined with minced and cooked mushrooms, and a large pinch of chopped chives.

Coat the sole with white wine sauce, plentifully buttered, and take care that none of the sauce touches the garnish.

Set to glaze quickly, sprinkle the garnish with a pinch of chopped parsley when taking the sole from the oven, and serve immediately.

FISH 287

840- SOLE CUBAT

Poach the sole in one-fifth pint of the cboking-hquor of mushrooms and one-half oz. of butter cut into small pieces.

Coat the bottom of the dish intended for the sole with a pur^e of mushrooms, place the drained sole on this pur^e, lay six fine slices of truffle along the fish, coat with Mornay sauce, sprinkle with cheese, and glaze quickly.

841- SOLE AUX HUtTRES

Open and poach six oysters. Poach the sole in the liquor of the oysters, drain it, dish it, and surround it with the oysters (cleared of their beards).

Coat with a white wine sauce combined with the reduced cooking-liquor of the sole, and glaze quickly.

842- SOLE A LA MEUNIBRE

Proceed for this dish as directed under " Fish k la Meuni^re" (No. 778).

843- SOLE MEUNIERE AUX CONCOMBRES,

otherwise DORIA

Prepare a sole k la Meuni^re. Garnish it at both ends with little heaps of cucumber, turned and cooked in butter with a little salt and a pinch of sugar.

844- SOLE MEUNIERE AUX AUBERGINES

Prepare a sole k la Meuni^re in the usual way. Surround it with a fine border of egg-plant rundles one-third inch thick, seasoned, dredged, and fried in clarified butter, just in time to be arranged round the sole when it is ready. The question of time is important, for if the fried rundles be allowed to wait at all they very quickly lose their crispness.

845- SOLE MEUNIBRE AUX CfiPES

Prepare the sole k la Meuni^re in the usual way and surround it with a border of sliced cepes frizzled in butter just before dishing up.

846- SOLE MEUNI6RE AUX MORILLES

Surround the sole with very fresh morels cooked in salted water and then tossed in butter just before dishing up. Sprinkle a pinch of chopped parsley over the morels. 847- SOLE MEUNIBRE AUX RAISINS

The sole being ready, encircle it with fresh skinned Muscadel grapes prepared in advance.

848-SOLE MEUNIERE A L'ORANQE

When the sole is cooked and dished, lay thereon a row of orange slices, peeled to the pulp and thoroughly pipped, or some sections of oranges, likewise peeled to the pulp and carefully pipped. This done, cover the sole and the garnish with lightly-browned butter and serve instantly.

849- SOLE LUTECE

Line the bottom of the dish intended for the sole with a coating of shredded spinach tossed in lightly-browned butter. Place the sole, prepared k la Meuni^re, upon this spinach; lay a few rundles of onion and slices of artichoke-bottom tossed in butter upon the fish; and on either side of the sole lay a border of potato-slices, freshly cooked in salted water and well browned in butter.

At the last moment cover the whole with lightly-browned butter.

850- SOLE MURAT

Toss in butter, separately (i) one medium-sized potato cut into dice; (2) two small raw artichoke-bottoms, likewise cut into dice. Prepare the sole k la Meuni^re, dish it, and surround it with the tossed potato and artichoke-bottom, mixed when cooked. Lay on the sole five slices of tomato, one-half inch thick, seasoned, dredged, and tossed in very hot oil; sprinkle a few drops of pale melted meat-glaze, a little lemon-juice, and a pinch of concussed parsley over the sole, and cover the whole with slightly-browned butter. Serve instantly.

851- SOLE A LA PROVEN9ALE

Poach the sole in one-sixth pint of fish fumet, two tablespoonfuls of oil and a piece, the size of a pea, of garlic, well crushed. Drain and dish the sole. Coat it with Provengale sauce combined with the reduced cooking-liquor, and sprinkle a little concussed parsley over it.

Surround the sole with four little tomatoes and four medium-sized mushrooms stuffed with duxelles flavoured with a mite of garlic; these latter should be put in the oven just in time for them to be ready at the dishing up of the fish.

FISH 289

852- SOLE ARLESIENNE

Poach the sole in a little fish fumet. Dish it, reduce the fumet, and add thereto the following garnish: - Cook a little chopped onion in butter, add two medium-sized, peeled, emptied, and concussed tomatoes, a bit of garlic, and some concassed parsley. Cook with lid on, add the reduced fumet and twelve pieces of vegetable-marrow, turned to the shape of olives and cooked in butter.

Cover the sole with this garnish and set a little heap of fried onion at each end of the dish.

853- SOLE A LA ROYALE

Poach the sole in a few tablespoonfuls of fish fumet and twothirds oz. of butter cut into small lumps. Dish the sole and set upon it four small cooked mushrooms, four small quenelles of fish forcemeat, four crayfishes' tails, and four slices of trufHe.

Surround the sole with potato-balls, raised by means of the round spoon-cutter and cooked a I'anglaise, and coat the sole and garnish with Normande sauce.

854- SOLE A LA RUSSE

Prepare twelve grooved and very thin roundels of carrots, cut a small onion into fine slices. Put these vegetables into and cut a small onion into fine slices. Put these vegetables into one-seventh pint of white wine, and one-third pint of fish fum,et. Cook and, in the process, reduce the moistening by half, and pour this preparation into a deep dish.

Partly separate the fillets from the bones on the upper side of the sole, slip a piece of bvitter, the size of a walnut, under each fillet, and put the fish into a deep dish containing the preparation. Poach and baste frequently the while.

As soon as it is poached, dish the sole, also the vegetables used in cooking, and keep the whole hot.

Reduce the cooking-liquor to one-eighth pint, add a few drops of lemon juice, and finish it away from the fire with one and one-half oz. of butter. Coat the sole and the garnish with this sauce.

855- SOLE RICHELIEU

Prepare the sole exactly as directed under " Sole k la Colbert " (No. 822). When it is fried, remove the bones and dish it. Garnish the inside with butter k la maitre-d'h6tel, and lay thereon a row of sliced truffles.

U 856- SOLE NORMANDE

Poach the sole on a buttered dish with one-sixth pint of fish fumet, and the same quantity of the cooking-liquor of mushrooms. Drain and dish the sole, and surround it with mussels, poached oysters (cleared of their beards), shrimps' tails, and small cooked mushrooms. Put the sole in the oven for a few minutes, tilt the dish in order to get rid of all liquid, and coat the sole and the garnish with Normande sauce. Make a little garland of pale meat-glaze on the sauce, and finish the garnish with the following articles: - Six fine slices of truffle set in a row upon the sole; six small crusts in the shape of lozenges, fried in clarified butter and arranged round the truffles; four gudgeons treated a I'anglaise and fried at the last moment; and four medium-sized trussed crayfish cooked in court-bouillon.

Set the gudgeons and the crayfish round the dish.

857- SOLE MARQUERY

Poach the sole in white wine and fish fumet in the proportions already given.

Drain and dish the sole, and surround it with a border of mussels and shrimps' tails. Coat the sole and the garnish with white wine sauce, well finished with butter, and set to glaze quickly.

858- SOLE MARINI6RE

Liberally butter a dish, sprinkle a coffeespoonful of chopped shallots on the bottom, lay the sole thereon, and poach the latter with one-sixth pint of white wine and the same quantity of the very clear cooking-liquor of mussels. Drain and dish the sole, surround it with mussels (cleared of their beards), and keep it hot.

Reduce the cooking-liquor to half; thicken with a tablespoonful of velout^, and the yolks of two eggs, and finish it, away from the fire, with two and one-half oz. of butter and a pinch of chopped parsley.

Tilt the dish so as to rid it of the liquid accumulated on the bottom, coat the sole and the garnish with the prepared sauce, and glaze quickly.

859- SOLE AU VIN BLANC

Partly separate the fillets from the bones on the upper side of the sole, and slip a piece of butter, as large as a walnut, under each fillet. Lay the sole in a dish, the bottom of which

FISH 291

should be buttered and garnished with a small onion, chopped. Moisten with one-quarter pint of ordinary white wine, as much fish fumet, and a few tablespoonfuls of the cooking-liquor of mushrooms. Poach gently with lid on.

Drain and dish the sole, and coat it with a white wine sauce, prepared in accordance with one of the methods given in the chapter on Sauces (No. in). Glaze quickly, or serve without glazing.

N.B. - " Sole au Vin Blanc " may be prepared after the above recipe, but ordinary white wine may be replaced by one of the Rhine wines or Moselle, by some Johannisberg, or by a good white Burgundy or Bordeaux wine, such as ChablisMoutonne, Savigny, Montrachet, Barsac, Sauternes, and even Chateau-Yquem or Ch^teau-Latour.

In any of these cases the name of the wine may be mentioned, and on the menu may be written Sole au Barsac, Sole au Chateau-Yquem, &c.

860- SOLE DIEPPOISE

Poach the sole with one-sixth pint of fish fumet and a few tablespoonfuls of the cooking-liquor of mussels.

Drain and dish the sole, surround it with poached mussels (shelled and cleared of their beards) and shrimps' tails, and coat the fish and the garnish with a white wine sauce combined with the reduced cooking-liquor.

861- SOLE DIPLOMATE

Poach the sole in very clear fish fumet. Drain it, dish it, and coat it with Diplomate sauce. Set upon it a row of six fine slices of black truffle; these should have been previously glazed with pale meat-glaze.

862- SOLE BONNE FEMME

Butter the bottom of the dish intended for the sole, and besprinkle it with two chopped shallots, one pinch of parsley, and one and one-half oz. of raw minced mushrooms. Lay the sole upon this garnish, moisten with one-quarter pint of white wine and as much fish fumet, and poach gently, taking care to baste from time to time.

When the sole is poached, drain off the cooking-liquor into a vegetable-pan, and reduce it quickly to half; effect the leason with two tablespoonfuls of fish velout^, and finish the sauce with two oz. of butter. Coat the sole with this sauce and set it to glaze in a fierce oven or at a salamander.

U 2 863- SOLE PARISIENNE

Poach the sole in white wine, the cooking-liquor of mushrooms, and some butter. Drain it thoroughly, dish it, and coat it with white wine sauce combined with the reduced cooking-liquor of the sole. Garnish with a row of six slices of truffle and six fine roundels of cooked mushrooms kept very white, and finish with four medium-sized trussed crayfish.

864- SOLE NANTUA

Poach the sole in one-sixth pint of fish fumet and a few tablespoonfuls of the cooking-liquor of mushrooms.

Drain and dish the sole, surround it with twelve shelled crayfishes' tails, and coat it with Nantua sauce.

Lay a row of very black truffle slices along the middle of the fish.

FILLETS OF SOLE

Subject to the kind of dish required, fillets of sole are either kept in their natural state, they are stuffed and folded over, or they are simply folded over without being stuffed, each of which methods of preparation will be specially referred to in the recipes.

Whatever be the method adopted, always skin the fillets thoroughly; i.e., remove the thin membrane which lies beneath the skin, the tendency of which, during the cooking process, is to shrink and thereby disfigure the fillet.

This done, flatten out the fillets with the broad side of a wet knife, and trim them slightly if necessary. The poaching of fillets of sole must be effected without allowing the cookingliquor to boil, the object being to prevent the pieces losing their shape. Fillets should also be kept very white.

In cases where the exact amount of the poaching-liquor is not given, allow one-quarter pint to every four fillets, i.e., to every sole.

865- FILETS DE SOLES AM^RICAINE

Arrange the folded fillets in a deep, buttered dish, and poach them in fish fumet.

Drain, and dish them in the form of an oval, letting them overlap one another with their tail-ends hidden. Garnish the centre of the dish with slices of lobster prepared h I'am^ricaine (No. 939), and coat the whole with the lobster's sauce.

866- FILETS DE SOLES ANQLAISE

Treat the fillets a I'anglaise with fresh and fine bread-crumbs. Pat the bread-crumbs over the egg with the flat of a knife, that

FISH 293

the two may be well combined; and, with the back of a knife, criss-cross the coating of the fillets.

Cook them gently in clarified butter. Serve on a hot dish, and sprinkle the fillets with half-melted butter k la maitred'hotel.

867- FILETS DE SOLES ANDALOUSE

Coat the upper sides of the fillets with fish forcemeat combined, per pound, with three oz. of chopped capsicum. Roll them up, after the manner of a scroll (see No. 914), and smooth the forcemeat on the top. Poach the fillets in butter and fish fumet.

The following should have been prepared beforehand: - (i) As many small half-tomatoes, stewed in butter and garnished by means of rizotto with capsicums, as there are fillets of sole; (2) the same number of roundels of egg-plant, seasoned, dredged, and fried in oil.

When dishing, arrange the roundels of egg-plant round the dish; place a stuffed tomato on each roundel of egg-plant, and a poached fillet of sole upon each tomato. Sprinkle with lightly-browned butter, and serve at once.

868- FILETS DE SOLES CAPRICE

Dip the fillets in melted, seasoned butter, and then roll them in fresh and fine bread-crumbs. Pat the bread-crumbs with the flat of the knife, and with the back of the same instrument criss-cross the surface of the fillets. Sprinkle with melted butter, and set to grill gently, taking care that the coating of bread-crumbs acquires a nice, light-brown colour.

Lay each grilled fillet on the half of a peeled banana, cooked in butter, arid send to the table, separately, a Roberts sauce Escoffier, finished with butter.

869- FILETS DE SOLES CATALANE

Poach, in the oven, as many emptied and seasoned halftomatoes as there are fillets of sole. Cook some very finelyminced onion in oil, without letting it acquire any colour, and allow one tablespoonful of the onion to each half-tomato.

Fold the fillets of sole, and poach them in fish fumet just a few minutes before dishing them. Garnish the half-tomatoes with onion; arrange them in a circle on a dish, and place a fillet of sole upon each. Quickly reduce the cooking-liquor of the fillets, and finish it with butter in the proportion of one oz. per one-eighth pint of reduced fumet.

^QHt the fillets and set to glaze quickly. 870- FILETS DE SOLES CLARENCE

Fold the fillets, and poach them in fish fumet.

They may be dished after the two following methods: -

1. Put a preparation of Duchesse potatoes in a piping-bay fitted with a large, grooved pipe, and describe therewith an ornamental design containing as many divisions as there are fillets of sole. Lightly gild and brown in the oven. This design, consisting of scroll-work, should be prepared before poaching the fillets. Lay a fillet in each division of the design, and coat with AmericaR j" .uce, prepared with curry and combined with the meat of the lobster (cut into small dice) which has served in the preparation of the sauce. Take care that no sauce touches the scroll-work, which should remain well-defined.

2. Bake some large potatoes in the oven. Open them; remove their pulp, and put into each baked shell a tablespoonful of American sauce au currie referred to above. Add a poached fillet of sole; coat with American sauce; dish these garnished potatoes on a napkin, and serve very hot.

871- FILETS DE SOLES AUX CHAMPIGNONS

Stew two oz. of small mushrooms in butter. Fold the fillets, and poach them in one-sixth pint of the cooking-liquor of mushrooms, and a piece of butter the size of a walnut. Arrange the fillets in an oval, and garnish the centre of the dish with the stewed mushrooms.

Reduce the cooking-liquor of the fillets to one-third; add thereto two tablespoonfuls of velout^; finish the sauce with one oz. of butter, and coat the fillets and the garnish.

873- FILETS DE SOLES AUX CREVETTES

Fold the fillets, and poach them in fish fumet.

Dish them in an oval; garnish the middle with one oz. of shelled shrimps' tails, kept very hot, and coat the fillets and the garnish with shrimp sauce.

873- FILETS DE SOLES CHAUCHAT

Poach the fillets of sole, folded, in butter and lemon juice.

Coat the bottom of a dish with Mornay sauce, and set the fillets of sole thereon in the form of an oval. Surround the fish with roundels of cooked potatoes turned to the shape of corks.

Cover the fillets and the garnish with Mornay sauce, and glaze quickly in a fierce oven or at the salamander.

874- FILETS DE SOLES BERCY

Butter the bottom of the dish intended for the soles, and ¦
FISH 295

lengthwise upon the dish, side by side; moisten with three tablespoonfuls of white wine and as much fish fumet, and add one-half oz. of butter cut into small pieces.

Cook in the oven, basting frequently the while, and glaze at the last minute. Besprinkle with a few drops of lemon juice, and when about to serve drop a pinch of chopped parsley upon each fillet.

Or, poach the fillets with chopped shallots, and increase the moistening. As soon as the fillets are ready, drain off their cooking-liquor into a vegetable-pan; reduce it speedily to onethird, and add a few drops of meat-glaze, a little lemon juice, one-half oz. of butter, and one pinch of chopped parsley.

Coat the fillets, and set to glaze quickly.

N.B. - Sole k la Bercy may be prepared after either of the two methods.

875- FILETS DE SOLES DEJAZET

Treat the fillets of sole d I'anglaise and grill them as explained under No. 860.

Dish them, cover them thinly with half-melted tarragon butter, and deck each fillet with five or six parboiled, tarragon

876- FILETS DE SOLES GRAND DUC

Fold the fillets of soles over, and poach them in fish fumet and the cooking-liquor of mushrooms. Arrange them in an oval on a dish, with their tails pointing inwards; place a fine slice of truffle in the middle of each fillet, and between each of the latter three shelled crayfishes' tails.

Coat with Mornay sauce, and set to glaze quickly.

When taking the dish from the oven, set in its centre a fine heap of very green asparagus-heads, cohered with butter at the moment of dishing.

877- FILETS DE SOLES JOINVILLE

Select some fine fillets of soles; fold them, and poach them in the cooking-liquor of mushrooms, and butter, taking care to keep them very white. Arrange them in an oval, with their tails pointing upwards and the carapace of a crayfish fixed on each fillet; and garnish the middle of the dish with a salpicon or a short julienne, consisting of one and one-half oz. of cooked mushrooms, one-half oz. of truffle, and one and one-half oz. of shrimps' tails cohered by means of a few tablespoonfuls of Joinville sauce. Coat the fillets and the garnish with the same sauce, and deck each fillet with a fine slice of truffle coated with meat-glaze. They may also be served after the old-fashioned way, as follows: -

Set the garnish in the middle of the dish, shaping it like a dome; coat it with Joinville sauce, and surround it with the fillets of sole, which should slightly overlap one another and have their tails uppermost. Fix a carapace of crayfish on the tail of each fillet, and deck each with a slice of very black truffle.

With this method of dishing, the garnish alone is coated with sauce, the fillets thus forming a white, encircling border.

878- FILETS DE SOLES JUDIC

Fold, and poach the fillets in butter and lemon juice.

Arrange them in an oval round a dish, laying each upon a nice little braised and trimmed half lettuce, and place upon each fillet a quenelle of sole mousseline-foTcemeat in the shape of a flattened oval, poached at the time of dishing up.

Coat with Mornay sauce and glaze quickly. When taking the dish out of the oven, encircle the fillets of sole with a thread of buttered meat-glaze.

879- FILETS DE SOLES A LA HONQROISE

Fry in butter, without colouration, one small tablespoonful of chopped onion seasoned with a very little paprika; moisten with three tablespoonfuls of white wine and one-sixth pint of fish fumet; add two small peeled, pressed, and roughly-chopped tomatoes, and set to cook for seven or eight minutes.

Fold the fillets of sole; lay them on a buttered dish; pour the above preparation thereon, and poach them. Arrange them in a circle on a dish; reduce their cooking-liquor to a stiff consistence; add a few tablespoonfuls of cream and a few drops of lemon juice, and coat the fillets with this sauce.

880- FILETS DE SOLES LADY EGMONT

Fold the fillets, and poach them in a few tablespoonfuls of excellent fish fumet.

Also for every four fillets (i.e., per sole) finely minee one oz. of well-cleaned mushrooms, and cook them quickly in butter, lemon juice, a little salt, and pepper. This done, add the cooking-liquor to the fish fumet, and keep the cooked minced mushrooms hot.

Reduce the combined cooking-liquor and fish fumet to half; add thereto one oz. of butter and two tablespoonfuls of cream; and to the resulting sauce add the reserved minced mushrooms and two tablespoonfuls of freshlyTCOoked and wplj-drained asparagus-headsj uncoolpd.

FISH 297

Serve the fillets of sole on an earthenware dish, coat them with the above garnish, and set to glaze quickly in a fierce oven or at the salamander.

881- FILETS DE SOLES MARINETTE

Poach a sole in fish fumet and the cooking-liquor of mushrooms, and drain it on a napkin. When it is still lukewarm, carefully raise its fillets and trim them.

Break an egg into a bowl; beat it well, and add enough grated Gruy^re and Parmesan to it (mixed in equal quantities) to produce a dense paste. Mix a dessertspoonful of cold Bechamel sauce with this paste; add salt and cayenne pepper; spread an even thickness of one inch of it over two of the fillets of sole; lay thereon the two remaining fillets, and put aside in the cool.

When the egg and cheese paste is very stiff, dip the fillets in a Villeroy sauce, and leave the latter to cool. Then treat the stuffed and sauced fillets a I'anglaise, and fry them, just before serving, in very hot fat.

Dish on a napkin with very green parsley all round.

882- FILETS DE SOLES MARIE STUART

Fold the fillets, and poach them in fish fumet. Arrange them in an oval on a dish; coat them with the sauce given under " Filets de soles k la New-burg" (No. 890), and place on each fillet a quenelle of fish forcemeat in the shape of a quoit and decked with a slice of truffle. These quenelles should, if possible, be poached just before dishing up, and well drained before being laid on the fillets of sole.

883- FILETS DE SOLES MIGNONETTE

Cook the fillets in butter, and set them in a hot timbale.

Surround them with potato-balls the size of peas, raised by means of the round spoon-cutter, and cooked beforehand in butter.

Lay upon the fillets eight or ten slices of fresh truffle heated in one-sixth pint of very light meat-glaze.

Finish the glaze in which the slices of truffle have been

heated with two-thirds oz. of butter and a few drops of lemon

juice, and pour it over the fillets and their garnish. Serve very

hot.

884- FILETS DE SOLES MIMI

Divide a live lobster into two, lengthwise, and prepare it

k I'am^ricaine, taking care to keep the sauce short.

Wl^en the lobster is cooked, take the me^t from the tail; put it into as many slices as there are fillets of sole, and keep them hot.

Remove all the meat from the claws, and that remaining in the carcass; pound all of it smoothly, add two tablespoonfuls of cream, and rub through a fine sieve. Prepare a garnish of spaghetti with cream, and add thereto the puree of lobster.

Fold the fillets of sole, and poach them in Chablis wine and butter. All this being done, lay the two emptied halves of the lobster on a napkin lying on a dish, setting them back to back. Fill these lobster shells to the brim with the prepared garnish of spaghetti. Upon this garnish lay the poached fillets of sole, sandwiching a slice of lobster between every two; besprinkle the whole with a short and fine julienne of very black truffle.

Send the lobster sauce, finished with a few tablespoonfuls of cream, to the table separately. Proceed as quickly as possible with the dishing up, in order that the dish may reach the table very hot.

885- FILETS DE SOLES MEXICAINE

Coat the fillets with fish forcemeat, and roll them to resemble scrolls (see No. 914). Poach them in fish fumet as directed for the faupiettes. Lay each rolled fillet in a grilled mushroom garnished with one-half tablespoonful of peeled, pressed, and concussed tomato cooked in butter, and arrange them in an oval on a dish.

Coat them with Bechamel sauce combined with a pur^e of tomatoes and capsicums cut into small dice, in the proportion of two tablespoonfuls of the puree and two-thirds oz. of the capsicums per pint of the sauce.

886- FILETS DE SOLES MIRABEAU

Poach the fillets, left in their natural state, in fish fumet.

Dish them and coat with white wine and Gen^voise sauces, alternating the two, white and brown. Lay a thin strip of anchovy fillet between each of the fillets of sole; deck those of the latter coated with white sauce with a slice of truffle, and those coated with brown sauce with a star of blanched tarragon leaves.

887- FILETS DE SOLES MIRAMAR

Divide each of the fillets into slices; season them and cook them in butter. Cut fifteen roundels (one-third inch thick) of egg-plant; season, dredge, and toss them in butter, taking care to keep them very crisp.

Take a timbale of suitable size, and line its sides with a layer (three-quarters inch thick) of pilaff rice.

FISH 299

Put the roundels of egg-plant and the sliced fillets of sole (mixed and tossed together for a moment) in the middle of the dish.

Just before serving, sprinkle with one oz. of lightly-browned butter.

888- FILETS DE SOLES AUX HUITRES

Open and poach twelve oysters. Poach the fillets of sole, folded, in the oyster liquor strained through linen, and a piece of butter as large as a walnut.

Arrange in an oval on a dish; garnish the centre with the poached oysters (cleared of their beards), and coat the fillets of sole and the oysters with Normande sauce combined with the reduced cooking-liquor of the fillets.

889- FILETS DE SOLES NELSON

Fold the fillets, and poach them in fish fumet.

Arrange them in a circle on a dish; coat them with whitewine sauce, and glaze quickly.

Garnish the centre of the dish with a pyramid of potatoballs cooked in butter and of a light-brown colour. Surround the fillets with poached milt.

890- FILETS DE SOLES NEW-BURG

Prepare a lobster a la New-burg, in accordance with one of the recipes given (No. 948 and 949). Cut the tail into as many slices as there are fillets of sole, and keep them hot.

Cut the remainder of the lobster meat into dice, and add these to the sauce. Fold the fillets of sole, and poach them in fish fumet. Arrange them in an oval on a dish; lay a slice of lobster upon each fillet, and coat with the lobster-sauce combined with the dice, prepared as directed above.

891- FILETS DE SOLES ORIENTALE

Prepare the fillets exactly as those a la New-burg, but season the sauce with curry.

Having dished and sauced the fillets, set a pyramid of rice a rindienne in the middle of the dish, or send the rice to the table separately, in a timbale; either way will be found to answer.

892- FILETS DE SOLES PERSANE

Prepare the fillets as in the case of those k la New-burg, but season the sauce with Paprika, and add thereto one oz. of capsicums cut into large dice. Send some pilaff rice with saffron to the table separately. 893- FILETS DE SOLES ORLY

Season the fillets; dip them into batter and, a few minutes before serving, put them into very hot fat. Drain them; dish them on a napkin with fried parsley, and serve a tomato sauce separately.

N.B. - There are several ways of preparing these fillets of sole. Thus they may be simply dipped in milk, dredged, and impaled on a hatelet. They may also be marinaded, treated a I'anglaise, and twisted into cork-screw shape.

Always, however, dish them on a napkin with fried parsley and, in every case, send a tomato sauce to the table separately.

This last accompaniment is essential.

894- FILETS DE SOLES OLQA, otherwise " OTERO "

Bake beforehand, in the oven, as many fine, well-washed potatoes as there are fillets of sole. As soon as they are done, remove a piece of the baked shell, and withdraw the pulp in such wise as to leave nothing but the long, parched shells. Fold the fillets, and poach them with a little excellent fish fumet. Garnish the bottom of each prepared shell with a tablespoonful of shelled shrimps' tails, cohered with a white-wine sauce.

Put a poached fillet of sole upon this garnish; cover with sufficient Mornay sauce to completely fill the shell; sprinkle with grated cheese, and glaze quickly. Dish on a napkin the moment the fillets have been taken from the oven, and serve immediately.

89s- FILETS DE SOLES POLIQNAC

Fold the fillets, and poach them in one-quarter pint of white wine, a few tablespoonfuls of the cooking-liquor of mushrooms, and a piece of butter about the size of a walnut.

Dish the fillets in an oval. Reduce the cooking-liquor to half; thicken it by means of two tablespoonfuls, bare, of fish velout6; finish the sauce with one oz. of butter, and add thereto three small, cooked, finely-minced mushrooms, and one tablespoonful of a julienne of truffles.

Coat the fillets with sauce, and set to glaze.

896- FILETS DE SOLES PAYSANNE

For the fillets of soles, cut two small carrots, two new onions, a stick of celery, and the white of one leek in paysanne fashion. Season these vegetables with a very little table-salt and a pinch of sugar; stew them in butter; moisten sufficiently to cover them with lukewarm water; and add a few pieces of broccoli, a tablespoonful of peas, and the same quantity of French beans cyt into lozenges.

FISH 301

Complete the cooking of the vegetables while reducing the cooking-liquor. Season the fillets of sole, and lay them on a buttered earthenware dish. Pour thereon the garnish of vegetables; put the cover on the dish, and gently poach the fillets.

When they are cooked, tilt the dish so as to pour all the liquor away into a vegetable-pan; this done, reduce the liquor to one-fifth pint, and add to it three oz. of butter.

Pour this sauce into the dish containing the fillets and the vegetable garnish, and serve immediately.

897- FILETS DE SOLES EN PILAW A LA LEVANTINE

Cut the fillets into collops, and toss these in butter. Prepare some pilaff rice after the usual recipe (No. 2255), and add thereto one oz. of capsicum cut into dice.

Also toss in butter one and one-half oz. of egg-plant, cut into dice and seasoned, and put these with the fillets of sole. Mould the rice into a border round the dish; put the fillets and the egg-plant in the middle, and coat the two with curry sauce without letting the latter touch the rice.

N.B. - In the case of pilaff rice with fillets of sole, the rice should border the dish, and the fillets of sole, tossed in butter, should be laid in the middle and coated with brown butter.

898- FILETS DE SOLES POMPADOUR

Treat the fillets with butter and bread-crumbs, and grill them. Garnish them all round with a thread of very firm b^arnaise tomat^e. Dish and surround them with a border of Chateau potatoes (No. 2208).

Lay a fine slice of truffle, moistened with melted meat-glaze, on each fillet.

899 -FILETS DE SOLES RACHEL

Coat the fillets with some delicate fish forcemeat; put four slices of truffle on the forcemeat of each of the fillets; fold the latter, and poach them in one-sixth pint of the cooking-liquor of mushrooms, and a piece of butter the size of a walnut, cut into small pieces.

Arrange the fillets in an oval on a dish, and coat them with white-wine sauce combined with one tablespoonful of freshlycooked and uncooled asparagus-heads, and one tablespoonful of truffle in dice per every one-half pint of the sauce.

900- FILETS DE SOLES VENITIENNE

Fold the fillets, and poach them in fish fumet. Arrange them in a circle on a dish, alternating them with thin crusts, in the shape of hearts, fried in butter. Coat with Venetian sauce combined with the reduced cooking-liquor of

the fillets.

901- FILETS DE SOLES VERDI

Prepare a garnish of macaroni cut into dice; cohere this with cream and grated Gruy^re and Parmesan, and add three oz. of lobster meat and one and one-half oz. of truffles in dice per every one-half lb. of the macaroni.

Poach the fillets of sole in fish fumet, keeping the fillets in their natural state. Lay the macaroni very evenly on the dish; set the poached fillets of sole upon it; coat with Mornay sauce, and set to glaze quickly.

902- FILETS DE SOLES VICTORIA

Fold the fillets, and poach them in fish fuvtet.

Arrange them in an oval on a dish, and garnish the centre with three oz. of the meat from the tail of the spiny lobster, and one oz. of truffle in dice per every four fillets.

Coat the fillets and the garnish with Victoria sauce, and set to glaze quickly.

903- FILETS DE SOLES VERONIQUE

Raise the fillets of a fine sole; beat them slightly; fold and season them, and put them in a special earthenware, buttered dish.

With the bones, some of the trimmings of the fish, a little minced onion, some parsley stalks, a few drops of lemon juice, and white wine and water, prepare two spoonfuls of fumet.

This done, strain it over the fillets, and poach them gently.

Drain them carefully; reduce the fumet to the consistence of a syrup, and finish it with one and one-half oz. of butter. Arrange the fillets in an oval on the dish whereon they have been poached; cover them with the buttered fumet, and set to glaze quickly. When about to serve, set a pyramid of skinned and very cold muscadel grapes in the middle of the dish.

Put a cover on the dish, and serve immediately.

904- FILETS DE SOLES WALEV^SKA

Poach the fillets in fish fumet, keeping them in their natural state.

Dish, and surround them with three langoustines' tails cut into two lengthwise, and stewed in butter (with lid on) with six fine slices of raw truffle.

Coat with a delicate Mornay sauce, and set to glaze quickly.

N.B. - The Mornay sauce may, according to circumstances, be combined with one and one-half oz. of langoustine butter per pint.

FISH 303

90s- FILETS DE SOLES WILHELMINE

Prepare some potato shells as directed under " Filets de soles Olga " (No. 894). Garnish them with a tablespoonful of cucumber with cream; put a fillet of sole into each garnished shell, a fine Zeeland oyster on each fillet, and cover with Mornay sauce.

Set to glaze quickly, and dish on a napkin.

Various Preparations of Soles and Fillets of Sole

906- MOUSSELINES DE SOLES

The directions given under " Mousselines de Saumon " (No. 797) apply in all circumstances to Mousselines of Sole. I shall therefore refrain from repeating the recipe, since, the quantities remaining the same, all that is needed is the substitution of the meat of sole for that of salmon. Thus, I shall only state here, by way of reminding the reader, that these excellent preparations admit of all the fish sauces and garnishes, and that they may also be accompanied by all purees of fresh vegetables.

907- TURBAN DE FILETS DE SOLES A LA VILLARET

Raise the fillets of three soles; flatten them slightly with a moistened beater, and trim them very straight on either side.

Liberally butter a medium-sized savarin-mould. Lay the fillets aslant in this mould, with their tail-ends over-reaching its inner edge and their other ends projecting over its outer edge; slip a fine slice of truffle between each, and let them slightly overlap one another.

When the mould is completely lined with the fillets of sole, fill it up with lobster mousseline forcemeat. Gently tap the mould on a folded napkin lying on the table, with the object of settling the forcemeat, and then draw the overhanging ends of the fillets across the latter.

Set to poach in a bain-marie in a moderate oven.

This done, take the mould out of the bain-marie; let it stand for a few minutes, and then turn it upside-down upon the dish. Leave it to drain; soak up the liquid that has leaked out on to the dish; take off the mould, and moisten the surface of the fillets by means of a small brush dipped in melted butter. The object of this last measure is to glaze the fish and to remove therefrom the froth resulting from its poached albumen.

Now garnish the centre of the moulding with shrimps' tails, mushrooms, poached milt, and slices of truffle, the whole cohered by means of Bechamel sauce finished with lobster butter. Send a sauceboat of Bechamel sauce, finished with lobster butter, to the table at the same time as the fish.

908- TURBAN DE FILETS DE SOLES ET SAUMON VILLARET

Proceed as in the preceding recipe, but alternate the fillets of sole with very red slices of salmon of the same size as the fillets.

The combination yields an excellent result, and the varying strips of white and orange which constitute the body of the moulded crown lend sightliness to the dish.

N.B. - The designation " k la Villaret," relating to the crown alone, in no wise affects the constituents of the garnish; these may either remain the same as those of the preceding recipe, or may be replaced by something similar. The sauce alone remains unalterable, and this should be a good Bdchamel finished with lobster butter.

909- TIMBALE DE FILETS DE SOLES CARDINAL

For ten people, prepare a timbale crust (No. 2395) the diameter of which should be greater than the height; line it with fine, short paste, and decorate it with noodle paste.

Raise the fillets of three medium-sized soles, flatten them slightly; coat them with whiting forcemeat prepared with crayfish butter, and roll them into scroll-form. Also prepare ten small slices of the meat of a medium-sized ordinary or spiny lobster's tail, ten small grooved and cooked mushrooms, fifteen slices of truffle, and three-quarters pint of Cardinal sauce finished with a lobster butter.

When about to serve, lay the poached, rolled fillets of sole (well drained) in a circle round the bottom of the timbale; put the slices of lobster and the mushrooms in the centre, and cover the whole with Cardinal sauce.

Set upon the sauce, just over the centre of the timbale, a large, grooved mushroom (cooked and kept very white), and encircle the latter with fifteen slices of truffle.

Place the timbale, thus garnished, on a folded napkin lying on a dish, and serve at once.

910- TIMBALE DE FILETS DE SOLES CARMELITE

Prepare (i) a timbale crust as above; (2) a lobster k la New-burg made from raw lobster (No. 948); (3) twelve rolled fillets of sole stuffed with fish forcemeat finished with lobster butter; (4) three oz. of sliced truffles.

Poach the rolled fillets in fish fumet; slice the meat of the lobster's tail, and put the poached fillets, the slices of lobster,

arid the slices of truffle into the lobster sauce. Heat the whole well, without boiling; pour the saiice and garnish into the tiihbale crust, and deck the top with twelve fine slices of truffle.

Dish the timbale on a folded napkin, and serve instantly.

911- TIMBALE DE FILETS DE SOLES QRIMALDI

Prepare: - (i) A rather deep timbale crust, and decorate it with noodle paste. (2) Cook, as for bisqufe, twenty-four small langotistines; wrench off their tails; cut them into two lengthwise, and keep them hot in butter. (3) Finely pound the langoustines' carapaces, and add thereto one-third pint of fine Bechamel. Rub through a fine sieve first, and thert through tammy. Put the resulting culHs into a saucepan, and heat without boiling it; intensify the seasoning; add a few tablespoonfuls of cream, little by little; put the prepared tails in the cullis, and keep the latter in the bain-marie. (4) Cut four oz. of blanched and somewhat stiff macaroni into pieces, and add thereto one-sixth pint of cream and three oz. of sliced truffle. Heat until the macaroni has completely absorbed the cream; thicken with one-sixth pint of Bechamel sauce finished with fish fumet; add one and one-half oz. of butter cut into small lumps, and keep hot. (5) Coat sixteen fillets of sole with truffled fish forcemeat; roll the fillets into scroll-form, and, at the last minute, poach them in fish fumet.

To garnish the timbale, spread a layer of macaroni on the bottom thereof, lay half of the rolled fillets upon the macaroni, and cover these with half of the langoustines' tails in the cullis.

Repeat the procedure, in the same order, with what is left of the garnishes, and finish the timbale with a layer of the langoustines' tails.

Set the timbale on a folded napkin lying on a dish, and serve immediately.

913- TIMBALE DE FILETS DE SOLES CAR^ME

Flatten the fillets of three medium-sized soles, and trim them neatly.

Liberally butter a pound-cake mould, and line it with the fillets, placing them side by side with their tails lying round the centre of the bottom of the mould, and their opposite ends projecting above the brim. Press them well, that they may take the shape of the mould.

Completely coat the fillets with a layer, one-half inch thick, of fish forcemeat.

Put the "mould in the front of the oven for a few minutes

X in order to poach the forcemeat, which, in adhering to the fillets, gives the required firmness to the timbale.

When the forcemeat has been poached and is stiff, withdraw the timbale from the oven, and cut off the pieces of fillet that project above the edges of the mould. Fill the timbale to within one-third inch of its brim with a garnish of shrimps and poached oysters and mussels, small button-mushrooms, and slices of truffle, all of which should be cohered with a thick and highly-seasoned B6chamel sauce. Cover this garnish with the projecting pieces of fillets, already cut off, and close the timbale by means of a thin layer of that forcemeat which served in coating the fillets. Poach for thirty minutes in a bain-marie and in a moderate oven. After taking the timbale out of the bain-marie, let it stand for a few minutes; overturn it on a round dish; take off the mould; deck it on top with a garland consisting of six little paupiettes of salmon, each stuffed with a crayfish tail, and surmounted by an encrusted crayfish carapace.

Serve a Nantua sauce separately.

913- TIMBALE DE FILETS DE SOLES MARQUISE

For a timbale large enough for ten people, prepare: -

1. An even or fluted timbale crust.

2. A garnish consisting of twelve rolled or folded fillets of sole poached in fish fumet, twelve poached oysters (cleared of their beards), twenty-four small quenelles of salmon, and twenty slices of truffle.

Heat this garnish after having added a few drops of fish fumet to it, and then thicken it with one-half pint of white-wine sauce prepared with paprika.

Put the above garnish into the timbale, which should be very hot; set the latter on a folded napkin, and serve at once.

914- The Preparation of PAUPIETTES OF FILLETS OF SOLE SALMON, &c.

The paupiettes (or fillets rolled after the manner of a scroll) are served either as entries like fillets of sole, of which they are but a special kind, or as a garnish. For the second purpose, not only should they be smaller than for the first, but very small fillets are generally selected for the preparation of the paupiettes.

In order to make paupiettes, first remove the horny film from the outside surfaces of the fillets, and then slightly flatten the latter with the blade of a large knife; trim them on both sides, and coat them on their flayed side with a thin layer of fish forcemeat, truffled or not, in accordance with the requirements.

t?ISH 307

Now roll them into scroll-form; smooth the forcemeat that projects from the top end, and the paupieltes are done.

Stand them upright in a buttered saut^pan to poach, and take care to place them snugly together lest they lose their shape while the operation is in progress. Moisten them with sufficient fish fumet (No. 11) to cover them; poach them in a moderate oven, and remember, as in the case of fillets of sole, not to let the poaching-liquor boil.

All the garnishes and sauces suited to fillets of sole likewise obtain with paupiettes, provided the difference in their shape be taken into account when dishing up.

For salmon paupiettes, cut slices two-thirds inch wide, onehalf inch thick, and the length of a fillet of sole, from a skinned fillet of salmon. In view of the unusual fragility of salmon's flesh, the slices of fillets should be carefully flattened in order to give them the width and thickness of a fillet of sole. This done, spread forcemeat on them, and roll them as explained above.

Soles and Fillets of Sole (Cold)

915- ASPIC DE FILETS DE SOLES

An essential point in the making of an aspic is the clearness of the fish jelly. For a sole aspic, take some white fish aspic, which is at once succulent, limpid, and just sufficiently viscous to allow of its being turned out of a mould without breaking.

For the purpose under consideration, moulds with plain or decorated borders are generally used, and there are two modes of procedure: -

I. For a mould capable of holding one quart, fold twelve small fillets of sole and poach them in butter and lemon juice, taking care to keep them very white. This done, set them to cool under a light weight.

Pour a few tablespoonfuls of melted fish jelly into the mould, which should be lying amidst broken ice. As soon as the jelly begins to set, decorate it tastefully with pieces (lozenges, crescents, &c.) of very black truffle and the poached white of an egg. Capers, tarragon leaves, thin roundels of small radishes, &c., may also be used for the purpose of decoration.

When this part of the procedure has been satisfactorily effected, sprinkle a few drops of the same jelly over the decorating particles, in order to fix them and prevent their shifting during the subsequent stages of the process. Now add enough melted jelly to cover the bottom of the mould with a layer one inch thick, and leave this to set.

X 2

3d8 guide to modern COOKERY

On this set jelly, arrange the six fillets of sole; let their tailends overlap, and cover them with jelly. Continue adding coat upon coat of jelly until the thickness covering the fillets measures about one-half inch.

Now arrange the remaining fillets in the reverse order, and fill up the mould with cold, melted jelly. Leave to cool for one hour.

When about to serve, quickly dip the mould in a saucepan of hot water; wipe it, and turn out the aspic upon a folded napkin lying on a dish.

916- Another Method of Preparing ASPICS DE FILETS DE SOLES

Coat ten fine fillets of sole with a thin layer of truffled fish forcemeat finished with crayfish butter, and roll them round a little rod of truffle, twice as thick as an ordinary penholder. Tie these faupiettes, once or twice round, with cotton; poach them very gently in fish fumet and cool them on ice. Take a border-mould, even if possible; pour therein a few tablespoonfuls of melted fish jelly, and then rock it about on broken ice, with the object of evenly coating it with a thin layer of the jelly.

This operation is technically called " clothing the mould."

Decorate the bottom of the mould as explained above; fix the decorating particles, and cover them with a layer one-half inch thick of fish jelly.

After having properly trimmed the ends of the paufiettes, cut them into roundels one-half inch thick; set these upright against the sides of the mould, keeping them close together; add a few drops of melted jelly to fix the roundels, and as soon as this has set, add a further quantity, sufficient to completely cover them.

As soon as this jelly sets, repeat the operation with the paupiette roundels and the jelly, and do so again and again until the mould is filled. For turning out the aspic, proceed as directed above.

917- BORDURE DE FILETS DE SOLES A L'lTALIENNE

Line a border-mould with jelly; i.e., coat its bottom and sides with a thin layer of fish jelly, rocking it upon ice as already explained.

Now fill it, two-thirds full, with a garnish consisting of a julienne of cold, poached fillets of sole, a julienne of truffles (two oz. per two filleted soles), and a julienne of capsicum (one and one-half oz. per two filleted soles). Fill up the mould with melted fish jelly, and leave the latter to set.

FISH 309

When about to serve, turn out the mould upon a little, low cushion of rice, lying on a dish, and set an Italian salad in the centre.

Serve a Mayonnaise sauce with this dish.

918- FILETS DE SOLES CALYPSO

Flatten the fillets, and roll them into ¦paupiettes around little rods of wood two-thirds inch thick. Lay the paupiettes in a buttered saut^pan, with their joined sides undermost, and poach them in very clear fish fumet and lemon juice, taking care to keep them very white.

Let them cool, and remove the pieces of wood, whereupon they will have the appearance of rings.

Take as many small tomatoes as there are paupiettes; cut them in two at a point two-thirds of their height below their stem-end; empty, and peel them. Set a paupiette, upright, in each tomato; fill the centre with crayfish mousse combined with crayfishes' tails in dice; lay a round piece of milt (stamped out with a cutter, poached, and cold) on each, and, finally, the shelled tail of a crayfish on each roundel of milt.

Arrange the tomatoes in a circle round a dish; surround them with little triangles of white fish jelly, and garnish the centre of the dish with the same fish jelly, chopped.

919- FILETS DE SOLES CHARLOTTE

Fold the fillets; poach them in fish fumet, and let them cool.

Trim them; coat them with pink chaud-froid sauce; decorate each fillet by means of a rosette of chervil leaves, in the centre of which rests a bit of lobster coral, and glaze them with fish jelly.

Set them, tail end uppermost, against a m,ousse of milt with horse-radish, moulded in a narrow dome-mould, which should have been coated with fish jelly and besprinkled with chopped coral.

Surround with a border of regularly-cut jelly dice.

920- FILETS DE SOLES A LA MOSCOVITE

Prepare (i) some paupiettes of filleted sole, in rings, as explained under " Filets de Soles a la Calypso " (No, 918); (2) as many round, fluted cases made from hollowed cucumber as there are paupiettes. The cucumber cases should be well blanched and m,annaded inside. Set each paupiette in a cucumber case; garnish their centre with caviare, and arrange them in a circle on a dish.

Send a sauce Russe to the table, separately, at the same time as the dish. 921- DOMINOS DE FILETS DE SOLES

Select some fine, fleshy fillets; slightly flatten them; poach them in a little of the cooking-liquor of mushrooms, some lemon juice and butter, and set them to cool under a light weight. When the fillets are cold, trim them and cut them into regular rectangles the size of dominoes.

Coat the rectangles with a maigre, white, chaud-f roid sauce; decorate them in imitation of dominoes, with little spots of truffle; glaze them with cold, melted fish jelly, and put them aside.

Pound the trimmings of the fish together with their weight of caviare, and rub the whole through a fine sieve. Add to this preparation half its weight of highly-coloured jelly, and leave it to set in a somewhat deep and moderately-oiled tray, the thickness of the preparation on the tray being not greater than that of a fillet of sole.

When the jelly is set, cut it into rectangles exactly the same size as the prepared dominoes, and then, by means of a little melted, cold jelly, fix the diminoes of sole to the rectangles just prepared.

Put some chopped jelly in the centre of the dish, and on this lay the dominoes in a muddled heap.

922- FILETS DE SOLES FROIDS DRESSES SUR MOUSSES

What I pointed out above, I repeat here for the reader's guidance - namely, that fillets of sole may be prepared after all the recipes given for trout (No. 813).

As the fillets of sole in this dish remain very conspicuous, it is advisable to keep them very white in the poaching. Set them to cool under a light weight, and decorate them in a way that will be in keeping with the mousse on which they are dished. This mousse is set on a special dish, as already explained, and the decorated fillets are laid upon it and covered with melted jelly.

For the variation of mousses, see the table given under No. 814.

923- TURBOT

Turbot is generally served boiled, accompanied by freshlycooked, floury potatoes, and the cases are exceptional when, cooked in this way, it is dished with any other garnish.

All fish sauces may be served with turbot. When, for the sake of variety, or in pursuance of the consumer's wishes, turbot has to be braised or garnished, it is best to select a medium

FISH 311

sized fish, i.e., one weighing from eight to twelve lbs., thick, very fleshy, and white.

Unless expressly ordered, it is best to avoid surrounding the piece with its garnish. Preferably, send the latter to the table in a separate dish, as also the sauce. By this means the service is expedited, and, more important still, the fish is quite hot when it reaches the table. It is granted that the sight of a dish containing a fine, richly garnished and tastefully arranged piece is flattering to the host, but it would be a pity that the quality of the fish should thereby sufifer, more particularly as the gourmet is not satisfied with sightliness alone.

I explained at the beginning of this chapter, under " Boiled Fish " (No. 776 and 779), the details relating to this method of cooking, especially with regard to its application to turbot. For the braising and garnishing of turbot, the reader is begged to refer to the recipes concerned with chicken-turbot. These recipes may be applied to turbot, provided the difference in the size of the fish be taken into account in reference to the time allowed for braising and the quantities of the garnishing ingredients.

934- COLD TURBOT

Whether whole or sliced, cold turbot makes an excellent dish, if the fish have not been cooked too long beforehand. It will be found that turbot, especially when sliced, tends to harden, crumple, and lose its flavour while cooling. It is therefore of the greatest importance that the fish should have just cooled after cooking, and that the cooking-liquor should have barely time to set; otherwise the evil effects of cooling, mentioned above, will surely ensue. When served, just cooled, with one of the cold sauces suited to fish, turbot can vie in delicacy even with such fish as salmon or trout, which are usually served

cold.

925- TURBOTINS (CHICKEN=TURBOTS)

Turbotins (chicken-turbots) may rank among the most delicate and nicest of fish. Their varying sizes allow of their being served either for three, four, or ten, or twelve people; they are, moreover, tender and white, and they lend themselves to quite a vast nurhber of culinary preparations.

They may be served boiled, like the turbot; grilled; k la Meuni^re; fried; au gratin, like the soles; or braised, like the salmon and the trout. They are most often served whole, garnished and with sauce; but, in order to simplify the process, they may be filleted, the fillets being poached and dished with a garnish and the selected sauce. Whatever be the method of preparing the chicken-turbot, whether it be boiled, poached, or braised, the spine should always be cut in one or two places. The gash should be just in the middle of the back where the flesh is thickest, and the fillets on either side of the gash should be partly separated from the bone. The object of this measure is to prevent deformation during the cooking process and, also, to precipitate the latter.

926- TURBOTIN A L'AMIRAL

Gash the back of the fish, and partly separate the under fillets from the bones. Lay it on a grill, and moisten, sufficiently to cover it, with previously-cooked court-bouillon with Sauterne wine. As soon as the court-bouillon boils, allow the fish to cook ten or twelve minutes for every two lbs. of its weight.

This done, drain it; dish it, and coat it twice with melted, red butter.

Now surround it with the following garnish, which should be in proportion to the size of the fish, viz., little heaps of large mussels and oysters, prepared k la Villeroy, and fried at the time of dishing; small patties of crayfish tails; large mushroom-heads grooved and cooked, and slices of truffle.

Serve, separately, (i) a timbale of potatoes a I'anglaise; (2) Normande sauce, combined with one-sixth pint of reduced court-bouillon per quart of sauce, finished with crayfish butter and seasoned with cayenne.

927- TURBOTIN A L'ANDALOUSE

Cut it in the region of the back; season it, and lay it in a deep earthenware dish of convenient size, liberally buttered. In the case of a chicken-turbot weighing two and one-half lbs., moisten with one-third pint of white wine and one-quarter pint of fish fumet.

Finely mince two medium-sized onions, and toss them in butter until they have acquired a yellow colour.

Peel, press and mince three tomatoes, and add thereto three large, raw, sliced mushrooms. Cut two mild capsicums into strips.

Spread the onion on the chicken-turbot; put the tomatoes and the sliced mushrooms on top, and upon these arrange the grilled strips of mild capsicum. Besprinkle moderately with raspings; lay one oz. of butter, cut into small pieces, on the top, and set to cook gently in the oven.

FISH 313

Allow thirty minutes for the cooking. By reducing the moistening-liquor, which has perforce absorbed some of the gelatinous properties of the fish, the leason forms of itself.

928- TURBOTIN BONNE FEMME

For a chicken-turbot weighing from two to two and one-half lbs. sprinkle on the bottom of a buttered tray one dessertspoonful of chopped shallots, one pinch of concussed parsley, and three oz. of minced mushrooms*

Cut the chicken-turbot in the back, and partly separate the fillets from the boile; lay it on a tray, and moisten with one-third pint of white wine and one-third pint of fish fumet. Cook gently in the oven, and baste frequently the while.

When the chicken-turbot is cooked, dish it and keep it hot. Pour the cooking-liquor into a saut^pan; reduce it to half, and add three tablespoonfuls of fish velout6 and three oz. of butter.

Cover the fish with this sauce and the garnish, and glaze quickly.

939- TURBOTIN COMMODORE

Poach the chicken-turbot in salted water.

Prepare the following garnish per one person: - Three large, potatoes cut to the shape of hazel-nuts and cooked a I'anglaise; one medium-sized, trussed crayfish; one quenelle of fish; one small lobster croquette; and one oyster prepared k la Villeroy.

All these products should be treated according to their nature, and just in time to be ready for the dishing up. A few moments before serving, drain the turbot; dish it, and surround it with the garnish detailed above, arranged in alternate heaps.

Serve a Normande sauce, finished with anchovy butter,

separately.

930- TURBOTIN DAUMONT

Proceed exactly as directed under " Sole Daumorit " (No. 823), taking into account the size of the fish, and increasing the sauce and the garnishing ingredients accordingly.

931- TURBOTIN FERMlfiRE

Sprinkle on the bottom of a buttered tray two minced shallots, a few roundels of carrot and onion, some parsley stalks, thyme, and bay.

Lay the chicken-turbot on these aromatics, and season moderately. For a fish weighing two lbs. moisten with twothirds pint of excellent red wine; add one-half oz. of butter, cut into small pieces, and poach gently, taking care to baste frequently. Meantime toss three oz. of minced mushrooms in three oz. of butter. When the turbot is ready, drain it; dish it; surround it with the tossed mushrooms, and keep it hot.

Strain the cooking-Hquor into a vegetable-pan, and reduce it to half. Thicken it with a piece of manied butter the size of a walnut; add three oz. of butter; pour this sauce over the chicken-turbot and its garnish, and set to glaze quickly.

933- TURBOTIN A LA MODE DE HOLLANDE

Poach the chicken-turbot in salted water. Drain it, dish it, and upon it lay a lobster cooked in court-bouillon. The shell of the lobster should have been opened along the top of the tail, and the meat of the tail should have been quickly sliced and returned to its place.

Send to the table at the same time (i) a timbale of floury potatoes, freshly cooked a I'anglaise; (2) a sauceboat containing egg sauce with melted butter (No. 117).

933- TURBOTIN MIRABEAU

Poach the fish in court-bouillon with Sauterne wine, as directed under " Turbotin k I'Amiral " (No. 926).

Drain it; dish it, and coat it in alternate bands with white wine and Gen^voise sauces. Along the lines formed by the meeting of the sauces lay thin strips of anchovy fillets placed end to end. Decorate the bands of white sauce with slices of truffle, and the bands of brown sauce with blanched tarragon leaves.

934- TURBOTIN PARISIENNE

Poach the fish in court-bouillon with Sauterne wine. Drain it, dish it, and round it arrange a border composed of alternate slices of truffles and mushrooms. Coat the fish with white-wine sauce, and surround it with trussed crayfish cooked in courtbouillon.

N.B.- For fish k la Parisienne, the garnish of sliced truffles and mushrooms may be set on the dish, either conspicuously or the reverse; i.e., it may be laid round the fish and covered by the sauce, or arranged in the form of an oval on the fish after the latter has been sauced. In either case the slices of truffles and mushrooms should be laid alternately.

935- TURBOTIN REQENCE

Poach the chicken-turbot in a sufficient quantity of previously-prepared court-bouillon with Chablis wine.

For a fish weighing three lbs. (enough for ten people), prepare the following garnish: - Twenty small spoon-moulded

FISH 315

quenelles of whiting forcemeat with crayfish butter; ten poached oysters (cleared of their beards); ten small mushroom-heads (very white); ten truffles in the shape of olives, and ten poached slices of milt.

Drain the chicken-turbot just before dishing it, and slip it on to a dish. Surround it with the garnish detailed above, arranged in alternate heaps, and serve a Normande sauce, finished with two tablespoonfuls of truffle essence per pint, separately.

936- TURBOTIN S0UFFL6 A LA REYNIERE

Lay the chicken-turbot on its belly, and make two gashes in its back, on either side of the spine, from the head to the tail. Completely separate the fillets from the bones; cut the spine at both ends; carefully raise it from the underlying, ventral fillets, and entirely remove it.

Season the inside of the fish, and garnish it with enough fish motisseline forcemeat to give it a rounded appearance. Close in the forcemeat by drawing the two separated fillets over it; turn the piece over, and lay it on a well-buttered, deep, oval dish, the size of which should be in proportion to that of the chicken-turbot.

Poach it gently, almost dry, with lid on, in fish fumet and the cooking-liquor of mushrooms mixed, i.e., two-thirds pint of the one and one-third pint of the other. This done, dish it carefully, and lay a row of grooved and white mushroom-heads down the centre of it. On either side put some very white, poached milt, alternating the latter with whole anchovy fillets, in such wise as to form an oval enframing the row of mushrooms.

Send to the table, separately, a sauce composed of Soubise cullis and white-wine sauce, in the proportion of one-third and two-thirds respectively, combined with the reduced cookingliquor of the chicken-turbot.

937- TURBOTIN FEUILLANTINE

Stuff the chicken-turbot after the method described in the preceding recipe, but substitute lobster mousseline forcemeat for that mentioned above.

Poach as directed above, and dish.

Coat the fish with lobster butter, made as red as possible, from the carcass of the lobster whose meat has been used for the forcemeat.

From head to tail and down the centre of the fish lay a row of fine slices of truffle, letting them overlap each other slightly. Frame the row of truffle with two lines of very white, poached oysters, so placed as to form a regular oval.

Send to the table, separately, a fine Bechamel sauce seasoned with cayenne.

938- COLD CHICKEN-TURBOT

My remarks relative to cold turbot apply here with even greater force, for chicken-turbots are particularly well suited to cold dishing.

The chicken-turbots to be served cold should not be too small; the best for the purpose would be those weighing four lbs. or more.

In dismissing the subject I can but recommend cold chickenturbot as a dish admitting of the most tasteful arrangement and decoration .

LOBSTER (HOMARD)

Whereas the ordinary lobster is a very favourite dish with English gourmets, the spiny kind has scarcely any vogue. This is no doubt accounted for by the fact that the former is not only very plentiful, but also of excellent quality, while the latter is comparatively scarce.

939- HOMARD A L'AM6RICAINE

The first essential condition is that the lobster should be a lijve. Sever and slightly crush the claws, with the view of withdrawing their meat after cooking; cut the tail into sections; split the carapace in two lengthwise, and remove th e queen_(a little bag jiear the head containing some graY filL„ Put aside, on a plate, ihe intestines and the coral, wEich will be used in the finishing of the sauce, and seasori the pieces of lobster with salt and pepper.

Put these pieces into a sautdpan containing one-sixth pint of oil an d one oz. of Jautter, both very hot. Fry them over an open fireunnl the meat has stiffened well and the carapace is of a fine red colour.

Then remove all grease by tilting the saut^pan on its side with its lid on; sprinkle the pieces of lobster with two chopped shallots and one crushed clove of garlic; add one-third pint of wJiite wine, one-quarter pint of fi_gh fume t, a small glassful of burnt bran dy, one tablespoonful of rnetted m eat-glaze, three "^small, fresRf pressed, and chopped tomatoes (or, failing fresh tomatoes, two tablespoonfuls of tomato puree), a pinch of concassedjy arsleY, and a very little cayenne. Cover the saut^pan, and set to cook in the oven for eighteen "or twenty minutes.

FISH 317

This done, transfer the pieces of lobster to a dish; withdraw the meat from the section of the tail and the claws, and put them in a timbale; set upright thereon the two halves of the carapace, and let them lie against each other. Keep the whole hot.

Now reduce the cooking-sauce of the lobster to one-third pint; add tKereto the intestines and the chopped coral, together with a piece of butter the size of a walnut; set to cook for a moment, and pass through a strainer.

Put this cullis into a vegetable-pan; heat it without letting it boil, and add, away from the fire, three oz. of butter cut into small pieces.

Pour this sauce over the pieces of lobster which have been kept hot, and sprinkle the whole with a pinch of concasse d and scalded parsley . r^'" "- 940- HOMARD A LA BORDELAISE

Section the live lobster as directed above.

Stiffen the meat and colour the carapace in a saut^pan with two oz. of clarified butter. When the meat is quite stiff and the carapace is red, pour away two-thirds of the butter. Then add two tablespoonfuls of chopped shallots, a crushed piece of garlic the size of a pea, one-sixth pint of white wine, three tablespoonfuls of burnt brandy, and reduce the whole to half. Complete with one-half pint of fish fumet, one-third pint of maigre Espagnole, one-quarter pint of tomato sauce, one small faggot, one pinch of salt, and a very little cayenne.

Put the lid on, and set to cook for one-quarter hour.

Take the meat from the sections of the tail and the claws, as in the case of the preparation k I'amdricaine; put these into a small saut^pan, and keep them hot. Add the intestines and the chopped coral, reduce the sauce to one-third pint; pass it through a strainer, and pour it over the pieces of lobster.

Heat the whole without boiling; add a few drops of lemon juice, two and one-half oz. of butter cut into small pieces, and one-half tablespoonful of chopped chervil and tarragon, and stir over the stove with the view of thoroughly mixing the whole.

Dish as directed in the preceding recipe.

941- HOMARD BOUILLI A LA HOLLANDAISE

Cook the lobster in a court-bouillon (No. 163), allowing twenty minutes for a specimen weighing two lbs.

As soon as the lobster is cooked, drain it; split it in two lengthwise without completely severing the two halves; lay it on a long dish covered with a napkin, and surround it with very green, curled-leaf parsley.

Serve with it, at the same time, a timbale of floury potatoes freshly cooked a I'anglaise, and a sauceboat of melted butter.

942- HOMARD A LA BROCHE

Select a lobster that seems full of life, and, after killing it, fix it on the spit. Put into the dripping-pan six oz. of butter, one-half bottle of champagne, salt, and peppercorns. In order to cook it to perfection, frequently baste it with this mixture, and allow one hour before a red fire for a specimen weighing three lbs. It may be dished with two accompaniments:¦ -

1. A hot ravigote sauce combined with the gravy of the lobster, from which all grease has been removed.

2. Strain the contents of the dripping-pan (cleared of all grease) through a fine sieve; reduce it by a quarter over a brisk fire; add three tablespoonfuls of meat-glaze, two tablespoonfuls of Worcestershire sauce, and a little chopped parsley, and finish this sauce with three oz. of butter and a few drops of lemon juice.

943- HOMARD CARDINAL

Plunge the live lobster into boiling court-bouillon, and cook it after the manner directed under " Homard k la Hollandaise " (No. 941).

The moment it is cooked, cut it in two lengthwise; withdraw the meat from the tail, slice it, and keep it hot in a little Cardinal sauce. Disconnect the claws; open them sideways, and withdraw all their meat without breaking them. Cut the withdrawn meat into dice, as also the creamy parts from the carapace, and add thereto their weight of cooked mushrooms and half that quantity of truffles - both of which products should also be in dice. Thicken this salpicon with a few tablespoonfuls of lobster sauce, and spread it in even layers on the bottom of each halfcarapace.

Reserve, however, two tablespoonfuls of it for garnishing the emptied claws.

Upon the salpicon lay the slices of lobster, kept hot, alternating these with fine slices of truffles. Set the two halfcarapaces, thus garnished, on a dish, and wedge them upright by means of the two claws.

Coat the slices and the claws with Cardinal sauce; sprinkle with grated cheese and melted butter; set to glaze quickly in a fierce oven or at the salamander, and serve instantly.

FISH 319

944- HOMARD CLARENCE

Cook the lobster in court-houillon, and drain it as soon as it is done.

When it is only lukewarm, split it open lengthwise; take the meat from the tail; slice it, and keep it hot in a vegetablepan with a few drops of fish fumet or the cooking-liquor of mushrooms.

Remove the remains of meat and the creamy parts from the carapace; pound the two former together with two tablespoonfuls of cream; strain through a fine sieve, and add to the resulting cullis one-half pint of Bechamel sauce with curry.

Garnish the two half-carapaces, two-thirds full, with rice a rindienne; set the slices of lobster on this rice, intercalating them with slices of truffle; coat thinly with the prepared Bechamel sauce, and set the two garnished and sauced halfcarapaces on a long, hot dish.

Send to the table, at the same time, a sauceboat containing Bdchamel with curry.

945- HOMARD A LA CRfeME

Proceed as for " Homard h la New-burg k cru " (No. 948), but swill with brandy ouIy; and add, immediately, four oz. of fresh, peeled truffles c ut into slices.

Moisten, almost sufficiently to cover, with very fresh, thin creani; season with salt and ca yenn e, and cook the lobster. Then take the meat from the carapaces, and put it into a timbale; reduce the cream to one-third pint, and mix therewith three tabl^spoonfuls of melted, white meat -glaze and a few drops of lem on juice.

' btram tills sauce through muslin, and pour it over the pieces of lobster.

946- HOMARD QRILL^

For this purpose, the lobster may be taken raw, but it is better, first, to have it three-parts cooked in court-bouillon.

Now split it into two lengthwise; sprinkle it with melted butter, and set it on the grill for its cooking to be completed.

Treated thus, the meat of the lobster does not harden as when it is grilled raw. Dish the grilled lobster on a napkin or on a drainer, after having broken the shell of the claws in order to facilitate the withdrawal of the meat, and surround with curled-leaf parsley.

Serve a " Devilled sauce Escoffier," or any other sauce suited to grilled fish, with the lobster, but remember that the first-named sauce is the fittest that could be found for this particular dish.

320 GUIDE TO Modern cookerV

947- HOMARD A LA MORNAY, otherwise AU QRATIN

Proceed in all points as directed under " Homard Cardinal " (No. 943), but substitute Mornay sauce for Cardinal.

Homard A la New-burg

This dish may be prepared in two ways - with raw lobster and with the latter cooked some time beforehand. The second way is the more correct, but the first, which is less troublesome to prepare, is more suited to the work of large establishments.

948- HOMARD A LA NEW-BURG (with raw lobster)

Cut up the live lobster, and fry it in oil and butter as explained under " Homard k I'Am^ricaine." When the pieces of lobster are stiffened and coloured, clear them of all grease; swill the saut^pan with one tablespoonful of burnt brandy and one-half pint of Marsala.

Reduce by a third; season, and add two-thirds pint of cream and one-sixth pint of fish fumet. Cover and set to cook for fifteen minutes.

Take out the pieces of lobster; withdraw the meat therefrom, and keep it hot in a covered timbale. Thicken the sauce with the reserved intestines and coral of the lobster, which should be chopped in combination with one oz. of butter.

Set to boil a second time; rub the sauce through tammy, and pour it over the pieces of lobster.

949- HOMARD A LA NEW-BURQ (with the lobster cooked)

Cook the lobster in court-bouillon. Remove the shell from the tail; take the meat therefrom, and cut it into regular slices. Lay these slices in a liberally-buttered saut^pan, season strongly, and heat the slices on both sides until the outside membrane acquires a fine red colour.

Moisten with enough Madeira to almost cover the slices, and reduce the moistening almost entirely. When dishing up, pour a leason, composed of one and one-quarter pints of cream and two egg-yolks, over the slices. Stir gently on the side of the fire until the thickening has been effected by the cooking of the egg-yolks, and serve in a lukewarm timbale.

950- HOMARD A LA PALESTINE

Cut up the live lobster and toss it in butter with a mirepoix

prepared in advance, as for crayfish intended for potage bisque.

Moisten with two-thirds pint of white wine, one pint of

Pish 321

fish fumet, and three tablespoonfuls of burnt brandy. Cover and cook for fifteen minutes.

Now detach the sections of the tail and the claws; withdraw the meat from them, and keep them hot in a small covered saucepan with a little butter. Pound the carapace and remains of the lobster in a mortar; fry them in four tablespoonfifls of very hot oil, and add thereto an ordinary mirepoix, cut very fine. Moisten with the cooking-liquor of the lobster, and set to cook for one-quarter hour. Strain through muslin; leave to stand for five minutes, that the oil may rise to the surface, and then completely remove it. Reduce this liquid to onequarter pint; thicken it with the reserved creamy parts of the lobster, rubbed through tammy, and two tablespoonfuls of fish velout^, and finish this sauce with two and one-half oz. of curry butter.

Arrange a border of pilaff rice (No. 2255) on the dish intended for the lobster; set the pieces of lobster, kept hot, in the centre, and coat these with a few tablespoonfuls of curry sauce.

Serve the remainder of the sauce separately.

951- M0USSELINE5 DE HOMARD

In the matter of crustaceans, the term mouss e stands, as a rule, for a cold preparation, whereas the term mousseline is only applied to warm dishes . The special mousselines or quenelles of lobster are made with a mousseline forcemeat, the recipe for which I gave under No. 195. This forcemeat is prepared with the raw meat of the lobster.

As with the other crustaceans, their meat produces forcemeat which is somewhat too flimsy to be spoon-moulded, and it is preferable to goach it in special well-buttered quenelle- or dariole-m,oulds . y^ Mousselines are poached under cover in a moderate oven.^" -

All the garnishes and sauces given in respect of salmon m,ousselines may be applied here. The reader will therefore refer to: -

Mousselines de Saumon Alexandra (No. 798).

Mousselines de Saumon k la Tosca (No. 799).

952- SOUFFLES DE HOMARD

For lobster souffles the same forcemeat is used as for the mousselines; but, unlike the latter, it is poached in the halfcarapaces of the lobster, the meat of which has served in its preparation. The procedure is as follows: - First cook the two half-carapaces carefully, that they may not lose their shape in the process.

Y

322 GUIDE TO MODEilN COOKERY

After having drained and dried tiiem, fill them with mousseline forcemeat and surround them with strong, buttered paper, which should be tied on with string, and should overreach the edges of the carapaces by one inch.

The object of this measure is to prevent the forcemeat from spilling during the poaching.

Lay the two garnished carapaces on a tray containing just enough boiling water to moisten its whole surface. Put the tray in a moderate oven or in a steamer, and allow from fifteen to twenty minutes for the souffle to poach.

This done, carefully drain the two carapaces; remove the paper holding in the forcemeat; dish them on a napkin, and surround them with bunches of very green, curled-leaf parsley. Serve separately a sauce in keeping with the preparation; i.e., a Normande, a White-wine, a Diplomate, or a Bechamel finished with lobster butter, &c.

N.B. - The above constitutes the model-recipe of lobster souffle, and I need scarcely point out that the latter may be varied almost indefinitely in accordance with the fancy of the cook and the taste of the consumer.

Thus the forcemeat may be garnished with truffles in dice, slices of lobster, milt, or poached oysters, &c., which garnishes may also be laid on the souffle when it is finished. I therefore leave to the operator, who should now see his way quite clearly, the task of imagining the various possible combinations, a description of which would but unnecessarily delay the progress of this work.

953- COLD LOBSTER WITH VARIOUS SAUCES

Cook the lobster in court-bouillon, and let it cool in the latter. Drain it, sever the claws, and break them open in order to withdraw their meat. Split the lobster into two lengthwise, remove the intestines and the queen, and dish it on a napkin. Lay the claws on either side of it, and surround it either with curled-leaf parsley or with a few hearts of lettuce.

Send to the table separately one of the derivative sauces of the Mayonnaise (Nos. 123 to 132).

954- ASPIC DE HOMARD

Under " Aspic de filets de soles " (No. 915), I pointed out the preparatory principles of an aspic; in this case, therefore, I shall only refer to the various details very cursorily.

Let a thin coating of white fish jelly set on the bottom of an aspic-mould incrusted in ice. The reader is reminded of the great care that must be observed in the preparation of an

FISH 323

aspic jelly, that the latter be limpid, succulent, and just sufficiently firm hot to break when withdrawn from the mould. Decorate the bottom of the mould with bits of truffle, poached white of egg, lobster coral, capers, and tarragon leaves.

The decorative design cannot be described; it must be left to the taste and fancy of the operator.; all I can urge is that it be as regular and symmetrical as possible.

Fix the decoration iSy means of a few drops of jelly; then cover the whole with a thickness of one inch of the same jelly, and leave the latter to set. Upon this layer of jelly arrange rows of thin slices of lobster meat and slices of truffles placed alternately and slightly overlapping. Now add enough jelly to cover these slices, and continue filling up the mould with varying layers consisting respectively of jelly (one inch thick) and the slices above described.

When about to serve, dip the mould in hot water; dry it, and turn out the aspic upon a dish covered with a napkin.

955- CbTELETTES DE HOMARD ARKANQEL

Prepare a salpicon of lobster meat in dice combined with its weight of caviare, the whole quantity being in proportion to the number of cotelettes required.

Thicken the salpicon with an equal quantity of lobster mousse (No. 956), and at once garnish some moderately oiled cutlet-moulds with the preparation. As soon as the latter has set, turn out the cutlets; coat them with a fish chaud-froid sauce, finished with lobster butter; and deck each with a fine, grooved slice of truffle. Glaze them with cold melted jelly, and keep them in the cool until required to be served.

Arrange them in a circle on a round dish; garnish the centre with chopped white jelly, and serve a Russian salad separately.

956- MOUSSE DE HOMARD

Cook the lobster in a few tablespoonfuls of previouslyprepared fine mirepoix, one half-bottle of white wine, and a small glass of burnt brandy. Leave to cool in the cookingliquor. Now split the lobster in two, with the view of withdrawing its meat. Finely pound the latter while adding thereto, little by little, one-third pint of cold fish velout6 per lb. of meat. Rub through a sieve; put the resulting pur^e in a vegetable-pan lying on ice, and stir for a few minutes. This done, add a little good fish jelly, melted and cold, and onethird pint of barely-whipped cream. Taste; rectify the seasoning, and warm it slightly with cayenne.

Y 2 957- MOUSSE DE HOMARD MOULEE

When the mousse is intended for moulding, it is well to decorate and " clothe " the mould with fish jelly some time in advance. I have already explained that to " clothe " a mould with jelly, all that is needed is to pour therein a few tablespoonfuls of melted jelly, and then to rock the utensil on ice. By this means a thin even coating sets on the bottom and sides of the mould, which, when the moulding is turned out, swathes the latter in a transparent film.

This " clothing " of jelly may be made more or less thick, according to the requirements, by simply using more or less jelly, and by proportionately lengthening or shortening the time for rocking the mould.

When the mould is clothed, decorate the sides with large slices of very black truffle dipped in melted jelly, that they may stick.

This done, fill the receptacle with the prepared mousse (see the preceding recipe), and leave to set in the cool.

For the turning out of the mould and the dishing of the moulding, proceed as for the aspic.

9S8- PETITES MOUSSES DE HOMARD

For these small mousses, use little cassolettes or silver timbales. First let a thin layer of jelly (one or two tablespoonfuls, according to their size) set on the bottom of each utensil, and then surround the latter with bands of white paper, the ends of which should be stuck together, and should reach one inch above the brims of the cassolettes. The preparation of mousse may now be placed in the cassolettes in a sufficient quantity to overflow the brims, so that, when the paper is removed, their appearance is that of small souffles.

When the cassolettes have been garnished, put them aside on ice or in a refrigerator until they are served.

959- HOMARD A LA QRAMMONT

Split the lobster open lengthwise down the middle. Withdraw the meat from the tail; trim it, and cut it into regular collops. Coat the latter again and again with aspic jelly, that they may be well covered with it; decorate each with a slice of truffle, and glaze it with the same aspic.

Also coat with jelly as many very white poached and dried oysters as there are collops.

Now take the creamy parts and the meat of the claws, and pound them finely with one tablespoonful of cold Bechamel

FISH 325

sauce; rub through a sieve, and, with the resulting pur^e combined with melted fish jelly and cream (see lobster mousse No. 956), prepare a mousse " au paprika " of a decided pink colour.

Fill the two half-carapaces to their edges with this mousse, and leave it to set on ice.

When about to serve, lay the collops, glazed with jelly, upon this m,ousse, and place an oyster between each pair. Dish the two garnished half-carapaces, back to back, upon a napkin, and put the heart of a lettuce in the middle, and a bunch of curled-leaf parsley at either end.

Serve a mayonnaise or other cold sauce separately.

960- HOMARD A LA PARISIENNE

Tie a lobster to a little board; stretch out its tail to the fullest extent; cook it in court-bouillon, and leave it to cool in the latter.

When it is quite cold, with the help of scissors, carefully cut a strip of the shell from the back of the head to the tail. The aperture left by the removed strip of shell ought to be sufficiently wide to allow of the meat of the tail being removed without breaking it. Having emptied the tail, refill it with salad leaves, and return the strip of shell (upside down) to its place. Cut the meat of the tail into even collops, and lay on each a roundel of truffle stamped out with the fancy-cutter, and dipped in half-melted jelly. Then coat these slices, which should be on a dish, again and again, with cold melted jelly until they are well covered with it.

Now break the claws and remove their meat, as also that remaining in the carapace, and cut both meats into dice. Take the creamy parts, and rub them through a sieve.

Prepare a small vegetable salad; add thereto the meat dice, and cohere the two with a mayonnaise sauce combined with melted jelly and the creamy parts rubbed through a sieve. When the salad begins to set, owing to the jelly contained in the mayonnaise, garnish twelve small artichoke-bottoms with it, arranging the salad in them in pyramid form. Set a bit of truffle on each pyramid, and sprinkle the salad with melted fish jelly in order to make it glossy.

Dishing. - Dish the lobster on a cushion of buttered bread on which a julienne of lettuce has been stuck, or on one of carved rice. The cushion should have the shape of a wedge, in order that the lobster may lie at an angle of about 45", with its head raised, when laid upon it. Arrange the slices (slightly overlapping one another) along the back of the lobster, be ginning at its head with the smallest of them, and progressing down towards the tail, gradually increasing their size.

Surround the lobster alternately with artichoke-bottoms garnished with salad, and quartered hard-boiled eggs, or halved hard-boiled eggs (set upright with their yolks facing outwards).

Border the dish with very clear jelly in large cubes or triangles, etc. 961- HOMARD A LA RUSSE

Proceed exactly as above with regard to the cooking of the lobster, the extraction of the meat, and the cutting of it into slices. Coat the slices with mayonnaise sauce combined with melted jelly; or, better still, with a white fish chaud-froid sauce combined with the lobster's creamy parts rubbed through a sieve.

Decorate each slice with a bit of coral and two little chervil leaves; coat them again and again with cold melted aspic, and put them aside in the cool. " Clothe " ten dariole-moulds, and decorate the bottom of each with a slice of truffle. Also prepare ten hard-boiled eggs.

Prepare a Salade Russe (without meat); add to this the remains of the lobster meat cut into dice, and thicken with mayonnaise and melted aspic, mixed. With this thickened salad fill the dariole-moulds, and leave to set in the cool.

Dishing. - Set the lobster on a cushion, after the manner of the preceding recipe. Trim the slices, and lay them, as before, on the lobster's back, taking care to graduate their sizes. Surround the lobster with the small moulded salads, and alternate these with the hard-boiled eggs. The latter should be cut in two at a point one-third of their height above their base; their yolks should be removed, the space filled with caviare moulded to the form of a pyramid, and, this done, the eggs should be set upright.

Border the dish with roundels of very clear fish jelly, stamped out by a fancy-cutter, and lay a bit of truffle upon each.

N.B. - (i) The moulds of salad must, of course, be dipped in hot water before being turned out.

(2) The lobster may also be served " k la N6va," " k la Moscovite, " " kla Sib6rienne," &c., but these preparations are only minor forms of " Homard h la Russe" under different names.

Changes may be effected in the preparation by altering the constituents of the salad and its dishing. It may, for instance, be made in small cucumber or beetroot barquettes, while the caviare, instead of being laid in hard-boiled eggs, may be served in little pleated cases.

FISH 327

As these preparations, however, are based neither on fixed principles nor on classical rules, I shall refrain from giving them.

962- MAYONNAISE DE HOMARD

Proceed as for Mayonnaise de Saumon - that is to say, garnish the bottom of a salad-bowl with ciseled lettuce leaves, and season them moderately.

Upon this salad lay the remains of the lobster, and upon the latter place the thin slices of the tail. Cover with mayonnaise sauce, and decorate with strips of anchovy fillets, capers, olives, hard-boiled eggs, roundels of pink radishes, the hearts of lettuce, &c.

N.B. - I have already pointed out the futility of prescribing a decorative design. As a rule, the matter is so intimately connected with the taste and fancy of the individual, and the products used for the purpose lend themselves to such indefinite variation, that I prefer merely to enumerate these products, and to leave the question of their arrangement to the artistic ingenuity of the operator.

963- SALADE DE HOMARD

See " Salade de Saumon" (No. 810). As the preparation and seasoning of the latter are identical with those of the dish under consideration, all that is needed is to replace the salmon of recipe No. 810 by the collops of lobster.

Spiny Lobsters. CL angouste.')

All culinary preparations dealing with lobsters may be adapted to spiny lobsters. There is, therefore, no need to repeat them here. Of the cold recipes, two are much better suited to the spiny than to the ordinary kind, though, as they are used for both specimens, I gave them earlier in the book. The two recipes referred to are: -

964- LANQOUSTE A LA PARISIENNE; see LOBSTER,

recipe 960. 965- LANQOUSTE A LA RUSSE; see LOBSTER, recipe 961.

Crayfish. (Ecrevisses.)

When crayfish are prepared after one of the recipes most commonly used on the Continent, i.e., whole, they are not much relished in England. This is doubtless accounted for by the fact that ladies, dining in evening dress, find them somewhat difficult to manage.

They are therefore only served in the form of an aspic, a mousse, mousselines, timbales, &c., or as the garnish of some other fish; for in all these cases they are shelled.

Be all this as it may, I give below the various recipes relating to them, and from among these it ought to be possible to choose one which will meet the requirements of any particular case.

966 ECREVISSES A LA BORDELAISE

N.B. - Whatever be their _mode of preparation, crayfish should always be thoroughly cleansed and cleared of their intestines, the extreme end of which is to be found under the middle of the tail. In order to remove the intestines, take the telson or tail-segment between the point of a small knife and the thumb, and pull gently. If this were not done, the intestines, especially in the breeding season, might render the crayfish disagreeably bitter.

As soon as their intestines have been removed, the crayfish should be set to cook, otherwise, i.e., if they be left to wait, their juices escape through the anal wound, and they empty.

For twelve crayfish, after having cleaned and eviscerated them, put them into a vegetable-pan with one tablespoonful of very fine mirepoix, completely cooked beforehand, and twothirds oz. of butter. Toss them over an open fire until the shells have acquired a fine, red colour. Moisten with three tablespoonfuls of burnt brandy and one-quarter pint of white wine; reduce by a third, and complete with one tablespoonful of Espagnole, two tablespoonfuls of fish fumet, the same quantity of tomato pur^e, and one spoonful of special mirepoix (No. 229).

Put the lid on, and set to cook for ten minutes.

Dish the crayfish in a timbale; reduce the sauce by a quarter, and finish it with a few drops of meat glaze, one oz. of butter, a very little cayenne, chopped chervil, and tarragon. Pour this over the crayfish, and serve instantly.

967- 6CREVISSES A LA MARINIERE

In the case of twelve crayfish, toss them in two-thirds oz. of butter over an open fire, until the shells are of a fine red. Season with salt and pepper; add two finely chopped shallots, a bit of thyme and a bit of bay; moisten with one-third pint of white wine; cover; cook for ten minutes, and dish in a timbale.

Reduce the cooking-liquor to half; thicken with two tablespoonfuls of fish velout^; finish the sauce with one oz. of butter, and pour it over the crayfish.

FISH 329

Sprinkle with a pinch of chopped parsley, and serve at once.

968- ECREVISSES A LA NAQE

For twelve crayfish, ten minutes beforehand prepare a courtbouillon of one-half pint of white wine, one-quarter pint of fish jumet, a few roundels of carrot and onion, one stalk of parsley cut into dice, a small pinch of powdered thyme and bay, and a very little salt and cayenne pepper.

Put the crayfish into the boiling court-bouillon; cover, and leave to cook for ten minutes, taking care to toss the crayfish from time to time.

When about to serve, pour the crayfish with the courtbouillon and the aromatics into a timbale.

969- 6CREVISSES A LA LIEQEOISE

Cook the crayfish in court-bouillon as eJcplained in the preceding recipe. Dish them in a timbale, and keep them hot. Strain the court-bouillon; reduce it by a quarter; add one oz. of butter, and pour it over the crayfish.

Sprinkle with a pinch of concussed parsley.

970- MOUSSELINES D'ECREVISSES

What I said with reference to " Mousseline de Homard " (No. 951) applies perfectly here, and my remarks relative to the variation of the garnishing ingredients, which are the same as those in No. 951, also hold good.

971- TIMBALE DE QUEUES D'ECREVISSES A LA NANTUA

For ten people prepare (i) a shallow timbale crust, and a cover decorated with a design of leaves or some other ornamental treatment; (2) toss sixty crayfish in butter with two tablespoonfuls of very fine mirepoix cooked in butter beforehand. When the crayfish are of a distinct red, moisten with one glass of white wine and three tablespoonfuls of burned brandy; season with salt and cayenne pepper; cover them, and keep them on the side of the fire for ten minutes, taking care to toss them again from time to time; (3) shell the tails and put them into a small saucepan with twenty small quenelles of whiting forcemeat, finished with crayfish butter; fifteen small, grooved mushrooms, cooked and very white, and three oz. of truffles in slices. Add a few drops of the mushroom cooking-liquor to this garnish, and keep it hot; (4) pound the remains and carcasses of the crayfish very finely; add two-thirds pint of cream sauce to the resulting pur6e; rub it through tammy, and add it to the garnish; (5) when about to serve, pour this garnish into the timbale crust, which should be very hot, and deck the top with a crown of fine slices of very black truffle. Close the timbale with its cover, and dish it on a napkin.

972- SOUFFLE D'lSCREVISSES A LA FLORENTINE

Make a preparation of Souffle au Parmesan (No. 2295A) combined with two tablespoonfuls of crayfish cream per pint. The cream is prepared after the manner of lobster cream (No. 295).

Put this preparation in a buttered timbale in alternate layers separated by litters of sliced truffle and crayfish tails. Cook the souffle after the manner of an ordinary one.

973- SOUFFLE D'ECREVISSES LEOPOLD DE ROTHSCHILD

Prepare a souffle as above, and add thereto a bare tablespoonful of freshly-cooked asparagus and slices of truffle, and crayfish tails placed between the layers of the souffle preparation. Cook as above.

974- S0UFFL6 D'jgCREVISSES A LA PI^MONTAISE

This is identical with No. 972, except that the ordinary truffles are replaced by shavings of Piedmont truffles.

975- ASPIC DE QUEUES D'ECREVISSES A LA MODERNE

Cook twelve fine crayfish in accordance with the directions under No. 996, but substitute champagne for the white wine.

Shell the tails; trim them evenly; cut them in two lengthwise, and keep them in the cool until they are wanted. Remove the creamy parts from the carapaces of the crayfish; add the trimmings of the tails, the meat from the claws, and the mirepoix in which the crayfish have cooked.

Pound the whole very finely in a mortar, and rub it through a sieve. Put the resulting pur^e in a receptacle; add thereto one-quarter pint of very cold, melted aspic, and three tablespoonfuls of barely beaten cream. Leave this preparation to settle.

Trim the crayfish carapaces; fill them with a little prepared mousse, and decorate each carapace with a small roundel of truffle.

Put the remainder of the mousse in the middle of a little crystal bowl, and mould it to the shape of a cone, narrow towards the base, and as high as possible.

Arrange the garnished crayfish carapaces on their backs in the bowl around the cone of mousse, and set some crayfish tails in superposed rings up the cone. The crayfish tails should

FISH 331

be dipped in half-melted jelly, that they may stick fast to the cone. Lay a small, very round truffle on the top of the cone to complete the decoration. This done, coat the whole again and again by means of a spoon with half-melted, succulent, clear fish jelly, and incrust the timbale in a block of ice, or set it amidst the latter broken up.

976- MOUSSE D'ECREVISSES

For ten people cook thirty crayfish as for potage Bisque. This done, remove the tails, and reserve a dozen fine carapaces. Finely pound the remainder, together with the mirepoix in which the crayfish have cooked, and add thereto one-half oz. of butter, one oz. of red butter (No. 142), one-quarter pint of cold fish velout^, and six tablespoonfuls of melted fish jelly. Rub through tammy, and put the resulting pur^e in a saucepan; stir it over ice for two or three minutes; add three-quarters pint of half-beaten cream, and the crayfish tails cut into dice or finely sliced.

Before beginning to prepare the mousse, line the bottom and side of a Charlotte-mould with paper, that the mousse may be moulded as soon as ready.

Pour the preparation into the mould, taking care to' reserve enough for the twelve carapaces already put aside, and put the mousse on ice or in a refrigerator until dishing it. Fill the twelve trimmed carapaces with the reserved mousse, and decorate each with a round slice of truffle. When about to serve, turn out the mousse on a small, round cushion of semolina or rice, one-half inch thick, lying on a dish. Remove all the paper, and decorate the top of the mousse with a crown of fine slices of truffle dipped in melted jelly, that they may be glossy.

Surround the semolina or rice cushion with a border of chopped jelly, and arrange the garnished carapaces upon this jelly, setting them almost upright.

N.B. - (i) Instead of being served on a cushion, the crayfish mousse may be sent to the table in a deep silver dish with a border of chopped jelly, and surrounded by the garnished carapaces. The utensil is then laid on a flat dish in a bed of broken ice, or it is incrusted direct in a block of carved ice.

(2) For the moulding of crayfish mousse, the mould may be "clothed" with fish jelly and decorated with slices of truffle, as directed under " Mousse de Homard moul^e " (No. 957).

A mousse prepared in this way may be either dished on a semolina or rice cushion, or in a deep silver entree dish, as described above. 976a- SUPRfeMES D'ECREVISSES AU CHAMPAGNE

Select forty medium-sized crayfish that seem full of life; cooli them quickly in a highly-seasoned mirepoix, moistened with one half-bottle of dry champagne. This done, shell them; trim their tails, and keep them in the cool in a small bowl. Pound their shells as finely as possible with one-quarter lb. of fresh butter, and put the resulting pur^e in a saucepan, together with one-half pint of boiling velout^ containing four or five leaves of gelatine, and the cooking-liquor of the crayfish passed through a fine strainer.

Set to boil for a few minutes, that the remains may exude all their flavour; rub through tammy over a basin lying on ice, and whisk the preparation in order to accelerate its cooling. As soon as it begins to thicken, add one pint of halfwhipped cream to it. Then pour the whole into a silver or porcelain timbale, taking care that the utensil be not more than three-quarters full.

When the mousse has set, decorate the surface with the reserved crayfish tails, to which are added, as a finish, bits of truffle and chervil leaves. Cover the decoration with a thin coating of easily-melting and amber-coloured fish jelly, and put the timbale on ice. When about to serve, incrust it in a block of carved ice, or place it on a silver dish with broken ice all round.

977- MOUSSE D'ECREVISSES CARDINAL

For ten people cook the crayfish as explained in No. 976, but take forty instead of thirty. Shell the tails; trim them and cut them into dice. Prepare the mousse in the same way, but use twice as much red butter. Garnish twelve carapaces after the same manner, and decorate each with a slice of truffle.

Clothe a dome- or Charlotte-mould somewhat thickly with jelly; garnish its bottom and sides with crayfish tails, previously dipped in half-melted jelly, and arranged in superposed rows; and place the crayfish so that the tails of the first row lie to the left, those of the second row to the right, and so on. As often as possible, do this work before preparing the mousse, in order that the latter may be put into the mould as soon as ready.

When about to fill the mould, add twenty fine slices of truffle to the mousse. Dish after one of the two methods directed in the appended note to No. 970, and take care to dip the mould quickly into hot water before attempting to turn out its contents.

FISH 333

978- PETITS SOUFFLES FROIDS D'^CREVISSES

Prepare the crayfish mousse as directed under No. 976, and replace the fish velout^ by cold Bechamel. The addition of sauce is even unnecessary in this case, and the preparation may be all the more delicate for consisting only of the crayfish cullis and two tablespoonfuls of fish jelly.

For the moulding of these small souffles I can only repeat what I said under " Petites Mousses de Homard " (No. 958). Let a thin coating of jelly set on the bottom of the small cassolettes or timbales used; garnish their insides with a band of white paper, reaching one, inch above their brims; stick the end of this band with a little batter.

Now garnish the timbales with mousse, letting it project above their edges to the extent of two-thirds of an inch, and leave it to set in the cool. When about to serve, remove the band of paper, holding in the projecting mousse, and the appearance of the garnished timbales is exactly that of small, hot souffles. Allow one souffle for each person.

979- SHRIMPS AND PRAWNS (Crevettes Qrises

et Crevettes Roses)

Prawns are chiefly used for hors-d'oeuvres, but they may, nevertheless, be prepared in Aspics; Mousses; small cold Souffles, &c.

As regards shrimps, their use is entirely limited to garnishes, hors-d'ceuvres, and to the preparation of soups, shrimp butters, and creams.

OYSTERS. (HUlTRES.)

Though oysters are nicer raw, there are so many culinary preparations of which they form the leading constituent, and such a number of garnishing uses to which they may be put, that I feel compelled to mention some of these.

980- HUiTRES A LA FAVORITE

Poach the oysters (cleared of their beards) in their own liquor, which should have been carefully collected when opening them. Clean their hollow shells, and place them on a tray covered with a layer of salt one-half inch thick. Garnish them with Bechamel; upon the latter, in each shell, lay an oyster decked with a slice of truffle; cover with the same sauce; besprinkle with grated Parmesan and melted butter, and set to glaze quickly. Serve immediately. 981- HUITRES AU QRATIN

Open the oysters; cut them free, and lay them in the hollow halves of their shells, which should be incrusted in a layer of salt covering a tray. On each oyster put a drop of lemon juice, a pinch of fried bread-crumbs, a little melted butter, and a piece of fresh butter the size of a pea.

Set the gratin to form in a fierce oven or at the salamander, and serve immediately.

982- HUITRES A LA MORNAY

Poach the oysters, and allow two per shell.

Set the hollow shells, thoroughly cleansed, on a tray covered with salt. Cover the bottom of the shells with Mornay sauce; put two poached oysters into each; cover with the same sauce; sprinkle with grated cheese and melted butter, and set to glaze quickly. Serve instantly.

983- HUITRES SOUFFLEES

Make a preparation of SoufH6 au Parmesan (No. 2295A). Slightly poach the oysters, clean their hollow shells, and set these on a tray covered with kitchen salt. Spread a layer of the preparation on each shell; put an oyster thereon, and cover the latter with the soufE16 au Parmesan.

Heat the base of the tray on the stove, and, when the souffle begins to rise, put the tray in the oven, that the souffle may cook and colour at the same time. Serve at once.

984- HuITRES A LA FLORENTINE

Poach the oysters. Set their hollow shells on a tray as above; garnish the bottom of each of these with shredded spinach stewed in butter; lay an oyster on the spinach in each shell; cover with Mornay sauce, and set to glaze quickly. Serve immediately.

985- HUiTRES QRILLEES

Open the oysters, and leave them in their hollow shells; lay them (very straight) on a tray covered with salt, incrusting them in the latter; besprinkle with a drop of lemon juice and a little mignonette pepper and put them in a fierce oven, that their top surfaces may be speedily poached.

Dish them on a napkin; pour a coffeespoonful of "Sauce Diable Escoffier " over each,^ and serve directly.

986- QUENELLES D'HUITRES A LA REINE

With four oz. of chicken fillets and six raw oysters, prepare a mousseline forcemeat in accordance with the directions given

FISH 335

under No, 195. Mould this forcemeat, by means of a tablespoon, into large quenelles, in the centre of which lay two cold poached oysters.

Poach these quenelles after the manner of ordinary mousselines. This done, drain them on a piece of linen; arrange them in a circle on a round dish, and cover them with highlyseasoned Supreme sauce. Decorate each quenelle with a fine slice of truffle, and garnish the middle of the dish with some asparagus-tops, cohered with butter.

987- BASS (Bar)

This excellent fish is very little knownj and, consequently, rarely sought after in England.

The large specimens are served, boiled, with the same kind of sauce as for turbot. The smaller ones are chiefly served k la Meuni^re or fried.

988- BRILL (Barbue)

Served whole, brill may be looked upon as the understudy, as it were, of the chicken-turbot, and all the preparations given for the latter may be adapted to the former.

If it be preferred filleted, it may be treated after the recipes given for fillets of sole. Hence for brill cooked whole refer to chicken-turbot and the recipes Nos. 925 to 938, and for filleted brill see recipes Nos. 865 to 922.

989- BLOATERS

Bloaters, or herrings partially dried in smoke, form one of the nicest breakfast dishes. As a rule, they are simply grilled over a moderate fire. It should be borne in mind that, as these fish are only partially salted and smoked, they will not keep very long.

COD. (CABILLAUD.)

If cod were less common, it would be held in as high esteem as salmon; for, when it is really fresh and of good quality, the delicacy and delicious flavour of its flesh admit of its ranking among the finest of fish.

990- CABILLAUD BOUILLI

Fresh cod is mostly served boiled, either whole, in sections, or in dames, and the directions given under "The Boiling of Fish " (No. 766) apply particularly to this fish.

Boiled fresh cod is always accompanied by its liver, poached in salted water, and very floury potatoes, boiled at the last minute, must always be sent to the table with it.

Served thus with an oyster sauce, a Hollandaise sauce, or melted butter, fresh cod constitutes a Relev^ which would satisfy the most exacting of gourmets.

991- CABILLAUD QRILL6

Cut the fish into slices one inch or two inches thick. Season these slices; dredge them; sprinkle them copiously with melted butter, and set them to grill, remembering to baste them frequently the while with melted butter.

Serve them on a hot dish; garnish them with slices of lemon, and surround with bunches of parsley.

Send a Maitre-d' Hotel or Anchovy butter, or a grilled-fish sauce to the table with the dish.

992- CABILLAUD FRIT

Cut some slices of fresh cod, from one inch to one and onehalf inches thick. Season them, treat them a I'anglaise, and fry them sufficiently to allow of their being well cooked all through. Dish them on a napkin with fried parsley and lemon, and send a butter sauce (No. 66), a tartare sauce, or a tomato sauce to the table at the same time as the fish.

993-CABILLAUD CREME QRATIN

For ten people take two lbs. of boiled fresh cod divided into small pieces; clear these of all bones and skin, and keep them hot in a little of their cooking-liquor.

Now, with the necessary quantity of Duchesse potatoes (No. 221), and by means of a piping-bag fitted with a grooved pipe, lay a border, one and one-half inches high, round a dish, shaping it in such wise that it is thickest at its base. The dish may be either round or oval. Carefully gild this border with eggyolks.

This done, pour a few tablespoonfuls of Mornay sauce on the dish; lay thereon the drained pieces of cod, and cover the latter with enough Mornay sauce to reach within one-third of an inch of the brim of the border. If more sauce were used, it would flow over the border during the process of glazing.

Sprinkle with grated Parmesan and melted butter; set to glaze, and see that the border gets evenly coloured.

Serve the moment the dish is withdrawn from the oven.

N.B. - This mode of preparation is not restricted to fresh cod. It may be applied to all other boiled fish - turbot, chickenturbot, brill, bass, salmon, &c.

994- CABILLAUD A LA FLAMANDE

Cut the fresh cod into slices one inch thick; season them with salt, pepper, and nutmeg, and put them in a saut^pan or a

PISH 337

deep, liberally-buttered tray. Moisten with white wine to the height of the slices; add chopped shallots and " fines herbes," and garnish the fish with roundels of pipped lemon, peeled to the pulp.

Set to boil, and then poach in the oven for twelve minutes. Place the slices on a dish; thicken their cooking-liquor with crushed biscotte; cook it for five minutes; pour it over the slices, and serve.

995- CABILLAUD A LA PORTUQAISE

For ten people, cut five slices of fresh cod, each weighing one-half lb., and season them with salt and pepper. Put these slices into a saut^pan containing the following garnish, Into which they should be pressed: - Three oz. of butter and onesixth pint of oil; one large onion, chopped and lightly coloured in butter; a bit of crushed garlic the size of a pea; one faggot; two pinches of concassed parsley; eight medium-sized, peeled, pressed, and minced tomatoes, and one-third pint of white wine.

Cover the saut^pan, and set to boil on an open fire for five minutes.

Now take the lid off the saucepan, and leave it to cook for twelve minutes on the side of the fire, in order that the liquid may be reduced and the fish cooked at the same moment of time.

Set the slices on a long dish; withdraw the faggot, and pour the garnish and the cooking-liquor over the fish.

996- LAITANCES DE CARPE (Carp's Milt)

The milt of a carp makes a very delicate dish. It is served either as a second fish at a dinner; as a garnish to large fish Relev^s, after having been poached in salted water; or cut while raw into slices which are generally treated a la Meuniere.

997- LAITANCES A LA MEUNIERE

Prepare them whole or in collops, in pursuance of the directions given under "The Cooking of Fish k la Meuniere"

(No. 778).

998- BARQUETTES DE LAITANCES A LA FLORENTINE

Poach the milts in salted water; cut them into small, long slices, and set them in barquette crusts prepared in advance.

Cover the sliced milts with a souffle au Parmesan (No. 2295a), and shape the latter slightly after the manner of a dome.

Arrange the barquettes on a dish, and put them in a moderate oven, that they may cook and the souffle be glazed at the same

z time. When taking them out of the oven, dish them on a napkin and serve immediately.

999- CAISSES DE LAITANCES A LA NANTUA

Poach the milts in salted water. Drain them, and cut them into small slices thicker than their length.

Place these slices in small pleated porcelain cases with two crayfish tails in each. Fill up the cases with Nantua sauce, and lay a fine slice of truffle over the centre of each case.

looo- JOHN DORY (St. Pierre)

This fish, which is in the highest degree unsightly, is possessed of flesh whose firmness, whiteness, and delicacy are of the rarest excellence; and, when quite fresh, its fillets are certainly equal in quality to those of the chicken-turbot and the sole.

Albeit the dory is not as popular as it deserves to be, and this is owing either to its unsightliness, which may prejudice the opinion of gourmets against it, to people's indifference with regard to it, or to a mere trick of fashion.

While I admit its unpopularity, however, I should strongly recommend all lovers of fish to give it a trial. Let them prepare the dory's fillets after the recipes given under Fillets of Sole and Chicken-turbot, and, provided the directions be properly carried out, I venture to believe that the prevailing aversion to dory will very soon be found to have no warrant in fact.

looi- FRESH HADDOCK (Eglefin)

This fish is chiefly eaten smoked, under the name of haddock.

When it is fresh, it may be prepared after the recipes given for cod, to which it is quite equal in the matter of delicacy.

I002- SMELT (^perlans)

Owing to their small size, smelts only lend themselves to a very limited number of preparations. They are usually served either on little skewers or dished in a heap on a napkin, with fried parsley and grooved half-lemons; those on skewers are dished flat with the same garnish.

Large smelts may be treated after the recipes immediately following.

1003- 6PERLANS A L'ANQLAISE

Open the smelts down the back and carefully bone, without disfiguring them. Treat them a I'anglaise with fine breadcrumbs, and pat them lightly with the flat of a knife, that the bread-crumbs may adhere well.

FISH 339

Cook them in clarified butter; set them on a long hot dish, and besprinkle them with half-melted butter h la Maltre-d'H6tel (No. 150).

1004- EPERLANS AU QRATIN

Proceed as for " Merlans au Gratin " (No. 1018), but allowing for the difference between the sizes of the two fish, put the smelts in a fiercer oven than the whiting, in order that they may be cooked simultaneously with the formation of the gratin.

1005- EPERLANS QRILLI6S

Open them down the back, and remove the bulk of their spine, leaving a small piece only in the region of the tail, and another small piece at the head. Season, dredge, and sprinkle them with melted butter, and grill them quickly.

Set them on a long, hot dish; surround them with slices of lemon and bunches of fried parsley, and serve separately either some half-melted butter k la Maitre-d'H6tel, or a sauce suited to grilled fish.

1006- MOUSSELINES D'^PERLANS

Proceed exactly as for Mousselines de Saumon (No. 797). To prepare the forcemeat, follow the directions under No. 195; but note the following changes: - Of the whole quantity of the meat of fish, that of the smelt should only measure one-third; the other two-thirds should be supplied by the sole, dory, or whiting.

The object of this disproportion has already been explained under " Velout^ d'Eperlans " (No. 680). The flesh of the smelt is of a much too decided flavour to be used alone, and when this flavour dominates, it becomes positively disagreeable; hence the need of a fish whose flesh is almost neutral in so far as taste is concerned. But this addition of a fish foreign to the base of the preparation fulfils a double purpose; for, while it effectually weakens the pungency of the smelt's flesh, it also enables the whole preparation to absorb a much larger quantity of cream, and this last circumstance can only allow of the mousselines being lighter and mellower.

1007- MOUSSE CHAUDE D'EPERLANS A LA ROYALE

Take a Charlotte-mould, of a size in proportion to the number of people to be served, and butter its bottom and sides. Cover the bottom of the mould with a round piece of buttered kitchen paper, and do the same on the sides.

Prepare the required quantity of smelts' fillets; slightly flatten them in order to break their fibres, and trim them all to the same length and width.

z 2 Then garnish the bottom of the mould with tlie fillets of smelt, placing them so that their skin-sides are against the mould. Between each of the fillets set a small strip of truffle, one quarter of the width of the former.

Garnish the sides in the same way, putting a strip of truffle between each; but take care to place the fillets aslant instead of upright. Having thus lined the mould with fillets of smelt and truffle, cover the whole with a layer of mousseline forcemeat, one-half inch thick.

Now fill the mould in the following way: - On the layer of forcemeat covering the fillets at the bottom of the mould set as many slices of truffle as will cover it; spread another layer of forcemeat on the truffle, and over that lay, alternately, a sufficient quantity of fillets of smelt and anchovy. Follow with a fresh layer of forcemeat, slices of truffle, &c., until the mould is full, and finish with a layer of forcemeat.

Poach the motisse (covered) in a moderate oven, and allow fifty minutes for one prepared in a quart-mould. It is very easy, however, to tell when the mousse is done, by simply thrusting a small knife into it; if the blade of the knife withdraws quite clean, the mousse is cooked.

As soon as it is ready, turn the mould upside-down on a dish, and raise it a little in order to allow the liquid, which always accumulates in more or less large quantities, to drain away. Soak up this liquid; gently draw off the mould; take oft" the paper, and remove the froth which may have formed on the fillets by means of a wet brush.

Lay a fine, grooved mushroom on the top of the mousse; surround it with mousseline sauce (No. 92), finished with crayfish butter, and send a sauceboat of the same mousseline sauce to the table with the dish.

N.B. - This m,ousse may also be prepared with fillets of sole, of salmon, or of trout, &c. 1008- HADDOCK

Sometimes the fish is grilled, but, after having boned it and removed its fins and the greater part of its belly, it is more often cooked in water or milk, either of which moistening is usually short.

It is plunged in slightly salted boiling water, and then it is moved to the side of the fire to poach, with lid on. Allow about fifteen minutes for a fish weighing one and one-half lbs.

Dish it with a few tablespoonfuls of its cooking-liquor, and, subject to the consumer's taste, serve some fresh or melted butter separately.

FISH 341

When haddock is served at lunch, send to the table with it an egg-sauce and a timbale of potatoes, freshly cooked a I'anglaise.

Mackerel (Maquereau) 1009- MAQUEREAU BOUILLI, SAUCE AUX QROSEILLES

Cut the mackerels into three, crosswise, and poach them in court-bouillon with vinegar (No. 163), seasoned with a pinch of fennel per pint. Drain them on a napkin; skin them, and dish them with curled-leaf parsley all round.

With the mackerels serve a gooseberry sauce prepared as follows: -

Green Gooseberry Sauce proper to Mackerel. - Cook one lb. of green gooseberries in a copper sugar boiler with three oz. of sugar and enough water to cover them, and then rub them through tammy.

loio- MAQUEREAU GRILLE

Cut off the extremity of the mackerels' mouths; open them down the back, without dividing them into two.

Season them; sprinkle them with melted butter, and grill them gently, taking care to baste them by means of a brush with melted butter while they are cooking.

Set them on a round, hot dish, and sprinkle them with half-melted butter a la Maitre-d' Hotel, after having drawn their halves together, that they may seem natural and untouched.

Or surround them with grooved slices of lemon, and send a " Sauce Diable Escoffier " to the table separately. This sauce constitutes an excellent adjunct to grilled mackerel.

ion- FILETS DE MAQUEREAU AUX FINES HERBES

Raise some mackerels' fillets in such wise as to leave the bones quite clean. Arrange the fillets on a buttered dish, and poach them in white wine and the cooking-liquor of mushrooms in equal quantities. Take care to cover them while they are being poached.

This done, drain them; skin them; set them on a long dish, and cover them with a herb sauce (No. 83), combined with their cooking-liquor strained through linen and reduced.

1012- FILETS DE MAQUEREAU AU PERSIL

Raise the fillets as before, and poach them in a white-wine court-bouillon with one-half oz. of parsley leaves per pint. Drain them; skin them; set them on a long dish, and cover them with a parsley sauce. This latter is an English butter sauce (No. 113a) to which some freshly-chopped parsley is added at the last moment.

1013- FILETS DE MAQUEREAU A LA V^NITIENNE

Poach the fillets in a court-bouillon with white wine. Drain them; skin them; set them on a long dish, and cover them with a Venetian sauce (No. 107).

Whiting (Merlan)

1014- MERLAN A L'ANQLAISE

Open the whitings down the back; loosen the spine, and completely remove it. Season them inside, and treat them a I'anglaise with very fresh and fine bread-crumbs.

Cook the whitings very quickly in clarified butter; set them on a long dish, and sprinkle them with half-melted butter k la Maitre-d'Hotel.

N.B. - Whitings a I'anglaise may also be grilled, but it is preferable to cook them in clarified butter.

lo 15- MERLAN A LA BERCY

Slightly open the whitings down the back, with the view of promoting their cooking process. Lay them on a buttered dish sprinkled with finely-chopped shallots, and moisten them with white wine and fish fumet. Add one-half oz. of butter per whiting, and cook in the oven, basting often the while. The moment when the whitings are quite done should be coincident with the almost complete reduction of their cooking-liquor.

Set to glaze at the last moment.

When taking the whitings out of the oven, sprinkle them with a few drops of lemon juice and a little chopped parsley.

1016- MERLAN A LA COLBERT

Open the whitings down the back, and bone them. Season them; dip them in milk; roll them in flour; and treat them a I'anglaise. Fry them; drain them; set them on a long dish; garnish the openings in their backs with butter k la Maitred'Hotel, and border the dish with grooved slices of lemon.

1017- MOUSSELINES DE MERLAN

For the preparation of the mousseline forcemeat, refer to No. 195. The moulding and poaching of these mousselines

FISH 343

are the same as for salmon mousselines, and the preparations suited to the latter may likewise be applied to mousselines de merlans. (See Mousselines de Saumon, Nos. 797 to 799.)

ioi8- FILETS DE MERLAN AU QRATIN

Raise the fillets from some whitings, and leave the bones quite clean. Lay them on a buttered dish besprinkled with chopped shallots, the bottom of which should have been covered with a few tablespoonfuls of gratin sauce. Surround the fillets with slices of raw mushrooms; set two small, cooked mushrooms upon each fillet; pour a few tablespoonfuls of white wine into the dish, and cover the whole with gratin sauce.

Sprinkle with fine raspings and melted butter, and put the dish in a sufficiently fierce oven to (i) reduce the sauce; (2) allow the gratin to form; and (3) cook the fillets at the same moment of time. In respect of this operation, refer to Complete Gratin, No. 269.

When taking the dish from the oven, sprinkle a little chopped parsley and a few drops of lemon juice over it.

N.B. - If the whiting be treated whole, the procedure remains the same.

1019- PAUPIETTES DE MERLAN AU QRATIN

Raise some fillets of whiting; coat them with a fish forcemeat combined with fine herbs, and roll them into scrolls. Set these rolled fillets on a round, buttered gratin dish sprinkled with chopped shallots, the bottom of which should have been covered with gratin sauce.

Surround them with a border of sliced, raw mushrooms; place a small, cooked mushroom on each fillet, and proceed for the rest of the operation exactly as explained under " Filets de Merlan au Gratin."

1020- MERLAN EN LORGNETTE AU QRATIN

Separate the fillets from the bones, proceeding from the tail to the head, and completely remove the spine near the head. Cover the fillets with fish forcemeat " aux fines herbes," and roll them into scrolls with their tail-ends inside.

Set them on a round dish sprinkled with chopped shallots and covered with gratin sauce, placing them side by side, all round the dish, with the whitings' heads in the centre; and proceed for the rest of the operation as explained under No. 1018.

N.B. - Whitings prepared in this way may be treated with white wine, Dieppoise, Bercy, fried, ^C, 1021- FILETS DE MERLAN ORLY

Raise the fillets and proceed as for " Filets de Soles Olga," No. 893.

I023- MERLAN SUR LE PLAT

Proceed as for " Sole sur le Plat," No. 837.

1023-MERLAN A LA RICHELIEU

Prepare six " Merlans k I'anglaise," No. 1014. Lay thereon a few slices of truffle. Or dish them simply on their sides; garnish their top surfaces with the butter prescribed above, and put a row of truffle slices on the butter.

1024- MORUE AND SALTED COD (Morue et Cabillaud Sal6)

Salted cod bought in England has generally been fished somewhere along the English coast, and is, as a rule, of recent salting. It has not the peculiar flavour of the Icelandic morue, or that of the Newfoundland specimens, and it does not lend itself to such a large variety of preparations as these two.

At the end of each of the following recipes, I indicate the kind of cod to which the procedure may be applied.

Morue, especially the Newfoundland kind, should be set to soak at least twelve hours before being used, and the water during that time should be frequently changed.

When about to cook it, suppress its fins, and cut it up in a way befitting the selected mode of preparation.

Allow four oz. gross of the fish for each person.

1024a- SALTED COD AND MORUE A L'ANQLAISE

Put the fish into cold water; set to boil, and as soon as this point is reached, leave the fish to poach on the side of the fire for fifteen minutes.

Drain, skin, dish on a napkin, and serve, separately, a timbale of parsnips and an egg-sauce a I'Ecossaise.

Both kinds of cod may be used for this dish.

1025- MORUE A LA BENEDICTINE

Poach one and one-half lbs. of morue as above; drain it and cut into small pieces, cleared of all skin and bone. Pound it quickly while it is still hot, and add to it half its weight of potatoes cooked as for a puree, drained, and dried in the oven for a few minutes. When the whole has been reduced to a fine paste, add one-sixth pint of oil, and one-quarter pint of boiled milk. The oil and the milk should be added little by little, and the paste should be more mellow than stiff.

FISH 345

Serve in a buttered gratin dish; arrange ttie preparation in tlie form of a dome; sprinkle with melted butter, and set to colour in the oven.

Icelandic and Newfoundland morue.

1026- MORUE AU BEURRE NOIR OU AU BEURRE NOISETTE

Cut the morue into squares or rectangles; roll these into paupiettes or scrolls, and bind these with a piece of string. Poach them in the usual way; drain them; scrape their skins, and dish them. Sprinkle with concussed parsley; add lemon juice, and cover with brown or lightly-browned butter. Either kind of cod may be used.

1027- BRANDADE DE MORUE

Cut one lb. of morue into pieces, and poach these for eight minutes. The eight minutes should be counted from the time the water begins to boil.

Drain on a sieve, and clear the pieces of all skin and bones. Heat in a sautepan one-sixth pint of oil until the latter smokes; throw the cleaned pieces of morue into the oil; add a piece of crushed garlic the size of a haricot-bean, and stir over a brisk fire with a wooden spoon until the morue is reduced to shreds.

Then take the saucepan off the fire, and, without ceasing to stir the paste, add thereto, little by little, as for a mayonnaise, about one-half pint of oil. When the paste begins to stiffen through the addition of the oil, now and again add a tablespoonful of milk. For the amount of morue used, one-quarter pint of boiling milk should thus be added by degrees.

When the Brandade is finished, it should have the consistence of an ordinary potato purde. When about to serve, taste the preparation, and rectify its seasoning.

Dish the Brandade in a hot timbale, building it up in the shape of a pyramid, and set thereon a crown of bread-crumb triangles fried in butter just before dishing up.

N.B. - The triangles of fried bread may, with advantage, be replaced by lozenges made from puff-paste, which are baked without colouration. For the Brandade use only well-soaked Icelandic or Newfoundland morue,

1028- BRANDADE DE MORUE A LA CREME

Follow the directions given above, but instead of oil and milk, use two-thirds pint of cream, which should be added to the morue paste by spoonfuls. I029- MORUE A LA CREOLE

Finely mince an onion, and cook it gently in butter until it is of a nice golden colour. Spread it on the bottom of a little oval earthenware dish, and set three tomatoes prepared h. la Proven9ale (No. 2268) upon it.

Poach one lb of morue; drain it as soon as ready, and flake it while clearing it of all skin and bones. Lay this flaked morue on the slices of tomato; cover it with three mild capsicums, split and broiled; sprinkle the whole with a few drops of lemon juice and one oz. of lightly-browned butter, and put the dish in the oven for a few minutes. Serve very hot.

Icelandic or Newfoundland morue may be used.

1030- CABILLAUD SALE, OR MORUE A LA HOLLANDAISE

Proceed exactly as for " Sole h. la Hollandaise" (No. 829). Both kinds suit this preparation.

103 1- CABILLAUD SALE, OR MORUE A L'INDIENNE

Poach one lb. of salted cod or morue, and flake it while clearing it of all skin and bones. Mix this flaked fish with two-thirds pint of Indienne sauce, and dish it in a hot timbale.

Serve some rice k I'lndienne separately.

Both kinds of fish are suited to this dish.

1032- MORUE A LA LYONNAISE

Poach one lb. of morue, and flake it as explained above. Finely mince a medium-sized onion, and toss it in butter. Also toss three medium-sized potatoes cut into roundels. Heat one oz. of butter and two tablespoonfuls of oil in a frying-pan; put therein the flaked morue and the potatoes, and toss the whole over a brisk fire for a few minutes.

When about to dish up, add a few drops of vinegar.

Dish in a hot timbale, and sprinkle the morue with a pinch of chopped parsley. Use either the Icelandic or the Newfoundland fish for this preparation.

1033- SOUFFLE DE MORUE

Finely pound one-quarter lb. of freshly poached and flaked morue, and add thereto, little by little, two tablespoonfuls of hot and very thick B6chamel sauce. When the paste is very smooth, season it; put into a saucepan, heat it, and add the yolks of three eggs, and four whites beaten to a stiff froth.

Put the whole' into a buttered souffle-saucepan, and cook after the manner of an ordinary souffle. Take either Icelandic or Newfoundland morue for this dish.

FISH 347

1034- CHAR (Ombre-Chevalier)

The char is a fish of the salmon family, which is culinarily treated in exactly the same way as the trout. When it is large, the recipes given for salmon trout may be adapted to it, but it is mostly used small - that is to say, from five inches to ten inches long. The fishing of char is restricted chiefly to lake countries, such as Scotland and Switzerland, and it is only in season during two months of the year. Moreover, as this fish loses much of its quality in transit, its scarcity on the market will be easily understood. The lake of Zug, in Switzerland, supplies the most famous specimens, which are called Rothel by the people of the locality. The delicacy of the fish is remarkable, and in this it may vie even with the best river trout.

The char of the Scotch lakes may be treated after the same

recipes as the Swiss specimens, but they are more often used

in the preparation of potted char, the recipe for which is as

follows: -

1035- POTTED CHAR

Cook the chars in a fine mirepoix with white wine, exactly after the manner of trout. When the fish are cooked, leave them to cool completely in their cooking-liquor. Drain them; skin them; separate their fillets, and thoroughly bone them. Set the fillets in a special earthenware pot; entirely cover them with clarified butter, and put them in a moderate oven for one quarter of an hour.

Leave them to cool until the next day, and add sufficient clarified butter to cover them with a layer one-third inch thick.

If Potted Char be left in the cool, it will keep for some considerable time.

RED MULLETS (ROUGETS)

Red mullet, especially the Mediterranean rock kind, is one of the greatest fish delicacies known; and the surname ' ' Sea Woodcock," which gourmets sometimes give it, is quite justified, not only by its quality, but by the fact that, except for its gills, it is generally left whole, and not even emptied.

It is best grilled.

io3Sa- GRILLED RED MULLET

Carefully wipe the mullet; cisel it on either side to a depth in proportion to the thickness of its flesh and at closer intervals the thicker the latter is, in order to facilitate the cooking; season it with salt and pepper; sprinkle it with a little oil and a few drops of lemon juice; spread a few slices of lemon and a few parsley stalks upon and beneath it; and let it marinade for an hour or two, turning it over frequently the while.

Twenty minutes before serving, set the red mullet on a double fish grill, and cook it over a rather fierce fire, sprinkling it often the while with its marinade. Dish and serve it as soon as it is ready, and serve a little half-melted maitred'hotel butter separately.

1035b- ROUQET A LA BORDELAISE

Grill or saute the red mullet. At the same time serve a sauce Bordelaise Bonnefoy (No. 67).

1035c- ROUQET AU FENOUIL

Cisel and marinade the red mullet as directed under No. 1035a, and add a certain quantity of chopped fennel to the aromatics. Twenty minutes before serving, add two oz. of roughly-chopped raw pork fat and a little parsley to the marinade; wrap the red mullets in strong, oiled paper, together with its marinade, grill it gently, and serve it as it stands.

io35d-ROUQET A LA NICOISE

Grill it as directed above, and serve it with the garnish given under " Sole a la Niyoise."

10356- ROUQET EN PAPILLOTE

Grill and wrap it in strong, oiled paper between two layers of somewhat thick Duxelle sauce. When about to serve, put the papillote for five minutes in the oven, that it may be souffled.

1036- WHITEBAIT

Thames whitebait, which has many points in common with the " Nonat " of the Mediterranean, is one of the riddles of ichthyology; for, while it is generally admitted that it is the fry of one of the many species of fish, its real parentage is quite unknown.

At dinners in London it usually stands as a second fishcourse, and, fried after the customary manner, it constitutes a dish the delicacy of which is incomparable. Whitebait, like the nonat, are extremely fragile, and ought to be cooked as soon as they are caught. They are always served fried, and the frying-medium used in their preparation should be fresh, abundant, and just smoking when the fish are plunged into it. Previous to this operation, however, the whitebait ought to be thoroughly dredged with flour and placed in a special sieve

FISH 349

or frying basket, either of which should be well shaken, in order to rid the fish of any superfluous flour.

They are then plunged into the smoking frying-medium, in small quantities at a time, and one minute's stay therein suffices to render them sufficiently crisp.

Draining is the next operation, effected upon a spread piece of linen, that the fish may be easily seasoned with table-salt and cayenne, mixed. This done, the whitebait are dished upon a napkin and sent to the table with very green, fried parsley.

VARIOUS PREPARATIONS OF FISH

1037- JWATELOTE AU VIN ROUQE

The fish used for the Matelote are eel, carp, tench, bream, perch, &c.

It may be prepared from one or many kinds of fish.

Put the fish, cut into sections, into a sautdpan. For two lbs. of it, add one minced onion, one faggot, two cloves of garlic, one pint of red wine, a pinch of salt, and another of pepper or four peppercorns.

Set to boil; add three tablespoonfuls of heated and burnt brandy; cover the saut^pan, and complete the cooking of the fish.

This done, transfer the pieces to another saucepan; strain the cooking-liquor, reduce it by a third, and thicken it with manied butter (consisting of one and one-half oz. of butter and one tablespoonful of flour), cut into small pieces.

When the leason has been properly effected, pour the resulting sauce over the pieces of fish; heat, and dish in a timbale.

1038- MATELOTE AU VIN BLANC

Prepare the fish as above, but use red wine instead of white, and burn the brandy as before. When the pieces of fish are cooked, transfer them to another saucepan with small onions, previously cooked in butter, and small, cooked mushrooms. Strain the cooking-liquor, reduce it to a little less than half, thicken it with fish velout^, and finish with one oz. of butter.

Pour this sauce over the fish and the garnish; dish the whole in a timbale or a deep dish, and surround with crayfish, cooked in court-botiillon, and little crusts in the shape of hearts, fried in butter. 1039- BOUILLABAISSE A LA MARSEILLAISE

The fish for Bouillabaisse are rascasse, chapon, dory, whiting, fielas, boudreuil, spiny lobster, red mullet, gurnet, &c.

Cut the larger fish into slices; leave the smaller ones whole, and with the exception of the whiting and the red mullet, which cook more speedily than the others, put them all into a saucepan.

For two lbs. of fish, add one small onion, the chopped white of one leek, one small, peeled, pressed and chopped tomato, two crushed cloves of garlic, a large pinch of concussed parsley, a pinch of powdered saffron, a bit of bay, a little savory and fennel, and two tablespoonfuls of oil.

Moisten the fish with just enough cold water to cover it, and season with one-third oz. of salt and a pinch of pepper per quart of water.

Set to boil, and cook over a brisk fire. At the end of eight minutes add the pieces of whiting and red mullet, and leave to cook for a further seven minutes.

Pour the liquor of the bouillabaisse over some slices of household bread lying on the bottom of a deep dish; set the fish on another dish with the sections of spiny lobster all round, and serve.

1040- QUENELLES DE BROCKET A LA LYONNAISE

Pound separately one lb. of the meat of pike, cleared of all skin and bones, and one lb. of the fat of kidney of beef, very dry, cleaned, and cut into small pieces. If desired, half of the weight of the fat of kidney of beef may be replaced by one-half lb. of beef marrow.

Put the pounded meat of the pike and the kidney fat on separate plates. Now pound one lb. of frangipane Panada (No. 192) and add thereto, little by little, the white of four little eggs. Put the pike meat and the fat back into the mortar, and finely pound the whole until a fine, smooth paste is obtained. Rub the latter through a sieve; put the resulting pur6e into a basin, and work it well with a wooden spoon in order to smooth it.

With this forcemeat mould some quenelles with a spoon, and poach them in salted water.

If these quenelles are to be served with an ordinary fish sauce, put them into it as soon as they are poached and drained, and simmer them in it for ten minutes that they may swell.

If the sauce intended for them is to be thickened with eggyolks, and buttered at the last moment, put them into a sauce

FISH 351

pan with a few tablespoonfuls of fumet, and simmer them as directed in the case of an ordinary fish sauce, taking care to keep the saucepan well covered that the concentrated steam may assist the swelling of the quenelles. In this case they are added to the sauce at the last moment.

N.B. - Slices of truffle may always be added to the sauce. The quenelles are dished either in a silver timbale, in a shallow timbale-crust, or in a fine vol-au-vent crust, in accordance with the arrangement of the menu.

1041- FISH CAKES

Fish cakes or balls, which are greatly appreciated in both England and America, are made from any boiled fish. Salted cod, however, is best suited to their preparation, and is therefore used much more often than other kinds of fish.

Flake one lb. of cooked cod, and clear it of all skin and bones; pound it with one-half lb. of freshly-cooked, floury potatoes, two tablespoonfuls of reduced Bdchamel sauce, and two whole eggs. Season with salt and pepper. When the paste has been well beaten and is smooth, take it out of the mortarand divide it into portions weighing about two oz. Roll these portions into balls upon a flour-dusted mixing-board, flatten them out to the shape of thick quoits, and treat them a I'anglaise.

Fry them at the last moment in very hot fat, and dish them on a napkin with fried parsley all round.

1042- WATERZOI

In order to prepare Waterzoi, it is best, when possible, to have live fish at one's disposal, not only because these are better able to resist the cooking process, but also owing to the fact that they are richer in gelatine in the live state.

The fish more generally used are the eel, the perch, the tench, the carp, the pike, &c.

After having scaled and emptied them, trim them and cut off their heads and tails. Cut the fish into sections; moisten these with just enough cold water to cover them; add a piece of butter, sufficient parsley roots or stalks to produce a decided taste, a few peppercorns, and some salt.

Set to cook on a brisk fire, and take care that the cookingliquor be reduced and sufficiently thickened when the fish are cooked.

Serve in a timbale or on a dish, and send some slices of bread and butter to the table at the same time.

CHAPTER XV RELEVES AND ENTREES

The difference between Relev^s and Entries needs only to be examined very superficially in order for it to be seen how entirely the classification hangs on the question of bulk. Indeed, with very few exceptions, the same alimentary products - butcher's meat, fish, poultry, and game - may be used with perfect propriety in the preparation of either Releves or Entries. And if the mode of preparation and the nature of the garnishing ingredients are sometimes dissimilar, it is owing to that difference in bulk referred to above, on account of which the Releves, being more voluminous, are usually braised, poeled, poached, or roasted; while the Entries, consisting of smaller pieces, are chiefly sauted, poached, or grilled.

In the menus of old-fashioned dinners k la Fran9aise, the line of demarcation between Releves and Entries was far more clearly defined, the latter being generally twice, if not thrice, as numerous as the former. The first service of a dinner for twenty people, for instance, comprised eight or twelve Entries and four soups, all of which were set on the dining-table before the admission of- the diners. As soon as the soups were served, the Releves, to the number of four, two of which consisted of fish, took the place of the soups on the table; they relieved the soups; hence their name, which now, of course, is quite meaningless.

The Russian method of serving greatly simplified the practice just described. Nowadays a dinner rarely consists of more than two soups, two Relevds (one of which is fish), and two or three Entries for the first service. Very often the fish Relev6, instead of being a large piece of fish, only consists of fillets of sole, of chicken-turbots, &c., or timbales, which are real entries; while the Releves (consisting of large pieces of butcher's meat or game), instead of being served as common sense would dictate, i.e., after the fish Relev^, when the diner's appetite is still keen, are placed, according to English custom, after the Entries.

RELEVES AND ENTREES 253

Thus, as the two above examples show, the parts played by the Releves and Entries respectively are very far from being clearly defined; and I therefore resolved to treat of them both in the same chapter, and to append a few grills (usually accompanied by various sauces and garnishes), which are really only luncheon-roasts. The indications given concerning the class to which the recipes belong will suffice to avoid confusion,

RELEVES AND ENTREES OF BUTCHER'S MEAT

BEEF

1043-PILLET OF BEEF (Relev6)

Fillet of beef for a Relev^ may consist either of the whole piece, trimmed, studded, or larded, or a more or less large piece cut from the whole, and treated after one of the methods suited to the whole fillet. The fillet may be braised, poeled, or roasted; but the last two modes of preparation suft it best, as it is generally preferred underdone and somewhat red towards the centre.

The garnishes for a Relev6 of fillet of beef are as numerous as they are varied; and, as they are applicable not only to fillet of beef but to all Releves of butcher's meat, I give them here in preference, since fillet of beef may be considered the choicest of Releves.

1044- FILETS DE B(EUF ANDALOUSE

Having removed all the connective tissue from the fillet, lard it with thin strips of bacon, and poele or roast it. Glaze it at the last moment; set it on a long dish, and surround it with: - (i) Some grilled half-capsicums, filled with rice a la grecque (No. 2253); (2) roundels of egg-plant, two inches in diameter and one inch thick, hollowed out to form cases, fried in oil, and garnished with concassed tomatoes tossed in oil. Arrange the half-capsicums and the egg-plant alternately round the fillet, and place a grilled chifolata sausage between each.

Sauce to be sent separately. - The gravy taken from the poeling-stock, strained, cleared of all grease, and thickened.

I045- FILET DE B(EUF BOUQUETIERE

Having larded the fillet and poeled or roasted it, set it on a long dish and surround it with: - (i) Small heaps of carrots and turnips, turned by means of a small grooved spoon, and cooked in consommd; (2) small heaps of little potatoes turned to the shape of olives and cooked in butter; (3) small heaps of

A A peas and of French beans, cut into lozenges and cohered with butter; (4) five bunches of cauliflower.

Arrange these different products in such wise as to vary their colours and throw them into relief.

Serve the gravy of the fillet separately, after having cleared it of all grease and strained it.

1046- FILET DE BCEUF CAMARQO

Trim the fillet; suppress the long muscle lying on its thicker side (Fr. chaine), and open the meat lengthwise from the same side. Withdraw the meat from the inside of the fillet so as to leave a wall of meat only one-half inch thick all round. Finely chop the withdrawn meat and combine with it, per lb., little by little, from four to five tablespoonfuls of cream and four oz. of fresh foie gras. Season with salt and pepper, rectify the consistence of the paste, and add thereto, per lb., two oz. of chopped truffles.

Fill the hollow fillet with this forcemeat, thereby returning it to its original shape, and stud its top surface with pointed pieces of truffle one inch long by one-quarter inch wide, stuck into the meat aslant. In order to facilitate this operation, bore the meat, before the insertion of the pieces of truffles, by means of a small knife.

Now cover the fillet with slices of bacon and string it laterally, leaving a space of one inch between each strand.

Poele the meat carefully, and take care that the forcemeat inside be well, but not over-done. This may be ascertained by thrusting a braiding needle into the thickest part of the fillet, as soon as the meat seems resisting and elastic to the touch. If the needle withdraws clean, the fillet is ready.

Now glaze it, after having cut away the string and removed the slices of bacon; dish it, and surround it with the following garnish: - Small tartlet-crusts garnished by means of noodles with cream; a slice of foie gras stamped out with a round cutter and tossed in butter, upon the noodles; and a fine slice of truffle on the foie gras.

Sauce to be sent to the table separately. - The reduced ^oeZm^-liquor of the fillet, cleared of all grease, and added to a P^rigueux sauce.

1047- FILET DE B(EUF CHATELAINE

Lard the fillet, poele it, and glaze it just before dishing up. Set it on a long dish, and surround it with the following garnish: - (i) Medium-sized artichoke-bottoms garnished with thick Soubise; (2) fine, peeled chestnuts cooked in the

RELEVES AND ENTREES 355

poeling-liquor; (3) small heaps of lightly browned potatoes, cooked in butter at the last moment.

Sauce to be sent separately. - The reduced poeling-liquor of the fillet, cleared of all grease and added to a Madeira sauce.

1048- FILET DE B(EUF CLAMART

Lard the fillet and roast it.

Set it on a long dish and surround it with: - (i) Little tartlet-crusts garnished with peas, prepared h la Frangaise (No. 2193), combined with the ciseled lettuce used in their cookingprocess, and cohered with butter; (2) small quoits of " Pommes Macaire " (No. 2228). Arrange the tartlet-crusts and the quoits alternately.

Sauce to be sent separately .-The gravy slightly thickened.

1049- FILET DE BCEUF DAUPHINE

Lard the fillet and poele it.

Glaze it at the last moment; set it on a long dish, and surround it with a garnish of potato croquettes a la Dauphine, moulded to the shape of corks, and fried just before dishing up.

Sauce to be sent separately. - Pale half-glaze with Madeira.

1050- FILET DE BCEUF DUBARRY

Lard the fillet with bacon, and roast it.

Set it on a long dish, and surround it with small heaps of cauliflower moulded to the shape of balls, coated with Mornay sauce, besprinkled with grated cheese, and put in the oven for the gratin to form just in time for the dishing up.

Send a thickened gravy to the table separately.

1051- FILET DE BOEUF DUCHESSE

Either roast or poele the larded fillet. If it be poeled, glaze it at the last moment.

Set it on a long dish and surround it with potatoes k la Duchesse (the shape of which may be varied according to fancy), lightly browned and coloured in the oven for a few minutes before the dishing.

Sauce to be sent separately. - Half-glaze with Madeira.

1052- FILET DE BOEUF FINANCIERE

Poele the larded fillet.

Glaze it at the last moment and set it on a long dish.

Surround it with a garnish consisting of (i) quenelles of ordinary forcemeat; (2) grooved and cooked button-mushroom heads; (3) cocks' combs and kidneys; (4) turned and blanched olives. Each garnish should be placed on the dish in distinct heaps.

A A 2 Cover the garnish with a little financiere sauce, and send the same sauce separately.

> 053- FILET DE BCEUF GASTRONOME

Insert truffles, cut to the shape of ordinary larding-bacon, into the fillet, and set the latter to marinade for four or five hours in one-quarter pint of Madeira.

This done, thoroughly wipe it; cover it with slices of bacon, and braise it in Madeira. When about to serve it, remove the slices of bacon; glaze it slightly, and set it on a long dish.

Surround it with a garnish consisting of (i) large and thick slices of truffle, cooked in a fine mirepoix with champagne; (2) fine chestnuts cooked in consomm6 and glazed; (3) fine cocks' kidneys, rolled in pale, thin meat-glaze; (4) noodles tossed in butter. These different garnishes should be arranged in alternate heaps, and connected by means of medium-sized truffles cooked in Madeira.

Sauce to be sent separately. - Half-glaze combined with the cooking-liquor of the truffles, strained through linen and reduced to two-thirds.

1054- FILET DE BCEUF QODARD

Lard the fillet with alternate strips of bacon and salted tongue, and poele it. Glaze it a few minutes before serving; set it on a long dish, and surround it with a garnish consisting of (i) quenelles of ordinary forcemeat with chopped mushrooms and truffles added thereto, moulded by means of a coffee-spoon, and poached just before dishing up; (2) turned and cooked button-mushroom heads; (3) glazed lamb sweetbreads; (4) cocks' combs and kidneys; (5) truffles fashioned like olives.

Slightly coat these garnishes, which should be arranged in heaps, with sauce; finish the dish with four oval quenelles decked with tongue and truffle, and place one of these at either end and side of the dish.

Sauce to be sent separately. - A Godard sauce combined with the cooking-liquor of the fillet, cleared of all grease and reduced.

,055- FILET DE BCEUF HONQROISE

Lard the fillet and roast it.

Set it on a long dish and surround it with a garnish consisting of medium-sized onions, cooked in white consomm^, and glazed in butter at the last minute.

Sauce to be sent separately . - Thin Soubise with paprika.

RELEVES AND ENTREES 357

1056- FILET DE BCEUF JAPONAISE

Lard the fillet and poele it.

Glaze it just before dishing; set it on a long dish, and surround it with a garnish consisting of (i) small croustades cooked in grooved brioche-moulds and garnished with Japanese artichokes cohered by means of velout6; (2) potato croquettes moulded to the shape of eggs and fried just before dishing up. Arrange the croustades and the croquettes alternately.

Send the gravy of the fillet, strained and cleared of all grease, to the table separately.

I057- FILET DE BCEUF JARDINIERE

Lard the fillet and roast it.

Set it on a long dish and surround it with the following garnishes, which should be arranged in distinct heaps in such wise as to alternate their colours: - Carrots and turnips, raised by means of a grooved spoon-cutter and cooked separately in consomm6; peas, French beans in lozenge-form and small flageolets, each of which vegetables should be cooked in a manner in keeping with its nature, and separately cohered with butter; portions of freshly-cooked cauliflower, kept very white and of tight growth.

Send some Hollandaise sauce for the cauliflower, and some clear gravy, to the table, separately.

1058- FILET DE BCEUF LORETTE

Lard the fillet and poele it.

Glaze it at the last moment; set it on a long dish, and surround it with a garnish as follows: - (i) A small pyramid of Lorette potatoes (No. 2226) at either end of the fillet; (2) fine heaps of asparagus-heads, cohered with butter, on either side.

Send some tomated half-glaze separately.

1059- FILET DE BCEUF MACEDOINE

Prepare the fillet as directed under "Filet de Boeuf Jardinilre." Set it on a long dish and surround it with a Macedoine garnish. The latter comprises the same ingredients as the "Jardiniere"; but, instead of their being heaped separately, they are mixed together and cohered by means of butter.

1060- FILET DE BCEUF AU MADBRE ET AUX CHAMPIGNONS

Lard and poele the fillet.

Glaze it; dish it as before, and surround it with fine mushroom-heads, turned and grooved. Send to the table, separately, a Madeira sauce finished with the poeling-liquoT, cleared of all grease and reduced.

io6i- FILET DE BCEUF MODERNE

Lard the fillet alternately with bacon and tongue, and poele it.

Glaze it just before dishing; set it on a long dish, and surround it with garnish as follows: - On either side of the fillet lay a row of small "chartreuses," made in small, hexagonal moulds.

To make these "chartreuses," butter the moulds and deck the bottom of each with a slice of truffle, big enough to almost entirely cover it. Now line the sides of the moulds with various vegetables, such as carrots, turnips, peas, and French beans; each of which vegetables should be cooked as its nature requires.

Arrange them in such wise as to vary their colours, and spread over the whole a thin layer of rather flimsy forcemeat.

Fill up the moulds with braised cabbage, which should be well pressed with the view of ridding it of all its moisture, and put the chartreuses in a bain-marie ten minutes before dishing the fillet.

At either end of the fillet set some braised half-lettuces, arranging them so that they frame the ends of the fillet in half-circles.

Between the lettuce and the chartreuses set four round quenelles, decorated with salted tongue and poached in time to be ready for the dishing of the meat.

Send to the table, separately, the poeling-liquor of the fillet, cleared of all grease, strained, and slightly thickened with arrowroot.

1062- FILET DE BCEUF MONTMORENCY

Lard the fillet and poele it.

Glaze it just before dishing up, and set it on a long dish.

Send to the table, separately, a Madeira sauce finished with the ^oe7mg--liquor of the fillet, to which add (per pint of the sauce) three tablespoonfuls of red-currant jelly; two tablespoonfuls of finely-grated horse-radish, or the latter finely grated first, and then chopped; thirty moderately-sweetened cherries, set to soak in tepid water seven or eight minutes beforehand, and drained just before being added to the sauce.

1063- FILET DE BOEUF NIVERNAISE

Lard the fillet and poele it.

Glaze it at the last moment; set it on a long dish, and sur

RELEVES AND ENTRIES 359

round it with garnish as follows: - (i) Heaps of small carrots, shaped like elongated olives, cooked in white consomm^ and a little butter and sugar, and rolled in their cooking-liquor (reduced to the consistence of syrup), with the view of glazing them.

Send the poeling-liquov (cleared of all grease and strained) to the table separately.

1064- FILET DE B(EUF ORIENTALE

Roast the fillet " plain," i.e., without previously larding it.

Set it on a long dish, and surround it with the following garnish, taking care to alternate the ingredients, viz., (i) timbales of rice k la grecque (No. 2253) moulded in buttered dariolemoulds, each timbale being placed on a medium-sized halftomato, seasoned and tossed in butter; (2) croquettes of sweet potatoes, moulded to the shape of corks, and fried just before dishing up.

Send to the table, separately, a highly seasoned tomato sauce.

1065- FILET -DE BCEUF P^RIQOURDINE

Lard the fillet and poele it.

Glaze it just before dishing up; set it on a long dish, and surround it with medium-sized truffles, freshly cooked in Madeira and fine mire'poix, and glazed. Send a P^rigueux sauce separately.

1066- FILET DE BGEUF PETIT DUG

Lard the fillet and poele it.

Glaze it in good time; set it on a long dish, and surround it with the following garnish: - (i) crisp, small patties of puff paste garnished with asparagus-heads cohered by means of cream sauce; (2) medium-sized artichoke-bottoms, prepared in the usual way, and garnished with slices of truffle.

Send, separately, a light, meat glaze, combined with four oz. of butter per one-half pint.

1067- FILET DE BCEUF PORTUQAISE

Lard the fillet and roast it.

Set it on a long dish, and garnish it as follows: -

1. A row of medium-sized, stuffed tomatoes on either side.

2. At either end a nice heap of potatoes, shaped like long olives, and cooked in butter just before dishing up.

Send a light, Portugaise sauce separately.

1068- FILET DE BCEUF PROVEN9ALE

Lard the fillet and poele it.

Glaze it at the last minute; set it on a long dish, and sur round it with the following, alternated: - Tomatoes and mushrooms stuffed a la Provengale (Nos. 2266 and 2075). Send a tomated half-glaze sauce, separately.

1069- FILET DE BCEUF R^QENCE

Marinade the fillet in Rhine wine two or three hours in advance; cover it with a Matignon (No. 227); envelop the fillet and the Matignon in slices of bacon, and set the whole to braise with its marinade.

A few minutes before dishing up, remove the slices of bacon and the Matignon, and glaze the fillet.

Set it on a long dish, and surround it with the following garnish, which, except for the decorated quenelles, which are left plain, should be arranged in distinct heaps, and slightly coated with sauce: - (i) quenelles of ordinary forcemeat, combined with chopped tongue, moulded by means of a coffeespoon, and poached at the last minute; (2) collops of foie gras tossed in butter; (3) fine cocks' combs; (4) very white, cooked mushroom-heads, and truffles shaped like large olives.

Send, separately, the braising-liquor of the fillet, cleared of all grease, strained with pressure, reduced, and added to a halfglaze sauce.

1070- FILET DE B(EUF RENAISSANCE

Lard the fillet and poele it.

Glaze it at the last minute; set it on a long dish, and surround it with a garnish of early-season vegetables, comprising carrots and turnips, raised by means of a large, round, grooved spoon-cutter, cooked in consomm6 and glazed; very green peas; small French beans; small faggots of asparagus-heads; portions of cauliflowers, and small potatoes cooked in butter.

Renaissance garnish is, however, subject to no fixed rules, and it may consist of all the available early-season vegetables, small artichoke-bottoms included.

Send a clear gravy separately.

1071- FILET DE BCEUF RICHELIEU

Lard the fillet, and either poele or roast it.

If it be poeled, glaze it in good time; set it on a long dish, and surround it with the following garnish, which should be arranged in distinct heaps and in such wise as to contrast its colouring:- (i) Small tomatoes and medium-sized mushrooms, stuffed; (2) small or half-lettuces, braised and well trimmed; (3) potatoes, the size of pigeons' eggs, cooked in butter and prepared just in time for the dishing up.

RELEVES AND ENTREES 361

Send the cooking-liquor, cleared of all grease, and slightly thickened, separately.

1072- FILET DE BCEUF SAINT=FLORENTIN

Lard the fillet and roast it.

Set it on a long dish, and surround it with the following garnish: - (i) At either end, a heap of ce-pes, prepared k la Bordelaise at the last minute; (2) croquettes of potatoes k la Saint-Florentin, on either side. These croquettes are prepared from the same potato-paste as " Pommes Duchesse," but in this case the paste receives a copious addition of chopped tongue. Mould them to the shape of lozenges, and treat them a I'anglaise, using for the purpose very fine vermicelli instead of bread-crumbs.

Fry the croquettes just before dishing up.

Send, separately, a Bordelaise sauce with white wine, kept somewhat light.

1073- FILET DE BCEUF SAINT-GERMAIN

Lard the fillet and roast it.

Set it on a long dish, and surround it with the following garnish: - (i) At either end of the fillet a nice heap of glazed carrots, cut to the shape of olives; (2) a heap of very small potatoes, cooked in butter, on either side of the carrots; (3) a row of small timbales of very green peas pur^e (No. 2196) on either side of the fillet.

1074- FILET DE BCEUF TALLEYRAND

Cut up the necessary number of raw truffles for the garnishing of the fillet. The pieces of truffle should be one inch long and one-quarter inch wide, and so pointed as to enable them to be easily stuck into the meat.

To stick them in, make small incisions in the fillet, and in these set the bits of truffle. Marinade the fillet for three hours in Madeira; wrap it in slices of bacon; string it, and set it to braise with its marinade.

This done, remove the slices of bacon; glaze it, and set it on a long dish. Send the following garnish separately: - Poached macaroni, cut into pieces one and one-half inches long, and combined per lb. with three oz. of grated Gruy^re and Parmesan, one and one-half oz. of butter, three oz. of a julienne of truffles, and three oz. of cooked foie gras, cut into large dice.

As an adjunct, send a P^rigueux sauce with a fine julienne of truffles instead of the latter chopped. 1075- FILET DE iBCEUF FROID (Releve)

Fillet of beef, when properly dished, makes an excellent cold Relev^.

For this purpose lard it, roast it (keeping it somewhat underdone towards the centre), and, when it is quite cold, trim, and coat it with half-melted jelly.

Then set it either directly upon a dish or upon a cushion of bread or carved rice, which makes the dish more sightly when the garnish is added.

Before setting the fillet on the dish or on the cushion of rice, it is well to cut a slice one-fifth inch thick from the whole of its base; leave this slice under the fillet when dishing; by this means, when the carving is proceeded with, each slice will be found to be neatly trimmed.

Cold fillet of beef allows of every possible cold vegetable garnish.

The vegetables should be cooked with the greatest care and be left to cool naturally.

When they are quite cold, either cohere them by means of jelly, or set them round the fillet in neat heaps, taking care to alternate their shades, and coat them with almost melted aspic.

Finally, between each heap of vegetables lay a little chopped and very clear aspic, and, round the whole, arrange a border consisting of bits of aspic (round, oval, square, lozenge-shaped, &c.) very regularly cut.

I see no reason for devoting any further space to this subject. What has been said should, I think, suffice to show how varied and numerous are the possible ways of dishing cold fillet of beef, the minute details of which may, with advantage, be left to the ingenuity of the operator.

FILLET OF BEEF FOR ENTREES 1076- CHATEAUBRIAND, FILLET STEAK, TOURNEDOS

By fillet steaks are understood those pieces of meat cut laterally from the thickest part of the fillet of beef.

They ought to be about one and one-half inches thick, and weigh from six to seven oz. Tournedos are half-fillets in respect of their weight, and might well be called the "kernels " of the fillet of beef. The usual thickness of a tournedos is about one and one-quarter inches, and they should be cut to a nice, round shape. With the object of preserving their shape, they may be tied round with string.

Chateaubriand is also procured from the centre of fillet of

RELEVES AND ENTREES 363

beef, and its weight is often twice, thrice, and sometimes more than thrice as much as that of the ordinary fillet steaks.

As a rule, especially when grilled, it constitutes a special roast for luncheons; when it is cooked in the saucepan, i.e., sauted, it is more often served as a Relev6.

The same garnishes suit fillet, Chateaubriands, and tournedos, the only necessary modifications being in respect of size and arrangement, which should be subject to the size of the piece of meat.

The garnishes detailed hereafter are for the tournedos, which supply the greatest number of the dishes prepared from the three different cuts of fillet. If a fillet steak be prepared after one of the following recipes, the garnish should be made a little stronger, and its constituents modified in the dishing, neither of which changes need in any way alter the formula.

The same holds with regard to a Chateaubriand. Thus, for example, if it be required to prepare a fillet steak or a Chateaubriand, after the recipe "Tournedos k I'Alg^rienne," the number of croquettes and tomatoes should be half as much again, and they should be arranged alternately round the meat, instead of the latter being placed on the croquettes, as in the case of the tournedos.

If the fillets are to be treated "k I'Alsacienne," after the recipe for tournedos, the sauerkraut should be dished in a timbale instead of in tartlet-crusts, &c.

All that is needed, therefore, is a change in the method of arrangement, and this can be decided upon at a glance, without necessarily interfering with the principle of the recipe.

It should be borne in mind that nearly all the garnishes given under fillet of beef, served whole, may be applied to Chateaubriands, fillet steak, and tournedos, provided they be made in proportion to the size of the different pieces. I see no need, therefore, to repeat these vegetable recipes in so far as they relate to the various cuts of fillet of beef.

It is only necessary to add that for the fillet of beef, as well as for tournedos, noisettes, &c., a large number of plain vegetable garnishes may be used, the details of which I prefer to omit for fear of unduly lengthening this work.

Whole fillets, fillet steak, and tournedos may thus be served with garnishes of braised celery, tuberous fennel, cardoons with gravy, chow-chow and endives, braised lettuce, various purees, &c., and, generally, with all the vegetable preparations given in Chapter XVII. Important Remarks relative to the Sauces suited to Entries of Butcher's Meat, Garnished with Vegetables

The derivative sauces of the Espagnole are not, as a rule, suited to entrees garnished with vegetables. Thickened gravy is better.

The finest adjunct, however, is meat-glaze, which should receive an addition of four oz. of butter per pint, and should be slightly acidulated by means of a few drops of lemon juice. This glaze ought to be so light as not to impaste the vegetables.

Such vegetables as asparagus-heads, peas, French beans, macedoines, &c., have a disintegrating action upon the sauces, and this is owing either to their natural moisture or to their leason. As a result of this action the preparation has an unsightly appearance when served upon the diner's plate.

With Chateaubriand sauce (No. 71) or buttered meat-glaze this objection does not obtain, seeing that this sauce does not decompose, but combines admirably with the garnish, and lends the latter a certain noticeable mellowness.

I therefore emphasise this point, viz., that the derivative sauces of the Espagnole and tomato sauces should be exclusively used with such preparations garnished with truffles, cock's combs and kidneys, quenelles and mushrooms, as "la Financi^re," "la Godard," &c.

TOURNEDOS

I077- TOURNEDOS ALQERIENNE

Season the tournedos, and fry them in clarified butter.

Arrange them in the form of a crown on a round dish, and set a croquette of sweet potato, moulded to a round shape, upon each.

Around the whole lay some small, emptied, and seasoned half-tomatoes, stewed in oil.

1078- TOURNEDOS ALSACIENNE

Season and grill the tournedos.

There should have been prepared in advance as many small tartlet-crusts as there are tournedos.

Garnish these tartlets with well-drained, braised sauerkraut, and set on each a roundel of the lean of ham, stamped out with an even cutter. Arrange them in the form of a crown on a dish, and set a tournedos upon each tartlet.

RELEVES AND ENTREES 365

,079- TOURNEDOS ARL^SIENNE

Fry the tournedos in butter and oil.

When about to serve, set the tournedos on a dish, and surround them with fried roundels of egg-plant and tossed tomatoes, alternating the two garnishes, and placing roundels of fried onions on the tournedos.

1080- TOURNEDOS BALTIMORE

Season the tournedos, and fry them in clarified butter.

Set them in the form of a crown on small tartlets garnished by means of maize with cream.

Upon each tournedos set a roundel of tomato, seasoned and tossed in butter, and a smaller slice of green capsicum, also tossed in butter, on each roundel of tomato.

Accompanying sauce: a Chateaubriand (No. 71).

108 1- TOURNEDOS BEARNAISE

Season the tournedos, and grill them.

Set them on round crusts, half an inch thick, fried in clarified butter; slightly coat the surface of the tournedos with meat-glaze, and surround them with a thread of B^arnaise sauce (No. 62).

In the centre arrange a heap of small potatoes cooked in butter and kept very soft, and sprinkle thereon a pinch of chopped parsley.

N.B. - The tournedos may be simply coated with glaze and the Bearnaise sauce served separately.

1082- TOURNEDOS BELLE-HEL6nE

Prepare as many small croquettes of asparagus-tops, shaped like quoits, as there are tournedos, and fry them while the latter are being cooked. Season the tournedos, and fry them in clarified butter.

Arrange them, in the form of a crown, on a dish; place a croquette on each tournedos, and a large, glazed slice of truffle on each croquette.

1083- TOURNEDOS BERCY

Grill the tournedos, and coat them lightly with pale meatglaze.

Dish them in the form of a crown, and serve a half-melted " Beurre k la Bercy " (No. 139) separately.

1084- TOURNEDOS BORDELAISE

Grill the tournedos, and dish them in the form of a crown. Set a large slice of poached marrow on each, and serve a Bordelaise sauce (No. 32) separately. 1085- TOURNEDOS BRABAN^ONNE

Prepare as many tartlet-crusts as there are tournedos Garnish them with very small parboiled Brussels sprouts,

stewed in butter; cover these with Mornay sauce, and set to

glaze a few moments before dishing.

Season the tournedos, and fry them in butter; set them on

the prepared tartlets of sprouts, and surround with a border

of small " pommes de terre fondantes " (No. 2214).

1086- TOURNEDOS CASTILLANE

Prepare (i) as many tartlet-crusts as there are tournedos; (2) peeled, pressed, and seasoned tomatoes, cooked in butter; these should be in the proportion of one tablespoonful per tartlet; (3) rings of onion, fried in oil as for " Tournedos k I'Arl^sienne "; (4) a garnish of one tablespoonful of small French beans, cohered with butter, per tartlet.

Season the tournedos; fry them in butter, and dish them in the form of a crown on fried crusts.

Place a tartlet, garnished with a fondue of tomatoes, on each tournedos; all round arrange a border of the fried roundels of onion, and serve the French beans, either in the middle of the dish or separately in a timbale.

1087- TOURNEDOS CENDRILLON

Prepare (i) as many fine artichoke-bottoms as there are tournedos; (2) a Soubise pur^e, combined with chopped truffles, and well buttered.

A few moments before the tournedos are ready, garnish the artichoke-bottoms with the Soubise, and set them to glaze in a fierce oven.

Season the tournedos; fry them in clarified butter, and set them on the artichoke-bottoms, which should be arranged in a circle round the dish.

1088- TOURNEDOS AUX CHAMPIGNONS

Season the tournedos, and fry them in butter.

Dish them in the form of a crown; drain the butter from the sautepan; swill the latter with some mushroom cookingliquor, and add thereto a proportional quantity of mushroom sauce. Set to boil for a few minutes, and pour the sauce, with the mushrooms, in the midst of the circle of tournedos.

1089- TOURNEDOS CHASSEUR

Season the tournedos; fry them in butter, and dish them in the form of a crown.

RELEVES AND ENTREES 367

Drain the butter away; swill the saut^pan with white wine, and add to this a quantit}'^ of Chasseur sauce, which should be in proportion to the number of tournedos.

Set to boil for a moment or two, and pour the sauce over the tournedos.

1090- TOURNEDOS CHORON

Season the tournedos, and fry them in butter.

Set them on crusts fried in butter; round the top of each lay a thread of Choron sauce (No. 64), and in the middle of each set a medium-sized artichoke-bottom garnished with peas or asparagus-heads cohered with butter.

All round, arrange a border of potatoes, lightly browned in butter, or heap them in the middle of the crown of tournedos.

N.B. - The sauce may be served separately.

109 1- TOURNEDOS COLIQNY

1. With a preparation of sweet potatoes, made after the manner of " Duchesse potatoes" (No. 221), make as many small galettes as there are tournedos, and of the same size as the latter.

Place them on a tray; gild them, and set them to brown in the oven a few minutes before the tournedos are ready.

2. Cut some chow-chows in thick, paysanne fashion; parboil them; stew them in butter, and add thereto an equal quantity of Proven^ale sauce.

Season the tournedos, and fry them in butter; dish them in the form of a crown, on the galettes of potato, and cover them with the paysanne of chow-chow.

1092- TOURNEDOS A L'ESTRAGON

Season the tournedos, and fry them in butter.

Dish them in the form of a crown, and on each set either a spray of parboiled tarragon leaves or a lattice composed of the latter. Send separately a thickened gravy with tarragon (No. 41).

1093- TOURNEDOS FAVORITE

Season the tournedos; fry them in clarified butter, and dish them, in the form of a crown, on crusts stamped out with an indented cutter and fried in butter.

On each tournedos place a round collop of foie gras, a little smaller than the piece of meat; the collop should be seasoned, dredged, and tossed in butter. On each collop of foie gras put a fine, glazed slice of indented truffle. Garnish the centre of the dish with a fine heap of asparagus-tops cohered with butter, or merely set these in small heaps round the tournedos. Serve separately a timbale of potatoes (of the size of hazelnuts) cooked in butter, rolled in pale meat-glaze, and slightly sprinkled with chopped parsley.

1094- TOURNEDOS A LA FLORENTINE

Prepare (i) as many subrics of shredded spinach as there are tournedos; make them of the same size as the latter, and cook them at the same time as the tournedos; (2) small, round croquettes of semolina the size of walnuts; these should be fried a few minutes before the tournedos are ready.

Grill the tournedos, and dish them, in the form of a crown, on the spinach subrics. The croquettes of semolina may be arranged either in the middle or all round.

1095- TOURNEDOS FORESTIERE

Season the tournedos, and saute them. Set them on crusts fried in butter. Surround them with alternate heaps of noodles and potatoes cut into large dice and tossed in butter.

The potatoes may also be placed in the midst of the tournedos with the noodles all round, or vice vers^.

1096- TOURNEDOS GABRIELLE

Make a preparation from the white meat of a chicken and truffles - both cut into dice and cohered with the necessary quantity of somewhat light " Duchesse-potatoes " paste.

With this preparation make as many small quoit-shaped croquettes as there are tournedos, and fry them while the latter are being cooked.

Season the tournedos, and fry them with oil and butter in equal quantities. Dish them, in the form of a crown, on the prepared croquettes, and on each tournedos set a fine roundel of poached marrow and one slice of truffle.

Around the tournedos arrange some very small, braised, and well-trimmed lettuces.

1097- TOURNEDOS HENRI IV

Grill the tournedos, and set them on crusts fried in butter.

Round the edge of each tournedos lay a thread of Bearnaise sauce, and on top of each an artichoke-bottom garnished with very small potatoes (of the size of hazel-nuts) cooked in butter.

N.B. - Instead of putting the sauce on the edge of the tournedos, it may be served separately.

1098- TOURNEDOS JUDIC

Season the tournedos; fry them in butter, and dish them in the form of a crown on crusts fried in butter. On each tour

RELEVES AND ENTREES 369

nedos set a crown of truffle slices, with a cock's kidney in the

centre, and surround with braised, trimmed, and quartered

lettuces*

1099- TOURNEDOS LACKM^

Prepare (i) as many small tartlet-crusts as there are tournedos; (2) the same number of grilled, medium-sized mushrooms; (3) a garnish of one tablespoonful of broad beans with cream per tartlet.

Season the tournedos, and fry them in clarified butter.

Dish them in the form of a crown, each on a tartlet garnished with broad beans, and set a grilled mushroom on each tournedos.

1 100- TOURNEDOS LESDIQUI6RES

Select onions sufficiently large to admit of placing the tournedos upon them, and let their number equal that of the tournedos.

Trim their tops, and parboil them almost long enough to cook them.

Then, by means of a small knife, cut out their insides so that they may form little cases. Fill the latter, two-thirds full, with spinach prepared with cream, cover the spinach with Mornay sauce, and set them to glaze in a fierce oven a few moments before the tournedos are ready.

Grill the tournedos; dish them in the form of a crown, each

on an onion.

I loi- TOURNEDOS LILI

Season the tournedos, and fry them in butter.

Dish them, in the form of a crown, each on a crust of " Pommes de terre Anna" (No. 2203), stamped out with a round, even cutter of the same size as the tournedos.

On each tournedos set an artichoke-bottom garnished with a roundel of foie gras tossed in butter, and on the foie gras place a slice of truffle. Send, separately, a reduced and well-buttered P^rigueux sauce.

1 102- TOURNEDOS LUCULLUS

Season the tournedos; fry them in clarified butter, and dish them, in the form of a crown, on fried crusts. Surround them with a garnish consisting of quenelles of chicken forcemeat, cocks' combs, truffles, and blanched olives, and coat the whole with half-glaze sauce prepared with truffle essence.

1 103- TOURNEDOS MADELEINE

For ten tournedos prepare (i) ten timbales of a puree of haricot beans. For these timbales the purde of haricot beans

B B must be cohered per lb. with one egg and three yolks, finished with two oz. of butter, put into well-buttered dariole-moulds, and set these to poach fifteen minutes in advance.

(2) Ten small artichoke-bottoms garnished with reduced Soubise.

Season the tournedos; fry them in butter; dish them, and surround them with the timbales and the artichoke-bottoms, alternating the two garnishes.

1 104- TOURNEDOS MARECHALE

Season the tournedos; fry them in butter, and dish them upon fried crusts. On each of the tournedos set a large, glazed slice of truffle, and surround them with little heaps of asparagusheads cohered with butter.

1 1 05- TOURNEDOS MARIE-LOUISE

Season the tournedos, and fry them in butter.

Dish them, in the form of a crown, upon crusts one-third inch thick, fried in butter. On each tournedos set a small aitichoke-bottom, stewed in butter, garnished in the shape of a dome, by means of a piping-bag, with a pur^e of mushrooms combined with a quart of very reduced Soubise.

I io6- TOURNEDOS MASCOTTE

Season the tournedos, and fry them in butter.

Have a garnish ready consisting of raw, quartered artichokebottoms fried in butter; small, olive-shaped potatoes, also cooked in butter; and olive-shaped truffles.

When about to serve, dish the tournedos in a cocotte with the garnish above described.

Swill the saut^-pan with white wine; add thereto a little gravy; reduce the whole, strain it into the cocotte, and put the latter in the front of the oven for a minute or two.

1 107- TOURNEDOS MASSENA

Season the tournedos and fry them in butter; dish them on fried crusts of the same size, and, in the middle of each tournedos, set a large slice of poached marrow.

Surround with a row of small artichoke-bottoms, garnished with very stiff B^arnaise sauce.

1 108- TOURNEDOS A LA MENAQgRE

Put into an earthenware cocotte the following vegetables, which should be in proportion to the number of tournedos: - Haricot butter or " Princesse " cut into small pieces, minced new carrots, very small new onions, and very fresh peas.

RELEVES AND ENTREES 371

All these vegetables should be equally apportioned.

Add salt, butter, and a very little water, for the cooking of the vegetables should be effected mainly by the concentration of steam inside the cocotte, which, for the purpose, should therefore be well closed.

Fry the tournedos in butter, and dish them upon the vegetables in the cocotte at the last moment.

1 109- TOURNEDOS A LA MEXICAINE

Prepare (i) a fondue of peeled and pressed tomatoes, cooked in butter, well reduced, and in the proportion of one tablespoonful per mushroom; (2) as many large grilled mushrooms as there are tournedos, while the latter are being fried; (3) some grilled or fried capsicums in the proportion of half a one per tournedos.

Season the tournedos, and fry them in oil and butter in equal quantities. Dish them each on a mushroom garnished with the fondue of tomatoes, and cover them with the grilled or fried capsicums.

mo- TOURNEDOS MIKADO

Select some fine, rather firm tomatoes - " Mikados;" as they are called - and cut them in two laterally. Squeeze them with the object of expressing all their juice and seeds; season them inside, and grill them so that they may be ready at the same time as the tournedos.

Season the latter and fry them in butter.

Dish them in the form of a crown, each on a grilled halftomato, and garnish the centre of the dish with Japanese artichokes tossed in butter.

1 1 1 1- TOURNEDOS MIRABEAU

Grill the tournedos.

Lay eight fine strips of anchovy fillets upon each, crossing the former after the manner of a lattice. Cover the edges with a crown of blanched tarragon leaves, and set a large stoned olive in the middle of each tournedos.

Send some half-melted anchovy butter separately, and allow two-thirds oz. of it for each tournedos.

1 1 12- TOURNEDOS MIREILLE

For ten tournedos, prepare in advance, (i) five croustades from the preparation used for " pommes Duchesse." To make these croustades, fill some buttered dariole-moulds with the preparation referred to, taking care to press it snugly into them. Dip the moulds into tepid water, turn out, treat the mouldings

B B 2 a Vanglaisc, fry them, hollow out their centres, and keep them hot.

(2) A fondue of tomatoes in the proportion of one heaped tablespoon ful per croustade.

(3) Five timbales of pilaff rice, made after the same manner as the croustades, and kept hot until required for dishing.

Season the tournedos, fry them in butter, and dish them as soon as they are ready.

Surround them with timbales of rice, and the croustades garnished with the fondue, the two garnishes to be alternated.

1 1 13- TOURNEDOS MIRETTE

Prepare as many small timbales of " pommes Mirette " (No. 2234) as there are tournedos.

Turn them out on a dish, sprinkle with grated Parmesan and a few drops of melted butter, and set them to glaze a few minutes before the tournedos are ready. Grill the tournedos, dish them in the form of a crown, and set a timbale of pommes Mirette upon each.

Swill the saute-pan with white wine; add thereto a little meat-glaze, finish with butter, and pour the resulting sauce over the tournedos.

n 14- TOURNEDOS A LA MOELLE

Grill the tournedos and dish them in the form of a crown.

Lay on each of them a large slice of poached marrow, and either surround them with Bordelaise sauce or send the latter to the table separately.

1 1 15- TOURNEDOS MONTGOMERY

Season the tournedos and fry them in butter.

Dish them upon a pancake of spinach (No. 2138), cooked in a tartlet-mould. Deck each tournedos with a rosette of reduced Soubise, made by means of a piping-bag fitted with a grooved pipe, and put a fine slice of truffle in the centre of the rosette.

1 1 16- TOURNEDOS MONTPENSIER

Prepare (i) as many tartlet-crusts as there are tournedos; (2) a garnish of asparagus-heads, cohered with butter, in the proportion of one heaped tablespoonful per tartlet.

Fry the tournedos in butter, and dish them upon fried crusts.

On each of them set a tartlet garnished with asparagusheads, with a slice of truffle in the middle.

RELEVES AND ENTREES 373

1117- TOURNEDOS AUX MORILLES

Grill the tournedos or fry them in butter.

Dish them in the form of a crown; in the centre arrange a heap of morels tossed in butter, and besprinkle them moderately with chopped parsley.

1 1 18- TOURNEDOS A LA NI9OISE

Fry the tournedos in butter, and dish them in the form of a crown.

In the centre of each tournedos set a small heap, consisting of one half-tablespoonful of peeled, pressed, and concassed tomatoes, tossed in butter, together with a little crushed garlic and chopped tarragon.

Surround with small heaps of French beans cohered with butter, and other heaps of small potatoes, cooked in butter, alternating the two garnishes.

1 1 19- TOURNEDOS NINON

Fry the tournedos in butter, and dish them upon crusts of " pommes Anna," stamped out with a round fancy-cutter of the same size as the tournedos. On each of the latter set a small patty, garnished with asparagus-heads, cohered with butter and combined with a fine and short julienne of truffles.

1 120- TOURNEDOS PARMENTIER

Fry the tournedos in butter, and dish them in the form of a crown.

In the middle of the dish or round it set a fine heap of potatoes, cut into regular cubes of two-thirds inch side, or raised by means of an oval, grooved spoon-cutter. The potatoes should be cooked in butter and kept very soft.

Slightly sprinkle the potatoes with chopped parsley.

1 12 1- TOURNEDOS PERSANE

Prepare as many green capsicums, stuffed with rice moulded to the shape of balls and braised, and as many grilled halftomatoes as there are tournedos. Also have some fried slices of banana ready, and allow three for each tournedos.

Fry the tournedos in butter and dish them, in the form of a crown, on the grilled half-tomatoes. On each tournedos set a stuffed and braised capsicum.

In the centre of the dish arrange the fried slices of banana in a nice heap. Send separately to the table a Chateaubriand sauce, combined with the reduced braising-liquor of the capsicums. II22- TOURNEDOS P^RUVIENNE

Prepare, after the manner described below, as many oxalis roots as there are tournedos.

Peel the oxalis roots; cut a slice from underneath them, in order to make them stand upright, and hollow them out to form little cases.

Chop up the pulp extracted from them in the last operation, and add it to a preparation of duxelles, made as for stuffed mushrooms.

Fill the oxalis cases with this preparation, shaping it above their edges after the manner of a dome; besprinkle with raspings and oil, and put them in the oven in good time for them to be ready at the same time as the tournedos.

Grill the tournedos, dish them in the form of a crown, and surround them with the oxalis cases.

1 123- TOURNEDOS PIEMONTAISE

Butter as many tartlet-moulds as there are tournedos; fill them with Rizotto k la Pidmontaise, combined with white truffles cut into dice, and keep them hot.

Fry the tournedos in clarified butter; dish them, in the form of a crown, on the rizotto tartlets, turned out at the last minute.

1 124- TOURNENOS PROVENCALE

For ten tournedos, prepare (i) ten medium-sized mushrooms, stuffed with duxelles, slightly flavoured with garlic, and put in the oven in good time; (2) ten half-tomatoes k la Proven9ale (No. 2266),

Fry the tournedos in equal quantities of butter and oil; dish them, in the form of a crown, on fried crusts, with a halftomato upon each, and around them set the stuffed mushrooms.

1 125- TOURNEDOS RACHEL

Fry the tournedos in butter, and dish them, in the form of a crown, on fried crusts one-third inch thick.

On each tournedos set a small artichoke-bottom, garnished with a large slice of poached marrow.

Send a Bordelaise sauce separately.

1 126- TOURNEDOS ROSSINI

Fry the tournedos in butter, and dish them, in the form of a crown, upon fried crusts.

On each tournedos set a round slice of foie gras, just a little smaller than the former; the slices should be seasoned, dredged, and fried in butter.

On each slice of foie-gras, set a fine slice of truffle.

RELEVES AND ENTREES 375

1127- TOURNEDOS ROUMANILLp

Cut the tournedos a little smaller than usual. Season them; fry them in butter, and dish them in a circle on grilled halftomatoes.

Coat the tournedos with Mornay sauce, and set them to glaze quickly.

In the middle of each tournedos set a large stuffed and poached olive, encircled by a ring consisting of an anchovy fillet.

In the centre of the dish arrange a fine heap of egg-plant roundels, seasoned with salt and pepper, dredged, fried in oil, and kept very crisp.

H28-TOURNEDOS SAINT MAND16

Fry the tournedos in butter, and dish them, in the form of a circle, each on a little cushion of " pommes de terre Macaire," moulded in ordinary tartlet-moulds.

In the centre of the dish set a garnish consisting of peas cohered with butter.

1 129- TOURNEDOS A LA SARDE

Prepare a garnish of (i) hollowed, parboiled, and braised sections of cucumber, stuffed with duxelles, and gratined; (2) small tomatoes, similarly treated; (3) small round croquettes of rice flavoured with saffron, thickened with egg-yolks, treated a I'anglaise, and fried.

Fry the tournedos in butter, and dish them in the form of a crown.

Set a croquette of rice upon each tournedos, and frame the whole with the stuffed cucumber cases and the stuffed tomatoes, laid alternately.

1 130- TOURNEDOS SOUBISE

Grill the tournedos and dish them in the form of a crown. Serve a light Soubise purde separately.

1 13 1- TOURNEDOS TIVOLI

For ten tournedos, prepare ten small grilled mushrooms, and allow one half-tomato tossed in butter for each mushroom.

Fry the tournedos in butter and dish them, in the form of a crown, upon fried crusts. On each tournedos set a grilled mushroom, garnished with a tossed half-tomato, and all round set some fine "pommes souffldes " made in ribbon-form, of a round shape, and in the proportion of one potato to each tournedos.

Send a B6arnaise sauce separately.

376 GUliDE TO MODERN COOkERY

1 132- TOURNEDOS TYROLIENNE

For ten tournedos, prepare the following sauce: ^Gently cook one chopped onion in butter; add two peeled, pressed, and roughly-chopped tomatoes, salt, pepper, chopped parsley, and a little crushed garlic.

When the tomatoes are sufficiently cooked, add thereto a few tablespoonfuls of poivrade sauce, and set to boil for five minutes.

Fry the tournedos in butter; dish them in the form of a crown, and cover them with the prepared sauce.

1 133- TOURNEDOS VALENCAY

Fry the tournedos in butter, and dish them in the form of a crown, each on a small, round, and flat croquette of noodles and ham, fried just before dishing up.

Send a Chateaubriand sauce separately.

1 134- TOURNEDOS VALENTINO

Prepare as many pieces of turnips, of the same diameter as the tournedos and one and one-half inch thick, as there are tournedos. Cut them neatly round, stamp them with an even and round cutter, and parboil them until they are almost completely cooked. Hollow them out, by means of a spoon, inside the mark left by the fancy-cutter, and stuff them with a preparation of semolina with Parmesan.

Put these stuffed pieces of turnip in a saut^pan; add a little water, butter, and sugar, and glaze them while finishing their cooking-process.

Fry the tournedos in butter, and dish them in a circle, each on a stuffed case of turnip.

"35- TOURNEDOS VERT=PR^

Grill the tournedos, and dish them simply with half-melted butter a la Maitre-d' Hotel upon them.

Surround them with alternate heaps of water-cress and freshly-fried straw potatoes.

1 136- TOURNEDOS VICTORIA

Fry the tournedos in butter.

Dish them in a circle, each on a little round and flat croquette of chicken-meat. On each tournedos set a half-tomato tossed in butter.

H37- TOURNEDOS VILLARET

Prepare (r) as many tartlet-crusts as there are tournedos; (2) a sufficient quantity of very smooth flageolet puree to garnish the tartlets; (3) a fine grilled tomato per each tournedos.

RfiLEVES AND ENTREES 377

Grill the tournedos, and dish them on the garnished tartlets. On each tournedos set a grilled mushroom, the hollow of which should have been filled with Chateaubriand sauce.

1 1 38- TOURNEDOS VILLENEUVE

Fry the tournedos in butter, and dish them in a circle on little quoit-shaped croquettes of chicken-meat, fried at the last moment.

On each tournedos set a crown of small roundels of tongue and truffle, laid alternately, and a small grooved mushroom in the middle.

Send a Chateaubriand sauce separately.

1 139- TOURNEDOS VILLEMER

Grill the tournedos, and dish them in a circle, each on a fried, hollowed-out crust, garnished with truffled Soubise.

On each tournedos set a large slice of truffle coated with meat-glaze.

1 140- FILETS EN CHEVREUIL

For the " en chevreuil " treatment, the meat used is generally cut from the narrowest end of the fillet of beef. The weight of the pieces cut should average about three oz. each.

After having slightly flattened and trimmed them, lard them with very thin strips of bacon, and marinade them for a few hours in the raw marinade given under No. 169. When about to cook them, dry them thoroughly, and fry them quickly in hot oil, taking care that the latter be smoking, and therefore hot enough to set the meat and to cause its external moisture to evaporate.

The fillets may be accompanied by all vegetable purees and highly-seasoned sauces, the most suitable of the latter being the Poivrade and the Chasseur.

1 141- SIRLOIN OF BEEF (Releve) Sirloin of beef is that part of the bullock's back reaching from the haunch to the floating ribs, which is equivalent to the saddle in veal and mutton. This piece, however, cannot properly be called "sirloin," except when it comprises the fillet or undercut, and the upper fillet (Fr.: contrefilet), so-called to distinguish it from the undercut. If this joint be treated whole, it need only be shortened by suppressing the flank, and by sectioning the ligament lying alongside of the chine on the upper fillet, in different places.

A little fat is left on the undercut, but none whatever must be removed from the upper fillet. As a rule, when sirloin of beef is braised, it is cut laterally into pieces weighing from six to seven lbs. If it is to be roasted, it is best to keep it whole.

When served as a relev^, it is braised or roasted, and is kept underdone if so desired. Unless it be of excellent quality, however, braised sirloin generally turns out to be dry.

All garnishes given for "Filet de Boeuf " may be served with sirloin; but, as a rule, the bulkiest, such as the " Richelieu," the " Proven9ale," the " Godard," &c., are selected.

The accompanying sauce is that indicated for the above garnishes.

1 142- PORTERHOUSE-STEAK (Grill)

Porterhouse-steak is a slice from the sirloin of beef, which may be more or less thick. It is cleared of the flank and of the bones of the chine, and it is always grilled.

It may be served with any of the various garnishes and sauces suited to grills; but it is more often served plain.

1 143- UPPER FILLET AND RIBS OF BEEF (Relev^)

The upper fillet is that part of beef which lies between the top of the haunch and the floating ribs, alongside of the chine. It may be treated like the fillet, and all the garnishes suited to the latter may also be applied here.

If the piece is to be braised, it should be completely boned; if intended for roasting, it is best to retain the bones. In the latter case, the large ligament should be cut at various points with the view of preventing distortion, while the bones constituting the spinous process should be broken close to the point where they join the body of the vertebrae, that they may be easily removed when the meat is being carved.

The upper fillet, especially when it is of good quality, is best roasted.

Ribs of beef may likewise be braised or roasted.

In either case, the meat should be properly trimmed and cleared of all the bones of the spinous process.

This piece should only be used after having been well hung, in order that it may be as tender as possible.

1 144- GRILLED SIRLOIN STEAKS AND RIBS OF BEEF

The sirloin steak may be cut either from the upper fillet or the ribs of beef, i.e., between two rib-bones. In order that its cooking may be regular, it should not weigh more than from two to three lbs.

Ribs of beef may also be grilled, provided they be sufficiently tender.

RELEVES AND ENTREES 379

They may be braised, too, and in this case they are served with any of the various garnishes given under Fillet of Beef.

1 145- PIECE DE BCEUF BRAIS^E (Releve) The piece of beef called rump is the one preferred for boiling and braiding. Whatever be the use for which the meat is intended, the weight of the pieces should not be more than six or eight lbs. at the most, and they should be cut in the length rather than in the thickness, that the cooking process may be facilitated.

All the garnishes of braised sirloin of beef are suited to braised pieces of beef.

Boiled beef is generally accompanied by the vegetables used in its cooking-process, by purees, green or dry vegetables, pastes, macaroni, &c., &c.

1146- PIECE DE B(EUF A LA BOURQUIGNONNE

Lard the piece of beef, and marinade it for three hours in brandy and red wine. Braise it after the manner described under No. 247; moisten first with the wine of the marinade, and, when the latter is reduced, with some veal gravy and onehalf pint of Espagnole sauce per quart of liquid, taking care that the whole moistening reaches the top of the piece of meat. Add a faggot and some mushroom parings; set to boil, and cook gently in the oven.

When the meat is two-thirds cooked, transfer it to another saucepan, and surround it with mushrooms cut into two or four, according to their size, and tossed in butter; breast of bacon, cut into dice, blanched and tossed in butter, and some small onions half-glazed with butter.

Strain the sauce through a sieve over the piece of beef and its garnish, and complete the cooking gently.

A few minutes before serving, put the meat on a dish and glaze it in the oven. Transfer the meat to the dish intended for the table; quickly reduce the sauce if necessary, and pour it over the piece of beef and the garnish.

1 147- PifiCE DE B(EUF A LA CUILLER

Select a very square or oval piece of beef, and bear in mind, in selecting it, that it will have to be fashioned to the shape of a case when it has been cooked.

String it, and braise it after the manner described under No. 247, almost entirely covering it with moistening liquor.

Set it to cook gently; withdraw the piece when the meat is still somewhat firm, and let it cool under slight pressure. This done, cut out the meat from the inside; leave a thickness of about half-inch round the sides and on the bottom, and the piece thus emptied should constitute a square or oval case, in accordance with the shape originally adopted.

Coat the outside of the whole piece with a mixture of beaten eggs and fine bread-crumbs, combined with Parmesan; sprinkle melted butter over it with a brush, and put the case into a sufficiently hot oven to allow of a crust forming round it.

Meanwhile chop up the meat extracted from the inside of the piece; add thereto a little salted tongue, some braised slices of sweet-bread, and mushrooms; put the whole into a saut^pan with an Italian or a half-glaze sauce, according to the requirements, and heat this garnish.

N.B. - This preparation was quite common in old-fashioned cookery, but though it is still served occasionally, it is now looked upon more as a curiosity than anything else. As a curiosity, therefore, I chose to include it among these recipes; but it does not follow from this that I in any way recommend it.

1 148- PIECE DE B(EUF A LA FLAMANDE

Lard the piece of beef, and braise it as explained under No. 247.

Meanwhile prepare the following garnish: - (i) Cut a nice firm cabbage into four, remove the heart, and parboil it for seven or eight minutes. Drain it; cool it; divide up the quarters, leaf by leaf, so as to remove the hard ribs, and season with salt and pepper.

Mould them to the shape of balls by pressing them in the corner of a towel into balls weighing about three oz. each, or simply put them into a saucepan with a quartered carrot, an onion stuck with a clove, a faggot, six oz. of blanched breast of pork, and a little raw sausage with garlic, which latter must be withdrawn after cooking has gone on for one and one-half hours.

Moisten the cabbage with just sufficient consomm^ to cover it; add a few tablespoonfuls of good stock-fat; set to boil, and cook gently in the oven for one and one-half hours.

(2) Cut the required quantity of carrots and turnips to the shape of olives; cook them in consomm^, and reduce the latter for the purpose of glazing.

(3) Prepare some potatoes d I'anglaise.

Set the piece of beef on a dish large enough to allow of the former being surrounded with the moulded or plainly-heaped cabbages, the glazed carrots arid turnips, and the potatoes d

RELEVES AND ENTREES 381

I'anglaise. The last two vegetables should be set in alternate heaps with the cabbages and the bacon (cut into small rectangles) and the sausage (cut into roundels) should be distributed all round.

Serve separately the gravy of the piece of beef, cleared of all grease, reduced to a half-glaze and strained.

1 149- PIECE DE BCEUF A LA MODE CHAUDE

Lard the piece of beef, which should not, if possible, weigh more than from four to five lbs. The strips of bacon used for larding ought to have been prepared fifteen or twenty minutes in advance, marinaded in a few tablespoonfuls of brandy, and sprinkled with parsley just before being used.

Rub the piece with salt, pepper, and nutmeg, and put it into a basin with one bottle of red wine and one-fifth pint of brandy, and set it to marinade for four or five hours, taking care to turn it over from time to time.

Then set it to braise after the manner described under No. 247; add its marinade to the moistening, and surround it with three small, boned, blanched, and strung calf's feet.

When the cooking is three-quarters done, transfer the piece of beef to another saucepan, and surround it with the following garnish: -

1. About one-quarter lb. of carrots turned to the shape of elongated olives, and already two-thirds cooked.

2. Small onions coloured in two-thirds lb. of butter,

3. The calf's feet cut into small, square, or rectangular pieces.

Strain the braising-Iiquor over the whole, and complete the cooking gently. When about to serve, either glaze the piece of beef, or dish it plain; coat it lightly with sauce, and send what remains of the latter, with the garnish, in a timbale.

I ISO- PIECE DE BCEUF A LA MODE FROIDE

Boeuf k la mode is very rarely prepared specially for cold dishing, the remains of a fine piece being generally used for that purpose. The piece of meat must first be well trimmed. If the quantity of sauce do not seem enough, or if the sauce itself seem too stiff, add a third of its volume of aspic jelly to it.

For moulding, take a terrine a pate, a mould, or other utensil capable of holding the piece of meat, its garnish, and its sauce. Deck the bottom of the utensil in any suitable way with the carrots and the onions, and surround the piece with what remains of the latter and the dice of calf's foot, Add the sauce, combined with the jelly, after having passed it through a strainer, and put the whole in the cool for a few hours. Turn out just before serving, and surround with very light, chopped jelly.

1 151- PIECE DE BCEUF A LA NOAILLES

Lard the piece of beef, and marinade it in brandy and red wine.

This done, dry it thoroughly, and brown it evenly in butter all over; moisten it with its marinade and an equal quantity of veal gravy, and set to cook gently.

When the meat is half-cooked, surround it with two lbs. of minced onions, tossed in butter, and three oz. of rice. Complete the cooking of the piece with onions and rice.

Now withdraw the piece of beef, and quickly rub the onions and the rice through tammy. Reduce this Soubise with rice for a few moments.

Neatly trim the piece of beef; cut it into even slices; reconstruct it on a dish, and between each slice pour a tablespoonful of Soubise puree.

Cover the reconstructed piece of beef with the remainder of the Soubise; sprinkle the surface with two tablespoonfuls of bread-crumbs fried in butter, and some melted butter, and put the whole in the oven, that the gratin may form speedily.

1152- THE RUMP

RUMPSTEAK AND BEEFSTEAK.

The rump is that portion of the sirloin of beef which touches the top of the haunch.

It may be braised, but it is more often grilled in slices from one inch to one and one-half inches thick, which are called " rumpsteaks."

With reference to this subject, it is as well to point out that the term " Beefsteak," so hackneyed in France, is scarcely used in England, owing to its want of precision.

In France, beefsteak is either a cut from the fillet, the upperfillet, or the rump, according to the standing of the cateringhouse which supplies it. But the nature of the piece cannot very well be mistaken, inasmuch as the term beefsteak, which designates it, is generally followed by other French words which reveal its origin, whereas in England the term "Beefsteak" does not convey any particular meaning.

Rumpsteak is either grilled or sauted, but whatever be the method of cooking it, it is generally served plain.

RELEVES AND ENTREES 383

All garnishes suited to fillets, however, may be served with it, as also the various butters and sauces generally used with grills.

IIS3- LANGUE DE BCEUF

Ox tongue is served fresh or salted, but, even when it is to be served fresh, it is all the better for having been put in salt a few days previously. In order to salt it, put it into a special brine, as explained under No. 174. When salted^ it is cooked in boiling water; when fresh, it is braised exactly after the manner of any other piece of meat.

Ox tongue may be served with almost all the garnishes suited to relev^s of fillet of beef, but more particularly with the following: - Bourgeoise; Flamande; Milanaise; Noodles or Macaroni with cream, cheese or tomatoes; and all vegetable purees.

The most suitable sauces are: - Madeira sauce, Piquante sauce, Tomato sauce, or their derivatives.

II54- LANQUE DE BCEUFCHOUCROUTE

Braise the tongue as described under No. 247, and glaze it at the last moment. Dish it, and send to the table separately (i) a timbale of well-braised sauerkraut; (2) a timbale of potato pur^e; (3) a Madeira sauce, combined with the braising-liquor of the tongue, cleared of all grease, and reduced.

,,S5_LANQUE DE BOEUF BOURGEOISE

Braise the tongue in the usual way.

When it is two-thirds cooked, surround it with carrots fashioned to the shape of olives and already two-thirds cooked, and small onions browned in butter.

Complete the cooking gently, and for the rest of the operation, proceed as for " Piece de Boeuf k la Mode chaude."

1156- LANGUE DE BCEUF AUX FEVES

Tongue intended for this preparation should be put in salt a few days in advance.

Boil it in the usual way and very gently; glaze it when about to serve, and dish it. Send to the table separately (i) a timbale of very fresh, skinned, broad beans, cooked in salted water with a spray of savory, and cohered with butter at the last moment.

(2) A Madeira sauce.

1 157- LANGUE DE BCEUF FLAMANDE

Braise the tongue, and glaze it at the last moment. Surround it with the garnish " k la Flamande " given under the beef recipe of that name, i.e., braised cabbages, glazed carrots and turnips, potatoes a I'anglaise, rectangles of lean bacon, and roundels of sausage.

1158- LANQUES DE BCEUF FROIDES

Ox tongues intended for cold dishing should be kept in brine (No. 172) for eight or ten days. When about to use them, put them to soak in cold water for a few hours, and then cook them plainly in water for three hours.

This done, withdraw them from their cooking-liquor; skin them; cover them with buttered paper, and let them cool. The object of the paper is to keep off the air, the tendency of which is to blacken the surface of the meat.

When quite cool, coat the tongues with a glaze composed of one-half lb. of gelatine dissolved in one pint of water; the latter is given a scarlet tint by means of carmine and caramel.

Cold ox tongues are dished amidst aspic jelly dice and curledleaf parsley.

N.B. - The gelatine glaze described above will be found a great improvement upon the coating of reddened gold-beaters' skin.

OX TAILS.

Ox tails, sectioned or unsectioned, are usually braised, and only the thicker half of the caudal appendage is ever used.

1159-QUEUE DE BCEUF A L'AUVERQNATE

Section the tail, and braise it in white wine, after recipe No. 247.

Prepare a garnish of rectangles of lean bacon, large chestnuts cooked in consomme and glazed, and small onions cooked in butter.

Put the sections of the tail in an earthenware cocotte with the garnish.

1 160- QUEUE DE BCEUF A LA CAVOUR

Section the tail, and braise it in a moistening two-thirds of which is brown stock and one-third white wine. It is well for the moistening to be somewhat abundant. Set to cook very gently, until the meat falls from the bones, i.e., for a matter of about four and one-half or five hours.

This done, dish the sections of the tail in a cocotte; add some small, cooked mushrooms; clear the cooking-liquor of grease; reduce it, and thicken it slightly with fecula. Strain

RELEVES AND ENTREES 385

this thickened cooking-liquor over the sections of the tail and the mushrooms, and set to boil very gently for ten minutes.

Serve thus in the cocotte set on a dish, and send a timbale of chestnut pur^e to the table at the same time.

ii6i- QUEUE DE BCEUF FARCIE

Choose a large ox tail, and bone it carefully without bursting it.

Lay it on a napkin, and stuff it with a forcemeat consisting of the following ingredients: - Three-quarters lb. of very lean beef and one-half lb. of chopped fat bacon, the two mixed with four oz. of bread-crumbs soaked in milk and pressed; two whole eggs; three oz. of truffle peel; one-half oz. of salt, a pinch of pepper, and a very little spice.

Sew up the tail, cover it with a piece of linen after the manner of a galantine, and cook it gently for three hours in a very light stock with vegetables as for boiled beef.

At the end of the three hours take it out of the linen; put it into a saut^pan, the bottom of which should be garnished as for a braising; add a little of the cooking-liquor of the tail, and complete the cooking, basting often the while. Take care to baste more frequently towards the close of the operation with the view of properly glazing the meat.

When about to serve, dish it, after having removed all string, and lightly coat the bottom of the dish with a sauce consisting of the cooking-liquor, reduced and thickened with arrow-root. Send what remains of the cooking-liquor in a sauceboat.

Serve separately either a pur^e, a garnish of braised vegetables, or one of the sauces suited to pieces of beef.

1 162- QUEUE DE BCEUF QRILLEE

Cut the tail into sections twice the usual length, and cook these in a stewpan for five hours with salted water and aromatics.

Drain the sections; dry them well; dip them in melted butter, and roll them in very fine bread-crumbs. Sprinkle with melted butter, and set to grill gently.

Grilled ox tail may be served with any vegetable pur6e. An ordinary Soubise, or one prepared " k la Noailles," as explained under the piece of beef of that name, also suits very well.

In any case, the Soubise should be sufficiently thick.

Such sauces as k la Diable, Hach6e, Piquante, Robert, Tomato, Italienne, &c., are also suited to grilled ox tail.

N.B. - When* the adjunct to grilled ox tail is a highly C C seasoned sauce, the sections should first be covered with a coat of mustard, then dipped in melted butter, and finally rolled in bread-crumbs.

1 163- QUEUE DE BCEUF EN HOCHEPOT

Cut the tail into sections, and put these into a stewpan of convenient size, with two pig's trotters, each of which must be cut into four or five pieces, and one pig's ear. Cover the whole with cold water; add salt to the extent of one-third oz, per quart of the liquid; set to boil; skim, and leave to cook gently for two hours.

This done, add one small cabbage, cut into quarters, parboiled and cooled; ten small onions; five oz. of carrots, and the same weight of turnips, cut to the shape of large, garlic cloves.

Set the whole to cook for a further two hours at least.

When about to serve, dish the sections of tail in a circle; put the vegetable garnish in the centre, and surround the latter with the pig's ear cut into small, narrow strips, and ten grilled chipolata sausages.

Serve, separately, a timbale of potatoes cooked a I'anglaise.

Various Preparations of Beef. 1164- STEWED STEAKS AND ONIONS

Select some steaks one and one-third inches thick; fry them in butter on both sides, and set them to braise in short moistening, with a sufficient quantity of quartered and browned onions to constitute an abundant garnish.

Leave the whole to cook gently for three hours.

Dish the steak, and surround it with the onions and the braising-liquor cleared of all grease and reduced.

H65- SALT BEEF

The pieces of beef chiefly selected for salting are brisket, silver side, and round of beef, and these are always boiled for a more or less lengthy period, according to their size.

To the cooking-liquor is added a copious garnish of carrots and turnips. These are served with the meat, together with a sauceboat of cooking-liquor and a suet dumpling, prepared as follows: -

1 166- SUET DUMPLING

Finely chop up some suet; add to it an equal quantity of

flour and about one-quarter oz. of salt per lb. of suet and flour.

Moisten with just enough water to make a thick paste of

RELEVES AND ENTREES 387

about the same consistence as brioche-paste. Cut this paste into portions weighing about one oz., and roll them into small balls. Put the latter in a saut^pan containing some boiling beef cooking-liquor, which need not have been cleared of grease, and let them poach for one and one-half hours.

Now drain the dumplings, and arrange them around the meat with the garnish of carrots and turnips, as explained above.

1 167- COLD SALT BEEF

Salt beef, served cold, constitutes an excellent sideboard dish for luncheons.

It need only be neatly trimmed all round, care being taken to preserve all the fat so highly esteemed by some. Indeed, a piece of cold salt fat is sometimes added to that already existing around and in the meat, in which case the extra quantity is fixed to the beef by means of a hatelet.

1 168- PRESSED BEEF

Salt beef also serves in the preparation of " Pressed Beef," but, for this purpose, the breast is generally used.

After having thoroughly cooked the salted breast of beef in accordance with the procedure indicated for salt beef, cut it into large pieces of the same size as the moulds into which the meat is going to be pressed. Lay the pieces of beef one on top of another in a square or rectangular mould, and cover with a thick board, cut flush with the inside edge of the mould. Now apply pressure, either by means of a strong press or heavy weight, and leave the beef to cool under the applied pressure.

When the meat is quite cold, turn it out; trim it carefully on all sides, and glaze it, i.e., cover it entirely with a coating of rather firm, clarified gelatine, brought by means of carmine and caramel to a nice red-brown colour.

1 1 69- STEAK AND KIDNEY PUDDING

Cut three lbs. of very lean beef into slices one-third inch thick.

Season these slices with salt, pepper, and nutmeg, and add a little chopped onion and parsley. Take a pudding-basin; line it with a firm layer of suet-dough (No. 1166), and garnish the bottom and sides of the basin with the slices of beef.

In the middle put one lb. of kidney of beef, of veal, or of mutton, cut up as for tossing, and seasoned like the steaks. Moisten with just sufficient water to cover.

Now close up the basin with a layer of the same paste as that used in lining, pinching it with the latter, all round, that it may adhere thoroughly. In order to effect this with greater

c c 2 certainty, the respective edges of the two layers of paste may be moistened.

This done, cover the basin with a buttered and dredged napkin, fastened on by means of string tied round just beneath the Hp of the utensil. Cook for five hours, either in boiling water or in steam, and, after having removed the napkin, serve the pudding as it stands.

1 1 70- STEAK PUDDING

Make some rather stiff paste with two lbs. of flour, one and one-quarter lbs. of the chopped fat of kidney of beef, a pinch of salt, and one-quarter pint of water.

With the rolling-pin, roll out this paste to a round layer one-quarter inch thick, and put it into a buttered dome-mould or pudding-basin.

Cut the lean beef into pieces, and season them, exactly as for steak and kidney pudding. Fill up the basin with the pieces arranged in layers; moisten with just enough water to cover, and close up the basin with a layer of the same paste as that used for its lining.

Carefully join the edges of the two layers of paste, assisting the operation with a little moisture applied by means of a brush; swathe the basin in a buttered pudding-cloth, and fasten the latter firmly with string.

Put the pudding in a saucepan of boiling water or a steamer, and leave it to cook for three hours if the beef has been cut from the fillet, and for four hours if cut from any other piece.

At the end of the required time take the pudding out of the saucepan and remove the cloth.

Dish on a folded napkin.

1 171- STEAK AND OYSTER PUDDING

Proceed exactly as for steak and kidney pudding, but take only two lbs. of beef, and replace the odd pound by forty fine oysters.

1172- DAUBE CHAUDE A LA PROVEN^ALE

Cut four lbs. of shoulder or cushion of beef into cubes weighing about four oz. each. Lard each piece of meat with a strip of bacon two inches long by one-half inch wide, and put the cubes or pieces into a bowl with salt, pepper, a very little spice, five or six tablespoonfuls of vinegar, and a glass of red wine. Leave to marinade for two or three hours, and toss the pieces, from time to time, in the marinading liquor, in order that each may be well saturated with it. Heat six oz. of

RELEVES AND ENTREES 389

grated bacon in an earthenware stewpan, and brown therein twelve small onions, fifteen carrots in the shape of olives, two sticks of celery cut into pieces of the same size as the carrots, and four cloves of garlic. Add the marinaded pieces of meat, which should have been properly dried; fry the whole, meat and vegetables, for a further seven or eight minutes, and moisten with the marinade and two glasses more of red wine.

Complete with one-half lb. of fresh bacon rind, blanched and cut into square pieces of two-thirds inch side; a faggot made up of parsley stalks, thyme, bay, and, in the centre, a small piece of dry lemon rind. Set to boil, completely close the stewpan, and leave to cook in a moderate oven for six or seven hours.

When about to serve, remove the faggot, clear all grease from the gravy, and dish in a hot timbale, or serve the " daube " in the stewpan itself.

1 173- DAUBE A LA PROVENCALE FROIDE

A daube is rarely prepared specially for cold dishing; generally the remains of one already served hot are used.

Take the pieces, one by one, with a fork, and place them in a terrine a pate with the carrots, onions, and squares of bacon rind, which have remained almost untouched.

Strain the gravy over them through an ordinary strainer, pressing lightly the while, and leave to cool.

When about to serve, turn out the daube on a cold dish, and surround with chopped aspic jelly.

1174- CARBONNADES A LA FLAMANDE

Cut three lbs. of lean shoulder or cushion of beef into thin, short slices. Season the latter with salt and pepper, and brown them quickly on both sides in stock fat. At the same time toss one and one-quarter lbs. of minced onions in butter, until they are well browned.

Put the slices of beef and the onions in alternate layers into a saucepan, and in their midst place a faggot.

Drain the grease from the sautdpan in which the slices were fried; swill with one and one-half pints of beer (old Lambic in preference); add the same quantity of brown stock, thicken with four oz. of brown roux; finish the seasoning with one and onehalf oz. of powdered sugar; set to boil, stirring the while, and strain this sauce over the slices of beef and the onions.

Cover and cook gently in the oven for from two and one-half to three hours.

N.B. - Carbonades are served thus, mingled with the onions; but they may also be dished in a timbale and covered with a Soubise consisting of the onion and the sauce rubbed through tammy.

1175- EMINC6 DE B(EUF

Cold roast or boiled meats may be warmed up in many different ways.

In their preparation, however, the reader should follow one rule, the non-observance of which invariably leads to failure.

Whatever the meat be, it should first be cut into the thinnest possible slices; set on a dish, and covered with a boiling sauce or garnish, which should effect its warming up. If the meat boil in the sauce or garnish, it toughens, and this, above all, should be avoided when roast meat is used.

Sauces suited to Eminces are the Bordelaise, the Piquante, the Italienne, the Chasseur, the Poivrade, the P^rigueux, and the Tomato.

1176- EM1NC6 DE BffiUF EN MIROTON

For one lb. of beef mince two fine onions somewhat finely, and toss them in butter until they are evenly and well gilded.

Sprinkle with one-half tablespoonful of flour; set to cook for a moment, and then moisten with one-half glassful of white wine and one-half pint of consomm6; season with a pinch of pepper; boil, and leave to cook gently for seven or eight minutes.

The flour may be dispensed with, but, in this case, the white wine is reduced to two-thirds, one-half pint of half-glaze is added, and the whole is cooked for seven or eight minutes.

Cut the beef into very thin slices, and set these on a dish.

A minute before serving, add a few drops of vinegar to the onions; cover the meat with the onions and the sauce; stand the dish for a moment on the hob, and sprinkle it slightly with chopped parsley.

N.B. - When the miroton is prepared with boiled beef, the slices should be cut somewhat more thickly, and left to simmer gently in the sauce for as long as possble - an hour or more if necessary.

The miroton is then dished with some minced gherkins, sprinkled with raspings, and placed in the oven at the last moment for the gratin to form.

1177- QOULASH DE BCEUF A LA HONGROISE

Cut three lbs. of ribs or shoulder of beef into squares weighing about three oz. each. Fry these pieces on a moderate lire in four oz. of lard, together with one-half lb. of onions cut into large dice, until the latter acquire a nice, even, golden colour.

RELEVES AND ENTREES 391

Season with one-third oz. of salt and the necessary quantity of paprika; add one and one-quarter lbs. of peeled, pressed, and quartered tomatoes, and one-sixth pint of water.

Cover and cook in the oven for one and one-half hours.

This done, add one-third pint of water and one and onequarter lbs. of quartered potatoes to the Goulash.

Continue the cooking in the oven, basting often the while, and do not stop the operation until the moistening-liquor is entirely reduced. When about to serve, dish the Goulash in a timbale.

1178- HACHIS DE BCEUF A L'AMERICAINE

Cut the meat into small cubes.

Also cut into dice the same weight of potatoes as of meat.

Season these potatoes and toss them in butter.

This done, put half their quantity into a saucepan with the meat dice, and cohere the whole with a few tablespoonfuls of tomato sauce and reduced veal gravy. Heat without allowing to boil; dish in a hot timbale; distribute the remainder of the potatoes, which should be crisply fried, over the hash, and sprinkle with a pinch of freshly-chopped parsley.

1 179- HACHIS DE BCEUF A PARMENTIER

Bake some fine potatoes in the oven.

The moment they are done, slice off a piece of their baked shell, and remove the pulp from their insides by means of a spoon handle.

Crush this pulp with a fork, and toss it in butter as for " pommes de terre Macaire." Then add to it as much beef in dice as there is pulp; two tablespoonfuls of chopped onion cooked in butter per lb. of the preparation; a pinch of chopped parsley, and a few drops of vinegar. Now toss the whole together for a few minutes, and then fill the empty potato shells with the preparation.

Sprinkle with Lyonnaise sauce rubbed through tammy, and add as much of it as the hash will absorb.

Replace the portion of shell cut off at the first, that the potatoes may seem untouched; arrange them on a dish, and put the latter in the oven for ten minutes. When about to serve, dish the stuffed potatoes on a napkin.

1 180- TRIPES A LA MODE DE CAEN

In the preparation of this culinary speciality of Normandy, a very common mistake is often made; to wit, that of using calves' feet instead of those of the ox, an innovation to which there are many objections. In the first place, the gravy of the tripe cannot absorb so much gelatine, and is indifferently thickened in consequence; secondly, since calves' feet are much more tender than those of the ox, the former get boiled to shreds before the cooking of the tripe has been properly effected. This supposed improvement on the old method is thus seen to actually run counter to the end in view; but means there are, nevertheless, whereby those who insist upon the use of calves' feet may be satisfied. It is only necessary to braise a number of calves' feet beforehand, the number being in proportion to the quantity of tripe, and to add these to the latter a quarter of an hour before serving.

Another mistake which obtains somewhat widely in respect of this dish is the serving of it in a silver utensil - a method quite as unreasonable as that of serving a Chaudfroid in an earthenware dish.

By virtue of its simplicity, tripe should be served in either sandstone or special earthenware stewpans, wherein heat is best retained; and the operator should rather direct his attention to the serving of tripe as hot as possible, than to this or that fanciful method of dishing, which really has no raison d'etre in this case.

The Preparation of Trife. - Under the head of " beef tripe " are understood: (i) The feet; (2) tripe proper, which comprises the Paunch, the Honey-comb Bag, the Manyplies, and the Reed.

First soak the tripe in cold water for some considerable time; then cut it into squares of two inches side.

For the seasoning and flavouring of tripe, complete in all its parts, take: (Seasoning) one-quarter oz. of salt and a pinch of pepper per lb.; (flavouring) four lbs. of onions stuck with four cloves; three lbs. of carrots; one faggot, comprising two lbs. of leeks, one-third lb. of parsley stalks, a sprig of thyme, and a bay leaf.

Moisten with two quarts of good cider (not likely to turn black while cooking, otherwise use water); one-half pint of brandy or liqueur-cider.

The quantity of the moistening-liquor largely depends upon the shape of the utensil; a little less will be needed in the case of a narrow one, and a little more in the case of a wide one.

In any case, however, the tripe should be just covered.

Treatment and Cooking-process. - Take a stewpan or braising-pan, just large enough to hold the tripe and the garnish.

On the bottom of this lay carrots, onions, seasoning, and the four ox feet, boned and cut into fair-sized pieces.

RELEVES AND ENTREES 393

Add the tripe, placing the faggot in its midst; upon the tripe lay the bones of the feet, broken lengthwise; some slices of beef-fat, well soaked in cold water; and, finally, the moistening.

Cover the whole with a kind of galette of paste, consisting of flour mixed with hot water and kept somewhat stiff, and fix the paste well on to the edges of the utensil.

Place in the oven, and, when about two hours have elapsed and the paste is well baked, close the utensil with its own cover.

In a regular and moderate oven, allow about ten hours for the cooking.

The Dishing and Serving. - After taking the tripe out of the oven, remove the cover of paste, the bones, the fat, the carrots, the onions, and the faggot, and by means of a slice withdraw the pieces of tripe and set them in the special earthenware bowls, taking care to distribute the pieces, coming from different portions of tripe, in such wise as to meet the demands or fancies of the various consumers.

When the tripe has been transferred to the bowls, clear the gravy of ail grease, and dole it out evenly among the number of receptacles. It is best, now, to put the latter in a bainmarie, for they must only be served quite hot, on chafers or otherwise.

N.B. - (i) To make the dish to perfection, the tripe should be put into special earthenware pots (wherein the heat is more effectively concentrated), and cooked in a baker's or pastrycook's oven.

I dealt with the alternative of cooking tripe in a stewpan in order to make provision for those who can avail themselves of neither special pots nor a baker's oven.

(2) The measures I prescribe, namely, those of first laying the slices of beef-fat upon the tripe, and then covering the whole with a lid of paste, are intended to stop a too rapid evaporation of the liquid - a contingency that must be guarded against, more particularly in a kitchen oven - and to preserve the whiteness of the tripe.

The cover of paste would be quite useless if a baker's oven were available, for the latter not only ensures perfectly regular heat, but also wanes regularly. 2. VEAL.

With the exception of veal sweetbreads, it cannot be denied that this meat is considerably less popular in England than abroad, nor does it ever seem to appear on important menus in this country.

Of course, and the fact must not be lost sight of, English veal is admittedly inferior in quality - badly fattened, and mostly red, soft, and dry. Probably, therefore, its unpopularity may be the indirect cause of its poor quality; for it is inconceivable that a country so famous for cattle-rearing as England undoubtedly is could not produce veal equal in quality to its beef, mutton, and pork, if rearers thought it worth their while to perfect that special branch of their business. Be this as it may, almost all the best veal consumed in England comes from the Continent, principally from France, Belgium, and Holland; and, in this respect, I not only refer to the larger joints, but to those odd parts such as the head, the liver, the sweetbreads, &c., the continental quality of which is likewise very superior to that of the English produce.

1181- SELLE DE VEAU (Relev6)

Saddle of veal is the only Relev^ of this meat which is sometimes allowed to appear on an important menu, and it is, in fact, a splendid and succulent joint.

It may be roasted, but I should urge the adoption of the braising treatment, not only as a precaution against dryness, but because of the fine stock yielded by the operation.

Whatever be the method of cooking, trim the saddle on one side, flush with the bones of the pelvis, and up to the first ribs on the other side. Then cut out the kidneys, leaving a thick layer of fat on the under fillets or "filets mignons "; pare the flank on either side, in such wise that what is left of it, when drawn under the saddle on either side, may just cover the fillets above referred to. This flank should only be drawn over the fillets after the inside of the joint has been salted; then cover the top surface of the joint with slices of bacon, and tie round with string, five or six times, that the bacon and the flank may not shift.

When the saddle is intended for only a small number of people, half of it may be used at a time; that is to say, one fillet, in which case the joint may be cut in two, lengthwise.

The procedure for braising this piece is in pursuance of the directions given under " The Braising of White Meats " (No. 248).

RELEVES AND ENTREES 395

The process of braising, whether it be in respect of the saddle or other veal Relev6s, such as the cushion, the loin, the neck, &c., demands particular care, must be accompanied by frequent basting, and should always be carried on with short moistening.

1182- SELLE DE VEAU A LA CHARTREUSE

Braise the saddle, and glaze it at the last moment, after having removed the slices of bacon. Set it on a long dish, and, at each end of the latter, place a chartreuse of vegetables.

Round the joint put a few tablespoonfuls of the braisingliquor, cleared of all grease, reduced, and well-strained; and serve what remains in a sauceboat.

Chartreuses of Vegetables. - Take two dome- or Charlottemoulds, capable of holding two-thirds of a quart. Butter them liberally; line them with buttered paper, and on the latter, over the bottom and sides of the utensil, lay carrots, turnips, peas, and French beans; each of which vegetables should be cooked in a way suited to its nature. This operation, which is somewhat finicking, may either be effected on the plan of a draughtboard, or the different vegetables may be superposed in alternate rows of varying colours.

When the moulds are garnished in this way, spread thereon, over the vegetables, a layer of forcemeat softened with beaten white of egg; the object of this measure is to keep the vegetable decoration in position, and this is effected by the poaching of the forcemeat before the chartreuse is filled with its garnish.

This done, fill the moulds to within one-third inch of their brims with a Mac^doine of vegetables cohered by means of stiff Bdchamel and cream, and cover with a layer of forcemeat.

Set these chartreuses to poach thirty-five minutes before serving, and take care to let them rest for five minutes before unmoulding them on either side of the saddle.

1 183- SELLE DE VEAU A LA METTERNICH

Braise the saddle, and, when it is ready, put it on a dish. Now draw a line within one-half inch of its extreme edge on either side and end, pressing the point of a small knife along the meat in so doing.

Proceed in the same way on either side of the chine, and remove the fillets from the joint, severing them from the bone with care.

Cut the fillets into regular collops, keeping the knife somewhat at a slant.

In the double cavity left by the fillets spread a few tablespoonfuls of Bechamel with paprika; return the colloped fillets to their respective places in the joint, reconstructing them in such wise as to malie them appear untouched; and between the collops pour one-half tablespoonful of B6chamel and lay two slices of truffle.

This done, cover the whole surface of the joint with Bechamel sauce with paprika, and set to glaze quickly at the salamander. Now, with a large slice, carefully transfer the saddle to a dish.

Serve separately (i) the braising-liquor of the saddle, cleared of all grease and reduced; (2) a timbale of pilaff rice.

H84- SELLE DE VEAU A LA NELSON

Braise the saddle. When it is ready, remove the fillets, proceeding exactly as described under " Selle k la Metternich," and cut the fillets in a similar manner.

In the cavities left by the fillets spread a few tablespoonfuls of Soubise; return the colloped fillets to their place, and, between the collops, place a thin slice of ham, of the same size and shape as the adjacent piece of meat, and a little Soubise sauce.

Having reconstructed the joint, cover its surface with a layer, about one inch thick, of " Souffle au Parmesan," combined with one quart of truffle pur^e.

Bind the joint with a strong band of buttered paper, for the purpose of holding in the souffle, and set it to cook in a moderate oven for fifteen minutes. After having taken the saddle out of the oven, remove the paper band, and send it to the table without changing the dish.

Send the braising-liquor, cleared of all grease, reduced and strained, to the table separately.

1 185- SELLE DE VEAU A L'ORIENTALE

Braise the saddle; remove the fillets, and cut them into collops as for " Selle k la Metternich." Garnish the cavities with Soubise sauce " au currie "; reconstruct the fillets, putting a little of the same sauce between the collops, and coat the surface of the piece with the sauce already referred to.

Surround the joint with braised celery, and serve its cooking liquor and a timbale of pilaff rice separately.

1186- SELLE DE VEAU A LA PIEMONTAISE

Braise the saddle, and cut the fillets into collops as before. When reconstructing the fillets, between the collops put a little Bechamel sauce, combined with three and one-half oz. of grated Parmesan and chree and one-half oz. of grated white truffles per quart of the sauce.

RELEVES AND ENTREES 397

Coat the surface of the joint with the same sauce, and set to glaze quickly.

Serve the braising-liquor, cleared of all grease and strained, separately; as also a timbale of rizotto k la Pi6montaise (No. 2258).

1187- SELLE DE VEAU PRINCE ORLOFF

Braise the saddle and proceed as above, placing between the collops of fillet a little Soubise sauce and a fine slice of truffle.

Coat the surface of the joint with Mornay sauce, combined with one quart of highly-seasoned Soubise, and set to glaze quickly.

N.B. - This saddle may be accompanied either by a garnish of asparagus-heads or by cucumbers with cream.

1 188- SELLE DE VEAU A LA ROMANOFF

Braise the saddle; remove the fillets, and cut the latter into collops as for " Selle k la Metternich." Reconstruct the fillets, placing a small quantity of minced mushrooms, cohered by means of a few tablespoonfuls of cream, between the collops, and coat the surface of the joint with highly-seasoned Bechamel sauce, finished with four oz. of crayfish butter per quart.

Surround the piece with a border of braised half-fennels. Serve the braising-liquor, cleared of all grease, reduced and strained, separately.

1 1 89- SELLE DE VEAU A LA TOSCA

Braise the saddle, and then prepare it as for No. 1183. Almost completely fill the cavities left by the fillets with a garnish of macaroni, cut into short lengths, cohered with cream, and combined with a julienne of truffles.

Reconstruct the fillets upon this garnish and coat the collops with Mornay sauce, placing a slice of truffle between the collops. The reconstructed fillets thus appear raised on either side of the chine.

Coat the surface of the joint with the same sauce as that already used, and set to glaze quickly. Send the braisingliquor, cleared of all grease and strained, to the table separately.

1 190- SELLE DE VEAU A LA RENAISSANCE

Braise the saddle, and glaze it at the last moment. Dish it and surround it with a large heap of cauliflower at either end; on either side, nice heaps of carrots and turnips, raised by means of an" oval, grooved spoon-cutter, cooked in consomm^ and glazed; peas; French beans in lozenge-form; asparagus heads cohered with butter; and some small potatoes cooked in butter.

Send the braising-liquor of the joint, cleared of grease and strained, separately.

1191- SELLE DE VEAU A LA TALLEYRAND

Prepare twenty studs of truffle, about one inch long and one-third oz. in weight. Stick them upright and symmetrically into the meat of the joint, making way for them by means of little incisions cut with a small knife. Now envelop the joint in slices of larding bacon, string it, braise it, and glaze it at the last moment.

Dish it with some of its braising-liquor, cleared of all grease and reduced.

Serve separately (i) what remains of the braising-liquor; (2) a garnish of macaroni, cut into half-inch lengths, cohered with one and one-half oz. of butter, three oz. of grated Gruy^re and Parmesan, combined with three oz. of foie gras, cut into large dice, and three oz. of a julienne of truffles, per lb. of macaroni.

1 192- SELLE DE VEAU FROIDE

Cold saddle of veal makes an excellent sideboard dish which admits of all cold-dish garnishes, such as Mac^doines of vegetables cohered with jelly or mayonnaise sauce; artichokebottoms and tomatoes, variously garnished; small, moulded vegetable salads, &c.

Decorate it with fine, regular, jelly dice; but its usual and essential adjunct is its own braising-liquor, cooked, cleared of grease poured carefully away, and served in a sauceboat without having been either clarified or cleared.

All the pieces of veal given as relev6s, the cushion, the loin, the fillet, and the fricahdeau, may be served cold like the saddle, and are generally much appreciated, more particularly in summer.

1 193- LOIN OF VEAL ii94~NECK OF VEAL 1 195- SHORT LOIN OF VEAL 1 196- CHUMP OF VEAL OR QUASI 1 197- CUSHION OF VEAL (Relev^s)

I have grouped these various Relev^s together owing to the identicalness of their garnishes.

The directions I give below for cushion of veal are, with a very few exceptions which I shall point out, applicable to all other large veal joints. In the circumstances, therefore, it would be quite unnecessary to repeat the recipe in each case.

RELEVES AND ENTREES 399

Loin of Veal is that piece which corresponds with the sirloin in beef. It extends from the floating ribs to the extreme end of the haunch, the latter being cut flush with the pelvic bone at its junction with the femur, and following the direction of the former bone. The loin thus consists of two distinct parts: - (i) the caudal region (called the chump end; Fr. quasi), which comprises the bones of the pelvis and the haunch, up to the level of the latter, and is one of the best pieces of veal for braising; and (2) the region extending from the haunch to the floating ribs, comprising the fillet and the upper fillet. This last portion also constitutes a choice joint, to which the kidneys are generally left attached, after all their superfluous fat has been removed.

Neck or Best End of Veal consists of the first eight or nine ribs, cut two inches above the kernel of meat. The ends of the rib-bones are cleared of meat to a height of about two-thirds inch, and the naked bone is then called the " handle " of the cutlet, which ultimately holds the ornamental frill of paper.

The vertebrae are then suppressed, so that the bones of the ribs alone remain; the yellow ligament is cut away; and the bared parts are covered with slices of bacon, tied on by means of string.

Cushion of Veal consists of an enormous muscle, which represents almost half of the haunch and all the inside part of it, from the pelvis to its junction with the tibia. A certain quantity of white fat will always be found to lie over the cushion, and it should be carefully reserved.

If the cushion is to be larded, a procedure which I do not advise, it should be done on the bared part adjoining the fatcovered region.

The various pieces of veal enumerated above may be roasted, but, as in the case of the saddle, I prefer braising, owing to the greater succulence of the dish resulting from this process, and its accompanying gravy, which has an incomparable flavour. (See Braising of White Meats, No. 248.)

1 198- ADJUNCTS TO CUSHION OF VEAL

Cushion of veal, like the other large pieces of veal, admits of an almost unlimited number of vegetable garnishes, simple or compound, as also garnishes of various pastes.

From among these garnishes the following may be quoted, viz.: - Bouqueti^re, Bourgeoise, Chartreuse, Choisy, Chicor^e, Cardoons, Clamart, Braised Celery, Japanese Artichokes, Chow-chow, Endives, Spinach, Braised Lettuce, k la Vichy, k la Nemours, &c.; Jardiniere, Mac^doine, Renaissance, &c. Among the paste garnishes: - Noodles, Macaroni, Spaghetti, variously prepared; various Gnocchi, &c.

And, in addition to all these, the garnishes already given under Beef Releves, which need not be repeated here.

I shall, therefore, give only three recipes which are proper to cushion of veal; though even these should be regarded as mere curiosities, seeing that, far from recommending them, I consider them rather as gastronomical mistakes. But some provision must be made for outlandish tastes, and, for this reason alone, I include the following recipes.

II99- NOIX DE VEAU EN SURPRISE

Braise the cushion of veal, keeping it somewhat firm. This done, set it on a dish, and let it almost cool.

Then cut a slice from it laterally, at a point one-third inch of its height from the top; and, within one-half inch of its edges, make a circular incision, pressing the point of a sharp knife into the meat, and withdraw the centre of the cushion. Take care to leave the same thickness of meat on the sides as on the bottom, that is to say, about one-half inch. The cushion of veal, thus emptied, should have the appearance of a round or oval case.

If the meat withdraAvn from the centre of the cushion is to serve for the garnish, or is to be used sliced to surround the case, cut it from out the whole in the largest possible pieces, in order that slices may easily be cut therefrom.

The inside of the emptied cushion of veal is then garnished according to fancy; the top of the piece that was cut off at the start is returned to its place, with the view of giving the piece an untouched appearance, and the whole is put in the oven for a few minutes that it may be hot for serving.

The braising-liquor, cleared of grease and strained, should be sent to the table separately.

I200- NOIX DE VEAU EN SURPRISE A LA MACEDOINE

Braise the cushion of veal, and hollow it out as explained above.

Meanwhile (i) prepare a Macedoine garnish, or mixed Jardiniere (cohered with butter or cream), the quantity of which should be in proportion to the size of the case; (2) cut the meat, withdrawn from the centre of the cushion, into thin rectangles.

Garnish the bottom of the case with a layer of Macedoine, and set thereon a litter consisting of the rectangles of meat. Cover with Macedoine; set thereon another litter of the pieces

RELEVES AND ENTREES 401

of meat, and renew the operation until the case is filled. Finish up with a layer of MacSdoine.

Replace the slice cut from the cushion at the start; put the case in the oven for a few minutes; serve, and send the braisingliquor separately.

I20I- NOIX DE VEAU EN SURPRISE A LA PITHIVIERS

Braise the cushion of veal, and prepare the case as directed above.

Stuff fifteen larks without boning them; that is to say, put a lump of stuffing about the size of a hazel-nut into each. Fry them in butter with one-half lb. of mushrooms and three oz. of truffles, each of which vegetables should be raw and minced. Cohere the whole with the necessary quantity of half-glaze sauce, flavoured with game essence; put this garnish in the case; return the sliced piece to its place; seal the cover to the case by means of a thread of almost liquid forcemeat, and set in the oven for seven or eight minutes.

When taking the case out of the oven, surround with the withdrawn meat, which should have been cut into thin slices and kept warm until required for the dressing.

The larks may be replaced by quails or thrushes, or other small birds, but the name of the particular bird used must be referred to in the title of the dish.

1202- NOIX DE VEAU A LA TOULOUSAINE

Braise the cushion and cut it to the shape of a case as explained above. Pour therein a garnish consisting of quenelles of chicken forcemeat; lamb sweetbreads, or collops of veal sweetbreads, braised without colouration; cocks' combs; small mushrooms, cooked and very white; and slices of truffle; the whole to be cohered by means of an Allemande sauce, flavoured with mushroom essence.

Return the piece sliced off at the start to its place, and surround with slices of the meat withdrawn from the inside of the cushion.

N.B, - All the garnishes suited to Vol-au-vent and timbales may be served with cushion-of-veal case, which latter thus stands in the stead of the Vol-au-vent and Timbale crusts.

Finally, I must ask the reader to bear in mind that methods like those described above have no place in really good cookery, the ruling principle of which should, always be simplicity.

1203- NOIX DE VEAU FROIDE A LA CAUCASIENNE

Cut a cold cushion of veal into slices two inches long by one-half inch wide by one-sixth inch thick,

D D On each slice spread a little butter seasoned with salt and pepper, combined with finely-chopped chives and anchovy fillets cut into dice.

Couple the slices together as for sandwiches; round off their angles and put them under slight pressure. Prepare a pur^e of tomatoes with jelly; mould it in a dome- or Bombe-mould, and let it set on ice.

When this moulding of tomatoes is quite firm, turn it out in the middle of a round, cold dish; arrange the meat slices all round, and border the dish with cubes of very clear veal jelly.

1204- NOIX DE VEAU FROIDE A LA SUEDOISE

(i) From the widest part of a cold cushion of veal, cut a lateral slice one and one-third inch thick, and trim it nicely round.

(2) Let a coating of aspic jelly set on the bottom of a round dish, and upon this jelly, when it is quite firm, lay the slice of veal.

(3) Cut what remains of the piece of veal into slices two inches long, by one and one-half inch broad, by one-eighth inch thick. Prepare the same number of rectangles of salted tongue, of the same size, though slightly thinner than those of veal.

(4) Cohere a nice vegetable salad with cleared mayonnaise; mould it in an oiled, Bombe-shaped or narrow pyramid mould, and put it on ice to set.

Coat the rectangles of veal with horse-radish butter; place a rectangle of tongue on each, and finish off these sandwiches by rounding their corners.

For Dishing. - By means of a piping-bag fitted with a grooved pipe, garnish the edges of the slice of veal with a thread of previously softened butter.

Turn out the vegetable salad in the centre of the piece of meat; set on it the heart of a small lettuce (nicely opened), and arrange the veal and tongue sandwiches all round.

Serve a cold sauce, derived from the mayonnaise, separately.

120S- LONQES, CARRES ET NOIX DE VEAU FROIDS

What was said in respect of cold saddle of veal likewise applies to the different pieces mentioned in the above title. They may be coated with aspic jelly and dished with Macedoines of vegetables, cohered with jelly; small salads, cohered with cleared mayonnaise; garnished artichoke-bottoms, &c.

The dishes should always be bordered with cubes of very clear jelly.

RELEVES AND ENTREES 403

1206- FRICANDEAU (Relev6)

Fricandeau is a lateral cut from the cushion of veal; that is to say, a piece cut with the grain of the meat. It should not be thicker than one and one-half inches.

After beating it with a beater or the flat of a chopper, to break the fibres of the meat, finely lard the piece of meat on the cut side with strips of bacon, somewhat smaller than those used for fillet of beef. Only when the piece is larded may it be called " Fricandeau "; for, when not treated thus, it is nothing else than an ordinary piece of veal. Fricandeau is invariably braised; but it differs from other braisings of white meat in this, namely, that it must be so cooked as to be easily cut with a spoon. Connoisseurs maintain that Fricandeau should never be touched with a knife.

It is glazed at the last moment, like other braisings, and, in view of its prolonged cooking, should be dished with great care.

All the garnishes enumerated for cushion of veal may be adapted to Fricandeau.

1207- FRICANDEAU FROID

Cold fricandeau constitutes an excellent luncheon dish. It is dished and surrounded with its braising-liquor, cleared of grease and strained. This braising-liquor sets to a jelly, and is the finest adjunct to fricandeau that could be found.

The piece may be glazed with half-melted jelly, smeared over it by means of a brush.

1208- POITRINE DE VEAU FARCIE

This is really a family dish, admirably suited for a luncheon relev^. It is accompanied chiefly by vegetable purees, but all the vegetable and other garnishes given under Cushion of Veal may be served with it.

Breast of veal is prepared thus: - After having boned the piece, open it where it is thickest, without touching the ends. A kind of pocket is thus obtained, into which put the previouslyprepared stuffing, taking care to spread it very evenly.

Now, with coarse cotton, sew up the opening, and remember to withdraw the cotton when the piece is cooked.

Stuffing for Breast of Veal. - For a piece weighing four lbs., add to one lb. of very fine sausage-meat (No. 196), two oz. of dry duxelles, two oz. of butter, a pinch of chopped parsley, tarragon and chives, a small beaten egg, and a little salt and pepper.

Cooking. - Breast of veal is usually braised; the moistening

D D 2 should be short and the cooking process gentle. For a piece weighing four lbs. when stuffed, allow three hours in a moderate and regular oven. Glaze breast of veal at the last moment, as in the case of other braised meats.

1209- T^TE DE VEAU (Relev6 and Entree)

Nowadays, calf's head is rarely served whole, as was the custom formerly. Still more rarely, however, is it served at a dinner of any importance; and it has now, by almost general consent, been relegated to luncheon menus where, indeed, it has found its proper place.

After having boned the head, soak it or hold it under a running tap, for a sufficiently long time to allow of its being entirely cleared of blood. Then, blanch it for a good half-hour; cool it in cold water; drain it, and rub it with a piece of lemon to avoid its blackening.

If it is to be cooked whole, as sometimes happens, wrap it in a napkin, that it maybe easily handled; if not, cut it into pieces. In either case, plunge it immediately into a boiling blanc (No. 167).

With a view of keeping the calf's head from contact with the air, which would blacken it, cover it with a napkin, or cover the liquid with chopped suet. A layer of chopped suet is the best possible means of keeping the air from the calf's head.

Whatever be the method of serving calf's head, it is the rule to send slices of tongue and collops of brain to the table with it.

The tongue may be cooked simultaneously with the head, and the brain is poached as described under No. 1289.

1210- TfeTE DE VEAU A L'ANGLAISE

Calf's head d I'anglaise is cooked in a blanc, as explained above; but in halves and unboned.

Dish it on a napkin with sprays of very green parsley and a piece of boiled bacon.

Send a sauceboat of parsley sauce (No. 119a) to the table at the same time.

1211- TETE DE VEAU A LA FINANClfeRE

Cook the calf's head in a blanc as already directed. Suppress portions of the meat, where the latter is thick, in such wise as to leave only a very little on the skin.

Cut the pieces into squares of one, two or three in. side;

RELEVES AND ENTREES 405

put them in a timbale, and cover them with a financi^re garnish; adding a few small slices of tongue and brain.

1212- TETE DE VEAU A LA POULETTE

Cook the calf's head in a blanc.

Cut the pieces of the head into small slices, somewhat aslant, and toss them into a previously-prepared poulette sauce (No.

lOl).

Dish in a timbale, and spriniile with a pinch of chopped parsley.

12 13- TETE DE VEAU EN TORTUE

With a round cutter one, two, or three in. in diameter, cut up the pieces of calf's head, the meat of which must be entirely suppressed. For this preparation, only the skin of the head should be used.

Put the pieces of head in a timbale or on a dish, and cover them with a Tortue garnish.

Tortue garnish consists of: Small quenelles of veal forcemeat with butter; cock's combs and kidneys; small mushrooms; stoned, stuffed and poached olives; slices of truffle; gherkins cut to the shape of olives (these should only be put into the sauce at the last moment); and Tortue sauce.

This garnish comprises, besides, among unsauced ingredients: Slices of tongue and calf's brain; small, trussed crayfish, cooked in court-bouillon; fried eggs, the half of whose raw whites should be suppressed; and small croutons of breadcrumb, fried in butter at the last moment.

1214- T6TE DE VEAU A LA VINAIGRETTE OU A L'HUILE

Set the boiling pieces of calf's head on a napkin, lying on a dish. Surround them with slices of tongue, collops of brain, and sprigs of very green, curled-leaf parsley.

Serve separately, on a hors-d'oeuvre dish, without mixing them, capers, chopped onion and parsley.

Send to the table at the same time a sauceboat of vinaigrette or sauce k I'huile, prepared by mixing one part of vinegar, two parts of oil, and one part of the calf's-head cooking-liquor, together with the necessary salt and pepper.

12 15- ESCALOPES DE VEAU

Collops of veal may be cut from either the fillet or the saddle; but they are more often cut from the cushion. Their weight varies from three to four oz., and they should always be cleared of all connective tissue. They may be fashioned to the shape of ovals, or curve-based triangles, and they should be more or less flattened, according to their use. Thus, when they are to be plainly tossed, to be afterwards served with a sauced garnish or with a sauce, they are simply beaten in order to break the fibres of the meat, without flattening the latter too much; but if, on the contrary, they are to be treated d I'anglaise, they should be beaten very thin with the moistened beater.

In either case, they should be cooked somewhat quickly in clarified butter; for, if their cooking lag at all, their meat hardens.

All the garnishes of veal cutlets, and a large number of those of the cushion, may be served with the collops. These garnishes may be set on the same dish with the collops when the latter are plainly tossed; but, in the case of collops treated a I'anglaise, the garnish or sauce which accompanies them should be served separately, lest its moisture soften the crisp coating of the collops.

1216- QRENADINS

Grenadins are veal collops larded with rows of very thin bacon strips, and cut somewhat thicker than ordinary collops. They are really small fricandeaux, the braising of which is a comparatively lengthy operation; for their cooking must be the same as that of the fricandeaux, and needs quite as much attention. In order that the grenadins be not too dry, they should be frequently basted with their braising-liquor.

When they are cooked, glaze them rapidly, and dish them with one of the garnishes given for the cushion of veal.

12 17- QRENADINS FROIDS EN BELLEVUE

This dish may be prepared in several more or less complicated ways; here is a simple way: -

Take as many shell-shaped hors-d'oeuvre dishes as there are grenadins. Let a thin coat of jelly set on the bottom of each, and set thereon a slight decoration composed of bits of carrot, turnip, peas, French beans in lozenge-form, &c. Put a grenadin, larded side undermost (i.e., upside down) into each horsd'oeuvre dish; add enough melted aspic jelly to reach half-way up the thickness of the grenadin.

When this jelly has set, lay on it, all round the grenadin, a border consisting of carrots, turnips, French beans and peas. Sprinkle these vegetables with a few drops of jelly, so as to fix them, and keep them from floating, and then fill up the hors-d'ceuvre dishes with jelly.

When about to serve, dip the hors-d'oeuvre dishes into hot

RELEVES AND ENTREES 407

water; turn out the grenadins on a very cold dish, and arrange them on it to form a crown.

Surround with a border of very clear, chopped aspic jelly.

1218- RIS DE VEAU (Sweetbreads)

Veal sweetbreads may be looked upon as one of the greatest delicacies in butchers' meats, and may be served at any dinner, however sumptuous. Select them very white, entirely free of blood stains, and leave them to soak in fresh water, which should be frequently changed, for as long as possible; or, better still, place them under a running tap.

To blanch them (an operation the purpose of which is to harden the surface) put them in a saucepan with enough cold water to cover them completely, and bring to the boil gently. Let them boil for ten minutes; withdraw them and plunge them into a basin of fresh water.

When the sweetbreads are cold, trim them; that is to say, cut away all cartilaginous and connective tissue; lay them between two pieces of linen, and put them under a light weight for two hours.

Now lard them with fine bacon, tongue or truffle, subject to the way in which they are to be served. They may also be studded with either tongue or truffles, or they may be left unlarded and unstudded, and plainly braised, just as they are.

Certain it is, that neither studding nor larding enhances in any way whatsoever their quality or sightliness.

Veal sweetbread consists of two parts, as unequal in quality as in shape. They are: the "kernel" or heart sweetbread, which is the round and most delicate part, and the " throat," or throat sweetbread, which is the elongated part, and not of such fine quality as the former.

In a well-ordered dinner, heart sweetbreads only should be used, as far as possible.

There are three ways of cooking sweetbreads, viz.: - Braising (No. 248), poaching (No. 249), and grilling (No. 259). In the following recipes, therefore, the reader will kindly refer to the directions given under one of the numbers just mentioned, according as to whether the dish is to be a braising, a poaching, or a grill.

1219- ATTEREAUX DE RIS DE VEAU A LA VILLEROY

Cut some veal sweetbreads (preferably the throat kind) into roundels one and one-third in. in diameter and one-third in. thick. Prepare an equal number of mushrooms and truffle roundels, somewhat thinner than those of sweetbread. Impale these roundels on little wooden skewers, the size of matches, and about four in. long; alternating the different products in so doing. Dip these skewers into a Villeroy sauce, and set them on a dish. When the sauce is quite cold, remove the attereaux; clear them of any superfluous sauce that may have fallen on to the dish; dip them in an anglaise (No. 174); roll them in very fine and fresh bread-crumbs, and turn them with the fingers, so as to shape them like small cylinders. Plunge them into plenty of hot fat eight minutes before serving; drain them on a piece of linen; carefully withdraw the wooden skewers and put little silver ones in their place. Dish the attereaux on a folded napkin, with fried parsley in the centre; or set them upright in a circle, on a rice or semolina cushion lying on a dish, and put some very green, fried parsley in the middle.

Serve a P^rigueux sauce separately.

1320- CHARTREUSE DE RIS DE VEAU

Prepare (i) one and one-quarter lbs. of fine forcemeat with cream (No. 194); (2) two poached, veal throat sweetbreads, cut into slices; (3) one-half lb. of cooked mushrooms, cut into large slices, and three oz. of sliced truffles; (4) a garnish of carrots and turnips, raised by means of a tube- or spoon-cutter, or cut into grooved roundels two-thirds inch in diameter; and peas and French beans. Each of these vegetables should be cooked in a way befitting its nature, and kept somewhat firm.

Liberally butter a quart Charlotte-mould. Line its bottom and sides with the vegetables, arranged in alternate and varicoloured rows, and spread thereon a layer of forcemeat, onehalf inch thick.

This done, set upon the layer of forcemeat just spread, another of slices of sweetbread, mushrooms, and truffles; cover the whole with a coat of forcemeat; start the operation again with a litter of sweetbread, mushroom, and truffle slices, and proceed as before until the mould is filled. Finish with a layer of forcemeat. Cover with a round piece of buttered paper, and set to poach in a bain-marie and in the oven, for from forty-five to fifty minutes.

When taking the chartreuse out of the bain-marie, let it stand for seven or eight minutes, that the ingredients inside may settle a little, and then turn it out in the middle of a round dish; place a large, cooked, grooved, and very white mushroom on the top of it, and encircle its base with a crown of small braised and well-trimmed half-lettuces.

RELEVES AND ENTREES 409

Send to the table, separately, a sauceboat of Velout^ flavoured with mushroom essence.

I22I- RIS DE VEAU BONNE MAMAN

Cut the vegetables intended for the braising stock into a short and coarse julienne, and add thereto an equal quantity of similarly-cut celery.

Braise the veal sweetbreads with this julienne, after the manner described under No. 248, and moisten with excellent veal stock. Take particular care of the vegetables, that they do not burn.

When the sweetbreads are ready, glaze them and dish them in a shallow, round cocotte with the julienne of vegetables and the braising-liquor all round.

Cover the cocotte, and serve it on a folded napkin.

1222- CR^PINETTE DE RIS DE VEAU

For this dish take either some white throat sweetbreads, or some remains of the latter, from which slices have already been cut.

Chop up the throat sweetbreads or the remains, together with their weight of raw calf's udder.

Season with one-half oz. of salt and a pinch of pepper; add five oz. of chopped truffles and two whole eggs per lb. of the mince-meat. Mix the whole well; divide it up into portions weighing three oz., and wrap each portion in a piece of very soft pig's caul.

Sprinkle with melted butter and bread-crumbs, and grill gently.

Dish in the form of a crown, and serve a P^rigueux sauce at the same time.

1223- RIS DE VEAU A LA CEVENOLE

Braise the veal sweetbreads and glaze them at the last moment.

Dish them with a heap of small glazed onions at either end, and serve, at the same time, a pur^e of chestnuts and a sauceboat of thickened gravy.

1224- RIS DE VEAU DEMIDOFF

Lard the sweetbreads with bacon and truffles; braise them brown, and only half-cook them. Then place them in a shallow cocotte, and surround them with the following garnish: - Two oz. of carrots and the same weight of turnips, both cut into grooved crescents; an equal quantity of small onions, cut into large roundels, and some celery cut ^ay^anne-fashion. All these vegetables should be first stewed in butter. Add the braising-liquor of the sweetbreads, and one oz. of minced truffles, and complete the cooking of the former. Clear of all grease and serve in the cocotte.

1225- ESCALOPES DE RIS DE VEAU B^RENQERE

Braise the veal sweetbreads and cut each piece into four medium-sized slices. Trim each slice with an even, oval fancycutter; and, by means of a piping-bag fitted with an even pipe, one-sixth inch in diameter, garnish the edge of each slice with a thick border of mousseline forcemeat, combined with chopped salted tongue. Set the slices on a tray, and put them in a moderate oven to poach the forcemeat.

Now, by means of another piping-bag fitted with a grooved pipe, garnish the centre of the slices with a nice rosette of fine and very white Soubise pur^e; and, in the middle of each rosette, place a little ball of very black truffle.

Set each slice on a thin, oval crouton of the same size as the former and fried in butter. Serve at the same time, in a sauceboat, the braising-liquor of the sweetbreads, cleared of all grease, and a timbale of fresh peas.

1226- ESCALOPES DE RIS DE VEAU A LA FAVORITE

Blanch the veal sweetbreads; cool them under pressure, and cut them into slices. Season the latter and toss them in clarified butter.

At the same time, toss an equal number of slices of foie gras of the same size as those of the sweetbread, after having seasoned and dredged them.

Dish in a circle, alternating the foie gras and the sweetbread slices; put a crown of sliced truffle on the circle already arranged; and, in the centre, pour a garnish of asparagus-heads cohered with butter.

Send, separately, a Madeira sauce flavoured with truffle essence.

1327- ESCALOPES DE RIS DE VEAU GRAND DUC

Blanch and cool the sweetbreads, and cut them into slices. Season the latter and cook them in butter without colouration. Dish them in the form of a crown, placing a large slice of truffle between each; coat with Mornay sauce, and glaze quickly.

When taking the dish out of the oven, arrange a heap of asparagus-heads cohered with butter, in the middle of the dish, and serve instantly.

RELEVES AND ENTREES 411

1228- ESCALOPES DE RIS DE VEAU JUDIC

Blanch and cool the sweetbreads, and cut them into slices.

Prepare and poach a roll of chicken forcemeat, large enough to allow of slices being cut therefrom of the same size as those of the sweetbreads.

Season, dredge, and toss the slices of sweetbread in butter, and dish them in the form of a crown, each on a roundel of the poached chicken forcemeat.

On each slice place a very small, braised, and well-trimmed lettuce, a slice of truffle, and a cock's kidney.

Send a sauceboat of thickened gravy separately.

1229- ESCALOPES DE RIS DE VEAU A LA MAR^CHALE

Braise the veal sweetbreads, keeping them somewhat firm, and cut them into slices.

Treat the latter a I'anglaise; brown them in clarified butter, and dish them in a circle, placing a fine slice of truffle between each.

In the middle of the dish arrange a fine heap of asparagusheads cohered with butter.

1230- RIS DE VEAU GRILLES

After having blanched, cooked, and trimmed the sweetbreads, set them to get quite cold under pressure. Then cut them in two, laterally, at their thickest point; dip each piece into melted butter, and grill gently, basting frequently the while with melted butter.

The sweetbreads may also be grilled whole, but the process is perforce a more lengthy one.

123 1- RIS DE VEAU GRILLES CARMAQO

Cook a brioche, without sugar, in a fluted mould, the aperture of which is a little larger than the veal sweetbreads. Carefully remove the top of the brioche, following the direction of the fluting, and withdraw all the crumb from the inside.

Fill this kind of croustade, two-thirds full, with a garnish consisting of peas, prepared " ^ la fran9aise," and carrots "k la Vichy," in equal quantities.

Set the grilled veal sweetbreads on this garnish, and cover it with slices of grilled bacon.

Dish on a napkin and serve at once.

1232- RIS DE VEAU GRILLE QISMONDA

Prepare a shallow croustade, without colouration, in an oval flawn ring of the same length as the veal sweetbread. Grill the veal sw^eetbread after the manner already described. Garnish the bottom of the croustade with equal quantities of articholce-bottoms and mushrooms, minced raw, tossed in butter, and cohered with cream sauce.

Set the grilled sweetbread on the garnish, and place the croustade on a folded napkin.

Serve, separately, a slightly buttered meat-glaze.

1233- RIS DE VEAU GRILLE JOCELYNE

Cut some potatoes into roundels one and one-half inch thick and of the same size as the veal sweetbread. Stamp the roundels, close up to their edges, with a round, even cutter, and cook them in butter. Grill the sweetbread at the same time.

When the potatoes are cooked, withdraw all their inside in such wise as to give them the appearance of cases, and fill them with Soubise prepared with curry.

Dish them and set the grilled sweetbread upon them. On the sweetbread lay a small half-tomato and a green halfcapsicum, both grilled.

1234- RIS DE VEAU GRILLES SAINT=GERMAIN

Blanch, prepare, and grill the veal sweetbreads as already explained. Set them on a long dish, and surround them with alternate heaps of small potatoes cooked in butter and of a nice golden colour, and carrots cut to the shape of elongated olives, cooked in consomm^ and glazed.

Serve a B^arnaise sauce and a pur^e of fresh peas, separately.

1235- RIS DE VEAU DES GOURMETS

Braise the veal sweetbreads, and, as soon as they are ready, set them in a round, flat cocotte, just large enough to hold them. Cover them with raw truffles, cut into thick slices; strain the braising-liquor over the whole; cover the cocotte, and seal the cover to the edges of the utensil by means of a thread of soft paste, made simply from a mixture of flour and water.

The object of this last precaution is to prevent any escape whatsoever of steam, and to hold the aroma of the truffles within.

Put the cocotte into a very hot oven for ten minutes; set it on a dish, and serve it as it stands. The cover should be removed only when the dish reaches the table.

1236- RIS DE VEAU AUX QUEUES D'^CREVISSES

Stud the sweetbreads with truffle and braise them without colouration. Dish them, and, on either side, set a heap of crayfishes' tails (in the proportion of four to each person), cohered with cream.

RELEVES AND ENTREES 413

At either end place some crayfishes' carapaces (in the proportion of two to each sweetbread), garnished with chicken forcemeat combined with crayfish butter, and poached.

Serve, separately, an Allemande sauce prepared with crayfish butter.

1237-RIS DE VEAU A LA R^QENCE

Stud the sweetbreads with truffles, and braise them without colouration.

Dish them; pour their reduced braising-liquor round the dish, and surround them with a R^gence garnish, arranged in alternate heaps representing the constituents of the former, which are: quenelles of fine truffled chicken forcemeat; small grooved mushrooms; curled cocks' combs, and truffles cut to the shape of olives. Serve separately an Allemande sauce, flavoured with truffle essence.

1238- RIS DE VEAU SOUS LA CENDRE

Stud the veal sweetbreads with truffles and tongue, and three-parts braise them.

Cut some slices of salted tongue of the same size as the sweetbreads, garnish them with slices of truffle, and set a sweetbread on each.

Cover each sweetbread with a layer of short paste (No. 2358); set them on a tray; gild; flute; make a small incision on the top of the paste to allow the escape of steam, and bake in a hot oven for thirty minutes.

When withdrawing them from the oven, pour in some halfglaze sauce with Madeira, and dish them on a napkin.

1239- RIS DE VEAU A LA TOULOUSAINE

Stud the sweetbreads with truffles and braise them without colouration.

Dish them with the Toulousaine garnish, arranged in heaps all round, and surround the latter with a thread of meat-glaze.

Toulousaine garnish comprises small chicken-forcemeat quenelles; cocks' combs and kidneys; very white button-mushroom heads, and slices of truffle.

Serve, separately, an Allemande flavoured with mushroom essence.

1240- CROUSTADE DE RIS DE VEAU A LA FINANCIERE

Prepare (i) the required number of small, fluted croustades, baked without colouration in rather large tartlet moulds. (2) The same number of slices of braised veal sweetbread as there are croustades, and of the same size. (3) A financi^re garnish, consisting of very small chicken-forcemeat quenelles; grooved button-mushrooms, and sliced cocks' combs and kidneys. The whole covered by half-glaze with Madeira, in the proportion of one tablespoonful per croustade. (5) As many fine slices of truffle as there are croustades.

Put a tablespoonful of the garnish into each croustade; set thereon a slice of sweetbread; put a slice of truffle upon that, and dish the croustades on a folded napkin.

1241- PATE CHAUD DE RIS DE VEAU

Butter an ordinary round hot raised pie, or a Charlotteniould. Take about one and one-half lbs. of short paste and roll it into gaieties, one-third inch thick; fold the paste over after having dredged it slightly; draw the two ends gently towards the centre, to form a kind of skullcap, which, when placed in the mould, immediately lines the latter. Avoid making folds in the paste while preparing the skullcap, for they would spoil the look of the patty when turned out.

Press the paste on the bottom and sides of the mould, that the latter may impart its shape to its lining, and cut the projecting paste to within half inch of the brim. Now coat the bottom and sides of the mould with a layer of chicken forcemeat, of an even thickness of two-thirds of an inch.

Pour into the centre of the mould a garnish composed of slices of poached veal sweetbread; sliced and cooked mushrooms and sliced truffles; the whole covered with reduced and somewhat stiff Allemande sauce, flavoured with mushroom essence.

Cover the garnish with a coating of forcemeat, and close the patty with a layer of paste, the edges of which should be moistened and sealed down all round the brim of the mould. Pinch the rim of paste inside and outside, and finish off with leaves of paste stamped out with a fancy-cutter, ribbed by means of the back of a knife, and laid upon the paste cover. Gild with beaten egg; make a central slit for the escape of steam, and set to bake in a hot oven, for from forty-five to fifty minutes.

When taking the patty out of the oven, turn it out and dish it on a napkin.

1342- TIMBALE DE RIS DE VEAU

Butter a timbale mould and decorate its sides with thin pieces of noodle paste, in the shape of lozenges, crescents, indented rings, discs and imitation-leaves. Excellent ornamental arrangements may be effected thus; but the reader should bear in mind that the simplest are the best.

Prepare a skullcap of paste as explained under No. 1241;

RELEVES AND ENTREES 415

slightly moisten the ornamental work in the mould, that it maycling to the paste of the timbale, and line the latter with paste which should be well pressed in all directions, that it may take the shape of the mould.

Then pierce the paste on the bottom, to prevent its blistering during the baking process; line the bottom and sides with buttered paper, and fill the timbale, three-quarters full, with split peas or lentils.

Cover the latter with a round piece of paper, and close the timbale by means of a round layer of paste, which should be sealed down round the edges. Make and trim the crest of the timbale; pinch it inside and out, and finish the cover, by means of applied imitation-leaves of paste, superposed to form a kind of dome.

Set in a moderate oven, and when the timbale is baked, remove its cover with the view of withdrawing the lentils or peas and the paper, the sole object of which was to provide a support for the cover. Besmear the inside of the timbale with a brush dipped in the beaten white of an egg; keep it for a minute or two in front of the oven, with the view of drying it inside; turn it out, and spread upon its bottom and sides a very thin coat of chicken or ordinary forcemeat, the purpose of which is to shield the crust from the softening effects of the juices of the garnish.

Put the timbale in the front of the oven for a moment or two, that this coating of forcemeat may poach.

Garnish. - Veal sweetbreads, braised without colouration and cut into collops; small mushrooms; cocks' combs and kidneys; small quenelles of chicken, mousseline forcemeat, or roundels of chicken forcemeat rolls one-third inch thick, trimmed with the fancy-cutter; and slices of truffles, half of which should be kept for the purposes of decoration.

Cover this garnish with Allemande sauce, prepared with mushroom essence. Pour it into the timbale, just before serving; upon it set the reserved slices of truffle, in the form of a crown; replace the cover; dish upon a folded napkin, and serve.

N.B. (i) As already stated the garnish of the timbale may be cohered with a half-glaze sauce, flavoured with Madeira or truffle essence.

(2) In this garnish, whether it be cohered by means of a white or brown sauce, the slices of veal sweetbreads are always the principal ingredient; but, subject to the circumstances, the other details may be altered or modified. 1243- VOL AU VENT DE RIS DE VEAU

Vol au vent, which formerly held the place of honour on bourgeois menus, has now fallen somewhat into the background; nevertheless, I wished it to appear among the recipes in this work.

The preparation of the paste: Make the vol au vent crust as explained under No. 2390.

Garnish. - Prepare it exactly as explained under " Timbale de ris de Veau." This garnish may also be cohered with a brown sauce, and its minor ingredients may be modified; but the slices of veal sweetbread must always stand as the dominating element.

Whatever be the selected kind of garnish, vol au vent should always be accompanied by medium-sized, trussed crayfish, cooked in court-bouillon.

Dishing. - Set the vol au vent crust upon a dish covered with a napkin; pour the garnish into it; decorate with slices of truffle; arrange the crayfish round the edge, and lay the cover upon the crayfish.

1244- RIS DE VEAU A LA RICHELIEU

Braise the veal sweetbreads exactly as described under " Ris de Veau Bonne Maman," taking care to keep the braisingliquor sufficiently plentiful to well cover the sweetbreads in the cocotte.

When the sweetbreads are in the cocotte, together with the julienne of vegetables and a julienne of truffles, strain the braising-liquor over the whole; leave to cool well, and, when the liquid has turned to a jelly, remove the grease that has risen to the surface.

Dish the cocotte on a napkin.

1245- RIS DE VEAU A LA SUEDOISE

Poach the veal sweetbreads without colouration, and, when they are quite cold, cut them into thin and regular collops. Spread some horse-radish butter over the latter, and cover with a slice of tongue of the same size as the underlying collop.

Bake a crust without colouration in a flawn ring, of a size in proportion to the number of slices, and garnish it with a vegetable salad cohered with mayonnaise. This crust must necessarily be made in advance.

Upon the salad now set the collops, either in the form of a crown or in that of a small turban; in the middle place a fineT lettuce heart, the leaves of which should be slightly opened out.

RELEVES AND ENTREES 417

1246- PALETS DE RIS DE VEAU A L'ECARLATE

Poach the sweetbreads; when they are cold, cut them into collops half-an-inch thick, and trim them with a round, even cutter. Stamp out some roundels of salted tongue with the same cutter, but let them be only one-eighth inch thick, and twice as many as the collops of veal sweetbread.

Coat the latter, on either side, with butter prepared with mustard; and cover with a roundel of tongue.

Set the prepared collops on a tray; let the butter harden, coat with jelly, and deck the middle of each quoit with a fine slice of truffle.

Arrange the quoits in a circle on a round dish; put some chopped jelly in the centre, and border the dish with very regularly-cut jelly dice.

Serve a horse-radish sauce and an Italian salad separately.

Calf's Liver.

Calf's liver is served chiefly as a breakfast or luncheon entree.

Nevertheless, in ordinary menus, it is sometimes served as a relev^, braised and whole.

1247- FOIE DE VEAU BRAISE A LA BOURQEOISE

Lard the piece with large, seasoned strips of bacon, as for " Boeuf k la Mode." Brown it slightly in the oven, and then put it into a saucepan garnished for braising. (No. 247.)

Moisten with one pint of white wine, and reduce it completely. This done, moisten again with brown stock, adding one pint of Espagnole sauce per quart of the moistening.

It is sufficient if the moistening and the sauce reach a little above the middle of the piece of liver.

When the cooking is two-thirds completed, transfer the liver to another saucepan; surround it with carrots, shaped like elongated olives and half-cooked in consomme; and some small onions, half-cooked in butter.

The amount of this garnish of carrots and onions should naturally be in proportion to the size of the piece of liver.

Strain the sauce over the whole, and complete the cooking gently in the oven. Dish the liver with the carrots and onions all round; reduce the sauce if necessary, and pour it over the garnish.

N.B. The latter need not be arranged symmetrically.

On the contrary simplicity should be made a feature of these

bourgeois dishes.

E E 1248- FOIE DE VEAU A L'ANQLAISE

Cut the calf's liver into fairly thin slices, from two-and-a-half oz. to three oz. in weight. Season them with salt and pepper; dredge them, and toss them in butter. Grill an equal number of rashers of bacon.

Dish the slices of liver and the rashers of bacon alternately, and sprinkle them with the butter in which the liver was cooked, or with a brown butter.

1249- BROCHETTES DE FOIE DE VEAU

Select a pale piece of calf's liver and cut it into square pieces two-thirds of an inch thick. Season with salt and pepper, and toss the pieces in butter, just to stiffen them.

Put them into a basin with an equal quantity of blanched salted breast of pork, cut into squares, and of slices of cooked mushrooms. Add a few tablespoonfuls of stiff Duxelles sauce, and toss the whole together, that each particle of the various ingredients may become coated with Duxelles.

This done, impale the squares of liver and pork and the slices of mushrooms upon a ringed skewer, alternating them in so doing; sprinkle copiously with fine raspings and melted butter, and set to grill gently.

These brochettes are served, either on a maitre-d'hotel butter, or on a Duxelles, Fines Herbes, an Italian or other sauce.

1250- FOIE DE VEAU A L'ESPAQNOLE

Cut the calf's liver into slices weighing three and a half oz.; season these with salt and pepper; dredge them; sprinkle them with oil, and grill them gently.

Meanwhile, prepare: - (i) As many grilled half-tomatoes as there are pieces of liver; (2) onions cut into thin roundels, seasoned, dredged, and fried in oil; (3) a proportionate quantity of fried parsley.

Arrange the grilled slices of liver along the centre of an oval dish; place a half-tomato upon each; and, on one side, set the fried onions, on the other, the fried parsley.

1251 -FOIE DE VEAU SAUT6 AUX FINES HERBES

Cut the calf's liver into slices, as above; season these with salt and pepper; dredge them, and toss them in butter.

Arrange the slices in a circle on a round dish; and either pour the herb sauce over the slices, or serve it separately.

1252- PAIN DE FOIE DE VEAU

For a calf's liver loaf made in a quart mould: Cut one lb. of calf's liver into dice, and finely pound these together with one

RELEVES AND ENTREES 419

third oz. of salt, a pinch of pepper, and a little nutmeg. Add, little by little, five oz. of very cold frangipane panada, and two eggs.

Rub through a sieve; put the forcemeat in a bowl; work it over ice, and finish it with two tablespoonfuls of chopped onions, cooked in butter, without colouration; the yolks of two eggs, and quarter pint of thick cream, added by degrees.

Pour this forcemeat into a well-buttered quart Charlottemould; knock the latter gently on a folded serviette, with the view of settling its contents, and put it to poach in the oven in a bain-marie, for about forty-live minutes.

When taking the loaf out of the oven, let it stand for five minutes, that the forcemeat inside may thoroughly settle; turn it out on a round dish, and cover it with a Duxelles, Italienne, Bordelaise, brown caper, or other sauce.

1253- COTES DE VEAU

Veal cutlets may either be grilled or sauted, but the second method of cooking them is, in most cases, preferable.

When they are sauted, the cutlets should be cooked in clarified butter, over a somewhat fierce fire and in a utensil large enough to hold them without crowding.

This done, dish them; pour away the butter in which they have been cooked; swill the saucepan, i.e., dissolve the concentrated gravy adhering to the sides and bottom of it with a liquid in keeping with the garnish; either mushroom cooking-liquor, white or red wine, or Madeira, etc.; and add this swillingliquor, reduced, to the accompanying sauce. The latter is generally a buttered half-glaze, but the best adjunct to veal cutlets is a pale meat glaze, moderately buttered.

All vegetable and paste garnishes, given under Cushion of Veal, suit veal cutlets. I must therefore beg the reader to refer to those recipes, as circumstances may dictate; and restrict myself to a few formulae which, in my opinion, are suited more particularly to veal cutlets.

1254- COTE DE VEAU A LA BONNE FEMME

Put the veal cutlet into an earthenware saucepan, with one and one-half oz. of butter, and brown it well on both sides. Add six small onions cooked in butter, three oz. of potatoes cut into roundels; and complete the cooking gently in the oven, keeping the saucepan covered.

Serve the preparation in the saucepan as it stands.

E E 2 1255- COTE DE VEAU EN CASSEROLE

Heat one oz. of butter in an earthenware saucepan; insert the veal cutlet, seasoned, and cook it gently, taking care to turn it over from time to time.

At the last moment, add a tablespoonful of excellent veal gravy, and serve in the saucepan. 1256- COTE DE VEAU EN COCOTTE A LA PAYSANNE

Toss the veal cutlet in butter, in the cocotte, with two small slices of blanched salted breast of pork. Add four small onions, and two small, long potatoes, cut ^ay^anne-fashion; and complete the cooking of the cutlets and the garnish very gently in the oven.

Send the preparation to the table in the cocotte.

1357- COTE DE VEAU A LA DREUX

Stud the kernel of the veal cutlet with tongue, ham and truffle, and cook it gently in butter. This done, trim it to the quick on both sides, that the studding may be clean and neat; dish it with a frill on the bare bone, and, beside it, arrange a small garnish of quenelles, mushrooms, cocks' combs and kidneys, and turned and blanched olives.

Pour a little half-glaze sauce, flavoured with truffle essence, over the garnish. 1258- c6TE DEiVEAU MILANAISE

With a moistened butcher's beater, flatten the meat in suchwise as to reduce it to half its normal thickness. Dip the veal cutlet into beaten egg; roll it in bread-crumbs, mixed with half as much grated Parmesan, and cook it in clarified butter, or butter and oil in equal quantities.

Dish it with a frill on the bare bone, and the garnish beside it.

Milanaise garnish consists of cooked macaroni, seasoned with salt, pepper and nutmeg, and cohered with butter, grated Gruy^re and Parmesan cheeses, and very red tomato pur^e; and combined with a julienne of very lean cooked ham, salted tongue, mushrooms and truffles, heated in Madeira. 1259- COTE DE VEAU PAPILLOTE

Toss the veal cutlet in butter, and prepare, meanwhile: -

(i) Two tablespoonfuls of Duxelles sauce, combined with a cooked and sliced mushroom.

(2) Two heart-shaped slices of ham, of about the same size as the cutlet.

(3) A doubled sheet of strong paper, cut to the shape of a heart and well-oiled.

RELEVES AND ENTRIES 421

Spread out the sheet of paper, and, in the middle thereof, lay a sHce of ham; spread a tablespoonful of Duxelles on the latter; put the cutlet on the sauce; cover it with the remainder of the Duxelles, and finish with the other slice of ham.

Fold the sheet of paper so as to enclose the whole; pleat the edges nicely; put the cutlet on a tray, and blow out the papillote in a fairly hot oven. When taking it out of the oven, transfer it to a dish, and serve instantly.

1360- c6te de veau pojarski

Completely separate the meat of the veal cutlet from the bone; clear it of all skin and gristle, and chop it up with half its weight of butter, salt and pepper. Mass this mince-meat close up to the bone, shaping it like a cutlet, and cook the whole in clarified butter, turning it over very carefully in the process.

Dish with a suitable garnish.

1261- COTE DE VEAU ZINQARA

Cook the veal cutlet in butter; at the same time prepare a slice of raw ham, cut to the shape of the cutlet, and likewise tossed in butter.

Dish the cutlet; set the slice of ham upon it, and surround with a few tablespoonfuls of Zingara sauce.

Zingara sauce is prepared thus: Reduce a few tablespoonfuls of white wine and mushroom cooking-liquor to half. Add one-fifth pint of half-glaze, two tablespoonfuls of tomato sauce, one tablespoonful of veal stock, one oz. of a julienne of tongue, mushrooms and truffles; and set to boil for a few seconds.

1262- COTE DE VEAU FROIDE EN BELLE VUE

Let a little jelly set in a utensil somewhat resembling a cutlet in shape. Trim the veal cutlet; decorate it with various little vegetables, and sprinkle the latter with half-melted jelly, so as to fix them.

Put the cutlet on the layer of set jelly, inside the utensil, and let it lie with its decorated side undermost.

Add enough jelly to cover the cutlet, and let the former set.

This done, pass the blade of a small knife (dipped in hot water) round the cutlet; set the utensil for a moment upon a napkin dipped in hot water, turn out the cutlet with care, and. set it on a cold dish, with a border of chopped aspic, and a frill on the bone. 1263- COTE DE VEAU FROIDE RUBENS

Trim the veal cutlet; coat it with half-melted aspic, and cover it with young hop shoots, cohered with tomato sauce cleared by means of aspic.

Let the sauce thoroughly set, and then put the cutlet between two layers of aspic as explained above.

N.B. Cold veal cutlets may also be served Belle-vue fashion, after the very simple manner described under " Grenadinsen Belle-vue " (No. 1217).

1264- ROQNON DE VEAU

When sauted after the usual manner, veal kidney admits of all the preparations given for sheep's kidney. (See the chapter on Mutton.)

I shall now, therefore, only give those recipes which are proper to veal kidney.

1265- ROQNON DE VEAU EN CASSEROLE

Trim the veal kidney and only leave a very slight layer of fat all round it.

Heat one oz. of butter in a small, earthenware saucepan, also called " cocotte "; put the seasoned kidney into the latter, and cook it gently for about thirty minutes, taking care to turn it often the while.

At the last minute sprinkle it with a tablespoonful of good veal gravy. Serve it in the cocotte as it stands.

1266- ROQNON DE VEAU EN COCOTTE

Prepare the veal kidney and fry it in butter, as in the case of the "en casserole" dish. Surround it with one and one-half oz. of small pieces of blanched bacon, tossed in butter; one and one-half oz. of raw, quartered mushrooms, also tossed, and one and one-half oz. of small blanched potatoes, of the size and shape of garlic cloves, and the same quantity of small, glazed onions. Complete the cooking of the whole gently.

At the last minute, add a tablespoonful of good, veal gravy, and serve the cocotte as it stands.

1267- ROQNON DE VEAU QRILL^

Trim the veal kidney, and leave a slight layer of fat all round it. Cut it in half lengthwise, without completely separating the two halves, and impale it on a small skewer, with the view of keeping it in shape.

Season with salt and pepper, and grill it gently; basting it often the while with melted butter.

RELEVES AND ENTREES 423

Send separately, either a Maitre-d'h6tel, a Bercy, or other butter suited to grills.

1268-ROQNON DE VEAU A LA LIEGEOISE

Prepare the veal kidney as for " en casserole." One minute before serving, add one small wineglassful of burned gin, two crushed juniper berries, and one tablespoonful of good veal gravy. Serve in the cooking-utensil.

1269- ROQNON DE VEAU A LA MONTPENSIER

Trim the veal kidney, leaving a slight coating of fat all round it, and cut into five or six slices. Season the latter, toss them in butter over a brisk fire, and transfer them to a plate.

Swill the saucepan with one tablespoonful of Madeira, and add thereto three tablespoonfuls of melted meat glaze, a few drops of lemon juice, one and one-half oz. of butter, and a pinch of chopped parsley.

Dish the pieces of kidney, or set them in a timbale; sprinkle them with the sauce, and in their midst set a heap of asparagus-heads, cohered with butter, and one and one-half oz. of truffle slices.

1270- ROQNON DE VEAU PORTUQAISE

Cut up the veal kidney, and toss it in butter, after the manner described under No. 1269.

Dish the pieces in a circle on a dish; set a very small, stuffed half-tomato upon each, and garnish the centre of the dish with a very reduced tomato fondue. Surround the kidney with a sauce prepared as directed above.

1271- ROQNON DE VEAU A LA ROBERT

Heat one oz. of butter in a small cocotte; put the seasoned veal kidney therein; fry it over a brisk fire, and set it to cook in the oven for about fifteen minutes. Serve the kidney as it leaves the oven, and complete the procedure, at the table, in the following manner: -

Transfer the kidney to a hot plate. Place the cocotte on a spirit lamp; pou;r into the former one glassful of excellent liqueur brandy, and reduce to half. Meanwhile, quickly cut the kidney into extremely thin slices, and cover these with an overturned plate.

Add to the reduced liqueur brandy one coffeespoonful of mustard, one oz. of butter cut into small pieces, the juice of a quarter of a lemon, and a pinch of chopped parsley; and work the whole well with a fork, with the view of effecting the leason.

Put the sliced kidney into this sauce, together with the gravy that has drained from it; heat the whole well, without boiling, and serve on very hot plates.

1272- TENDRONS DE VEAU

The tendrons are cut from breast of veal. They are, in fact, the extreme ends of the ribs, including the cartilage of the sternum.

If the tendrons are braised, treat them after the manner described under " The Braising of White Meats " (No. 248); or, simply stew them in butter; moisten them with excellent veal stock, and baste them frequently while cooking them. They may also be treated like an ordinary veal saute, from which they only differ in shape, and the various preparations of which may be adapted to them.

The garnishes best suited to them are those of early-season vegetables, and, as a matter of fact, the latter, together with such pastes as noodles, macaroni, spaghetti, etc., are the garnishes most often served with them.

1273- BLANQUETTE DE VEAU A L'ANCIENNE

Cut the veal tendrons into pieces weighing about three oz. Then, slightly blanch them; cool them, and put them into a saucepan with enough white stock to cover; add a very little salt; set to boil, and skim.

For two lbs. of tendrons, add one small carrot; one fairsized onion, stuck with a clove; a faggot, consisting of one leek, parsley stalks, and a fragment of thyme and bay; and set to cook gently for one and one-half hours.

Prepare a white roux from one and one-half oz. of butter and one and one-half oz. of flour; moisten with one pint of veal cooking-liquor; add one oz. of mushroom parings, and cook for a quarter of an hour, despumating the sauce the while.

Transfer the pieces of tendron, one by one, to a saut^pan with twelve small onions cooked in consomm^, and fifteen small, cooked and very white mushrooms. Finish the sauce with a leason of two egg-yolks, mixed with three tablespoonfuls of cream and a few drops of lemon juice; strain it over the veal and its garnish; heat without boiling; dish in a timbale, and sprinkle with a pinch of chopped parsley.

N.B. This blanquette may also be prepared with noodles or cepes, instead of with ordinary mushrooms.

1274- BLANQUETTE DE VEAU AUX CI&LERIS, CARD0N5, ETC.

Prepare the blanquette exactly as explained above, and set it to cook with the veal and the vegetable selected for the garnish,

RELEVES AND ENTREES 425

i.e., either small heads of celery cut into two or four, or cardoons, cut into pieces and well blanched. The endives are not blanched; they need only be well washed and put with the veal. When cooked, drain the vegetables, trim them, and dish them in a timbale with the veal and the sauce; the latter prepared as directed and strained over the meat.

1275- BLANQUETTE DE VEAU AUX NOUILLES

Proceed as for " Blanquette k I'ancienne," but suppress the garnish of onions and mushrooms.

When the blanquette is dished, set thereon heaps of noodles, parboiled and cohered with butter, and cover these with raw noodles tossed quickly in butter; allow three oz. of tossed noodles per lb. of those cohered.

1276- FRICASSEE DE VEAU

Fricassee differs from blanquette in this, namely, that the pieces of veal in the former are stiffened in butter without colouration.

When the meat has been well stiffened, besprinkle it with about one oz. of flour per lb.; cook this flour with the meat for a few minutes; then moisten the fricassee with white stock; season, and set to boil, stirring the while. All the garnishes of mushrooms and vegetables given for blanquette may be served with fricassee; but in the case of the latter, both the meat and the garnish are cooked in the sauce, the leason of which is effected by means of egg-yolks and cream, as for blanquette.

1277- FRICADELLES

Fricadelles are a kind of meat balls, somewhat like those commonly prepared in private households. They are made from raw or cooked meat, in the following manner: -

Fricadelles -with Raw Meat. - For ten fricadelles, each weighing three and one-half oz., chop up one lb. of very lean veal, cleared of all fat and gristle, together with two-thirds of a lb. of butter. Put the whole into a bowl, and add thereto five oz. of soaked and well-pressed crumb of bread, two eggs, half an oz. of salt, a pinch of pepper and a little nutmeg, and two oz. of chopped onion cooked in butter without colouration.

Mix the whole well, and divide it up into portions weighing three and one-half oz.

Fashion these portions to the shape of quoits, by first rolling them into balls on a flour-dusted board, and afterwards flattening them out with the flat of a knife.

Heat some butter or very pure fat in a saut^pan; put the fricadelles therein; brown them on both sides, and then complete their cooking in the oven.

This done, set them on a round dish, and serve them, either with a vegetable purte, a Piquante or a Robert sauce.

Fricadelles with Cooked Meat. - For ten fricadelles, each weighing two and one-half oz., chop one lb. of cooked veal, fat and lean, somewhat finely.

Put it into a bowl with a large pinch of salt, another of pepper, and a little nutmeg. Add the pulp of three fair-sized potatoes, baked in the oven; three oz. of chopped onions, cooked in butter without colouration; one large egg, and one tablespoonful of chopped parsley. Mix well; divide up into portions of the weight already given, and shape and cook them as in the previous case.

These fricadelles are served with vegetable pur(^es and the sauces suited to those prepared from raw meat.

1278- PAUPIETTES DE VEAU

Paupiettes or scrolls are made from extremely thin slices of veal, four in. long by two in. wide. After having seasoned them, cover them with forcemeat or very fine mincemeat; roll them, with their forcemeat-coat inside, into scrolls, and tie them round, once or twice, with string, that they may keep their shape while cooking. They are sometimes covered with thin rashers of bacon. Paupiettes are always braised, gently and protractedly.

They are generally garnished with vegetable purees; but they may be served just as well with all vegetable garnishes.

By making them half the usual size, they may, after having been braised, serve as the garnish for a timbale, together with noodles, gniokis, spaghetti, or with Financifere, Milanaise or Napolitaine garnish, etc.

1279- SAUTES DE VEAU

The pieces best suited to veal sautes are: the breast and the shoulder, as also those parts of the haunch other than the cushion and undercushion.

1280- SAUTE DE VEAU A LA MARENGO

Heat one pint of oil in a saut^pan, until it smokes. Put therein two lbs. of veal, cut into pieces, each weighing two oz., and fry until the latter are well set. Add a chopped half onion and a crushed half-clove of garlic, and fry again for a few moments.

Drain away the oil, tilting the saut^pan with its lid on, for

RELEVES AND ENTREES 427

the purpose; moisten with a quarter of a pint of white wine; reduce, and add two-thirds of a quart of thin Espagnole sauce, one and one-half lbs. of tomatoes, pressed and cut into pieces (or one pint of tomato sauce), and a faggot.

Set to boil, and cook in the oven gently for one and one-half hours.

At the end of that time, transfer the pieces of veal, one by one, to another saucepan with fifteen small glazed onions, and five oz. of mushrooms. Reduce the sauce; strain it over the veal and its garnish, add two large pinches of concussed parsley, and cook for a further quarter of an hour.

When about to serve, clear of all grease, dish in a timbale, and surround with small heart-shaped croutons of bread-crumb, fried in oil.

1281- SAUT6 DE VEAU CHASSEUR

Cut the veal into pieces as above, and fry these well in butter or oil.

Drain away the grease; moisten with one quart of brown stock, add two tablespoonfuls of tomato pur^e, and a faggot; set to boil, and cook in the oven gently for one and one-half hours.

Transfer the pieces to another saucepan; strain; reduce their cooking-liquor by a quarter, and add it to one-quarter of a pint of Chasseur sauce (No. 3;^).

Pour this sauce over the pieces of veal, and cook again for a quarter of an hour. Dish in a timbale, and sprinkle with chopped parsley.

1282- SAUT6 DE VEAU PRINTANIER

Fry the pieces of veal in butter. Moisten with two-thirds of a quart of brown stock and one-fifth of a pint of half-glaze; add a faggot; boil, and cook in the oven gently for one hour.

This done, transfer the pieces to another saucepan; add thereto a garnish of carrots, new turnips, and small, new potatoes; strain the sauce over the veal and the garnish, and cook for a further three-quarters of an hour.

Dish in a timbale and distribute over the saute a few tablespoonfuls of peas and French beans in lozenge-form, both cooked a I'anglaise.

1283- SAUTjg DE VEAU A LA CATALANE

Cut up, saute, and cook the veal gently for one and one-half hours, as for No. 1280.

Transfer the pieces of veal to another saucepan, and add to them three small peeled and pressed tomatoes, quartered and tossed in butter; ten small onions cooked in butter; six oz. of raw, quartered mushrooms; ten chestnuts, three-parts cooked in consomm6, and eight Chipolata sausages.

Reduce the sauce to one-third of a pint; strain it over the veal and its garnish; cook for a further quarter of an hour, and dish in a timbale.

1284- SAUTES DE VEAU DIVERS

Veal saute may also be prepared with mushrooms, fines herbes, egg-plant, tomatoes, or " Currie k I'lndienne," etc.

1285- PAIN DE VEAU

Prepare " Pain de Veau " exactly as directed under No. 1252; but substitute for the liver some very white veal.

Pain de veau is generally accompanied by a white sauce, such as velout^ prepared with mushroom essence, Allemande sauce prepared with mushrooms, Supreme sauce, etc.

1286- CALF'S FEET

Calf's feet serve chiefly in supplying the gelatinous element of aspics, and the body of braising stock. They are rarely used in the preparation of a special dish; but, should they be so used, they may be cooked and served after the manner directed in the recipes treating of calf's head.

1287- CALVES' TONGUES

Provided the difference of size be allowed for, calf's tongue may be prepared like ox tongue, and served with the same garnishes. (See Ox Tongue, Nos. 1153 to 1158 inclusive.)

1288- CALF'S BRAINS AND AMOURETTES

Calf's brains form the most wholesome and reparative diet for all those who are debilitated by excessive head-work; and the same remark applies to the brains of the ox and the sheep.

The amourettes mentioned here, which almost always accompany ox brains, are only the spinal marrow of the ox or the calf. This may be used in the preparation of a few special dishes; but all the recipes dealing with brains may be applied to it.

1289- THE COOKINQ OF BRAINS

Carefully remove the membrane enveloping the brains or the amourettes, and put them to soak in fresh water, until they are quite white. Put the brains in a saucepan with enough boiling

RELEVES AND ENTREES 429

court-bouillon (No. 163) to cover them well; skim and then set to cook gently.

Brains have this peculiarity, namely, that prolonged cooking only stiffens them; thus, calf's brains only take half an hour to cook; but they may cook for two hours more without harm, seeing that the process only tends to make them firmer.

1290- CERVELLE A LA BEAUMONT

Cut the brains into slices; on each slice put a layer of gratin force-meat (No. 202) prepared from foie gras and softened by means of a little cold, brown sauce, and a slice of truffle. Reconstruct the brains by putting the coated slices together again.

Roll some puff-paste remains into a galette one-fifth of an inch thick, the diameter of which should be in proportion to the size of the brains under treatment. Put the brains in the middle of the galette, and cover them with the same forcemeat as that laid on the slices; sprinkle with chopped truffles; moisten the edges of the paste, and draw these over the brains so as to enclose the latter completely.

Gild; make a slit in the top for the escape of steam, and bake in a hot oven for fifteen minutes. After taking the pie out of the oven, pour a few tablespoonfuls of P^rigueux sauce into the former, and dish on a napkin.

1 29 1- CERVELLE AU BEURRE NOIR

Slice the brains; set the slices on a dish, and season them with salt and pepper.

Cook two oz. of butter in the frying-pan until it is slightly blackened; throw therein a pinch of parsley pluches, and sprinkle the brains with this butter. Pour a few drops of vinegar into the burning frying-pan, and add it to the brains.

1292- CERVELLE AU BEURRE NOISETTE

Slice and season the brains as above. Cook the butter until it has acquired a golden colour and exhales a nutty smell; pour it over the brains, and finish with a few drops of lemon juice and a pinch of chopped parsley.

1293- CERVELLE A LA MARECHALE

Cut the brains into regular slices, one-third of an inch thick; treat them a I'anglaise with very fine bread-crumbs, and brown them in clarified butter.

Dish them in the form of a circle, with a slice of truffle on each, and garnish the centre of the dish with a fine heap of asparagus-heads cohered with butter. 1294- CERVELLE A LA POULETTE

Prepare half a pint of poulette sauce (No. loi), combined with three oz. of small, cooked, and very white mushrooms.

Add the brains, cut into slices; toss them gently in the sauce, taking care lest they break; dish them in a timbale, and sprinkle with a pinch of chopped parsley.

1295- CERVELLE A LA VILLEROY

Cut the raw brains into slices; season them, and poach them in butter.

Dip the slices into an almost cold Villeroy sauce, in suchwise as to cover them with a thick coating of it. Leave to cool, and treat them a I'anglaise. Set to cook for a few minutes before serving, and dish on a napkin with fried parsley.

Serve a light Pdrigueux sauce separately.

1296- VOL AU VENT DE CERVELLE

Prepare a vol-au-vent crust, as explained under No. 2390. Slice the brains, and put the slices into half-a-pint of Allemande sauce, with twelve quenelles of ordinary forcemeat, poached just before dishing up; four oz. of small, cooked mushrooms, and one oz. of truffle slices, five or six of which should be reserved.

Pour the garnish into the vol au vent; set upon the latter the reserved slices of truffle, and dish on a folded napkin.

1297- AMOURETTES A LA TOSCA

Poach one lb. of aviourettes, as explained above, and cut them into lengths of one in.

Prepare a garnish of macaroni cohered with butter and grated Parmesan, and add thereto four tablespoonfuls of a crayfish cullis per four oz. of macaroni; three crayfishes' tails for each person, and two-thirds of the pieces of amourettes. Toss well, in order to thoroughly mix the whole; dish in a timbale; cover the macaroni with what remains of the pieces of amourettes, and cover them slightly with crayfish cullis.

RELEVES AND ENTREES 431

MUTTON, GRASS LAMB AND HOUSE LAMB

Releves and Entrees.

From the culinary standpoint, the ovine species supplies three kinds of meat, viz: -

Mutton - properly so-called when the meat is derived from the adult animal.

Lamb - the young, weaned sheep, not yet fully grown, the meat of which is the more highly esteemed the younger the animal is.

House Lamb - the sheep's unweaned young that has not yet grazed.

The " Pauillac " Iamb, which is imported from France, is the most excellent example of the last kind. Good house lambs are also killed in England; they are quite equal to Pauillac lamb, but their season is short. As regards ordinary English mutton and lamb, however, the delicacy and quality of these meats are unrivalled.

But for its greater delicacy and tenderness, grass lamb, which corresponds v.'ith what the French call " agneau de pr6sal^ " is scarcely distinguishable from mutton. The recipes suited to it are the same as those given for mutton; and all that is necessary is to allow for differences of quality in calculating the time of cooking.

House lamb, the white flesh of which is quite different, admits of some of the mutton recipes; but it is generally prepared after special formulfe, the details of which I shall give hereafter.

When served roasted, hot or cold, mutton and grass and house lamb are always accompanied by mint sauce, the recipe for which I gave under No. 136.

In view of the similarity of their preparations, and in order to avoid finicking repetitions, I have refrained from giving separate recipes for lamb and mutton respectively. The reader will therefore bear in mind that the formute relating to mutton also apply to grass lamb. 1298- SADDLE OF MUTTON

1299- BARON OR PAIR OF HIND=QUARTERS OF MUTTON

1300- DOUBLE OR PAIR OF LEGS OF MUTTON

130 1- FILLETS OF MUTTON

1302- NECK OF MUTTON (Relev6s)

Saddle of mutton is that part of the sheep which reaches from the bone of the haunch to the floating ribs.

Baron of mutton comprises the saddle and the two legs, i.e., a pair of hind-quarters.

Double consists of the two unseparated legs, minus the saddle.

The Baron and the Double are almost always cuts of lamb.

The fillet is one half of the saddle, when the latter is cut into two, lengthwise; that is to say, divided down the middle in suchwise as to bisect the spinal column. These fillets are sometimes boned, rolled over with the kernel of meat in the centre, and strung, in which case the skin should be removed before rolling. Saddle of mutton, before being roasted, should be cleared of all its superfluous underlying fat; and the flanks should be so shortened as to just meet when drawn over the fillets. The overlying skin should be removed, and the saddle should be strung in five or six places to keep it in shape.

In the case of a saddle of lamb, the skin need not be completely removed, but slit in various places. As to neck of mutton, this should be shortened as for the cutting of ordinary cutlets; the skin and the bones of the chine should be removed, as also the meat at the end of the rib-bones^ down to two-thirds in. from the extremity of each. The cushion is then covered with slices of bacon, tied on with string.

When the piece is roasted and dished, a frill should be placed on the end of each bared bone. Neck of mutton ought never to comprise more than nine to ten ribs, counting from the floating ones; it should consist of rather less if anything.

Mutton Relev^s allow more particularly of vegetable and rice garnishes.

Garnishes with sauces do not suit them so well, even when the pieces are braised. As for paste garnishes, such as macaroni, noodles, gniokis; they are seldom used.

Garnishes for mutton relev^s should therefore be chosen, in preference, from among the following, the details of which I gave under " Filet de Boeuf " (Nos. 1044 to 1074) a"d which I recall hereafter: -

Andalouse, Bouquetiere, Chatelaine, Clamart, Dauphine,

RELEVES AND ENTREES 433

Dubarry, Duchesse, Japonaise, Jardiniere, Lorette, MacddoinCf Montmorency, Moderne, Nivernaise, Orientale, Petit-Due, Provengale, Renaissance, Richelieu, St. Germain.

Apart from these compound garnishes, the following simple garnishes also suit admirably, either alone, or separated by some kind of potato preparation: -

Braised Lettuce, stuffed with ordinary forcemeat or rice.

Cabbages, moulded to the shape of small balls, braised and stuffed with fine mince-meat or rice.

Haricot-beans, Peas and Broad-beans, cohered with butter.

Asparagus-heads, white or green, cooked and cohered with butter.

Celery, Endives, and Chicory, all braised. Brussels Sprouts, Cauliflowers, Brocoli, etc.

Finally, the garnishes and modes of preparation termed: d I'Anglaise, a la Boulangere, Braises, Marine en Chevreuil, which I give below for the leg and the shoulder, may be applied perfectly well to other large pieces of mutton.

1303- LARGE COLD JOINTS OF MUTTON

Refer to Cold Beef; in all cases keep the dishing simple. The garnishing is optional.

1304- LEG AND SHOULDER OF MUTTON

Legs of mutton or lamb ought never to appear on any but an ordinary luncheon menu. Although, strictly speaking, they should always be served after one of the ways described hereafter, all the garnishes given above may be applied to them.

Shoulders may be roasted whole; but they may also be boned, seasoned inside, rolled up, and firmly strung. They may be treated like the legs, and the same garnishes are suited to them.

1305- QIQOT BOUILLI A L'ANGLAISE

Trim the leg, shorten it in the region of the tibia bone, and plunge it into a stewpan of boiling water, salted in the proportion of one-third oz. of salt per quart of water.

For an ordinary leg, add: three medium-sized carrots, two onions, each stuck with a clove, a faggot, and two cloves of garlic.

Let the leg cook for a quarter of an hour for each two lbs. of its weight.

Dish with vegetables all round, and serve at the same time a butter sauce with capers.

N.B. - Leg of mutton d I'anglaise may be accompanied by

F F purees of turnips, celery, etc., and these vegetables should cook with the meat. A pur^e of potatoes or of haricot beans may be sent to the table with the meat; but, in this case, of course, the vegetables would be served separately.

1306- BRAISED LEG OF MUTTON

Suppress the pelvic bone, shorten the end bone and brown the leg in the oven.

Now, put it in an oval utensil, garnished for braising; add just enough white stock to barely cover the joint, and cook gently, allowing forty minutes per lb. of meat.

Transfer the leg to a tray; strain the braising-liquor; clear it of all grease, and reduce it to half. Sprinkle the meat with a few tablespoonfuls of this reduced gravy, and set it to glaze in the oven.

Serve at the same time: -

(i) Either a pur^e of potatoes, of turnips, of haricot-beans, of cauliflower, etc., or

(2) The reduced braising-liquor.

1307- GiaOT A LA BOULANQERE

The leg may either be boned, seasoned inside and strung; or the end-bone may simply be shortened and that of the pelvis removed.

In either case, put it in an earthenware dish, and brown it well in the oven, on both sides; then complete its cooking, all but a third.

This done, set round the joint four large, sliced onions, just tossed in butter, that they may acquire some colour, and eight large, peeled potatoes cut into roundels one half in. thick. Sprinkle this garnish with the grease of the joint, and then complete the cooking of the leg and its garnish.

Serve in the dish in which the joint has cooked.

1308- QIQOT MARINE EN CHEVREUIL

Shorten the end-bone; remove the bone of the pelvis, and skin the top of the leg, leaving the meat in that region quite bare. Lard with very small strips of bacon, and put the meat into a marinade prepared after the manner described under No. 170. The length of its stay in the marinade should be based upon the tenderness of the meat and atmospheric conditions. In winter the time averages about three or four days, and in summer two days.

To Roast the Joint. - Withdraw it from the marinade and dry it thoroughly; set it on a stand in the baking-tray; and put

RELEVES AND ENTREES 435

it into a very fierce oven, that the meat may set immediately. The object of the very fierce oven is to prevent the juices absorbed from the marinade escaping in steam and thereby hardening the meat.

Towards the close of the operation, rissole the larding bacon well.

Set on a long dish; fix a frill to the bone, and serve a Chevreuil sauce separately.

ChevreuU Sauce a la Frangaise. - With the marinade of the joint and a Mirepoix with ham, prepare a sufficient quantity of Poivrade sauce (No. 49) to obtain two-thirds of a pint of it after it has been strained through a colander - an operation which should be effected with the application of great pressure to the aromatics.

Despumate this sauce for thirty minutes, and add, little by little, half a wine-glassful of excellent red wine. Finish the seasoning with a little cayenne and a pinch of powdered sugar, and once more rub the whole through tammy or a fine strainer.

1309- GIQOT A LA SOUBISE

Braise the leg of mutton as shown under No. 247. When it is two-thirds done, transfer it to another utensil; strain the braising-liquor over it, and add thereto three lbs. of sliced onions and two-third lb. of rice.

Gently complete the cooking of the joint, together with the onions and the rice. This done: - (i) put it on a baking-tray and glaze it in the oven; (2) quickly rub the onions and the rice through a fine sieve or tammy.

Set the leg of mutton on a long dish; put a frill on the bone, and serve, separately, the well-heated Soubise, finished with one oz. of butter.

N.B. - This Soubise may be prepared separately; but in this case it has much less flavour than when it is made from the onions and the rice which have cooked in the braising-liquor. I therefore urge the adoption of the recipe as it starids.

13 10- COLD LEG OF MUTTON

Dish it very simply, like other cold large joints of mutton.

131 1- CUTLETS

Mutton and lamb cutlets are sometimes sauted; but_ grilling is the most suitable method of cooking them. When the nature of their preparation requires that they should be treated a I'anglaise, fry them in clarified butter. All the garnishes, given under " Tournedos," except those served with sauces, may be applied to cutlets.

The latter also allow of a few special garnishes, and these I give in the following recipes.

1312- c6TELETTES a la CHAMPVALLON (10 Cutlets)

Take some cutlets from the region underlying the shoulder; that is to say, those uncovered by the removal of this joint. And do not clear the bone-ends of their meat, as when frills are to be fixed to them.

Season them with salt and pepper, and brown them in butter on both sides. This done, put them in an earthenware dish with half lb. of sliced onions, tossed in butter without colouration; moisten with enough white stock to almost cover the cutlets and the onions; add the quarter of a clove of garlic, crushed, and a faggot; boil, and set in the oven. At the end of twenty minutes, add one and one-half lbs. of potatoes, fashioned to the shape of corks, and cut into thin roundels; season, and complete the cooking, basting often the while.

When the cutlets are cooked, the moistening should be almost entirely reduced.

1313- C6TELETTES LAURA

Grill the cutlets, and, meanwhile, prepare a garnish (the quantity of which should be such as to allow two and one-half oz. of it per cutlet) of parboiled macaroni, cut into half-inch lengths, cohered with cream, and combined, per lb., with three and one-half oz. of peeled, pressed, and concussed tomatoes, tossed in butter.

Or, when white truffles are in season, prepare some macaroni with cream, as above, combined with the peelings of raw, white truffles.

Cut some very soft pig's caul into triangles, proportionate in size to the cutlets; spread a little macaroni on each triangle; on the latter set a cutlet; cover the cutlets with some more macaroni, and enclose the whole in the caul. Lay the cutlets on a dish.

Sprinkle with fine raspings and melted butter, and set to grill at the salamander, or in a fierce oven, for seven or eight minutes.

Dish the cutlets in the form of a crown, and surround them with a thread of clear half-glaze sauce, combined with tomatoes.

1314- C6TELETTES A LA MAINTENON

Fry the cutlets in butter, on one side only. This done, put a hgaped t^blespoonfyl of a Maint^non preparation (No. 92^)

RELEVES AND ENTREES 437

on each; shape it like a dome, by means of the blade of a small knife dipped in tepid water, and put the cutlets, one by one, on a tray. The Maintenon preparation should be laid on the cooked side of each cutlet and sprinkled with fine raspings and melted butter. Now put the cutlets in a rather hot oven for seven or eight minutes in order to: -

(i) Allow a gratin to form over the surface of the garnish.

(2) Finish the cooking of the cutlets.

Dish the latter in the form of a crown, and serve, separately, a sauceboat of meat glaze finished with butter.

1315- COTELETTES A LA MURILLO

Fry the cutlets in butter, on one side only; and garnish the cooked side, dome-fashion, with a fine hash of mushrooms, cohered with a little very reduced Bechamel sauce.

Set them on a tray; sprinkle with grated Parmesan and a few drops of melted butter, and glaze in a fierce oven. Dish the cutlets in the form of a crown; fix a frill to each, and surround them with mild capsicums and tomatoes, both of which should be sliced, tossed in butter, and mixed.

1316- c6telettes a la proven^ale

For ten cutlets: - (i) Reduce one-half pint of Bechamel sauce to a third, and add thereto the third of a garlic clove, crushed, and the yolks of three eggs; (2) prepare at the same time as the cutlets, ten grilled mushrooms; and ten stoned, stuffed and poached olives, girded by a strip of anchovy fillet.

Fry the cutlets in butter, on one side only. Cover the cooked side of each with the preparation described above; set them on a tray; sprinkle them with a few drops of melted butter, and put them in the oven, that their garnish may be glazed and that their cooking may be completed.

Dish in the form of a circle; place a grilled mushroom (convex side uppermost) in the middle of each cutlet, and, on each mushroom, a stuffed olive.

1316a- C6TELETTES DE MOUTON A LA REFORME

Trim six mutton cutlets; season them; dip them in melted butter, and roll them in bread-crumbs^ combined with finelychopped ham in the proportion of a third of the weight of the bread-crumbs. Now cook them gently in clarified butter.

Dish them in a circle on a hot dish, and send the following sauce to the table with them: -

Take a small saucepan, and mix therein three tablespoonfuls of half-glaze sauce, the same quantity of Poivrade sauce, and one coffeespoonful of red-currant jelly; add one coffeespoonful of each of the following short julienne garnishes to the sauce; viz.: hard-boiled white of egg; very red, salted tongue; gherkins; mushrooms, and trufflest

1317- C6TELETTES A LA SlgVIQNE

Have ready a preparation of mushroom and artichokebottom croquettes, in the proportion of one heaped tablespoonful for each cutlet.

Fry the cutlets in butter, on one side only. Garnish the fried side of each, dome-fashion, with the above preparation; treat them a I'anglaise, and sprinkle them with melted butter.

Put them in the oven to complete their cooking, and, at the same time, to colour their coating of egg and bread-crumbs.

Dish in the form of a crown.

1318- COTELETTES A LA SUEDOISE

Place the cutlets on a dish, and drop thereon some minced onions and shallots, bits of parsley stalks, thyme and bay. Sprinkle them with the juice of a lemon and a few drops of oil, and leave them to marinade for thirty minutes, turning them over the while, from time to time.

This done, dry them; dip them in melted butter, sprinkle them with bread-crumbs, and grill them.

Dish them in the form of a crown, and garnish the centre of the dish with the following, which may also be sent separately: one-half lb. of peeled and finely-sliced apples, quickly stewed to a pur^e with the third of a wineglassful of white wine. When about to serve, add to this pur^e two and onehalf oz. of finely-grated horse-radish, or the latter grated and afterwards finely chopped.

1319- c6telettes en belle vue

Proceed after one of the recipes given for veal cutlets and grenadins "en Belle Vue."

1320- cotelettes en chaudfroid

Cut some very regular cutlets from a neck of mutton or lamb, which should have been trimmed as explained, braised, and left to cook in its braising-liquor. Clear all grease from the latter; strain it; reduce it, and add to it a brown chaudfroid sauce (No. 34).

Dip the cutlets in the sauce when it is almost cold; set them on a tray; deck the kernel of meat in each with a fine slice

RELEVts AND ENTRIES 439

of truffle, and sprinkle with cold, melted aspic. When the sauce has set well, pass the point of a small knife round the cutlets, with the view of removing the superfluous sauce; and either dish them round a vegetable salad, cohered and moulded, or simply dish them in the form of a circle and place a pyramid of cohered, vegetable salad in their midst.

132 1- NOISETTES DE MOUTON

Mutton noisettes, and especially those of lamb, may be classed among the choicest of entries. They are cut from either the fillet or the neck; but, in the latter case, only the first six or seven ribs are used.

Noisettes are grilled or sauted, and all the recipes given for Tournedos (Nos. 1077 to 1139) and for cutlets, may be applied to them.

1322- MINION FILLETS

The minion fillets of mutton or lamb consist of the two muscles which lie under the saddle. Their mode of preparation changes according to their size. Thus, if they are small, they are served whole, after having been trimmed, sometimes larded; and sauted.

If they are large, they are divided into two or three parts, cut laterally and aslant; they are flattened, trimmed to the shape of ellipses, seasoned, dipped in melted butter, sprinkled with fine bread-crumbs, and finally, gently grilled.

Minion fillets of beef, obtained from the narrow extremity or head of the fillet, are also used occasionally; and these are generally flattened, dipped in butter and fine bread-crumbs, and grilled.

These fillets are served chiefly with vegetable purees or with macedoines of fresh vegetables.

The sauces best suited to them are the B^arnaise and the Robert Escoffier.

1323- SHEEP'S TONGUES

Salted or fresh sheep's tongues make an excellent luncheon entree.

They are cooked after the manner of ox and calf's tongues, due allowance being made for the difference of size.

The various garnishes given for ox and calf's tongues may also be used in this case.

1324- SHEEP'S TROTTERS

Sheep's trotters, as they reach us from the purveyor, should first be well singed over spirits of wine, and then rubbed with a clean piece of linen. The little tuft of hair in the cleft of the hoof is next removed, the hoof itself is suppressed, and the trotters are split open lengthwise and boned. Sheep's trotters are cooked like calf's feet, in the special court-bouillon or blanc, given under No. 167.

132s- FRITOT OF SHEEP'S TROTTERS

Fifteen minutes before frying them, put the sheep's trotters into a receptacle with lemon juice, a few drops of oil and some chopped parsley; keeping the quantity of these ingredients in proportion to the number of trotters. Be careful to toss the latter from time to time in the marinade.

A few moments before serving, dip the half-trotters into batter (No. 232) and plunge them into an abundant and hot frying-medium.

Drain them when the batter is nicely dry and golden; and dish on a napkin with a border of very green fried parsley.

Serve a tomato sauce separately.

1326- PIEDS DE MOUTON POULETTE

For this dish the trotters should, as far as possible, be freshly cooked. For twenty trotters prepare two-thirds of a pint of poulette sauce; add the trotters thereto, well drained; toss them in the sauce, and dish them in a timbale with a sprinkling of chopped parsley.

1327- PIEDS DE MOUTON ROUENNAISE

Instead of cooking the sheep's trotters in a blanc, braise them; add a little Madeira to their braising-liquor, and cook them thoroughly.

Prepare a forcemeat, consisting of one and one-half lbs. of very fine sausage-meat; three oz. of chopped onions, cooked in butter without colouration, and a large pinch of parsley.

When the trotters are cooked, transfer them to a dish; almost entirely reduce their braising-liquor; add to this two liqueur-glassfuls of burnt brandy, for each ten trotters, and add this reduced braising-liquor to the forcemeat. Cut ten rectangles six inches long by four inches wide out of pig's caul.

Spread a tablespoonf ul of forcemeat over each; set two trotters on the forcemeat of each rectangle; cover up with forcemeat, and draw the ends of the caul together in suchwise as to enclose the whole.

Sprinkle with bread-crumbs and melted butter; grill gently, and serve.

RELEVES AND ENTREES 441

1328- PIEDS DE MOUTON TYROLIENNE

Cook a fair-sized chopped onion in butter, together with three peeled, pressed, and roughly-chopped tomatoes. Season with salt and pepper; add a pinch of chopped parsley, a little crushed garlic, one-sixth of a pint of Poivrade sauce, and twenty freshly-cooked and well-drained sheep's trotters.

Simmer for ten minutes and dish in a timbale.

1329- MUTTON KIDNEYS

Mutton kidneys are either grilled or sauted. When they are to be grilled, first remove the fine skin enveloping them, cut them in halves, without completely severing them on their concave side, and impale them on a small skewer, with the view of keeping them open during the grilling operation. Before grilling they may or may not be dipped in melted butter and rolled in bread-crumb.

When they are to be sauted, clear the kidneys, as before, of the thin skin which envelops them; cut them into halves, and then into slices one-quarter in. thick.

Kidneys, of what kind soever, should be cooked very quickly, otherwise they harden. After having seasoned them, put them into very hot butter, and toss them over a fierce fire in order to stiffen them. This done, drain them; and let them stand for a few minutes, that they may exude the blood they contain, which sometimes has a distinct ammoniacal smell.

Meanwhile, swill the utensil in which they have been sauted, and finish the sauce, to which they are added when dishing up. Never let the kidneys boil in the sauce, for they would immediately harden.

1330- ROQNONS SAUTI&S BERCY

Slice, season, and quickly toss the mutton kidneys in butter, and drain them.

For six kidneys put one tablespoonful of finely-chopped shallots into the saucepan, and just heat it. Moisten with onesixth of a pint of white wine; reduce to half; add two tablespoonfuls of melted meat glaze, and a few drops of lemonjuice, and put the kidneys in this sauce. Add two and onehalf oz. of butter, cut into small pieces; melt this on the corner of the stove, tossing and rolling the pan the while; dish in a timbale, and sprinkle a pinch of chopped parsley over the kidneys.

«33 1- ROQNONS SAUTES BORDELAISE

Fry the mutton kidneys, and drain them as above.

Put into the saucepan one-third of a pint of Bordelaise sauce combined with poached dice of marrow, a pinch of chopped parsley, and three oz. of sliced c^pes, tossed in butter and oil and well drained.

Return the kidneys to the saucepan; toss them in the sauce, and dish in a timbale. 1332- ROQNONS SAUTES CARVALHO

Fry the skinned, halved and seasoned mutton kidneys in butter, and dish them, each on a small crouton of bread-crumb, cut to the shape of a cock's comb and fried in butter. On each half-kidney, set a small cooked mushroom and a slice of truffle.

Swill the saucepan with Madeira; add a little half-glaze; put in a small quantity of butter, away from the fire, and pour this sauce over the kidneys.

1333- ROQNONS SAUTES AU CHAMPAGNE

Remove the outer skin from the mutton kidneys; cut them in two lengthwise; season them; fry them quickly in butter, and dish in a timbale.

Swill the saucepan with one-half pint of champagne per six kidneys; reduce almost entirely; add two tablespoonfuls of melted meat glaze; add a small quantity of butter, and pour this sauce over the kidneys^.

N.B. - The preparation of kidneys sauted with wine always follows the same principle; that is to say, the saucepan in which the kidneys have cooked is always swilled with a quantity of wine, in proportion to the number of kidneys; a proportionate amount of meat glaze is then added, and after the sauce has been slightly buttered, the kidneys are tossed in it.

,334_ROaNONS SAUTES HONQROISE

Remove the outer skin from the mutton kidneys; cut them into halves; slice and season them; fry them in butter, and drain them.

In the saucepan that has served in the cooking of the kidneys, fry a chopped onion with butter, and add thereto a pinch of paprika.

Moisten with a tablespoonful of cream, and reduce; add one-sixth of a pint of velout6, boil for a moment, and rub through tammy.

Heat this sauce; put the kidneys into it, toss them for a minute, so as to heat without boiling them, and dish in a timbale. 1335- ROQNONS SAUTES CHASSEUR

Quickly fry the sliced mutton kidneys in butter and drain them.

RELEVES AND ENTREES 443

Swill the saucepan with white wine and almost entirely reduce; add one-third of a pint of Chausseur sauce for each six kidneys; put the kidneys in this sauce, toss them for an instant; dish them in a timbale, and sprinkle with a pinch of chopped parsley.

1336- ROQNONS 5AUTES A L'INDIENNE

For six mutton kidneys: fry a chopped onion in butter and add a large pinch of curry thereto. Moisten with one-sixth pint of velout^; cook for a few minutes, and rub through tammy.

Clear the kidneys of their outer skin; slice and season them, and fry them quickly in butter. Put them into the sauce; dish them in a timbale, and serve some rice " k I'lndienne " separately.

« 337- ROQNONS SAUTES A LA TURBIQO

Clear the mutton kidneys of their outer skin and cut them in halves; season them; fry them quickly in butter, and dish them in a circle in a timbale.

In their midst set a garnish of small, cooked mushrooms, and grilled chipolata sausages; and pour thereon a highly-seasoned, tomat^d half-glaze sauce.

1338- CROUTE AUX ROQNONS

Cut some crusts two and one-half in. in diameter and one and one-third in. thick, from a tin-loaf, and allow one for each person. Remove the crumb from their inside, leaving only a slight thickness at the bottom; butter them, and dry them in the oven.

Garnish these crusts with mutton kidneys sauted with mushrooms, and combined with small, ordinary forcemeat quenelles, and slices of truffle.

Dish on a napkin, and serve very hot.

1339- TURBAN DE ROQNONS A LA PIEMONTAISE

Garnish a border or a Savarin-mould with " rizotto k la Pi^montaise, ' ' press the latter lightly into the utensil, and keep the mould hot.

Clear the mutton kidneys of their outer skin; cut them into halves; season them, and fry them quickly in butter.

Turn out on a round dish, set the half-kidneys in a circle on the " Turban," alternating them with fine slices of truffle, and pour a tomat^d half-glaze sauce, flavoured with truffle essence, in the middle.

1340- ROQNONS A LA BROCHETTE

Cut the mutton kidneys into halves, as explained, without dividing them; impale them two or four at a time, on a skewer; season them, and grill them in a somewhat fierce oven. Set them, with the skewers withdrawn, upon a hot dish, and put into the cavity of each a piece of softened, Maitre-d'hotel butter, the size of a hazel nut.

1341- ROQNONS BROCHETTE A L'ESPAQNOLE

Prepare the mutton kidneys as above.

Grill the same quantity of small, pressed and seasoned halftomatoes. Garnish these tomatoes with a piece, the size of a walnut, of Maitre-d'hotel butter, combined with two-thirds oz. of chopped capsicum per three oz. of butter. Dish these tomatoes in a circle; set a kidney on each, and surround with a border consisting of rings of onion, seasoned, dredged and crisply fried in oil.

1342- ROQNONS BROCHETTE AU VERT PRE

Prepare the mutton kidneys exactly as explained under the first of this kind of recipes, and surround them with small heaps of straw potatoes and bunches of very green parsley.

1343- BROCHETTES DE ROQNONS

Remove the outer skin from the mutton kidneys, and cut them into roundels one-third in. thick. Season these roundels and stiffen them in butter over a very fierce fire. Impale them on skewers, alternating them with squares of blanched lean bacon and slices of sauted mushrooms. Sprinkle with melted butter and raspings, and grill.

These brochettes are generally served as they stand.

Various Preparations of Mutton. 1344- CASSOULET

(i) Set one quart of haricot beans to cook with two quarts of water, one-third oz. of salt, one carrot, one onion stuck with a clove, one faggot, six garlic cloves, and two-thirds lb. of fresh pork rind, blanched and strung together. Boil; skim; cover, and cook gently for one hour. At the end of this time, add two-thirds lb. of breast of pork, and a sausage with garlic, of the same weight as the pork. Salt the beans very moderately, allowing for the reduction which they have ultimately to undergo.

Complete the cooking of the whole gently.

(2) Fry gently in lard one lb. of shoulder, and the same weight of breast, of mutton; both cut into pieces one and onehalf oz. in weight.

This done, drain away half the grease; add two chopped

RELEVES AND ENTREES 445

onions and two crushed cloves of garlic, and fry again until the onions have acquired a slight colour. Now pour in onesixth pint of good tomato purde; moisten the meat, enough to cover, with the cooking-liquor of haricot beans, and cook gently in the oven for one and one-half hours at least.

(3) Garnish the bottom and sides of some cocottes or deep dishes with bacon rind; fill these with alternate layers of the pieces of mutton, the beans, the bacon cut into dice, and the sausage cut into roundels.

Sprinkle the surface with raspings, and set the gratin to form in a moderate oven for one hour; taking care to baste from time to time with some reserved haricot-beans cookingliquor.

1345- CURRIE A L'INDIENNE

Cut two lbs. of lean mutton into cubes of one and one-third in. side, and fry these in three oz. of lard, with one chopped onion, salt, and a pinch of powdered curry. When the meat is frizzled and the onions begin to colour, sprinkle with one and one-third oz. of flour; cook the latter a while; moisten with one and one-third pints of water or stock; boil, stirring the while, so as to dissolve the roux, and then cook gently in the oven for one and one-half hours. When about to serve, clear of all grease and dish in a timbale.

Send a timbale of rice k I'indienne separately.

1346- DAUBE A L'AVIQNONNAISE

Bone a medium-sized leg of mutton, and cut the meat into squares, three oz. in weight. Lard each square with a large, seasoned strip of bacon, inserted with the grain of the meat. Put the pieces into a daubiere with a sliced half-carrot and onion, three cloves of garlic, a little thyme, bay, and parsley stalks. Moisten with one and one-third pints of good, red wine and four tablespoonfuls of oil, and marinade in the cool for two hours.

Prepare: - (i) Three chopped onions mixed with two crushed garlic cloves; (2) one-half lb. of lean bacon, cut into dice and blanched; (3) one-half lb. of fresh, bacon rind, blanched and cut into squares of one in. side; (4) a large bunch of parsley, containing a small piece of dry, orange peel. Garnish the bottom and sides of a daubiere with thin slices of bacon; set the pieces of mutton in layers inside, and alternate them with layers of onion, bacon and bacon rind; sprinkle a pinch of powdered thyme and bay on each layer of meat, Put the faggot in the middle. Moisten with the marinade, strained through a sieve, and one-fifth pint of brown stock; cover with slices of bacon; close the daubiere, and seal down the lid by means of a thread of soft paste, in order that the steam may be concentrated inside.

Boil on the side of the stove; put the daubiere in an oven of regular heat (a baker's oven if possible) that the cooking process may be gentle and steady, and cook for five hours.

When about to serve, uncover the daubihe; remove the overlying slices of bacon; clear of grease; remove the faggot, and dish the daubiere on a napkin.

N.B. - According to the household method, the " Daube " is served in the daubiere itself; but, subject to the demands of the service and in order that the preparation may keep its bucolic character, it may be served in small earthenware utensils.

1347- DAUBE FROIDE

Cold Daube constitutes an excellent luncheon dish. All that is needed is to put what is left into a small daubiere, where, as a result of the binding properties of the pork rinds, it will set in a mass.

When about to serve, turn out on a round dish; surround with very light, chopped jelly; and carve into very thin slices.

1348- EMINCES ET HACHIS

An unalterable principle governs the preparation of emincds and hashes, which is that the meats constituting these dishes should never boil if it be desired that they be not hard.

They should, therefore, only be heated in their accompanying garnish or sauce, and in the case of eminc^s, cut as finely as possible.

For the various recipes under this head, see the Chapter on Beef. (Nos. 1175, 1178 and 1179.)

1349- HARICOT DE MOUTON

Heat three oz. of lard in a sautepan. Put therein one-half lb. of lean bacon, cut into dice and blanched, and twenty small onions. When the bacon is frizzled and the onions have acquired a good colour, drain both on a dish. In the same fat, fry three lbs. of breast, neck and shoulder of mutton, all three being cut into pieces weighing about three oz. Keep the meat in the fat until each piece of it has acquired a frizzled coat.

Drain away half of the grease; add three crushed cloves of garlic; dust with two tablespoonf uls of flour, and cook the latter, stirring the while.

Moisten with one quart of water; season with one-third oz.

RELEVES AND ENTREES 447

of salt and a pinch of pepper; boil and stir; add a faggot, and cook in the oven for thirty minutes.

This done, transfer the pieces to another saucepan; add the bacon and the onions and a quart of half-cooked haricot beans; strain the sauce over the whole, and complete the cooking in the oven for one hour.

Dish in a timbale or in small cocottes.

1350- IRISH STEW

Cut two lbs. of boned breast and shoulder of mutton into pieces, as above.

Slice two lbs. of potatoes and chop four medium-sized onions.

Take a saucepan just large enough to hold these ingredients and the moistening; line the bottom of the utensil with a layer of the pieces of meat, and season the latter with salt and pepper. Upon the meat spread a litter of sliced potatoes and chopped onions; repeat the operation, again and again, until all the ingredients are used up, and remember to place a faggot in the middle.

Moisten with one and one-third pint of water, and cook gently in the oven for one and one-half hours. The potatoes in this preparation answer the double purpose of garnish and leason.

Dish in a timbale and serve boiling.

1351- MOUSSAKA

(i) Cut six fine egg-plants into halves, lengthwise; cisel the pulp somewhat deeply with the point of a small knife, and fry them until their pulp may be easily removed. Do this with a spoon, and put the pulp aside with the skins of the egg-plants.

(2) Peel two fair-sized egg-plants; cut them into roundels one-third in. thick; season them, dredge them; fry them in oil, and put them aside.

(3) Chop up the pulp withdrawn from the egg-plants, and put it into a basin with one and one-half lbs. of very lean, cooked mutton, chopped or cut into very small dice; two tablespoonfuls of very finely-chopped onion, fried in butter; a pinch of parsley; a piece of crushed garlic as large as a pea; three oz. of roughly-chopped raw mushrooms, fried in butter; two eggs; two tablespoonfuls of cold Espagnole sauce; one tablespoonful of tomato pur^e; a pinch of salt, and another of pepper. Mix the whole well.

(4) Butter a low-bordered quart Charlotte mould; line it all over with the egg-plant skins, and lay these black side upper most. Garnish the bottom of the mould with a layer of mincemeat, one in, thick; on this layer place a few fried roundels of egg-plant, and continue thus with alternate layers of mince and egg-plant. Cover the last layer of mince-meat with the remains of the egg-plant skins, and cook in a bain-marie for one hour.

When taking the mould out of the oven, let it stand for five minutes in order that the ingredients may settle; turn out on a round dish, and besprinkle the surface of the Moussaka with chopped parsley.

1352- MUTTON PUDDING

Follow the directions given under beefsteak pudding (No. 1 1 70) exactly. The preparation is just the same, but for the substitution of mutton for the beef.

•353- NAVARIN PRINTANIER

Heat four oz. of clarified fat in a saut^pan, and put into it four lbs. of breast, neck and shoulder of mutton; all three cut into pieces weighing two and one-half oz. Fry over a very brisk fire; season with one-third oz. of salt, a pinch of ground pepper, and another of sugar.

The sugar settles slowly on the bottom of the saut^pan, where it turns to caramel; it is then dissolved by the moistening, and thus gives the sauce the required colour.

When the meat is well fried, remove almost all the fat; sprinkle with one and one-half oz. of flour; cook the latter for a few minutes, and moisten with one and one-half quarts of water or stock.

Boil, stirring the while, and add two-thirds lb. of fresh concassed tomatoes or one-fifth pint of tomato pur^e; one crushed clove of garlic, and a large faggot. Cover and cook in the oven for one hour.

This done, transfer the pieces of mutton, one by one, to another saucepan with twenty small, new onions; twenty pieces of new trimmed carrots; twenty pieces of new turnips, cut to the shape of long olives and tossed with butter in a frying-pan; twenty small, new potatoes, cut into two, and trimmed, or whole; one-sixth pint of fresh peas, and an equal quantity of raw French beans, cut into lozenges. Strain the sauce over the whole; set to boil, and continue cooking slowly in the oven for one hour; taking care from time to time to baste the overlying vegetables with sauce.

Dish in a timbale and serve very hot.

N.B. - When put into the sauce, the vegetables cook much less quickly than in boiling water. In the Navarin, moreover,

RELEVES AND ENTREES 449

they are cooked by means of gradual penetration; thus, by slackening the cooking speed of the Navarin, they are cooked to the required extent.

1354- PILAW DE MOUTON A LA TURQUE

Mutton Pilaff is, in fact, nothing but a Navarin in which the tomatoes dominate the other ingredients; it is flavoured with ginger or saffron, according to circumstances, and the usual vegetables are replaced by rice. Prepared in this way, it does not lend itself very well to the exigencies of a restaurant service.

More often, therefore, it is treated like curried mutton; but, instead of serving it with rice a I'lndienne, it is dished in the midst of a pilaff-rice border. Sometimes, too, the rice is served separately, after the manner of a curry dish.

HOUSE LAMB.

I3S5- BARON (OR PAIR OF HIND-QUARTERS) OF LAMB

•356- DOUBLE (OR PAIR OF LEGS) OF LAMB

¦357- QUARTER OF LAMB

1358- FILLET OF LAMB

I3S9- SADDLE AND NECK OF LAMB

Large joints of lamb for Relevds are cut like those of mutton.

One joint, however, should be added, which is " The Haunch"; and this consists of one leg and half the loin attached.

Large joints of house lamb should be poeled or roasted. Their most suitable adjunct is either their own stock, or a thickened, highly seasoned and clear gravy.

House Lamb Relev^s are chiefly garnished with early-season or new vegetables; but all the garnishes given under Mutton Relev^s may also be served with them, provided the difference in size be taken into account. In addition to these garnishes, saddle of lamb admits of all the preparations given under saddle of veal (Nos. 1181 to 1191).

1360- SELLE D'AQNEAU DE LAIT EDOUARD VII.

Completely bone the saddle from underneath, in suchwise as to leave the skin intact; season it inside, and place in the middle a fine foie gras, studded with truflfles and marinaded in Marsala.

Reconstruct the saddle, and wrap it tightly in a piece of muslin; put it in a saucepan just large enough to hold it, on a litter of pieces of bacon rind, cleared of all fat and blanched,

G G Moisten, enough to cover, with the braising-Hquor of a cushion of veal; add thereto the Marsala used in marinading the foie gras, and poach for about forty-five minutes.

Before withdrawing the saddle, make sure that the foie gras is sufficiently cooked. Remove the muslin, and put the saddle in an oval terrine a pdte just large enough to hold it. Strain the cooking-liquor over it, without clearing the former of grease, and set it to cool.

When the saddle is quite cold, carefully clear away the grease that lies upon it, first by means of a spoon and then by means of boiling water. Serve it very cold, in the terrine as it stands.

1361- CARRE D'AGNEAU BEAUCAIRE

Having trimmed the neck of lamb, as explained, brown it in butter; surround it with eight small, Provence half-artichokes, and cook gently in the oven. The artichokes in question have no chokes and are very tender.

Meanwhile, peel, press, concass and season four or five tomatoes, and fry them in butter. When they are ready, add a large pinch of chopped tarragon to them.

Dish the tomatoes; set the neck upon them, and surround it with the stewed half-artichokes.

1362- CARRE D'AGNEAU EN COCOTTE A LA BONNE FEMME

Fry a shortened and well-trimmed neck of lamb, in butter.

This done, transfer it to an oval cocotte with ten small onions browned in butter, and two medium-sized potatoes, cut into large dice, shaped like garlic cloves, and blanched. Sprinkle the whole with melted butter and cook gently in the oven.

Serve the preparation as it stands, in the cocotte, placing the latter on a folded napkin.

•363- CARRE D'AGNEAU A LA BOULANGERE

Fry the neck of lamb with butter, in an earthenware dish, and surround it with sliced onions, tossed in butter, and sliced potatoes; both of which vegetables should be in quantities in proportion to the size of the piece of meat. The " k la Boulang^re " procedure is always the same, and was explained under No. 1307, but allowances should always be made for the particular size and tenderness of the piece.

1364- CARRE D'AGNEAU GRILLE

Having shortened and well trimmed the neck, season it; sprinkle it with melted butter, and grill it gently.

RELEVES AND ENTREES 451

When it is almost cooked, sprinkle it again with melted butter and bread-crumbs, and let it acquire a golden colour while completely cooking it.

Serve very hot with mint sauce and a suitable garnish.

1365- CARRE D'AQNEAU MIREILLE

Prepare some Anna potatoes (No. 2203) in an oval earthenware dish, and add a third of the quantity of potatoes of raw, minced artichoke-bottoms.

When the potatoes are three-parts cooked, stiffen the neck in butter; place it on the potatoes, and complete the cooking of the two, basting often the while with melted butter.

Send the preparation to the table on the dish that has served in the cooking process.

1366- CARRE D'AQNEAU PRINTANIER

Prepare the following garnish: eight small onions, halfcooked in butter; ten carrots of the size and shape of garlic cloves, cooked in consomm^ and glazed; and ten turnips of the same shape and size, similarly treated.

Put these vegetables into a cocotte with three tablespoonfuls of fresh peas; the same quantity of raw, French beans, cut into lozenge form; two or three tablespoonfuls of good and very clear stock, and complete the cooking of the whole.

Meanwhile, poele the neck of lamb, which should have been shortened and trimmed in the usual way. Dish the neck of lamb and serve the vegetables in the cocotte.

1367- CARRE D'AQNEAU SOUBISE

Having shortened and trimmed the neck of lamb, stiffen it in butter; surround it with one-half lb. of finely-minced and well-blanched onions, and complete the cooking of both by stewing.

This done, transfer the neck to a dish and keep it hot. Add one-quarter pint of boiling Bechamel sauce to the onions, and rub them quickly through tammy or a fine sieve. Heat this Soubise; finish it with one and one-half oz. of butter, and pour it over the neck.

Border the dish with a thread of rather light meat glaze, and serve.

1368- CARR6 D'AQNEAU A LA T05CANE

Shorten the neck of lamb; suppress the cartilaginous portions and stiffen it in butter. Garnish the bottom of an oval earthenware dish, of the same size as the neck, with a layer of Anna potatoes (No. 2203). Set the neck on this layer, and cover it

G G 2 over with a second layer of the same potato preparation. Sprinkle with grated Parmesan; cook in the oven as for Anna potatoes, and take care that the top be so well set as to prevent any of the juices of the joint from exuding and depositing on the bottom of the dish.

Serve the dish as it stands.

1369- LEG AND SHOULDER OF LAMB

All the recipes given under Haunch and Double (pair of legs), may be applied to the legs and shoulders of house lamb.

The shoulders are often grilled, the operation being effected over a moderate lire after the joints have been incised latticefashion, and the same applies to the breast. The " k la Boulangere " treatment (No. 1307) admirably suits the legs and shoulders of house lamb.

1370- CUTLETS

According to custom, lamb cutlets are usually served like " Noisettes," i.e., two are allowed for each person.

As a rule, when they are to be grilled, they are previously dipped in melted butter and sprinkled with fine bread-crumbs.

When they are to be sauted they are treated a I'anglaise (egg and bread-crumbs) except when, subject to their mode of preparation, they have to be served plain, or stuffed.

1371- c6telettes d'aqneau de lait a la buloz

Prepare: - (i) a rizotto (No. 2238) with truffles, in proportion to the number of cutlets; (2) some very reduced Bechamel sauce, combined with one-half oz. of grated Parmesan per onefifth pint of the sauce, and allowing one small tablespoonful of it for each cutlet.

Half-grill the cutlets; dry them, and cover them, on both sides, with the reduced sauce. As soon as the cutlets have received their coat of sauce, dip them, one by one, into beaten egg (anglaise); roll them in very fine bread-crumbs mixed with grated Parmesan. Thoroughly press this coating of breadcrumbs with the flat of a knife, that it may adhere well to the egg and produce a crust at the close of the operation. This done, set the cutlets in a saut^pan of very hot, clarified butter, and brown them on both sides.

Dish the rizotto in a very even layer; set the cutlets in a circle on the rice, and fix a frill to the bone of each.

1372- COTELETTES D'AQNEAU DE LAIT MAR^CHALE

Treat the cutlets a I'anglaise, and cook them in clarified butter.

Dish them in a circle, with a fine slice of truffle upon each;

RELEVES AND ENTREES 453

and, in their midst, set a nice iieap of asparagus-heads cohered with butter.

•373- COTELETTES D'AQNEAU DE LAIT

MILANAISE

Treat the cutlets a I'anglaise, but add to the bread-crumbs the quarter of their weight of grated Parmesan.

Cook the cutlets in clarified butter. Dish them in a circle, and, in their midst, arrange a garnish "k la milanaise " (see C6te de Vau k la Milanaise," No. 1258.)

1374- COTELETTES D'AQNEAU DE LAIT

MORLAND

Slightly flatten the cutlets, dip them in beaten egg, and roll them in finely-chopped truffle, which in this case answers the purpose of bread-crumbs. Press the truffle with the flat of a knife, that it may thoroughly combine with the egg, and cook the cutlets in clarified butter. Dish them in a circle; garnish the centre of the dish with a mushroom pur^e (No. 2059), ^"d surround the cutlets with a thread of buttered meat glaze.

1375- COTELETTES D'AQNEAU DE LAIT

NAVARRAISE

For twelve cutlets, make a preparation consisting of four oz. of ham, four oz. of cooked mushrooms, and one-half oz. of chopped, red capsicums; the whole being cohered by means of a very reduced Bechamel sauce, flavoured with truffle essence.

Grill the cutlets on one side only, and garnish them on their grilled side with a tablespoonful of the above preparation, which should be shaped like a dome upon them.

Set the cutlets upon a tray as soon as they are garnished; sprinkle the surface of the preparation, covering them with grated cheese and melted butter, and place them in the oven, that their cooking may be completed and the gratin formed. Meanwhile, toss twelve seasoned half-tomatoes in oil. Dish these tomatoes in a circle; set a cutlet upon each, and border with a thread of tomato sauce.

1376- COTELETTES D'AQNEAU DE LAIT

NELSON

Grill the cutlets, and, at the same time, prepare as many bread-crumb croutons as there a,re cutlets, and of exactly the same shape as the latter. Fry the croutons in butter, and coat them with foie-gras purde.

Place a grilled cutlet on each coated crouton, and a slice of truffle on the kernel of each cutlet. Now, by means of a piping-bag, fitted with an even pipe, cover the cutlets with some souffld au Parmesan (No. 2295A); dish them in a circle, and put them in the oven for five minutes, that the souffle may poach.

After withdrawing them from the oven, garnish the centre of the dish with a heap of asparagus-heads, cohered with butter.

1377- COTE LETTES D'AQNEAU DE LAIT FARCIES A LA PERIQUEUX

Cook the cutlets in butter on one side only, and cool them under slight pressure.

Garnish the cooked side of each with a tablespoonful of forcemeat with butter (No. 193), which should have received a copious addition of chopped truffles. Shape this forcemeat dome-fashion, by means of the flat of a small knife, dipped in tepid water, and set the cutlets, one by one, on a tray. Now put them in the front of the oven for seven or eight minutes that the forcemeat may be poached.

Dish them in a circle, and pour a P^rigueux sauce in their midst.

1378- EPIC RAMMES D'AQNEAU

A lamb "epigram" consists of a cutlet, and a piece of braised breast, cooled under slight pressure and cut to the shape of a heart of the same size as the cutlets. The cutlets and the pieces of breast must be treated a I'anglaise, and sauted or grilled according to circumstance.

Epigrams should be dished in a circle, the cutlets and the pieces being alternated.

They are usually garnished with braised chicory, or niacedoines of early-season vegetables.

1379- RIS D'AQNEAU

Lamb sweetbreads are, according to circumstances, either used as the principal constituent of various preparations, or they answer the purpose of a garnish.

Due allowance having been made for their particular size, they may be treated after the same manner as veal sweetbreads; that is to say, once they have been cleared of blood, they are blanched and braised according to the nature of the selected mode of preparation.

If they are to form part of a large garnish, cohered by means of a brown sauce, they are braised brown and glazed. If they stand as an adjunct to poached fowl, they may be either studded or left plain, and braised white.

Apart from their two uses as principal and garnishing con

RELEVES AND ENTREES 455

stituents, the undermentioned methods of preparation, explained in the various preceding series, may be applied to them; viz.: - Attereaux, Brochettes, Croustades, Pate chaud, Vol au vent, &c.

1380- SAUTE D'AQNEAU PRINTANIER

Prepare the following garnish: - Twenty new carrots, cut to the shape of large olives, cooked in consomm6 and glazed; twenty pieces of turnip, similarly treated; fifteen small, new onions, cooked in butter; twenty very small new potatoes, cooked in butter (or a I'anglaise if desired); three tablespoonfuls of peas; the same quantity of French beans cut into lozengeform, and an equal quantity of small flageolet beans. The three last vegetables should be cooked d I'anglaise, and kept rather firm.

Cut two lbs. of shoulder and breast of lamb into pieces weighing two oz., and completely cook them in butter without any moistening.

This done, transfer them to a dish. Swill the saucepan with three tablespoonfuls of water; add five tablespoonfuls of pale meat glaze; heat without boiling, and finish with two and onehalf oz. of butter.

Put the pieces of lamb and the vegetables into this sauce, and gently rock the saucepan, that all the ingredients may partake of the sauce.

Serve in a hot timbale.

1381- PILAW D'AQNEAU

Proceed exactly as explained under " Pilaw de Mouton " (No. 1354), only bear in mind that the time allowed for cooking should be proportionately shortened in view of the greater tenderness of lamb's meat.

1382- CURRIE D'AQNEAU

Proceed as for "Currie de Mouton," after duly allowing, as above, for the greater tenderness of the meat. PORK

Releves and Entrees.

1383- FRESH LEG OF PORK 1384- FRESH PORK FILLETS 1385- FRESH NECK OF PORK

Relev^s of fresh pork are only served at family and bourgeois meals. They are always roasts and allow of all the dry or fresh vegetable garnishes, as well as the various vegetable purees, and the pastes, such as macaroni, noodles, polenta, gnochi, &c. I shall, therefore, give only a few recipes, and shall select Fresh Neck of Pork as the typical joint.

1386- FRESH NECK OF PORK A LA CHOUCROCJTE

Roast the neck of pork and withdraw it from the oven a few minutes before it is done.

Keep it in the stove for an hour, that its cooking may be completed gently; but remember, that if a stove is not available, the cooking of the piece should be well finished in the oven; for pork is indigestible when it is not thoroughly well cooked.

Meanwhile, prepare a garnish of sauerkraut (No. 2097), and, during the last hour of its cooking, sprinkle it frequently with the fat of the neck.

Dish the neck; clear the sauerkraut of any superfluous fat, and set it round the piece of meat in spoonfuls; slightly pressing it in so doing.

I387^FRESH NECK OF PORK WITH BRUSSELS SPROUTS

Roast the neck of pork. Three-parts cook the Brussels sprouts; completely drain them, and put them round the piece of meat, that they may complete their cooking in its gravy and fat, being frequently basted the while.

For this preparation it is well to roast the neck in an earthenware dish, in which it may be served with its garnish - a much better plan than that of transferring it to another dish.

1388- FRESH NECK OF PORK WITH RED CABBAGE A LA FLAMANDE

Roast the neck of pork; dish it and surround it with a garnish of red cabbages, prepared a la Flamande (No. 2097).

RELEVES AND ENTREES 457

Sprinkle the garnish of vegetables with the gravy of the joint, three-parts cleared of grease.

1389- FRESH NECK OF PORK WITH STEWED APPLES

Roast the neck of pork and see that it is well done.

Meanwhile, peel and mince one lb. of apples; put them in a saucepan with one oz. of sugar and a few tablespoonfuls of water; seal the lid of the saucepan well down, so as to concentrate the steam inside, and cook quickly. When about to serve, thoroughly work the apple pur6e with a wire whisk, in order to smooth it. Dish the neck with its gravy, three-parts cleared of grease, and serve the apple pur6e separately in a timbale.

i39o^FRESH NECK OF PORK A LA SOISSONNAISE

Roast the neck on a dish that may be sent to the table.

When it is three-parts done, set one quart of cooked and well-drained haricot beans round it, and complete the cooking gently. Serve the dish as it stands.

1391- BOILED SALTED PORK A L'ANQLAISE

Cook plainly in water three lbs. of shoulder, breast, or gammon of bacon, and add thereto a garnish of vegetables as for boiled beef, and six parsnips.

Serve the vegetables round the piece of meat, and send a pease-pudding (prepared as directed below) separately.

Pease-pudding: put one lb. of a pur^e of yellow or green, split peas into a basin, and mix therewith three oz. of melted or softened butter, three eggs, a pinch of salt, another of pepper, and a little nutmeg. Pour this puree into a pudding basin, and poach it in steam or in a bain-marie.

This preparation may also be put into a buttered and flourdusted napkin; in which case, close the napkin up purse-fashion, tying it up securely with string, and cook the pudding in the same stewpan with the pork. This procedure is simpler than the first and quite as good.

Very often a pur^e prepared from split, yellow or green peas, is used instead of the pudding given above.

1392- PORK PIE

Completely line the bottom and sides of a pie-dish with thin slices of raw ham, and prepare, for a medium-sized dish: - (i) one and one-half lbs. of fresh pork in collops, seasoned with salt and pepper, and sprinkle with two tablespoonfuls of dry Puxelles (No. 223), a pinch of parsley and another of chopped sage; (2) one and one-half lbs. of raw, sliced potatoes, and one large, chopped onion.

Garnish the bottom of the dish with a litter of collops; cover with potatoes and onions; spread another litter of collops, and begin again in the same order. Add one-quarter pint of water; cover with a layer of fine paste or puff-paste trimmings, which should be well sealed down round the edges; gild with beaten egg; streak the paste with the prongs of a fork; make a slit in the centre of the covering of paste for the escape of steam, and bake in a moderate oven for about two hours.

Fresh-pork Cutlets.

1393- PRESH- PORK CUTLET5 A LA CHARCUTIERE

Season the cutlets; dip them in melted butter, and sprinkle them with fine raspings. Grill them gently, and baste them from time to time.

Dish them in a circle; pour a Charcuti^re sauce in their midst, and serve a timbale of potato puree separately.

Charcutiere sauce for eight or ten cutlets: prepare one pint of Robert sauce (No. 52) and mix with it, just before dishing up, two oz. of gherkins, cut in short julienne fashion or minced.

1394- FRESH = PORK CUTLETS A LA FLAMANDE

Season the cutlets, and fry them on both sides in butter or fat.

Meanwhile, peel and slice some eating apples, allowing three oz. of the latter for each cutlet, and put them in an earthenware dish. Set upon them the half-fried cutlets; sprinkle with fat, and complete their cooking, as well as that of the apples, in the oven.

Serve the dish as it stands.

1395- c6tes de porc frais a la milanaise

Treat the cutlets a I'anglaise, but remember to add one quart of grated Parmesan to the bread-crumbs. Cook them gently in butter.

Dish in a circle; set a milanaise garnish (No. 1258) in the centre, and serve a tomato sauce separately.

1396- FRESH-PORK CUTLETS WITH PIQUANTE OR ROBERT SAUCE

Season and grill or saute the cutlets. Dish them in a circle, with Piquante or Robert sauce in their midst.

N.B. - (i) Cutlets accompanied by either of the two above

RELEVES AND ENTREES 459

mentioned sauces, may be treated with melted butter and breadcrumbs and grilled or sauted; but, in this case, the sauce should be served separately.

(2) For cutlets with Piquante sauce, border the dish on which they are served with gherkins, and send the sauce either separately or on the dish.

(3) All the garnishes given under fresh neck of pork may accompany grilled or sauted pork cutlets.

1397- 5UCKINQ PIQ

Stuffed or not stuffed, sucking pigs are always roasted whole, and the essential point of the procedure is that they should be just done when their skin is crisp and golden.

While cooking, they should be frequently basted with oil; the latter being used in preference to any other fatty substance owing to the greater crispness it gives to the skin of the sucking pig Serve a sauceboat of good gravy at the same time.

1398- ROAST STUFFED SUCKING PIQ A L'ANQLAISE

For a sucking pig of medium weight, prepare the following forcemeat: - Cook three lbs. of large onions with their skins, and let them cool. This done, peel and finely chop them, and put them in a basin with one lb. of the chopped fat of kidney of beef, one lb. of soaked and well-pressed bread-crumb, four oz. of parboiled and chopped sage, two eggs, one oz. of salt, a pinch of pepper and a little nutmeg.

Mix the whole well, and put this stuffing inside the sucking pig. Sew up the latter's belly; put it on the spit, and roast as directed above.

Serve separately, either a timbale of apple puree or of mashed potatoes, combined with four oz. per lb. of selected raisins, washed and swelled in tepid water.

1399- ZAMPINO DE MODfiNE

Zampino, or stuffed leg of pork, is a product of Italian pork-butchery.

It is cooked like a ham, after having been tied in a napkin lest its skin burst.

Served hot, it is accompanied by a Madeira or tomato sauce, a garnish of boiled, braised, or gratined cabbages; of French

beans, or of potato pur^e.

1400- ZAMPINO FROID

Zampino is served cold, alone or mixed with other meats; but it is used more particularly as a hors-d'oeuvre. For this purpose, cut it into the thinnest possible slices. 1401- OREILLES A LA ROUENNAISE

After having singed and well cleaned the inside of the pig's ears, cook them in water, salted to the extent of one-third oz. of salt per quart, together with a garnish of vegetables as for pot-au-feu. This done, cut them across in suchwise as to have the end where the flesh is thickest on one side, and the thinnest end on the other side of the strips.

Chop up the thick portion; cut the other into collops, and put the whole into a saucepan with one-quarter pint of half-glaze with Madeira.

Cook gently for thirty minutes. This done, add to the minced ears, one and one-half lbs. of sausage meat and a pinch of chopped parsley. Divide up the whole into portions, weighing three oz; wrap each portion in a piece of pig's caul, insert a collop of ear into the wrapping, and give the latter the shape of ordinary crepinettes. Grill gently, until the cooking is threeparts done; sprinkle with butter and raspings, and complete the cooking of the crepinettes, colouring them in so doing.

Dish in a circle, and serve a Madeira sauce at the same time.

1402- OREILLES A LA SAINTE MENEHOULD

Cook the ears as explained above, and let them cool.

Cut them in two, lengthwise; coat them with mustard; sprinkle them with melted butter and raspings, and grill them gently.

Ears are usually served plain, but they may be accompanied by apple sauce.

1403- PIEDS DE PORC TRUFF16S

Truffled pig's trotters may be bought already prepared; all that re