The Foods of England | Cookbooks | Diary | Index | Magic Menu |

The Modern Flour Confectioner, 1891

A Foods of England online text. For more see Cookbooks



TITLE: The modern flour confectioner, wholesale and retail: containing a large collection of recipes for cheap cakes, biscuits, etc., with remarks on the ingredients used in their manufacture: to which are added recipes for dainties for the working-man's table
AUTHOR: Robert Wells
PUBLISHER: Crosby, Lockwood and Sons, London
DATE:1891
THIS VERSION: This transcript is based on the online version at archive.org, digitized from a copy at The University of Leeds Library. This is an Optical Character Recognition scan, it has been partly edited, but still contains very significant errors.



THE MODERN

FLOUR CONFECTIONER

WHOLESALE AND RETAIL

CONTAINING A LARGE COLLECTION OF

'giecipes for )cap gctkes, 'gSiscuife, etc.

WITH REMARKS ON THE INGREDIENTS USED IN THEIR MANUFACTURE

TO WHICH ARE ADDED

RECIPES FOR DAINTIES FOR THE WORKING-MAN’S TABLE

ROBERT WELLS

AUTHOR OF “THE BREAD AND BISCUIT BAKER’S AND SUGAR-BOILER’s ASSISTANT,” “THE PASTRYCOOK AND CONFECTIONER’S GUIDE,” “DESIGNS FOR ORNAMENTAL CONFECTIONERY,"

LONDON

CROSBY LOCKWOOD AND SON

7, STATIONERS’ HALL COURT, LUDGATE HILL 1891

[All rights reserved ]

USEFUL WORKS BY THE SAME AUTHOR.

Crown 8 vo, cloth, gilt edges, price 5 s. {post free').

QRNAMENTAL CONFECTIONERY: A Guide for Bakers, Confectioners, and Pastrycooks. Including a variety of Modern Recipes, and Remarks on Decorative and Coloured Work; with upwards of One Hundred Original Designs.

“ A valuable work, practical, and should be in tbe hands of every baker and confectioner. The illustrative designs are alone worth treble the amount charged for the whole work.” - Bakers' Times.

“ All members of the confectionery craft who desire to devote themselves to the higher branches of confectionery work, should procure this ably-written and excellent book.” - People's Friend.

II.

Crown 8 vo, 2 s. cloth {post free).

THE BREAD AND BISCUIT BAKER’S AND

SUGAR-BOILER’S ASSISTANT. Including a large variety of Modern Recipes, with Remarks on the Art of Bread-making, and Chemistry as applied to Bread-making. Second Edition, with additional Recipes.

“ A practical book, written by a practical man. It is worthy of our trade, and should find a ready sale.” - B 7 ‘itish Baker, Confectioner, &*c.

“A very useful present either to an apprentice or journeyman in the bread or biscuit trade. The recipes are reliable and relate to all classes of goods, and we can conscientiously recommend it.” - British and Foreign Confectioner.

III.

Crown 8 vo, 2$. cloth

THE PASTRYCOOK

1 GUIDE, for Hotels, Restai

Adapted also for Family Modern Recipes, and U

T I ONER’S

rade^Sh general. lai^^'vaj^g^L

on p^stf^coo^^T, with a very

It contains a

“A practically written

full equipment of modea^ecipei '^-mccms'iTian.

“We cannot spe^^oo h^AljlpttHs reallj mass of most v^^rcle inf^ml^^ which rr^H^'"'" o brands ’ would do well to note and act^^Ri. IW3 e^js;erpntly written, and
London, E.C.

PREFACE.

Many books have been written on the various branches of our trade; but none, I believe, treat on the subject with which I propose to deal in this book. Various writers tell us that they have baked for Kings, Princes, and Emperors. The honour, as they term it, of catering for the Epicurean tastes of such august and majestic personages has been denied me. Nor, indeed, am I distressed while recognising this fact. Our bard has told us -

“ A man’s a man for a’ that: ”

so I willingly “ take a back seat ” in the matter of Royal personages. I have catered for the Army and Navy, the middle class, and the horny-handed sons of toil, with now and again a sprinkling of aristocracy; but I have stopped short of Royalty. Indeed, as the title-page of this book notifies that it is a compendium of cheap wholesale goods, it may be assumed that Royalty is not in my line of business.

If there are any faults or failings in this work, I hope my

Y 1

PREFACE.

brother craftsmen will treat them in as lenient a spirit as was shown to my preceding works, and bear in mind that -

“ Tho’ they may gang a kennin wrang,

To step aside is human.”

I have classed these mixtures in an honest spirit, and to the best of my knowledge and ability.

If mistakes should be detected in any of the recipes, my readers must not think they were wittingly or carelessly made: as a matter of fact, most of the recipes have been tested in actual practice as well as studied. I do not crave for favour, but a fair criticism for the classification of my work is all I ask for or expect, and from honest men I hope to get it.

Scarborough,

January, 1891.

CONTENTS PAGE [Omitted]



THE


MODERN FLOUR CONFECTIONER.

INTRODUCTORY OBSERVATIONS.

Flour Confectionery, or the Small Goods Trade, as it is sometimes called, has always held a very fascinating power over the minds of intelligent bakers and confectioners; and of late years the market has been glutted with names and forms of so many different cakes and biscuits - some of them of a very doubtful character - that often the baker’s mind gets into a sort of chaos, or, shall I say, he is entirely lost in aiming to put before the discriminating public a cake or biscuit of such quality, price, and form as shall be certain of success. Month after month cakes, &c., are named, “ Lady This Favourite,” or “ Lord That Delight; ” nor has the inventor of such toothsome dainties been content with such commonplace names as we poor mortals inherit, but has gone to other spheres to borrow names for the new specialities - such as “Fairy Cakes,” “Seraphic” and “ Angel ” cakes, and a host of other absurdities - though I really think that the names some of them bear ought to be an open sesame to the buying public. But three-fourths of these so-called new mixtures never come to stay with us long • their introduction is -

“ Like the snowflake on the river,

A moment white, then fades for ever.”

B

2

THE MODERN FLOUR CONFECTIONER.

Still, so fickle is the public taste, that there will be no final stage in the introduction of such commodities; for we may rest assured that eye and palate will always sorely tax the ingenuity of the practical confectioner to meet the demand for really attractive, palatable confectionery.

The bulk of wholesale flour confectionery is of modern origin, and will not date much farther back than thirty years: in fact, the modern biscuit factories have been the great introducers of such cheap stuff to the public.

The great number of men whom so-called limited liability companies and co-operative stores launch upon the market year after year as bread bakers only, causes them to be very heavily handicapped when looking for a new situation; for amongst the first questions a baker is asked when applying for a place (outside these bread factories) is, “Are you a good hand at s smalls’? Can you do anything in confectionery?” So that the poor baker is compelled to accept less wages than his more fortunate trade brother receives until he becomes proficient in the art of making “smalls.” And it is only right that it should be so, as ingenuity and merit should always be recognised.

I have been repeatedly asked to compile a work on this subject, to assist and instruct those in the trade that have had the misfortune to serve their time in shops of the above class.

As I have had over nine years’ experience in a business of my own in the wholesale confectionery trade, in a thriving city in the north of England, I hope I may lay claim to having a few wrinkles that will be of use to the ordinary baker, as well as the confectioner.

I do not say that everything I write down will be entirely new, modern, or original. Let the indulgent reader expel this idea from his mind. But I do propose to lay before the trade what little knowledge I possess, as my facilities for noting new ideas,

INTRODUCTION .

3

and the very latest mixtures, have been, I think I may say, exceptional. So I will do my best to bring as many new recipes and wrinkles before the reader as will keep him at least up to date.

When a practical man gets hold of a new mixture which he considers a good thing that is likely to take well in the market, how fidgety he is ! how he longs to know how it will turn out, and sometimes through fear of failure puts off the trial of the article.

tl He either fears his fate too much,

Or his deserts are small,

Who dares not put it to the touch,

To win, or lose it all.”

But a practical man has a pretty accurate knowledge of what the goods will be like when he gets the mixture, on seeing the different quantities and how they are blended together.

When I had more to do with wholesale confectionery than I have had of late years, I did not hunt very much after the recipe of a good article if I could only get the article itself; and I was never very far off getting it up to the mark after the first or second trial.

My aim, therefore, is to place before the trade in this little work such ideas, hints, and recipes as will, I hope, be of lasting benefit to the trade.

PRACTICAL HINTS AND INSTRUCTIONS.

In mixing up goods for wholesale flour confectionery it is requisite that the operator should know a little of the properties of the ingredients he is about to blend. So it will, I think, not be out of place to give a slight dissertation on the relative qualities of the leading ingredients used in this branch of the trade.

Flour.

From experience in wholesale flour confectionery I find that good flour and rich fresh-churned milk are two of the principal substances in producing a cheap, showy, selling cake.

You may use, and in many instances are compelled to use, cheap lard or butter, sugar and fruit, and other necessaries that go to make up a cheap cake for the market; but, for your goods to have a bold, attractive appearance, you must use the best flour. It is quite a mistake for bakers or confectioners entering on this branch of the trade to imagine that if they can only buy flour cheap enough to make cheap goods they have hit on the right plan to insure good profits. There is nothing more deceiving in the trade. Suppose you have to pay 8s., ios., or 12s. more per sack for your flour; if it is of a good grade the extra outcome of your goods will more than repay your extra price, as some or most good flours will carry more milk, water, &c., than the cheap dark stuff that is too often used for this class of goods.

6

THE MODERN FLOUR CONFECTIONER.

Besides, you cannot produce the nice appearance and rich bloom that should be the most attractive part of a wholesale article. So on no account use cheap flour for cheap goods; if you do, you will run the risk of making window-watchers instead of selling articles. I should recommend a good blend of American patent and a good sound Australian flour, properly mixed in equal quantities.

As I shall repeatedly have to refer to prepared flour in the recipes in this work, how to make it will be my first lesson.

Prepared Flour.

i 6 lbs. of good flour, 8 oz. of cream of tartar, 4 oz. of best carbonate of soda. This must be sifted through the sieve three times, but where there is any quantity of cheap cake, 20 or 40 stone of prepared flour should be made. Great care should be taken in weighing the above ingredients, for deviation either way may be a serious loss to the employer, and will always prevent the production of an article to your satisfaction.

Another prepared flour is with tartaric acid and soda, which preparation does not spring the goods so well as that made from cream and soda; but it has this in its favour, the goods made from it will keep longer and are more moist than those made from the above prepared flour. But for cheap cakes I prefer the first-mentioned method.

16 lbs. of good flour, 4 oz. of carbonate of soda, and 2 oz. of tartaric acid, sifted as before three times through the sieve. Bruise both soda and acid before adding them to the flour.

Now, as the backbone of cheap goods has been got into preparation, let me go on apace.

Eggs.

There are “ eggs and eggs.” For wholesale purposes the best foreign box eggs are the cheapest, but judgment must be

PRACTICAL HINTS AND INSTRUCTIONS .

7

used both as to the quality and price. I may here remark that in breaking eggs for your mixtures you require to break one at a time into a little cup or tin for the purpose, and smell it before adding it to the quantity needed, as a musty or a very suspicious egg will spoil a whole mixture. This is adopted, as a rule, in any well-regulated establishment. It may be unnecessary to mention it, but it is not always adopted; and I have had 120 cakes at sixpence each returned through the careless but simple act of dropping one little musty egg into the mixture.

Tartaric Acid

should likewise be of the best quality. Tartar means an acid concrete salt, and should be sour and sharp to the taste.

Carbonate of Soda

should likewise be of the best quality. Common carbonate of soda, of the ordinary marketable kind, is of little use to the wholesale flour confectioner, as he will find by experience that he has dropped upon a hornet’s nest, for his articles will be overspread with little dark spots, both on the top and all through. Use the best soda if you mean your business to increase and prosper.

Cream of Tartar

is before the trade in a good many kinds, with as many substitutes, but a good ordinary cream of tartar at a reasonable price is preferable to any nostrum. What you save in price is lost in quality. I am no advocate of fancy prices, but a good thing must be paid for.

Ammonia, or Volatile Salts,

ought to be purchased powdered, and kept in stone jars well corked.

8

THE MODERN FLOUR CONFECTIONER .

Ammonia is, I should think, one of the strongest chemicals used in the trade, and great care should be taken in putting the exact quantities in the mixtures; not exactly on account of any injurious effect it would have upon the system (as nearly all the ammonia evaporates in the oven, as can be seen by the spongy, honey-combed appearance of the inside of the cake or biscuit produced), but to obviate the strong “ knockme*down ” smell left in the cake. I have made sugar biscuits, and have added i oz. of ammonia to i lb. of flour, which I find is as much as a mixture will carry, and more than I like to give it.

Buttermilk.

Good buttermilk, like good flour, is one of the primary ingredients in producing good wholesale flour confectionery; in fact, it is the great factor in producing most of our modern cheap goods, and is a capital wholesome substitute for eggs and butter. But when I say “ buttermilk ” I mean the genuine article, not the rotten stuff kept covered up for weeks to give it a tart taste, and help to spring the goods, as I was once told when inquiring the cause for using the detestable concoction.

If bakers would only give a thought to the risk they run in propagating bacteria and impure ferments, they would pause before using milk that the very pigs turn up their noses at ! Besides, it acts on the flour in the same way as sour barm does in bread. I have often heard the saying, when shop keepers have had milk go bad, “ Oh, it will do for the bakers to make scones with ! ” Bakers, indeed ! As if the baking trade was the receptacle for all that was bad ! Also I have noted the expression when a good action has been done, that it was the milk of human kindness; but when this abominable stuff is used in conjunction with food for the human system, this “ milk of human kindness ” has been transformed into very

PRACTICAL HINTS AND INSTRUCTIONS.

9

bad, sour buttermilk ! Use good, rich, fresh buttermilk. My ingredients are blended for such milk only.

When buttermilk has been scarce I have repeatedly had it sent from a first-class dairy, two hundred miles distant, at the nominal price of sixpence per gallon. Buttermilk will keep longer in a usable condition if it is stirred up at least once daily. The tins in which it is kept should be scalded out and cleaned once a week.

Condensed Milk

is a substitute for buttermilk, but is in no way so good as the original; it is milk and sugar boiled down to the required consistency. Goods made with it require a sharper oven to bake them in; and if the prepared flour is used that I have given in a preceding chapter, a smell of soda is apt to be produced, as there is not sufficient or, I may say, no acid in this class of milk to counteract it, and the goods have not that bold appearance they ought to have. Still, in fairness to the makers, it is a fair substitute.

Skim Milk

is used in some mixtures; but to keep this class of milk sweet, a small quantity of carbonate of magnesia added to the milk is requisite.

New Milk.

New milk is too expensive to allow of its extensive use for wholesale cheap confectionery, so I will merely give the constituents it contains. These are: butter, casein, milk, sugar, salts, and water. The adulteration of milk is not carried on to the same extent as formerly; still there is room for improvement in the vendors of this necessary article. In conclusion, remember the old lines - “ Water, water everywhere, but not a drop to drink ! ”

10

THE MODERN FLOUR CONFECTIONER.

Water.

Cakes made with water have a boiled, pinched appearance, and it should not be resorted to unless it is specially mentioned in the mixture.

Colouring for Cakes.

Where it is absolutely necessary to use colouring in cakes - and it can successfully be employed in cheap lunch cakes and others of this class, though for my part I almost ignore it - turmeric is preferable to any colouring that I know of, but it must be used sparingly, as it throws off a nasty flavour. But its flavour is not nearly so bad as saffron colouring, which must be avoided by all means, for where too much colouring is used the flavour is akin to bad eggs. Where colouring can be done without, so much the better for the cakes and those that eat them.

Butter

is a crucial test in the manufacture of cheap cakes. It is now made from so many different materials besides milk that a man must be very skilful to knotf when he is using butter. I am well aware that the price got for cheap wholesale cakes cannot allow for full-priced Keil and Danish butters, and butters of this brand. So a baker has to make his goods to suit the price in the market, and, therefore, with regret I must leave out the good or full-priced butters, and make the best of the substitutes within our reach.

The Flavour of Butter.

Of late several Danish chemists and analysts have been endeavouring to find out the origin of flavour in butter: this by some is held to be caused by bacteria, whether the flavour be that of turnips, oil, fish, or be bitter or tallowy. Professor Storch has found large numbers of bacteria of a particular kind

PRACTICAL HINTS AND INSTRUCTIONS.

in oily butters, by the application of cream. In other cases he found bacteria which did not differ materially from the ordinary acid-producing bacteria, which when present in cream in large quantities produce butter with a flavour of tallow. Similar results were obtained by Professor Jensen. Professor Fjard found that butter from a farm where turnips were not used for cow food had a turnip flavour; and it is likewise believed by investigators that this flavour is caused by the presence of a certain kind of bacteria. But so far no results have been obtained whose infallibility can be assured.

Butter Scrapings.

When butter scrapings can be had clean and good, and unmixed with its deadly enemy margarine, I consider this commodity the best in the market for wholesale purposes. As it is generally the scrapings out of butter casks, and the scrapings of the butter when turned out of the cask for sale, that are used, there is a goodly admixture of salt in it, and it has had added to it the refuse of other butters that have become too old and dusty for sale. It must be washed in one or two waters to extract the salt. The price of it repays this trouble, in addition to the fact that a buttery flavour is given to the cake. I have bought this class of butter at from twopence to eightpence a pound, so there is plenty of margin in its purchase. But it can be bought very reasonably in large quantities, therefore butter scrapings should be used if it can be got.

Lard.

This comes next as a substitute for butter in cheap cakemaking. Pure English lard - no ! I only wish that the price would allow of its use. But there are some very good brands of American lard that can be bought cheap, quite rich enough for cheap goods, and void of that nasty strong smell often very

12

THE MODERN FLOUR CONFECTIONER.

prominent in lard. I have had more satisfaction out of “ Liver ” brand lard than any American brand of lard in the market: but this, too, is of a high price; a cheaper sort can be got that will answer the purpose of the wholesale flour confectioner.

Margarine.

What a world of wonders this commodity reveals when viewed through a microscope ! It is a mixture of very questionable foreign fats and oils, blended and coloured up to a nicety to represent butter, as a substitute for which it is used. Our Government very wisely passed a measure for more readily preventing the fraudulent sale of margarine. Its definition is - a substance, or conglomeration of substances, prepared in imitation of butter. Whether mixed with butter or no, no such substance shall be sold lawfully except under the name of margarine, and under the conditions set forth. Every person dealing in margarine, whether wholesale or retail, whether manufacturer, importer, consignor or consignee, or commission agent or otherwise, who is found guilty under the Act is to be liable, on summary conviction, for the first offence, to a fine not exceeding ²0; for the second offence to a fine not exceeding ^50; and for the third or any subsequent offence to a fine not exceeding^ioo.

These are very stringent measures and ought to insure immunity, partial at least, from impurities. But do they? As I have before given my opinion in the “Pastry Cook and Confectioner’s Guide ” on the adulterants used in this modern innovation, it will be needless to add more upon the matter, as I think I have said sufficient to guard the baker against using certain brands of this doubtful substitute for butter.

But that it is largely used in cheap wholesale flour confectionery establishments, I am in a position to know and verify. And there are good first-class firms not averse to its use. There is one firm of repute that I am particularly acquainted with:

PRACTICAL HINTS AND INSTRUCTIONS.

13

three years ago the brands of butter used in their establishment were the best Danish and Keil. Margarine was gradually introduced to insure more profit, and now Danish and Keil are only conspicuous by their absence. But this firm’s trade has dwindled down to less than half of what it was formerly, and the name the firm acquired for the production of pastry and cakes of the first quality has been lost, and a back seat has been awarded the once flourishing establishment in the town where once it could command the highest prices. But bakers will say, “ What has Wells got to do with what any one uses ? ” Well, I confess, nothing; but I give this as an illustration of what trying to grasp too much will do. I am speaking just now of the use of margarine in first-class shops; the public who can afford to buy full-priced goods will not with impunity be imposed upon, and this is only right. But let us return to cheap goods, for, as I said before, margarine is largely used in their manufacture. For my part I cannot see the object of such an extensive use of it, if good lard or scrapings can be got. When margarine is used there is no buttery flavour or smell, and essences are substituted; therefore use it not if anything else can be had.

Vegetefat.

Vegetefat is extracted from the cocoa-nut, and is another offered substitute for butter. Its analysis shows its contents: - Fat, 99-979: water, 0*020; mineral matter, o'ooi. 7^ ozs. of this substance is supposed to show the same results as 10 ozs. of lard or butter: i.e., the use of a quarter of the amount less than is used of either lard or butter. A sample of vegetefat was sent to me some months ago for the purpose of testing its qualities in cakes. I gave it a thorough trial but was anything but satisfied with the result. As a substitute in cheap cakes I could not recommend it.

14

THE MODERN FLOUR CONFECTIONER.

Salambo

is first cousin to margarine, but it has the following advantage: we know it is a vegetable extract, of a sweet nature. It is used pretty freely in getting up cheap cakes, as the price is very suitable for this class of goods.

To Improve Stale Butter.

It sometimes occurs that a confectioner has a chance of buying a few casks of stale butter at a nominal price. One of the best wrinkles for making use of it is the following: -

Procure a large flat pan, or washing-pail; fill it three parts full of cold water; tie ~ lb. of chloride of lime up in a muslin cloth and place it at the bottom of the pan, underwater; divide the butter into sizes of about i lb. each and place them separately in the water, where they will float; leave for an hour, and then gently squeeze the butter so as to allow it to become impregnated with water, and leave for one hour more; thoroughly wash in cold water and put aside for use; i lb. of chloride of lime will be sufficient for three washings. I do not say that this will make stale butter entirely fresh, but the results will be surprising, as it will answer in every respect for cheap cakes and biscuits. Let this suffice for this buttery subject.

Sugar.

Good brown cane sugar, not too dark or heavy, I find best for this class of goods. The cane sugar helps to throw a nice bloom upon the goods, and is sweeter and of a much better quality than beetroot sugar. But for some of the following recipes both granulated and castor must be used.

Treacle

should be got from cane sugar also. Poor, weak, cheap treacle should be avoided, as goods made from it burn before they are

PRACTICAL HINTS AND INSTRUCTIONS . 15

half baked, and the outcome from cane treacle amply repays the extra cost.

Baking Powder

should be of the very best, and each ingredient well dried before mixing. As it will be used in some of the following recipes, I propose to insert here the best baking powder in the market. Tfie ingredients are 13 lbs. of carbonate of soda, 13 lbs. of ground rice, 9 lbs. of tartaric acid: dry each separately, and thoroughly mix. This is a capital baking powder.

Peel.

Drained peel should be used for wholesale purposes, and a peel-cutting machine is a requisite for the bakehouse where much peel is cut. Peel should be kept in a dry place, not exposed to a damp atmosphere; if so, it is liable to get out of condition.

Currants, Sultanas, &c.,

should be thoroughly cleaned, and free from stones. You cannot afford the highest price for fruit in this class of goods, but the nearer you can keep to good quality the better the name and tone of your firm; and, of course, the quality of your goods is better, and has a standing in the market that other cakes made of the refuse of grocers’ cellars cannot attain to.

Almonds

should be bought ground (unless they are used on parkins, best sultana cakes, &c,, when they are blanched and split), as a confectioner cannot afford the time necessary for their pounding. Speed is the great thing in getting up cakes and biscuits, as it is In the quantity produced where the baker or confectioner must look for his profits.

i6

THE MODERN FLOUR CONFECTIONER.

Essences.

Essences when used should be bought pure, not adulterated, as a great portion of them are - notably essence of lemon. The cheaper sort of this essence is largely made up with an admixture of turpentine, and gives a very disagreeable smell, causing a bad flavour in the goods. A good test for the purity of essence of lemon will be found in the “ Pastrycook and Confectioner’s Guide.”

Yeast.

For wholesale goods use English compressed yeast. Not many years ago we were entirely dependent upon our continental neighbours for our supply of compressed yeast; at the present time we can make it ourselves, equal in quality and much lower in price.*

The Use of Chemicals.

The study and practical blending of such chemicals as carbonate of soda, cream of tartar, tartaric acid, ammonia, and hydrochloric acid, are of the utmost importance, and are very great helps towards the success of the modern flour confectioner; especially with regard to the aeration process and chemical action of certain acids when brought into contact with carbonate of soda. Hydrochloric acid is not much used by the British baker and confectioner. I am unable to determine whether this arises from the acid being generally used in a liquid form; or that cream of tartar and tartaric acid are more easily weighed and more readily and speedily prepared for mixture; or whether the cheap adulterated stuff that is sometimes sold for hydrochloric acid has a tendency to annihilate its properties and effects. As a popular acid in preparing

* A sure test for yeast will be found in my first work, “ The Bread and Biscuit Baker’s and Sugar Boiler’s Assistant.”

PRACTICAL HINTS AND INSTRUCTIONS.

17

cheap cakes for the market its stand in a bakehouse is very low indeed. If hydrochloric acid is pure it is generally used in the following proportions: - 7 parts of HC1 to 5 of CaC0 3 (carbonate of soda). The existing ignorance with regard to the chemical process underlying the use of carbonate of soda and other ingredients, when brought into contact with acids, occasions the manufacture by some of our craft of very questionable goods. Dough made from acids and soda is very different from dough fermented. If the gas accumulated by the aeration process in the use of acids and soda has been lost, it cannot, as in the case of fermented dough, be regained, as the chemical action of the acid and soda being over, there is none to raise the cakes or goods about to be made.

Too long waiting, or too long working o the dough, will displace the gas in soda doughs. In fermented doughs the case is quite different, as here the yeast action is continuous up to a certain point; and as the gas is pressed out or expelled from fermented doughs more is generated. In the case of doughs made with ammonia, or sal volatile, the appearance of the doughs is again different, as there is no aeration process visible, if, indeed, there is any at all, as the action takes place when the articles made are introduced into the oven-heat, for heat expels the ammonia. Hence that spongy and honeycombed appearance of all goods made with ammonia in anything like excess. Again, there are goods made with soda alone, without any acids, such as treacle goods, gingerbread, &c. On applying heat to bicarbonate of soda, carbon dioxide (CO a ) is given off, and the substance of soda formed, generally known as “ washing soda.” The presence of this causes the bad taste, smell, and yellow appearance of goods made without acids, and soda applied in large quantities. Again, where cream of tartar and carbonate of soda are used, the quantities required to neutralize each other’s evil effects, when both

C

i8

THE MODERN FLOUR CONFECTIONER .

ingredients are pure, are i lb. of cream of tartar to 8 ozs. of carbonate of soda.

I do not state that these quantities are always used in the getting-up of mixtures, as the various substances differ, and their requirements must be taken into consideration \ but these quantities are correct when both materials are pure. Carbonate of soda of the purest should always be used for cheap goods, and all else declined.

The chemical action of tartaric acid and carbonate of soda differs again, being more sudden; there is also a tendency for the gas when formed to evaporate too quickly, and more speed is required to get up the goods, retaining the proper amount of gas, without which the goods would be heavy and sodden after baking. The quantities necessary for neutralization are - i lb. of carbonate of soda to 8 ozs. of tartaric acid.

But cream of tartar and soda are more in favour, and are in larger use in the trade than tartaric acid and soda, as the confectioner can produce a more showy and bolder article with the former than with the latter.

French Baking Powder.

6 ozs. of cream of tartar, 3 ozs. of carbonate of soda, i\ ozs. of tartaric acid, 1 oz. of farina, arrowroot, or corn-flour, 1 oz. of volatile salts in powder; all to be dry and well sifted together.

To every 1 lb. of flour allow -

For scones . . . 1 oz. of powder to 1 lb. of flour.

£d. and id. cakes f oz. „ „ „

4d. cake . . . £ oz. „, , „

6d. cake . . . \ oz. „ „ „

8d. cake . . . \ oz., „ „

For best cakes and puff paste allow 1 oz, of powder to each 5 lbs. of flour.

PRACTICAL HINTS AND INSTRUCTIONS.

19

Essence of Lemon.

Take the rinds of 24 large lemons, well bruised in a mortar with 1 lb. of fine sugar, then put them into a jar with % a pint of boiling water and % oz. of acetic acid; let it stand two days, then add \ a pint of spirits of wine, and let it stand two days more, well covered; then strain it twice, and put it into bottles; keep it well corked. This is good and very strong.

To make French White Icing.

Dissolve 2 ozs. of albumen or gelatine in 1 pint of cold water; when thoroughly dissolved just warm it a little and strain it; put it into a bottle, and use it just like whites of eggs.

Method of Creaming.

For wholesale cheap cakes, where no cake-creaming machine is used, the best method is the following: -

Weigh down your prepared flour upon the table, make a hole in the centre, in which place your sugar. Weigh the butter and place it in a pan, put it into the oven to warm, but not too much or it will be spoilt; while the butter is preparing weigh the fruit (if any be required) or any other ingredients. There should be an assistant breaking your eggs one at a time, and be sure there are no musty ones.

Now put the melted butter into the hole or bay, and start to cream. You will ascertain by the lightness of it when to add the eggs, which do, 20 at a time, if for a large mixing; then mix the required amount of milk, and draw in flour, fruit, etc. Weigh off in sizes and place them in the oven as quickly as is consistent with the proper finishing of the article in a tradesmanlike manner. The heat of the oven depends a good deal upon the size of your cakes. I find 400° by the pyrometer a good baking heat; but bear in mind that all cheap, goods where

20

THE MODERN FLOUR CONFECTIONER.

milk is used require a hotter oven than rich cakes where no milk is used, to throw the required bloom on the cakes; a too cold oven produces a cake with the appearance of having been baked in the sun, and is dry and without flavour.

Ovens for Small Goods.

The best ovens for small goods I have found to be the Scotch chaffer ovens, heated with coke. Where these cannot be got the next best oven for this class of goods is the flush or furnace oven; but commend me to a good Scotch chaffer oven, as it can be so easily worked and regulated to the required degrees of heat; and if coming events cast their shadows before, we shall have more of them in our bakehouses and factories than is at present the case, I think the reason why they have not become more popular with the trade is the want of practical men to work them. I have seen such ovens heated far above the required heat by inefficient workmen, and buckets of water thrown into them to cool them. They might just as well throw dynamite into the oven, as the steam generated cracks and ruins both bricks, tiles, and mortar. Care must be taken not to have the oven too hot for small goods, as the excessive heat forms a crust and nips them before they have time to rise.

I will now try to blend the mixtures, first starting with a few of my own composing, or invention, if I may be allowed the word.

RECIPES.

CHEAP CAKES, BISCUITS, Etc.

1.- American Genoa Cake.

Take 3% lbs. of common butter, 3^ lbs. of castor sugar, 30 eggs, 6 lbs. of flour, 5 lbs. of currants, i\ lbs. of chopped peel, f oz. of cream of tartar, and half this quantity of soda, with about 1 pint of churned milk. Cream the butter and sugar together, add the eggs, then mix all the other ingredients together. Paper a square-edged pan, lay on your batter about three inches thick, and bake in a sound oven; you must “ set ” the tin with wood setters. Next paper the tin all over; when baked put the cake aside in the tin, and cut it on the following morning. This cake can be sold in large quantities, wholesale, at 5d. per lb.

2.- Jubilee Cakes.

This is a very handy mixture for wholesale purposes. 4^ lbs. of flour, 1 lb. 6 ozs. of butter, 1 lb. 14 ozs. of castor sugar, n eggs, 1 1 ozs. of carbonate of soda, if ozs. of cream of tartar, and churned milk to dough. Weigh the flour, add the tartar and soda, make a hole in the centre of the flour, put the butter, previously warmed, into the bay with the sugar; cream it well with the hand, adding eggs gradually. Then mix all together and make into a nice batter. Weigh off at 1 lb. each; this can be sold in quantities at 5d. each.

Nearly any variety of cheap cakes can be made from this mixture, by adding ingredients to the batter - such as citron cakes,

24

THE MODERN FLOUR CONFECTIONER.

by adding a small quantity of thinly chopped citron; Madeira cakes, by dusting the tops with castor sugar, and placing two pieces of peel on the top; plum cake, by adding currants and cut peel; cocoa-nut cake, by adding a little cocoa-nut to the mixture and dusting the top with it; also seed cakes, by the addition of a few seeds.

3.- Ginger Snaps.

14 lbs. of flour, 10 lbs. of syrup from cane sugar, 5flbs. of moist cane sugar, 2 lbs. of lard, 8 ozs. of ginger, 1 oz. of tartaric acid, 1 oz. of carbonate of soda. Sift the soda and acid through the flour, make a hole or bay as before; cream down your lard. Then thoroughly mix all the other ingredients, adding about a pint of water, but this will greatly depend upon the consistency and quality of the syrup. Draw in the flour, shake it well up, and make into a nice working dough; if 1 lb. of common butter, or butter scrapings, is used instead of 1 lb. of lard, the flavour is improved. Work off and cut out with a small spice nut cutter.

These can be sold wholesale at 3d. per lb., but the employer must of course be able to buy in the cheapest market.

Note. - Instead of brushing these over the top with water, procure a piece of linen the size of your tin, and, dipping it in water, spread it over the surface of the snaps, gently pressing the palm of your hands over the wet cloth. You will in this way save time, and the annoyance of running the snaps together when washed over with a brush. I have repeatedly seen 120 lbs. of dough for this class of goods pinned out and cut by two expert men in the short time of forty minutes. For a wholesale mixing I know of nothing to beat this.

4.- Plum Cake.

Sift 1 i ozs. of cream of tartar and f oz. of soda through the

SULTANA CAKE, GERMAN BUNS. 25

sieve, with 12 lbs. of flour; make a bay, add 7 lbs. of castor sugar, 6 \ lbs. of warmed butter; weigh down alongside the flour 6 lbs. of currants and lbs. of cut peel; have ready broken 45 eggs, start to cream the butter and sugar; after well creaming, add the eggs in quantities as stated, and 1 quart of good churned milk; draw in all the other ingredients, make into a nice mellow batter. Have ready some oval tins, papered round the sides and bottom. Weigh the batter into the tins at 1 lb. 1 0 z., and bake in a good oven; when cold strip off the paper, wrapping each in tinfoil paper, tied and labelled with name of cake and address of maker. Sold wholesale at 6s. per dozen, or retail at 8d. each.

5. - Sultana Cake.

Sift 1 lb. of patent flour with 5 lbs. of fine flour; weigh 6 lbs. of clean picked sultana raisins; mix the raisins with the flour, have ready 30 eggs, make a bay, add 3^ lbs. of castor sugar and 3^- lbs. of warmed butter; cream the butter and sugar well, then add the eggs with about 1 pint of churned milk, draw in the other ingredients, and make all into a nice batter; have a square-edged tin lined with wood upsets and nicely papered; put in about two inches thick of the batter, and bake in a sound oven. Sold wholesale at 6d. per lb., retailed at 8d.

6. - German Buns.

Sift 2 ozs. of cream of tartar and 1 oz. of soda through the sieve with 4 lbs. of flour; make a bay in the flour, add 8 ozs. of lard, and ij lbs. of moist sugar; cream sugar and lard; add a little turmeric and sufficient milk to make a nice batter. With the hand, size them off on to greased tins, wash over the top with egg, place a little castor sugar on the top of each, and bake in a sharp oven. Sold wholesale at 16 and 18 for is.

26

THE MODERN FLOUR CONFECTIONER .

As some of the foregoing recipes have appeared before in my other works, and have given general satisfaction, I hope the insertion of them here will be of use to those who have not already tried them.

I now propose to follow very cheap lines. I do not put them forth as faultless recipes, but they are, I can assure my fellow craftsmen, among the very best in the market. Those that I have started this little book with are really reliable and good, and will I hope be of service and use to the trade. What I now propose to introduce are cheaper goods, and cannot therefore be expected to have the same rich and bold appearance as those of better quality.

7.- Almond Cake.

20 lbs. of prepared flour, 3 lbs. of cheap butter, lard, or salambo, 5^ lbs. of moist cane sugar, 4^ lbs. of monkey nuts, 14 eggs, essence of almonds, a little turmeric, and sufficient churned milk to make a nice batter. Weigh the prepared flour on to the table, make a bay, and in it place your sugar; have the eggs broken, shell the monkey nuts, and chop them small. Put the warmed butter into the bay also and cream, add the eggs and churned milk; then take the other ingredients, make into a nice batter, weigh off at 1 lb. 1 oz., and put the batter into papered hoops, with a few blanched split almonds on the top of each. Bake in a good oven. Some wash the top with milk, but this is at the discretion of the operator, and will depend upon the heat of the oven. You may proceed to cream down the following mixture in the same manner as above described.

8.- Currant or Fruit Cake.

28 lbs. of prepared flour, 4 lbs. of butter, lard, or salambo,

lbs. of moist cane sugar, 1 J lbs. of peel, 5 A- lbs. currants, 18

VARIOUS CAKES.

27

eggs, essence if required, a little turmeric, and churned milk to make a nice batter. Proceed as in the foregoing.

9. - Cocoa-nut Cake.

32 lbs. of prepared flour, 5 lbs. of lard or cheap butter, 7 lbs. of moist cane sugar, 3^ lbs. of cocoa-nut, 20 eggs, a little turmeric, and buttermilk to make a nice soft batter, with a little cocoa-nut on the top of each. Proceed as before.

10. - Seed Cakes

can be made of this mixture, by substituting for cocoa-nut the required quantity of seeds.

11. - Rice Cake.

20 lbs. of prepared flour, 4 lbs. of cheap butter, or lard, or salambo; 7 lbs. of moist cane sugar, 26 eggs, 2 lbs. of ground rice, essence, and turmeric. Make all into a nice batter with churned milk. Dust the top with semolina.

12.- Madeira Cake

can be made of the above mixture by substituting for rice 2 lbs. more of flour. Dust the tops with sugar; put two slices of peel on each. Madeira and rice cake of this sort do not require so sound an oven, as they are of a lighter nature and are more easily baked.

13.- Metropolitan Cakes.

20 lbs. of prepared flour, 4^ lbs. of cheap butter, lard, or salambo; 1 lb. of peel cut fine, 2 lbs. of currants, 2 \ lbs. of sultanas, 20 eggs, essence, and turmeric, and the remainder buttermilk. For the inside filling, break up about 8 or 10 lbs. of stale cakes, or any waste in this class of goods

28

THE MODERN FLOUR CONFECTIONER.

you have on hand, add 2 lbs. of cocoa-nut, 1 lb. of peel cut small, 3 lbs. currants, 2 \ lbs. of sultanas, 4 ozs. ginger, and 4 ozs. of mixed spice. Mix all this well together with treacle and water, but do not have it too wet; then proceed to weigh off the Metropolitan mixture into hoops. (I may say that the hoops must be all papered for these cheap mixtures; the paper should not be over half an inch above the cake when baked, or it takes away the appearance of the cake.) Weigh off, say, 8 ozs. of batter; then put in 4 ozs. of the filling, 6 ozs. more of the cake mixture, and milk over the top with a brush, making a flat surface, throwing a little bruised lump sugar *011 the top, about the size of peas. Then bake.

14.- Mystery Cake.

16 lbs. of patent flour, 6 lbs. of moist cane sugar, 2 lbs. of margarine or lard, 6 lbs. of currants, 8 ozs. of peel, and 3 ozs. of allspice. Cream as before, and make a batter with butterm'lk. Weigh off into square greased tins, and egg them over the top.

15.- Cheap Sponge Cakes

for wholesale purposes. A sponge-beating machine is best adapted to this class of goods. Make quite hot, but not sufficient to injure the eggs, 3 lbs. of the best granulated sugar. While this is heating or getting warm, break 30 eggs into the machine; then add the sugar, and whisk till you think it is ready, which will be known by the size it gets in the machine, or by the colour of the batter; or, a better way still, is to put a finger into the batter and write three letters on the surface; if it retains the impression of the letters it is ready. Then add ij pints of water, blood-heat; now stir in lightly but well 4 lbs. of prepared flour. These cakes are generally weighed at 10 ozs. and placed in nicely

LARGE SUGAR CAKES.

2q

papered square tins; of course this class of goods do not keep long before getting dry.

These are amongst the cheapest cakes in the market that have a saleable appearance or any eatable qualities. I could give still cheaper lines, but I do not think it would be beneficial to the trade to do so, as the wholesale flour confectioner’s position in the market is quite low enough without advertising it still lower. As there is no hard-and-fast line for price in these cakes, the baker will have to be guided by the amount of companion and other forces he has to contend with. But he can count the cost, observe the turn-out of each mixture and be able to judge of the price he can afford to sell at. The trade is sorely handicapped by the grocery element. Many grocers sell this class of cakes as a leading line, and at a loss, merely to advertise their businesses; thus in some localities this branch of the trade is anything but lucrative. But the confectioner has this advantage over the grocer - he is always able to supply fresher goods; and that is one of the strongest points he has against his opponent, for the public is always averse to purchasing stale cakes, and would rather give higher prices for fresh ones.

I shall now introduce another class of goods, which I hope will be of use.

16.- Large Sugar Cakes.

7 lbs. of flour, 12 ozs. of lard, 3 lbs. of good moist sugar, 4 ozs. of ammonia.

Rub the lard into the flour, make a bay, and put the sugar * into it; the ammonia, which is powder, should be dissolved in a pint of buttermilk. When it is dissolved add it to the sugar and make into a nice working dough. But do not work the

3o

THE MODERN FLOUR CONFECTIONER.

dough to toughen it too much, or the cakes will creep in when they are being pinned out. Pin out the dough to the thickness of a penny piece, and cut out with a large plain cutter the size of a good-sized saucer. Place the cakes on greased tins, wash them over with milk, put a few currants in the centre of each, pressing them down with the palm of the hand, and bake in a sharp oven.

17. - Common Chester Cake.

Weigh 6 lbs. of coarse flour into a basin, add 3 ozs. of carbonate of soda, and 2 lbs. of black treacle; likewise 1^- tablespoonfuls of muriatic acid, 2 lbs. of currants, and 3 ozs. of ginger; mix this all together with water into a nice consistency so that it will spread.

Provide a large flat tin and make as much paste out of fine flour, allowing 1 oz. of lard to 1 lb. of flour, as will make a thin covering for the bottom of the tin. Having done as much as will likewise cover the top, spread the batter to a flat surface on the top of the thin covering of paste; wash the top over; then, the top paste being rolled out thin, roll it all on to the pin, which lift with the paste upon it, and unroll on to the top of the batter. Care must be taken to insure the paste being the proper size of the tin; next prick it all over with the docker. Wash with either egg or milk, then with a nail or fork stab through all over, and bake in a brisk oven.

These are sold at Jd. each, and are about the handiest cake a baker can make, as they are the willing receptacles of old cakes, pastry, &c.; and even bread, soaked down, can be used for the inside mixing. Indeed, it is to be feared some very questionable stuff is used for this cake.

18.- Sly Cake

is another cheap, questionable cake. Weigh 4 lbs. of flour, add \ oz. of baking powder, rub into the flour x 2 ozs. of lard,

DURHAM SQUARES, RABBITS.

3i

and make into a paste with water; this serves for the top and bottom paste. Boil to a soft consistency 2 lbs. of ground rice; add 2 lbs. of currants and 2 lbs. of old cakes or bread; sweeten with 1 lb. of syrup, add a little essence of lemon and proceed as for Chester cake. This cake, however, should not be above half an inch thick when baked; when it is nearly baked draw it to the oven mouth and dust castor sugar over to give it a glaze.

Sold at id. a square, and is in much request at fairs.

19.- Durham Squares, or Common Albert Cake.

6 lbs. of flour, 2 lbs. of good moist sugar, 3 lbs. of currants, 6 ozs. of lard or cheap butter (margarine or salambo will do, but always give the preference to lard or cheap butter for this class of goods); 4 ozs. of cream of tartar, and 2 ozs. of carbonate of soda.

Weigh the flour into a large basin, add the tartar and soda, rub the butter into the flour; add the sugar and a little turmeric, and make it a moderate sized batter. Grease a large edged tin on sides and bottom; spread the batter on the tin till a level surface is obtained, occasionally dipping the hand into the milk, which will serve two purposes, viz. to prevent the batter cleaving to the hand, and likewise help to gloss the cake top. Do not keep it too long in the tin after baking or it will stick there, as it is so poor that it will not sweat off when cold; cut into suitable sizes 2^ inches thick. It is a good selling line when fresh, but does not keep well.

20.- Rabbits.

These are a very novel wholesale line, and give great scope to the confectioner’s ingenuity and skill in the modelling of the various animal shapes, &c., and are good paying articles, but require speed.

32 THE MODERN FLOUR CONFECTIONER .

Rub 8 ozs. of butter into 4 lbs. of flour, add 1 teaspoonful of baking powder, make a bay, add 2 ozs. of moist sugar, and sufficient water to make all into a good workable dough. Break out, or weigh off, at 3 ozs. each j split in two and chaff into an oblong shape; if for rabbits, make them only a little pointed at the ends, placing currants at either side for eyes, and with scissors complete the shape. Make one clip at the end of the paste, split this clip in two with the scissors to form the ears, then a small point clipped at the end to form a tail. Now turn the paste upside down and make four clips to represent the legs; you can notch the back over, but it will not pay to do so for wholesale purposes. Place on clean tins, and bake in a good oven.

21. - Serpents

are made of the same dough, but rolled out, say, about 8 inches long, and twisted out to the shape, with currants for eyes.

The operator’s ingenuity will easily imitate other animals.

22.- Paris Buns.

3 lbs. of flour, J lb. rice-flour, 12 ozs. of cheap butter, 1 lb. of good moist sugar, 1 £ ozs. of cream of tartar, f oz. of carbonate of soda, and 4 eggs. Mix with buttermilk to a workable dough, not too tight; roll out in long strings and break off the required sizes on to greased tins, egg over the top, and bake in a good oven. Sold at £d. each.

23.- Common Shortbread.

4 lbs. of flour; add 2 teaspoonfuls of baking powder; rub into the flour lbs. of cheap butter or lard (if lard is used a sharper oven is needed); 1 lb. of castor sugar is now placed in a hollow made in the flour; dissolve the sugar with milk and

WATERBAICES OR BUTTER BISCUITS. 33

make into a stiffish dough. Rub the dough well with the palm of the hand, pin out into sheets, and cut with an oblong cutter, dock them on the top, and nip or pinch the edges; place a cutting of peel on each, and bake in a sound oven.

Sold at id. each; wholesale, 16 for is.

24.- Currant Sponges.

Sift 3 lbs. of good flour, place it on the table, and make a bay; place 2 lbs. of castor sugar, 1 oz. of ammonia in powder, and 8 eggs in the bay. Add a little buttermilk; with the hand mix all together and beat well inside the bay for at least ten minutes. Then take in the flour, and make all into a soft batter; with a spoon divide out on to greased and flour-dusted tins; place a few currants upon each, and bake in a very sharp heat. Sold at -d. each.

If the cakes are inclined to spread on the tins when in the oven, a little piece of lighted wood, placed on the chaffer, will obviate this difficulty. But they should be, when properly manipulated, plump and bold, inclining to the cone shape.

25. - Waterbakes, or Butter Biscuits.

I do not know of a more useful cake or biscuit, or one that will serve so many purposes in a working man’s family as this. It will answer for baby’s food, as a substitute for rusks; the child gets one as a piece for school; the working man enjoys them for breakfast or tea; and the old lady, soaking them in her tea, smacks over them with the relish of an epicure. All together they are a generally good article of food, and only require to be more known to be better appreciated. I have very seldom seen them for sale out of the south of Scotland. Sold at £d. each; wholesale, 28 for is.

Proceed as follows: Take 16 lbs. of roll dough or sponge

D

34

THE MODERN FLOUR CONFECTIONER.

dough that has not had allowed it extra water and salt, or a dough can be made for the purpose by allowing 3 ozs. of compressed yeast to 1 stone of flour, made into a stiff sponge, and when thoroughly ripe, with 1 oz. of lard to every 1 lb. of dough. The lard should be thoroughly mixed through the dough, and stiffened up with flour to a good tightness; then let the dough prove; if made from Parisian barm and roll dough let it prove fully two hours; if sponged and made from compressed yeast, one hour will suffice. Then weigh off at 6 ozs. each, chaff or mould them up, using for dust J lb. of rice flour to the same quantity of fine flour; place together in proving boards, let them lie again for one hour. Split each in two and chaff them up round and place them in rows. Now start pinning them out, fully as broad as a halfpenny wine biscuit, dock them in the centre, and put them in warm proving boards, which place one above another and cover up with empty sacks, or by putting them in the chest or rack made for the purpose. Cold air must be kept out or they will spoil in proving. Do not prove too much or they will fall instead of rising; when nicely proved prod through with a nail, and bake on the oven bottom. The best oven is one in which a batch has just been baked; of course the oven must be well scuffled out, and the ovensman must be quick and active in running them into the oven, else one half will be finished before the other. Keep the oven door closed for about twenty minutes before looking at them, unless the oven is very warm. This must be left to the baker’s judgment. They will feel hard when done, but not so hard that an extra pressure of the finger and thumb will break the outside surface. Draw them into baskets on boards, or, to be more perfect, draw them on to a clean sack, and place on boards and in baskets. Some in the trade may think too many details are gone into for this particular biscuit, but I assure them they are worth it.

WILLIE MUCKLES, TEA CAKES, JEWS 1 BREAD. 35

26. - Willie Muckles.

Use the same dough as before, allowing for every pound of dough 1 oz. of powdered ammonia, 1 oz. of lard, and 1 oz. of brown sugar, with a few carraway seeds; make this the same size of dough as for butter biscuits; but there is little or no proving. Weigh off at 4 ozs. each, split in two, mould them round, pin them out very thin - say nearly the size of a dinnerplate - dock them all round, and, like the preceding, run on to the oven bottom. A sharp oven is required for these. Sold at id.; wholesale, 30 for is.

27. - Tea Cakes.

To every half gallon of water, set at 90° Fahrenheit, allow 1 lb. of moist sugar, 4 ozs. of compressed yeast; put into the liquid sufficient flour to make a ferment. It will be known to be ready by the nice, ripe, cauliflower top; then allow for every i gallon of water 1 lb. of cheap butter or lard (do not use margarine for tea cakes, as there is little or no flavour from it); also allow 1 oz. of salt for every i gallon. When the ferment is ready pour butter - melted, but not too hot, or the yeast will be scalded - into the ferment, likewise the salt; mix all together and dough it up, as the bakers say; make into a nice, mellow dough, let it prove, and divide into plain or currant cakes. Mould up and prove.

28. - Jews’ Bread

is made of the same dough, stiffened or tightened up, weighed off at 5 ozs., split, and moulded round, pinned out, knocked together with the palm of the hand, docked in the centre, proved on tins, and baked in a sharp oven.

In Scotland, when made from Parisian barm dough, 3 ozs.

36 THE MODERN FLOUR CONFECTIONER.

of lard and 3 ozs. of moist sugar are allowed for every pound of roll dough. Proceed as before, allowing more time for proving.

29.- Cookies

are made from tea-cake dough with the addition of 1, and in some places 2 eggs, to 1 lb. of dough, weighed at 4 ozs., and split, moulded round, placed on greased tins, and proved. Currants are used or not, as the operator may determine.

30.- Dough Scones.

To every pound of roll dough allow 2 ozs. of lard, a little carbonate of soda, and about one cup of buttermilk. Do not use too much soda, or the scones will have a strong soda smell. Mix well together, and let thoroughly amalgamate; head it up again, and weigh off, 12 ozs. for 2d. Mould round, pin out a good size, dock the inside all round one inch from the edge. Brush them over the top with milk, and bake them in a sharp oven.

31. - Soda Scones.

Weigh 8 lbs. of prepared flour, make a bay, put 1 lb. of lard and 1 lb. of castor sugar into it. Cream this with 6 eggs, with buttermilk sufficient to make all into a nice working dough. Weigh off at 8 ozs. each, mould round, pin out, and cut into four; place them on clean tins, wash over with egg, and bake n a sharp oven. Currants may be used to improve the taste. Sold at ^d. each; wholesale, 30 for is.

32.- Common Snaps.

8 lbs. of flour, 3 ozs. of soda, \ oz. of alum, 4 ozs. of lard, 6 lbs. of treacle, and about 1 pint of water. Rub the lard into the flour, make a bay, and into it put the treacle; mix the soda

GINGERBREAD MEN, HORSES, AND SQUARES. 37

in the treacle, and pour boiling alum and water - previously mixed - upon them, and make into a workable dough, adding more flour if required. Pin out into sheets and cut out the size of a small lunch biscuit, place on greased tins, and bake in a sound oven. Sold at 8 a id.; wholesale, is. 4d. worth for is.

This is a good paying line.

33. - Gingerbread Men, Horses, &c.,

can be made out of this mixture, having cutters made for them. When the elephant Jumbo was about to embark for America I cut the supposed shape of the animal out on paper and had a cutter made from the paper shape. We did a big trade in this line till the Jumbo excitement died down. Another way in this class of goods is to set a large quantity at a time, say, 4 stone of treacle, with all the above ingredients in proportion, with the exception of the flour, half of which is sufficient to make a thin batter, and head it up to the required size when wanted. This mode of working is best, as the material improves with age, but the first method is handy for an emergency.

34. - Gingerbread Squares

are made of the above dough, tightened up to the required size, with a little ginger and seeds added. Formerly gingerbread squares were all blocked, the block having the Scotch thistle, the lion and the unicorn, or other devices cut out upon it. But it would not pay to weigh off halfpenny gingerbreads, chaff them out, pin and block them, selling them wholesale. Employers of labour would object to pay good wages for their manufacture under the old system. Certainly they are handy for filling up time, but that is all.

The new method is to weigh off equal quantities for each tin; which tin must be edged. Pin them out in a large thick sheet

38

THE MODERN FLOUR CONFECTIONER .

taken on to a roller, one inch broader than the tin on either side, run on to the tin, make an even surface all over, and jigger it over into diamond shape. When baked wash over with glue that has been dissolved and boiled for some time in a little water. When cold, cut into the required shape. Another method is to press a gingerbread block over the surface of the dough, and when baked cut into squares of six. Sold at Jd. each; wholesale, 32 for is.

35. - Fancy Gingerbreads.

\ lb. of cheap butter, lb. of moist sugar, 4 eggs, lbs. of flour, 1 lb. of treacle. This will make 30 at id. each; they are, of course, of better quality than the above.

36.- Large Block Gingerbread.

5 stone of flour, 4 stone of treacle, i lbs. of soda, id lbs. of ginger, 2 ozs. of ground alum, 2 quarts of buttermilk. This dough is best made in a small trough. Draw your flour to the one side of the sprint-board; pour in the treacle, then add the other ingredients, the alum being boiled in a small quantity of water. Make all into a good stiff dough; weigh off the required sizes, chaff and block them, and put on to tins with wood upsets. Bake in a moderate oven.

37.- Parkins.

14 lbs. of medium oatmeal, 6 lbs. of flour, 1 lb. of lard, 1 lb. of sugar, 8 lbs. of treacle, 1 pint of milk, 5 ozs. of soda. Make into a dough and weigh off at 5 ozs.; split them, mould them round, place on greased tins, and press a little down with the palm of the hand; put a little blanched almond into the centre of each. Sold at £d.; wholesale, 30 for is.

38. - Curled Brandy Snaps, or Brandy Scrolls.

4$- lbs. of flour, 3 ozs. of ginger, 6 ozs. of sugar (moist

PARLEYS, HUNTING NUTS.

39

cane), 2 £ lbs. of cheap butter or lard, 2 lbs. of glucose, 2 lbs. of treacle, and a pinch of acid. Pin out, and cut them with a common snap-cutter; some roll them in large strings and dab them on greased tins, occasionally putting the hand in water to prevent them from sticking to the fingers, pressing them flat with the hand as each tin is filled. When they are baked place them over a peel-shaft to curl. To catch each tin before it becomes cold requires an expert operator; they will not curl if too cold, but should this happen place them in the oven for a minute or two to soften.

39. - Another way . - 4 lbs. of syrup, 4 lbs. of moist sugar, 4 lbs. of flour, 1 lb. of lard, and a little essence of lemon. Make into a dough, and proceed as above. Sold at 4 a penny; wholesale, 4d. allowed in the is.

40. - Parleys

are made from common snap dough, with a few carraway seeds added, and are cut with a parley cutter, which should be square and fluted.

41.- Hunting Nuts.

7 lbs. of flour, 3^ lbs. of treacle, 1 lb. of moist sugar, 1 lb. of lard, 3 ozs. of pearl ashes, 3 ozs. of alum. Steep the ashes in a pint of water and boil the alum in about the same quantity. Rub the lard into the flour; make a bay, into which put all the ingredients except the alum; mix well together and then add the boiled alum water, and make all into a fairly stiff dough. Roll out in strings, and cut into small pieces the size of a small marble. Place them upon greased tins with the cut side uppermost, and bake in a sound oven. Sold wholesale at 4d. per lb.

I will now treat upon another class of goods.

4 o

THE MODERN FLOUR CONFECTIONER .

42.- Lunch Cakes.

Sift i oz. of soda and i oz. of tartar with 2 lbs. of flour; rub 4 ozs. of lard into the flour, and make a bay. Add 8 ozs. of good moist sugar and 8 ozs. of currants, and a little essence of lemon dropped upon the sugar. Take sufficient buttermilk to make a soft batter; have the sponge cake shapes nicely greased, and fill them three parts full of the batter, using a spoon; likewise a little colouring may be used; egg upon the top and dust them with a little castor sugar. Bake with a good sound heat. Sold at £d. each; wholesale, 32 for is. This is a good paying line.

43.- Common Queen Cakes.

Sift 1 oz. of cream of tartar a: ¦ oz. of soda with 3 lbs. of flour; make a bay; add 1 £ lbs. of castor sugar and 12 ozs. of lard. Cream the lard and sugar together in the bay, adding a little essence of lemon; draw in all the flour, with sufficient buttermilk to make a soft batter. Grease the queen cake tins with a few currants on their bottoms (fluted tins should be used); spoon the batter into the tins about three parts full, and bake in a sound oven. This, like the preceding recipe, is a good paying line. Sold at ^d.; 32 for is.

44.- Cheap Sandwich.

Sift 2 ozs. of cream of tartar, 1 oz. of soda, and \ oz. of ammonia with 2 >h lbs. of flour. Rub 6 ozs. of lard into the flour, in which make a bay; add 12 ozs. of sugar, and sufficient buttermilk to make a workable dough. Weigh at 9^ ozs. each. The inside mixing for this quantity is 1^ lb. of currants, 8 ozs. of moist sugar, and a few drops of essence of lemon dropped upon the sugar.

Mode . - Chaff them up round, open them out to about the

COMMON PUFF PASTE.

4i

breadth of a twopenny scone, wash one piece over, and place the mixed sugar and currants on the top; put another over the currants; notch both round the edges, wash with egg, and dust rough lump sugar over the top. Bake in a sharp oven; when baked cut each into six. Sold at £d.; 32 for is.

45.- Common Puff Paste.

Use either butter scrapings that are nice and tough or good tough lard. Allow 1 lb. of either of these to if lbs. of flour.

Mode . - Divide the pound of butter into four parts; rub one part into the flour, and make a bay; add as much cold water (spring water, if possible) as will make a nice paste. Pin the paste out to about f inch thickness; with one part of butter that is left spot the paste all over; double each end over with the butter inside the paste; give this another pin out and let it lie for about a quarter of an hour. Repeat the process with the other two parts of the butter, letting them lie a short time between each turn, so as not to burst the butter through the paste. Give two turns of the pin. After all the butter is pinned in, work off. A great deal of judgment must here be used by the operator, as there is no hard-and-fast rule about the number of turns to be given to puff paste appearing in most confectionery books, as the quality of the flour, butter, &c., are to be taken into account.

46. - Another, and easier way . - Weigh down if lbs. of flour. Work the butter a little on a slab, press it into a square and with the knife or scraper cut the square into small pieces one inch square. Lightly mix these pieces amongst the flour; do not rub them; let them lie as they are cut; make a bay, add sufficient water to make a nice working paste; give two turns, and let it lie, then give it two other turns and let lie a little.

42 THE AIODERN FLOUR CONFECTIONER .

Judgment must be used to decide whether any more turns are needed. I generally reckon on four or five turns in making puff paste. You must have perfect confidence in yourself, and judge to the best of your ability; do not ask for directions from your fellows about the proper way to work, or any such nonsense; if you do it is the other who is practically making the paste, not yourself; or, at the best, it is the transaction of a company. If the paste is spoiled it will not be the first. In whatever you do have confidence in yourself.

47.- Common Short Paste.

For twopenny round jam cakes use i teaspoonful of baking powder to 2 lbs. of flour. Rub 1 lb. of lard into the flour: make a bay, add sufficient water, and a pinch of salt, to make a nice dough (not much water will be required, so take care not to “drown the miller”). Pin out, and cut with a large round, plain cutter; when all are cut out wash one-half with water; put jam in the centre of each; make two marks with a knife through the centre of the other half and place upon the first with jam on it; place evenly on its top, making with your thumb four indents, i.e. one at each side or edge. Place on tins, and bake in a sharp oven. The oven must be warm for these or they will spoil; if the oven be cold one part is apt to come loose. Sold at 2d. each; wholesale, 8 for is.

48.- Common Cakes.

(As sold in some cheap shops in London .)

Sift 8 ozs. of cream of tartar and 4 ozs. of soda with 21 lbs. of flour. Make a bay, and add 5 lbs. of lard or cheap margarine, and 9 lbs. of soft sugar. Cream this, and add eggs. Mix all into a batter with buttermilk. This can be made into cheap cakes of various kinds by adding fruit, &c. Sold at 3d. per lb.

WHEATS, ROCK BUNS, PLUM CAKE, MUFFINS. 43

49. - Wheats.

(As made i?i London.)

10 lbs. of rough wheat-meal, 5 ozs. of cream of tartar, 2\ ozs. of carbonate of soda, mixed. Make a bay; add 2\ lbs. of butter and if lbs. of sugar. Cream. Make into a dough with buttermilk. Pin out and cut with a large fluted cutter, dock in the centre, and bake on wires in a steady oven.

50.- Rock Buns.

10 lbs. of prepared flour. Make a bay; add 2\ lbs. of butter and 2\ lbs. of castor sugar. Cream together; add 10 eggs and 2 lbs. of currants. Dough with buttermilk firmly and size out with two forks. Place on greased tins in a sound oven.

51. Second method . - Sift 1 oz. of acid, i£ ozs. of soda, and 7 lbs. of flour. Make a bay; add 2\ lbs. of castor sugar and 2 lbs. of cheap butter. Cream together, and add 4 eggs and about 1 \ pints of milk. Have ready weighed 3 lbs. of currants, and i lb. of peel chopped small. Draw into the flour the currants and peel, make into a stifflsh dough, and proceed as above, making the tops nice and rocky with the forks.

52.- A nice Plum Cake at 4-id. per lb.

Sift 1 oz. of soda and 2 ozs. of cream of tartar with 6 lbs. of flour. Weigh 5 lbs. of currants and 8 ozs. of peel, which mix with the flour. Make a bay; add 1 lb. of lard, lbs. of moist sugar. Cream the lard and sugar, add one grated nutmeg, and make a nice batter. Weigh into greased oblong tins at 1 lb. 2 ozs. Bake in a sound oven.

53. - Muffins.

In making muffins for wholesale purposes water wif have to

44 THE MODERN FLOUR CONFECTIONER.

be used instead of milk; but still, good muffins can be made with water if properly worked.

Sift 4 lbs. of flour, take as much water at 90° Fahr. as will make into a nice batter, and one which can easily be beaten. Have 2 ozs. of previously dissolved compressed yeast, 1 oz. of sugar, and f oz. of salt in the liquid. When made into a batter, beat well with the hand for 10 minutes; then let it stand till ready. This may be seen by the batter beginning to sink. Then lay out, and finish the same way as directed in the “Bread and Biscuit Baker,” with this difference - the batter must be made thicker when water is used, as it is apt to slide and look greasy, especially if the flour be a little weak.

54.- Crumpets.

Use 4 lbs. of good English flour, sifted, 2 ozs. of yeast, and 2 ozs. of salt. Dissolve the yeast with half a gallon of water, at about ioo° Fahr.; add flour and salt, and make into a thin liquid paste. Mix thoroughly, and let it stand for an hour; give a thorough beat, and let it stand another hour, when it will be ready to finish, as directed in the “ Bread and Biscuit Baker.”

55.- Cocoa-nut Buns.

Sift 4 ozs. of tartar, 2 ozs. of soda, and 1 oz. of ammonia, with 7 lbs. of flour; add 4 ozs. of cocoa-nut. Make a bay; add lbs. of butter and 2 lbs. of castor sugar. Cream the sugar and butter and make a tight batter. Place on greased tins and bake in a sound oven.

56. - Mincemeat.

Clean and pick 28 lbs. of good currants, 14 lbs. of sultanas, 14 lbs. of mixed peel, 14 lbs. preserved plums, 16 lbs. of suet,

MINCEMEAT.

45

chopped fine, 24 apples, pared and cored, 8 lbs. of best moist sugar, 8 ozs. of mixed spice, 2 pint bottles of brandy, 14 lbs. of ginger. The sultanas must be free from small sticks and clean, the apples must be cut fine; stone the plums; the suet must be free from skin and chopped small. Mince all these ingredients fine and add the sugar, ginger, spice, and brandy last.

The quantities given here will be too large for use in many shops; but I hope I may be pardoned for saying that where either large or small quantities are desired, the required proportions of such ingredients may be found from those given in this book, by either adding to or subtracting from the ingredients given in each mixture. One would not have thought that so obvious a direction as this need be given, but I have had so many letters from parties connected with the trade (I do not say practical workmen) asking really ridiculous questions on the subject that I hope these few words will be of service to all such inquirers. t

57.- Another Good Mincemeat.

2 lbs. of beefsteak, 2 lbs. of suet, 2 lbs. of apples, 3 lbs. of currants, i^-lbs. of Muscatel raisins, 1 lb. of moist sugar, 1 teaspoonful of salt, 1^ ozs. of ginger, ^ oz. of allspice, 1 ^ ozs. of ground cloves, 2 nutmegs, ground, the juice of 2 lemons, £ lb. of citron peel, % oz. of carraway seeds.

Be sure that the steak is nice and .tender; chop it into fine shreds, likewise chop the suet well; the currants must be clean and picked, and free from stones; the raisins must be stoned and chopped, the apples pared and cored. Squeeze the juice well out of the lemons and add all the other ingredients, and mince all well together. This is for immediate use, and has not the keeping qualities of the other.

/\6

THE MODERN FLOUR CONFECTIONER .

58.- Cheap Madeiras, &c.

Cream io ozs. of butter with i lb. of castor sugar in a basin; add buttermilk and 6 eggs. Mix 2 lbs. of prepared flour into a nice batter in the basin, and have ready papered your small Madeira hoops. Spoon the mixture into the hoops about half full, sugar the top, and place a small slip of peel on each.

This mixture can be made into cocoa-nut, rice, or fruit cake by adding either of the ingredients named to the Madeira batter.

59.- Stanley Cakes

are something akin to fairy cakes, and the mixture used and the shape when finished are somewhat similar.

Sift \ oz. of soda and f oz. of cream of tartar with 2 lbs. of flour. Make a bay; add 10 ozs. of butter, 1 lb. of castor sugar. Cream these together with 6 eggs and buttermilk. Make into a batter, which divide into three, put currants in one part, sultanas in another, and finely chopped peel in the third. Spoon these into the smallest size of patty pans, which must be greased; place a little desiccated cocoa-nut on the top of each, and bake in a sound oven. Sold at three a penny.

60.- Common Shrewsburys.

Rub 14 ozs. of lard into 3^ lbs. of flour, weigh if lbs. of moist sugar and \ oz. of ammonia; dissolve both sugar and ammonia in \ pint of water. When dissolved make into a nice working dough, using more water if required. Pin out and cut with a plain round cutter, and employ a sharp oven. Sold at four a penny. Wholesale, 4d. allowed in each is.

61.- Genoa Buns.

3 lbs. of butter, 5f lbs. of castor sugar, io lbs. of flour,

VICTORIA CAKES, SEED BUNS, SANDWICHES. 47

4 ozs. of soda, 2 ozs. of acid, 1 oz. of cream of tartar, 20 eggs, and buttermilk.

Mode . - Sift the soda, acid, and tartar with the flour; cream the butter and sugar inside a bay in the flour; add the eggs and sufficient milk for a light dough. Mould up about the size of a penny teacake; egg the top; place little pieces of lump sugar, about the size of peas, on the top of each bun, which place on greased tins, with plenty of room, as they will both spring well and spread a little. Sold at 2d. each; 8 for is.

62.- Victoria Cakes.

Rub 1 lb. of lard into 14 lbs. of flour; make a bay, add 7 lbs. of castor sugar, 6 ozs. of ammonia in powder, 2 quarts of milk; put sugar and currants on the top of each, and bake in a smart oven.

63.- Victoria Seed Buns.

Sift 3 lbs. of flour and 1 oz. of ammonia, then cream 1 lb. of butter with lbs. of castor sugar; add 9 eggs. Then add the flour and ammonia with 1 oz. of carraway-seeds; make a nice batter with milk. Spoon the batter into Madeira hoops, ready papered and placed on greased tins, half filling them, and bake in a nice steady heat. The mixture may be varied by spooning on to greased tins about 1^ inches apart. Sold at id. each; wholesale, 16 for is.

64.- Pink and White Sandwiches.

Cream 1 lb. of butter with 1 lb. of sugar, add 10 eggs, and stir lightly into the mixture 1 lb. of flour; spread the batter on two edged tins, nicely papered, equally dividing the quantity. When baked spread jam over the surface of one, placing the other on the top; ice over with water icing, cut into diamond shapes or squares. Sold at 2d. each; wholesale, 8 for is.

48

THE MODERN FLOUR CONFECTIONER.

65.- Raspberry Buns.

Sift £ oz. of soda and i oz. of cream of tartar with 2 lbs. of flour; make a bay, add 6 ozs. of butter, 8 ozs. of sugar; cream, add 1 gill of milk, and make into a nice working dough. Weigh off at 2 ozs. each; mould them up, press them out a little, making a slight indentation in the centre, and in the centre place a little raspberry jam; then gather in the paste all round, place on greased tins, egg the top, and dust over with castor sugar. Wholesale, 16 for is.

66.- Rice Buns.

6 lbs. of flour, 3 ozs. of cream of tartar, and ozs. of soda sifted. Make a bay, cream 1 £ lbs. of butter and 2 \ lbs. of castor sugar; add 9 eggs, and the rest buttermilk. Make a nice soft dough, weigh off at 2 ozs. each, mould up round; wash over with egg, and dip in rice. Place on greased tins, and bake in a sharp oven. Sold at id. each; wholesale, 16 for is.

67.- Napoleon Drops.

Cream 6 lbs. of butter with 10 lbs. of castor sugar in a basin, add 72 eggs; sift 2 ozs. of powdered ammonia with 14 lbs. of flour, and stir this in the batter with a few drops of essence of lemon; drop on to paper through a Savoy bag, dust rough lump sugar over each sheet of drops. Bake in a good oven.

68.- Common Queen Drops.

Cream 3 lbs. of butter with 4 lbs. of sugar in a basin, add 20 eggs; sift 3 ozs. of baking powder with 8 lbs. of flour; add this to the batter, with 3 lbs. of currants and 3 pints of milk; mix all in lightly, but well. Drop on to paper through a Savoy bag, and bake in a sound oven.

ALMOND DROPS, MIXED BISCUITS, ETC.

49

69.- Almond Drops.

Rub 2 \ lbs. of butter in 9 lbs. of flour; make a bay; add 10 lbs. of castor sugar, 30 eggs, and some almond-flavouring. Mix into a good-sized dough, roll out in strips, and cut with the knife; place on slightly greased tins, with the cut side uppermost. Press down slightly with the palm of the hand, and bake in a cool oven.

70.- Mixed Biscuits, 6d. per lb.

Sift 2 ozs. of baking powder with 16 lbs. of flour, rub 3 lbs. of butter and lard into the flour; make a bay; add 8 lbs. of castor sugar, 6 eggs, essence of lemon, and milk, to make a workable dough. This mixture answers for a variety of biscuits.

71.- Lemon Rings.

Sift 12 lbs. of flour, make a bay, and add to lbs. of sugar and 2 £ lbs. of lard; take 18 eggs; cream the sugar and lard with an egg or two added. Then add the rest of the eggs, with about 1 pint of new milk, and essence of lemon; make all into a dough, work off, and bake in a sound oven.

72.- Slab Cake.

Cream 5 lbs. of butter with 7^- lbs. of best moist sugar in a large basin, add 40 eggs; weigh on the table 20 lbs. of flour, 10 ozs. of baking powder being mixed with it, also 16 lbs. of currants and 10 lbs. of cut peel. Mix all in the basin together, with about 5 quarts of buttermilk, and essence of lemon. This makes 5 slabs.

E

THE MODERN FLOUR CONFECTIONER .

50

73.- Lafayettes, or Sandwiches.

Beat up with a whisk, or put in the sponge-beating machine, 28 eggs and 28 yolks, with 2 lbs. of sugar. Whisk into a light sponge; add 2\ lbs. of sifted flour, mixed lightly into the batter. Stir 1 lb. of melted butter carefully in the batter, which divide into greased rings, placed on paper; bake in a sound oven; when cold place jam on one, and put another on the top; cut into 8 pieces. Sold at id. each; wholesale, 15 for is.

74.- Halfpenny Bath Cakes.

3J lbs. of flour, make a bay, add 6 ozs. of lard and 1 J lbs. of sugar; cream; now add 3 ozs. of ammonia and 1 pint of water. Cut out in small round cakes, and wash over the tops; the tins should be slightly greased. Baked in a sharp oven, and sold wholesale at 32 for is. They are only a poor line of cakes, and yet afford variety.

75.- Lemon Kali.

2 lbs. of very fine sifted sugar, 4 ozs. of tartaric acid, 3 ozs. of carbonate of soda, and a few drops of essence of lemon dropped upon the sugar; dry all the ingredients well, and sift through a sieve.

76. Another Way. - 4! lbs. of carbonate of soda, 5J lbs. of tartaric acid, 20 lbs. of icihg sugar, 2 fluid ozs. of oil of lemon, 6 ozs. of foam sugar. Dry all the ingredients well, and thoroughly mix.

77.- Sherbet.

3 Jibs, of carbonate of soda, 4 lbs. of powdered tartaric acid, 14J lbs. of icing sugar, J oz. of oil of citron, J oz. of oil of lemon, 1 oz. of oil of sweet almonds, 4 ozs. of foam sugar; dry all the ingredients as above, and thoroughly mix.

GINGER BEER, ICING, BISCUITS .

5i

78.- Ginger Beer.

5 lbs. of loaf sugar, 3 ozs. of bruised ginger, 5 lemons, 1 teaspoonful of yeast. Boil all for about 1 hour; add a small portion of white of egg to clear it; after it is boiled put the liquid through a fine hair sieve, and let it cool before putting the yeast to it. Then let stand 3 hours before bottling.

79. - Common Icing for Cheap Goods.

Put 1 \ ozs. of Russian or French glue into a basin; upon it pour 1 quart of boiling water, and stir it with a clean spoon till dissolved. The glue may be broken into small pieces, which will facilitate the dissolving process. When cold place it in a bottle for use: it will form itself into a jelly. When required let it lie for a short time on the oven mouth; use it with sugar in the same quantities that would be used with eggs.

When beating up for icing a little tartaric acid is necessary.

?

80. - Halfpenny and Farthing Biscuits.

4 lbs. of flour, 2 lbs. of good moist sugar, 1 lb. of lard, 1 oz. of ammonia. Rub the lard into the flour, make a bay, and add the sugar and ammonia with sufficient buttermilk to make a dough; when doughing shake the mixture well up, but do not toughen it. Pin out, and cut into different shapes: a small cutting of peel may be placed on each. Bake in a good oven.

81.- Nonpareil Biscuits.

This is a very showy line, and sells well when nicely got up. Rub 12 ozs. of lard into 10 lbs. of good flour, make a bay, and add 5 lbs. of good moist sugar, 4 ozs. of powdered ammonia, and sufficient buttermilk to make a nice working dough. Like the preceding, do not toughen it in making the dough. Pin

52

THE MODERN FLOUR CONFECTIONER.

out the thickness of a penny-piece, with a plain round cutter; wash them on the top with milk; throw the washed side on to “ nonpareil” sweets; place on slightly greased tins, and bake in a good oven. Be sparing of the milk in washing the tops, but be sure that the biscuits are washed all over. Sold wholesale 6 4 for is.

82. - Vienna Cake.

Take 2 lbs. of flour, make this into a dough or paste with water, put 12 greased sandwich rings on a slightly greased tin. Divide the dough into twelve, chaff each part up round, pin out about the size of the rings, and line the tin bottom and the ring sides with the paste. In a basin put 3 lbs. of flour, i£ lbs. of sugar, 6 ozs. of lard, 1 oz. of soda, and 2 ozs. of tartar; make a very soft batter, and divide into the lined rings. Bake in a sharp oven. When cold ice over with common icing, and sprinkle a little coloured sugar on the centre of each. Cakes sold at 4d. each; wholesale, 3d.

83. - German Cake.

Rub 12 ozs. of butter into 3 lbs. of flour; make a bay, add 12 ozs. of moist sugar, and 1 oz. of ammonia in powder, and with buttermilk make a dough. Weigh off at 1 lb. each, chaff or mould them, pin them out the size of a large plate, place jam on one, and cover it with another; the lower, with the jam upon it, must be % inch broader than the upper, so that the edges may be thrown over or pinched like shortbread. Wash over with egg, and sprinkle them with rough sugar. When cold cut into eight. Wholesale, allow 4 in is.

84.- Jam Cake.

Sift 1 oz. of tartar, and % oz. of soda, with 2 £ lbs. of flour; rub 4 ozs. of lard into the flour, make a bay, add 4 ozs. of sugar,

APPLE CAKE, SCARBOROUGH GINGERBREAD. 53

and make a softish dough with buttermilk. Divide into two, and mould the two pieces up square; pin out one piece to the size of your tin, also the other; bake them on separate tins, well cleaned and greased. Bake in a good oven; when cold spread jam over the one, covering it with the other. Cut into squares to be sold at id. each; wholesale, 16 for is.

85.- Apple Cake.

Sift i£ ozs. of cream of tartar, and f- oz. of soda, with 6 lbs of flour. Rub in the flour 1 lb. of lard, make the bay, add 1 lb. of sugar, and make into a dough with water. Divide this into four pieces and mould square. Prepare 7 lbs. of apples, pared, cored, and sliced. Pin out one of the pieces of the dough into a sheet the size of the tin; dress the sheet on to the tin, wash it over, and spread half the apples over the paste, using moist sugar and a little cinnamon to sweeten the cake. Pin out another sheet and spread it over the first, finish it nicely off, and wash over the top with egg. Jigger the top nicely into a diamond shape with the paste runner. Dust over with sugar and bake in a sound oven. This quantity makes two tins, and, cut into penny squares, fetches 2s. 8d. each.

86.- Scarborough Gingerbread.

Scarborough has long been famed for its gingerbread, not only for its quality but for the quantity produced; the leading firms sending it to nearly all parts of Britain. I believe also that Scarborough gingerbread makers command the highest price - necessarily a poor one, however, for this line of goods in the market is very poor in quality. But the price obtained is in accordance with the quality of the goods produced. There is a saying, “ Charity covereth a multitude of sins,” and in the case of cheap gingerbread I can honestly say that 1 cwt. of treacle covers a multitude of very questionable ingredients.

54

THE MODERN FLOUR CONFECTIONER .

To show the magnitude of the trade in 1888 I may say that the firm I represent made nearly 20 tons of this “ toothsome delicacy.” (?) As this class of gingerbread is sold as low as 2d. per lb., it may be safely said to be within every one’s reach. Prices got by wholesale firms are 14s., 16s., and 18s. per cwt.; but as 10 cwt. can be made in our firm in one day the profits are got from the amount made. Our mode of procedure is as follows: -

Take 45 lbs. weight of treacle and empty it into a small trough; dissolve 1 lb. 2 \ ozs. of carbonate of soda, in % gallon of cold water; io - ozs. of carraway seeds, io£ ozs. of ground ginger. Have 2 lbs. of melted lard. Mix all these thoroughly in the treacle, and make a stiff dough with household flour. Shake it well up, and when ready place one pailful of this into the dough mixer, and let the machine do the rest. Keep the dough in the mixer no longer than is required, as it becomes drier and harder the longer it is kept in, thus spoiling the keeping qualities of the gingerbread.

A better way of making it is to place a clean sack over the shaken-up dough, and trample it down with the feet, cutting it either from side to side, or end to end. A moister gingerbread is produced, but the trampling system I have never approved of. So for large quantities the mixer is the most methodical. The treacle should be from cane sugar: most of the treacle from beet-made sugar gives very poor results, and often burns before baking. I have seen the quality of so-called beet treacle so poor that the gingerbread fell in the oven, and could not be baked; but the competitive spirit is so keen in this particular line that unpractical employers imagine that, if they can only buy treacle cheap enough, they will be better able to cut down the price and undersell their neighbours.

Gingerbread should have a nice deep golden colour, and this can generally be got from treacle made from cane sugar. It is

CARLISLE CAKE, SUGAR BISCUITS.

55

weighed off, chaffed up, and placed in frame blocks with the firm’s name on the top, or the lion and the unicorn, which is the most common, i lb. gingerbread is generally placed on a tin with wood upsets, 24 upon an ordinary tin. Baked in a cool oven. When baked wash the tops over with glue that has been boiled in water, using 6 ozs. of glue to every pint of water for about 120 lbs. of gingerbread.

87. -CarIisIe Cake.

Sift 2 ozs. of soda and 4 ozs. of tartar with 8 lbs. of flour and 1 1 lbs. of currants. Make a bay, add 2 \ lbs. of moist sugar and 1 lb. of lard; cream the sugar and lard. Make all into a batter with milk; spoon the mixture into small round greased hoops, bake in a sound oven; ice them over when cold with common icing. Sprinkle a little red sugar on the centre of each. Sold id. each; wholesale, 16 for is. If preferable the tartar may be omitted, and ozs. of muriatic acid added to the milk.

88. - Sugar Biscuits.

This is a very common line in the South of Scotland, but three persons out of every four fail to produce them as they ought from want of practical knowledge, carelessness in the manipulation, or both combined. When properly made they are a very saleable wholesale article, so it is worth while to take trouble and care to ascertain what quality of ingredients to use, and how to use them and bake them.

4 lbs. of good fine flour - do not use Hungarian, but a good soft flour of superior blend. Rub 6 ozs. of lard into the flour, make a bay, and add 1 lb. of good moist cane sugar, 4 ozs. of powdered ammonia, and sufficient buttermilk for a workable dough; do not toughen the dough, or the sheets will be difficult to pin out, and the quality of the biscuit will be inferior.

56

THE MODERN FLOUR CONFECTIONER.

When the dough is made, mould the quantity needed either round or square. The sheet should be about the thickness of two penny pieces; dock or stab the sheet all over, cut out with a fluted cutter, and place on greased tins, set a little apart, wash the tops with milk, and bake in a sharp oven, not so sharp as to burn or nip them. By following these directions a nice showy biscuit wdll be the unfailing result, and one that will sell well. Some practical men might say on reading this recipe that there is too much ammonia. It does look a great deal, but such is not the case, for when the biscuits are properly manipulated and baked in an oven of the proper heat, the ammonia is given off in the form of gas, and leaves a porous and cheap biscuit. Sold at £d. each, and two for ^d., according to the size of the cutter. Wholesale, 32 or 64 for is.

89.- Crystallized Ginger Cakes.

Sift \ oz. of tartar, £ oz. soda, and £ oz. of powdered ammonia with 2 \ lbs. of flour; make a bay, add 6 ozs. of lard and 1 lb. of good moist sugar, likewise £ oz. of ground ginger. Cream the sugar and butter, and make into a dough with buttermilk; weigh off - sizes differing with the locality - mould up round, wash over the top with milk, and dip in crystallized sugar. Place on greased tins, and bake in a sound oven. Sold id. each, 16 for is.

90.- Marquis of Lome Cakes.

Sift 1 oz. of tartar, 1 oz. of soda, and \ oz. of powdered ammonia, with 2 % lbs. of flour; make a bay, add ^ lb. of currants. Cream 8 ozs. of lard and 1 lb, of castor sugar, make into a batter with new milk, and spoon into small round papered hoops. This for wholesale purposes. For retail substitute butter for lard, and add 4 eggs. Sold id. each, 16 for is.

DUNDEE SCONES, SUGAR BUNS, LEMON BUNS. 57

91.- Dundee Scones.

Sift 2 ozs. of soda with 8 lbs. of good flour; make a bay. (“ Making a bay” means making a hole in the flour on the table to receive the other ingredients.) Cream 12 ozs. of lard and 12 ozs. of sugar; have dissolved in a pint of milk 3 ozs. of tartar and \ oz. of salt, make all into a dough with buttermilk; weigh off at 9 ozs. for id. Chaff round and pin out the size of a common saucer, press the centre of the scone with the docker top, dock it, wash over with egg, leaving the centre dry; turn over when half baked, and bake a nice dark rich golden colour. Sold id. each, 14 for is.

92.- Sugar Buns, fermented.

1 quart of water at 90° Fahr.; dissolve 4 ozs. of yeast in the water, add 1 lb. of moist sugar, ferment with a little flour. When the ferment is ready add 8 ozs. of melted butter. Make all into a dough with sufficient flour; let it prove; weigh off at 5 ozs. the pair. Mould up, egg over the top, and dip into crystallized sugar; place on greased tins to prove; a dry prove is best for these, i.e. placing them on warm boards instead of the steam press, as the sugar is liable to melt. Sold £d. each, 32 for is.

93. - Lemon Buns.

This is a really good selling line, and when properly got up looks well. Sift 2 ozs. of tartar, 1 oz. of soda, and \ oz. of powdered ammonia, with 2% lbs. of flour. Rub 8 ozs. of lard into the flour, and mix with them 1 lb. of castor sugar. Make a bay, add as much milk as will make a nice dough, with essence of lemon. Roll out in thick strings, nip off the required size, and place on greased tins; egg them over the top, and place a little sugar in the centre of each bun. Dust

58

THE MODERN FLOUR CONFECTIONER.

ing with sugar will not suffice; the sugar must be placed in the centre of each bun. Bake in a good smart oven; when baked they should hav.e a bold appearance, and should be cracked in three or four places on the top. Sold -d. each, 32 for is.

94. - Albion Buns.

Sift l oz. of powdered ammonia with 6 lbs. of flour; make a bay, cream 2 lbs. of cheap butter, 4 lbs. of castor sugar, add 24 eggs, and the rest buttermilk, to make a good batter. Spoon on to a greased tin, wash on the top, and bake in a sound oven.

95. - Exeter Buns.

3 lbs. of flour; make a bay, cream 1 lb. of butter with i^lbs. of castor sugar, add 10 eggs, a little milk; spoon on to greased tins, with a piece of peel on each; bake in a sound oven.

96.- Soft Milk Buns.

Dissolve 2 ozs. of compressed yeast in 1 quart of milk, about 90° Fahr., ferment this with a little flour. When the ferment is ready add 1 oz. of melted butter and about 4 lbs. of flour to make a dough. Let it prove; weigh off 4 ozs. the pair; mould them up, and pin them slightly. Prove on boards. When ready, dock in the centre, and bake on the oven bottom. Bake in a sharp oven.

97.- Reform Cake.

Make a bay in if lbs. of flour. Cream 5 ozs. of butter with f lb. soft sugar, add 2 eggs and f oz. of ammonia, a little essence of vanilla, and make into a softish batter with buttermilk; spread it on a greased edged tin; bake in a sound oven; when cold cut the cake in two, spread jam on one and cover it with the other, and take 30 cuttings or squares out of this. Pipe

IRISH SLIMS, BLACK CAPS, SUGAR COOKIES. 59

them over with common icing, employing any neat design. Sold id. each, 16 for is. This is another of many scattered through the book of my own composition, which, though showy, does not keep well.

98. - Irish Slims.

Rub 1 lb. of butter and 1 lb. of lard into 6 lbs. of prepared flour; do not rub it in very fine, so that the cake or scone may be flaky. Add 1 oz. of salt, and make a dough, a little tighter than scone dough. Weigh at 20 ozs. each; mould them up and roll them out in an oblong shape. Cut this into 6, and bake on a hot plate.

99. - Black Caps.

Whisk well 1 2 eggs and 2 lbs. of castor sugar; sift 2 ozs. of powdered ammonia with 4 lbs. of flour; have 4 ozs. of melted butter. Add 1 pint of buttermilk, stir all lightly, but well, together; spoon into nicely greased cups, with a few currants scattered on the top; baked in a sound oven. To look well these must be nicely and systematically got up, not mixed in that happy-go-lucky style so often used in cakes, and still oftener seen in certain confectionery made by those that “ grasp the skirts of happy chance,” and trust to luck for their guidance. This I consider has been one of the forces that has driven the cake trade out of confectioners’ hands into the biscuit factories; and unless more skill and care are shown in the get-up of cakes and biscuits, bakers and confectioners will only have a poor share in this line of their business in the very near future.

100.- Rounds of Sugar Cookies.

Take 4 lbs. of roll dough; mix 8 ozs. of butter with 8 ozs. of sugar and 8 eggs; tighten up with Hungarian flour; let prove

6o

THE MODERN FLOUR CONFECTIONER.

for about hours, and weigh off at 3 ozs. the pair; mould them round, pin out, and fold them like a Coventry puff. Place seven in the round; put them on tins, wash them on the top, and prove. Bake in a smart oven; dust over with castor sugar. Sold - d. each, 32 for is.

101. - Brown or Wheat Meal Scones.

Sift 4 ozs. of tartar and 2 ozs. of soda, with 8 lbs. of granulated wheat meal. Rub 8 ozs. of lard into the meal; make a bay, add 6 ozs. of sugar and 1 oz. of salt, make into a dough with buttermilk. Weigh off at 10 or 12 ozs. for 2d., mould up and pin out round, cut into four, and bake in a sound oven on the oven bottom. Sold id. each, 30 for is.

102.- Meat for Banbury Puffs.

Peel and core 2 lbs. of apples, and chop them up fine. Take 2 lbs. of common peel minced small, 2 lbs. of currants free from stones and stalks, and mix with them 2 lbs. of crumbled stale cakes. Chop all up fine together, seasoning them with mixed spice, and adding a little treacle.

103.- Banbury Puffs.

Make 2 \ lbs. of flour and 2 lbs. of cheap butter, or butter scrapings, into puff paste. (See directions for making puff paste.) Roll the paste out in sheets, cut out the required sizes with a fluted cutter, pin out the cakes an oblong shape, thickest at each end. In the centre put a little Banbury meat: before doing this some make a mark or two on the paste, so that when the cakes are folded and turned over they appear on the puff top. Put the puffs on tins, and dust sugar on the top of each, bake in a sound oven. If butter scrapings are used there should be no difficulty in allowing a good percentage, such as 18 for is.

COVENTRY PUFFS, ECCLES CANES, TARTLETS. 61

104.- Coventry Puffs.

These are a good wholesale line, made from paste as before. Roll the paste out thin, cut out the puffs with a large plain cutter, put them in rows on the table - some place them together in a slanting position, which, though saving room, is not so convenient. Put a little jam on the centre of each, turn up the edge in three places, one part overlapping the other, in the form of a triangle, keeping the jam secure. Turn them over, wash over with white of egg, and place on tins. Dust in the centre with sugar. Before putting them in the oven sprinkle them over with clean water. Sold id. each, 16 to 18 for is.

105. - Eccles Cakes.

From the same class of paste. Roll out paste about ^ of an inch in thickness, sufficient to cover a good-sized tin. Brush this over with water, and spread sufficient Banbury meat over the surface to cover it, about \ of an inch thick. Pin out another sheet, roll it on to the pin again, and cover the meat with it. Dress or trim the sheet all over, wash the top over with water, and form the surface into a diamond shape, with the paste runner. Bake in a sharp oven. When nearly done, draw the cake to the oven mouth, and dust it all over with sugar, giving it a nice, dark glaze; cut into penny sizes, 16 or 1 8 for is. This is a very good wholesale line.

106. - Tartlets

may be made from the same paste. Roll out the paste into a thin sheet, \ of an inch thick, cutting out the tartlets’ shape with a plain round cutter, and pressing the pin end into the centre of each piece. Place them on tins close together. Wash over with egg and put a little jam in the centre of the paste; bake in a good sharp oven. Sold at - d. each, 32 to 36 for is.

62

THE MODERN FLOUR CONFECTIONER .

107. - Puffs

are made from same paste. Roll out the paste as last, and wash the puffs with egg, and sprinkle a few currants on each, pressing them down a little, as the springing of the paste and the heat of the oven are apt to throw them off. Sold £d. each, 32 for is.

108.- Sausage Rolls.

Roll out a sheet of paste, and cut into squares. Place a little sausage meat lengthways in the middle, where two incisions have been made. Form a roll, and egg on the top with egg yolk. Bake in a moderate oven. Sold at 2d. each, 8 for is.

109.- Loch Katrine Cakes.

Sift 1 oz. of carbonate of soda, and 1 \ ozs. of tartar, with 4 lbs. of flour; place this in a basin. Rub 8 ozs. of lard into the flour, add 1 lb. of good moist sugar, 6 ozs. of currants, a little essence of lemon, and some turmeric for colouring, and make all into a batter with buttermilk; spread the batter on a greased edged tin, and bake in a sound oven. Cut into squares, id. each, 16 for is.

110.- Meat Pies

have always been a very popular article of food; but there are pies and pies. We have them all sizes and forms, from our modest little penny pie to that kind of monster that was made some time ago in a small village to commemorate some interesting occasion, and which weighed some hundred-weights, and was served out from a tent in the open air. Pies have been referred to in proverbs, poems, etc. One proverb refers to the qualities of a pie crust - “ Promises are like pie crusts,

MEAT PIES.

63

made to be broken.” Little Jack Horner has associated pies with poetry. Who amongst us have not played with mud pies in our youthful days, and scrutinized the manipulation of our neighbours with a critical eye.

Then, again, there is the cat story, which, though well known, will bear repeating. There was once an old-established pie shop in a certain street in London, where the vendor made a good trade through his energy and hard work. A brother in trade had often looked with longing eyes on the success of this old establishment, and determined when an opportunity should occur that he would start a pie shop in the same locality. Well, in a short time a chance came, and he took a shop that was to let on the other side of the street, and fitted it up in the most approved style; so gay and attractive did it look that, so runs the tale, the first pieman’s hard-gotten trade, friends, and customers were transferred to the new shop. Our friend had a fertile brain, however, and he vowed he would not be beaten; so he engaged a cat’s-meat man, who, on a given signal, entered the new pieman’s shop when it was full of customers, and throwing a couple of cats on to the counter, said, “ This makes eleven; it is all I could get. I’ll try and make up the dozen to-morrow, when you can settle with me for the lot.” The close of the story is obvious. The customers returned to the first pieman, whose opponent was compelled to close.

That there has been and is very questionable meat used for pies I am very confident of. One man I know of uses for his pie meat only the worst parts of an animal, with jelly made from pig’s skin, flavoured and seasoned. At any rate this is clean, and, so far as his knowledge goes, sound. It would be well if the same could be said of all pie-dealers, but it cannot be. Only recently in the North of England several persons were poisoned by pies, one man dying; these, fortunately, are exceptional cases, for dealers are, in general, particular about the

6 4

THE MODERN FLOUR CONFECTIONER.

meat. But there is a certain class so utterly regardless of how they cater for the public, and so careless about what they buy, that it is a wonder more disease and mischief is not spread; for all they seem to care about is the amount of cash that can be filched from a too confiding, and, I may say, a too easy gullable public.

From experience in pie-making I have found that the best and cheapest way to buy meat for pies is to get it ready chopped, and, in some cases, seasoned, from a respectable shop. Even then you may be deceived, but generally not. In the case above referred to, about the poisoned pies, I really think that the pie vendors were ignorant of the diseased state of the meat, and acted in all good faith. But it is a warning to all, that they cannot be too careful in the purchase of food.

To show to what extent the traffic in diseased meat is carried, the following account, taken from a reliable source, will testify.

At a meeting held some time ago of the City Commission of Sewers of the City of London, the medical officer of health reported that the markets and slaughter-houses in his district had been duly inspected, and the officers had condemned 3 tons 7 cwt. 3 qrs. 3 lbs. of meat, etc., as unfit for human food; 6 cwt. 1 qr. 14 lbs. was diseased; 2 tons 17 cwt. 3 qrs. 12 lbs. putrid; 3 cwt. 2 qrs. 5 lbs. was from animals that had died from accident, all of which had been destroyed in the usual manner. The total quantity of meat, etc., brought into the central markets at Smithfield during the month of March amounted to 23,098 tons 1 cwt., of which 9 tons 10 cwt.

2 qrs., was seized by the inspector's as unsound. The percentage of condemned meat, therefore, during that period was 0*41, or about one twenty-fourth per cent. Any further comment from me is unnecessary; obviously, if the meat used is poor in quality, at least let it be free from disease.

MEAT PIES.

65

The form and make of pies varies greatly in different countries. In Edinburgh pies are mostly baked in rings; in the South of Scotland and in other districts the shells were mostly set up with the hand, using three pie shells at once and turning them round with the knuckles inside, and the palm of the hand pressing the outside shell against the knuckles. That is, there are three shells, one fitted within the other, the outer being the finished one; and very expert some of the craft used to be at this particular employment. In England they are mostly blocked, i.e. either chaff the pie and pin them out, half setting them up and finishing them off on a block, or pinning out a sheet and cutting out the size required and placing the paste on a block, and with the two hands gradually forming the paste into the shape of a pie. We have had a good substitute in the market these past few years, and a very good one too, for the block and hand, namely, a pie-blocking and lid-cutting machine, to be had at Messrs. J. Baker & Sons, London. For a wholesale pie-maker it is an inestimable boon.

I will now give directions for making pies. If set up in rings use cold water, and for every pound of flour use 4 ozs. of good lard, and make into a good stiff paste, allowing a little salt to flavour it. Have the meat cut and seasoned (unless you have a special seasoning of your own) at a pork or butcher’s shop. Most wholesale pie-makers have either a pair of rollers or a biscuit machine, which are very necessary for this part of the business; they save time and labour and cut to a more certain size than can be done by hand. When the shells are set up, put them by till the necessary number of lids are cut out, when they will be rather firm and stiff. Fill up with meat and lid them. I maintain that as much skill is required in lidding a pie as in setting it up. The operator’s experience and ingenuity will help the finishing of the pie in a tradesmanlike manner. Either wash with water or egg, according to fancy;

F

66

THE MODERN FLOUR CONFECTIONER .

but if the dough is properly made and the oven of a nice sharp heat, I prefer to wash with water. In making this style of pie, a hole is generally cut in the lid centre, before being placed on the shell, to allow of gravy being added after baking. Generally sold for 2d. each; wholesale, 12 for is. 6d.

111 . Another way . - When pies are set up by hand or formed on a block, boiling water is used to make the dough, which should be softer than if made with cold water, as the boiling water coming in contact with the flour makes the dough soon stiffen. But, again, the paste or dough will have to be a certain stiffness or some trouble will be found in getting the shells to stand up; practice will soon overcome this difficulty. In England nine bakers out of every ten use pork for this class of pies, and no hole is made in the lid, but a nail or prod is used to hole the lid after they are baked, so as to allow a little jelly being inserted. Jelly for this purpose can be made by procuring skin of pigs and a few bones stewed in the oven, with a certain amount of water and seasoned to taste. It ought to be stewed at least for 2 \ hours. Do not be tempted to use cheap questionable meat - rather make the pies less in size. You cannot fail to gain in the end. Sold 2d. each; wholesale, is. 6d. per dozen.

112. - Jam Sandwich.

Sift 2f lbs. of flour, make a bay, add 1 2 ozs. of cheap butter creamed with 12 ozs. of castor sugar. Add 5 eggs and milk to make a working dough. Weigh off at 4 ozs. each; chaff them up, pin them out, spread jam on the centre of one, place another on the top, and notch the edges round with finger and thumb; egg them on the top, dust them with sugar, and bake in a sharp oven. When cold cut into four.

SANDWICHES, WATER ICING .

67

113. - Raspberry Sandwich

is the most popular of any in the market. Whisk up 3 lbs. of castor sugar with 3 lbs. of eggs till a proper consistency is obtained, then stir in 3 lbs. 14 ozs. of sifted flour. Divide the batter when finished into twenty sandwiches; the rings should be round, either fluted or plain, about 8 inches diameter. Bake in a sound oven, and when cold split the cake in two with a sharp knife; spread some raspberry jam weakened with water over the lower half. Cut into 8 slices; sold 16 for is.

114.- Frosted Raspberry Sandwich.

This is done if the above cake is a day or two old by dusting over with fine icing sugar.

115. - Piped Meringue Sandwich.

Cover the sandwiches with a coating of meringue; pipe round the edge, and dot out the three-cornered parts on the surface of the meringue. Put in the oven to dry; when cold pipe each division of the 8 parts with red currant jelly. Sold 2d. each; 8 for is.

116. - Sandwich with Pink Icing.

Colour the icing with cochineal. Use either water or royal icing, spread it over the surface of the sandwich with the palette knife, and dry.

117.- Water Icing

is made by using icing sugar diluted with hot water and a little tartaric acid. Beat up like royal or white icing, till you get the required consistency.

68

THE MODERN FLOUR CONFECTIONER.

118. - Cocoa-nut Sandwich.

Add 8 ozs. of desiccated cocoa-nut to the batter, and ice over the surface with white icing; dust a little cocoa-nut over the top.

119.- Crystallized Iced Sandwich.

Spread a coating of icing sugar over the surface of the sandwich, and dip into granulated sugar crystals.

120.- Leamington Cakes

can be made out of the same batter as sandwiches; the tins are nicely greased and dusted, two slices of peel are placed, with sometimes a few currants sprinkled, on the bottom of the tins. Sold 2d. each; 8 for is.

121.- Sultana Bun Loaves.

This is a very good cheap line. Use tea-cake or bun dough and in it mix the required quantity of common sultana raisins and a little peel roughly cut. After it has sufficiently proved in the dough, weigh off at i lb. 1 2 ozs. Mould up one in each hand square, place them in square 2 lb. loaf tins, egg them on the top, and prove them in the steam press. Sold wholesale at 5^d. each; retail at 6£d.

122. - Albert Cake.

Rub 4 ozs. of butter in 3 lbs. of flour; make a bay, add 12 ozs. of sugar, 3 eggs, i£ ozs. of voil, and 1 pint of milk; make into a nice working dough. Weigh off at 2 ozs., split them in two, mould them up long, and stent them out with the hand in an oblong form, something like a Scotch bap. Take the scraper and mark them on the top in a diamond shape. Put them on slightly greased tins, and bake. Sold 32 for is.

BISCUITS AND CANTS,

69

123. - Sponge Biscuit.

Whisk up 1 lb. 6 ozs. of sugar and 1 lb. 6 ozs. of eggs, add 1 lb. 8 oz. of flour. Stir lightly, and spoon on to greased tins that have been dusted with flour. Sold ^d. each; 32 for is.

124. - Crispian Cake.

Sift ^ oz. of soda and acid oz. between the two) with 1 lb. of flour in a basin; pour in 4 ozs. of melted butter, % lb. of sugar, 2 eggs, £ oz. of cinnamon, 3 ozs. of currants, and a little milk, with 4 ozs. of golden syrup to make a nice batter; bake in sponge-cake frames; 16 for is.

125. - Geneva Cake.

Cream 2 lbs. of butter, with 2 lbs. of castor sugar; add 16 eggs; sift 1 \ ozs. of baking powder with 4 lbs. of flour. Mix into the flour 4 lbs. of cleaned and picked sultanas, 1 lb. of peel cut small, and nearly a pint of new milk. This is a better class of cake than most of those I have given, and does not come under the head of cheap cakes; it makes a very good best cake for wholesale purposes. Mix all the ingredients together, grease the paper, and line the Geneva tin with it; place the mixture in the tin, and spread the surface smooth with a palette knife. Sprinkle over with chopped almonds, and bake. Sold 9d. per lb.

126.- Arrowroot Biscuit.

Rub 6 ozs. of butter in 4 lbs. of flour; add 4 ozs. of ground rice; make a bay, add 6 ozs. of fine sugar, with 4 eggs and a little milk, to dough. Make a good tight dough and break it through the rollers; sheet them out when smooth through the machine l inch thick, cut them, and stab them with the arrowroot docker.

;o

THE MODERN FLOUR CONFECTIONER.

127.- Good Orange Gingerbread.

Take 20 lbs. of common snap dough (the recipe for which has been previously given), 8 eggs, 2 lbs. of moist sugar, ij lbs. of cheap butter, 2 lbs. of drained peel cut small, 1 oz. of carbonate of soda. Mix all together, and make a good firm dough with extra flour. Divide the dough into sizes; form each piece into a square; have a greased edged tin, pin out the dough sheet to fit the tin, and mark the top into penny squares, which cut out when cold. Sold 16 for is.

128.- Cocoa-nut Cake.

Cream 1 lb. of sugar with 1 lb. of butter; add to this the yolks of 5 eggs well beaten; have ready f- lb. of flour with 3 teaspoonfuls of baking powder sifted through it, and the meat of 1 large cocoa-nut grated and dried. Mix the cocoa-nut and flour together and stir them lightly into the batter, then add the whites of the 5 eggs, well whisked. Flavour with the juice of a lemon, and bake in small cakes.

129.- Cocoa-nut Biscuits.

Whisk 6 eggs and 1 1 lbs. of castor sugar well up; add 12 ozs. of the meat of the cocoa-nut, grated; mix all together; take a spoonful of the paste and form into a pyramid shape, place on paper in tins, and bake in a cool oven to a light brown.

130.- Corn Flour Cake,

Cream 12 ozs. of butter with 12 ozs. of sugar; add 12 eggs, 2 lbs. of corn flour, and 1 \ ozs. of baking powder, also a little essence of lemon; mix together and pour into tins lined with buttered paper. Bake in a sharp oven.

BATH BUNS, ECCLES CAKES, ETC.

7i

131.- Bath Buns.

Take 4 lbs. of roll dough, 6 ozs. of butter, 6 ozs. of sugar, 6 eggs, 4 ozs. of peel cut small, and 4 ozs. of sultanas, also a little essence of lemon. Mix all together, weigh off at 3 ozs. each, place them on tins, egg the top, prove them, and place a little sugar on the top before putting into the oven.

132.- Imitation Eccles Cakes.

Mix l 0 z. of cream of tartar and soda with 4 lbs. of flour; rub in 2 lbs. of lard and add lbs. of currants; make into a nice paste with water. Roll out in £ inch thick sheets, cut out with a fluted cutter and place on clean dry tins, egg over the top, dust a little castor sugar over them, and bake in a sharp oven. Sold at each; 32 for is.

133.- Short Paste, for Fruit Pies, &c.

Sift 1 teaspoonful of baking powder with 2 lbs. of flour, into which rub 12 ozs. of lard; add 4 ozs. of moist sugar, and make all into a nice paste with water. This class of paste must be worked off at once. For meat pies a little salt must be substituted for the sugar.

134.- German Tarts, open.

Made with above paste. Line a baking tin with paste; cover the paste with cherries, apples, rhubarb, or plums, the plums or cherries being stoned; sprinkle sugar over the fruit to sweeten to taste. Bake in a sound oven.

135. - Common Sultana Raisin Cake.

Rub 8 ozs. of butter into 2 lbs. of flour. Place this in a basin; add 8 ozs. of castor sugar, 6 ozs. of candied peel, 12 ozs. of sultana raisins, 8 eggs, and 1 pint of milk with 1 teaspoonful

72

THE MODERN FLOUR CONFECTIONER .

of soda dissolved in it; add half a grated nutmeg, mix together, and bake in 2 lb. tins in a moderate oven.

136.- Common Ginger Cake.

Mix 2 teaspoonfuls of baking powder with 2 \ lbs. of flour; place this in a basin, rubbing 8 ozs. of butter into the flour; add 8 ozs. of sugar, 1 oz. of ginger, 1 lb. of raisins, % lb. of treacle, J pint of milk; mix all together into a batter; paper some 2 lb. hoops with greased paper, and bake in a sound oven.

137.- Oatmeal Biscuits.

Rub 12 ozs. ot lard in if lbs. of flour; make a bay, add 12 ozs. of medium oatmeal, 12 ozs. of sugar, and 1 pint of milk; make all into a dough. Roll out the sheet thin and cut into various shapes. Bake in a brisk oven.

138.- American Puff Paste.

Mix 1 teaspoonful of baking powder with 2 lbs. of flour; rub 2 lbs. of butter on the slab, and divide it into four parts; take one part and rub it into the flour; dough it with cold spring water; pin this out f inch thick; spot the paste over with the third part of the butter, folding it up again, and repeating the process twice with the remainder of the butter. Set aside for a quarter of an hour, when the paste will be ready to work off.

139.- French Puff Paste.

Sift 2 lbs. of flour; work on a slab 2 lbs. of good butter, 2 ozs. of which rub into the flour; make a bay, and beat up the yolks of 4 eggs with a little water; add this gradually to the flour till the whole is formed into a smooth paste. Divide the rest of the butter into three, repeating the process for American paste. See that the butter does not break through the paste; let lie for a quarter of an hour, when the paste may be worked off.

JERSEY WONDERS, PARKIN CAKES.

73

140.- Jersey Wonders.

This is a good old recipe peculiar to Jersey, and its peculiarity consists in the manner of cooking and the shape of the article produced.

Sift 2 lbs. of flour, place in a basin, rub 6 ozs. of butter into the flour, add 6 ozs. of castor sugar, a little ground nutmeg and ginger, 4 ozs. of lemon peel; add 8 beaten and whisked eggs, and make all into a dough. Roll out about the thickness of your wrist; cut off a slice and roll into an oval shape, about 4 inches long and 3 wide, but not too thin. In it make two slits, but not through either end. There will thus be three bands; pass the left through the aperture to the right, then throw it into a pan of boiling lard, or beef or mutton dripping. Three or four may be cooked at once. In about two minutes turn 'them with a fork, when they will be browned and swollen or risen; in two or three minutes more remove them from the pan to a dish to dry and cool.

141.- Treacle Parkin Cake.

Rub 1 lb. of butter into 4 lbs. of oatmeal; add 4 lbs of treacle (which must be warmed), 1 oz. of ginger, 1 oz. of pepper, 1 oz. of carraway seeds, 2 teaspoonfuls of carbonate of soda, in

1 cupful of milk; mix all together. Bake in a square edged tin, greased; when cold cut into penny squares. Sold 15 for is.

142.- Housewife’s Plum Cake.

Put 2 % lbs. of flour into a basin; add f lb. of castor sugar, lb. of melted butter, £ lb. of currants, £ lb. of orange peel,

2 ozs. of carraway seeds, £ oz. of ground ginger, 4 teaspoonfuls of soda dissolved in a pint of new milk. Bake in hoops. This, though not very artistic, is an easy cake to make.

74

THE MODERN FLOUR CONFECTIONER.

143.- Plain Wheat Meal Plum Cake.

Sift £ oz. of soda with 3 lbs. of granulated wheat meal into a basin; add 8 ozs. of sugar, 6 ozs. of currants, 6 ozs. of raisins,

ozs. of candied lemon. Put i oz. of muriatic acid in a little buttermilk; add this to the other ingredients; take sufficient milk to make all into a nice batter. Line some oval tins with greased paper, and bake in a brisk oven. This needs to be well soaked.

144.- Lemon Cheese, for Cheese Cakes.

Take 1 lb. of castor sugar, the grated rind of 2 lemons and the strained juice, l lb. of butter, 6 eggs (leaving out the white of two). Let this simmer over the fire till it becomes as thick as honey; put it in a jar and tie it down with paper. It will keep for a month.

145.- Lemon Preserve.

Take 1 lb. of crushed lump sugar, 6 eggs (leaving out the white of two), the juice of 3 lemons and the rinds of two grated. Put all these into a saucepan, and boil gently over a slow fire till they become thick. If properly made this will keep for twelve months.

146.- White Gingerbread Cake.

Cream 8 ozs. of butter with 1 lb. of moist sugar, add 2 eggs, sift £ teaspoonful of powdered ammonia with 1 lb. of flour, mix with this 4 ozs. of drained peel cut and 1 oz. of ground ginger. Make all into a batter, and bake in small tins in a moderate oven.

147.- Cheap Common Simnel Cake.

2 lbs. of flour, 8 ozs. of butter, 8 ozs. of sugar, 2 lbs. of currants, 4 ozs. of cut lemon, £ oz. of soda dissolved in a little

SPANISH PUFFS, TREACLE ROLLS AND SCONES. 75

milk, 2 eggs, and milk to make all into a batter. Bake in a moderate oven, put sweets and pieces of green citron cut into various shapes on the top when it is baked.

148. - Spanish Puffs.

Boil three parts of a pint of milk (new), with 1 oz. of butter, 6 ozs. of flour, mixed well in the hot milk; flavour with manilla. Dropped about the size of walnuts and lightly baked.

149. - Treacle Rolls.

Take 8 lbs. of roll dough, mix with it 8 ozs. of lard, 1 lb. of black treacle, and 1 oz. of carraway seeds; stiffen it up to the size of tea-cake dough, let it prove for a little, then weigh off at 6 ozs. the pair; split and chaff them up long, stent them out with pointed edges, place them on greased tins in rows, nearly touching each other, put them in the steam press to prove, and bake in a moderate oven. When baked glaze them over with brown sugar and water that has been boiled. Sold d. each; wholesale, 32 for is.

150.- Treacle Scones.

Take 8 lbs. of roll dough, add 1 lb. of black treacle, and 8 ozs. of lard, mix 1 ^ ozs. of carbonate of soda, dissolved in one cup of buttermilk, into the dough, and dust it up with flour; let it lie apart for a little so that all the ingredients may be properly mixed, and when the dough is beginning to prove head it up again and weigh off at 12 ozs. each. Mould up round, pin them out about 8 ins. across, dock in the centre of the cake, wash them over, and bake them on the oven bottom. When baked wash them over with sugar and water as for treacle rolls. Some bakers allow more soda than that above given, but I have found the quantity stated makes a nice scone. Sold at 2d. each; wholesale, 8 for is. They are a capital selling line, and likewise pay well.

76

THE MODERN FLOUR CONFECTIONER .

151.- Rhubarb Tarts.

Take 4 lbs. of flour for shells and lids; rub 12 ozs. of lard into the flour, make a bay, add a pinch of salt, and sufficient cold water to make a stiff paste; break well or elbow the paste till a smooth skin is obtained, cut the dough into long strips, and break off in sizes 1 \ ozs. each; chaff them up round, pin them out like cup biscuits, leaving the inside of the shell thickest; half set them up with the middle joints of your two fore-fingers. You can either finish by setting them up with your hands or on blocks. The last is the neater of the two. Next fill the shells nearly full of rhubarb and sufficient brown sugar; the lids must be all pinned out. Make a hole in the centre of the lids; a very small thimble will serve for this. Either place the lids in a saucer with a little water, or lay them in rows of six on the table on the reverse side, washing them over with water. Then place upon the shell and finish lidding. Wash again when all are lifted. They may either be egged over before baking, or sugar and water as for treacle rolls maybe used. Sold id. each; wholesale, from 16 to 18 for is. They are a very good selling line.

152. - Pepper Cakes, large or small.

Put 2 lbs. of flour into a basin, rub 8 ozs. of salambo or lard into the flour, add 2 ozs. of cut peel, 1 oz. of black pepper, ^ oz. of ground ginger, J oz. of cinnamon, 1 lb. of treacle. Dissolve £ oz. of pearl ashes in a little milk, mix all this partly together, and, when about half the mixing has been done, mix with it a small saucepan full of boiling dissolved alum, taking about half a cupful of water. Make all into a light batter, and proceed to spoon into greased tins. Sold id. each; wholesale 16 for is. This mixture may, if desired, be used for large cakes, but the oven must not be too hot.

CAKES, NUTS, AND BISCUITS.

77

153.- Pepper Cakes.

Put 3 lbs. of flour into a basin; rub 6 ozs. of salambo or lard into the flour; add 6 ozs. of sugar, \ oz. of ginger, £¦ oz. of carraway seeds, and ij lbs. of treacle, with i£ ozs. of soda, dissolved in a little milk and a small quantity of buttermilk. Mix all together into a light batter, spoon out at id. each; or wholesale, 1 6 for is.

154.- Dough for Parleys and Hunting Nuts.

Put 9 lbs. of treacle in a small lard bucket, add 4 ozs. of melted salambo or lard, 2 ozs. of ground ginger, 1 oz. of black pepper, 1 oz. of carraway seeds. Dissolve 4 ozs. of pearl ashes in one gill of water; mix all these ingredients together, have dissolved and boiling 1 oz. of ground alum and 1 gill of water: pour this into the other ingredients and mix. Then take sufficient flour to make all into a thin batter, and put it apart for use. It is improved by being kept, and the longer it is kept the tighter it will grow. Before being used it should be stiffened up to the required consistency.

155.- French Sponge Cake.

Particulars for a small quantity shall be given, and the operator may enlarge as he thinks fit. It can be increased by simply adding to the given ingredients. I have found it to be an excellent mixture, and one which produces a showy and toothsome cake. Take 3 cups of flour, 2 cups of castor sugar, 1 cup of sweet milk, i cup of melted butter, 3 eggs well whisked, 2 teaspoonfuls of cream of tartar, and 1 teaspoonful of carbonate of soda; mix all together and bake in oval papered hoops. Scale the batter off at 1 lb. Sold 6d. each.

156.- Brighton Biscuits.

li lbs. of flour 1 lb. of moist sugar, 2 ozs. of lard rubbed

78 THE MODERN FLOUR CONFECTIONER .

into the flour. Make a bay, add the sugar, % oz. of powdered ammonia, and i cupful of new milk. Make into dough, pin out, and cut with a small fluted cutter. Sold at 4- a id.; wholesale, 64 for is.

157.- Vanilla Cake.

Cream 1^ lbs. of butter with 3^ lbs. of castor sugar; add 16 eggs, sift about 1 oz. of cream of tartar with 4\ lbs. of flour and ^-oz. of soda; add the flour to the previous mixture, with 1 i pints of new milk, and flavour with vanilla. Paper some 1 lb. oval hoops, and weigh off your batter at 1 lb. for each cake. This mixture would do for penny vanilla cakes. Bake in a moderate oven. Sold 5d. each; small ones 15 for is.

158.- Cocoa-nut Buns.

(As made in Lincolnshire .)

Take half a gill of water, lb. of butter, i£ lbs. of sugar, ^ lb. of desiccated cocoa-nut. Put this on to the fire to boil, then add 4 lbs. of flour, 6 eggs beaten, and one quart of new milk. Weigh 3 ozs. for id.; wash over with milk, dip them into granulated sugar, and bake in a sharp oven.

159.- A Cheap Sixpenny Bun or Cake.

Take 6 lbs. of roll dough, 12 ozs. of brown sugar, 12 ozs. of cheap butter, and 2 £ lbs. of currants. Mix this all well together, and set it in a warm place to prove; then weigh off at 1 lb. 6 ozs. Place in greased hoops, egg the top, let them prove, and bake in a moderate oven.

160.- Threepenny Bun Cake.

Take the same dough, and weigh off at 11 ozs. each. Place in greased hoops. Proved and baked as above.

BISCUITS AND CAKES .

79

161.- Common Seed Biscuits.

6 lbs. of flour, i £ lbs. of moist sugar, 6 ozs. of powdered ammonia, 8 ozs. of lard, i quart of buttermilk or water, i oz. of carraway seeds. Rub the lard into the flour. Make a bay; add the sugar. Have the ammonia previously dissolved in the liquid. Make all into a nice working dough. Make it well up before drawing into dough; if too much worked it will get tough and difficult to pin. Pin out into sheets, dock all over, and cut with a fluted cutter. Place on greased tins and bake in a sharp oven. Sold at one halfpenny each; 32 for a is.

162.- Common Rock Cakes.

Rub 1 lb. of cheap butter into 8 lbs. of flour; add 2 lbs. of moist sugar, 5 ozs. of powdered ammonia, 2 lbs. of currants; add sufficient milk to make a tight batter. Fork on to greased tins, making them rough. Bake in a good oven. Sold, wholesale, 16 for is.

163. - Common Banbury Cakes.

2 % lbs. of flour, 12 ozs. of sugar, 4 ozs. of lard, 2 eggs, 2 ozs. of powdered ammonia, 8 ozs. of currants. Make a bay in the flour, add the lard and sugar, cream both lard and sugar with the 2 eggs, and make into batter with milk. Finish as for best Banburies.

164. - German or Vennitte Cake.

2 lbs. of prepared flour. Make a bay. Cream 8 ozs. of butter and 12 ozs. of sugar; add 6 eggs and 6 oz. of currants, made up into a weak batter with milk. Put the batter into 8 greased rings. Sold 6d. each; 4^d. each wholesale.

8o

THE MODERN FLOUR CONFECTIONER.

165. - Lemon Ginger Nuts.

5 lbs. of flour, 2jjr lbs. of moist sugar, i lb. 2 ozs. of lard, 1 oz. of soda, 1 oz. of acid, 3 lbs. of syrup, £ oz. of essence of lemon. Sift the acid and soda with the flour. Make a bay; rub the lard and sugar together, add all the other ingredients, and shake it well up into dough. Pin out about a quarter of an inch sheet, and cut with a small spice-nut cutter. Sold 6d. per lb.; wholesale, 4^d. per lb.

166. - Common Ice Cream.

Whisk up 8 fresh eggs, put them into a pan with 2 quarts of new milk; add 1 lb. of loaf sugar and 2 ozs. of good butter. Whisk the whole ingredients together. Place the pan on a clear fire, keep stirring well from the bottom till it comes to the point of boiling, but be sure and do not let it boil. At this point take off the pan and strain through a fine hair sieve. Let it stand till cold, and then freeze. Apply a little saffron and vanilla to give it a nice rich colour. Directions for freezing will be found in the “ Pastrycook and Confectioner’s Guide.”

167 -A Cheaper Ice Cream.

Mix 3 quarts of new milk with 2 lbs. of lump sugar; dissolve 4 ozs. of farina or potato flour in a little milk, and mix all together. Simmer gently over a clear fire; when cold freeze, and flavour to the required taste.

168.- Common Treacle Beer.

To 1 lb. of moist sugar, dissolved in 3 quarts of water, add 1 lb. of black treacle, 1 oz. of bruised ginger, and i oz. of good hops. Eoil this for ten minutes, then strain through a sieve; add 5 quarts more of cold water. Now add one spoonful of brewers’ yeast. Let this work all night, and bottle in the morning. When corked tie the cork down with string.

GINGER POP; GINGER BEER, GINGER ALE.

81

169. - Ginger Pop.

To 3 'gallons of boiling water add 2 ozs. of best ginger, 3 lbs. of lump sugar, 2 ozs. of lemon juice. When cold enough, strain through a sieve, and ferment it with 2 ozs. of compressed yeast; then bottle. Use stone bottles, and see that the bottles are thoroughly washed. Tie the corks down with either wire or string.

170. - Ginger Beer.

Pour 4 gallons of boiling water on 6 ozs. of bruised ginger; add 2^ lbs. of lump sugar, \ oz. of cream of tartar, % oz. of tartaric acid. With a stick stir all together until thoroughly dissolved. Let it remain until it is milk warm, then stir in i gill of brewers’ yeast. Let it ferment for twelve hours, then draw it off clear by means of a tap placed an inch from the bottom of the tub. Whisk a little of the white of an egg to a froth, add half a teaspoonful of essence of lemon, strain all through a flannel cloth, bottle, and tie down.

171.- Aerated Ginger Ale.

Put 6 ozs. of the best carbonate of soda into 4 gallons of clear water; dissolve the soda, and allow this liquid to stand a few hours to settle. Use a clean cask with a wooden tap fixed an inch from the bottom of the tub. When it has properly settled draw it carefully off into another tub by means of the tap. On no account disturb the sediment that settles at the bottom of the first tub. Mix with this water 2 lbs. of loaf sugar - dissolve this thoroughly - then flavour with extract of ginger ale; add a small quantity of liquid colouring prepared for the purpose, then put the usual quantity of liquid into glass bottles, and to each bottle add a small quantity of tartaric acid - about 2 scruples on the end of a teaspoon. Immediately

G

82

THE MODERN FLOUR CONFECTIONER .

after this drive the cork into the bottle and wire it down, to preserve the carbonic acid gas that has been formed by the acid’s action on the soda* This is, indeed, a most expeditious and cheap method for making this excellent beverage. I have repeatedly, in the middle of summer when aerated drinks were unobtainable, supplied my customers with this substitute, with satisfactory results to both the customers and my own pocket.

172,- Ginger Beer Powders.

Take 5 lbs. of icing sugar, 1 J lbs. of tartaric acid, 1 lb. of carbonate of soda, ij ozs. of powdered ginger, and { oz. of essence of lemon. Mix all the ingredients together, and sift three times through a fine sieve. It is then put up in penny packets, and can be supplied to the shops wholesale.

173- Seidlitz Powders.

4 ozs. of the best carbonate of soda, 1 oz. of tartarised soda. Sift this through a fine sieve till properly mixed, then divide this quantity into forty equal parts, and wrap each part in blue paper; then take ozs. of pulverised tartaric acid, and divide into forty equal parts, and wrap in white papers.

When using, dissolve the contents of the blue paper in a tumbler nearly full of water, to which add the contents of the white paper; stir, and drink immediately.

174.- Yankee Dough Nuts.

Dissolve i - ozs. of compressed yeast in 2 quarts of water, 12 ozs. of sugar, and 4 eggs. Rub 8 ozs. of butter into 9 lbs. of flour and 1 oz. of salt. Mix all together, flavour with vanilla. When ready - not too ripe - scale off at 4 ozs. the pair, split and mould them up rough, place them on dusted boards, and prove. When ready - be sure you have the lard boiling, or hot

DOUGH NUTS, PINEAPPLE CAKE, SALLY LUNS. 83

enough to cook them - place them in the lard, and when of a light brown turn them with a stick, and finish on the other side. Then roll on sifted sugar.

175.- Cheap Dough Nuts.

Rub 2 ozs. of butter into 2 lbs. of prepared flour, make a bay, add 2 ozs. of castor sugar, and make into dough with buttermilk. Finish as above.

176.- Common Pineapple Cake.

Rub 8 ozs. of lard into 2\ lbs. of flour, make a bay, add lbs. of castor sugar, 2 eggs, and 1 oz. of powdered ammonia. Use about 1 gill of milk, make all into stiffish dough; roll pieces about 2 ozs. each in the form of a chaffed Scotch roll, long; flatten them out with the hand in the form of a Banbury. Mark them each way across the surface with the scraper, wash with egg, and bake in a moderate oven.

177.- Common Sally Luns.

Take 2 lbs. of sponge dough, 4 ozs. of butter, 4 ozs. of sugar, and 4 eggs; mix all together, and dough or stiffen up with Hungarian or Russian flour. Place them in round rings that have been greased, prove and bake, wash with egg and milk. When brought out of the oven, they are generally sold at 2d. each, or wholesale 8 for is.

In mixing this class of cakes, or indeed any class of goods, skill and attention are required, and every point should be watched; where any real improvements could be made it should be done. Do not depend too much on books and instructions, be the books ever so well written, or the instructions clear and lucid; the quality of the ingredients used must be taken into consideration - also under what conditions the goods are manufactured. Success depends a great deal upon the brain

8 4

THE MODERN FLOUR CONFECTIONER.

of the operator: one with a mixture will produce far better results than another, who may spoil it. But humanity is composed of good, bad, and indifferent.

I remember hearing a story that supports these observations. A certain old lady-proprietress of a confectionery establishment, being in a very good humour one morning, as the foreman brought in some buns on a board of a special quality and dainty make, said, “ John, I don’t know how it is, but when any of the others make these buns they never have the same bold appearance or flavour. How do you mix them, John?” John’s reply was, “ I mix them with brains, ma’am.” The good man no doubt had in his mind the great painter’s reply to the inquisitive amateur on the subject of colours and the mixing of brilliant shades.

178.- Hot Cross Buns, wholesale.

6 gallons of water, 3 lbs. of compressed yeast, 12 lbs. of moist sugar, 12 ozs. of salt, 12 lbs. of lard and margarine, 24 lbs. of currants, 10 lbs. of peel, 60 eggs. This quantity weighed at 9 ozs. the pair makes 700 buns. Place your liquor in a large pan, or ferment tub; add the sugar; dissolve the yeast by putting it along with the water and sugar. Let it lie for io minutes, when if the yeast be good it will break up and float on the top, when it will be easily dissolved; the water should be about 90° Fahrenheit. Put as much flour into the pan as will make a ferment, then let this lie about 1 hour, when - all conditions favourable - the ferment should be ready: now add your salt bruised, and the lard and margarine melted, currants cleaned and picked, peel cut small, and eggs. Properly mix all these ingredients together, and make into a nice light dough. Let it stand to prove for half an hour, then proceed to work them off. When you have sufficient to fill the steampress, start and cross them with a tin cross for this particular

PLUM CAKE, DUBLIN BUNS.

85

purpose; wash them with water. When put apart the surface of the bun will somewhat soften, and they will also have a more finished appearance and take a better bloom in the oven. When they are baked wash over the top with a mixture of egg and milk specially made; be sure you do not make it too strong with egg, or the buns will have a streaked white appearance. If too little egg is used there will be no, or little, gloss. Try one tin first: if the results are satisfactory, continue the process; if not, the remedy is either more milk or egg. By following these instructions you cannot fail to have good buns. Another point is to have a good sharp oven, for if cold the buns will look poor and be dry for eating and husky. The oven must be up to a proper heat to retain the moisture that is required in a bun. I find 6oo° by the pyrometer to be the best baking heat. Sold 32 to 36 for is., according to the weight given.

179.- Plum Cake for School Parties, &c.

4d. per lb.

Weigh 6 ozs. of cream of tartar, 4 ozs. of soda, and 16 lbs. of flour. Sift this into a large basin; rub into the flour 1 % lbs. of lard and lbs. of margarine; add 3^ lbs. of moist sugar and 12 lbs. of currants, 1 oz. of spice, and 10 eggs. Make into a nice batter with buttermilk. These are generally baked in square bread tins, nicely papered: instead of washing the top, sprinkle a little good moist sugar over the top of each cake. Your oven must not be flush.

180 .- Dublin Buns.

Take 4 lbs. of roll dough; pin it out, and spot over the surface of the dough % lb. of butter, 6 ozs. of sugar, 6 ozs. of currants, and a little allspice. Double the sheet up and pin out three or four times. Cut this into stripes, form into a

86

THE MODERN FLOUR CONFECTIONER .

twist, wash over, and sprinkle a few carraway seeds over each. Prove and bake in a sharp oven.

181.- Spice Cake.

Sift io ozs. of tartar and i oz. of soda with 3 lbs. of flour; add 1 lb. of moist sugar, 14 oz. of currants, and 1 oz. of allspice. Make all into a batter with buttermilk. Cut this into squares, when cold. Sold ^-d. each; 30 for is.

182. - Halfpenny Heart Cakes.

Cream 8 ozs. of butter and 8 ozs. of sugar; add 6 eggs and if lbs. of flour; mix all together with 1 oz. of ammonia dissolved in a cup of milk. Place the batter round the inside of the greased heart cake tins with the palette-knife, and just cover the tin bottoms with the batter; sprinkle a few currants on the top of each. Bake in a good oven. Sold 32 for is.

183. - Curd for Cheese Cakes.

4 ozs. of melted butter, 4 ozs. of castor sugar, yolks of 2 eggs, and a little milk; add curd to flavour it. Mix and press through a sieve. Add 2 ozs. of flour and 4 ozs. of currants.

184.- Congress Curd.

1 lb. of castor sugar, £ lb. of ground almonds, the whites of 6 eggs. Mix well together.

185. Another Curd . - 1 lb. of melted butter, 3 lbs. of sugar, % pint of lime juice, 1 pint of water, 24 eggs, and essence of lemon. Mix.

186. Another Curd . - 1 lb. of lard, 11 ozs. of sugar, 3 ozs. of butter, 2 eggs, have some old sponge or rice cake soaked. Cream together the lard, butter, and sugar, add the eggs, then the soaked cake, and a little milk if required.

CAKES AND MUFFINS .

87

187.- Sponge Queen Cakes.

Whisk 1 lb. 6 ozs. of sugar with 1 lb. 6 ozs. of eggs, add 1 lb. 8 ozs. of sifted flour. A few minutes before putting the flour to the batter add \ oz. of powdered ammonia; mix all lightly together and spoon the batter into fluted queen cake tins, greased and floured. Sprinkle a few currants on the bottom of the tins. Bake in a sound oven. Sold id. each; 16 for is.

188.- Garibaldi Muffins.

Take 4 lbs. of prepared acid and soda flour (page 6). Rub 4 ozs. of butter into the flour, make a bay; add 4 ozs. of castor sugar, a pinch of salt; make a nice working dough with buttermilk. Weigh off at 4^ ozs. for id. Chaff up round, pin out the size of a good tea cake, wash over the top with egg. Take a nail and prod the centre of each, run them on to the oven bottom, and when half baked run the mouth of a thin peel below every two and turn over on to the other side. Bake a nice deep brown; the oven man must be expert to bake them evenly. Sold 14 for is.

189. - Victoria Cakes.

Sift 6 lbs. of flour, rub 1 £ lbs. of common butter into the flour, make a bay. Add 2 lbs. of castor sugar, 6 eggs and 1 oz. of powdered ammonia, mix well and make a nice dough with buttermilk. Weigh off at 6 ozs. each, chaff up round, allow three pieces for one cake. Pin out about the size of an ordinary dinner-plate, wash over with water, sprinkle a little mixed currants, moist sugar, and essence of lemon over the washed surface. Pin out another piece, wash and sprinkle as before. Pin out the third piece, wash with egg, dust the top over with loaf-sugar nibs, and bake in a moderate oven. When cold, cut into eight pieces. Sell each cake, wholesale, at 6d.

THE MODERN FLOUR CONFECTIONER .

190. - Brunswick Biscuits.

Rub 5 ozs. of butter into 6 lbs. of flour. Make a bay; add 2 lbs. of moist sugar, lbs. of large crystallized sugar, 3 ozs. of powdered ammonia, and 1 quart of new milk. Make a dough. Pin out in sheets, cut them out about a l inch thick, wash them with milk, and throw them on to crystallized sugar. Do not grease the tins too much: a little steam introduced into the oven when these biscuits are baking is an improvement. Generally sold by the pound, but they can be made a good size, and sold wholesale at 64 for is.

191. - New England Cakes.

Cream 1 £ lbs. of sugar with \ lb. of butter; use 4 ozs. of flour and half a grated nutmeg. Dissolve 2 teaspoonfuls of saleratus in a gill of milk; add 12 ozs. more of flour, and mix all into a nice dough. Roll into sheets £ inch thick, cut into round cakes, place on greased tins, and bake in a sound oven.

192.- Exhibition Buns.

1 lb. 12 ozs. of flour, £ lb. of sugar, \ lb. ot butter, \ lb. of roll dough, 8 eggs, £ oz. of powdered ammonia, a few drops of essence of lemon. Mix all together. Scale off 2 ozs. for a penny. Mould round, wash over the top, place crosswise two stripes of peel on each, and a small piece of blanched almond between the stripes of peel.

193. - School Plum Cake.

Weigh 21 lbs. of prepared flour. Make a bay; add 3 lbs. of cheap butter, 5 lbs. of moist sugar. Cream butter and sugar together; add 10 eggs. Have weighed on the table 12 lbs. of

SEED CAKE, TOTTENHAM CAKES, CRACKLINGS . 89

currants and i lbs. of peel. Take sufficient buttermilk - just about i£ gallons - which mix in the batter, adding some turmeric to colour, and make all into a good batter. Line with wood upsets, and paper an edged tin of the required size, and in it put the batter neatly, and bake in a sound oven. Sold at 3^d. per lb. wholesale.

194. - School Seed Cake.

Weigh 6 lbs. of prepared flour. Make a bay; cream 10 ozs. of margarine and 1 £ lbs. of castor sugar; add 4 eggs, 2 ozs. of carraway seeds, and 8 ozs. of peel cut small. Make all into a light batter and put into a square tin. A little turmeric improves the colour of the mixture. The same process as above. Sold 4d. per lb.

195. - Tottenham Cakes.

Weigh 4I- lbs. of flour prepared. Make a bay; cream 1 lb. of cheap butter or lard with lbs. of castor sugar. Weigh down 2 \ lbs. of sultanas; add buttermilk to make a softish batter, using a little essence of lemon and turmeric. Put the batter into a square-edged tin about 1 inch in thickness. Bake in a sound oven. After baking, ice over with water icing, cut into large squares - cut from corner to corner, forming a three-cornered piece. Sell id. each; 16 for is.

196. - Cracklings.

Sift 4 oz. of baking-powder with 12 lbs. of flour. Make a bay; add 3^ lbs. of lard, 4 ozs. of ground ammonia. Mix the latter with the lard, and with buttermilk make a dough. Weigh 2 ozs., split and chaff, pin out very thin, and dock. Bake in a sharp oven. ^-d. each; 34 for is.

90

THE MODERN FLOUR CONFECTIONER .

197.- Glasgow Pancakes.

8 lbs. of prepared flour, 2 lbs. of castor sugar, 3 ozs. of lard, 8 eggs, and 1 \ pints of milk.

Rub the lard into the sugar very finely; add the eggs; beat eggs, lard, and sugar well together. Add the prepared flour and about pints of new milk, and beat all into a slack batter; then spoon out on to the hot plate.

As the modern flour confectionery business is, we may say, a recent addition to the institutions of our country, those connected with it are in a position to so mould the profession as to make it prove a blessing to those engaged in it. Let us bear in mind that we ought to work to live, not live to work, making the path easier for those who follow after us. The present generation of flour confectioners can either make or mar this necessary business. That we may hand it down to posterity in an unfettered and unshackled state is the earnest wish of the author.

TIT-BITS FOR THE WORKING-MAN’S TABLE.

I will now give recipes for a collection of toothsome dainties suitable for a working-man’s table, which are easily made and inexpensive. As weights and scales in the homes of the working classes are conspicuous by their absence, I purpose substituting in their place cups and teaspoons, as far as practicable, so as to make the manipulation of the article as easy as possible to the worker.

Cooking and baking need intelligence to guide the hand that works. It is one thing to prepare food carefully, so that it may look inviting, and be nourishing and digestible; quite another to mix and bake a few ingredients with no care for the manner of making the required article, or interest in the efficiency of the results of one’s labour.

198- Girdle Scones.

1 1 teaspoonfuls of cream of tartar, i of carbonate of soda. Mix these well with 2 lbs. of flour; add sufficient milk and a pinch of salt to make a dough. Roll out the scones about % inch thick. Either bake in an oven or on a girdle. When one side is nicely coloured, turn over and finish baking on the other.

92

THE MODERN FLOUR CONFECTIONER,

199- Ginger Cakes.

Rub l lb. of butter or good dripping into i lb. of flour; add h lb. of moist sugar, 2 teaspoonfuls of yeast powder, 1 of ground ginger, and i of a grated nutmeg; add 1 gill of milk and the whites of 2 eggs whisked. Bake in a moderate oven.

200.- Oatmeal Gingerbread.

Mix 1 lb. of medium oatmeal with buttermilk, and make a thin batter. Let it lie for twelve hours; then add 1 lb. of prepared lentil powder, % oz. of carbonate of soda, 1 lb. of coarse flour; add 1 lb. of warm treacle. Mix all, and bake in a moderate oven. This will be both palatable, and act as a good digestive.

201.- Cookies.

1 lb. of butter, $ lb. of sugar, 2 teaspoonfuls of saleratus (bi-carbonate of soda may be substituted), 3 lbs. of flour and about i pint of buttermilk, and 1 teaspoonful of powdered ammonia. Warm the milk and in it dissolve the sugar, boil the sugar in i pint of water and let it cool, rub the butter into the flour, add the other ingredients and make all into a weak dough. Form into rolls, or cut into various shapes. Bake in a moderate oven.

202.- Pork Pies.

Make a nice short crust with about 6 ozs. of lard to 1 lb. of flour, cut into small pieces 3 lbs. of pork, season with pepper and salt, roll out the paste and cut out a round piece the size of a saucer, make two slits on one side of the paste, on the other place the pork; fold the slit piece over the top of the pork to form a turnover; pinch and twist the edges. Do this with all the paste and pork and bake in a sound oven.

TIT-BITS FOR THE WORKING-MAN.

93

203.- Pancakes.

Take i lb. of good flour, 2 eggs, 1 quart of new milk, and i teaspoonful of baking powder. Mix well into a thin batter, put a little lard into the frying-pan, and pour some batter over it. When nicely browned on one side toss it over on to the other, or, if you are not familiar with the tossing, turn over with a slice. Serve with lemon juice and sugar.

204.- Scotch Gingerbread.

Rub i lb. of butter or dripping into 3 lbs. of flour; add 1 lb. of sugar, 1 nutmeg grated, two teaspoonfuls each of cinnamon, ginger, Jamaica pepper, and carbonate of soda. Have 2 lbs. of black treacle warmed; pour this in and wash out the basin with i pint of hot water, put them into papered tins, and bake in a moderate oven.

205.- Lemon Buns.

1 lb. of flour, l lb. butter, £ lb. castor sugar, 1 oz. of lemon peel, 20 drops of essence of lemon, 1 gill of new milk, and 2 teaspoonfuls of baking powder. Put the baking powder into the flour, rub in the butter, add the sugar and cut peel and essence of lemon; mix all into a light dough. Either mould up in small round pieces and bake on flat greased tins, or place in greased patty-pans, and bake in a sound oven.

206.- Cranberry Tart.

Wash a pint of cranberries, and - in an enamelled saucepan, with 1 lb. of moist sugar and % pint of water - stew gently uhtil tender. Make some good puff-paste, and line the edges of the pie-dish; put in the cranberries, and cover with paste; wash the paste over with the white of an egg; then dust castor sugar over the top, and bake till it is a nice golden colour.

94

THE MODERN FLOUR CONFECTIONER.

207.- Soda or Milk Bread.

Mix i teaspoonful of tartaric acid and i of salt with 2 lbs. of flour; dissolve 1 teaspoonful of soda in a pint of milk, and thoroughly dissolve it. Add the milk to the flour and make a dough. Place on flat tins; when moulded into the required sizes, cut across the top. They may be covered with bread tins or not, as seems best. Bake in a sound oven.

208.- Beef Cake.

Cold beefsteak may, if slightly underdone, be nicely made into a beef cake by chopping it fine with a little thyme or parsley, well-seasoned, and mix with a tablespoonful of breadcrumbs, and another of thick gravy, and add 1 egg; grease a small cake tin, and sprinkle a few crumbs over the tin; press' the mixture firmly in and cover with a few more crumbs: this will take about 20 minutes in a hot oven. Turn it a few minutes before taking it from the oven. Any other kind of cold meat may be done the same way.

209 - Potato Scones.

Mash up some boiled potatoes very fine, and quite smooth; add a little salt; put sufficient flour into the mashed potatoes, and work into a smooth dough; pin out thin and bake on a girdle; dock them with a fork before putting them on the girdle.

210 - Orange Wafers.

Beat up the yolks of 4 eggs, stir into them J lb. of castor sugar, the juice of 1 lemon, and the grated rind of £ a lemon, the whites of the eggs whisked well; with a teaspoon drop the batter on to buttered paper; spread orange marmalade on the under side, and place two together.

TIT-BITS FOR THE WORKING MAN

95

211.- Lemon Cheese Cakes.

Line patty-pans with puff-paste, and half fill them with the following mixture: -

Mix the yolks of 3 eggs, juice and grated rind of 2 lemons, and 4 ozs. of castor sugar; mix all together, and place in a jar in boiling water, and stir till it thickens.

212.- Dough Nuts.

Take 1 cup of butter and 1 cup of sugar, a little cinnamon, and 2 eggs; mix these in a quart bowl, full of bread dough, and make it stiff: let it rise. When sufficiently risen, roll and cut into small squares or balls. Throw them into hot fat and boil till they are of a mahogany colour.

213.- Swiss Roll.

Whisk 2 eggs with 2 ozs. of castor sugar; when well beaten, add 2 ozs. of flour, and 1 teaspoonful of baking powder; pour the batter on to greased paper that is placed on a tin; bake in a quick oven. Turn the cake on to a clean cloth that has been dusted with castor sugar. Brush over the paper with cold water and it will come off. Spread raspberry jam on and roll up, and dust with castor sugar.

214.- High-falutin’ Cake.

Take the whites of 4 eggs, 1 cup of sugar, £ cup of new milk, £ cupful of butter, % cupful of corn-flour, 1 cup of flour, and 1 teaspoonful of baking powder. Cream sugar and butter together, add first milk, then corn-flour, with baking powder; lastly, the whites of eggs well beaten. Flavour with essence of vanilla.

96

THE MODERN FLOUR CONFECTIONER .

215. - Marble Cake.

For the white part: - i cup of butter, 3 cups of sugar, 5 cups of flour, £ cup of sweet milk, % teaspoonful of soda, the whites of 8 eggs, and a few drops of essence of lemon. For the dark part: - % cup of butter, 2 cups of brown sugar, 1 cup of treacle, 1 cup of buttermilk, 4 cups of flour, 1 teaspoonful of soda, yolks of 8 eggs, and 1 whole egg and allspice. Paper an edged pan, and put a layer of dark spread over it, then a layer of light, finishing with a dark layer. Bake in a sound oven.

216. - Election Cake.

4 lbs. of flour, f lb. of butter, 1 lb. of sugar, 4 eggs, 1 lb. of raisins, 2 ozs. of compressed yeast. Dissolve the yeast in milk sufficient to make the flour into a stiff sponge. When the sponge is ripe mix in all the other ingredients; let it prove for an hour; divide into sizes, place on greased tins, prove, and bake in a sound oven.

217.- Peep-bos.

Rub 4 ozs. of butter into 6 ozs. of ground rice and 6 ozs. of flour, 1 teaspoonful of baking powder; add 4 ozs. of castor sugar; take the yolks of 2 eggs and a little milk, and make a stiff paste: divide into small pieces, make a hollow in the centre of each, and insert a little raspberry jam; close up the hollow, dip each in white of egg, roll in castor sugar, place on greased tins, and bake in a sharp oven. They should crack on the top, and the jam be shown.

218.- Butter Sponge Cakes,

Take the weight of 7 eggs in sugar, the weight of 4 eggs in flour, the weight of 3 eggs in butter; mix flour and butter into a cream, then beat the yolks and sugar together and have the

TIT-BITS FOR THE WORKING MAN. 97

whites well beaten up to a stiff froth. Take 1 lemon, both juice and rind, mix all lightly together, put the batter into the sponge frames and bake in a sound oven.

219. - Banana Cake.

Take i£ cups of sugar, £ cup each of butter, new milk, and corn flour, 2 teaspoonfuls of baking powder, and the whites of 6 eggs, well whisked. Cream sugar and butter in a basin, add the milk and corn flour, then mix the baking powder with the flour and add the white of egg and flavouring; make four layers of this mixing. Slice 6 large bananas and divide them into three parts; stew one part with the sliced bananas, ^and put a layer of the mixture, and so on, with the four layers. The top of the cake should be covered with frosted sugar.

220.- Raspberry Sandwich.

Cream 8 ozs. of butter with 8 ozs. of sugar; add 6 eggs, the whites and yolks being beaten up separately. Mix in 1 2 ozs. of sifted flour lightly; put the batter into rings 10 inches in diameter and £ inch deep. Bake in a good sound oven; when cold spread jam, warmed, and with a little water added to it, on one part, forming a sandwich with the other. Drain with castor or fine sugar.

221.- Pop-overs.

Take 2 lbs. of sifted flour and rub into it 6 ozs. of butter; add 6 ozs. of castor sugar, % a grated nutmeg, i oz. of ground ginger, 4 ozs. of lemon peel cut small. Now have 8 eggs well whisked, and make a dough with all 2 inches thick. Cut off a slice and form into an oval, 4 inches long and 3 inches wide. Cut two slits in it, not through at either end. There will now be three bands; pass the left through the right, and put into a saucepan of boiling lard; in a couple of minutes turn over with a fork. When ready put them apart on a sieve to drain and cool.

H

93 THE MODERN FLOUR CONFECTIONER .

222. - Plain Plum Cake.

Mix 3 teaspoonfuls of baking powder into lbs. of flour; mix into the flour % lb. of good lard; add % teaspoonful of salt, lb. of currants, \ lb. of raisins stoned, f lb. of castor sugar, 2 ozs. of peel cut in small pieces, % a nutmeg, grated. Beat up 3 eggs with a little flavouring; add as much milk as will make all into a nice light dough. Bake in paper hoops in a sound oven.

223.- St. Michael’s Cake.

Into £ lb. of flour and the same quantity of rice flour rub 4 ozs. of butter; beat the yolks of 4 eggs with 12 ozs. of castor sugar; add the rind and juice of 4 St. Michael oranges, beat the whites of the eggs to a froth, mix with the flour 1 teaspoonful of baking powder; mix the flour first, then the yolks, &c., then gently mix in the whites; if required, add a very little milk. Now place in the oven; on this depends a good deal the quality and appearance of the cake. The mixture is generally baked in a small edged tin, neatly papered. Bake in a sound oven.

224.- Sally Luns.

Take 1 teacupful of milk, sweet; add 1 tablespoonful of melted butter, 2 eggs, and 1 gill of warm water; dissolve £ oz. of condensed yeast and mix all together; beat it well and let it stand to work ready. When it has risen its full height stir in another pint of flour and a teaspoonful of salt; let it again stand to rise. Work off into 1 lb. rings, and when half proved with a fork or nail prod the cake through, making three prods in the centre. Finish proving, and bake in a sharp oven.

225. - Madeira Cakes.

To 1 lb. of flour mix in 3 teaspoonfuls of baking powder; rub in I lb. of butter, add f lb. of castor sugar; stir in 2 eggs

TIT-BITS FOR THE WORKING MAN.

99

quickly with sufficient milk, £ pint, to make all into a good batter. Put the batter into papered rings, place two pieces of citron peel on the top of each, and bake in a moderate oven.

226. - Banbury Cakes.

Cream 4 ozs. of butter to a cream; add 1 lb. of currants, i lb. of peel, cut small, £ oz. of ground cinnamon, £ oz. of allspice. Place this in a jar for use, tied down. When wanted make some good puff paste, cut out the paste about the size of a saucer and about its thickness. Place some Banbury meat in the centre and turn them over; press them down with the hand, wash over with white of egg, dust sugar on the top, and bake in a sharp oven.

227.- Jumbles.

Take 1 lb. of flour, mix with it 1 lb. of castor sugar, pour into the centre of this 4 well-beaten eggs, and 6 ozs. of melted butter gently warmed; make into a batter, drop on greased tins, and bake in a slow oven.

228. - Breakfast Cakes.

Into 1 lb. of flour mix a small \ teaspoonful of tartaric acid, £ teaspoonful of salt, and 1 oz. of castor sugar; dissolve l teaspoonful of carbonate of soda in 1 gill of milk, add 2 eggs, and make all into a nice dough; break off into small pieces, place them on greased tins, and bake in a good oven.

229. - Cinnamon Cakes.

Rub 4 ozs. of butter into 1 lb. of flour, add 2 teaspoonfuls of ground cinnamon and a little grated nutmeg, and about 1 gill of milk; make a dough. Pin out J inch thick, cut them into

IOO

THE MODERN FLOUR CONFECTIONER .

various shapes, make a cross on the top with the knife; place them on tins, and bake in a sound oven.

230.- Breakfast Biscuits.

Put i lb. of flour into a basin; put into it i oz. of melted butter, £ pint of new milk, and £ oz. of compressed yeast, dissolved in a little warm water; mix this into a batter, cover up and place it in a warm place all night; in the morning work it off into rolls, place them on tins, prove, and bake in a sharp oven.

231.- Chocolate Cake.

One cup of butter, 2 cups of flour, 2 cups of sugar, 1 cup of sweet milk, 1 cup of corn flour, 2 teaspoonfuls of baking powder, the whites of 9 eggs, well whisked, mix all together, flavour with vanilla or lemon. Bake in layers. The icing for layers is made by beating the egg yolks, with sufficient chocolate sweetness to taste, and 1 cup of milk. Cook on a slow fire, for a few minutes; do not let it boil. When cold flavour with vanilla.

232.- Bath Buns.

Make a hole in 1 lb. of flour and put into it 1 cupful of warmed milk, with £ oz. of compressed yeast dissolved in the milk; stir a little flour in, keep in a warm place to rise. When risen pour in 6 ozs. of melted butter and 4 eggs. Mix all together with the flour; let-it lie for about an hour; when ready place on greased tins with two forks. Wash over with egg, and sprinkle rough lump sugar on the top. Bake in a sound oven.

233.- Ice Cream Cakes.

Take 1 cup of butter, cups of sugar, 2 cups of flour, £ cup of milk, the whites of 5 eggs, two teaspoonfuls of essence of

TIT-BITS FOR THE WORKING MAN.

IOI

vanilla. Cream butter and sugar, add the eggs, then flour, with baking powder mixed in it; put in the milk and vanilla; make into a light batter, and bake in papered hoops; sprinkle a little sugar over each cake before baking in a moderate oven.

234.- Apple Cheesecakes.

Peel, core, and boil 6 large apples; when quite done put the pulp through a sieve; to each l lb. of apples have 4 ozs. of castor sugar, and 4 ozs. of melted butter, 4 eggs, and grated rind and the juice of 1 lemon. Mix, line patty-pans with good puff paste, fill with the apple cheese, and bake in a moderate oven.

235.- Rich Cake.

Cream 1 cup of butter with 2 cups of castor sugar, add the whites of 5 eggs, £ teaspoonful of soda mixed in 1 cup of sweet milk, 1 cup of corn-flour; mix the teaspoonful of cream of tartar in 2 cups of flour, then mix all into a batter; flavour, and frost with chocolate frosting.

236.- Marble Chocolate Cake.

t cupful of butter, 2 cups of sugar, 1 cup of new milk, and 3 cups of flour, add 2 teaspoonfuls of baking powder, and 4 well-beaten eggs. Take 1 cup of this batter and mix with 4 tablespoonfuls of chocolate, dissolved in a little cream. Drop each batter alternately, and bake in a moderate oven.

237.- Lemon Cheese.

Put into a small enamelled stew-pan 4 ozs. of good butter, 1 lb. oflump sugar, 6 eggs, and the grated rinds of 2 lemons, with the juice of 3; keep stirring till it becomes like honey; put in jars and cover up, and keep in a dry place. When using

102

THE MODERN FLOUR CONFECTIONER .

it a little grated biscuit is an improvement. Line patty-tins with good puff paste, and fill with the lemon cheese. Bake in a moderate oven.

238.- A Good Plain Cake.

Beat a £ lb. of good dripping, add to it £ lb. of sugar, £ lb. of currants, i teaspoonful of carbonate of soda, stirred in i lb. of flour, 3 eggs, and i gill of water. Put into greased tins and bake in a moderate oven.

239. - Seed Cake.

Cream £ lb. of butter, with £ lb. of sugar, add 4 eggs, 1 lb. of sifted flour, nutmeg grated, a wineglassful of brandy, and i oz. of carraway seeds. Mix all with a light batter, well creamed, and put in papered hoops, baking in a moderate oven.

240. - Puff Balls.

1 cup of sugar, 1 cup of new milk, 2 well-beaten eggs, 2 teaspoonfuls of baking powder, a quart of flour, a pinch of salt; mix all together, and drop from a tablespoon into boiling lard, and fry a light brown. Test them with a clean pointed straw! when done roll them in powdered sugar. They should be round and plump.

241.- A Good Frosting for Cakes.

1 cup of sugar and a little water, boiled together until it is brittle when dropped into cold water; remove from the stove and stir quickly into the white of an egg well whisked. Add a cupful of blanched almonds, placed between layers and on top.

242.- Puff Paste.

1 quart of flour, 1 lb. of butter, 1 teaspoonful of salt, and 1 teaspoonful of sugar, cups of water; wash the butter, working

TIT -BITS FOR THE WO RHINO MAN. 103

it with the hands; this extracts all the salt and buttermilk, so that the pastry is more light and delicate. Make the butter into two thin square cakes, and put it to harden in a pan of cold water; mix the, salt and sugar with the flour; with the hands rub £ of the butter into the flour, add the water, stir with a knife or spoon until the paste is like a small ball. Dust the board with flour lightly, and on to it turn the paste, and roll out quickly and lightly; do not break the paste. When l inch thick wipe the rest of the butter and spot over the paste; sprinkle lightly with flour; fold the paste one side over the other, roll it out again, fold as before, and repeat three times if for pies, and four times for patties, tarts, &c. Now place the paste on the ice to harden. It should be on the ice or in a very cold room an hour before being used; as soon as it is chilled it will roll easily. The less flour used in rolling out the paste the better, for the paste will be more flaky.

243.- Rice Waffles.

Boil ^ pint of rice and let it cool; mix with it 4 ozs. of good butter and a little salt; stir in pints of flour; beat 5 eggs separately; mix the yolks with 1 quart of new milk. Lastly add the whites well whisked. Beat all well together and bake in waffle irons.

244. --Almond Cake.

Take 4 ozs. of ground almonds, rub the rind of a lemon on 4 ozs. of lump sugar, and pound it with the almonds; add the yolks of 4 eggs well beaten, a piece of butter the size of a walnut; now work in ^ lb. of fine flour, and lastly the whites of the eggs well whisked to a strong froth. Put into a well-buttered mould and bake in a good oven.

104 THE MODERN FLOUR CONFECTIONER.

245.- Oatmeal Biscuits.

Rub 4 ozs. of butter into i lb of fine oatmeal; add 6 ozs. of sugar, and i teaspoonful of powdered ammonia; mix to a stiff paste with treacle, roll into small balls, and bake in a moderate oven.

246.- Cream Cakes.

1 cup of butter, 2 % cups of sugar, 1 cup of sour cream, 1 teaspoonful of soda, 2 of cream of tartar, 3 eggs, and flour for a nice dough. Roll out thin, cut with a small cutter, and bake in a sharp oven.

247.- American Pork Cake.

Take 2 cups of pork cut fine, 2 cups of boiling water poured over it and stirred well; 2 cups of chopped and stoned raisins, 1 cup of sugar, 1 cup of molasses; add various kinds of spice, and flour for a dough; place in tins, and bake.

248.- N ice Little Cakes.

2 cups of sugar, f cup of butter, 1 egg, 1 cup of good sour cream, with 1 teaspoonful of soda. Beat well together the sugar, butter, and egg; add the cream with the soda dissolved in it. Then add sufficient flour to make a nice soft dough; roll out thin, cut into any shape your fancy dictates, and sprinkle granulated sugar over them before putting them into the oven. Bake lightly.

249.- Veal and Ham Pies.

Cut 1 1 lbs. of veal cutlets, or pieces from a breast of veal, and £ lb. of lean mild ham, thin and in small pieces. Trim free from skin and bone, and season the veal with white pepper, salt, powdered mace, and grated lemon peel. Put the veal and

TIT-BITS FOR THE WORKING MAN.

105

ham in layers, and fill up with the veal broth or water; egg or forced meat may be added. Put the meat into the dish, cover with paste, and bake in a moderate oven for two hours. Brush over with yolk of egg before putting the pie in the oven; the trimmings of the meat may, with a few herbs, be put into a stewpan with water, and made into gravy to fill up the dish.

250. - Rice Biscuits.

Take 6 ozs. of castor sugar, 8 ozs. of ground rice, 6 ozs. of butter, 6 ozs. of flour; make into dough with 2 eggs, add a little lemon juice, and bake in a quick oven.

251. - Ratafia Cakes.

Take 8 ozs. of ground sweet almonds, and 8 ozs. of bitter almonds, beat them fine with 1 lb. of fine sugar and a very little water. Stir in the white of 4 eggs, put all into a small preserving pan over a slow fire .* stir quickly one way until the batter is pretty hot; when the batter is a little cool roll out in lengths and cut into small cakes; place them on wafer paper and dust with sugar. Bake in a slow oven.

252.- Chicken Pie-crust.

Take 2 cupfuls af flour, 3 teaspoonfuls of baking powder, 6 tablespoonfuls of melted butter, 1 cup of new milk, and 1 egg; make this into a paste. This quantity will just suffice fora pie made of one chicken. After cooking the chicken, place it, with the gravy slightly thickened, in a pie dish, and cover with the paste.

253.- Ham Toast.

Mince small the remains of a sweet ham, flavour it with a little nutmeg and cayenne pepper. Put these in a small sauce

io6

THE MODERN FLOUR CONFECTIONER.

pan with a little butter, and stir about till quite hot; do not brown the mixture. Spread it on a round of buttered toast i inch thick. To be eaten hot.

254.- Baked Custard.

Put i quart of new milk into a saucepan, with the grated rind of half a lemon, and £ lb. of good moist sugar. Let this infuse and get hot. Whisk well 4 eggs, pour the milk on the eggs, stirring all the while. Butter a pie dish, strain the custard into it, sprinkle a little grated nutmeg over the top, and bake in a sound oven till of a nice golden brown.

255.- Mock Mincemeat.

1 cupful of sugar, 1 of butter, 1 of raisins, 1 of treacle, 1 of bread crumbs, 1 of water, and 1 cup of vinegar. Mix all together and put in a saucepan; let it just boil. Keep it in a jar tied down with paper, and use it as mincemeat.

256.- Tea Cakes.

Rub 3 ozs. of butter into 1 lb. of flour with a pinch of salt and 1 tablespoonful of moist sugar; dissolve \ oz. of compressed yeast in 1 gill of warm milk; stir this into the middle of the flour. In about 1 hour it will be ready. Then add 3 ozs. of washed and picked currants; make a dough with a little more milk, prove, and divide into small pieces; prove again on the tins, and bake in a sharp oven.

257. - Imperial Cakes.

Cream f lb. of butter with 1 lb. of castor sugar, add the yolks of 10 eggs, then 1 lb. of flour, £ lb. of ground almonds, £ lb. of citron cut small, 1 lb. of picked and stoned raisins,

TIT-BITS FOR THE WORKING MAN.

io 7

i wineglassful of brandy. Bake in papered hoops; this cake will keep good for a length of time.

258. - Madeira Cakes.

Cream 6 ozs. of butter with 6 ozs. of castor sugar till it is light; then, having the whites beaten to a stiff froth, add to them 8 ozs. of sifted flour and a few drops of essence of lemon, and stir all together; put the batter into papered hoops. Place two thin slices of citron peel on each, dust over the tops with fine sugar and bake in a cool oven.

259. - Oatmeal Cakes.

Take 3 cups of oatmeal, 2 cups of fine flour, 1 teaspoonful of cream of tartar, 1 teaspoonful of carbonate of soda well bruised, and 1 teaspoonful of powdered salt; have melted, but not hot, 1 cupful of either dripping or lard, mix the fat thoroughly with the above ingredients, then take as much cold water as will make all into an easy-working dough, divide this quantity into four pieces, mould them round, pin them out to the required thickness, then cut the cake through the middle, cut again to form a three-cornered cake; these cakes can be baked in the kitchen oven; turn them on the iron-plate when half baked. Bake them so as to eat nice and crumpy but not burned. This is an excellent recipe, easily made, and to those that like oat cake will give satisfaction.

I have now given the very latest modes and styles of making a large collection of wholesale and retail cheap cakes, biscuits, &c., with the addition of a good number of tit-bits for the working man’s table. Again would I impress on my brother

io8

THE MODERN FLOUR CONFECTIONER .

craftsmen not to depend too much on instructions or theory, but in a great measure to look to the practical part of the business and use their own judgment to the best of their ability. The instructor cannot, as I have said before, know under what conditions the goods are made: and we are taught that “ practice makes perfect.” So in this theoretical age let us guard against depending too much on theory and too little on practice, forgetting that all theory must be proved by practice, and ignoring the very fundamental principles which, if followed, make a man both a proficient worker and an expert in this mysterious but fascinating trade, the wholesale flour confectionery.

INDEX




Sitemap - This page updated 02/10/2016 - Copyright © Glyn Hughes 2016


  BUILT WITH WHIMBERRY  

matrixstats