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Modern Cookery for Private Families, 1845

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TITLE: Modern cookery for private families
AUTHOR: Eliza Acton
PUBLISHER: Longman, Green, Longman, Roberts, and Green
DATE: 1845 (this edition from 1864)
THIS VERSION: This transcript is based on the online version at archive.org, digitized from an edition in the collections at Harvard University. This is an Optical Character Recognition scan, it has been partly edited, but still contains very significant errors.

Acton, born in Sussex, was one of the first writers to give complete lists of ingredients and their quantities and described her method as being 'reduced to a system of easy practice'. 'Modern Cookery' continued to be updated and re-issued untill well into the 20th Century. She is also slightly famous for her poetry.


MODERN COOKERY
FOR PRIVATE FAMILIES
REDUCED TO A SYSTEM OF EASY PRACTICE

IN WHICH THE PRINCIPLES OF BARON LIEBIG AND OTHER EMINENT WRITERS HAVE BEEN AS MUCH AS POSSIBLE APPLIED AND EXPLAINED

BY ELIZA ACTON.

"It is the want of a scientific basis which has given rise to so many absurd and hurtful methods of preparing food." - Dr. Gregory

LONDON: LONGMAN, GREEN, LONGMAN, ROBERTS, AND GREEN. 1864.


PREFACE.

It cannot be denied that an improyed system of practical domestic cookery, and a better knowledge of its first principles, are stiU much needed in this countxy; where, from ignorance, or from mismanagement in their preparation, the daily waste of excellent provisions almost exceeds belief. This waste is in itself a very serious evil where so large a portion of the community often procure - as they do in England - with painful difficulty, and with the heaviest labour, even sufficient bread to sustain existence; but the amount of pontive disease which is caused amongst us by improper food, or by food rendered unwholesome by a bad mode of cooking it, seems a greater evil still. The influence of diet upon health is indeed a subject of far deeper importance than it would usually appear to be considered, if we may judge by the profound indifference with which it is commonly treated. It has occupied, it is true, the earnest attention of many eminent men of science, several of whom have recently investigated it with the most patient and laborious research, the results of which they have made known to the world in their writings, accompanied, in some instances, by information of the highest value as to the most profitable and nutritious modes of preparing various kinds of viands. In arranging the present enlarged edition of this volume for publication, I have gladly taken advantage of such of their instructions those of Baron Liebig especially) as have seemed to me adapted to its character, and likely to increase its real utility. These, I feel assured, if carefully followed out, will much assist our progress in culinaiy art, and diminish the unnecessaiy degree of 'expenditure which has hitheirfx) attended it8 operations; for it may safely be averred that good cookery is the best and truest economy, turning to full account every wholesome article of food, and converting into palatable meals, what the ignorant either render uneatable, or throw away in disdain. It is a popular error to imagine that what is called good cookery is adapted only to the establishments of the wealthy, and that it is beyond the reach of those who are not affluent. On the contrary, it matters comparatively little whether some few dishes, amidst an abundant variety, be prepared in their perfection or not; but it is of the utmost consequence that the food which is served at the more simply supplied tables of the middle classes should all be well and skilfully prepared, particularly as it is from these classes that the men principally emanate to whose indefatigable industry, high intelligence, and active genius, we are mainly indebted for our advancement in science, in art, in literature, and in general civilisation. When both the mind and body are exhausted by the toils of the day, heavy or unsuitable food, so far from recruiting their enfeebled powers, prostrates their energies more completely, and acts in every way injuriously upon the system; and it is no exaggeration to add, that many a valuable life has been shortened by disregard of this fact, or by the impossibility of obtaining such diet as nature imperatively required. It may be urged, that I speak of rare and extreme cases; but indeed it is not so; and the impression produced on me by the discomfort and the suffering which have fallen under my own observation, has rendered me extremely anxious to aid in discovering an efficient remedy for them. With this object always in view, I have zealously endeavoured to ascertain, and to place clearly before my readers, the most rational and healthful methods of preparing those simple and essential kinds of nourishment which form the staple of our common daily fare; and have occupied myself but little with the elegant superfluities or luxurious novelties with which I might perhaps more attractively, though not more usefully, have filled my pages. Should some persons feel disappointed at the plan I have pursued, and regret the omissions which thej may discover, I would remind them, that the fashionahle dishes of the day may at all times be procured from an able confectioner; and that part of the space which I might have allotted to them is, I hope and beHeye, better occupied by &e subjects, homely as they are, to which I have devoted it - that is to say, to ample directions for dressing vegetables, and for making what cannot be purchased in this country - unadulterated bread of the most undeniably wholesome quality; and those refreshing and finely-flavoured varieties of preserved firuit which are so conducive to health when judiciously taken, and for which in illness there is often such a viun and feverish craving when no household stores of them can be commanded. Merely to please the eye by such fanciful and elaborate decorations as distinguish many modem dinners, or to flatter flie palate by the production of new and enticing dainties, ought not to be the principal aim, at least, of any work on cookery. " Eat, - to live ' should be the motto, by the spirit of which aU writers upon it should be guided. I must here obtrude a few words of personal interest to myself. At the risk of appearing extremely egotistic, I have appended " Author's Beeeipt " and " Autkor$ Original Receipt ' to many of the contents of the following pages; but I have done it solely in self-defence, in consequence of the unscrupulous manner in which large portions of my volume have been appropriated by contemporary authors, without the slightest acknowledgment of the source from which they have been derived. I have allowed this unfairness, and much beside, to pass entirely unnoticed until now; but I am suflering at present too severe a penalty for the over-exertion entailed on me by the plan which I adopted for the work, longer to see with perfect composure strangers coolly taking the credit and the profits Many of those made up for tale are absolutely dangerous eating; those which are not adulterated are generally so oyersweetened as to be distasteful to ioTalids. of my toil. The subjoined passage from the preface of my first edition will explain in what this toil - so completely at variance with all the previous habits of my life, and, therefore, so injurious in its effects - consisted; and prevent the necessity of recapitulating here, in another form, what I have already stated in it ' Amongst the large number of works on cookery which we have carefully perused, we have never yet met with one which appeared to us either quite intended for, or entirely suited to the need of the totally inexperienced ! none, in fact, which contained the first rudiments of the art, with directions so practical, clear, and simple, as to be at once understood, and easily followed, by those who had no previous knowledge of the subject This deficiency, we have endeavoured in the present volume to supply, by such thoroughly explicit and minute instructions as may, we trust be readily comprehended and carried out by any class of learners; our receipts, moreover, with a few trifling exceptions which are scrupulously specified, are confined to such as may be perfectly depended on, from having been proved beneath our own roof and under our own personal inspection. We have trusted nothing to others; but having desired sincerely to render the work one of general usefulness, we have spared neither cost nor labour to make it so, as the very plan on which it has been written must of itself, we think, evidently prove. It contains some novel features, calculated, we hope, not only to facilitate the labours of the kitchen, but to be of service likewise to those by whom they are directed. The principal of these is the summary appended to the receipts, of the different ingredients which they contain, with the exact proportion of each, and the precise time required to dress the whole. This shows at a glance what articles have to be prepared beforehand, and the hour at which they must be ready; while it affords great facility as well, for an estimate of the expense attending them. The additional space occupied by this closeness of detail has necessarily prevented tlie admission of so great a variety of receipts as the book might otherwise have comprised; but a limited number, thus

PREFACE. XI completely explained, may perhaps be more acceptable to the reader than a larger mass of materials vaguely given. " Onr directions for boning poultry, game, &c., are also, we venture to say, entirely new, no author that is known to us having hitherto afiforded the slightest information on the subject; but while we have done our utmost to simplify and to render intelligible this, and several other processes not generally well understood by ordinary cooks, our first and best attention has been bestowed on those articles of food of which the consumption is the most general, and which are therefore of the greatest consequence; and on what are usually termed plain English dishes. With these we have intermingled many others which we know to be excellent of their kind, and which now so far belong to our national cookery, as to be met with commonly at all refined modem tables. Since this extract was written, a rather formidable array of works on the same subject has issued firom the press, part of them firom the pens of celebrated professional gastronomers; others are constantly appearing; yet we make, nevertheless, but slight perceptible progress in this branch of our domestic economy. Still, in our cottages, as well as in homes of a better order, goes on the " waste ' of which I have already spoken. It is not, in fact, cookery-books that we need half so much as cooks really trained to a knowledge of their duties, and suited, by their acquirements, to families of different grades. At present, those who thoroughly understand their business are so few in number, that they can always command wages which place their services beyond the reach of persons of moderate fortune. Why should not aU classes participate in the benefit to be derived from nourishment calculated to sustain healthfiilly the powers of life? And why should the English, as a people, remain more ignorant than their continental neighbours of so simple a matter as that of preparing it for themselves? Without adopting blindly foreign modes in anything merely because they are foreign, surely we should be wise to learn firom other nations, who excel us in arht good or usefiil, all that we can which may tend to remedy

ZU PREFACB. our own defects; and the great firagalitj, combined with almost universal culinary skill, or culinary knowledge, at the least - which prevails amongst many of them - is well worthy of our imitation. Suggestions of this nature are not, however, sufficient for our purpose. Something definite, practical, and easy of application, must open the way to our general improvement. Efforts in the right direction are already being made, I am told, by the establishment of well-conducted schools for the early and efficient training of our female domestic servants. These will materially assist our progress; and if experienced cooks will put aside the jealous spirit of exclusiveness by which they are too often actuated, and will impart freely the knowledge they have acquired, they also may be infinitely helpful to us, and have a claim upon our gratitude which ought to afford them purer satisfaction than the sole possession of any eecrets - genuine or imaginary - connected with their craft. The limits of a slight preface do not permit me to pmrsue this or any other topic at much length, and I must in consequence leave my deficiencies to be supplied by some of the tlioughtful, and, in every way, more competent writers, who, . happily for us, abound at the present day; and make here my adieu to the reader. EUZA ACTON

London, May, 1855.



CONTENTS AND VOCABULARY Omitted

INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER

TRUSSING.

TVnssiiig Needles. Coimoir and untnined cooks are often deplorably ignorant of this branch of their businew a knowledge of which la, nevertheless, quite as essential to them as is that of bdling or roasting; for without it they cannot, by any possibility, serve up dinners of decency creditable appearance. We give such brief general directions for it as oar space will permit, and as our own observations enable us to supply; but it nas been truly said, by a great authority in these matters, that trussing cannot be tatighi hy words;' we would, therefore, recommend, that instead of relying on any written mstmctions, persons who really desire thoroihly to understand the subject, and to make themselves acquainted with the mode of entirely preparing all varieties of game and poultry more especially for table, in the very best manner, should apply for some jaractioal lessons to a first-rate poulterer; or, if this cannot be done, tnat they should eodeaTonr to obtain from some weU experienced and skilful oook the instruction which they need. GENERAL DIRECTIONS FDR TRUSSING. Before a bird is trussed, the skin must be entirely freed frx)m any down which may be on it, and from all the stubble-ends of the feathers; the hair also must be singed from it with lisht writing paper, care being taken not to smoke nor blacken it in uie operation. Directions for cleansing the insides of birds after they are drawn, are given in the receipts for dressing them. Chapters XlV. and XV. Turkeys, geese, ducks, wild or tame, fowls, and pigeons, should all have the necks taken off dose to the bodies, but not the skin of the necks, which should be left sufficiently long to turn down upon the bocks for a couple of inches or more, where it must be secured, either with a needle and coarse soft cotton, or by the pinions of the birds when trussed. This sboald be partienlitrfy attended to.

XAXIV TRUSSING. For boiling, all poultry or other birds must have the feet drawn off at the first joint of the leg, or as shown in the engraving. (In the latter case, the sinews of the joint must be slightly cut, when the bone may be easily turned back as here.) The skin must then be loosened with the finger entirely from the les, which must be pushed back into the body, and the small ends tucked quite imder the apron, so as to be entirely out of sight. The wings of chickens, fowls, turkeys, and pigeons, are left on entire, whether for roasting or boiling. From mmm, geese, ducks, pheasants, partridges, black game, h") moor-fowl, woodcocks, snipes, wld-fowl of all kinds, and all small birds, the first two joints are taken off, leaving but one joint on, thus:- The feet are left on ducks, and those of tame ones are trussed as will be seen at page 278, and upon roast fowls, pheasants, black and moor-ffame, piffeons, woodcocks, and snipes. The thick coarse skin of the legs of these must be stripped, or rubbed off with a hard cloth after they have been held in bodmg water, or over a clear fire for a few minutes. The sharp talons must be pulled out, and the nails clipped. The toes of the pigeons for roasting should be cut ofi, Geese, sucking-pigs, hares, and rabbits have the feet taken off at the first joint. The livers and gizzards are served in the wings of roast turkeys and fowls only. The heads are still commonly left on pheasants, partridges, and black game and moor-game; but the fashion is declming. Of this this we shall speak more particularly in the ensuing chapter. Poultry ana birds in general, except perhaps quite the larger kinds, are more easily trued into plump handsome form with twme and needles proper to the purpose for which see page 1), than mth skewers. The manner in which the legs and wings are confined is much the same for all; the principal difference being in the arrangement of the former for boiling, which has already been explained. There is a present mode of trussing very large fowls for boiling or stewing which to our taste is more novel than attractive. The feet are left on, and after the skin has been loosened from them in every part, the legs are thrust entirely into the bod by means of a slight mdsion made in the skin just above the first joint on the underside, the feet then appear almost as if Rowing out of the sides of the breast: the effect of this is not pleasmg. TO TRUSS ? TURKEY, FOWL, PHRASANT OR PARTRIDOB, FOR ROASTINO. First draw the skin of the neck down over the back, and secure it from slipping up; then thread a trussing needle of convenient size, Theto may !)• had, of yarious sisee, at any good Ironmongsr a.

TBUSSIKO. ZXXV Ibr the ooasion, with packthread or small twine (the former, from heing the meet flexible, is best); pass it through the pinion of the hird, then through the thick part of the thigh, which most be brought up close vsuder the toivg and in a straight line quite through the body, and through the 1 and pinion on the other side; draw them close, and bring the needle back, passing it through the thick part of the leg, and through the second joint of tbe pinion, should it be left an the bird; tie it quite tiht; and then to secnre the 1 pierce the sidebone and carry the twme over the lps, then pass Uie needle through the other sidebone, and tie them dose down. If skewers be used they should be driven through the pinions and the 18, and a twine passed across the back of the bird, and caught over the points of it, and then tied in the centre of the back: this is only needful when the trussing is not firm. When the head is left on a bird, it may still be trussed in the same way, and the head brought round, as shown here, and kept in place by a skewer passed through it, and run through the body. When _ the bird is trussed entirely with Ptartridge. skewers, the point of one is brought fiom the other side, throu the pinions and the thighs, and the head is fixed upon it. The legs arc then pressed as much as possible under the breast, between it and the side-bones, where they are lettered a b. The partridge in the engraving is shown with the skewen just withdrawn after being roasted. Hares, after being filled with forcemeat, and sewn or securely fintened up with skewers, are brought into proper roasting form by having the head fixed between the snoulders, and either fastened to the bk by means of a long skewer, run through the head quite into it, or by passing one through the upper part of the shoulders and die neck together, which wUl keep it equally well in place, though less thrown back. The fore-legs are then laid strai&;ht along the sides of the hare, and a skewer is thrust through them both and the body at the same time; the sinews are just cut through under the hindlegs, and they are brought forward as much as possible, and skewered in the same manner as the others. A stnng is then thrown across, under the hare and over the points of botn skewers, being crossed before it is passed over the second, and then tied above the back. The ears of a hare are left on; those of a rabbit, which is troased in the same way, are taken off. Joints of meat require but little arrangement, either for the suit or for boiling. A fillet of veal must have the flap, or part to whicn the fat adheres, drawn closely round the outside, and be skewered or bound firmly into good shape: this vrill apply equally to a round of beef The skin or flank of loins of meat must be wrapped over the ends of the bones, and skewered orx the underside. iTte cook shouid

ZXXYl TRUBSINa he particularhf carefid to tennrate the JoinU when it has not been dans by the butcher, and necks or Teal or mutton also, or much trouble will often arise to the carver. To flatten and bring cutlets into uniform shape, a bat of this form is used: andtoegorj to cover them with clarified butter when they are to be CatietBrt. crumbed, a paste-bru should be at hand. Indeed, these and many other small means and appliances, ought to be provided for every cook who is expected to perform her duty in a regular and proper manner, for they save much time and trouble, and tneir first expense is very slight; yet many kitchens are almost entirely without them.

7Mt Brush. To TRUSS FISH. Salmon, salmon-!, pike, and some few other larjpe fish, are occasionally trussed m the form of an S by passing a stnng through the head, and tying it securely, then through the centre of the booy, and next round the tail, whicn should be turned the reverse way of the head, and the whole should then be drawn closely together and well fastened. Whitings and other fish of small size are trussed with the tails merely skewered into their mouths. Obs. - It is indispensable for cooks to know how to carve neatly for pies, pudding, fricassees, and curries, at the least, hares, rabbits, rowls, and other birds. For those who are quite without experience in this branch of their business, the directions and the illustrations in the next chapter for carving a fowl into joints, will be found useful; and probably many of the other instructions also.

OABYINO,

ZXXVU

CARVING.

FlshCarfen.

Whether the passing fashion of the day exact it of her or not, a gentlewoman would always, for her own sake, be able to carve wol and easQj, the dishes which are placed before her, that she may be competent tp do the honours of a table at any time with propriety and seU-possession. To gentlemen, and especially to those who mix much in society, some knowledge of this art, and a certain degree of skill in the exercise of it, are indispensable, if they would aroid the chance of appearing often to great disadvantage themselves, and of causing dissatisfaction and annoyance to others; for the miGouth operations of bad carvers occasion almost as much discomfort to those who witness, as they do generally of awkwardness and embarrassment to those who exhibit them The precise mode of carving various dishes must of course depend on many contingencies. For a plain family-dinner, or where strict economy is an imperative consideration, it must sometimes, of necessity, differ from that which is laid down here. We have confined oar instructions to the fashion usually adopted in the world. Carving knives and forks are to be had of many forms and sizes, and adapted to different purposes: the former should always have a very keen edge, and the latter two prongs only.

• As this em onlj be aooomplished by pnctioe, young persons should be early teenstomed to carre at home, where the failure of their first attempts will cause them much less embarrassment than they would in another sphere, and at a later period of lifla.

zxxvm CABViNa

No. I. cod's head and shoulders (and cod fish GENERALLY.) The thick part of the back of this, as of all large fish- salmon excepted - is the firmest and finest eating. It should be carved across, rather thick, and, as much as possible, in unbroken slices, from a to h. The sound, which is considered a delicacy, lies underneath, and lines the back-bone: it must be reached with a spoon in the direction c. The middle of the fish, when served to a familyparty, may be carved in the same manner, or in any other which convenience and economy may dictate. No. 2. A TURBOT. In carving this most excellent fish, the rich gelatinous skin attached to it, and a portion of the thick part of the fins, should be served with every slice. If the point or the fish-knife be drawn down the centre of the back through to the bone, in the lines ah c and from thence to d d d, the flesh may easily be raised upon the blade in handsome portions, The thickest parts of all flat fish are the best. A brill and a John Dory are served exactly like a turbot. SOLES. The more elegant mode of serving these, and the usual one at good tables, is to raise the flesh from the bones as from a turbot, which is easily done when the fish are large; but when they are too small well to admit of it, they must be divided across quite through the bone: the shoulders, and thick part of the body, are me superior portions. No. 3. SALMON. It is customary to serve a slice of the thick part of the back of this fish, which is marked from a to A, with one of the thinner and richer portions of it, shown by the line from e to d It should be carved quite straight across, and the fine flakes of the flesh should be preserved as entire as possible. Salmon-peel, pike, haddocks, large whitings, and all fish which are served curled round, and with the backs uppermost, are carved in the same manner; the flesh is separated from the bone in the centre of the back, and taken ofl, on the outer side first, in convenient portions for serving. The flesh of mackerel is best raised from the bones by passing the fish-slice from the tail to the head: it may then be divided in two. No. 4. saddle op mutton. The manner of trussing this joint varies almost fjrom season to

CABTIKG. ZXX1X Kamm, the mode which is considered in good taste one year being obsolete the next, in families where passing fashions are closely observed. It seems really immaterial whether it be served as shown in the engraving; or whether two or three joints of the tail be left on and surronnded with a paper frill. This joint is now trussed for Toasting in the manner shown in the engraving; and when it is dished a silver skewer replaces the one marked e. It is likewise often still served in good families with only two or three joints of the tail lefl on. The most nsnal mode of carving it is in thin slices cut quite along the bone, on either side, in the line a to b; but it is sometimes sliced obliquely from c to: this last fashion is rather gaining ground. The thick end of the joint must then, of course, be to the left of the carver. A saddle of pork or of lamb is carved exactly in the same manner No. 5. A HAUNCH OP VENISON (OR MUTTON.) An incision must first be made entirely across the knuckle end of this joint, quite down to the bone, in the line a 5, to let the gravy escape; it must then be carved in thin slices taken as deep as they can be, the whole length of the haunch, from c to . A portion of the fat should invariably be served with the venison. No. 6. SIRLOIN OR RUMP OF BEEF. As the venr tender part of this favourite joint, which lies under the bone, and is called the let, is preferred by many eaters, the beef should be raised, and some slices be taken from it in the direction a b, before the carver proceeds further. The slices should be cut quite across the joint, from side to side, as indicated by the line from e to d in which direction the whole of the meat is occasionally earved, though it is much more usual to slice the upper part from e to I When the brown outside has been taken off this, it should be evenly carved in thin slices, and served with some of the gravy in the dish, and accompanied with horse-radish very lightly and finely aeraped, with tofts of which the beef is commonly garnished. RIBS OP BEEF Are carved in the same manner as the sirloin; but there is no fillet attached to them. A ROUND OP BEEP. To carve this well, a very sharp-edged and thin-bladed knife is lequisite. A thick slice should first be taken entirely off the top of She joint, leaving it very smooth; it should then be cut as thin and

Xi CABVINO. as evenly as possible, and delicate slioes of the fat or odder should be served with the lean A BRISKET OF BEEF Is carved in slices quite across the bones. No. 7. LEO OF MUTTON, This, whether roast or boiled, is dished as it lies in the enving, unless when fanciful eaters prefer the underside of the joint laid uppermost, and carved quite across the middle, for the sake of the finely grained meat which lies beneath the part commonly called the Popes eye. In a general way, the mutton should be sliced, rather thick than thin as directed by the line between a & the fat will be found in the direction c d. No. 8. QUARTER OF LAMB. The shoulder must be divided, and raised entirely fVom the breast in the direction of the letters abed, A slice of butter sprinkled with cayenne and salt is then usually laid between them, and a little lemon-juice is added, or a cold Maitre d Hotel sauce is substituted for these. The shoulder may then be removed into another dish or not, as is most convenient. The brisket is next separated from the long bones in the line e, and carved in the direction g h; the ribbones are divided from t % toj;'. The choice of the different parts is offered in serving them. No. 9. SHOULDER OP MUTTON OR LAMB. Commence by cutting from the outer edge direct to the bone of the shoulder in the line a 6, and carve as many slices from that part of the joint as it will afford: then, if more be required, draw the knife on either side of the ridge of the blade-bone in the direction c c dd. The fat must be carved in the line . Some eaters have a preference for the juicy, but not very finely-grained flesh on the under-side of the shoulder, which must be turned, for it to be carved. For the mode of boning a shoulder of mutton or veal, and giving it a more agreeable appearance, see 219. No. 10. A SUCKING PIQ. Every part of a sucking pig is good, but some persons consider the flesh of the neck which lies between the shoulders, and the ribs as the most delicate portion of it. The shoulders themselves are preferred by others. They should be taken off, and the legs also, by passing the knife under them at the lettes ab c. The ribs may then

CABYIKCk Zli be easilj diyided from e to d. The flesh only of the larger joints should be served to ladies; but gentlemen often prefer it sent to them on the bones. A FILLET OP TEAL. There is no difference between the mode of caryiB this and a round of beef; but the brown outside slice of the Teal is much liked b many eaters, and aportion of it should be served to them when it is known to be so. The forcemeat must be reached by cutting deeply into the flap, and a slice of it served always with the veaL A LOIN OF VEAL. This may be carved at choice quite across through the thick part of the flesh, or in slices taken in the direction of the bones. A slice of the kidney, and of the fat which surrounds it, should accompany the veaL No. 11. A BREAST OF VEAL. The brisket or gristles of this joint must first be entirely separated from the rib-bones by pressing the knife quite through it in the line between a and b; this part may then be divided as shown by the letters c ccddd and the long bones or ribs may easily be separated in the direction ef. The taste of those who are served should be consulted as to the part of the joint which is preferred. The sweetbread is commonly sent to table with a roast breast of veal, and laid upon it: a portion of it should be served with every plate of the breasL No. 12. A TONGUE. This is sliced, not very thin, through the thickest and best part, shown by the letters a b. The fat of the root, when it is liked, must be carved by turning the tongue, and cutting in the direction c d. No. 13. A calf's head. An entire calfs head, served in its natural form, recalls too forcibly The tmdoHB are literallj the small white gristles themaelyes, which arefonnd imder the flesh in this part of the joint When freed from the bone attached to them, they may he dressed in a yariety of ways, and are extremely good: but they Koaixe from, toax to siz hoars stewing to render them perfectly tender, eyen when each tendon is divided into three or fonr slices. The upper flesh mnst be laid back from the tendons before they are taken from the breast, not left adhering to them. They are yery good simply stewed in white gravy, and served with green peas, a la Franpaiu, in the centre. The breast entirely boned, forced, and zoUed, makes a handsome dish either roasted or stewed.

Zlii GABTING. the appearance of the living animal to which it has helonged not to be very uninviting. Even when the half of one only is sent to tables something of the same aspect remains, and as it is in every way im proved, and rendered most easy to carve when boned and rolled, we wculd recommend its being so prepared whenever it can be done without difficulty. Our engraving does ' "1 "' " flattering representation of I fj9 ' " ' form, but having been dressed with the skin on, it was not quite so easily brought into handsome shape as if it had been freed from it; yet we would nevertheless advise its being generally retained. When the head is served without being boned, it is carved across the cheek, in the line from atob; the part which in flavour and appearance resembles a sweetbread, and which is regarded as a delicacy, lies in the direction indicated by the letters c d. The flesh of the eye is another favourite morsel, which mut be detached from the head by passing the point of the carving knife deeply round the eye-hole, in the circle marked e e. No. 14. A HAM. Strict economists sometimes commence the carving of a ham at the knuckle, and so graduallv reach the choicer portion of it; but this method is not at all to oe recommended. It should be cut at once through the thick part of the flesh, quite down to the bone, in the line a 6, and sliced very thin and evenly, without separating the fat from the lean. The decoration of the ham No. 14, is formed by leaving on it a portion of the rind at the knuckle in a semi-circle, and then trimming it into scollops or points at pleasure; and the ornamental part of the top is formed from the fat which is pared away from the thick end and the edges. A paper ruffle, as wiU. be seen, is wrapped round the bone of the knuckle. No. 15. A PHEASANT. This bird was formerly alwajrs sent to table with the head on, but This vill be more easily accomplished by an experienced cook after the head has been boiled for half an hoar and then allowed to cool; bat it should not be left ojitil cold before it is altogether prepared for dressing. After the bones are removed, it should be laid on a clean cloth, and the inside sprinkled over or rubbed -wiih. a little salt, mace, and cayenne, weU mixed together; the tongas may be laid upon, and rolled up in it. It must be secured, first with a skewer, and then bound tightly round with tape. It should be boiled or stewed extremely tender; and is excellent when just covered with good stock, and simmered for two hours, or when strong broth is substituted for this, and the bones are added to it. The head may be glazed, and served with rich brown gravy, or with the ordinary sauces if preferred; and it may be eaten cold, with Oxford brawn sauce, wkich is compounded of brown sugar, vinegar, mustard, and salt, mixed to the tate, with the addition of oil when it is liked.

CABYING.

xliii

ft ma a barbarous castoin, wbicb bas been partially abandoned of late in the best bonsea, and wbicb it is boped may soon be altogether superseded by one of better taste. The breast is by far the finest part of a pheasant, and it is carved in slices from pinion to pinion, in the lines aab b; the legs may then be taken off, m the direction c d. The bird, when it is prerred so, may be entirely dismembered by the directions for a fowl. No. 16. Black and moor-game are trussed and served like pheasants. The breasts of both are very fine eating, and the thigh ot the black-cock is highly esteemed. No. 16. ? BOILED FOWL. The boQed fowl of plate 6 is represented as garnished with branches of parsley, which is an error, as tney would ht appropriate to it only if it were cold, and it is seldom served so, being considered insipid. Small tufts of cauliflower would have been in better keeping with it, as the bird is supposed to be dished for the dinner-table. Unless it be for large family parties, fowls are seldom carved there entirely into joints; but when it is wished to divide them so, the fork should be fixed firmly in the centre of the breast, and the leg, beinj first disengaged from the skin, may be taken off with the wing m the Ime ah or, the wing being previously removed, by carving it down the line to &, and there separating it from the neck-bone, the leg may be released from the skin, and easily taken off, by cutting round it from a to c, and then turning it with the fork, back fh m the body, when the joint will readily be perceived. Afler the leg and wing on the other side have been taken off in the same manner, the merrythought must follow. To remove this, the knife must be drawn through the flesh in the line d e, and then turned towards the neck quite under the merrythought, which it will so lift from the breast, in this form: - The neck-bones - which lie close under tbe upper tArt of the wings, and are shaped thus -must next be aisengaged from the fowl, by putting the knife in at the top of the joint, dividing the long part of tbe bone from the flesh, and bieakinff the short one off by raising it up, ana turning it from the body; the breast, which is shown here, may then be divided from it by merely cutting i through the tender ribs on either ' side. It is seldom that fiirther disjointing than this is required at table; but when it is necessary to cut up the entire fowl, the remainder of il must be laid with the back uppermost, and to take off the side-bones, which are of this shape- the point of the knife must be I pressed through the back-bone, near tha

Xliv OABYIKCk top, about half an inch from the centre, and brought down towards the end of the back, quite through the bone, then turned in the opposite direction, when the joints will separate without difficulty. All which then remains to be done is, to lay the edge of the knife across the middle of the only two undivided bones, and then with the fork to raise the small end of the fowl, which will part them immediately: to carve a boiled fowl or chicken in a more modem manner, see the directions which follow. The breast, wings, and merrythought, are the most delicate parts of a fowl. On the upper part of the side-bone is the small round portion of flesh called the oyster J by many persons considered as a great delicacy. No. 17. A ROAST FOWL. It is not usual to carve fowls entirely at table in the manner described above. The wings, and any other joints are taken off only as they are required. The breast of a very large fowl may be carved in slices like tnat of a turkey; or the whole of that of a small one may be taken off with the wings, as shown by the line ab. As the liver is a delicacy, the handsomer mode of serving these last is to remove the gizzard, which is seldom eaten, then to divide the liver, and to send an equal portion of it with each wing. The whole of a roast fowl may be carved by the directions we have alrealy given for No. 16. No. 18. A PARTRIDGE. When partridges are served to ladies only, or in parties where (hey are present, it is now customary to take off the heads, to truss the legs snort, and to make them appear (in poulterer's phrase) aU breast. For gentlemen's dinners, the heads may be left on or not at choice. The most ready mode of carving a partrie is to press back the legs, then to fix the fork firmly in the inside of the back, and by passing the blade of the knife flat under the lower part of the breast, to raise it, with the wings, entire from the body, from which it easily separates. The breast may then be divided in the middle, as shown bv the line from a to 6 in the engraving here. This is by far the best and handsomest manner of carving a partridge, but when the supply ot game at table is small, and it is necessary to serve three persons from the choicer parts of one bird, a not very large wing should be taken off with the leg on either side, in the line from a to & in No. 13, and sufficient of the breast will still remain to send to a third eater. The high gameflavour of the back of a partridge, as well as that of various other birds, is greatly relished by many persons. • A great man of the north eloquently deioribes that of a grouse as " the noat pungmttpalaipurnng,wild biittr-twmt"

CARVINO. Xl?

No. 19. A WOODCOCK. The thigh and back are the most esteemed parts of a woodcocki which, being a small bird, may be carred entirely through the centre of the breast and back or distributed in the same manner as the partridge for three, which we have described; or even carred down like a fowl, if needfuL In whatever way it is divided, however, 9 portion of the toast which has received the trail, and on which it should always be sent to table, must invariably be served to all who partake of it. The very old &shion of trussing the bird with its own bill, by running it through the thighs and body, is again adopted by very good cooks of the present day; but the common method of preparing either wood- eocks or snipes for table is this: the trussing of the legs is, however, better shown at 208. 19 and 21 of Plate 6 No. 20. ? PIOBON. The breast and wings of a mgeon may be raised in the same way as those of a partrid (see ao. 18); or the bird may be carved entirely through in the line a 5. For the second course, pigeons should be dished upon young delicate water-cresses No. 21. A SMIPB. This bird is trussed, roasted, and served exactly like a woodcock. It is not of a size to require any carving, beyond dividing in two, if atalL No. 22. A G008E. The ddn below the breast, called the apron, must first be cut off in a circular direction as indicated by the letters aaoy when a glass of port-wine or of daret, ready mixed with a teaspoonAil of mustard, may be poured into the body or not, at choice. Some of the stuffing should tnen be drawn out with a spoon, and the neck of the goos, which ought to be to the right and not to the left hand, as here, bdiu tamed a little towards the carver, the flesh of the breast should be sliced in the lines from bb b to c cc, on either side of the bone The wings may then be taken off like those of any other bird, and tiien the legs, which, in the engraving No. 22, are trussed so completely under the apron ss to render their outline scarcely distinguishable. Graoeiul and well-skilled carvers never turn birds on theur sides to remove any of the joints, but those of a goose, unless it be very youn, are sometimes severed from it with difficulty; and the common directions for assistins the process in that case are, to turn it on its side, and with the foric to press down the small end of

Xlvi CAKVINQ, the le; then to pass the knife quite under it from the top down to the jomt when the leg should be turned back from the bird with the fork, while the thigh-bone is loosened from its socket with the knife. The end of the pinion marked d is then held down in the same manner, to faciHtate the separation of the bones at e, from which point the knife is drawn under the wing, which it takes off. The merrythought of a goose is small, and, to remove it the knife must first be turned a little from the neck, after the flesh has been cut through, and then passed under it, back tovards the neck. For the remainder of the carving, the directions for that of a fowl will suffice DUCKS. Tame ducks are served with the feet (which are liked by many people) left upon them and trussed up over the backs. If lar they may be carved like a goose, but when very young may be disjointed like chickens; the only material difference between them being the position of the thigh -joints, which lie much farther towards the KMck-bone than those of a fowL No. 23. A WILD DUCK. The breasts of wild-fowl are the only parts of them held in much estimation, and these are carved in slices from the legs to the neck. The legs and pinions may, if required, be taken off exactly like those of a pheasant. No. 24. A. TUnKET. The carving of a turkey commences by taking slices off the breast, from the letters b b quite through the forcemeat, which lies under the letter a, to c c: the greater part of the flesh of the wings is thus taken off likewise. When the bird is boned and filled with sausage or other forcemeat, the breast is carved entirely across in the direction d e, nearly, or quite down to the back, which it is better not altogether to divide at first, as the appearance of the turkey is not then so good. When it has been prepared in the ordinary manner, after the breast has been disposed of, the pinions and the legs may be taken off, the first in the line from to g, and the latter by passing the knife under it at A, and bringing it down to the joint at t j, where it must be taken off in the line shown. The whole of the joints being in form exactly like those of a fowl, may be separated in the same manner. The gizzard is more commonly eaten broiled after having been scored, and very highly seasoned with cayenne and with a sufficiency of salt, than in any other way. A slice or portion of the liver should be served with the white fleph of Uie tur&ey as &r as ponible.

CABYXKa Xlvu

Xo. 25. A HARE. A hare should he placed with its head to the left of the canrer, therefore the engraving No. 25 shows it turned in the wrong direc tion. It is so yery great an improvement to take out the hack-hone before a hare is roasted, that we would recommend it to be done wherever it can be so without difficulty: it may then be carved in the line a b quite through, or only partially so at choice. When the bone remains in, slices may be taken down the whole length of the hack from cc to dd; the legs, which, next to the back, are con aidered the best eating, may then be taken off in the direction ef, and the flesh divided from or served upon them, after the small bones have been parted firom the thighs. The shoulders, which are not generally much esteemed, though sometimes liked by sportsmen, may next be taken off by passing the knife at the letters g h between the joint and the body. When a hare is young, the back is sometimes divided at the joints into three or four parts, after being freed iiom the ribs and under-skin. No. 27. A FRIOANDEAU OP YBAI. This is usually stewed, or rather braised sufficiently tender to be divided with a spoon, and requires no carving; but the fat (or undcrpart of the fillet) attached to it, marked aaa, which is sometimes, but not invariably served with it now, may be carved in even slices. The larding differs somewhat from that which we have described, but the mode Siown here allows the fricandeau to be glazed with more facility The engraving of the entrie No. 26 is intended merely to show the manner of dishing the cutlets. They may be of mutton, lamb, veal, or pork; and the centre may be filled with the sauce or stewed vegetable appropriate to either; as sovbiscy marbB of asparagus, of mushrooms, or of tomatas; or green peas a la Frangaise, stewed cucumbers, or aught else that is suited to the kind of meat wliich is lerved.

: ADDLE OF NflTTTON

li A U N C n OF VENISON

S 1 R I.O I N OF B F. F, F

LEG OF MUTTON

V I' A R T R OF L A M I

S H O U I. D E H OF M tT T T O N

SUCKING PI (;

BREAST OF VEAL

OX-TONG U E

CALF'S HEAD

P A K T R r D a E

AVOODCO (• K

BOILED FOWL

WILD DUCK

TURKEY

26

ENTREE OF CTJTLETS

F R I C: A N D F A 1 ' o F V K A L

1

MODERN COOKERY.

CHAPTER I.

laOBKUIBSm WHICH lUT ALL BE USED FOB KAXINO SOUT OT TABIOUS KINDS: - Beef- MntUmYeal- Hams - Salted Pork- Fat Bacon - Pigs' Ears and Feet - Venison - Black and Moor Game - Partridges - Pheasants - Wild PigeonsHares- Rabbits - Turkeys - Fowls - Tame Pigeons - Sturgeons-Conger Eel, with all sorts of Fish nsoally eaten- All Shell-Fish- Every kind of VegeUble mnd Herb fit for food - Butter - Milk - Eggs - Rice - Sago - Arrow- Root - Indian Com - HomioTSoujee - Tapioca - Pearl Barley- Oatmeal- Polenta -Macaroni - Yeimicelli - Semoulina, and other Italian Pastes. Toe art of preparing good, wholesome, mlatable soups, without great eipente which is so well understood in France, and in other countries where they form part of the daily food of all classes of the

Th

giTan in English commerce to the maize-floor or meal of Italy.

2 HODE&K COOKEBT. chap. X. people, bas hitherto been rery mncb neglected in England; yet it really presents no difficulties which a little practice, and the most common degree of care, will not readily overcome; and we strongly recommend increased attention to it, not only on account of the ss and inconvenience which ignorance of it occasions in many households, but because a better knowledge of it will lead naturally to improvement in other branches of cookery connected with il in which our want of skill is now equally apparent. We have endeavoured to show by the list at the beginning of this chapter the immense number of dinerent articles of which soup may be in turn compounded. It is almost superfluous to add, that it may be rendered at pleasure exceedingly rich, or simple in the extreme; composed, in fact, of all that is most choice in diet, or of little beyond herbs and vegetables. From the varied produce of a well-stored kitchen garden, it may be made excellent at a very trifling cost; and where fish is fresh and abundant it may be cheaply supplied nearly equal in quality to that for which a full proportion of meat is commonly used. It is beat suited to the colder seasons of the year when thickened weU with rice, semoulina, pearl barley, or other ingredients of the same nature; and adapted to the summer months when lighter and more refreshing. Families who have resided muih abroad, and those accustomed to continental modes of service, prefer it usually in any form to the more solid and heavy dishes which still oflen supersede it altogether at our tablesf (except at those of the more affluent classes of society, where it appears, as a matter of course, in the daily bills of fare), and which are so oppresnve not only to foreigners, but to all persons generally to whom circumstances have rendered them unaccustomed diet; and many a housekeeper who is compelled by a narrow income to adopt a system of rigid domestic economy, would find it assist greatly in furnishing comtbrtable meals in a very frugal manner, if the proper modes of making it were fully comprehended as they ought to be4 The reader who desires to understand the principles of soupmaking is advised to study with attention the directions for "' Baron Liebegs Extract of Beef in the present chapter, and tJbe receipt for houHion which follows it A FEW mRBOTIONS. TO THE COOK. In whatever vessel soup is boiled, see that it be perfectly dean The inabilitj of servants to prepare deUcately and well eren a litde broUi suited to an invalid, la often painfnlly evident in caaes of illneaa, not onlj in common Engliah life, bat where the cookery ia supposed to be of a superior Older. f The popular tasto in England, even at the present day, ia (kr mora in fiifoor of wiiRt is termed " tubttantiaV' food, than of any kind of pottage. I We are unable to give farther space to this sabject here, but may probably teaiuM it at another part of the bodk if practicable.

csAP. z. flODPS. o and let the inside of theeover and the rim be eqnaUy to. Waah the meat, and prepare the yegetables with great nicety before they are hiid into it; and be careful to keep it always closely shut when it is on the fire. Never, on any account, set the soup by in it, but strain it off at once into a clean pan, and fill the stock-pot immediately with water; pursue the same plan with all stewpans and aucepans directly they are emptied. Skim the soup thoroughly when it first begins to boil, or it will not be easy afterwards to render it clear; throw in some salt, which will aist to bring the scum to the surface, and when it has all been taken off, add the herbs and veffetables; for if not long stewed in the soup, their flavour will prevail too strongly. Remember that the trimmings, and the hom of fresh meat, the necks of poultry, the liquor in which a joint has been boiled, and the shank- bones of mutton, are all excellent additions to the stock-pot, and should be carefully reserved for it. The remains of roast poultry and game also will improve both the colour and the flavour of broth or soup. Let the soup be very slowly heated, and after it has been well skimmed, and has boiled for a few minutes, draw it to the side of the stove and keep it tmmeri-iie tofUyy but without ceasing, until it is done; for on this, as will nereafter be shown, its excellence principally depends. Every good cook understands perfectly the difference produced by the fast boiling, or the gende stewing of soups and gravies, and will adhere strictly to the latter method. Pour boiling water, in small quantities at first, to the meat and vegetables of which the soup is to be made when they have been liKd or browned; but otherwise, always add coid water to the meat. Unless precise orders to the contrary have been given, onions, eschalots, and garlic, should be used for seasoning with great moderation; for not only are they very offensive to many eaters, but to persons of delicate habit their effects are sometimes extremely prejudicial; and it is only in coarse cookery that their flavour is allowed ever strongly to prevaiL A small proportion of siu;ar, about an ounce to the gallon, will very much improve the &vour of gravy-stock, and of all rich brown soups; it may be added also to some othera with advantage; and for this, directions will be given in the proper places. Two ounces of salt may be allowed for each gallon of soup or broth, in which large quantities of vegetables are stewed; but an ounce and a half will be sufficient for such as contain few or none; it u always easy to add more if needful, but oversalting in the fiirst • It is moat diffienlt to render rapidlj-boiled soap or gravjr clear for table; bat that which ia only aimmered will clariiy itaelf if allowed to remain nndistorbed for aome little time (half an hour or ao) after it ia withdrawn from the fire; it ahonld then be poured rery gently from the aediment Calf a feet stock likewiae may be eonrerted into tranaparent jelly with fkt greater fiicility irixen it has not been thickened by too quick boiling, by which ao many pre panlioiis ia our Kniah kitchens are iBJmred.

4 MODERN COOKERY. chap, l instance is a fault for which there is no remedy but that of increasing the proportions of all the other ingredients, and stewing the whole afresh, which occasions needless trouble and expense, even when time will admit of its being done. As no particle of fat should be seen floating on soup when sent to table, it is desirable that the stock should l made the day before it is wanted, that it may become quite cold; when the fat may be entirely cleared off without difficulty. When cayenne pepper is not mixed with rice-flour, or with any other thickening, grind it down with the back of a spoon, and stir a little li(uid to it &fore it is thrown into the stevrpan, as it is apt to remain in lumps, and to occasion great irritation of the throat when swallowed so. Serve, not only soups and sauces, but all other dishes, as hot as possible, THE TIME REQUIRED FOR BOILINQ DOWN SOUP OB STOCK. This must be regulated by several considerations; for though the mere juices of meat require but little boiling after they have been fully extracted by the slow heating recommended by Baron Liebeg, soup to which many vegetables are added (winter vegetables especially) requires long stewing to soften and to blend properly the flavour of all the ingredients which it contains, as that of no one in particular ought to be allowed to predominate over the rest. We nave in consequence retained the old directions as to time, in many of the following receipts; but an intelligent cook will soon ascertain from practice and observation how and when to vary it with advantage. OverboUing renders all i)reparations insipid, and causes undue reduction of them likewise; it is a fault, therefore, which should be carefolly avoided. TO THICKEN SOUPS. Except for white soups, to which arrow-root is, we think, more appropriate, we prefer, to all other ingredients generally used for this purpose, the finest and freshest rice -flour, which, after being" passed Uirough a lawn sieve, should be thoroughly blended with the salt, pounded spices, catsup, or wine, required to finish the flavouring of the soup. Sufficient liquid should be added to it very gradually to render it of the consistence of batter, and it should also be perfectly smooth; to keep it so, it should be moistened sparingly at first, and beaten with the back of a spoon until every lump has disappeared. The soup should boil quickly when the thickening is stirred into it, and be simmered for ten mmutes afterwards. From an ounce and a half to two ounces of rice-flour will thicken sufficiently a quart of soup. Instead of this, arrow-root or the condiment known by the name of tous les mois, which greatly resembles it, or potato flour, or the French thickening called roux (see Chapter V.), may be used in the

CHAP. 1. SOUPS. 5 following proportions: - Two and a half ounces of either of the first three, to four pints and a half of soup; to be mixed fpraduaUy with a little cold stock or water, stirred into the boiling soup, and simmered for a minute. Six ounces of flour with seven of butter, made into a roux or njerely mixed together with a large knife, will be required to thicken a tureen of soup; as much as half a pound is sometimes used; these must be added by degrees, and carefully stirred round in the soup until smoothly blended with it, or they will remain in lumps. We would, however, recommend any other thickening rather than this unwholesome mixture. All the ingredients used for soups should be fresh, and of good quality, particularly Italian pastes of every kind (macaroni, vermicelli, &c., as they contract, by long keeping, a peculiarly unpleasant, musty flavour. Onions, freed irom the outer skin, dried gradually to a deep brown, in a slow oven, and flattened like Norfolk biffins, will keep for almost any length of time, and are extremely useful for heightening the colour and flavour of broths and gravies. TO PRY BREAD TO SERVE WITH SOUP. Cut some slices a quarter of an inch thick from a stale loaf; pare off the crust and divide the bread into dice, or cut it with a small paste-cutter into any other form. For half a pound of bread put two ounces of the b butter into a frying-pan, and when it is quite melted, add the bread; keep it turned over a gentle fire until it is equally coloured to a veiy pale brown, then drain it from the butter, and dry it on a soft cloth, or on a sheet of paper placed before a dear fire upon a dish, or upon a sieve reversed. SIPPETS X LA REINE. Having cut the bread as for common sippets, spread it on a dish, and pour over it a few spoonsful of thin cream, or of good milk: let it soak for an hour, then fry it in fresh butter of a delicate brown, drain and serve the sippets very hot. TO MAKE NOUILLES. An elegant substitute for Vermicelli.') "Wet with the yolks of four eggs, as much fine dry sifted flour as will make them into a firm but very smooth paste. Koll it out as thin as possible, and cut it into bands of about an inch and a quarter in width. Dust them lightly with flour, and place four of them one upon the other. Cut them obliquelv into the finest possible strips; separate them with the point of akniie, and spread them upon writmg The fonrth part of one these dried onions det ognora 5m), of modernte •ize, is •nfflcient for a tnreen of soup. They are sold very commonly in Trancot and may be procured in London at many good foreign warehouses.

B XOD£BN COOKERY. OKAP. 1. paper, to that tbey may dry a little before they are used. Drop tbem gradually into the boiling soup, and in ten minutes the will be done. Various other forms may be given to this paste at wilL It may be divided into a sort of ribbon macaroni; or stamped with small con fectionarv cutters into different shapes. It is much used in the more delicate departments of cookery, and when cut as for soup, and prepared as for the OenoUes a la Heine of Chapter XV IIL makes very superior puddings, pastry, fritters, and other sweet dishes. TEOETABLE VERMICELLI. (Vegetables cut very fine for soups.) Cut the carrots into inch lengths, then pare them round and round ia ribands of equal thickness, tiu the inside is reached; next cut these ribands into straws, or very small strips; celery is prepared in the same way, and turnips also are first pared into ribands, then sliced into strips; these last require less boilins than the carrots, and attention must be paid to this, for if broken, the whole would have a bad appearance in soup. The Slier plan is to boil each vegetable separatelyf till tolerably tender, in a uttle pale broth (in water if this be not at hand), to drain them well, and put them into the soup, which should be clear, only a few minutes before it is dished. For cutting them small, in other forms, the proper instruments will be found at the ironmonger's. EXTRACT OF BEEF; OB, YEBT STRONG PLAIK BEBF GBATT SOUP. (Baron L%ehegs Receipt) Obsbbyatiok. - This admirable preparation is not only most valuable as a restorative of the best kind for invalids who require light but highly nutritious diet, it is also of the utmost utility for the general purposes of the kitchen, and will enable a cook who can take skilful advantage of it, to convert the cold meat which often abounds so inconveniently in an English larder, from our habit of having ioints of large size so much served, into good nourishing dishes, wnich the hasnes and minces of our common cookery are not, though they may answer well enough as mere varieties of aiet. We shall indicate in the proper chapters the many other uses to which this beef juice- for such indeed it is- will be found eminently adapted. Of its value in illness it is impossible to speak too highly; and m evexy family, therefore, the exact mode of making it ought to be thoroughly understood. The economist who may consider it expensive, must remember that drugs and medical advice are usually far more so; and in cases of extreme debility the benefit derived from it, when it is well prepared and judiciously administered, is often remarkable. It should be given in small quantities at first, and in its pure state. It may afterwards be varied by the addition of vermicelli, semoulina, or other preparatioos

CHAP. I. 80UPS. t of the kind; and also by nsing for it a portion of mntton, calTs head, ponltzy, or game, when these suit a patient as well as the beef. HxcBiPT. - Take a pound of good, juicj beef (rumpstik is best for the pnrpose), fVom wnich all the skm and fat that can possibly be separated from it, has been cut away. Chop it up small like sausagemeat; then mix it thoroughly with an exact pint of cold water, and place it on the side of the stove to heat very uowly indeed; and give It an oocaaional stir. It may stand two or three hours before it is allowed to simmer, and will then require at the utmost but fifteen minutes of gentle boiling. Professor Liebeg directs even less time than this, but the soup then occasionally retuns a raw flavour which it distasteful. Salt should be added when the boiling first commencesi and for invalids, this, in general, is the only seasoning required. When the extract is thus far prepared, it may be pour from the meat into a basin, and allowed to stand until any particles of fat it may exhibit on the surface can be skimmed off entirely, and the sediment has subsided and left the soup quite clear (which it speedily becomes), when it may be poured gentiy off, heated in a clean saucepan, and served at once. It will contain all the nutriment which the meat wUl yield. The scum should always be well cleared from the snrfaoe of the soup as it accumulates. To make light beef tea or broth, merely increase the proportion of water to a pint and a half or a quart; but in all else proceed as above. Meat (without fat or skin), 1 lb.; cold water, exact pint: heating 2 hours or more; to boil 15 minutes at the utmost Beef tea or broth. - Beef, 1 lb.; water, pint or 1 quart 0b9, - To mingle vegetable diet in its best form with this extract, it will be sufficient, as we have explained in Cookery for Invalids, to boil down the kind of vtable desired, sliced or cut up small, in a Tery moderate quantity of water, until its juices are well drawn out; then to strain off the liquid from it with slight pressure, and, when it has become cold, to pour it to the choppy meat instead of water. Several different sorts can be mixed together, and cooked in this way: the water must boil before they are added to it. They should be much more tender than when merely boiled for table, but not reduced to pulp. The juice should remam clear; no salt riiould be added; and it should be quite cold before it is stirred to the meat AVhen the extract is wanted for gravy, a small portion of onion, and of herbs, carrots, celery, and the other usual vegetables, may be stewed together, to give it tiie requisite flavour. About an inch square of the Jewish beef Tsee Chapter of Fobbigk Cookxbt), whether cooked or uncooked, will impart a fine savour to it; the smoked surface of this should be pared off before it is used, and it may be added in thin slices.

8 KODEBK COOKEBT. cb p. i. BOlTILLOl?. (TJie Common Soup or Beef 'Broth of France; cheap, and very whiles some.) This soup, or broth as we should perhaps designate it in England, is made once or twice in the week, in every famuy of respectabUityin France; and by the poorer classes as often as their means will enable them to substitute it for the y;etable or maigre soups, on which they are more commonly obliged to subsist. It is served usually on tne first daj with slices of untoasted . bread soaked m it; on the second, it is r generally varied with vermicelli, rice, or semoulina. The ingredients are, of course, often otherwise proportioned than as we have given them, and more or less meat is allowed according to the taste or circumstances of the persons for whom the bouillon is prepared; but the process of malcing it is always the same, and is thus described (rather learnedly) by one of the most skilful cooks in Europe: The stock-pot of the French artisan,' says Monsieur Carme, "supplies his principal nourishment; and it is thus managed by his wife, who, without the slightest knowledge of chemistry, conducts the process in a truly scientific manner. She first lays the meat into an earthen stock-pot, and pours cold water to it in the proportion of about two quarts to three ounds of the beef; she then places it by the side of the fire, where it slowly becomes hot; and as it does so, the heat enlarges the fibre of the meat, dissolves the gelatinous substances which it contains, allows the albumen (or the muscular part which produces the scum) to disengage itself, and rise to the surface, and the ozmazome (which ie the most savoury part of the meat) to be difiused through the broth. Thus, from the simple circumstance of boiling it in the gentlest manner, a relishing ana nutritious soup will be obtained, and a dish of tender and palatable meat; but if the pot be placed and kept over a quick fire, the albumen will coagulate, narden the meat, prevent the water from penetrating it, and the osmazome from disengaging itself; the result will be a broth without flavour or goodness, and a tough, dry bit of meat" It must be observed in addition, that as the meat of which the bouillon is made, is almost invariably sent to table, a part of the rump, the mouse-buttock, or the leg-of-mutton piece of bee( should be selected for it; and the simmering should be continued only until this is perfectly tender. When the object is simply to make good, pure • This is a large proportion of meat for the fiunil of a French artUan; a pound to the quart womd be nearer the reality; bat it is not the reftise-meat wliich wonld be porohased bj persons of the same ranJc in EngUmd for making broth.

CHIP. I. 80UP& • flavoured, beef broth, part cf the shin or Icff, with a pound or two of the neck, will best answer the pnrpoee. Wnen the bauilU (that is to 8B7, the beef which is boiled in the soup), is to be served, bind it into a good shape, add to it a calf s foot if easily procurable, as this much improTes tne quality of the houiUon; pour cold water to it in the proportion mentioned above, and proceed, as Monsieur Car6me directs, to Leat the soup slowly by the side of the fire; remove carefully the head of scum wluch ¥nll gather on the surface before the boiling commences, and continue the skimming at intervals for about twenty minutes longer, pourinj in once or twice a little cold water. Next, sdd salt in the proportion of two ounces to the gallon; this will cause a little more scum to rise; clear it quite off and throw in three or four turnips, as many carrots, half ahead ofoeleir, four or five young leeks, an onion stuck with six or eight cloves, a lai half tea-spoonful of peppercorns, and a bunch of savoury herbs. Let the whole stew VBBT softly without ceasing, from four hours and a half to six hooTB, according to the quantity: the beef in that time will be extremely tender but not overdone. It vnll be excellent eating if properly manajged, and might often, we think, be substituted with great sdvantage &r the hard, half-boiled, salted beef so often seen at an English table. It should be served with a couple of cabbages, which have been first boiled in the usual way, then pressed very dir, and stewed for ten minutes in a little of the brotn, and seasoned with pepper and salt. The other vefetableR from the bouillon may be laid round it or not at choice. The soup if served on the same day must be strained, well cleared from fat, and sent to table with fried or toasted breEKl, unless the continental mode of putting slices or crosts of unioasted bread into the tureen, and soaking them for ten minutes in a ladleful or two of the bouillon be, from custom, preferred. Beef, 8 to 9 lbs.; water, 6 quarts; salt, 3 oz. (more, if needed); carrots, 4 to 6; turnips, 4 or 5; celery, one small head; leeks, 4 to 6; one onion, stuck with 6 cloves; peppercorns, one small teaspoonfid; large bunch of savoury herbs (calfs foot if convenient); to nmmer 5 to 6 hours. Obi, 1. - This broth forms in France the foundation of all richer soups and gravies. Poured on fresh meat (a portion of which should be veal) instead of water, it makes at once an excellent consommS or strong jellied stock. If properly managed, it is very clear and pale; and with an additional weight of beef and some spoonsful of glaze may easily be converted into an amber-coloured gravy-soup, suited to modem taste. Obi. 2. - It is a common practice abroad to boil poultry, pigeons, and even game, in the pot-au-feu or soup-pot. They should be properly trussed, stewed in the broth just long enough to render tncm tender, and served, when ready, with a good sauce. A small ham, if well soaked, washed exceedingly clean, and freed entirely from any In wealthy families the soup is boiled in a metal soup-pot, called a nutrmUe,

10 HODEBN GOOKEBY. CHAP. l. msty or blackened parts, laid with the beef when the water is first added to it, and boiied from three hours and a half to four hours in the bauiUon, is very superior in flavour to those cooked in water only, and infinitely improves the soup, which cannot however so well be eaten until the following day, when all the fat can easily be taker from it: it would, of course, require no salt CLEAR, PALE GBATY SOUP OR CONSOMMi. Rub a deep stewpan or soup- pot with butter, and lay into it three quarters of a pound of ham freed entirely from fat, skin, and rust, four pounds of leg or neck of veal, and the same wcieht of lean beef, all cut into thick slices; set it over a clear and rather brisk fire, until the meat is of a fine amber-colour; it must be often moved, and closeljr watched, that it may not stick to the pan, nor bum. When it is equally browned, lay the bones upon it, and pour in gradually four quarts of boiling water. Take off the scum carefully as it rises, and throw in a pint of cold water at intervals to bring it quickly to the surface. When no more appears, add two ounces of salt, two onions, two large carrots, two turnips, one head of celery, a fageot of savoury herbs, a dozen cloves, half a tea rnful of whole white pepper, and two large blades of mace. I soup boil gently from five hours and a half to six hours and a half: then strain it through a very clean fine cloth, laid in a hair sieve. When it is perfectly cold, remove every pulicle of fat from the top; and, in taking out the soup, leave the sediment untouched; heat in a clean pan the quantity required for table, add salt to it if needed, and a few drops of chili or ofcayenne vine. Harvey's sauce, or very fine mushroom catsup, may be substituted for these. When thus prepared the soup is ready to serve: it should be accompanied by pale sippets of fried bread, or sippets a la reine. (At tables where English modes of service entirely prevailed, clear gravysoup, until very recently, was always accompanied by dice, or sippets as they are called, of delicately toasted bread. These are now seldom seen, but some Italian paste, or nicely prepared vetable, is served in the soup instead). Rice, macaroni in lengths or in rings, vermicelli, or nauillei may in turn be used to vary it; but they must always be boiled apart, till tender, in broth or water, and well drained before they are slipped into it. The addition of young vegetables, too, and especially of asparagus, will convert it into superior springsoup; but they, likewise, must be separately cooked. ANOTHER RECEIPT FOR GRAVY SOUP. Instead of browning the meat in its own juices, put it with the onions and carrots, into a deep stewpan, with a quarter of a pint of bouillon; set it over a brisk fire at first, and when the broth is somewhat reduced, let it boil gently until it has taken a fine colour, and forms a

GSAF. 1.3 SOUPS. II glaze (or jelly) at the bofctom of ihe stewpan; then pour to it the proper quantity of water, and finish the soup by the preceding receipt. oSff. - A rich, old-fashioned English brown gravy-soup may be made with beef only. It should be cut from the bones, dredged with flour, seasoned with pepper and salt, and fried a clear brown; wen stewed for six hours, if the quantity be large, with a pint of water to each pound of meat, and vegetables as above, except onions, of which four moderate-ttzed ones, also fHed, are to be added to every three quarts of the soup, which, after it has been strained and cleared from fat, may be thickened with six ounces of fresh butter, worked up very smoothly inth five of flour. In twenty minutes afterwards, a tablespoonful of &e best soy, half a pint of sherry, and a little cayenne, may be added to the Boupt which will then be ready to serve. CHEAP, CLeAr, OBATY BOUP. The shin or 1 of beef, if not large or coarae, will answer extremely well for this soup, and afford at the same time a highly economical dish of boiled meat, which will be found very tender, and yery palat" able also, if it be served with a sauce of some piauancy. From about ten pounds of the meat let the butcher cut evenly off five or six from the thick flchy part, and again divide the knuckle, that the whole may lie compactly in the vessel in which it is to be stewed. Pour in throe quarts of cold water, and when it has been brought slowly to boil, and been well skinuned, as directed for houiUan (Page 8), throw in an ounce and a half of salt, half a large teaspoonful of peppercorns, eight cloves, two blades of mace, a laggot of savoury herbs, a couple of small carrots, and the heart of a root of celery; to these add a Doild onion or not, at choice. When the whole has stewed very softly for four hours, probe the larger bit of beef, and if quite tender, lift it out for table; let the soup be simmered from two to three hours longer, and then strain it through a fine sieve, into a clean pan. When it is perfectly cold, clear off every particle of fat; heat a couple of quarts, stir in, when it boils, half an cunce of sugar, a small tablespoonful of good soy, and twice as muon of Harvey's sauce, or instead of this, of clear and fine mushroom catsup. If carefully made, the • The juices of meat, drawn ont with a small portion of Uqnid, as directed here, may easily be reduced to the consistency in which they form what is cdled giari: for particolars of this, see Chapter IV. The best method, though perhaps not the easiest, of making the clear, amber-coloured stock, is to pour a ladleful or two of pale but strong beefbroth to the veal, and to boil it bnskly until well reduced, thrusting a knife when this is done into the meat, to let die juices escape; then to proceed more slowly and cautiously as the liauid approaches Uie state in which it would bum. It must be allowed to take a aark amber-colour only, and the meat must be turned, and often moved in it When the desired point is reached, pour in more boiling broth, and let the nan remain off the fire i!or a few minutes, to detach and melt &e glaze; then shake it wM round before the boiling is eontinned. A certain quantity of deeply coloured glaze, made apart, and stiiTed into strong, dearj pale stock, would produce the desired effect of this, with maeh less trouble.

12 MODBRN COOKERY. chap, z flonp will be perfectly transparent and of good colour and flavour. A thick slice of lean ham will improve it, and a pound or bo of the neck of beef with an additional pint of water, will likewise enrich its quality. A small quantity of good broth may be made of the fragments of the whole boued down with a few fresh vegetables. Brown caper, or hot horse-radish sauce, or sauce Robert, or iouce piquante, made with the liquor in which it is boiled, may be served with the portion of the meat which is sent to table. VERMICELLI SOUP. (Potage an Vermicelle.) Drop very lightly, and by degrees, six ounces of vermicelli, broken rather small, into three ouarts of boiling bouillon or clear gravy soup; let it simmer for half an nour over a ntle fire, and stir it often. This is the common French mode of makmg vermicelli soup, and we can recommend it as a particularly food one for family use. In England it is customary to soak, or to blanch the vermicelli, then to drain it well, and to stew it for a shorter time in the soup; the quantity also, must be reduced quite two ounces, to suit modem taste. Bouillon, or gravy soup, 3 quarts; vermicelli, 6 oz.; 30 minutes. Or, soup, 3 quarts; vermicelli, 4 oz.; blanched in boiling water 6 minutes; stewed in soup 10 to 15 minutes. 8BM0ULINA SOUP. (Soupe a la Simovie,) Semoulina is used in the same way as the vermicelli. It should be dropped very lightly and by degprecs into the boiling soup, which should be stirred all the time it is being added, and very frequently afterwards; indeed, it should scarcely be quitted until it is ready for table. Skim it carefully, and let it simmer from twenty to fiveand-twenty minutes. This, when the semoulina is good and fresh, is, to our taste, an excellent soup. Soup, 3 quarts; semoulina, 6 oz.; nearly, or quite 25 minutes. When of very fine qoalitj, the vermicelli will usually require less boilmg than this. We have named to the reader, in another part of the volume, Mr. Oobbett, 18, Pall Mall, as supplying all the Italian pastes extremely good. There are, of course, many other houses in London where they may be procured equally 80; but in naming Mr. Cobbett, who is personally unknown to us, we merely give the result of our ovm experience of many years. Some articles of very superior quality purchased for us at his warehouse by a person merely commissioned to procure the best that could be had "from Toum" first directed om attention to his house (along established one, we believe), which is justly noted, especially amongst affluent country families, for the excellence of the goods which it sends out. We give this explanation, because it seems invidious to select, firom the large number of deservedly celebrated establishments of the same class which are to be found here, any one in particular for mention in t wcrk of this nature.

CBAP. L SOUPS. 13. MACARONI SOUP. Throw four ounces of fine fresh mellow Naples macearoni into a pan of fast-boiling water, with about an ounce of fresh butter, and a small onion stuck with three or four cloyes.t When it has swelled to its full size, and become tender, drain it well, cut it into half-inch lenhs, and slip it into a couple of quarts of clear gravj-soup: let it simmer for a few minutes, when it will be ready for table. Obserre, that the macaroni should be boiled quite tender; but it should by no means be allowed to burst, nor to become pulpy. Seire grated Parmesan cheese with it. Macaroni, 4 oz.; butter, 1 oz.; 1 small onion; 5 doves; hour, or more. In soup, 5 to 10 minutes. O&ff.- The macaroni for soups should always be either broken into short lengths before it is boiled, or cut as above, or sliced qniddy into small rings not more than the sixth of an inch thick after it is boUed, unless the cut or ring macaroni, which may be parchased at the Italian warehouses, be used; this requires but ten minutes boiling, and should be dropped into the soup in the same way as vermicdli. Pour oimces of it will be sumcient for two quarts of stock. It may be added to white soup afler having been previously boiled in water or veal-broth, and well drained from it: It has a rather elegant appearance in clear gravy-soup, but should have a boil in water before it is thrown into it. If served in very clear bright stock (consomme) it should be boiled apart until tender in a little good broth, which ought also to be clear and entirely free from fat; then well drained, and put into the soup for a minute, or into the tureen, the instant bdfoie the soup is dished. BOUP OF SOVJEE. The soujee id of Indian origin, but is now well manufactured in £iIand, and is, we think, somewhat more delicate than semoulina in lvour; and being made firom wheat of the finest qualitv, is also quite as nutritious, or more so. For each quart of soup allow two ounces of soujee (the proportions can always be otherwise adapted to the taste after the first trial); drop it adually into the boiling liquid, and sinmier it for ten or twelve mmutes. Bullock's semola is another preparation which may be used in exactly the same manner to thicken soup; but both this and soujee are more expensive at present than semoulina. We most here repeat our varning agunst the use of long-kept macaroni, ?ermicelU, or semoTilina; as when stale they will render any dish into which they arrintrodnced quite unfit for table. i For white soaps omit the onion. For the different varieties of macaroni and rermicelli, and the time reqnlif d to boil each of them, see Chapter XXI. I By Mesara. Stephens and Co. 2 White's Bow, Bishopsgate.

14 HODEBK COOKEBT. chap.l POTAGB AUX NOUILLESy OR TAILLBHINE SOUP Make into noutfle-pafite, with very fine dry flour, the yolks of four fresh eggs, and when ready cut, drop it gradually into five pints of boiling soup; keep this gently stirred for ten minutes, skim it well, and serve it quickly. This is a less common, and a more delicately flavoured soup than the vermicelli, provided always that the nouiUes be made with really fresh eggs. The same paste may be cut into very small diamonds, squares, stars, or any other form, then left to dry a little, and boiled in the soup until swollen to its full sjze, and tender. iVbtttiZe-paste of four eggs; soup, 5 pints: 10 minutes. 8AG0 SOUP. Wash in several waters, and float off the dirt from six ounces of fine pearl sago; put it into three quarts of good cold gravy-stock; let it stew gently from half to three quarters of an hour, and stir it occasionally, that it may not bum nor stick to the stewpan. A quarter of an ounce more of sago to each pint of liquid, will thicken it to the consistence of peas-soup. It may be flavoured with half a wineglassful of Harveys sauce, as much cayenne as it may need, the juice of half a lemon, an ounce of sugar, and two glasses of sherry; or these may be omitted, and good beef-broth may be substituted for the gravy-soup, for a simple family dinner, or for an invalid; or, again, it may be converted into inexpensive white soup by the addition of some cream smoothly mixed with a dessertspoonful of arrowroot, or of thick cream and new milk in equal portions. Veal broth would be the most appropriate for this, or it might be made with half veal and half mutton. Sago, 6 oz.; soup, 3 quarts: 30 to 45 minutes. TAPIOCA SOUP. This is made in the same manner, and with the same proportions as the preceding soup, but it must be simmered from fiuy to sixty minutes. RICE SOUP. In France, this soup is served well thickened with the rice, which is stewed in it for upwards of an hour and a half, and makes thus, even with the common bouillon of the country, an excellent i'inter fotage. Wipe in a diy cloth, eight ounces of the best rice; add it, m small portions, to four quarts of hot soup, of which the boiling should not be checked as it is thrown in. When a clear soup is wanted wash the rice, give it five minutes boil in water, drain it well, throw it into as much boiling stock or well-flavoured broth as will keep it covered till done, and simmer it very softly until the grains are tender but still separate; drain it, drop it into the soup, and let it remain in it a few mmutes Before it is served, but without

CHAP. I. 80UP& IS fiminerin. When stewed in the stock it may he pat at once, after heing drained, into the tureen, and the clear eonaammi may he poured to it. An easy English mode of making rice-soup is this: put the rice into plenty of cold water; when it boils throw in a small (quantity of salt, let it simmer for ten minutes, drain it well, throw it into the boiling soup, and simmer it gently from ten to fifteen minutes longer. An extra quantity of stock must be allowed for the reduction of this soup which is always considerable. WHITE RICE SOUP. Throw four ounces of well-washed rice into boiling water, and in fire minutes after pour it into a sieve, drain it well, and put it into a eouple of quarts of good white boiling stock; let it stew until tender; season the soup with salt, cayenne, and pounded mace; stir to it three quarters of a pint of yery rich cream, give it one boil, and serve it quickly. Rice, 4 oz.: boiled 5 minutes Soup, 2 quarts: f hour or more. Seasoning of salt, mace, and cayenne; cream, i pint: 1 minute. RICE-FLOUR SCOP. Mix to a smooth batter, with a little cold broth, eight ounces of fine rice-flour, and pour it into a couple of quarts of fast-boiling broth or gravy soup. Add to it a eeasoning of mace and cayenne, with a litUe salt if needful. It will require but ten minutes lioiling. Soup, 2 quarts; rice-flour, 8 oz.: 10 minutes. Obf. - Two dessertspoonsful of currie-powder, and the strained juice of half a moderate-sized lemon will greatly improve this soup: It may also be converted into a ood common white soup (if it be made of veal stock), by the addition of three quarters of a pint of thick cream to the rice. STOCK FOR WHITE SOUP. Though a knuckle of veal is usually preferred for this stock, part of the neck will answer for it very well. Whichever joint be chosen, let it be thoroughly washed, once or twice divided, and laid into a delicately dean soup-pot, or well-tinned large stout iron saucepan, upon a pound of lean nam, freed entirely from skin and fat, and cut into thick slices; or, instead of this,, on half a pound of the Jewish smoked beef, of which we have already spoken, and from which the smoked surface, and all fat, must be careniUy carved away. Dutch or hung beef also will answer the same purpose, but similar precautions must be observed with regard to the smoked portions of either; as they would impart a very unpleasant flavour to any preparation. Should very rich soup be wished for, pour in a pint ocAr af cold water for each pound of meat, but otherwise a pint and a half TIm Pstna requires mtieh less boiling tlum the Carolina.

If) MODEBN COOKEBT. chap. z. may be allowed. When the soup has been thoroughly cleared from scum, which should be carefully taken off from the tmie of its first beginning to boil, throw in an ounce of salt to the gallon (more can be added afterwards if needed), two mild onions, a moderate-sized head of celery, two carrots, a small teasnoonful of whole white pepper, and two blades of mace; and let the soup stew very softly from five to six hours, if the quantity be large: it should simmer until the meat falls from the l)ones. The skin of a calf s head, a calf s foot, or an old fowl may always be added to this stock with good effect. Strain it into a dean deep pan and keep it in a cool place till wanted for use. Lean ham, 1 lb.; yeal, 7 lbs; water, 4 to 6 quarts; salt, 1 oz. (more if needed); onions, 2; celery, 1 head; carrots, 2; peppercorn 1 teaspoonful; mace, 2 blades: 5 to 6 hours. HUTTON-STOCK FOR SOUPS. Equal parts of beef and mutton, with the addition of a small portion of ham, or dried beef, make excellent stock, especially for wintersoups. The necks of fowls, the bones of an undressed calTs head, or of any uncooked joint, ma be added to it with advantage. According to the quality of soup desired, pour fh)m a pint to a pint and a half of cold water to each pound of meat; and after the hquor has been well skimmed, on its beginning; to boil, throw in an ounce and a half of salt to the gallon, two small heads of celery, three mild middlingsized onions, three well-flavoured turnips, as many carrots, a faggot of thyme and parsley, half a teaspoonful of white peppercorns, twelve cloves, and a large blade of mace. Draw the soup-pot to the side of the fire, and boil the stock as gently as possible for about six hours; then strain, and set it by for use. Be particularly careful to clear it entirely from fat before it is prepared for table. One third of beef or vecU with two of mutton, will make very good soup; or mutton only will answer the purpose quite well upon occasion. Beef, 4 lbs.; mutton, 4 lbs. (or, beef or veal from 2 to 3 lbs.; mutton from 5 to 6 lbs.); water, 1 to 1) gallon; salt, IJ oz.; mild turnips, 1 lb.; onions, 6 oz.; carrots, lb.; celery, 6 to 8 oz.; I bunch of herbs; peppercorns, i teaspoonful; cloves, 12; mace, 1 large blade: 6 hours. Oj.-Salt should be used sparingly at first for stock in which any portion of ham is boiled; allowance should also be made for its reduction, in case of its being required for gravy. MADEMOISELLE JENNY LIND's SOUP. (Auihentie Receipt. J This receipt does not merely bear the name of " Mademoiselle Lind, but is in reality that of the soup which was constantly served to her, as it was prepared by her own cook. We are indebted for it

CHAP. I. SOUPS. 17 to the kindness of tbe very popnlar Swedish authoress, Miss Bremer, vfho lecdyed it direct from ner accomplished countrywoman. The following proportions are for a tureen of this excellent

Wash a quarter of a pound of the best pearl -sago until the water poured from it is clear; then stew it quite tender and very thick in water or thick broth (it will require nearly or quite a ouart of liquid, which should be poured to it cold, and heated slowly): then mix;TBdually with it a pint of good boiling cream, and the yolks of four fresh (gs, and mingle the whole caretully with two quarts of strong veal or beef stock, which should always he kept ready boiling. Send the soup immediately to table. THE LORD UAYOR's SOUP. Wash tborouehly two sets of moderate sized pigs ears and feet from which the hair has been carefully removed; add to them five quarts of cold water, and stew them very gently with a faggot . of savoury herbs, and one large onion stuck with a dozen cloves, for nearly four hours, when the ears may be lifted out; stew the feet for another hour, then take them up, strain the soup, and set it in a cool place that it may become cold enough for the fat to be quite cleared from it. Next, bone the ears and feet, cut the flesh down into dice, throw a clean folded cloth over it, and leave it so until the soup requires to be prepared for table; then strew upon it two tablespoonsful of savoury herbs minced small, half a saltspoonful of cayenne, a little white pepper, and some salt. Put into a large saucepan half a pound of good butter, and when it begins to sinuner thicken it gradually with as much flour as it will absorb; keep these stirred over a very gentle Are for ten minutes or more, but do not allow them to take the slightest colour; pour the soup to them by degrees, letting it boil up after each portion is added; put in the meat, and half a pint of sherry; simmer the whole from three to five minutes; dish the soup, and slip into it two or three dozens of delicately fi'ied forcemeatballs. (See Chapter Vm.) Pigs' feet, 8; ears, 4; water, 5 quarts; bunch savoury herbs; 1 large onion; doves, 12: 3 to 4 hours, feet, 1 hour more. Butter, nb.; flour, 6 oz.t: 10 to 12 minutes. Minced herbs, 2 tablespoonsful; cayenne and common pepper, each J saltspoonful; salt, I tcaspoonfm or more; sherry, I pmt: 3 to 5 minutes. Forcemeat-balls, 2 to 3 dozens. Obf.-- We have given this receipt with the slightest possible variation from the origiiml, which we derived from a neighbourhood where We icere infcmned by Miss Bremer that Mademoiselle lind was in the habit of taking Uiis soup before she sang, as she found the sago and eggs sooth jng to the chest, and beneficial to the Toice. f The safer plan for an inexperienced cook is to weigh the flour, and then to sprinkle it from a dredging-boz into the butter. C

18 MODEBK COOKERT chat. I. tDC soup made by it was extremely popular We have better adapted it to our own taste by the following alterations.

THE LORD MAYOR S SOUP. (Author's Receipt) "We prefer to have this soup made, in part,, the evening before it is wanted. Add the same proportion of water to the ears and feet as in the preceding directions; skim it thoroughly when it first boils, and til row in a tablespoonful of salt, two onions of moderate size, a small head of celery, a bunch of herbs, two whole carrots, a small teaspoonful of white peppercorns, and a blade of mace. Stew these softly until the ears and feet are perfectly tender, and, after they are lifted out, let the liquor be keptW simmering only, while thev are being boned, that it may not be too much reduced. Put the bones back into it and stew them as gently as possible for an hour; then strain the soup into a clean nan, and set it by until the morrow in a cool place. The flesh should oe cut into dice while it is still warm, and covered with the cloth before it becomes quite cold. To prepare the soup for table clear the stock from fat and sediment, put it into a very dean stewpan, or deep saucepan, and stir to it when it boils, six ounces of the nest rice-fiour smoothly mixed with a quarter of a teaspoonful of cayenne, three times as much of mace and salt, the strained jidce of a lemon, three tablespoonsful of Harvey's sauce, and half a pint of good sherry or Ifadeira. Simmer the whole for six or eight minutes, add more salt if needed, stir the soup often, and skim it thoroughly; put in the meat and herbs, and after they have boiled gently for five minutes, dish the soup, add forcemeat-balls or not, at pleasure, and send it to table quickly. Moderate-sized pigs feet, 8; ears, 4; water, 6 quarts; salt, 1 tablespoonful; onions, 2; celery, 1 head; carroty 2; bunch of herbs v cppercoms, 1 small teaspoonful; mace, 1 blade: 3J to 4 hours. Stock, 5 pints; rice-flour, 6 oz.; cayenne, teaspoonful; mace and salt, each of a teaspoonful; juice of 1 lemon; Harvey's sauce, $ tablespoonsful; sherry or Madeira, g pint: 6 to 8 minutes. Savoury herbs, 2 tablespoonsful: 5 minutes. Obs. 1. - Should the quantity of stock exceed five pints, an additional ounce or more of rice must be used, and the flavouring be altogether increased in proportion. Of the minced herbs, two-thirds should be parsley, and the remainder equal parts of lemon thyme and winter savoury, unless sweet basil should be at hand, when a teaspoonful of it may be substituted for half of the parsley. To some tastes a seasoning of sage would be acceptable: and a slice or two of lean ham will much improve the flavour of the soup. Obs, 2. - Both this soup, and the preceding one, may be rendered very rich by substituting strong bouillon (see page 8) or good veal broth for water, in making them.

CHIP. I. 80UP8. 19 COCOA-NUT BOUP. Fkre fhe dark rind from a very fiesli coooa-nut, and fprate it down small on an exceedingly clean, bright gprater; weigh it, and allow two oanoes for each quart of sonp. Simmer it gently for one hour in the stock, which should Uien be strained doeely from it, and thickened for table. Veal stock, graTy-soup, or broth, 5 pints; grated cocoa-nut, 5 oz. . 1 hour. Flour of rice, 5 oz.; mace, ) teaspoon! ul; little cayenne and salt; mixed with ) pint of cream: 10 minutes. Or: gravy-soup, or good beef broth, 5 pints: 1 hour. Bice flour, 5 oz.; soy and lemon-juice, each 1 tablespoonful; finely pounded sugar 1 oz.; cayenne, teaspoonful; sherry, 2 glaasesful. Ohs. - When either cream or wine is objected to for these soups, a half-pint of the stock should be reserved to mix the thickening; with. CHESTNUT BOUP. Strip the outer rind from some fine, sound Spanish chestnutSr throw them into a large pan of warm water, and as soon as it becomes too hot for the fingers to remain in it, take it from the fire, lift out the chestnuts, peel them quickly, and throw them into cold water as they are done; wipe, and weigh them; take three quarters of a pound for each quart of soup, cover them with good stock, and stew them gently for upwards of three quarters of an hour, or until they break when touched with a fork; drain, and pound them smoothly,. or braise them to a mash with a strong spoon, and rub them through a fine sieve reversed; mix with them by slow drees the proper quantity of stock; add sufiicient mace, cayenne, and salt to season the soup, and stir it often until it boils. Three quarters of a pint of rich cream, or even less, will greatly improve it The stock in which the chestnuts are boiled can be used for the soup when its sweetness is not objected to; or it may in part be added to it. Chestnuts, 1 lb.: stewed from to 1 hour. Soup, 2 quarts; seasoning of salt, mace, and cayenne: 1 to 3 minutes. Cream, i pint (when used). JERUSALEM ARTICHOKE OR PALESTINE SOUP. Wash and pare quickly some freshly- dug artichokes, and to preserve Iheir colour, throw them into spring water as they are done, but do itot let them remain in it after all are ready. Boil three pounds of them in water for ten minutes; lift them out, and slice tnem into three pints of boiling stock; when they have stewed gently in this from nileen to twenty minutes, press them with the soup, through a fipe sieve, and put the whole into a clean saucepan with a pint and a half more of stock; add sufficient salt and cayenne to season it, skim it well, and afler it has simmered for two or three minutes, stir it to a pint of rich boiling cream. Serve it immediately.

20 MODERN COOKERY. chip. i. Artichokes, 3 lbs., boiled in water: 10 minutefl. Veal stock, 3 pints: 15 to 20 minutes. Additional stock, 1 i pint; little cayenne and aUt; 2 to 3 minutes. Boiling cream, 1 pint. Obs. - The palest vefu stock, as for white soup, should be used for this; but for a family dinner, or where economy is a consideration, excellent mutton-brotn, made the day before and perfectly cleared from fat, will answer very well as a substitute; milk too maj in part take the place of cream when this last is scarce: the proportion or artichokes should then be increased a little. Yetable-marrow, when young, makes a superior soup even to this, which is an excellent one. it should be well pared, trimmed, and sliced into a small quantity of boiling yeal stock or broth, and 7hen perfectly tender, pressed tnrough a nne sieve, and nnxed with more stock and some cream. In France the marrow is stewed, first in butter, with a large mild onion or two also sliced; and afterwards in a quart or more of water, which is poured gradually to it; it is next parsed through a tammy, seasoned with pepper and salt, and mixed with a pint or two of nulk and a little cream. COMMON CARROT SOUP. The most easy method of making this fiiyourite English soup is to boil some highly coloured carrots quite tender in water shghtly salted, then to pound or mash them to a smooth paste, and to mix with them boiling gravy soup or strong beef broth fsee BouUlon) in the proportion of two quarts to a pound and a half of the prepared carrots; then to pass the whole through a strainer, to season it with mlt and cayenne, to heat it in a clean stewpan, and to serve it immediately. If only the red outsides of the carrots be used, the colour of the soup will be very bright they should be weighed ifler they are mashed Turnip soup may be prepared in the same manner. Oh,-Aji experienced and observant cook will know the proportion of vegetables required to thicken this soup appropriately, without having recourse to weights and measures; but the learner nad always better proceed by rule. Soup, 2 quarts; pounded carrot, 1 lb.; salt, cayenne: 5 minutes. A FINER CARROT SOUP. Scrape very clean, and cut away all blemishes from some highlyfiavoui red carrots; wash, and wipe them dry, and cut them into quarter-inch slices. Fat into a large stewpan three ounces of the best butter, and when it is melted, add two pounds of the sliced carrots, and let them stew gently for an hour without browning; pour to them then four pints and a half of brown gravy soup, and when they have simmered from fifty minutes to an hour, they ought to be sufficiently tender. Press them through a sieve or strainer with the soup; add salt, and cayenne if required; boil the whole gently • Derived from the French iamU, wL:ch means a deve or strainer.

cnjLP. L SOUPS. 21 for fire imnates, take off all the scum, and serve the soup as hot as poeble. Butter, 3 oz.; carrots, 2 lbs.: 1 hour. Soup, 4 pints: 50 to CO minutes. Salt, cayenne: 5 minutes. COMMON TURNIP SOUP. Wash and wipe the turnips, pare and weigh them; allow a pound and a half for every quart of soup. Cut them in slices about a quarter of an inch thick. Melt four ounces of butter in a clean stewpan, and put in the turnips before it begins to boil; stew them gently for three quarters of an hour, taking care that they shall not brown, then have the proper (quantity of soup ready boiling, pour it to them, and let them simmer in it for three quarters of an hour. Fulp the whole through a coarse sieve or soup strainer, put it again on the fire, keep it stirr until it has boiled three minutes or four, take off the cum, add salt and pepper if required, and serve it very hot. Turnips, 3 lbs.; butter, 4 oz.: i hour. Soup, 2 quarts . i hour. Iast time: three minutes. A dUICKLY MADE TUBNIP SOUP. Fare and slice into three pints of veal or mutton stock or of good broth, three pounds of young mild turnips; stew them gently from twenty-five to thirtv mmutes, or until thev can be reduced quite to pulp; rub the whole through a sieve, and add to it another quart of stock, a seasoning of salt and white pepper, and one lump of susar; give it two or three minutes boil, skim and serve it. A large white onion when the flavour is liked may be sliced and stewed with the turnips. A little cream improves much the colour of this soup. Tuxnips, 3 lbs.; soup, 5 pints: 25 to 30 minutes. POTATO SOUP. Mash to a smooth paste three pounds of good mealy potatoes, which have been steamed, or boiled very dry; mix with them by degrees, two quarts of boiling broth, pass the soup through a strainer, set it aflain on the fire, add pepper and salt, and let it boil for five minutes. lake off entirely the olack scum that will rise upon it, and serve it very hot with fried or toasted bread. Where the flavour is approvcvl, two ounces of onions minced and fried a light brown, may be added tu the soup, and stewed in it for ten minutes before it is sent to table. Potatoes, 8 lbs.; broth, 2 quarts: 5 minutes. (With onions, 2 oz. .) 10 minutes. APPLE SOUP. (Soupe a la Bourguignon.) Clear the fat from five pints of good mutton broth, houiUon or shin of bf stock, and strain it through a fine sieve; add to it when it boils, a pound and a half of good cooking apples, and stew them

22 MODERN COOKEBT. chap, l down iu it very softly to a smooth pulp; press the whole through a strainer, add a small teaspoonful of powdered ginger and plenty of pepper, ttinuuer the soup for a couple of minutes, skim, and serve it yerv hot, accompanied by a dish of rice, boiled as for curries. Broth, 5 pints; apples, 1 lb.: 2 to 40 minutes. Ginger, 1 teaspoonful; pepper, teaspoonful: 2 minutes. PABSNBP SOUP. Dissolye, over a gentle fire, four ounces of good butter, in a wide stcwpan or saucepan, and slice in directly two pounds of sweet tender parsneps; let them stew very gently until all are quite soft, then pour in CTadually sufficient yeal stock or good broth to coyer them, and boil the whole slowly from twenty minutes to half an hour; work it with a wooden spoon through a fine sieye, add as much stock as will make two quarts in all, season the soup with salt and white pepper or cayenne, giye it one boil, skim, and serye it yery hot. Send pale fhed sippets to table with it. Butter, 4j oz.; parsneps, 2 lbs.: f hour, or more. Stock, 1 quart; 20 to 30 minutes; 1 full quart more of stock; pepper, salt: 1 minute. Ohs.-Wt can particularly recommend this soup to those who like the peculiar flavour of the yegetable. ANOTHER PARBNEP SOUP. Slice into five pints of boiling yeal stock or strong colourless broth, a couple of pounds of parsneps, and stew them as gently as possible from thirty minutes to an nour; when they are perfectly tender, press them through a sieve, strain the soup to them, season, boil, and serve it yery hot With the addition of cream, parsnep soup made by this receipt resembles in appearance the Palestine soup. Yeal stock or broth, 5 pints; parsneps, 2 lbs.: 30 to 60 minutes. Salt and cayenne: 2 minutes. WESTERFIELD WHITB SOUP. Break the bone of a knuckle of yeal in one or two places, and put it on to stew, with three quarts of cold water to the five pounds of meat; when it has been quite cleared from scum, add to it an ounce and a half of salt, and one mild onion, twenty corns of white pepper, and two or three blades of mace, with a little cayenne pepper. Wnea the soup is reduced one-third by slow simmering stram it ofl and set it by till cold; then free it carefully from the fat and sediment, and heat it aeain in a very clean stewpan. Mix with it when it boils, a pint of thick cream smoothly blended with an ounce of goop arrowroot, two ounces of yery fresh yermicelli previously boiled tender in water slightly salted and weU drained from it, and an ounce and a half of almonds blanched and cut in strips: give it one minute

I. SOUPS. 23 ommer, and serve it immediately, with a French roll in the tureen. Veal, 5 lbs.; water, 3 quarts; salt, 1) oz.; 1 mild onion; 20 eoma white pepper; 2 large blades of mace: 6 hours or mora. Cream, 1 pint; almonds, 1 oz.; vermicelli, 1 oz.: 1 minute. Little thickening if needed. Obt. - We have given this receipt without any variation from the original, as the soup made by it - of which we have often partaken- seemed alwavs much approved b the guests of the hospitable country gentleman from whose family it was derived, and at whose well-arranged table it was very commonly served; but we would suggest the suppression of the almond spikes, as they seem unsoited to the preparation, and also to the taste of the present day. ? RICHER WUITB SOUP. Pound very fine indeed six ounces of sweet almonds, then add to them six ounces of the breasts of roasted chickens or partridges, and three ounces of the whitest bread which has been soaked in a little veal broth, and squeezed very dry in a cloth. Beat these altogether to an extremely smooth paste; then pour to them boiling and by drees, two quarts of rich veal stock; strain the soujp tnrouh a fine hair sieve, set it again over the fire, add to it a pint of thick cream, and serve it, as soon as it is at the point of boiling. When cream is very scarce, or not easily to be procured, this soup may be thickened sufficiently without it, by increasing the quantity of almonds to eight or ten oxmces, and pouring to them, after they have been reduced to the finest paste, a pint of boiling stock, which must be again wrung firom them through a coarse cloth with very strong pressure: the proportion of meat and bread also should then be nearly doubled. The stock should be well seasoned with mace and cayenne before it is added to the other ingredients. Almonds, 6 oz.; breasts of chickens or partridges, 6 oz.; soaked bread, 3 oz.; veal stock, 2 quarts; cream, 1 pint. Obs. 1. - Some persons pound the yolks of four or five hard-boiled tgg with the almonds, meat, and bread for this white soup; French cooks beat smoothly with them an ounce or two of whole rice, previously boiled from fifteen to twenty minutes. Obs, 2. - A good plain white soup may be made simply by adding to a couple of ouarts of pale veal stock or strong well-flavoured veal broth, a thickening of arrow-root, and from half to three ouarters of a pint of cream. Four ounces of macaroni boiled tender and well- &ained may be dropped into it a minute or two before it is dished, but the thidtemng may then be diminished a little HOCK TURTLE 8QUP. Te make a single tUTn of this favourite English soup in the most ceoiiomical manner when there is no stock at hand, stew gently dovm in a gallon of water four pounds of the fleshy part of the shin of

24 MODEBN COOKERY, chap. i. becf or of the seek, with two or three carrots, one onion, a small head of celery, a hunch of savoury herhs, a blade of mace, a halfteaspoonful of peppercorns, and an ounce of salt. When the meat is quite in fragments, strain off the broth, and pour it when cold upon three pounds of the knuckle or of the neck of veal; simmer this until the flesh has quite fallen from the bones, but be careful to stew it as sofliy as possible, or the quantity of stock will be so much reduced as to be insufficient for the soup. Next, take the half of a fine calfs head toith the skin on remove the brains, and then bone it entirely, or let the butcher do this, and return the bones with it; these, when there is time, may be stewed with the veal to enrich the stock, or boiled afterwards with the head and tongue. Strain the soup through a hair-sieve into a clean pan, and let it drain closely from the meat. When it is nearly or quite cold, clear off all the fat from it; roll the head lightly round, leaving the tongue inside, or taking it out, as is most convenient, secure it with tape or twine, pour the soup over, and bring it gently to boil upon a moderate fire; keep it well skimmed, and simmer it from an hour to an hour and a quarter; then lift the head into a deep pan or tureen, add the soup to it, and let it remain in untd nearly cold, as this will prevent the edges from becoming dark. Cut into quarter-inch slices, and then divide into dice, from six to eight ounces of the lean of an undressed ham, and if possible, one of good flavour; free it perfectly from fat, rind, and the smoked edges; peel and slice four moderate-sized eschalots, or if these should not be at hand, one mild onion in lieu of them. Dissolve in a well-tinned stewpan or thick iron saucepan which holds a gallon or more, four ounces of butter; put in the ham and eschalots, or onion, with half a dozen cloves, two middling-sized blades of mace, a half-teaspoonful of peppercorns, three or four very small sprigs of thyme, three teaspoonsful of minced parsley, one of lemon thyme and winter savoury mixed, and when the flavour is thought appropriate, the very thin rind of half a small fresh lemon. Stew these as sofUy as possible for nearly or quite an hour, and keep the pan frequently snaken: then - put into a dredging box two ounces of fine dry flour, and spritdde it to them by degrees; mix the whole well together, and ailer a few minutes more of gentle simmering, add very gradually five full pints of the stock taken free of fat and sediment, and made boiling before it is poured in; shake the pan strongly round as the first portions of it are added, and continue to do so until it contains from two to three pints, when the remainder may be poured in at once, and the pan placed by the side of the fire that it may boil in the gentlest manner for an hour. At the end of that time turn the This is BO simple and easy a process, that the cook may readily aocompltsh it irith very little attention. Let her only work the knife close to the bone alwas, ao as to take the flesh clean from it, instead of leaving large ftugments on. The jaw-bone may first be removed, and the flesh turned back from the ed of the uilier.

cHiip.Lj SOUPS 25 whole into a hair-deye placed over a large pan, and if the liquid should not ran through freely, knock the aides of the sieve, hut do not force it through with a spoon, as that would sooil the appearance of the stock. The head in the meanwhile should have heen cut up, ready to add to it. Por the finest kind of mock turtle, only the skin, with the fat that adheres to it, should he used; and this, with the tongue, should he cut down into one inch squares, or if preferred mto strips of an inch wide. For ordinary occasions, the lean part of the flesh may he added also, hut as it is always sooner done than the skin, it is better to add it to the soup a little later. When it is quite leady, put it with the strained stock into a clean pan, and simmer it from three quarters of an hour to a full hour: it should ue perfectly tender without being allowed to break. Cayenne, if needed, should be thrown into the stock before it is strained; salt should be used spaiinglyf on accoimt of the ham, until the whole of the other ingredients have been mixed together, when a sufficient quantity must be stirred into the soup to season it properly. A couple of glasses of good sherry or Madeira, with a dessertspoonful of strain lemonluice, are usually added two or three minutes only before the soup is dieted, that the spirit and flavour of the wine may not have time to evaporate; but it is sometimes preferred mellowed down by longer boiling. The proportion of lemon-juice may be doubled at will, but much add is not generally liked. We can assure the reader of the excellence of the soup made by this receipt; it is equally palatable and delicate, and not heavy or cloying to the stomach, like many of the elaborate compositions which bear its name. The fat, through the whole process, should be carefully skimmed off. The ham gives far more savour, when used as we have directed, than when, even in much lair proportion, it is boiled down in the stock. Two dozens of forcemeat-balls, prepared by the receipt No. 11, Chap. Yin., should be dropped iuto the soup when it is ready for table. It is no longer customary to serve g-balls in it. First broth: - shin, or neck of beef, 4 lbs.; water, 4 quarts; carrots, 2 or 3; hige nuld onion, 1; celery, small head; bunch savoury herbs; mace, 1 large blade; peppercorns, teaspoonfU; cloves, 6; salt, 1 oz.: 5 hours or more, very gently. For stock: the broth and 3 Ibe. neck or knuckle of Y&d (bones of head if ready): 4 to 5 hours. Boned half-head with skin on and tongue, 1 to li hour. Lean of undressed ham, 6 to 8 oz. (6 if very salt); shalots, 4, or onion, 1; fresh butter, 4 oz.; cloves, 6; middling-sized blades of mace, 2; peppercorns, 4 teaspooniul; small sprigs of thyme, 3 or 4; minced parsley, 8 large teaKwnsfnl; minced savoury and lemon-thyme mixed, 1 moall tcaspoonful (thin rind ) small lemon, when liked): 1 hour. Flour, 2 oz.: 5 minutes. Stock, full five pints; flesh of head and tongue. If to 2 lbs.: of an hour to 1 hour (salt, if needed, to be added in interim). Good sherry or Madeira, 2 wincglassesful; lemonjuice, 1 to 2 dessertspoonsful; forcemeat-balls, 24. Obs, 1. - The beef, veal, bones of the head, and vegetables may be

26 MODERN COOKERY. CHAP. L Stewed down together when more conyenient: it is only necessary that a really good, well flavonred, and rather deeply-coloured stock should be prepared. A calfs foot is always an advantageous addition to it. and the skin of another calTs head a better one still. Obg, 2. - A couple of dozens mushroom-buttons, cleaned with salt and flannel, then wiped very dry, and sliced, and added to the ham and herbs when they have been simmered together about half an hour, will be found an improvement to the soup. Claret is sometimes added instead of sherry or Madeira, but we do not think it would in general suit English taste so well. From two to three tablespoonsful of Harveys sauce can be stirred in with the wine when it is liked, or when the colour requires deepening. OLD-FASHIONED MOCK TURTLE. After having taken out the brain and washed and soaked the head well, pour to it nine quarts of cold water, bring it gently to boil, skim it veiy dean, boil it if laree an hour and a half, mt it out, and put into the liquor eight pounobB of neck of beef lightly browned in a little fresh butter, with three or four thick slices of lean ham, four large onions sliced, three heads of celery, three large carrots, a large bunch of savoury herbs, the rind of a lemon pared very thin, a dessertspoonful of peppercorns, two ounces of salt, and aller the meat has been taken from the head, all the bones and fragments. Stew these gently from six to seven hours, then strain off the stock and set it into a very cool place, that the fat may become firm enough on the top to be cleared off easily. The skin and fat of the head should be taken off together and divided into strips of two or three inches in length, and one in width; the tongue may be carved in the same manner, or into dice. Put the stock, of which there ought to be between four and five quarts, into a large soup or stewpot; thicken it when it boils with four ounces of fresh butterf mixea with an equal weight of fine dry flour, a half-teaspoonful of pounded mace, and a th as much of •cayenne (it is better to use tnese snaringlv at first, and to add more should the soup require it, after it nas tailed some little time); pour in half a pint of shen, stir the whole together until it has sunmered for a minute or two, then put in the head, and let it stew gently from an hour and a quarter to an hour and a half: stir it often, and clear • Cotmtrj butchers, in preparing a ealf a head for aale in the ordinaiy way, take off the akin (or acalp), oonaidered ao eaaential to the excellence of this aoap, and frequently throw it away; it may, therefore, often be procured tram them at very alight cost, and is the beat possible addition to the mock turtle. It is cleared from the head in detached portions with the hair on, but thia may easily be removed after a few minntes' scalding as from the head itself or the feet, by the direction given in Chapter of Sweet Diihm. In London it is sold entire, and Yerj nicely prepared, and may be served in many forma, besides being •dtUd to Boup with great advantage. f When the batter is considered objectionable, the floor, without it, may be mixed to the smoothest batter poaaible, with a little cold atock or water, and atirred briskly into the boiling aoup: the spioea ahoold be blended with it

CHIP, t 80XTP8. 27 it perfecUy from scniii. Put into it just before it is ready for table three doasens of small foroemeat-ballB; the brain cut into dice (af r liaving been 'well soaked, scalded, and freed from the film), dipped into toiten yolk of egg, then into the finest crumbs mixed with nit, white pepper, a little grated nutmeg, fine lemon-rind, and chopped parsley med a fine brown, well drained and dried; and as many egg-balla, tiie size of a small marble, as the yolks of four eggs will PPly- (S Chapter YIIIV This Quantity will be suffiaent for two large tureens of soup; wnen the wnole is not wanted for table at the same time, it is better to add wine only to so much as will be re-, ouired for immediate consumption, or if it cannot conveniently be uivided, to heat the wine in a small saucepan with a little of the soup, to turn it into the tureen, and then to mix it with the remainder by stirring the whole ffently after the tureen is filled. Some persons simfiiy put in the cold wine just before the soup is dished, but this is not so welL Whole calTs head with skin on, boQed 1 hour. Stock: neck of beef, browned in butter, 8 lbs.; lean of ham, ) to lb.; onions, 4; large carrots, 8; heads of celery, 3; large bunch herbs; salt, 2 oz. (as much more to be added when the soup is made as will season it sufficiently); thin rind, 1 lemon; peppercorns, 1 dessertspoonful; bones and trimmines of head: 8 hours. Soup: stock, 4 to 5 quarts; flour and butter for thickening, of each 4 oz.; pounded mace, halfteaspoonful; cayenne, third as much (more or each as needed); sherry, half pint: 2 to 3 minutes. Flesn of head and tongue, nearly or quite 2 lbs.: li to 1) hour. Forcemeat-balls, 86; the brain cut and frM; g-baUs, 16 to 24. Obs. - When the brain is not blanched it must be cut thinner in the form of small oakes, or it will not be done through by e time it has taken enough colour: it may be altogether omitted ¥rithout much detriment to the soup, and wfll make an excellent comer dish if gently stewed in white gravy for half an hour, and served with it thickened with cream and arrowroot to the consistency of good white sauce, then rather highly seasoned, and mixed with plenty of minced pazBley, and some lemon-juice. GOOD calf's head SOITP. Not expensive,) Stew down from six to seven pounds of the thick part of a shin of beef with a little lean ham, or a slice of hung bee or of Jewish beef trimmed free from the smoky edges, in five quarts of water until reduced nearly half with the addition, when it first begins to boil, of an ounce of salt, a large bunch of savoury herbs, one large onion, a The bnin should be blanohad, that is, thrown into boilinff water with a Httie ult in it, end boiled firom five to eight minntee, then lifted ont end Udd into cold water Ibr a quarter of en hoar: it must be wiped Teiy dry befiire it is fried.

28 MODERN COOKERr. chap, l head of cdeiy, three carrots, two or three turnips, two small blades of luace, eight or ten cloves, and a few white or black peppercorns. Let it boil gendy that it may not be too much reduced, for six or seven hours, then strain it into a clean pan and set it by for use. Take out the bone from half a cairs head with the skin on (the butcher will do this if desired), wash, roll, and bind it with a bit of tape or twine, and lav it into a stewpan, with the bones and tongue; cover the whole with the beef stock, and stew it for an hour and a half; then lift it into a deep earthen pan and let it cool in the liquor, as this will prevent the ffes from becoming dry or discoloured. Take it out before it is quite cold; strain, and skim all the fat carefully from the stock; and heat five pints in a large clean saucepan, with the head cut into small thick slices or into inch-squares. As ouite the whole will not be needed, leave a portion of the fat, but add every morsel of the skin to the soup, and of the tongue also. Should the first of these not be perfectly tender, it must be simmered gently till it is so; then stir mto the soup from six to eight ounces of fine rice-flour mixed with a quarter-teaspoonful of cayenne, twice as much freshly pounded mace, half a wineglassful of mushroom catsup, and sufficient cold broth or water to render it of the consistence of batter; boil the whole from eight to ten minutes; take off the scum, and throw in two glasses of sherry; dish the soup and put into the tureen some delicately and well fried forcemeat-balls made by the receipt No. 1, 2, or 3, of Chapter YIU. A small quantity of lemon-juice or other acid can be added at pleasure. The wine and forcemeat-balls may be omitted, and the other seasonings of the soup a little heightened. As much salt as may be re uired should be added to the stock when the head first begins to boil in it: the cook must regulate also by the taste the exact proportion of cayenne, mace, and catsup, which will flavour the soup agreeably. The fragments of the head, with the bones and the residue of the beef used for stock, if stewed down together with some water and a few fresh vegetables, will afford some excellent broth, such as would be highly acceptable, especially if well thickened with rice, to many a poor family during the winter months. Stock: shin of beef, 6 to 7 lbs.; water, 6 quarts: stewed down (with vegetables, &c.) till reduced nearly half. Boned half-head with skin on stewed in stock: H hour. Soup: stock, 5 pints; tongue, skin of head, and part of flesh: 15 to 40 minutes, or more if not quite tender. Rice-flour, 6 to 8 oz.; cayenne, quarter-teaspoonful; mace, twice as much; mushroom catsup, wineglassful: 10 minutes. Sheny, 2 wineglassesfhl, forcemeat-balls, 20 to 30. SOUP DE8 GALtES. Add to the liquor in which a knuckle of veal has been boiled the usual time for table as much water as will make altogether six quarts, UnloAS vary gr,od and pore in flavour, ire oaanot recommond the adJitioa of tais or of any other oatsap to soup or gravy.

CHAP, i SOUPS. 29 and stew in H gently rixpennyworth of beef bones and rixpennyworth of pork-rinds. When the boiling is somewhat advaneod, throw in the skin of a calTs head; and in an hour afterwards, or when it is quite tender, lift it out and set it aside till wanted. Slice and fry four large mild onions, stick into another eihtor ten cloves, and put them into the soup after it has stewed from six to seven hours. Contmue the boiling for two or three hours longer, then strain off the soup, and let it remain until perfectly cold. 'NVnen wanted for table, take it ouite dear from the lat and sediment, and heat it anew with the skin or the calfs head cut into dice, three oimces of loaf sugar, four tablespoonsful of strained lemon-juice, two of soy, and three wine-glassesfal of sherry; give it one boil, skim it well, and serve it as hot as possible. Bait must be added to it sparingly in the first instance on account of the so: a proper seasoning of cayenne or pepper must not, of course, be omitted. This receipt was given to the writer, some years since, as a perfectly successful imitation of a soup which was then, and is still, she believes, selling in London at six shillings the quart. Never having tasted the original Soupe des GaUes she cannot say how far it is a correct one; but she had it tested with great exactness when she received it hrst, and foimd the result a ver sood soup prepared at an extremely moderate cost. The pork-rinds, when long boiled, afford a strong and flavourless jelly, which might be advantageously used to give consistence to other soups. They may be procured during the winter, usually at the butcher's, but if not, at the porkshops: they should be carefully washed before they are put into the soup -pot. When a knuckle of veal cannot conveniently be had, a pound or two of the neck and a morsel of scrag of mutton may instead be boiled down with the beef-bones; or two or three pounds of neck or shin of beef: but these will, of course, augment the cost of the soup. POTAGB 1 LA REINB. (A Delicate White Soup.) Should there be no strong veal broth, nor any white stock in readiness, stew four pounds of the scrag or knuckle of v, with a thick slice or two of lean ham, a faggot of sweet herbs, two moderatesized carrots, and the same of onions, a large blade of mace, and a half-teaspoonful of white peppercorns, in four quarts of water until reduced to about re pints; then strain the liquor, and set it by until the fat can be taken entirely from it Skin and wash thoroughly, a couple of fine fowls, or three young pullets, and take away the dark spongy substance which adheres to the insides; pour the veal broth to them, and boil them gently from three quarters of an hour to an hour; then lift them out, take off all the white flesh, mince it small, pound it to the fi lest paste, and cover it with a basin until wanted for use. In the msan time let the bodies of the fowls be put again into the stock, and stewed gently for an hour and a half; add as much nit and

30 MODEBK COOKEBT. chap, i cayeime as will season the soup properly, strain it off when snff dently boiled, and let it cool; skim off every particle of fat; steep, in a small Sortion of it, which should be boiling, four ounces of. the cnimb of ght stale bread sliced thin, and when it has simmered a few minutes, drain or wring the moisture from it in a clean doth, add it to the flesh of the chickens, and pound them together until thcr are perfectly blended; then pour the stock to them in yery small quantities at first, and mix them smoothly with it; pass the whole through a sieve or tammy, heat it in a dean stewpan, stir to it from a pint to a pint and a half of boUing' cream, and add, should it not be sufficiently thick, an ounce and a half of arrow-root, quite free from lumps, and moistened with a few spoonsful of cold milk or stock. Rbmark. - This soup, and the two which immediately follow it, if made with care and great nicety by the exact directions given here for them, will be found very refined and excellent. For stock: veal, 4 lbs.; ham, 6 oz.; water, 4 quarts; bunch of herbs; carrots, 2; onions, 2: mace, larse blade; peppercorns, J teaspoonful; salt: 6 hours. Fowls, 2, or pullets, 3: to 1 hour; stewed afterwards 1 to Ij hour. Crumb of bread, 4 oz.; cream, 1 to 1 pint; arrow-root (if needed), 1 oz. Obs, - Some cooks pound with the bread and chickens the yolks of three or four hard-boiled eggs, but these improve neither the colour nor the flavour of the potage. WniTB 0Y8TBR SOUP. (or Oyster Soup a la Heine,) When the oysters are small, from two to three dozens for each pint of soup snould be prepared, but this number can of course be diminished or increfea at pleasure. Let the fish (which should be finely conditioned natives) be opened carefully; pour the liquor from tnem, and strain it; rinse them in it well, and beard them; strain the liquor a second time through a lawn sieve or folded muslin, and pour it again over the oysters. Take a portion from two quarts of the palest veal stock, and simmer the beards in it from twenty to thirty minutes. Heat the sonp, flavour it with mace and cayenne, and strain the stock from the oyster- beards into it. Flump the fish in their own liquor, but do not let them boil; pour the liquor to the soup, and add to it a pint of boiling cream; put the oysters into the tureen, dish the soup, and send it to table quickly. Should any thickening be required, stir briskly to the stock an ounce and a half of arrow-root entirely free from lumps, and carefully mixed with a little milk or cream; or, in lieu of this, when a rich soup is liked, thicken it with four ounces of fresh butter well blended with three of flour. Oysters, 8 to 12 dozens; pale veal stock, 2 quarts; cream, 1 pmt; thickening, 1 oz. arrow-root, or butter, 4 oz., floor, 3 cm.

CHAP. I. fiOUPS. 81 RABBIT SOUP JL LA RKINE. Wash and soak thoroughly three yonng rabbits, pat them rhole into the soup-pot, and pour on them seven pints of cold 'vater or of dear veal broth; when they have stewed gentlv about three quarters of an hour lilt them out, and take off the flesh of the backs, with & little from the legs should there not be half a pound of the former; strip off the skin, mince the meat very small, and pound it to the smootht jmste; cover it from the air, and set it' by. Put back into the soup the bodies of the rabbits, with two mild onions of moderate size, a head of celery, three carrots, a faggot of savoury herbs, two blades of mace, a half-teaspoonful of peppercorns, and an ounce of salt. Stew the whole softly three hours; stram it off, let it stand to settle,, poor it gently from the sediment, put from four to five pints into a. clean stewpan, and mix it very graduaUy while hot with tne poimded labbit-flesn; this must be done with care, for if the liquid be not added in very small portions at first, the meat will gather into lumps and will not easily be worked smooth afterwards. Add as much pounded mace and cayenne as will season the soup pleasantly, and pass It through a coarse but very clean sieve; wipe out the stewpan, put back the soup into it, and stir in when it bous, a pint and a quarter of good cream mixed with a tablespoonful of the best arrow-root: salt, if needed, should be thrown in previouslv. Yonng rabbits, 3; water, or clear veal broth, 7 pints: of an hour. Bemains of rabbits; onions, 2; celery, 1 head; carrots, 3; savoury herhe; mace, 2 blades; white pepprcoms, a half-teaspoonful; salt, 1 oz.: 3 hours. Soup, 4 to 5 pmts; pounded rabbit-flesh, 8 oz.;. salt, mace, and cayenne, if needed; cream, 1 pint; arrowroot, 1 tablespoonful (or 1 ounce). BROWN RABBIT SOUP. Cut down into joints, flour, and fry lightly, two taU grown, or three young rabbits; add to them three onions of moderate size, also fried to a dear brown; on these pour gradually seven pints of boiling water, throw in a large teasi)oonful of salt, clear off aD the scum with care as it rises, and then put to the soup a faggot of parsley, four not Yery large carrots, and a small teaspoonful of peppercorns;. boil the whole very softly from five hours to five and ahau; add more salt if needed, strain off the soup, let it cool sufficiently for the fat to be skimmed clean from it, heat it afresh, and send it to table with sippets of fried bread. Spice, with a thickening of rice-flour, or of wfaeaten flour browned in the oven, and mixed with a spoonful or two of very good mushroom catsup, or of Harvey's sauce, can be added at pleasure to the above, with a few drops of eschalot-wine, or vinegar; but the simple receipt will be found extremely good without them. We gire this receipt exactly as we liad it first compotmded, bnt less oream •fkl rather more arrow-ioot might be used for it, and would adapt it better to the ecoDomifit.

32 MODERN COOKERY. chap l Rabbits, 2 full grown, or 3 small; onions fried, 3 middling fdasf; water, 7 pints; salt, 1 large teaspoonful or more; carrots, 4; A faggot of parsley; peppercorns, 1 small teaspoonful: 5 to 5) hours. SUPERLATIYE HARE SOUP. Cut down a bare into joints, and put into a soup-pot, or large stewpan, with about a pouna of ieau nam, in thick slices, three moderatesized mild onions, three blades of mace, a faggot of thyme, sweet marBoram, and parsley, and about three quarts of good beef stock. Let it stew very gently for full two hours from the time of its first beginning to boil, and more, if the hare be old. Strain the soup and pound together very fine the slices of ham and all the flesh of the back, legs, and shoulders of the hare, and put this meat into a stewpan with the liquor in which it was boiled, the crumb of two French rolls, and half a pint of port wine. Set it on the stove to simmer twenty minutes; then ruo it through a sieve, place it aain on the stove till very hot, but do not let it boil: season it with salt and cayenne, and send it to table directly. Hare, 1; ham, 12 to 16 oz.; onions, 3 to 6; mace, 3 blades; fietggot of savoury herbs; beef stock, 3 quarts: 2 hours. Crumb of 2 rolls; port wine, J pint; little salt and cayenne: 20 minutes.

Pour on two pounds of neck or shin of beef and a hare well washed and carved into joints, one gallon of cold water, and when it boils and has been thoroughly skimmed, add an ounce and a half of salt, two onions, one large head of celery, three moderate-sized carrots, a teaspoonful of black peppercorns, and six cloves. Let these stew very gently for three Lours, or longer, should the hare not be perfectly tender. Then take up the principal joints, cut the meat from them, mince, and pound it to a fine paste, with the crumb of two penny rolls (or two ounces of the crumb of household bread) which has been soaked in a little of the boiling soup, and then pressed very dry in a cloth; strain, and mix smoothly with it the stock from the remainder of the hare; pass the soup through a strainer, season it with cayenne, and serve it when at the point of boiling; if not sufficiently thick, add to it a tablespoonful of arrow-root moistened with a little cold broth, and let the soup simmer for an instant afterwards. Two or three glasses of iwrt wine, and two dozens of small forcemeat-balls, may be added to this soup with good effect. Beef, 2 lbs.; hare, 1; water, 1 gallon; salt, 1 oz; onions, 2; celery, 1 head; carrots, 3; bunch of savoury herbs; peppercorns, 1 teaspoonful; cloves, 6: 3 hours, or mon?. Bread, 2 oz.; cayenne, arrow-root (if needed), 1 tablespoonfuL The remains of a roasted harOi with the forcemeat and gnvy, arc admiraUy oalcnlatcd for making this soap.

CHIP, r SOUPS. 83 OONOMICAL TUREET 80UP. The remains of a roast turkey, even after they have supplied the usual mince and broil, will furnish a tureen of cheap and excellent soup with the addition of a little fresh meat. Cut up rather small two pounds of the neck or other lean joint of beef, and pour to it five pints of cold water. Heat these yery slowly; skim the liquor when it begins to boil, and add to it an ounce of salt, a small, mild onion (the proportion of all the yegetables may be much increased when tb are liked), a little celery, and the flesh and bones of the turkey, witn any gravy or forcemeat that may have been left with them. Let these boil gently for about three hours; then strain off the soup through ! sieve or cullender, and let it remain until the fat can be en-

tirely removed from it. It may then be served merely well thickened with rice which has previously been boiled very dry as for currie, and stewed in it for about ten minutes; and seasoned with one large heaped tablespoonful or more of minced parsley, and as much salt and pepper or cayenne as it may require. Xhis, as the reader will perceive, is a somewhat frugal preparation, by which the residue of a roast turkey may be turned to economical account; but it is a favourite, soup at some good English tables, where its very simplicity is a recommendation. It can always be rendered more expensive and of richer qusJity, by e addition of lean ham or smoked beef,t a larger weight of fresh meat, and catsup or other store-sauces. Turkey soup d la reine is made precisely like the Potage a la Heine of fi ws or puUets, of which the receipt will be found in another part of this chapter. PHEASANT SOUP. Half roast a brace of weU-kept pheasants, and flour them rather thickly when they are first laid to tne fire. As soon as they are nearly cold take all the flesh from the breasts, put it aside, and keep it covered from the air; carve down the remamder of the birds mto joints, bruise the bodies thoroughly, and stew the whole gently from two to three hours in five pints of strong beef broth; then strain ofi the soup, and press as much of it as possible from the pheasants. Let it cool; and in the mean time strip the skins from the breasts, mince them small, and pound them to the finest paste, with hidf as much fresh butter, and naif of dry crumbs of bread; season these well with cayenne, sufficiently with salt, and moderately with pounded maoe and grated nutmeg, and add, when their flavour is liked, three • It will be desirable to prepare six ounces of rice, and to nse as mncb of it •s may be reqiiired, the reduction of the stock not being always eqaiJ, and the Mme weight of rice therefore not being in all cases snfficient Rice-floor eon be sobedtated for the whole grain and nsed as directed for Rice Flour Soup, page 15 f Ae we hare stated in onr chapter of Foreign Cookery, the Jewith smoVed be of whifih we hare ren particnlars there, imparts a superior flarour to mpe and grariea; and it is an economical addition to them, as a small portion of It wil much heighten their savoiir.

84 MODERN COOKERY. chip, I. or four eschalots prerioiuly bofled tender in a little of the soap, left till cold, and minced before they are put into the mortar. Moisten the mixture with the yolks of two or three eggs, roll it into small balls of equal size, dust a little flour upon them, skim all the fat from the soup, heat it in a clean stewpan, and when it boils throw them in and poach them from ten to twelve minutes, but first ascertain that the soup is properly seasoned with salt and cayenne. We have recommended that the birds should be partially roasted before they are put into the soup-pot, because their flavour is much finer when this is done than when they are simply stewed; they should be placed rather near to a brisk fire that ihey may be quickly browned on the surfiice without losing any of their juices, and the basting should be constant. A slight thickening of rice-flour and arrow-lbot con be added to the soup at pleasure, and the fbrcemeat-balls may be fried and dropped into the tureen when they are preferred so. Half' a dozen eschalots lightly browned in butter, and a small head of celery, may also be thrown in after the birds begin to stew, but nothing should be allowed to prevail over the naturu flavour of the game itself; and this should be observed equally with other kinds, as partridges, grouse, and venison. Pheasants, 2: roasted 20 to 25 minutes. Strong beef broth, or stock, 6 pints: 2 to 3 hours. Forcemeat-balls: breasts of pheasants, half as much diy bread-crumbs and of butter, salt, mace, cayenne; yolks of 2 or 3 eggs (and at choice 3 or 4 boiled eschalots). 0&.- The stock may be made of six pounds of shin of beef, and four quarts of water reduced to within a pint of half. An onion, a large carrot, a bunch of savoury herbs, and some salt and spioe should be added to it: one pound of neck of veal or of beef will miprote it. ANOTHER PHEASANT SOUP. Boil down the half-roasted birds as directed in the foregoing receipt, and add to the soup, after it is strained and re-heateo, the breasts pounded to the finest paste with nearly as much bread soaked in a Bttle of the stock and pressed very dry; for the proper manner of mixing them, see Potage d la Reiney (nage 29). Haifa pint of small mushrooms cleaned as for pickling, then sliced rather thickly, and stewed from ten to fifteen minutes without browning, in an ounce or two of fresh butter, with a slight seasoning of mace, cayenne, and salt, then turned into the mortar and pound with the other ingredients, will be found an excellent addution to the soup, which must be passed through a strainer after the breasts are added to it, brought to the point of boiling, and served with sippets d la Reine or with others simply fried of a delicate brown and well dried. We have occasionally had a small quantity of delicious soup made with the remains of birds which have been served at table; and where game is frequently dressed, the cook, by reserving all the fragments for the purpose, and combining different kinds, may often send up a goodr tureen of such, made at a very slight cost

CHAP. I. SOUPS. 85 Pli€aa ant8,2: stock, 5 pints: bread soaked in graTV (see Panada, Chapter VJJLl), nearly as much in bulk as the flesh of tne breasts of the birds: mnshrooms, pint, stewed in one or two oz. of butter 10 to 15 minutes, then pound with flesh of pheasants. Salt cayenne . dM maoe, to season properly. PARTRIDGB BOUP. This is, we think, superior in flavour to the pheasant soup. It should be made in precisely the same manner, but three birds aUowed for it instead of two. Grouse and partridges together will make a still finer one; the remaifis of roast grouse even, added to a brace of partridges, will produce a very good effect. MULLAOATAWNY SOUP. Slice, and fry gently in some good butter three or four large onions, and when they are of a fine equal amber-colour hft them out with a slice and put them into a deep stewpot, or large thick saucepan; throw a little more butter into the pan, and then brown ligntly in it a young rabbit, or the prime joints of two, or a fowl cut down small, and floured. When the meat is sufficiently browned, lay it upon the onions, pour gradually to them a quart of good boiling stock, and stew it gently from three quarters of an hour to an hour; then take it out, and pass the stock and onions through a fine sieve or strainer. Add to them two pints and a half more of stock, pour the whole into a clean pan, and when it boils stir to it two tablespoonsful of curriepowder nuxed with nearly as much of browned flour, and a little cold water or broth, put in the meat, and simmer it for twenty minutes or longer should it not be perfectly tender, add the juice of a small lemon just before it is dished, serve it very hot, and send boiled rice to table with it. Fart of a pickled mango cut into strips about the nze of large straws, is sometimes served in this soup, afler being stewed in it for a few minutes; a little of the pickle itself should be added with it. We have given here the sort of receipt commonly used in England for mullagatawny, but a much finer soup may be made by departing from it in some respects. The onions, of which the proportion may be increased or diminished to the taste, afler being jfried slowly and with care, that no part should be overdone, may be stewed for an hour in the first quart of stock with three or four ounces of grated cocoa-nut, which will impart a rich mellow flavour to the whole. After all of this that can be rubbed through the sieve has been added to as much more stock as will be reijuired lor the soup, and the corrie-powder tLod thickening have been boiled in it for twenty minutes • That oar readers t whom this ingredient in sonps is new, may not be mifl. led, we must repest here, thut although the cocoa-nnt when it is young and fresh imparts a pteuliarlj rich favour to any preparation, it ia not liked by all eatersi and is better omitted when the taste of a party is not known, and only one soup Isserrod.

36 MODEBK COOKEBT. chap. i. the fleaih of part of a calf s head, previously stewed almost tender, and cut as for mock turtle, with a sweetbread also parboiled or stewed in broth, and divided into inch-squares, will make an admirable mullagatawny, if simmered in the stock imtil they have taken the flavour of the currie-seasoning. The flesh of a couple of calves feH, with a sweetbread or two, may, when more convenient, be substituted for the head. A large cupful of thick cream, flrst mixed and boiled with a teasnoonful of flour or arrow-root to prevent its curdling, and stirred into tne soup before the lemon-juice, will enrich and improve it much. Babbit, 1, or the best joints of, 2, or fowl, 1; large onions, 4 to 6; stock, 1 quart: to 1 hour. 2 pints more vf stock; currie-powder, 2 heaped tablespoonsful, with 2 of browned flour; meat and all simmered together 20 minutes or more; juice of lemon, 1 small; or part of pidded mango stewed in the soup 3 to 4 minutes. Or, - onions, 8 to 6; cocoa-nut, 8 to 4 oz.; stock, 1 quart; stewed 1 hour. Stock, 3 pints (in addition to the first quart); currie-powder and thickening eadi, 2 large tablespoonsful: 20 minutes. Fles of part of calfs head and sweetbread, 15 minutes or more. Thick cream, 1 cupful; flour or arrow-root, 1 teaspoonful; boiled 2 minutes, and stirred to the soup. Chili vinegar, 1 tablespoonful, or lemon-juice, 2 tablespoonsful. Obs. 1. - The brain of the calfs head stewed for twenty minutes in a little of the stock, then rubbed through a sieve, diluted gradually with more of the stock, and added as thickening to the soup, wiU be found an admirable substitute for part of the flour. Obs, 2. - Three or four poxmds of a breast of veal, or an equal weight of mutton, free from bone and fat, may take the place of rabbits or fowls in this soup, for a plfun dinner. The veal should be cut into squares of an inch and a half, or into strips of an inch in width, and two in length; and the mutton should be trimmed down in the same way, or into very small cutlets. Obs. 3. - For an elegant table, the joints of rabbit or of fowl should always be boned before they are added to the soup, for which, in this case, a couple of each will be needed for a single tureen, as all the inferior joints must be rejected. TO BOIL RICE FOB MULLAGATAWNY SOUPS, OB FOR CUBBIES. The Fatna, or small-grained rice, which is not so good as the Carolina, for the general purposes of cookery, ought to be •served with cuirie. First take out the unhusked grains, then wash the rice in several waters, and put it into a large quantity of cold water; brin it gently to boil, keeping it uncovered, and boil it softly for fifteen minutes, when it will be perfectly tender, and every grain will remain distinct. Throw it into a large cullender, and let it drain for ten minutes near the fire; should it not then appear quite dry, turn it • The tsalp or skin only of a oalfs head will make excellent mnllagatawxiyB with good bnmi for stock; and many kinds of sheli-sh alio.

CHAP. I. 80UPJ8. 37 into a dish, and set it for a short time into a gentle oren, or let it Bteun in a clean saucepan near the fire. It should neither he stirred, except just at first, to prevent its lumping while it is still quite hard, nor touched with either fork or spoon; the stewpan ma he shaken occasioDAlly, should the rice seem to require it, and it should he thrown lightly from the cullender upon the dish. A couple of minutes before it is done, throw in some salt, and from the time of its beginning to boQ remove the scum as it rises. Fatna rice, i lb.; cold water, 2 quarts: boiled slowly, 15 minutes. Salt, 1 lamteaspoonfuL Obs. - Tbis, of all the modes of boiling rice which we have tried, and they have been very numerous, is mdisputably the best. Hie Carolina rice answers wdl dressed in the same manner, but requires Ibur or ye minutes longer boiling: it should never be served until it is quite tender. One or two minutes, more or less, will sometimes, from the vaiying quality of the grain, be requisite to render it tender GOOD VEGETABLE MULLAGATAWNY. XHssolye in a large stewpan or thick iron saucepan, four ounces of butter, and when it is on the point of browning, throw in four large mild onions sliced, three pounds weight of young vegetable marrow cut in large dice and cleared from the skin and seeds, four laige or six moderate-sized cucumbers, pared, split, and emptied likewise of their seeds, and from three to six large add apples, ac cording to the taste; shake the pan often, and stew these over a gentle fire until they are tolerably tender; then strew lightly over and mix well amos them, three heaped tablespoonsiul of mild corrie powder, with nearly a third as mucn of salt, and let the vegetables stew from twenty to thirty minutes longer; then pour to them graduaUy sufficient boiling water (broth or stock if preferred) to just cover them, and when they are reduced almost to a pulp press the whole through a h-sieve with a wooden spoon, and neat it in a dean stewpan, with as much additional li uia as will make two quarts with that which was first added. Give any flavouring that may be needed, whether of salt, cayenne, or acid, and serve the soup extremely hot Should any butter appear on the surface, let it be earefrdly skimmed off, or stir in a smalt dessertspoonful of arrow-root teioothly mixed with a little cold broth or water) to absorb it. Kice may be served with this soup at pleasure, but as it is of the consistence of winter peas soup, it scarcely requires any addition. Tlie cnrrie powder may be altogether omitted for variety, and the whole converted into a plain vetable nofae; or it may be rendered one of hilh savour, by browning all the vegetables lightly, and adding to them rich brown stock. Tomatas, when in season, may be sobstituted for the apples, after being divided, and forced from their feeds. Butter, 4 oi.; ygetable marrow, pared and scooped, S lbs.;

38 MODEBN GOOKEBT. chap, ft large mild onions, 4; large cucumbers, 4; or middling-sized, 6; apples, or large tomatas, 3 to 6; 30 to 40 minutes, mid curriepowder, 3 heaped tablespoonsful; salt, one small tablespoonful: 20 to 32 minutes. Water, broth, or good stock, 2 quarts. CUCUMBER SOUP. Fare, split, and empty from eight to twenty fine, well grown, but not old cucumbers,- those which have the fewest seeds are best for the purpose; throw a little salt over them, and leave them for an hour to drain, then put them with the white part only of a couple of mild onions into a deep stewpan or delicately clean saucepan, cover them nearly half an inch with pale but good veal stock, and stew them gently until they are penectly tender, which will be in from three quarters of an hour to an hour and a quarter; work the whole througn a hair-sieve, and add to it as much more stock as may be needed to make the quantity of soup required for table; and as the cucumbers, from their watery nature, will thicken it but little, stir to it when it boils, as much arrow-root, rice-flour, or tons let nuns (see page 1), as will bring it to a good consistence; add from half to a whole pint of boiling cream, and serve the soup immediately. Salt and cayenne sufficient to season it, should be thrown over the cucumbers while they are stewing. The yolks of ax or eight egss mixed with a dessertspoonful of chili vinegar, may be used for this soup instead of cream; three dessertspoonsM of minced parsley may then be strewed into it a couple of minutes before they are added: it must not, of course, be allowed to boil after they are stirred in. SPRING SOUP AND SOUP X LA. JULIENNE. Throw into three quarts of strong clear broth, or shin of beef stock, or of coTisomme, half a pint each of turnips and carrots prepared by the directions of page 20, or turned into any other shape that may be preferred, with rather less of the solid part of some white celery stems, and of leeks or of very mild onionsf mixed. The latter must, if used, be sliced, drawn into rings, and divided into slight shreds. When these have simmered from twenty to thirty minutes, add the leaves of one or two lettuces and a few of sorrel, trimmed or torn, about the size of half-a-crown. Continue the eentle boiling until these are tender, and add at the moment of servin half a pint of asparagus-points boiled very green, and as many French beans cut into small lozenges, and also boiled apart; or substitute green peas for these last. For the Jtdienne soup, first stew the carrots, &c tolerably tender in a couple of ounces of butter; pour the stock boiling to them; skim off all the fat firom the surface, and finish as above. Sprigs of • This is a great disparity of xrambers; but some regard must be had to expense, where the vegetable cannot be obtained with facility. f Only a rexy tubdued flavour of these is, we think, admissiblo for a delicata ¥6getaU6 ioup of any kind.

CBAP. X SOUPS. 89 cheml, spinach (bofled apart, and sparingly added), green onions, Teiy small tufts of brocoli or cauliflower, may all be used in these sofops at choice. Both the kind and the proportion of the vegetables can be rulated entirely by the taste. Biad stamped out with a very taum round cutter, and dried a pale brown in the oven, is added sometimea to this spring soup, but is, we should say, no improvement. Winter Teetablesshomd have three or four minutes previous boiling (or blanching) before they are put into the soup. AN EXCELLENT GREEN PEAS SOUP. Take at their fullest size, but before they are of bad colour or worm-eaten, three pints of fine large peas, and boil them as for table (see Chapter 'XVTL) with half a teaspoonful of carbonate of soda in the water, that they may be very green. When they are quite tender, drain them well, and put them into a couple of quarts of boiling, pale, but good beef or veal stock, and stew them in it gently for hSf an hour; then work the whole through a fine hair-sieve, pfut it into a clean pan and bring it to the point of boiling; add salt, should it be needed, and a small teaspoonful of pounded sugar; clear off the scum entirely, and serve the soup as not as possible. An elegant variety of it is made by addine a half pint more of stock to the peas, and about three quarters of a pmt of asparagus points, boiled apart, and well drained before they are thrown into it, which should be done only the instant before it is sent to table. Green peas, 3 pints: boiled 25 to 30 minutes, or more. Yeal or beef stock, 2 quarts (with peas): an hour. Sugar, one small teaspoonful; salt, if needed. Ohw. - When there is no stock at hand, four or five pounds of fllun of beef boQed slowly down with three quarts of water to two, and well seasoned with savoury herbs, youn carrots, and onions, will serve instead quite well. A thick slice of lean, undressed ham, or of Jewish bee would improve it. Should a common English peas soup be wished for, make it somewrhat thinner than the one above, and add to it, just before it is dished, &om half to three quarters of a pint of young peas boiled tender and weU drained. GREEN PEAS SOUP WITHOUT MEAT. Boil tender in three quarts of water, with the proportions of salt and soda directed for them in Chapter XYII., one quart of large, full pwn peas; drain, and pound them in a mortar, mix with them gradually five pints of the liquor in which they were cooked, put the whole again over the fire, and stew it gently for a quarter of an hour; then press it through a hair-sieve. In the mean time, simmer in from three to four ounces of butter, three large, or four small • Some persons prefer the vegetables slowly fried to a fine broim, then drained en a siere, and well dried before the fire; but though more savoury so, they do BotimfTore the colour of the soup.

40 MODERN COOKEBT CKAF. V encumbers pared and sliced, the hearts of three or four lettuces shred small, from one to four onions, according to the taste, cut thin, a few small sprigs of parsley, and, when the flavour is liked, a dozen leaves or more of mint roughly chopped: keep these stirred over a gentle fire for nearly or quite an hour, and strew over them a halfteaspoonM of salt, and a good seasoning of white pepper or cayenne When they are partially done drain them from the butter, put them into the strained stock, and let the whole boil gentlv untu all the butter has been thrown to the surface, and been entirely cleared from it; then throw in from half to three quarters of a pint of young peas boiled as for eating, and serve the soup immediately. When more convenient, the peas, with a portion of the liquor, may be rubbed through a sieve, instead of being crushed in a mortar; and when the colour of the soup is not so much a consideration as the flavour, they may be slowly stewed until perfectlv tender in four ounces of good butter, instead of being boiled: a few green onions, and some branches of parsley may then be added to them. Green peas, 1 quart; water, 5 pints: cucumbers, 3 to 6; lettuces, S or 4; onions, 1 to 4; little parsley; mint (if liked, 12 to 20 leaves; butter, 3 to 4 oz.; salt, half-teasjpoonful; seasonmg of white pepper or cayenne: 50 to 60 minutes. Youne peas, i to t of a pint. OJj.- We must repeat that the peas for these soui s must not be oldj as when they are so, their fine sweet flavour is entirelv lost, and the dried ones would have almost as good an efiect; nor should they be of inferior kinds. Freshly gathered marrowfats, taken at nearly or quite their full growth, will give the best quality of soup. We are credibly informed, but cannot assert it on our own authority, that it is often made for expensive tables in early spring, with tne youn tender plants or halms of the peas, when they are about a foot m height. They are cut off dose to the ground, like small salad, we are told, tnen boiled and pressed through a strainer, and mixed with the stock. The flavour is affirmed to be excellent A CHEAP GREEN PEAS SOUP. Wash very clean and throw into an equal quantity of boiling water salted as for peas, three quarts of the snells, and in from twenty to thirty minutes, when tfiey will be quite tender, turn the whole into a large strainer, and press the pods strongly with a wooden spoon. Measure the liquor, put two quarts of it mto a dean deep iaucepan, and when it boils add to it a quart of iiill grown peas, two nr even three large cucumbers, as many moderate-sized lettuces freed from the coarser leaves and cut small, one large onion (or more if liked) sliced extremely thin and stewed for half an hour in a morsel of butter before it is added to the soup, or gently fried without being allowed to brown; a branch or two of parsley, and, when the flavour is liked, a dozen leaves of mint. Stew these softly for an hour, with the addition of a small teaspoonful, or a larger quantity if required of salt, and a good seasoning of fine white pepper or ot

GBAF. 1.3 SOtTPS. 41 eayenne; then "work the whole of the Teeetables with the Bonp tlmragh a hair-meve, heat it afiresh, and send it to table with a dish of small fried sippets. The coloor will not be so brisht as that of the more ezpensiye soups whicl precede it, but it will be excellent in flaTOor. Pea-sheUs, 3 quarts; water, 3 quarts: 20 to 30 minutes. Liquor from these, 2 quarts; full-sized nreen peas, 1 quart; large cucumbtrSf 2 or 3; lettuces 3; onion, 1 (or more); little parsley; mint, 12 leaves; seasoning of salt and pepper or cayenne: stewed 1 hoar. 0b9. - The cucumbers should be pared, quartered, and freed from the seeds before they are added to the soup. The peas, as we have said already more than once, should not be old, but taken at their full growth, before they lose their colour: the youngest of the shells ought to be selected for the liquor. RTCH PEAS SOUP. Soak a quart of fine yellow split peas for a night, drain them well, and put them into a large soup-pot with five quarts of good brown gravy stock; and when they have boiled gently for half an hour, add to the soup three onions, as many carrots, and a turnip or two, all alioed and fried carefully in butter; stew the whole sofuy until the peas are reduced to pulp, then add as much salt and cayenne as may be needed to season it well, give it two or three minutes boil, and pass it through a sieve, pressing the vegetables with it. Put into a dean saucepan as much as may be required for table, add a little firesh stock to it should it be too thick, and reduce it by quick boiling if too thin; throw in the white part of some fresh celery sliced a (uarter of an inch thick, and when this is tender send the soup auickly to table with a dish of small fried or toasted sippets. A deasertepoonful or more of currie-powder greatly improves peas soup: it should be smoothly mixed with a few spoonsful of it, and poured to the remainder when this first begins to boil after having been strained. Split peas, 1 quart: soaked one night. Good brown gravy soup, 5 quarts: 30 minutes. Onions and carrots browned in butter, 3 of each; turnips, 2: 2 to 3i hours. Cayenne and salt as needed. Soup, 5 pints; celery, sliced, 1 large or 2 small heads: 20 minutes. Obi. - When more convenient, six pounds of neck of beef well scored and equally and carefully browned, may be boiled gently with the peas and fried vetables in a gallon of water (which should be poured to them boiling) for four or five hours. COMMON PEAS SOUP. Wash well a croart of good split peas, and float off such as lemain on the surface of the water; soak them for one night, and boil them

42 HODEBN COOKEBT. chap. i. -with a bit of soda the mze of a filbert in just sufficient water to allow them to break to a mash. Put them into from three to four quarts of good beef broth, and stew them in it gently for an hour; then work the whole through a sieve, heat afresh as much as may be required for table, season it with salt and cayenne or common pepper, dear it perfectly from scum, and send it to table with fried or toasted bread. Cele sliced and stewed in it as directed for the rich peas soup, wiQ be round a great improvement to this. reas, 1 quart: soaked 1 nignt; boiled in 2 quarts or rather more of water, 2 to 2 hours. Bed broth, 3 to 4 quarts: 1 hour. Salt and cayenne or pepper as needed: 3 minutes. PEAS SOUP WITHOUT MEAT. To a pint of peas, freed from all that are worm-eaten, and well washed, put five pints of cold water, and boil them tolerably tender; then, add a couple of onions (more or less according to the taste), a couple of fijie carrots grated, one large or two moderate-sized turnips sliced, all gently fried brown in butter; half a teaspoonful of bliusk pepper, and three times as much of salt. Stew these softly, keeping uiem often stirred, until the vegetables are sufficiently tender to pass through a sieve; then rub the whole through one, put it into a dean pan, and when it boils throw in a sliced head of celery, heighten the seasoning if needful, and in twenty minutes serve tne soup as hot as possible, with a di of fried or toasted bread cut into dice. A little chili vinegar can be added when liked: a larger proportion of vegetables also may be boiled down with the peas at pleasure. Weak broth, or the liquor in which a joint has been boiled, can be substituted for the water; but the soup is very palatable as we have given the recdpt for it. Some persons like it flavoured with a little mushroom catsup. All peas soup is rendered more wholesome by the addition of a small quantity of currie-paste or powder. Split peas, 1 pint; water, 5 pints: 2 hours or more. Onions, 2; carrots, 2; large turnip, 1; pepper, i teaspoonful; salt, 1 J teaspoonful: 1 to 1 hour. Celery, 1 head: 20 minutes. OX-TAIL SOUP. An inexpensive and very nutritious soup may be made of ox-tails, but it will be insipid in flavour without the addition of a little ham, knuckle of bacon, or a pound or two of other meat. Wash and soak thiee tails, pour on them a gallon of cold water, let them be brought gradually to boil, throw in an ounce and a half of salt, and clear off the scum carefully as soon as it forms upon the surface; when it ceases to rise, add fotir moderate-sized carrots, from two to four onions, according to the taste, a large faggot of savoury herbs, a head of celery, a couple of turnips, six or eight cloves, and a half-teaspoonful of peppercorns. Stew these gently from three hours to three and

t SOUPS, 48 ahalf; if the USUb be very large; lift them oat, strain the liquor, and skim off all the fat; diiide we tails into joints, and put them into a conple of quarts or rather more of the stock; stir in, when these begm to boil, a thickening of arrow-root or of rice flour (see page 4), nuxed with as much cayenne and salt as may be required to flavour the soup well, and serve it yeiy hot. If stewed down until the flesh &Q3 away from the bones, the ox-tails will make stock which will be Suite a firm ielly when cold; and this, strained, thickened, and well avoured witn spices, catsup, or a little wine, would, to many tastes, be a superior soup to the above. A richer one still may be made by pouring good beef broth instead of water to the meat in the fijrst instance. Ox-tails, 3; water, 1 gallon; salt, 1) oz.; carrots, 4; onions, 2 to 4; turnips, 2; celery, 1 head; doves, 8; peppercorns, i teaspoonful; &ggot of savoury herbs: 3 hours to 3. For a richer soup, 5 to 6 hours. (Ham or gammon of bacon at pleasure, with other flavour-

ings.) Oft.- 1

-To increase the savour of this soup when the meat is not served in it, the onions, turnips, and carrots may be gently fiied until of a fine light brown, before tney are added to it ? CHEAP AND GOOD STEW SOUP. Put from four to five pounds of the gristly part of the shin of beef into three quarts of cold water, and stew it ver sofUy indeed, wiUi the addition of the salt and vegetables directed mr hauiUon (see pa;e 7), until tiie whole is very tender; lift out the meat, strain the luor, and put it into a Lurge dean saucepan, add a thickening of riee-flour or arrowroot, pepper and salt if needed, and a tablespoonful of mushroom catsup. In the mean time, cut all the meat into small, thick slices, add it to the soup, and serve it as soon as it is very hot. The thickeniiur and catsup may be omitted, and all the vegetables, pressed through a strainer, ma be stirred into the soup instead, beioxe tbe meat is put back into it. SOUP IN HASTE. Chop tolerably fine a pound of lean beef, mutton, or veal, and when it is putly done, add to it a small carrot and one small turnip cut in slices, hau an ounce of cdery, the white part of a moderate-sized leek, or a quarter of an ounce of onion. Mince all these together, and pot the whole into a deep saucepan with three pints of cold water When the soup boils take off the scum, and add a little salt and pepper. In half an hour it will be ready to serve with or without straining: it may be flavoured at will, with cayenne, catsup, or aught else that is preferred, or it ma be converted into French spring broth, by passing it through a sieve, and boiling it aain for five or ix minuto, with a handfm of young and well washed sorrel. Meat, 1 lb.; carrot, 2 oz.; turnip, 1) oz.; celerv, J oz.; onion, i 0Z.9 witer, 3 pinta: half an hour. Little pepper and salt.

44 HODEBN COOKERT. chap. x. Obs, - Three pounds of beef or mutton, with two or three slioes of ham, and vegetables in proportion to the above receipt, all chopped fine, and boiled in three quarts of water for an hour and a half, will make an excellent family soup on an emergency: additional boiling will of course improve it, and a little spice should be added after it has been skimmed and salted. It may easily be converted into carrot, turnip, or ground-rice soup after it is strained. TEAL OR MUTTON BROTH. To each pound of meat add a quart of cold water, biin it gently to boil, skim it very dean, add salt in the same proportion as for bouiUan (see page 7), .with spices and vegetables also, unless unvoureabToth he required, wnen a few peppercorns, a blade or two of mace, and a bunch of savoury herbs, will be sufficient; though for some purposes even these, with the exception of the salt, are better omitted. Simmer the broth for about rour hours, unless the quantity be veiy small, when from two and a half to three, will be sufficient. A Uttle rice boiled down with the meat will both thicken the broth, and render it more nutritious. Strain it off when done, and let it stand till quite cold that the fat may be entirely cleared from it: this is especially needful when it is to be served to an invalid. Veal or mutton, 4 lbs.; water, 4 quarts; salt. (For vegetables, &c., B page 7;) rice (if used), 4 oz.: 4 hours or more. MILK SOUP WITH VERMICELLI. Throw into five pints of boiling milk a small quantity of salt, and then drop lightly into it five ounces of good fresh vermicelli; keep the milk stirred as this is added, to prevent its gathering into lumps, and continue to stir it very frequently from fifteen to twenty minutes, or until it is perfectly tender. The addition of a little pounded sugar and powdered cinnamon renders this a very agreeable dish. In Catholic countries, milk soups of various kinds constantly supply the place of those made with meat, on maigre days; and with us they are sometimes very acceptable, as giving a change of diet for the nursery or sick room. Rice, semoulma, sago, cocoa-nut, and maccaroni may all in turn be used for them as directed for other soups in this chapter, but they will be required in rather smaller proportions with the milk. Milk, 5 pints; vermicelli, 5 oz.: 15 to 20 minutes. CHEAP RICE SOUP. Place a gallon of water on the fire (more or less according to the (quantity of soup require), and when it boils, throw in a moderate sized tablespoonAil of salt, and two or three onions, thickly sliced, a faggot or sweet herbs, a root of celery, and three or four large carrots split down into many divisions, and cut into short lengths. Boil these gently for an hour and a half, or two hours, and then stram the liquor from them. When time will permit, let it become cold

CHAP, r. SOUPS. 45 thea for each quart, take from three to four ounces of well washed rice, pour the soup on it, heat it very slowly, giving it an occasional ftir, and stew it gently until it is perfectly tender, and the potage quite thick. A moderate seasoning of pepper, and an ounce or two of fresh butter well blended with a teasnfnl of flour, may be thoroughly stirred up with the soup before it is served; or, in lieu of the butter, the yolks of two or three new-laid eggs, mixed with a little milk, may be carefully added to it. It may be more quickly prepared by substitutmg vermicelli, semoulina, or aoujee for the nee, as this last will require three ouarters of an hour or more of stewing after it begins to boil, and the tnree other ingredients- either of which must be dropped gradually into the Boup when it is m full ebullition - will be done in from twenty to thirty minutes; and two ounces will thicken sufficiently a quart ot broth. A large tablespoonful of Captain Whitens currie-paste, and a small one of nonr, diluted with a spoonful or two or two of the broth, or with a little milk or cream, if perfectly mixed with the rice and stewed with it for fifteen or twenty minutes before it is dished, render it excellent: few eaters would discover that it was made without meat. Good beef or mutton broth can be used instead of water for the above soup, and in that case the vegetables sliced small, or rubbed through a strainer, may be added to it before it is served. CARROT SOUP MAIGRE. Throw two ounces of salt into a gallon of boiUng water, then add three or four carrots quartered or thickly sliced, one onion or more according to the taste, and a fat of parsley, or some parsley roots. When these have boiled gently for upwards of an hour, strain off the liquor and put it back into the saucepan. Have ready more carrots, nicely scraped and washed; split them down into strips about the size of large macaroni and cut them into half finger lengths. Two quarts of these will not be too much for persons who like the soup well filled with the vegetable; boil them perfectly tender, and turn them with their liquor into the tureen, first addingpepper sufficient to season it properly, and more salt if needed. The proportion of carrots may be diminished, and a quart or more of Brussek sprouts, boiled and drained, may be substituted for part of them. Some persons lunre these soups thickened, or enriched as thev think, with flour and butter; but the latter ingredient should at least be sparingly used; and any other kind of thickening is more wholesome. A few ounces of vermioelli stewed in them for twenty minutes or rather longer, will be found a veiy good one. Celery, leeks, and turnips may be boiled down in the carrot-stock, or added when the fresh vegetables have been stewed in it for about ten minutes.

46 HODEBN COOKERY. chap. i. CHEAP FISH SOUPS. An infinite'Tariety of excellent Bonps may be made of fish, which may be Btewed down for them in precisely the same manner as meat and with the same addition of vegetables and herbs. When the skin is coarse or rank it should be carefully stripped off before the fish is used; and any oily particles which may float on the snrlaoe should be entirely removed from it. In France, Jersey, Cornwall, and many other localities, the conger eel, vlivested of its skin, is sliced up into thick cutlets and made into soup, which we are assured by English families who have it often served at their tables, is extremely good. A half-grown fish is best for the purpose. After the soup has been strained and allowed to settle, it must oe heated afresh, and rice and minced parsley may be added to it as for the turkey soup of page 32; or it may be thickened with riceflour only, or serv clear. Ciirried fish-soups, too, are much to be recommended. When broth or stock has been made as above with conger eel, common eels, whitings, haddocks, codling, fresh water fish, or any common kind, which may be at hand, flakes of cold salmon, cod fish, John Dories, or scallops of cold soles, plaice, &c., maybe heated and served in it; and the remains of crabs or lobsters miugled with them. The large oysters sold at so cheap a rate upon the coast, and which are not much esteemed for eating raw, serve admirably for imparting flavour to soup, and the softer portions of them may be served in it after a few minutes of gentle simmering. Anchovy or any other store fish-sauce may be added with good effect to many of these pottages if used with moderation. Ftawns and shrimps likewise would generally be considered an improvement to them. For more savoury preparations, fry the fish and vegetables, lay them into the soup-pot, and add boiling, instead of cold water to them. BUCHANAN CARROT SOUP. (Excellent.) Make two quarts of soup by either of the foregoing receipts, using for it good brown stock (for a common family dinner strong beef broth will do). Mix smoothly with a little liquid, atablespoonfulof fine currie-powder, and boil it in the soup for ten minutes; or instead of this, season it rather highly with cayenne pepper, and then stir into it from six ounces to half a pound of Fatna rice boiled dry and tender as for a currie. The whole may then remain by the side of the fire withoat eiircn simmering for ten minutes longer, and then be served immediately. As a materpotage this is generally much liked. A spoonful of Captain White's currie-paste will flavour it veiy agreeably if • Gold fegstftbles, cut p small, maybe added irith these at

CHAP. X.3 SOUPS. 47 KDOOthly dfluted, and sunmered in it for two or three minutes: we prefer it always to the powder. Three or four ounces of pearl-barley well washed, soaked for some hours, and boiled extremely tender in broth or water, may on occasion be substituted for the rice. Oh$. - This receipt was, from inadvertence, omitted at its proper place, pa 20, where it ought to have been inserted after the carrot soups which will be found there, and to which the reader is referred for the method of preparing the present one in part OBSERTATION. The present chapter already so far exceeds the limits within which It ought to have been confined, that we are obliged to reserve several additions which we were desirous of making to it, for the clmioe of being able to insert them in an appendix.

48

MODERN COOKERY

chap. II.

CHAPTER It

M'

TO CHOOSB FISH. The cook should be well acquainted with the signs of freshness and good condition in fish, as they are most unwholesome articles of food when stale, and many of them are also dangerous eating when they are out of season. The eyes should always be bright, the gills of a ne clear red, the body Copper Fish or Ham Kettle. % the flei firm, yet elastic to the touch, and the smell not dia-

nO FIBH. 49 agreeable. When all these marks are reversed, and the ms an sonken, the gills very dark in hue, the fish itself flahbj and of offensive odour, it is had, and should be avoided. The chloride of soda, will, it is true, restore it to a tolerably eatable state, if it be not very much over-kept, but it will never resemble in quality and whokaomeness fish which 18 fresh from the water. A good turbot is thick, and fVdl fleshed, and the under side is of a pale cream colour or yellowish white; when this is of a bluish tint, and the fish is thin and soft, it should be re•'' jected. The same observations apply equally to soles. The best salmon and cod fish are known by a small head, very thick shoulders, and a small tail; the scales of the former should be bright, and its flesh of a fine red colour; to be eaten in perfection it should be dressed as soon as it is caught, before the cuitl (or white anbetance which lies between the flakes of flesh) has melted and rendered the fish oily. In that state it is really crimp, but continuea so only for a very few hours; and it bears therefore a much higher price in the London market then, than when mellowed by having beenkept a dav or two. Tne flesh of cod fish should be white and clear before it is boiled, whiter still after it is boiled, and firm though tender, sweet and mild in flavour, and separated easily into large flakes. Many persons consider it rather improved than otherwise by having a little salt rubbed along the inside of the backbone and letting it lie from twenty-four to forty-eight hours before it is dressed. It is sometimes served crimp IQlc siimon, and must then be sliced as soonas it is dead, or within the shortest possible time afierwards. Herrings, mackerel, and whitings, unless newly caught, are quite uneatable. When they are in good condition their natural cofours wiU be very distinct and their whole appearance glossy and fresh. The herring when first taken from the water is of a silvery brightness; the lck of the mackerel is of a bright green marked with £urk stripes; but this becomes of a coppery colour as the fish ws stale. The whiting is of a pale brown or fawn colour with a pmkish tint; bat appears dim and Icaden-hued when no louffer fresh. Eels should be alive and brisk in movement when they are purchased, tmt the horrid barbarity, as it is trulv designated, of skmning and dividing them while they are so, is without excuse, as they are easily destroyed by piercing the sjinal marrow close to the back part of the flkull with a Aarp pointed knife or skewer. If this be done in the right • We bare known this applied rery successfully to salmon which from some boors' keeping in saltry weather had acquired a slisht decree of taint, of which no trace remained after it was dressed; as a general role, howevsr, fish which ia not whakicwiay Jrmh should he rejected for the table.

50 MODERN COOSIEBT. cHAP.iz. piBoe all motion will iiutantly cease. We quote Dr. Eatchenerb aasertion on this subject; but we know that the mode of destruction which he recommenos is commonly practised by the London fishmon rs. Boiling water also will immediately cause yitalitv to cease, and IS perhaps the most humane and ready method of destroying the fish. Lobsters, prawns, and shrimps, are very stiff when freshly boiled, and the tails turn strongly inwards; when these relax, and the fish are soft and watery, they are stale; and the smell will detect their being so, instantly, even if no other symptoms of it be remarked. If boueht alive, lobsters should be chosen by their weight and ' liveliness." The hen lobster is preferred for sauce and soups, on account of the coral; but the flesh of the male is generally considered of finer flavour for eating. The vivacity of their leaps will show when prawns and shrimps are firesh from the sea. Oysters should close forcibly on the knife when they are opened: if the shells are apart ever so fittle they are losing their condition, and when they remain fiir open the fish are dead, and fit only to be thrown away. Small plump natives are very preferable to the laiger and coarser kinds. TO CLEAN FISH. Let this be always done with the most scrupulous nicety, for nothing can more effectually destrov the appetite, or disgrace the cook, than fish sent to table imperfectiy cleaned. Handle it lightiy, and never throw it roughly about, so as to bruise it; wash it well, but do not leave it longer in the water than is necessary; for fish, like meat, loses its flavour from being soaked. When the scales are to be removed, lay the fish flat upon its side and hold it firmly with the left hand, while they are scraped off with the right; turn it, and when both sides are done, pour or pump sufficient water to float off all the loose scales; then proceed to empty it; and do this without opening it more than is abso lutely necessary for the purposes of cleanliness. Be sure that not the slightest particle of offensive matter be left in the inside; wash out the blood entirely, and scrape or brush it away if needful from the backbone. This may easily be accomplished without opening the fish so much as to render it unsightly when it is sent to table. When the scales are left on, the outside of the fish should be well washed and wiped with a coarse cloth, drawn gentiy from the head to the tai Eels to be wholesome should be skinned, but they are sometimes dressed without; boiling water should then be poured upon them, and they should be left in it from five to ten minutes before they are cut up. The dark skin of the sole must be stripped off when it is fried, but it should be left on it like that of a turbot when the fish is boiled, and it should be dished with the white side upwards. Whiting are skinned before thev are eged and crumbed for frying, but for boiling or broiling, the skin is left on them. The gills of all fish (the red mullet sometimes excepted), must be taken out. The fins qf a turbai

CHAP, il fish. 51 Atcft an otmsidtred a great delicacy should he left vntauched; but thoie of most other fish most be cut off. TO KEEP FISH. We find that all the smaller kinds of fish kee best if emptied and deaned as soon aa they are bropght in, then wiped gently as dry as the can be, and hung separately by the head on the hooks in th oeiniig of a cool larder, or in the open air when the weather will allow. When there is danger of their being attacked by flies, a wire safe, placed in a strong draught of air, is better adapted to the purpose. Soles in wiater will remain good for two days when thus prepared; and even whitings and mackerel may be kept so without losing any of their excellence. Salt may be rubbed slightly over cod fish, and well along the back-bone; but it injures the flavour of salmoq, the inside of which may be rubbed with vinegar and peppered instead TVlien excessive sultriness renders all of these modes unavailing, the fish must at once be partially cooked to preserve it, but this should be avoided if possible, as it is very rarely so good when this method is resorted to. TO SWEETEN TAINTED FISH. The application of strong vinegar, or of acetic acid (which may be purchased at the chemists'), will effect this when the taint is but slight. The vinegar should be used pure; and one wineglassful of the add should be mixed with two of water. Four either of these over the fish, and rub it on the parts which require it; then leave it untouched for a few minutes, and wash it afterwards well, changing the water two or three times. When the fish is in a worse state the chloride of soda, from its powerful anti-putrescent properties, wiU have more effect: it may be diluted, ana applied in the same manner as the acid. Obs, - We have retained here the substance of the directions which we had given in former editions of thb book for rendenng eatable fish (and meat) tainted by being dosely packed or overkept; and it is true that they may may be deprived of their offensive flavour and odour by the application of strong adds and other disinfecting agents, - Beanfoy's chloride of soda more especially - but we are very doubtful whether they can by any process oe converted into ttnquestionably wholesome food, unless from some acddental circumstance the mere surfiioe should be affected, or some small portion of thein, which could be entirely cut away. We cannot, therefore, conscientiously recommend the alee economy of endangering health in preference to rejecting them for the table altogether. THE MODE OF COOKINa BEST ADAPTED TO DIFFERENT KINDS OF FISH. It is not possible, the reader will easily believe, to insert in a work of the size of the present volume, all the modes of dressing the many

52 MODEBH COOKEBT. cHAP. n. Taiieties of fish which aie suited to our tahles; we giye, therefore, only the more essential receipts in detail, and add to them such general information as may, we trost, enable even a moderately intelligent cook to serve all that may usually be required, without difficulty. There is no better way of dressing a good turbot, brill, John D017, or cod's head and shoulders, than plain but careful boiling. Salmon is excellent in almost every mode m which it can be cooked or used. Boiled entire or in crimped slices; roasted in a cradle-spit or Dutch oven; baked; fried in snudl collops; collared; potted; dried and smoked; pickled or soused (this is die coarsest and least to be recommended process for it, of any; made into a raised or common pie, or a potato-pasty; served cold in or with savoury jelly, or with a MayotmoMe sauce; or laid on potatoes and baked, as in Ireland, it will be found Good. Soles may be either boiled, or baked, or fHed entire, or in fillets; curried; stewed in cream; or prepared by any of the directions given for them in the body of this chapter. Plaice, unless when in Ml season and very ftesh, is apt to be watery and insipid; but taken in its perfection and carefully cooked, it is very sweet and delicate in flavour. If large, it may be boiled with advantage either whole or in fillets; but to many tastes it is very superior when filleted, dipped into esg aad bread crumbs, and fried. The flesh may also be curried; or tiie plaice may be converted into water-souchy, or saupe'tnaigre: when small it is often fried whole. Bed mullet should always be hdked hroUed or roasted: it should on no occasion be boiled. Mackerel, for which many receipts will be found in this chapter, when hTOTledgttite whole, as we have directed, or freed from the bones, divided, eggeo, crumbed, and fried, is infinitely superior to the same fish cooked in the ordinary manner. The whiting, when vert fresh and in season, is alwajrs delicate and good; and of all fish is considered the best suited to mvalids. Perhaps wUe the most wholesome mode of preparing it for them, is to open it as little as possible when it is cleansed, to leave the skin on, to dry the fish well, and to broil it gently. It should be sent very hot to table, and will require no sauce: twenty minutes will usually be required to cook it, if of moderate size. The haddock is sometimes very large. We have had it occaaonall from our southern coast between two and three feet in length, and it was then remarkably good when simply boiled, even the day after it was caught, the white curd between the flakes of flesh being like that of extremely fresh salmon. As it is in full season in mid- winter, it can be sent to a distance without injury. It is a very firm fish when large and in season; but, as purchased commonly at inland markets, is often neither fine in size nor quality. One of the best modes of cooking it is, to take tiie flesh entire from the bones, to divide it, dip

eBAT. zl fish. 58 it into egg and bread-crumba, mixed with wroruj herhB finely mineed, and a seasoninff of salt and spice, and to fry it like soles. Other receipts for it will be foond in the body of this chapter. The fiesh of the gurnard is exceedingly dry, and somewhat aver fam but when filled with well-made forcemeat and gently baked, it is mnch liked by many persons. At good tables, it is often served in fillets fried or baked, and richly sauced: in common cookery it is aometimes boUed. Portions only of the skate, which is frequently of enormous si2e, are used as food: these are in general cut out by the fisherman or by the salfwman, and are called 3ie wings. The flesh is commonly served here divided into long narrow fillets, called crimped skate, which are rolled up and fastened to preserve them in that form, while they are eooked. In France, it is sent to table raised from the bones in large portiona, sauced with beurre-noir (hurned or browned butter), and strewed with well-crisped parsley. Trout, which is a delicions fish when stewed in gravy, either quite simply, or with the addition of wine and various condiments, and hich when of small size is very sweet and pleasant, eating nicely filed, 18 poor and insipid when plainly boiled. Pike, of which the flesh is extremely dry, is we think better baked than dressed in any other way; but it is often boiled. Carp should either be stewed whole in the same manner as trout, or served cut in slices, in a rich sauce called a matelote. Smelta, sand-eels, and white-bait, are always fried; the last two gnmetimea after being dipped into batter. THE BEST MODE OF BOILING FISH. We have left unaltered in the following receipts the greater number of our original directions for boiling fish, which were found when carefully followed, to produce a good result; but Baron Liebeg and other scientific writers explain deany the principles on which the nutriment contained in fish or fiesh is best retained by bringing the surface of either when it is cooked, into immediate contact with boiling water; and then (after a few minutes of ebullition) lowering the temperature by the addition of cold water, and keeping it somewhat below the boiling point for the remainder of the process. This method is at least worthy of a trial, even if it be attended with a slight degree more of trouble than those in general use; but when fish is served with a variety of other dishes, the escape of some portion of its nutritious juices is of less importance than when it forms the principal food of any part of the community: in that case, the preservation of • We hare been informed by Mr. Howitt, the ivell-knoTm author of seTeral highly interestmg works on Germany, that this fish, when boiled the instant it was eantr-ss he had eaten it often on the banks of some celebrated German troai'StTeams - was most ezceUant, especiallY when it was of large size; bat, as a general rok afanost say other mods of codcing is to be reoommended fiv it in rdereDce.

54 XODEBN GOOKEBY. cHAP. n. all the nourishment which can he derired from it, is of real consequence. Directions. - Throw into as much water as will cover the fish entirely, a portion of the salt which is to he added in cooking it, and when it boils quickly take off the scum, lay in the fish, and let it boil moderately fast from three to ten minutes, according to its weight and thickness; then pour in as much cold water as there is of the boiling, take out a part, leaving sufficient only to keep the fish well covered until it is ready to serve; add the remainder of the salt, draw the fish-kettle to the side of the fire, and keep the water ji simmering, and no more, imtil the fish is done. The cook will understand that if a gallon of water be required to cover the fish while it is cooking, that quantity must be made to boil; and that a gallon of cold must be added to it after the fish has been laid in, ana kept boiling for a very few minutes. For example: - A large turbot or cod's head for ten minutes; a moderate-sixed plaice or John Dory, about five; and whitings, codlings, and other small fish, from three to four minutes. That one geJlon must then be taken out of the kettle, which should immediately be drawn from the e, and placed at the side of the stove, that the fish may be gradually heated through as the water is brought slowly to the point of simmering. The whole of the salt may be added after a portion of the water is withdrawn, when the cook cannot entirely depend on her own judgment for the precise quantity required. Obs. - This is the best practical application that we can give of Baron Liebegs instructions. BRINE FOR BOILING FISH. Fish is exceedingly insipid if sufficient salt be not mixed with the water in which it is boiled, but the precise quantity required for it will depend, in some measure, upon the kind of salt which is used. Fine common salt is that for which our directions are given; but when the Maldon salt, which is very superior in strength, as well as in other qualities, is substituted for it, a smaller quantity must be allowed About four ounces to the gallon of water will be sufficient for small fish in general; an additiomd ounce, or rather more, will not be too much for cod fish, lobsters, crabs, prawns, and shrimps; and salmon will require eight ounces, as the brine for this fish should be strong: the water should .always be perfectly well skimmed from the moment the scum begins to form upon the surface. Mackerel, whiting, and other small fish, 4 ounces of salt to a gallon of water. Cod fisn, lobsters, crabs, prawns, shrimps, 5 to 6 os. Salmon, 8 ozs. TO RENDER BOILED FISH FIRM. Put a small bit of saltpetre with the salt into the water in which It is boiled: a quarter of an ounce wiU be sufficient for a gallon

CHAP, n.

FISH. 55

TO KNOW WHEN FISH 18 SUFFICIENTLY BOILED OB OTHERWI8B COOKED. If the Sickest part of the flesh separates easily fh m the back -bone, It is quite ready to serve, and should be withdrawn irom the pan without delay, as further cooking would be iigurious to it. This test can easily be applied to a fish which Jias been divided, but when it is entire it shoula oe lifted from the water when the flesh of the tail hieaks firom the bone and the eyes loosen firom the head. TO BAKB FISH. A gentle oven may be used with advantage, for cooking almost eveiy kind of fish, as we have ascertained from our own observation; but it must be subjected to a mild dpree of heat ony. This peneirates the fl gradually, and converts it into wholesome succulent food; whereas, a hot oven evaporates all the juices rapidly, and renders the fish hard and dry. When small, thev should he wrapped in oiled or buttered paper before they are baked; and when filleted, or left in any other form, and placed m a deep dish with or without any liquid before they are put into the oven, a, buttered paper should still be laid closely upon tnemtokeepthe surface moist. Large pieces cf salmon, conger eel, and other fish of considerable size are sometimes in common cookery baked like meat over potatoes pared and halved. FAT FOR FRTINa FISH. This, whether it be butter, lard, or oil should always be excellent in qxialitv, for the finest fish will be rendered unfit for eating if it be &ied in iat that is rancid. When good, and used in sufilcient quantity, it will serve for the same purpose several times, if strained after each frying, and put carefully away in a clean pan, provided always that it has not been smoked nor burned in the using. Lard renders fish more crisp than butter does; but fresh, pure oHve-oil (salad oUjOsitis commonly called in England) is the best' ingredient which can be used for it, and as it will serve well for the same purpose, manv times in succession, if strained and carefully stored as we have already stated, it is not in reality so expensive as might be supposed for this mode of cooking. There should alwavs be an ample quantity of it (or of any other ritere) in the pan, as the fish shouM be nearly covered with it, at the least; and it should cease to bubble before either Mi or meat is laid into it, or it will be too much absorbed by the flesh, and will iiapart neither suficient firmt nor suflident colour. The French tenn for ikt of all IdndB used in fejbo

56 MOD£BN COOKERY chap. n.

TO KEEP FISn HOT FOB TABLE. Never leave it in the water after it is done, but if it cannot be sent to table as soon as it is ready to serve, lift it out, lay the fish-plate into a large and very hot dish, and set it across the fish-kettle; just dip a clean cloth into the boiling water, and spread it upon the ti, place a tin cover over it and let it remain so until two or three minutes before it is wanted, then remove the cloth, and put the fidi back into the kettle for an instant that it may be as hot as possible: drain, dish, and serve it immediately: the water should be kept boiling the whole time. TO BOIL A TURBOT. In season all the year. ? A fine turbot, in full season, and well served, is one of the most delicate and delicious fish that can be sent to table; but it is generally an expensive dish, and its excellence so much depends on the manner in which it is dressed, that great care should be taken to prepare it properlv. After it is emptied, wash tne inside until it .poi is perfectly cleansed, and rub lightly a little fine salt over the outside, as this will render less washinfl and handling necessary, by at once taking off the slime; chan the water sevexul times, and when the fish is as clean as it is possible to render it, draw a sharp knife through the thickest part of the middle of the back nearly through to the bone. Never cut off the fm of a turbot when preparing it lor table, and remember that it is the dark side of the fish in which the incision is to be made, to prevent the skin of the white side from cracking Dissolve in a well-cleaned turbot or common fish-kettle, in as mud cold spring water as will cover the fish abundantly, salt, in the proportion offour ounces to the gallon; vdpe the fish-plate with a dean cloth, lay the turbot upon it with the white side upwards, place it in the kettle, bring it slowly to boil, and clear off the scum thoroughhj as it rises. Let the water onl just simmer tuitil the fish is done, then lift it out, drain, and slide it ntly on to a verr hot dish, with a hot napkin neatly arranged over the drainer. Send it immediately to table with rich lobster sauce and good plain melted butter. For a simple dinner, anchovy or shrimp sauce is sometimes served with a small turbot Shoicdd there be any cracks in the skin of the fish This is the common practice even of the "bui ofoka, bat is veiy nnadentifio nerertheleas. When the incision is made reallj intc the flesh the tnrboi should be cooked altogether on Liebeg's plan, for which see ' The Best Mode of Boiling FUby" in the preceding pages.

CHAP, n. FISH. 57 bmehes of cnrled panley may be laid lightly over them, or part of e inside ooral of a lobster, rubbed through a fine haLr-neyei may be sprinkled over the fish; but it is better wiuiout either, when it is yeiy white and unbroken. When gamishings are in favour, a slioe of lemon and a tuft of curled parsley, may be placed alternately round the edge of the dish. A border of fried smelts or of fillets of soles, was fennerly served round a turbot, and is always a veiy admissible addition, though no longjer so fiuhionable as it was. From fifteen to twenty minutes will boil a moderate-sized fish, and from twenty to thirty a larse one; but as the same time will not always be sufficient for a fish of the same weight, the cook must watch it attentively, aod Itft it out as soon as its appearance denotes its being done. Moderate siaed tnrbot, 15 to 20 minnt Large, 20 to 80 mJTiwtefLooser, if of unusual size Om. - A lemon pentlv squeezed, and rubbed over the fish, is thought to preserve its whiteness. Some good cooks still put turbot into JHriUag water, and to prevent its breaking, tie it with a doth tightly to the fish-plate. TURBOT 1 LA CldME. Baiae earefhUy firom the bones the flesh of a cold turbot, and dear it from the dark skin; cut it into small squares, and put it into an exceedingly dean stewpan or saucepan; then make and pour upon it the cream sauce of Chapter Y., or make as much as may be required for the fish b the same recdpt, with equal proportions df milk and cream and a bttle additional flour. Heat the turbot slowly in the sauce, but do not allow it to boil, and send it very hot to table. The white skin of the fish is not usually added to this dish, and it is of better appearance without it; but for a &mily dinner, it may be left on the neah, when it is mudi liked. No add must be stirred to the sauce until the whole is ready for table.

TURBOT AU BECHAMEL, OR, IN BECHAMEL SAUCE. Prepare the cold turbot as for the preceding receipt, but leave no portion of the skin with it. Heat it in a rich bechamel sauce, and serve it in a vcl-au-ventt or in a deep djsh vrith a border of fried bread cut in an elegant form, and made with one dark and one light sippet, placed alternately. The surface may be covered with a half-inch Liyer of delicatdy fried bread-crumbs, perfecti well drained ana dned; or tiiey may be spread over the fish without being fried, then moistened with clarified butter, and browned with a salamander Poi MocvD ov Cau Tmusor with Shbimp Chathxt, see Chapter YL

8 liODEBK OOOKEBY. cBAP. el TO BOIL A JOHN DORY. £ln best eaaBon from Michaelmafi to Christmas, but good all the year. The John D017, though of nniuviting appearance, is considered hy some persons as the most delicious fish that appears at tahle; in the general estimation, however, it ranks next to the turbot, but it is far less abundant in our markets, and is not commonly to be procured of sufficient size for a handsome dish, except in some few parts of our coast which are cele i,-h.i n.irv 7 brated for it. It may easily be known by its yellow gray colour, its one large dark spot on either side, the long nlaments on the back, a general mickness of form, and its very ugly head. It is dressed in the same manner, and served usually with the same sauces as a turbot, but requires less time to boil it. The fins should be cut off before it is cooked. SMALL JOHN DORIES BAKED. (Author's Receipt- good,) We have found these fish when they were too small to be worth cooking in the usual way, excellent when quite simply baked in the following manner, the flesh being remarkably sweet and tender, much more so than it becomes by frying or broiling. After they have been cleaned, dry them in a cloth, season the insides slightly with fine salt, dredge a little flour on the fish, and stick a few very small bits of butter on them, but only just sufficient to prevent their becoming dry in the oven; lay them singly on a flat dish, and bake them very gently from fourteen to sixteen minutes. Serve them with the same sauce as baked soles. When extremely fresh, as it usually is in the markets of the coast, fish thus simply dressed aufour is preferable to that more elaborately prepared by adding various condiments to it after it is placed in a deep dish, and covering it with a thick layer of bread crumbs, moistened vrith clarified butter. The appearance of the John Dories is improved by taking off the heads, and cutting away not only the fins but the filaments of the back. TO BOIL A BRILL. A fresh and full-8i2ed brill always ranks high in the list offish, as it is of good appearance, and the flesh is sweet and delicate. It requires less cookmg than the turbot, even when it is of equal size; but otherwise may be dressed and served in a similar manner. It has not the same rich glutinous skin as that fish, nor are th fins esteemed.

CHA7. U. FISH. 59 They nniBt be cot off when the brill is cleaned; and it may be put into nearly boiling water, unless it be very larse. Simmer it ntly, and drain it well upon the fish-plate when it is lifted out; didi it on a napkin, and send lobster, anchoyy, crab, or shrimp sauce to table with it. Lobster coral, rubbed through a sieve, is commonly sprinkled oyer it for a formal dinner. The most usual garnish for boiled fiat fish is curled jarsley placed round it in light tufts; how &r it is appropriate individual taste must decide. Brill, moderate- sized, about 20 minutes; laige, 30 minutes. Ohf. - The precise time which a fish will reouire to be boiled cannot be given: it must be watched, and not allowed to remain in the water after it begins to crack. TO BOIL 8ALM0K. In faJl season ftom May to Angnst: maj be had much eariier, bat is soaroe and dear. To preserve the fine colour of this fish, and to set the curd when it quite freshly caught, it is usual to put it into boiling instead of into cold water. Scale, empty, and wash it with the greatest nicety, and be especially careful to cleanse all the blood from the inside. Stir into tne fish-kettle eight ounces of common salt to the gallon of water, let it boQ quickly for a minute or two, take off all the scum, put in the salmon and boil it moderately fast, if it be small, but more ntly ahonld it be very thick; and assure yourself that it is quite sufficiently done before it is sent to table, for nothing can be more distasteful, even to the eye, than fish which is under dressed. From two to three poimds of the thick part of a fine salmon will require half an hour to boil it, but eight or ten- pounds will be done enoucb in little more than double that time; less in proportion to its weight should be allowed for a small fish, or for the thin end of a laige-one. Do not allow the salmon to remain in the water after it ia ready to serve, or both its fiavour and appearance will be injured. Dish it on a hot napkin, and send dressed cucumber, and anchovy, idirimp, or lobster sauce, and a tureen of plain melted butter to table with it To each gallon water, 8 oz. salt Salmon, 2 to 3 lbs. (thick), I hour; 8 to 10 lbs., li hour; small, or thin fish, less time. SALMON 1 LA GENEVESE. A fashionable mode of serving salmon at the present day is to divide the larger portion of the body into three equal parts; to bolL them in water, or in a marinade; and to serve them diied in a line, but not dose together, and covered with a rich Genevese sauce (for which see Chapter Y.) It appurs to us that the skin should be stripped from any fish over which the sauce is poured, but in this ease it is not eustcnnary.

60 MODEBN COOKEBT. chap. u.

CRIMPED SALMON. Cat into slices an inch and a half, or two inches thick, the hody of a salmon quite newly caught; throw them into strong salt and water as they are done, hut do not let them soak in it; wash them well, lay them on a fish-plate, and put them into &Bt hoiling water, saltei and well skimmed. In from ten to fifteen minutes they will be done. Dish them on a napkin, and send them very hot to table witb. lobster sauce, andplam melted butter; or with the onier fish-sauoe of Chapter Y. The water should be salted as for saunon boiled in. the ordmaiT wa, and the scum should be cleared off with;reat care after the fisn is m. In boiling water, 10 to 15 minutes. SAUtON 1 LA ST. marcel: Separate some cold boiled salmon into flakes, and free them en tirely from the skin; break the bones, and boil them in a pint € £ water for half an hour. Strain off the liquor, put it into a clean, saucepan and stir into it by decrees when it bins to boil quickly, two ounces of butter mixed vnth a large teaspoonful of flour, and. when the whole has boiled for two or three minutes add a teaspoonful of essence of anchovie one of eood mushroom catsup, half as mucb. lemon-juice or chili vinegar, a naif saltspoonful of pounded maoe, some cayenne, and a very little salt. Shell from half to a whole pint of shrimps, add them to the salmon, and heat the fish yeiy slowlp in the sauce by the side of the fire, but do not allow it boiL When it is very hot, dish and send it quickly to table. French cooks, when they re-dress fish or meat of any kind, prepare the flesh vdth great nicety, and then put it into a stewpan, and pour the sauce upon it, which is, we think, better than tne more usual English mode of layinff it into the boiling sauce. The cold salmon may also be reheated in the cream sauce of Chapter Y., or in the Mditre Hotel sauce which follows it; and will be found excellent with either. This receipt is for a moderate sized dish. SALMON baked OYER MASHED POTATOES. We are informed by a person who has been a resident in Ireland, that the middle of a salmon is there often baked over mashed, potatoes, from which it is raised by means of a wire stand, as meat Is m England. We have not been able to have it tried, but an ingenious cook will be at no loss for the proper method of preparing, and the time of cooking it. The potatoes are sometimes pierely pared and halved; the fish is then laid upon them. SALMON PUDDING, TO BE SERVED HOT OR COLD. (A Scotch Receipt-- Good.) Pound or chop small, or rub throufh a sieve one pound of cold

n. FISH. 61 Viiled salmon freed entirely from bone and skin; and blend h lightly bat thoroughly with half a ponnd of fine bread-cmmba, a teaspoonfol of essence of anchovies, a quarter of a pint of eream, a seasoning of fine salt and cayenne, and four well whisked eggs. Press the mixture closely and evenly into a deep dish or mould, battered in every part, and bake it for one hour in a moderate oven. Salmon, 1 lb.; bread-crumbs, lb.: essence of anchovies, 1 teaspoonfiii; cream, i pint; eggs 4; salt and cayenne; baked 1 hour TO BOIL OOD FISH. Llnlogfaest setson ftom October to the beginning of Febmsiy; in pexfectioa about Chii8tm9. When this fish is large the head and shoulders are sufficient for m handsome dish, and they contain all the choicer portion of it, though not so much substantial eating as the middle of the body, which, m consequence, is generally preferred to them by the frugal housekeeper. Wash tae fish, and cleanse the inside, and the back-bone in particular, with the most scrupulous care; lay it into the fish-kettle and cover it well with cold water mixed with five ounces of salt to the gallon, and about a quarter of an ounce of saltpetre to the whole. Place it over a moderate fire, clear off the scum perfectly, and let the fish boil gently until it is done. Drain it well and disn it carefully upon a veiy hot napkin with the liver and the roe as a garnish. To tbtte are usually added tufts of lightly scraped horse-radish round the edge. Serve well-made 03r8ter sauce and plain melted butter with it; or anchovy sauce, when oysters cannot be procured. The cream sauce of Chapter Y ., is also an appropriate one for this fish. Moderate size, 20 to 30 minutes. Large, f to hour. SLICES OF COB FI8H FIIIED Cut the middle or tail of the fish into slices nearly an inch thick, season them with salt and white pepper or cayenne, flour them well, and fry them of a clear equal brown on both sides; drain them on a sieve before the fire, and serve them on a well-heated napkin, with plenty of crisped parsley round them. Or, dip them into beaten egg and then into fine crumbs mixed with a seasoning of salt and pepper (some cooks add one of minced herbs also), before they are friea. Send melted butter and anchovy sauce to table with them. 8 to 12 minutes. C?d.- This is a much better way of dressing the thin part of the fish than boiling it, and as it is generally cheap, it makes thus an economical, as well as a very good dish: if the slices are lifted from the firying-pan into a good curried gravy, and left in it by the side Hiis should be done by setting the fish-plato seross tlie kettle for a minals ortwa

62 MODEBN COOKEBT. CHAP.n. of the fire for a few nunntes before they are sent to table, they inll be found excellent STEWED COD. Put into boiling water, salted as usual, about three poundei of fresh cod fish cut into slices an inch and a half thick, and boil them gently for five minutes; lift them out, and let them drain. Have ready heated in a wide stewnan nearly a pint of veal fn.Yy or of yery good broth, lay in the nsh, and stew it for five mmutes, then add four tablespoonsM of extremely fine bread-crumbs, and simmer it for three minutes longer. Stir well into the sauce a large teaspoonful of arrow-root quite free from lumps, a fourth part as much of mace, something less of cayenne, and a tablesjpoonful of essence of anchovies, mixed vrith a glass of white wine and a dessertspoonful of lemon juice. Boil the whole for a couple of minutes, lift out the fi carefully with a slice, pour the sauce over, and serve it quickly. Cod mh, 3 lbs.: boiled 5 minutes. Gravy, or strong broth, nearly 1 pint: 5 minutes. Bread-crumbs, 4 tablespoonsful: 3 minutes. Arrow-root, 1 large teaspoonful; mace, i teaspoonful; less of cayenne; essence of anchovies, 1 tablespoonf ul; lemon-juice, 1 dessertspoonful; sherry or Maidera, 1 wineglassful: 2 minutes. Obs. - A dozen or two of oysters, bearded, and added with their strnined liquor to this dish two or three minutes before it is served, will to many tastes vary it very agreeably. STEWED COD FISH, IN BROWN SAUCE. Slice the fish, take off the skin, flour it well, and fry it quickly a fine brown; lift it out and drain it on the back of a sieve, arrange it in a clean stewpan, and pour in as much good boiling brown gravy as will nearly cover it; aidd &om one to two glasses of port wine, or rather more of claret, a dessertspoonful of Chili vinegar, or the juice of half a lemon, and some cayenne, with as much salt as may be needed. Stew the fish very softly until it just begins to break, lift it carefully with a slice into a verv hot dish, stir into the gravy an ounce and a half of butter smoothly kneaded with a large teaspoonful of flour, and a little pounded mace, give the sauce a minute's boil, pour it over the fish, and serve it immediately. The wine may be omitted, good shin of beef stock substituted for the gravy, and a teaspoonful of soy, one of essence of anchovies, and two tablespoonsful of Harveys sauce added to flavour it. TO BOIL SALT FISH. AVhen very salt and dry, this must be long soaked before it is boiled, but it is generally supplied by the fishmongers nearly or quite ready to dress. When it is not so, lay it for a niht into a large (Hiantity of cold water, then let it lie exposed to the air for some time, then again put it into water, and continue thus until it is w

CHAP, n. FISH. 03 8of:cned Bmsh it yeiy dean, wash it thoroughly, and pat it with abuudaoce of cold water into the fish kettle, place it near the fire and let it heat yery slowly indeed. Keep it just on the point of flumneriDg, without allowing it ever to bou which would render it hsrd frran three quarters of an hour to a full hour, according to its weight; should it be quite small and thin, less time will be sufficient for it; but by followinffthese directions, the fish will be almost as good as if it were fresh. The scum should be cleared off with great care fixnn the beginning. Eg? sauce and boiled parsnep are the usual aoocompaniment to salt nsh, which should be disoed upon a hot napkin, and which is sometimes also thickly strewed with chopped

SALT FISH, X I A hIiTAB D'hOTEL. Boil the fish by the foregoing receipt, or take the remains of that which has been served at table, flake it off dear from the bones, and strip away every morsel of the skin; then lay it into a very clean saucepan or stewpan, and pour upon it the sharp Maitre d Hotel sauce of Chapter IV.; or dissolve gently two or three ounces of batter with four or five spoonsftd of water, and a half-teaspoonful of flcnir; add some pepjper or cayenne, very little salt, and a dessertspocmful or more ot minced parsley. Heat the fish slowly quite throoeh in either of these sauces, and toss or stir it until the whole is weUnmEed; if the second be used, add the juice of half a lemon, or a small Quantity of Chili vinegar just before it is taken from the fire. The nsh thus prepared may be served in a deep sh, with a border of mashed parsneps or potatoes. TO BOIL CODS SOUlBS Should they be highly salted, soak them for a night, and on the following day rub off entirely the discoloured skin; wash them well, lay them into plenty of cold milk and water, and boil them gently mm thirty to forty minutes, or longer should they not be quite tender. Clear off the scum as it rises with great care, or it will sink and adhere to the sounds, of which the appearance will then be spoiled. Drain them well, dish them on a napkin, and send egg sauce and plain mdted butter to table with them. TO FRY cods' sounds IN BATTER. Boil them as directed above until they are nearly done, then lift them ont, lay them on to a drainer, and let them remain till they are cold; cut them across in strips of an inch deep, curl them round, dip them into a good French or English batter, fry them of a fine pale brown, drain and dry them well, dish them on a hot napkin, and garnish them ifith cnsped parsley.

64 MODERN COOKEBT. crap. n. TO FRY SOLES. In sasBon all the year. All fish to fry well must be not only fresh bat perfectly firee from moisture, particularly when they are to be dressed with egg and bread-crumbs, as these will not otherwise adhere to them. Empty, skin, and wash the soles with extreme nicety, from one to two hours before they are wanted for table; and after having cleansed and wiped them very dry both inside and out, replace the roes, fold and press them gently in a soft clean cloth, and ieave them wrapped in it until it is time to fry them; or suspend them singly upon hooks in a current of cool air, which is, perhaps, the better method of proceeding when it can be done conyemently. Cover them equally in every part, first with some beaten g, and then with fine dry crumbs of bread, mixed with a very little £ ur to make them adhere with more certsdnty: a small teaspoonful will be sufficient for two large soles. Melt in a large and exceedingly dean frying pan over a brisk and clear fire, as much very pure-flavoured lard as will float the fish, and let it be suflidently hot before they are laid in to brown them quickly; for if this he neglected it will be impossible to render them crisp or dry. When the fiit ceases to bubble, throw in a small bit of bread, and if it takes a good colour immediately the soles may be put in wiUiout delay. An experienced cook will know, vdthout this test, when it is at the proper point; but the learner will do better to avail herself of it until practice and observation shall have rendered it unnecessary to her. Before the fish are laid into the pan, take them by the head and shake the loose crumbs from them. When they are firm, and of a fine amber-colour on one side, turn them with care, passing a slice under them and a fork through the heads, and brown them on the other. Lift them out, and either dry them well on a soft cloth laid upon a sieve reversed, before the fire, turning them often, or press them lightly in hot white blotting paper. Dish them on a drainer covered vdth a hot napkin and send them to table without delay with shrimp or anchovy sauce, and plain melted butter. Very small soles will be done in six minutes, and large ones in about ten. They may be floured and ftied, without being ged and crumbed, but this is not a very usual mode of serving them. Small soles, 6 minutes; large, about 10 minutes. TO BOIL SOLES. The flesh of a fine fresh sole, when bolted with care, is remarkably sweet and delicate: if very laigje it may be dressed and served as turbot, to which it will be fou ad little inferior in flavour. Empty it, take out the gills, cut off the fins, and cleanse and wash it with reat nicety, but do not skin it; then either lay it into cold water in which the usual proportion of salt has been dissolved, and beat it rather slowly, and then simmer it from five to ten minutes, according to its sise; or boil

COAT. 1I.J FISH. (J5 it in tbe mazuier directed in the first pages of this chapter. Drain it well on the fish-plate as it is lifted out, and dish it on a napkin the white side upwards, and serve it quickly with anchovy, shrimp, or lobator sance. It may also be sent to table thickly covered with the Cream Fish Sauce, Caper Fish Sauce, or Lady8 Sauce, of Chapter VI.; though this is a mode of service less to be recommended, as the sauce cools more speedily when spread over the surface of the fish: it is, however, the continental fasnion, and will therefore find more favour with some persons. Very large sole, 5 to 10 minutes; moderate sized, 4 to 6 minutes. FILLETS OF SOLES. The word fiBet whether applied to fish, poultry, game, or butcher s meat, means simply the flesh of either (or of certain portions of it), raised clear from the bones in a handsome form, and divided or not, as the manner in which it is to be served may require. It is an elegant mode of dressing various kinds of fish, and even those which are not the most highly esteemed, afford an excellent dish when thus prepared. Soles to be filletted with advantage should be large; the flesn may then be divided down the middle of the back, next, separated from the fins, and with a very sharp knife raised clear from the bones. When thus prepared, the fillets may be divided, trimmed into a good form, egg covered with fine crumbs, fried in the usual way, and served with the same sauces as the whole fish; or each fillet may be rolled up, in its entire length, if very small, or after being onee divided if large, and fastened with a slight twine, or a short thin skewer; then egg, crumbed, and fried in plenty of boiling lard; or merely well floured and fried from eight to ten minutes. When the fish are not very large, they are sometimes boned without being parted in the middle, and each side is rolled from the tail to the head, after being first spread with pounded shrimps mixed with a third of their volume of butter, a few bread-crumbs, and a high seasoning of mace and cayenne; or with pounded lobster mixed with a large portion of the coral, and the same seasoning, and proportion of butter as the riirimps; then laid into a dish, with the mgredients directed for the soles au plat; well covered with crumbs of bread and clarified batter, and baked from twelve to sixteen minutes, or until the crumbs are coloured to a fine brown in a moderate oven. The fillets may likewise be cut into small strips or squares of uniform size, lightly dredged with pepper or cayenne, salt and flour, and fried in butter over a brisk fire; then well drained, and sauced with a good beehamel, flavoured with a teaspoonful of minced parsley. • A eeklmted French cook gires the following instructions for raising these fillets: - Take them up hj running your knife first between the bones and Uie fleh, then between the akin and the fillet; hj leaning pretty hard on the tabls ihcy viQ come off lerj nesUy." w

66 MODEBN OOOKEBT. f chaf. IL

SOLES AU PLAT. Clarifjr from two to three ounces of fresh butter, and pour it into the dish in which the fish are to be served; add to it a little salt, some cayenne, a teaspoonful of essence of anchovies, and from one to two glasses of sherry, or of any other dry while wine; lay in a couple of fine soles which have been well cleaned and wiped very dry, strew over them a thick layer of fine bread-crumbs, moisten them with clarified butter, set the dish into a moderate oven, and bake the fish for a quarter of an hour. A layer of shrimps placed between the soles is a great improvement; and we would also recommend a litUe lemon-juice to be mixed with the sauce. Bak 15 minutes. Obs. - The soles are, we think, better without the wine in this receipt. They reouire but a small portion of liauid, which might be supplied by a little additional butter, a spoonrul of water or pale gravy, the lemon-juice, and store-sauce. Minced parsley may be mixed ydth the bread-crumbs when it is liked. BAKED SOLES. (A simple hut excellent Receipt) Fresh large soles, dressed in the follovnng manner, are remarkably tender and delicate eating; much more so than those which are friea. Aiter the fish has been skinned and cleansed in the usual way, wipe it dry, and let it remain for an hour or more, if time will permit, closely folded in a clean cloth; then mix with a slightly beaten egg about an ounce of butter, just liquefied but not heated at the mouth of the oven, or before the fire; brush the fish in every part vrith this mixture, and cover it with very fine dry bread-crumbs, seasoned with a little salt, cayenne, pounded mace, and nutmeg. Four a teaspoonful or two of liquid butter into a flat dish which will contain the fish weU; lay it m, sprinkle it with a little more butter, press the breadcrumbs lightly on it with a broad-bladed knife, and bake it in a moderate oven for about twenty minutes. If two or more soles are required for table at the same time, they should be placed separately, quite flat, in a large dish, or each fish should be laid on a dish by itself. On our first essay of this receipt, the fish dressed by it (it was baked for twenty-five minutes in a very slack iron oven) proved infinitely nicer than one of the same size which was fried, and served with it. The difference between them was very marked, especially as regarded the exceeding tenderness of the flesh of that which was baked; its appearance, however, would have been somewhat improved by a rather quicker oven. When ready to serve, it should be gentlv glided on to the dish in which it is to be sent to table. About three ounces of bread-crumbs, and two and a half of butter, will be sufficient for a large pair of soles. They will be more per-

CHAP, n, FISH. 67 fectly encnuted with the hread if dipped into, or sprinkled with it m second time, after the first coating has heen well moistened with the butter. BOLBS STBWED IN CREAM. Prepare some very fresh middling sized soles with exceeding nicety, put them into boiling water slightly salted, and simmer them for two Diinntes only; lifl them out, and let them drain; lay them into a iride stewpan vdth as much sweet rich cream as will nearly cover them; add a good seasoning of pounded mace, cayenne, and salt; stew the fish softly from six to ten minutes, or until the flesh parts readily from the bones; dish them, stir the juice of half a lemon to the sauce, pour it over the soles, and send them immediately to table. Some lemon-rind may be boiled in the cream, if approved; and a small teaspoonful of arrow-root, very smoothly mixed with a little milk, maybe stirred to the sauce (should it require thickening) before the lemon-juice is added. Turbot and brill also may be dressed by this receipt, time proportioned to their size being of course allowed for them. Soles, 3 or 4: boiled in water 2 mmutes. Cream, ) to whole pint; salt, mace, cayenne: fish stewed, 6 to 10 minutes. Juice of half a lemon. Ohs.-ln (Cornwall the fish is laid at once into thick clotted cream, and stewed entirely in it; but this method gives to the sauce, which ought to be extremely delicate, a coarse fishy flavour which the previous boil in water prevents. At Penzance, grey mullet, after being scaled, are divided in the middle, just covered with cold water, and softly boiled, with the addition of branches of parsley, pepper and salt, until the flesh of the back parts easily from the bone; clotted cream, minced parsley, and 1. iion-iuice are then added to the sauce, and the mullets are dished with the heads and tidls laid even to the thick parts of the back, where the fish were cut asunder. Hake, too, is there divided at every jiiint (having previously been scaled), dipped into egg, then thickly covered with fine bread-crumbs mixed with plenty of minced parsley, and fried a fine brown; or, the back-bone being previously taken out, the fish is sliced into cutlets, and then fried. TO FRY WHITINGS. In fall season from Michaelmas to beginning of Febmary. Clean, skin, and dry them thoroughly in a cloth, fasten their tails C'l their mouths, brush slightly beaten eggs equally over them, and (i ver them with the finest bread-crumbs, mixed with a little flour; fry them a clear golden brown in plenty of boiling lard, drain and dry them well, disn them on a hot napkin, and serve them with good melted butter, and the sauce cruets, or wiUx well made ahximp or an

66 MODERN COOEEBT. fcHAF. IL

SOLES AU PLAT. Glarifjr from two to three ounces of fresh butter, and pour it into the dish in which the fish are to be served; add to it a little salt, some cayenne, a teaspoonful of essence of anchovies, and from one to two glasses of sherry, or of any other dry white wine; lay in a couple of fine soles which have been well cleaned and wiped very dry, strew over them a thick layer of fine bread-crumbs, moisten them with clarified butter, set the dish into a moderate oven, and bake the fish for a quarter of an hour. A layer of shrimps placed between the soles is a great improvement; and we would also recommend a little lemon-juice to be mixed with the sauce. Baked, 15 minutes. Obi. - The soles are, we think, better without the wine in this receipt. They require but a small portion of liauid, which might be supplied by a little additional butter, a spoonrul of water or pale gravy, the lemon-juice, and store-sauce. Minced parsley may be mixed with the bread-crumbs when it is liked. BAKED SOLES. (A simple hut excellent Receipt) Fresh large soles, dressed in the following manner, are remarkably tender and delicate eating; much more so tnan those which are fried. After the fish has been skinned and cleansed in the usual way, wipe it dry, and let it remain for an hour or more, if time will permit, closely folded in a clean cloth; then mix with a slightly beaten egg about an ounce of butter, just liquefied but not heated at the mouth of the oven, or before the fire; brush the fish in every part with this mixture, and cover it with very fine dry bread-crumbs, seasoned with a little salt, cayenne, pounded mace, and nutmeg. Pour a teaspoonful or two of liquid butter into a flat dish which will contain the fish well; lay it m, sprinkle it with a little more butter, press the breadcrumbs lightly on it with a broad -bladed knife, and bake it in a moderate oven for about twenty minutes. If two or more soles are recjuired for table at the same time, they should be placed separately, qmte flat, in a laige dish, or each fish should be laid on a dish by itself On our first essay of this receipt, the fish dressed by it (it was baked for twenty-five minutes in a very slack iron oven) proved infinitely nicer than one of the same size which was fried, and served with it. The difference between them was very marked, especially as regarded the exceedinr tenderness of the flesh of that which was baked; its appearance, however, would have been somewhat improved by a rather quicker oven. When ready to serve, it should be gently glided on to the dish in which it is to be sent to table. About three ounces of bread-crumbs, and two and a half of butter, will be sufficient for a large pair of soles. They will be more per-

CHAF. n. PISH. 67 fectly encrosted with the bread if dipped into, or Bprinkled with it % second time, after the first coatiog has been well moistened with the batter. BOlXa STEWED IN CREAM. Prepare some very fresh middling sized soles with exceeding nicety, put them into boiline water slightly salted, and simmer them for two niinates only; lifl them out, and let them drain; lay them into a wide stewpan with as much sweet rich cream as will nearly cover Ibem; add a good seasoning of pounded mace, cayenne, and salt; stew the fish softly from six to ten minutes, or until the fiesh parts readily from the bones; dish them, stir the juice of half a lemon to the sauce, pour it over the soles, and send them immediately to table. Some lemon-rind may be boiled in the cream, if approved; and a small teaspoonful of arrow-root, very smoothly mixed with a little milk, may be stirred to the sauce (should it require thickening) before the lemon-juice is added. Turbot and brill also may be dressed by this receipt, time proportioned to their size being of course allowed for them. Soles, 3 or 4: boiled in water 2 minutes. Cream, to whole Jnnt; salt, mace, cayenne: fish stewed, 6 to 10 minutes. Juice of lalf a lemon. 6 &t.- In Cornwall the fish is laid at once into thick clotted cream, and stewed entirely in it; but this method gives to the sauce, which ought to be extremely delicate, a coarse fishy flavour which tiie previous boil in water prevents. At Penzance, grey mullet, after being scaled, are divided in the middle. Just covered with cold Avater, and softly boiled, with the addition of branches of parsley, pepper and salt, until the fiesh of the back parts easily from the bone; clotted cream, minced parsley, and to. non-juice are then added to the sauce, and the mullets are dished with toe heads and tails laid even to the thick parts of the back, where the fish were cut asunder. Hake, too, is there divided at every joint (having previously been scaled), dipped into egg then thickly covered with fine bread-crumbs mixed with plenty of minced parsley, and fried a fine brown; or, the back-bone being previously taken out, the fish is sliced into cutlets, and then Med. TO FRY WHITINGS. In foil season from Michaelmas to beginning of Febmaty. Clean, skin, and dry them thoroughly in a cloth, fasten their tails ft their mouths, brush slightly beaten eggs equally over them, and tover them with the finest bread-crumbs, mixed with a little flour; fry them a clear golden brown in plenty of boiling lard, drain and dry them well, dish them on a hot napkm, and serve them with good melted butter, and the sauce cruets, or wiUx well made ahiimp or an

68 MODERN COOKERY. chap. tx. chovy sanoe. A small half-teaspoonful of salt should be beaten up iinth the eggs used in preparing the whitings: two will be sufficient for half a dozen fish. 5 to 8 minutes, according to their size. FILLETS OF WHITINGS. Empty and wash thoroughly, but do not skin the fish. Take off the flesh on both sides close to the bones, passing the knife from the tail to the head; divide each side in two, trim the fillets into good shape, and fold them in a cloth, that the moisture may be well absorbed from them; dip them into, or draw them through, some beaten egg, then dip them into fine crumbs mixed with a small portion of fl()ur, and fry them a fine light brown in lard or clarified butter; drain them well, press them in white blotting-paper, dish them one over the other in a circle, and send the usual sauce to table with them. The fillets may also be broiled after beinff dipped into eggs seasoned with salt and pepper, then into cnmibs of bread, next into clarified butter, and a second time into the bread-crumbs (or, to shorten the jproccss, a portion of clarified butter may be mixed with the eggs at nrst), and served with good melted butter, or thickened veal gravy seasoned with cayenne, lemon-juice, and chopped parsley. Five minutes will fry the fillets, even when very large: rather more time will be required to broil them. TO BOIL WHITINGS. (French Receipt.) Having scraped, cleansed, and wiped them, lay them on a fishplate, and put them into water at the point of boiling; throw in a nandful ot salt, two bay leaves, and plenty of parsley well washed and tied together; let the fish just simmer from five to ten minutes and watch them closely that they may not be over-done. Serve parsley and butter with them, and use in making it the liquor i:: which the whitings have been boiled. Just simmered &om 5 to 10 minutes. BAKED WHITINGS 1 LA FRANQATSE. Proceed with these exactly as with the soles an plat of this chapter; or, pour a little clarified butter into a deep dish, and strew it rather thickly with finely-minced mushrooms mixed with a teaspoonful of parsley, and (when the flavour is liked, and considered appropriate) ivith an eschalot or two, or the white part of a few green onions, also chopped very small. On these place the fish after they have been scaled, emptied, thoroughly washed, and wiped dry: season them well with salt and white pepper, or cayenne; sprinkle more of the herls upon them; pour gently from one to two glasses of light white wine into the dish, cover the whitings with a thick layer of fine crumbs ot

r .iTffllgwXV

nj nsiL 69 bread, sprinkle these plentifully with clarified butter, and bake the fish from fifteen to twenty minutes. Send a cut lemon only to table with them. 'When the mne is not liked, a few spoonsful of pale veal gravy can be used instead; or a larger quantity of clarified butter, with a tablespoonful of water, a teaspoonful of lemon-pickle and of mushroom catsup, and a few drops of soy. 15 to 20 minutes. TO BOIL MACKEREL. In fall sesson in Blay, Jane, and July; may be had also in early spring.' Open the fish sufficiently to admit J of the insides being perfecUy cleansed but not more than is necessary for, this purpose; empty them with care, 1 lay the roes apart, and wash both MackereL them and the mackerel delicately dean. It is customary now to lay these, and the greater nimiber of other fish as well, into cold water when they are to be boiled; formerly all were plunged at once into fast-boiling water. For such as are small and delicate, it should be hot; they should be brought gently to boil, and simmered until they are done; the scum should be cleared off as it rises, and the usual proportion of saJt stirred into the water before the mackerel are put in. The roes are commonly replaced in the fish; but as they sometimes require more boiling than the mackerel themselves, it is better, when they are very large, to lay them upon the fish-plate by their sides. From fifteen to twenty minutes wul generally be sufficient to boil a full -sized mackerel some wiU be done in less time; but they must be watched, and lifted out as soon as the tails split, and the eyes are starting. Dish them on a napkin, and send fennel or gooseberry sauce to table with them, and plain melted butter also. Small mackerel, 10 to 15 minutes; large, 15 to 20 minutes. TO BAKE MACKEREL. After they have been cleaned and well washed, wipe them very dry, fill the insides with the forcemeat, No. 1 of Chapter VIII., sew them up, arrange them, with the roes, closely together in a coarse baking-dish, flour them lightly, strew a little fine salt over, and stick bits of butter upon them; or pour some equally over them, after having just dissmved it in a smsdl saucepan. Half an hour in a moderate oven will bake them. Oyster forcemeat is always appropriate for any kind of fish which is in season while the oysters are so; but the mackerel are commonly served, and are very good with that which Ae have named. Lift them carefully into a hot &h after they are taken from the oven, and send melted butter and a cut lemon to table with them. i hour.

70 MODERN COOKERY. caLP.it

BAEBD MACKEREL, OR WHITmGS. CindereJMs Receipt- good,) The fish for this receipt should be opened only so much as will permit of their beinjz emptied and perfectly cleansed. Wash and "wipe them dry, then told them in a soft cloth, and let them remain in it awhile. Bieplace the roes, and put the fish into a bakinc-dish of suitable size, with a tablespoonful of wine, a few drops of cnili vinegar, a little salt and cayenne, and about half an ounce of butter, wellblended with a saltspoonful of flour, for each fish. They must be turned round with tne heads and tails towards each other, that they may lie compactly in the dish, and the backs should be placed downwards, that the sauce may surround the thickest part of the flesh. Lay two buttered papers over, and press them down upon them; set the dish into a sentle oven for twenty minutes, take off the papers, and send the fisn to table in their sauce. A few minutes more of time must be allowed for mackerel when it is larffe, should the oven be very slow. Full-sized whitings are excellent thus dressed if carefully managed, and many eaters would infinitely prefer mackerel so prepared, to boiled ones. The writer has port-wme always used for tne sauce, to which a rather full seasoning of chili vinegar, cayenne, and pounded mace, is added; but sherry, Bucellas, or any other dry wine, can be used instead; and the various condiments added to it, can be varied to the taste. This receipt is a very convenient one, as it is prepared with little trouble, and a stove-oven, if the heat be properly mode'rated, will answer for the baking. It is an advantage to take off the heads of the fish before they are dressed, and thev mav then be entirely emptied without beinff opened. When preferred so, they can be re-dished for table, and me sauce poured over them. Obs. - The dish in which they are baked, should be buttered before they are laid in. FRIED MACKEREL. Common French Receipt,) After the fish have been emptied and washed extremely clean, cut off the heads and tails, split the bodies quite open, and take out the backbones (we recommend in nreference that the flesh should be taken off the bones as in the following receipt), wipe the mackerel very dry, dust fine salt and pepper (or cayenne) over them, flour them weU, fry them a fine brown in boiling lard, drain them thorouffhly, and serve them with the following sauce: - Dissolve in a small saucepan an ounce and a half of butter smoothly mixed with a teaspoonful of 'flour, some salt, pepper, or cayenne; shake these over a gentle fire until they are lightly coloured, then add b slow degrees nearlyhalf apint of good broth or gravy, and the juice of one large lemon; boil the sauce for a coude of mmutes, and serve it

ILJ FISH. 71 -very hot. Or, instead of this, add a large teaspoooitd of Strang made mustard, and a dessertspoonful of chili yid, to some thick melted butter, and serve it -with the fish. A spoonnil of Harveys sauce or of mnahroom catsup can be mixed with this last at pleasure. FILLETS OF VACEXREL. (Fried or Broiled.) Ttke off the flesh quite whole on either side, from three fine mackerel, which have been opened and properly cleaned; let it be entirely free from bone, dry it well in a cloth, then divide each part in two, and dip them into the beaten yolks of a couple of eges, seasoned with salt and white pepper, or cayenne; cover them equally with fine dry crumbs of bread, and fry them like soles; or dip them into elarifi butter, and then again into the crumbs, and brou them over a very dear fire of a fine brown. Dish them in a circle one over the other, and send them to table with the Maitre Hotel sauce of Chapter V., or with the one which follows it. The French pour the saoce into the centre of the dish; but for broiled fillets this is not so -wel, we think, as serving it in a tureen. The roes of tiie fish, after bemg well washed and soaked, may be dressed with them, or they may be made into patties. Minced parsley can be mixed with the brad crumbs when it is liked. BOILEP FILLETS OF MACKEREL. After having taken off and divided the flesh of the fish, as above, place it flat in one layer in a wide stewpan or saucepan, and just cover the fillets with cold water; throw in a teaspoonful of salt, and two or three small sprigs of parsley; bring the mackerel slowly to a boil, dear off the scum with care, and after two or three minutes of slow wmmering try the fiUets with a fork; if the thick part divides with a touch, they are done. Lift them out cautiously with a slice; drain, and serve them very hot with good parsley and butter; or strip off the akin quickly, and pour a Maitre a Hotel sauce over them. MACKEREL BROILED WHOLE. (An excellent Receipt,) Empty and cleanse perfectly a fine and very fresh mackerel, but without opening it more than is needful; dry it well, either in a cloth or by hanging it in a cool air until it is stiff; make with a sharp knife a deep incision the whole length of the fish on dther side of the back bone, and about half an inch &om it, and with a feather put in a little cayenne and fine salt, mixed with a few drops of good sidad oil or clarified butter. Lay the mackerel over a moderate fire upon a well-heated jpridiron which has been rubbed with suet; loosen it gently should it stick, which it will do unless often moved; and when It is equally done on both aides, turn the back to the Aire. About

72 MOT KBN COOKERY. chap, n, half an hour will broil it well. If a isheet of thickly-buttered writingpaper be folded round it, and just twisted at the ends before it is laid on the gridiron, it will be finer eating than if exposed to the fire; but sometimes when this is done, the skin will adhere to the naper, and be drawn off with it, which injures its appearance. A cold Mditre d Hotel sauce (see Chapter V.), may be put into the back before it is sent to table. This is one of the very best modes of dressing a mackerel, which in flavour is quite a different fish when thus prepared to one which is simply boiled. A drop of oil is sometunes passed over the skin to prevent its sticking to the iron. It may be laid to the fire after havmg been merely cut as we have directed, when it is preferred so. 30 minutes; 25 if tmalL MACKEREL STEWED WITH WINE. Very good) Work very smoothly together a large teaspoonfiil of flour with two ounces of butter, put them into a stewpan, and stir or shake them round over the fire until the butter is dissolved; add a quarter of a teaspoonful of mace, twice as much salt, and some cayenne; pour in by ow degrees three glasses of claret; and when the sauce boils, lay in a couple of fine mackerel well cleaned, and wiped quite dry; stew • them very softly from fifteen to twenty minutes, and turn them when half done; lift them out, and dish them carefully; stir a teaspoonful of made mustard to the sauce, give it a boil, and pour it over the fish. When more convenient, substitute port wme and a little lemon-juice, for the claret. Mackerel, 2; flour, 1 teaspoonful; butter, 2 oz.; seasoning of salt, mace, and cayenne; claret, 3 wine-glassesful; made mustard, 1 teaspoonful: 15 to 20 minutes. FILLETS OF MACKEREL STEWED IN WINE. (Excellent.) Bsdse the flesh entire from the bones on either side of the mackerel, and divide it once, if the fish be small, but cut the whole into six parts of equal size should they be large. Mix with flour, and dissolve the butter as in the preceding receipt; and when it has simmered for a minute, throw in the spice, a little salt, and the thinly pared rind of half a small fresh lemon, lay in the fillets of fish, shake them over a gentle fire from four to five minutes, and turn them once in the time; then pour to them in small portions a couple of large winelassesful of port wine, a tablespoonml of Harvey's sauce, a teaspoonlul of soy, and one of lemon-juice; stew the mackerel very softly until the thinner parts begin to break, lift them out with care, dish and serve them in their sauce as hot as possible. We can recommend the dish to our readers as a very excellent one. A garnish of fried sippets can be placed round the fish at will. A teaspoonful of mado

CHAP, n- FISH. 73 mustard should be stirred to the sauce before it is pour€ I over the sh. FiUets of mackerel, 2; butter, 2 oz.; flour, 1 teaspoonful; rind of i lemon; salt, cayenne, pounded mace: 2 minutes. Fish, 4 to 5 minutes. Port wine, two large glassesful; Harveys sauce, 1 tablespoonful; soy and lemon-juice each, 1 teaspoonful: 4 to 6 minutes. MnstMid, 1 teaspoonful. Obs, - Trout may be dressed by this receipt. TO BOIL HADDOCKS. In the best season in October, NoTember, and December. Scrape the outsides very clean, open the fish, empty them, wash the insides thoroughly, take out the gills, curl the haddocks round, fasten the tails to the mouths, arrange them on Haddock. a fish-plate, and lay them into hot water salted as for mackereL Take off all the scum, and simmer them from seven to ten minutes or longer, according to their size, which, as we have said in the directions for " the best mode of cooking various kind of fish, at the commencement of this chapter, varies greatly, as they are sometimes very large; they must then oe brought more slowly to boil, and more time must be allowed for them. Send them very not to table, with a tureen of melted butter, and one of anchovy sauce. 7 to 10 minutes. Obs.- In Scotland haddocks are skinned before they are boiled, and the heads are taken off; but we see no advantage in this mode of dressing them. Whitings, fresh herrings, and codlings, may all be dressed by this receipt, the time only being varied according to the size of the fish. BAKED HADDOCKS After they have been cleaned, dry them thoroughly, then bake them, as directed in the common receipt for pike, or fill them with oyster forcemeat, or with No. 1 of Chapter VIII., if more convenient, and proceed as for baked mackerel. 20 to 30 minutes; longer if very large. TO PRY HADDOCKS Follow the directions given for fillets of whitings; or, should a more simple method be preferred, clean and dry the tish well, cut off the heads and tails, take out the backbones, cut each fish in three, egg and crumb them, fry them in 'boiling lard a fine golden brown, and serve them, well druned and dried, with the same sauces as boiled haddocks.

74 UODEBN COOKEBT. chap, zc

TO DRESS FINNAN HADDOCKS. These are slightly salted and dried. They are excellent eatings if genUy heated through upon the gridiron without being hardened; and are served usuaUy at the brikfast or supper table; a feather dipped in oil may be passed over them before they are laid to the fire. TO BOIL GURNARDS. WUh direetiont for dressing them in other uxiys,) It is more usual to fill gurnards with forcemeat, and to bake them, or to haye the flesh raised from the f bones and dressed in fillets, than to serve them simply boiled; they may, however, be cooked in any of the modes directed for mackerel, rather "" more time being allowed for them as they are much firmer-fleshed, thicker in the bodies, and generidly of larger size altogether. Cut off all the fins, take out the gills, and empty and cleanse them like other fish, washing the insides well; put them into hot water ready salted and skimmed, and boil them gently from twenty minutes to half an hour; serve them with anchovysauce, or with parsley and butter rendered add with chili vinegar, lemon-juice, or caper-pickle.

FRESH HERRINGS. (FcarUigh Receipt) In seMon from May to October. Scale and clean the fish with the utmost nicety, snlit them quite 33en, and wash the insides with narticular care; dry them well in a oth, take ofif the heads and tails, and remove the badcbones; rub the insides with pepper, salt, and a little pounded mace; stick small bits of butter on them, and skewer two of the fish together as flat as possible, with the skin of both outside; flour, and broil or fry them of a fine brown, and serve them with melted butter mixed with a teaspoonful or more of mustard, some salt, and a little vinegar or lemon-juice. T broil from 20 to 25 minutes; to fry about 10 minutes. • "VFliitini Qghsddoeks.

CHAP, n. FISH. 75 TO DRESS THE SEA BREAM. The sea-bream, which is commoii in many of our markets, is not considered a fish of first-rate quality; but if well broiled or baked, it will afford a good, and generally a cheap, dish of excellent appearance, the bream being of handsome size and form. Open Sea Bream. " deanse it perfecUv, but do not remove the sodes; fold it in t. dry doth to absorb the moisture which hangs about it; lay it oyer a gentle fire, and broil it slowly, that the heat may gradually penetrate the flesh, which is thick. Should any cracks appear on the surfiioe, dredge a little flour upon them. If of ordinary weiffht, the bream will require quite half an hours broiling; it 3iould be turned, of course, when partially done. Send plam melted butter and anchoyy sauce to table wiUi it. In carying it, remoye the skia and scales, and serye only the flesh which lies beneath them, and which will be yery white and succulent. A more usual and less troublesome mode of dressing the bream is to season the inside slightly with salt and pepper or cayenne, to dust a little more salt on Uie outside, spread a few bits of butter upon it, and send It to a gentle oyen. It is sometimes filled with common yeal-stuffiug,. and then requires to be rather longer baked; and it is often merely wrapped in a buttered paper, and plaq in a moderate oyen for twenty-fiye or thirty minutes. TO BOIL PLAICE OR FLOUNDERS. Fluee in season firom May to Jannazy; flounders inuSeptemberi October, and Korember. After haying emptied and well cleaned the fish, make an mcision in the back as directed for turbot; lay them into cold spring water; add salt and saltpetre m the same proportion as for cod fish, and let them just simmer for four or fiye minutes alter the water first begins to boil, or longer should their Plaice. size require it, but guard against their being broken. Serye them with plain melted butter. 4 to 5 minutes; longer if needful. TO FRY PLAICE OR FLOUNDERS. Sprinkle them with salt, and let them lie for two or three hours before they are dressed. Wash and clean them thoroughly, wipe them yery dry, flour them well, and wipe them again with a clean

76 MODEEN COOKEET. chap. n. doth; dip them into egg;, and fine bread-crumbs, and fry tbem in plenty of lard. If the fish be large, raise the flesh in handsome lillets from the bones, and finish them as directed for fillets of soles. Obi. - Plaice is said to be rendered less watery by beating it gently with a paste-roller before it is cooked. It is very sweet and pleasant in flavour while it is in the best season, which is from the end of May to about September. TO ROAST, BAKE, OR BROIL RED MULLET. In best season through the Bommer: may be had all the year. Jl First wash and then dry the fish l thoroughly in a cloth, but neither dOL scale nor open it, but take out the BKgK gils gently and carefullv with the iypMaiBf small intestine which will adhere to them; wrap it closely in a sheet of Red Mullet. thickly buttered paper, tie this se curely at the ends, and over the mullet with packthread, and roast it in a Dutch oven, or broil it over a clear and gentle fire, or bake it in a moderate oven: from twenty to twenty-five minutes will be sufficient generally to dress it in either way. For sauce, put into a little good melted butter the liquor which has flowed from the fish, a small dessertspoonful of essence of anchovies, some cayenne, a glass of port wine, or claret, and a little lemon-iuice. Remove the packthread, and send the mullet to table in the paper case. This is the usual mode of serving it, but it is dished without the paper for dinners of taste. The pkun red mullet shown at the commencement of this receipt, is scarcely ever found upon our coast That which abounds here during the summer months is the striped red mullet, or turmuUet which, from its excellence, is always in request, and is therefore seldom cheap. It rarely exceeds twelve, or" at the utmost fourteen, inches in length. 20 to 30 minutes. TO BOIL GREY MULLET. This fish varies so much in size and quality, that it is difficult to give exact directions for the time of cooking it. When quite young and small, " it may be boiled by the receipt for GreyMuUet. whitings, haddocks, and other fish of about their size; but at its finest growth it must be laid into cold water, and managed like larger fish. We have ourselves partaken of one which was caught upon our eastern coafet, that weighed ten pounds, of which the flesh was quite equal to that of salmon, but its weight was, we believe, an unusual one. Anchovy, or caper fish sauce, with melted butter, may be sent to table with grey mullet

iiiffiid?

CHAP, n. FISH. 77

THE GAR-FISB. Thb is a fish of yery singular apfpearancc, donsated in form, and with a moutn which resemhles the bill of the snipe, from which circumstance it is often called the snipe-fish. _ _,, Ita bones are all of a bright " greea colour. It is not to be recommended for the table, as the skin coqaina an oil of exceedingly strong rank flavour; when entirely dirested of this, the flesh is tolerably sweet and palatable. Persons who may be disposed from curiosity to taste it will find either broiling or baking in a gentle oven the best mode of cooking it. It should be curled round, and the tail fastened into the bill. As it is not of large siae, from fifteen to twenty minutes will dress it sufficiently. Anchovy sauce, pargley and butter, or plain melted butter, may be eaten with it SAND-LAUNCE, OR SAND-EEL, The sand-launce, which is abundant on many parts of our coast, and the name of which is derived from its habit of burrowing in the sands when the tide retires, may be dis- SmmI-e i tingoished from the lar species, the true scmd'eel, by its hghter colour and more transparent appearance, as well as by its inferior size. The common mode of dressing the fish, which is considered by many a great delicacy, is to divest them of their heads, and to remove the insides with the Is, to dry them well in a cloth with flour, and to fry them until crisp. They are sometimes also dipped in batter like smelts. We have not ourselves had an opportumty of testing them, but we have received the particulars which we have given here from various friends who have resided where they were plentiful. The sand-eels are not so good as the smaller kind of these fish called hunces. TO FRY SMELTS. In senaon firom beginning of NoTember to May. Smelts when quite fresh have a perfume resembling that of a cucumber, and a peculiarly delicate and agreeable flavour when dressed Draw them at the gills, as they must not be opened; wash and dry them thoroughly in a cloth; dip them into beaten egg-yolk, and then into the finest bread-cruml, mixed with a very bmall quantity of flour; fry them of a clear golden brom, and serve them

-V

78 MODERN COOKEBT. chaf. ii. risp and dry, with good melted batter in a toreen. They are sometimes dipped into batter and then fried; when this is done, we would Tecommend for them the French batter of Chapter Y 3 to 4 minutes. BAKED SMELTS. Prepare them as for frying; pour some clarified butter into the dish in which they are to be sent to table, arrange them neatly in it, with the tails meeting in the centre strew over them as muoi salt, mace, and cayenne, mixed, as will season them agreeably, cover them smoothly with a rather thick layer of very fine bread-crumbs, moisten them eaually with clarified butter poured through a small strainer, and bale the fish in a moderately quick oven, until the crumbs are of a fine light brown. A glass of sherry, half a teaspoonful of essence of anchovies, and a dessertspoonful of lemon-juice, are sometimes poured into the dish before the smelts are laid in. About 10 nunutes. TO DRESS WHITE BAIT. (Oreenwich Receipt In season in July, Angast, and September. This delicate little fish requires great care to dress it well. Do not touch it with the hands, but throw it from your dish or basket into a cloth, with three or four handsful of flour, and shake it well; then put it into a bait sieve, to separate it from the superfluous flour. Have ready a very deep frying-pui, nearly full of boiling fat, throw in the fish, whicn will be done in an instant: they must not be allowed to take any colour, for if browned, they are spoiled. Lift them out, and dish them upon a silver or earthenware drainer, without a napkin, piling them very high in the centre. Send them to table with a cut lemon, and slices of brown bread and butter. WATER SOUCHY. (Qreenwich Receipt) This is a very simple and inexpensive dish, much served at the regular fish-dinners for which Greenwich is celebrated, as well as at private tables. It is excellent if well prepared; and as it may be made with fish of various kinds when they are too small to present a good appearance or to be palatable dressed in anv other way, it is also very economical. Flounders, perch, tench, and eels are said to answer best fpr water souchy; but very delicate soles, and several other varieties of small white fish are often used for it with good eflect: it is often made also with slices of salmon, or of salmon-peel, freed from the skin. Throw into rather more than sufficient water to just ooyer the

CBAP. n. FISH. 79 qiifliitity offish reqiiired for table, from half to three qnarten of an ounce of salt to the quart, a dozen corns of white pepper, a small bunch of green parsley, and two or three tender panlej roots, first eut into inch lengths, and then split to the size or straws. Simmer the mixture until these last are tender, which will be in from half to a whole hour; then lay in the fish delicately cleaned, cleared from ever morsel of brown skin, and divided into equal portions of about two inches in width. Take off all the scum as it rises, and stew the fish softly from eight to twelve minutes, watching it that it may not break from being over-done. Two minutes before it is dished, strew in a large tablespoonful or more of minced parsley, or some small branches of the herb boiled very green in a separate saucepan (we prefer the latter mode); lift out the fish carey with a slice, and the parsley roots with it; pour over it the liouor in which it has been boiled, but leave out the peppercorns, i'or a superior water souchy, take all the bones out of the fish, and stew down the inferior portions of it to a strong broth: about an hour will be sufficient for this. Salt, parslev, and a little cayenne may be added to it. Strain it ofif clear through a sieve, and use it instead of water for the souchy. The juice of half a good lemon may be thrown into the stew before it is served. A deep dish will of course be required for it. The parsley-roots can be boiled apart when more convenient, but they give an agreeable flavour when added to the liquor at first. Slices of brown or white bread and butter must be sent to table always with water souclr: the first is usually preferred, but to suit all tastes some of each may be served with it. SHAD; TOURAINE FASHION. (Alose a la mode de Tourcdne In season in April, May, and earl j part of June. Empty and wash the fish with care, but do not open it more than is needful; fill it either with the forcemeat Ko. 1, or No. 2 of Chapter VIII., and its own roe; then sew it up, or fasten it securely with very fine skewers, wrap it in a thickly buttered paper, and broil it gently for an hour over a charcoal fire. Serve it with caper sauce, or with chili vinegar and melted butter. We are indebted for this receipt to a friend who has been long resident in Touraine, at whose table the fish is constantly served thus dressed, and is considered excellent. It is likewise often gently stewed in the light white wine of the country, and served covered with a rich hhamel. Many fish more common with us than the shad might be advantageously prepared in the same manner. The charcoal fire is not incBspensable: any one that is entirely free from smoke will answer. We would suggest as an improvement, that oyster- forcemeat should be substituted for that which we have indicated, until the oyster season ends. Broiled gently, 1 hour, more or less, according to the siae.

80 MODERN COOKEBT. chap. n.

STEWED TROUT. Oood common Receipt) In season firom May to Angost Melt three ounces of butter in ft broad stewpan, or well tinned iron saucepan, stir to it a tablespoonful of flour, some mace, cayenne, and nutmeg: lay in the fish after it has, been emptied, washed very clean, " and wiped perfectly dry; shako it in the pan, that it may not stick, and when lightly browned on both sides, pour in three quarters of a pint of good v stock, add a small faggot of parsley, one bay leaf, a roll of lemon-peel, and a little salt: stew the fish very gendy from half to three quarters of an hour, or more, should it be unusuaUy fine. Dish the trout, skim the fat from the grayy, and pass it through a hot strainer over the fish, which should be served immediately. A little acid can be added to the sauce at pleasure, and a glass of wine when it is considered an improvement. This receipt is for one large or for two middlingsized fish. We can recommend it as a good one from our own experience. Butter, 8 oz.; flour, 1 tablespoonful; seasoning of mace, cayenne, and nutme; trout, 1 large, or 2 moderate-sized; veal stock, pint; parsley, small faggot; 1 bay-leaf; roll of lemon-rind; little salt: to f hour. Oht, - Trout may be stewed in equal parts of strong vea gra 'y, and of red or white wine, without having been previously browned; the sauce should then be thickened, and agreeably flavoured with lemon-juice, and the usual store-sauces, before it is poured over the fish. They are also good when wrapped in buttered paper, and baked or broiled: if very small, the better mode of cooking them is to fry them whole. They should never be plain boiled, as, though naturally a delicious fish, they are then very insipid. TO BOIL PIKE. In best season flrom September to Febmary. Take out the gills, empty and clean the fish very thoroughly, and soak it for half an hour with a cup of vinegar thrown into as much water as will cover it well, should there be any ™"' danger of its having a muddy taste. Mlpe the inside dry, and fill it Soaldng fish is alTrays better aroided when it can be so; well washing the inside with string rinegar would perhaps lemoye the objectionable flaronr withp out it

CMAP. n. riBH. 81 with ojBter-foroemeat, or unth common veal forcemeat made either with bntter or with suet (for which see Chapter VIII.); curl the fish romid, and fasten it with the tail in the mouth, lay it on a fish-plate, coTer it well with cold water, throw in some salt as soon as it boik, skim it well, and boil the fish gently from half to a whole hour acoordmg to its size. Some persons prefer the scales taken off the rike when it is prepared for this mode of dressins; and many cooks still put the fish into boiling water well salted and skimmed. Serve it with plain melted butter, or anchovy sauce. Moderate sized, ) hour; large, 1 hour. Oha. - We must repeat that it is impossible to gpive for fish which varies so much in quality as well as in size, directions for the exact time which is required to cook it; a few minutes, more or less, must often be allowed; and it should always be watched attentively, and lifted from the water as soon as it is done. TO BAKE PIKE. (Common Receipt,) Pour warm water over the outside of the fish, and wipe it very dean with a coarse doth drawn from the head downwards, that the scales may not be disturbed; then wash it well in cold water, empty, and deanse the inside with the greatest nicety, fill it either with the common forcemeat No. 1, or with Np. 4 of Chapter YIU., sew it up, fitften the tail to the mouth, give it a slight dredcine of flour, stidc small bits of bntter thickly over it, and bake it from naff to three quar ters of an hour, should it be of moderate size, and upwards of an hour, if it be large. Should there not be suffident sauce with it in the dish, melted butter and a lemon, or anchovy sauce may be sent to table with it. When more convenient the forcemeat may be omitted, and a little fine salt and cayenne, with some bits of butter, put into the inside of the fish, which will then require rather less bakins;. A buttered paper should always be laid over it in the oven, should the outside appear likely to become too highly coloured or too dry before the fish is done; and it is better to wrap quite small pike in buttered psoer at once before they are sent to the oven. 3loderate-sized pike, 30 to 45 minutes; large pike, 1 to 1 hour. TO BAKB PIKE. (JSuperior Receipt) Scale and wash the fish, take out the gills, then open it just sufficiently to allow the inside to be emptied and perfectly deaneed but not more than is necessary for that purpose. Wipe it as dry as ponible in every part, then hang it for an hour or two on a hook in a eoo . larder, or wrap it in a soil cloth. Fill the body with the forcemeat Kg. 1 or 3, or with the oyster forcemeat of Chapter YULL; sew

82 BIODEBN COOKERY. CHAP. XL it up yer securdj, curl it round, and fasten the tail into the mouth with a tmn skewer, then dip it into the beaten yolks of two or more eggs, seasoned ¥rith nearly half a teaspoonful of mlt and a little pepper or cayenne; cover it equally with the finest bread crumbs, cup it a second time into the egg and crumbs, then pour some clarified butter gently over it, throunTjEi small strainer, and send it to a well heated oven for an hour and a quarter or more, should it be very large, but for less time if it be only of moderate size. As it is naturally a veiy dry fish, it should not be left in the oven after it ia thorougluy done, but it should never be sent to table until it is so. The crumbs of bread are sometimes mixed with a sufficient quantity of minced parsley to ffive the surface of the fish a green hue. bend plain melted butter and brown caper, or Dutch sauce to table widi it TO 8TBW CARP. (A common Country Receipt) Scale and dean the fish with exceeding care, lay it into a stewpm, and cover it with good cold beef or .veal bro; add ' one small onion stuck with a few cloves, a faggot of savoury herbs, three or four ' slices of carrot, and a little salt, and stew the carp as gently as possible for nearly an hour. Have ready some good brown gravy, mixed with a couple of glassesful of port wine add a squeeze of lemon-juice, dish the carp very carefully, pour the sauce over, and serve it immediately. We would recommend the Genevese Sauce, of Chapter Y ., as superior to any other for this dish. This receipt is for a fish which averages from five to six pounds in weight, but tne carp sometimes attains to a very large size; and sufficient time to cook it perfectly should always be allowed for it.

First wipe or wash off the slime, then scrape off tne scales, which adhere rather tenaciously to this fish; empty and clean the insides perfectly, take out the gills, cut off the fins, and lay the perch into equal parts of cold and of boiling water, salted as for mackerel: from eight to ten minutes will boil them unless they are very large. Dish them on a napkin, garnish them with The fignre of this fish is very disproportioned in size to that of the oftrp and other Icinds inserted here, as it is iuUe maU at its AiUeat growth comparad witk the carp, which sometimea attains to a great weight.

CBAP. XL FISH. 83 corkd parsley, and serve melted butter with them, or MaUre tT Hotel Sawee Maigre. Yery good French cooks put them at once into boiling water and keep them over a brisk fire for about fifteen minutes, They dress them also without taking off the scales or fins until they are roidy to serre, when they strip the whole of the skin off carefully, and stick the red fins into the middleof the backs; the fish are then covered with the Stewards sauce, thickened with;gs. In warm water, 8 to 10 minutes; in bdling, 12 to 15. TO FRY PERCH OR TENCH. Scale, and clean them perfectly; dry them well, flour and fry them in boiling lard. Serve plenty of crisped or fried parsley roimd them. TO FRY EELS. In season iH the year, hut not so vell-oonditioned in April and May as in other months. first kill, then skin, empty, and wash them as dean as possible; cut them into four-inch lengths, and dry them well in a soft doth. Season them with fine salt, and white pepper, or cayenne, flour them thickly, and fry them a fine brown in boiling lard; drain and dry them as directed for soles, and send them to table with plain melted butter or anchovy sauce. Eels are sometimes dipped into batter and then fried; or into e and fine bread-crumbs (mixed with minced parsley or not, at pleasure), and served with plenty of crisped parsley round, and on them. It is an improvement for these modes of dressing the fish to open them entirdy; and remove the bones: the smaller parts should be thrown into the pan a minute or two later than the tnicker portions of Uie bodies or Uiey will not be equally done. BOILED EELS. Oerman Receipt,), Pare a fine lemon, and strip from it entirely the white inner rind; slice it, and remove the pins with care; put it with a blade of mace, a small half-teaspoonful of white peppercorns, nearly twice as much of salt, and a moderate-sized bunch of pardey, into three pints of cold water, bring them gently to boil, and simmer them for twenty minutes; let them become uite cold; then put in three pounds of eels skinned; and cleaned with ereat nicety, and cut into lengths of three or four inches; eiminer them very softly from ten to fifteen minutes, lift them with a slice into a very hot dish, and serve them with a good Dutch sauce, or with parsley and butter addulated with lemon-juice, or with chili vin. For boiled eels with sage (German Beoeipt), 9ee Chapter of Foreign Cookerjf.

34 MODERN COOKEBT. chap. ix. EELS. (Cornish Receipt) Skin, empty, and wash as clean as possible, two or three fine eels, cut them into short lengths, and jnst coyer them with cold water; add sufficient salt and cayenne to season them, and stew them very softly indeed from fifteen to twenty minutes, or longer should they require it. When they are nearly done, strew over them a teaspoonM of minced parsley, thicken the sauce with a teaspoonful of flour mixed with a slice of butter, and add a quarter of a pint or more of clotted cream. Give the whole a boil, lilt the fish into a hot dish, and stir briskly the juice of half a lemon into the sauce; pour it upon the eels, and serve them immediately: Very sweet thick cream is, we think, preferable to clotted cream for this dish. The sauce should be of a gaK)d consistence, and a dessertspoonful of flour will be needed for a large dish of the stew, and from one and a half to two ounces of butter. The size of the fish must determine the precise quantity of liquid and of seasoning which they will require. RED HERRINGS X LA DAUPHIN. Take off the heads, open the backs of the fish, and remove the back-bones: soak the herrings, should they be very dry, for two or three hours in warm milk and water, drain and wipe them. Dissolve a slice of fresh butter, and mix it with the beaten yolks of a couple of eggs and some savoury herbs minced small: dip the fish into these, and spread them thickly with fine bread crumbs; broil them of a light Drown, over a moaerate fire, and serve them on hot buttered toasts, sprinkled with a little cayenne. RED HBRRINQS, COMMON ENGLISH MODE. This fish is rendered infinitely more delicate by pouring boiling water on it before it is dressed, and leaving it to soak for half an hour, or more, should it be highly dried. The fresh Yarmouth bloaters do not require this. Cut off the heads and tails, open the herrings at the back, and warm them through before the fire, or upon the gridiron. They majr be rubbed witn a bit of cold butter, and seasoned with a slight sprinkling of pepper or cayenne, when these are liked, or served quite plain. ANCHOTIES FRIED IN BATTER. Scrape very clean a dozen or more of fine anchovies, and soak them in plenty of spring water from two to six hours: then wipe them dry, open them, and take out the back-bones, without dividing the fish. Season the insi ies highlv with cayenne, close the anchovies, dip them into the French batter of Chapter v., or into a light English batter, and fry them a pale amber-colour: in from fcur to five minutes they wiU be quite sufficiently done.

CBAP. m.

FISH.

85

CHAPTER III.

OYSTERS. In season from September to April. The old-fashioned plan oifeedine oysters with a sprinkling of oatmeal or flour, in addition to the salt and water to which they were committed, has lon heen rejected by all genuine amateurs of these nutritious and excellent fish, who consider the plumpness which the oysters are supposed to gain from the process, but poor compensation for the flaTour which they are sure to lose. To eleanse them when they first conw up from the beds, and to keep them in good condition for four or five days, they only reouire to be covered with cold -water, with five ounces of salt to the gallon dissolved in it before it is poured on them; this should be changed with regularity every twentyfour hours. By following this plan with exactness they may be kept ilive from a week to ten days, but will remain in perfect condition scarcely more than half that time. Oysters should be eaten always the instant they are opened. Abroad they are served before the soup in the

86 MODERN COOKEBT chap. m. •first coarse of a dinner, arranged lunallj in as many plates as there are guests at table. In England they are sometimes served after the soup. A sense of appropriateness must determine how far the variations of fashion should be followed in such matters. Obs, - We were accustomed formerly to have the brine which was supplied to ovsters intended to be kept for some days, changed twice in. the twenty-four hours; but we were informed by an oyster merchant in an extensive business that once was sufficient. TO SCALLOP 0T8TEBS. Large coarse oysters should never be dressed in this way. Select small plump ones for Uie purpose, let them be opened carerally, give them a scald in their own liquor, wash them in it free from grit, and beard them neatly. Butter the scallop shells and shake some fine bread-crumbs over them; fill them with alternate layers of oysters, crumbs of bread, and fresh butter cut into small bits; pour in the oyster-liquor, after it has been strained, put a thick, smooth layer of bread-crumbs on the top, moisten them with clarified butter, place the shells in a Dutch oven before a clear fire, and turn them oflen. until the tops are equally and lightly browned: send them immediately to table. Some persons like a little white pepper or cayenne, and a flavouring of nutmeg added to the oysters; others prefer pounded mace. French cooks recommend with them a mixftnre of minced mushrooms stewed in butter till quite tender, and sweet herbs finely chopped. The fish is sometimes laid into the shells after having been bearded only. SCALLOPED OTSTERS LA REIMS. Flump and beard the oysters, after having rinsed them well in their own strained liquor; add to this about an equal quantity of very rich white sauce, and thicken it, if needful, with half a teaspoonfil of flour, mixed with a small slice of butter, or with as much arrow-root only; put in the oysters, and keep them at the point of simmering for three or four minutes: lay them into the shdls, and cover the tops thickly with crumbs fried a delicate brown and well dried; or heap over them instead, a layer of fine crumbs; pour dasrified butter on them, and brown them with a salamander TO 8T£W OYSTERS. A pint of small plump oysters wiU be sufficient for a quite moderate-sized dish, but twice as many will be required for a lam one. Let them be very carefully opened, and not mangled in the sughtest degree; wash them firee from grit in their own strained liquor, lay • Common oooki menly stiok small bits of batter on tlieaBu

caAP. m. FISH. 87 diem into a Tery dean stewpan or well-tinned aaneepan, strain the liquor a second time, poor it on them, and heat them slowly in it. When th are jnst beginning to simmer, lifb them out with a dioe or a bored wooden spoon, and take off the beards; add to the liquor a quarter of a pint of good cream, a seasoning of jpoimded maoe, and cayenne, and a bttle salt, and when it boils, stir in from one to two ounces of good butter, smoothly mixed with a large teaspoonfal of flour; continue to stir the sauce until these are penectly blended with it, then put in the oysters, and let them remam by the side of the fire until they are yery hot: they require so little cooking that, if kept for four or fiye minutes nearly simmering, they will be ready for table, and they are quickly hardened by being allowed to boil, or by too much stewing. Serye them gaoTiished with pale fried

mall plump oysters, 1 pint: their own liquor: brought slowly to the point of simmering. Cream, i pint; seasoning of pounded mace and cayenne; salt as needed; butter, 1 to 2 oz.; flour, 1 laige teaspoonml. Obs, - A little lemon-juice should be stirred quickly into the stew just as it is taken from the fire. Another mce of preparing this dish, is to add the strained liquor of the oysters to about an equal quantity of rich bechamel, with a little additional thickening; men to heat them in it, after haying prepared and plumped them properly. Or, the beards of the fish may be stewed for half an hour in a little pale grayy, or good broth, and this, when strained and mixed with the oyster-liquor, may be brought to the consistency of cream with the French thickening of Chapter Y., or, with flour and butter, then seasoned with spice as aboyc: the process should be quite the same in all of these receipts, though the composition of the sauce is yaried. Essence of anchoyies, cayice, chili yinegar, or yolks of eggs can be added to the taste. For Curried Oysters see Chapter XYL OYSTER SAUSAGES. (A most excellent Receipt Beard, rinse well in their strained liquor, and mince but not finely, three dozens and a half of plump natiye oysters, and mix them with ten ounces of fine bread-crumbs, and ten of beef-suet chopped extremely smaU add a saltspoonful of nit, and one of pper, or less than half the quantity of cayeime. twice as much pounded mace, and the third of a small nutm grated: moisten the whole with two unbeaten eggs, or with the yolks only of three, and a dessertspoonful of the whites. When these ingredients haye been well worked together, and are perfectly blend set the mixture in a cool place for two or three hours before it is used; make it into the form of smdl saoBages or sausage-cakes, flour and fry them in butter of a fine light

88 MODERN COOKERY. chap. m. broAvn; or throw them into boiling water for three minutes, drain, and let them become cold, dip them into egg and bread-crumbs, and broil them gently until they are lishtly coloured. A small bit should be cooked and tasted before tne whole is put aside, that the seasoning may be heightened if required. The sausages thus made are extremefy good: the fingers should be well floured in making them up. Small plump oysters, 3 dozens; bread-crumbs, 10 oz.; beef suet, 10 oz.; seasomng of salt, cayenne, pounded mace, and nutmeg; unbeaten eggs 2, or yolks of 3. TO BOIL LOBSTERS. In full season from April to October: may be had all the year. Choose them by the directions given at the commencement of this chapter, and throw them into plenty of fast-boiling salt and water, that life may be destroyed in an instant. To 1 gallon of water, 5 ounces salt: moderate sized lobster, 15 to 20 minutes; large lobster, 30 to 40 minutes; very large, 1 hour or more COLD DRESSED LOBSTER AND CRAB. Before a lobster is sent to table take off the large claws, hold each of them firmly with the edge upwards, and with a quick light blow from a cutlet bat oroughtelse convenient for th e purpose, crack the shell without disfiguring the fish. Split the tail open withaveryshaipknifeand Dressed Lobster, dish the lobster in the manner shown in the engraving, either with, or without a napkin under it. When the soft part of the body is required to mix with the dressing, take it out before it is served, and add it to the remoulade or other sauce with which it is to be mingled. The shrimp chatney of Chapter YI. is a wholesome accompaniment to this fish; which we nmst remark here should be sparingly eaten, or altogether avoided, by persons in delicate health, and especially at night. It is too much the fashion to serve it as a supper dish at parties; and it sometimes produces dangerous attacks of mdiestion and other illness. The flesh of the crab is much lighter. This is served in the shell, which should be entirelv emptied and nicely cleaned out; the sides filled with the white flesh divided into small flakes, and the centre with the soft part or cream as it is called.

CHAP, in. FISH. 89 The flesh of two crabs can be serred in one shell when a dish of handsome appearance is required, and the sance can be mixed with it the instant before it is sent to table, though it will be whiter, ancl of letter appearance without it. The Drened Crab. centre may be filled with a red Lnrial Mayonnaxse when a good effect is wanted. For other appropriate sauces see Chapter YL LOBSTERS; FRICASSEED, OR AU BiCHAMEL. (ENTRiE.) Take the flesh from the claws and tails of two moderate-sized lobsters cut it into small scallops or dice; heat it slowly quite through in about three quarters of a int of good white sauce oi bechamel; and serve it when It is at the point of boiling, after having stirred briskly to it a little lemon-juice just as it is taken from the fire. The coral, pounded and mixed graduaiiy with a few spoonsful of the sauce, should be added preriously. Good shin of beef stock made without vetables (see page 97), and somewhat reduced by quick boiling, if mixed with an equal proportion of cream, and thickened with arrow- root, will answer extremely well in a general way for this dish, which is most excellent if well made. The sauce should never be thin; nor more than sufficient in quantity to just cover the fish. For a second course dish, only as much must be used as will adhere to the fish, which after being heated should be laid evenly into the shells, which ought to be split quite through the centre oi the backs in their entire length, without bdng broken or divided at the joint, and nicely cleaned, When thus arranged, the lobster may be thickly covered with well dried, fine, pale fried crumbs of bread, or with unfried ones, which must then be equally moistened with clarified butter, and browned with a salamander. A small quantity of salt, mace, and cayenne, may be re quired to finish the flavouring of either of these preparations. HOT CRAB, OR LOBSTER. (In season during the same time as Lobsters,) Slice quite small, or pull into light flakes with a couple of forks, the flesh of either fish; put it into a saucepan with a few bits of good butter lightly rolled in flour, and heat it slowly over a gentle fire; then pour over and thoroughly mix with it, from one to two teaypoonsful or more of common or of chili vinegar; if with the former, add to it a tolerable seasoning of cayenne. Grate in a little nutmeg, and when the whole is well heated serve it immediately, either inUic

0 MODEEN COOKERY. chap. m. shell of the crab or lobster, or m Bcallop-shells, and serve it plain, or with bread-cnimbs over, as in the preceding receipt. A spoonful or so of ffood meat jelly is, we think, a great improyement to this dish, for which an ounce and a half of butter will be quite sufficient. This is sometimes called Buttered Crab,

POTTED LOBSTERS. Separate carefully the flesh of fireshly-boUed lobsters from the sheQs, and from the tough red skin of the tails, mince the fish up quickly with a yery sharp knife, turn it immediately into a large mortar, and strew oyer it a mixed seasoning of fine cayenne, pounded mace, lightly grated nutmeg, and salt: this last should be sparingly used ia the first instance, and it should be reduced to powder before it is added. Foimd the lobsters to a nerfect paste with from two to three ounces of firm new butter to eacn fish if of large size, but with less should it be small; and the lobster-coral preyiously rubbed through a sieve, or with a portion of it only, should any part of it be required for other purposes. When there is no coral, a fine colour may be given to the mixture by stewing the red skin of the tails vs&t softly for ten or twelve minutes in part of the butter which is used for it, but which must be strained and left to become perfectly cold before it is mingled with the fish. The desree of Beaaomng given to the mixture can be regulated by the taste; out no flavour should predominate over that of the lobster itself; and for all delicate preparations, over-spicing should be particularly avoided. A quart or more of fine brown smimps, if very fresh and quickly shelled at the instant of using, may be chopped up and pound with the lobsters with excellent eflect. Before the mixture is taken from the mortar it should be placed in a cool larder, or set over ice for a short time, to render it firm before it is pressed into the potting-pans or moulds. In putting it into these, be careful to press it into a compact, evea mass; smooth the surface, run a little clarified butter over, when it is only just liquid for if hot it would prevent the fish from keeping - and send tne lobster to table, neatly garnished with light green, foliafe; or with omamentalljr-cut paper ustened round the mould or with a small damask napkm tastefully arranged about it. Ohs, - By pounding separately part of the white flesh of the fish, freed from every particle of the skin, and by colouring the remainder highly with the coral of the lobster, and then pressing the two in alternate and regular layers into a mould, a dish of pretty appearance is produced, which should be turned out of the mould for table. Ham and turkey (or any other white meat) are often potted in this

CHAP, m. SHELL FISH. 91

LOBSTER CUTLETS. A Superior SnirSe.) Prepiie and pound with exceeding nicety, by the pieeedinff reeebt for Potted Lobsters, about three quarters of a pouna of the flesh of a coupk of fine fresh lobsters, of which one must be a hen lobster; add to it, when it is partially beaten, an ounce and a half of sweet new butter, a saltspoonfbl of salt, and about two-thirds as much of mixed mace and cayenne, with a dessertspoonful of the inside coral, the whole of which should be rubbed with a wooden spoon through a hair siere, to be in readiness for use. When all these ingredients are well blended, and beaten to the finest and smoothest paste, the mixture should be tested by the taste, and the seasoning heightened if Deedful; but, as the preparation la very delicate, it should not be •over-spiced. Mould it mto the form of small cutlets about the third of an inch thick, stick into each a short bit of the smallest daws, strew the coral lightly over them so as to give them the appea r ance of beinff crumbed with it, arrange them round the dish in wnich they are to be sent to table, place them in a yery gentle oven for eight or ten minutes only to heat them through, or warm them in a Dutch or American oyen, placed at some distance from the fire, that the brilliant colour of the cond may not be destroyed; and pour into the centre some good hkhamel (peejMgd 108), or the Lady's Sauce, or the Cieam Sauce of Chapter lY . A very white sauce best contrasts with the colour of the cutlets. This is an excellent and el;ant dish, of which an admirable variety is made by the addition of three or four ounces of the freshest shrimps, quicUy shelled, and chopped before thcnr are thrown into the mortar, yrith naif an ounce of butter and a little spioe. All the coral can be added to the cutlets at pleasure; but it IB generally in request for many purposes, and is required for this one only in part Oht. - As lobsters are well known to be the most indigestible of shell fish, and as they sometimes proye danfferously so to persons out of health, these pounded preparations are the best and safest forms in which thjnr can oe served: they should at all times be beaten to a smooth, SKreZei paste, before they are taken from the mortar; and no fish uat is not entirely fresh should eyer be used for them. Prawns may be advantageously served in the same maimer. For Indian Lobster Cutlets, see Chapter of Foreign Cookery.

LOBSTER SAUBAQES. Let the fish be pounded as for the cutlets above or for hmdmetiet &nt mix half or more of the coral with the flesh of the lobsters; shape it like small sausages, sprinkle them with the powdered coral.

92 MODERN COOK£RT. cHAP. in. and heat them throueh in a Dutch or American oven. They maj be brushed vdth clarified butter before the coral is strewed over them, but they scarcely need it. A fierce degree of heat will destroy the excellence of all these preparations. BOUDIKETTES OF LOBSTERS PRAWNS OR SHRIMPS. (ENTRiE). (AtUhors Beceipt,) When the fish has been prepared as above, mould it in as many very smdU round cups as vnll sufiSce for a dish; heat them gently through at the mouth of the oven or before the fire, and serve them dry, or with a little rich white sauce, coloured with lobster-coral poured round, but not upon them. These boudinettet are delicious, made entirely of shrimps orrawns, which it is an advantage to have prepared as follows, either for this purpose or for potting simply, as they vnll then be firmer, and will also remain gcK d much longer: - Shell them quickly, and touch them as little ba possible in the process; put tnem into an enamelled saucepan witn about three ounces of butter to the quart, and strew tne spice upon them; place them by the side of a gentle fire that they may heat through very gradually, and shake the saucepan roimd occasionally to mine the seasoning equally with them. Do not allow them to boil, as that would render them tough, but when they are heated quite through and the butter approaches the point of sinunering, draw them from the fire; let them remain for a few minutes in the saucepan, then lay them very evenly and closely into the pans and pour the butter on them; but let it be clear from sediment, or from any liauid which may be perceptible at the bottom of the saucepan. When merely required for boudinettes, the fish may be turned into a large pan or basin and left imtil thoroughly cold, then chopped small upon a dish with the butter in which they are imbedded, and pounded as usual; no additional butter will be required for them, and part of that in which they have been heated may be set aside for fish-sauce when the proportion of it directed here is considered too large. As it should cover the shrimps entirely when they are potted whole, sufiicient to do so should be melted with them. It is an excellent plan to dissolve it in a separate saucepan, to skim it well, and after it has stood to become clear, to pour it gently over the shrimps, leaving all the buttermilk behind. They should not be placed immediately by the fire, or they will heat too quickly: they should be set away from it until the butter has cooled upon them. J f carefully prepared, and agreeably seasoned, they will be excellent, and can be sent to a great distance without detriment if packed so aa to be kept cool. The red shrimps may be substituted for the brown, when they can be more easily procured. Obs. - Lobsters and shrimps, or prawns, in equal proportions, answer extremely well for bauainettes as for potting.

SBAP. III.1 FISH. 93 TO BOIL SHRIMPS OR PRAWNS. Throw them into plenty of fast boiling water, to which salt has been added in the proportion of from five to six ounces to the gallon; take off aU the scum, boil the shrimps for five or ax minutes, or rather less should they be very small, and the prawns for about two minutes longer. The shrimpers of the coast frequently cook them in sea-water, but the flavour is not then so agreeable as when fresh brine is used for them. They are always tmwholesome when not sufficiently boiled; and even more so when they are stale. As soon as they are tender, drain them well in a cullender, and spread them out on a soft cloth to cool; or dish them on a napkin, and send them hot to table when they are liked so. The large brown shrimps are considered the best, and they are more easier shelled than the red ones: these last, however, are sometimes prererred to them. Prawns, though superior to shrimps oxdy in size are always much higher

Shrimps, 5 to 6 minutes if large. Prawns, 6 to 8 minutes. 06.- Ready-dressed shrimps or prawns may be preserved fit for eating at least twelve hours longer than they would otherwise keep, by throwing them for an instant into boiling salt and water, when they first bin to lose their freshness, and then draining them as above. TO DISn COLD PRAWNS. When they are quite cold, dish them singly upon a very white napkin neatly arranged over a saucer or small basin reversed in a disn, and garnish the base with a wreath of curled parsley, or with small leaves of the purple endive. TO SHELL SHRIMPS AND PRAWNS QUICKLY AND EASILY. Thu, though a most simple process, would appear, from the manner in whidi it is performed by many people, to be a very difficult one; indeed it is not unusual for persons of the lower classes, who, from lack, of a little skill, find it slow and irksome, to have resource to the dangerous plan of eating the fish entire. It need scarcely be remarked that reiy serious consequences may accrue from the shells being swallowed with them, particularly wnen they are taken in large quantities. Unless the fish be stale, when th are apt to break, they will quit the shells eadly if the head be held firmly m the right hand and the tail in the other, and the fish be straightened entirely, then the two hands pressed quickly towards each otner, and the shell of the tail broken by a sligbt vibratoiy motion of the right hand, when it will he drawn oiT with the head adhering to it: a small portion, only will then xemaio on at the other end, which can be removed in an instant • OxpamiUnf is they are often called.

94 HODEBN OOOKEBT. chap. it.

CHAPTER TV.

ZHTBODUCTOBT EHMAltXg. Gkayibs are not often required either in great yariety, or in abundant ooantitiesiwhen only a moderate table IS kept, and a clever cook will manage to supply, at a trifling cost, all that is generally needed for plain GntTy Kettle. family dinners; while an unskilful or extravagant one will render them sources of unbounded expense. But however small the proportions in which they are made, their quality should be particularly attended to, and they should be well adapted in flavour to the dishes they are to accompany. For some, a high degree of savour is desirable, but for fricassees, and other preparations of delicate white meats, this should be avoided, and a soft, smooth sauce of refined flavour should be used in preference ta any of more piauant relish. Instead of frying the infredienta for brown gravies, which is usually done in •common English kitchens, French cooks pour to them at first a small quantity of bquid, which is reduced by rapid boiling to what is technically called glaze; particular directions for which will be found in the next receipt to this, and also at pages 10 and 104. When the glaze has acquired the proper colour, boiline broth should be added in small portions, and well aken round me stewpan to detach it entirely; the meat may then be stewed gently for three or four hours with a few mushrooms, should they l at hand, a bunch of parsley, and some green onions, or with a Portugal onion instead. A thick slice or two of an unboiled ham, is an almost indispensable addition to rich soup or gravy, and to supply it in the most economical manner, a large, highly cured one, or more, not over We know of an instance of a cook who stewed down two or three pounds of beef to make grayy for a single brace of partridges; and who complained of the meanness of her employers (who were by no means affluent) beoaue this was obJectedto.

AP. IT. GEAVIE8. 95 fatted, should be kept for the purpoee, and cat as Te(iiiied. The hones of undressed meat will supply almost, or qmte as good grsTy-stock as the meat itself if weu boiled do¥m, particularly ttiose of the loin, or neck of yeal; and as the flesh of these may be dressed in many, ways adyantageously without them, the whole joint may be turned to excellent account by so dividing it The necks of poultry, with the feet properly skinned, a few herbs, a morsel or two of ham or of lean bacon, and such slight flavourings beside as the spice-box can supply, with a few drops of good mushroom catsup, will of themselves, if well managed, produce sufficient graiy to serve with the birds from which they are taken; and if not wanted for the purpose, they should always be stewed down, or thrown into the stock pot, for which the shank bones of legs of mutton, and all trinmunffs of meats should likewise be reserved. Excellent broth for the side or for the needy, may also be made of them at little cost, when th are not required for other uses. To deepe n th e colour of gravies, the thick mushroom pressings of Chxjpter VIL, or a little soy (when its flavour is admissible), or cavice, or Harvey's sauce, may be added to it; and for some dishes, a ghuB of daret, or of port wine. Yennicelli, or rasped cocoa-nut, lightly, and very gently browned in a small quantity of butter, will both tliicken and enridb them, if about an ounce of either to the pint of gravy be stewed gently in it, from half an hour to an hour, and then strained out. All the ingredients indicated at page 4, for giving consistency to soups, wiU answer equally for gravies, which should not, however, be too much thickened, particularly with the unwholesome mixture of flour and butter, so commonly used for the purpose. Arrow-root or rice-flour, or common flour gradually browned in a slow oven, are nrach better suited to a delicate stomach. No particle of fat should ever be perceptible upon them when they are sent to table; and when it cannot be removed by skimming, they should be allowed to become sufficiently cold for it to congeal, and be taken off at once without trouble. It may be cleared from such as have not been thickened by passing them through a closely woven cloth, which has previously been laid into, and well wrung from, some cold water. JEWISH SMOKED BEEF (Extremely useful for giving flavour to soup and gravy This beet of which we have more fully spoken in Chapter XXXIV., imparts a remarkably fine flavour to soup or gravy; but great care must be taken in using it to cut quite away all the external parts which have been discoloured in the drying: the whole of the sunace, indeed, should be rather thickly pared off, or it will give a smoky taste to the gravy. An ounce or two of the lean thus cleared from the outaidei and from all akin and fat, and divided first mto thick

96 MODERN COOKERY. chap. iv. slices, and then into small squares, will flavonr a 'pint or more of stock of any kind: it may be added to the nieat in making Lieb gravy when it is first put into the stewpan. TO HEIGHTEN THE COLOUR AND THE FLAVOUR OF GRAVIES. This is best done by the directions given for making Espagiule. An ounce or two of the lean of unboiled ham, cut into dice and coloured slowly in a small stewpan, or smoothly -tinned iron saucepan, with less than an ounce of butter, a blade of mace, two or tnree cloves, a bay-leaf, a few small sprigs of savoui herbs, and an eschalot or two, or about a teaspoonful of minced omon, and a little young parsley root, when it can be had, will convert common shin of beef stock, or even strong broth, into an excellent gravy, if it be gradually added to them after they have stewed slowly for quite half an hour, and then boiled with them for twenty minutes or more. The liquid should not be mixed with the other mgredients until the side of the stewpan is coloured of a reddish brown; and should any thickening be required, a teaspoonful of flour should be stirred in well, and simmered for three or four minutes before the stock is added; the pan should be strongly shaken round afterwards, to detach the brownmg from it, and this must be done often while the ham is stewing. Ohs, - The cook who is not acouainted with this mode of preparing or enriching gravies, will do well to make herself acquainted with it; as it presents no difficulties, and is exceedingly convenient and advantageous when they are wanted in small quantities, very highly flavoured and well coloured. An unboiled ham, kept in cut, vriU be found, as we have already said, a great economy for this, and other purposes, saving much of the expnense commonly incurred for gravymeats. As eschalots, when sparingly used, impart a much finer savour than onions, though they are not commonly so much used in England, we would recommend that a small store of them should always be kept. BARON LIEBEg's BEEF ORAYT. (Most excellent for hcukes minces, and other dUhes made of cold meai For particulars of this most useful receipt, for extracting all its juices from fresh meat of every kind in the best manner, the cook is referred to the first part of the chapter on soups. The preparation, for which minute directions are given there, if poured on a few bits of lean ham lightly browned, with the other ingredients indicated above, will be converted into gravy of fine flavour and superior quality. With no addition, beyond that of a little thickening and spice, it will serve admirably for dressing cold meat, in dl the usual fonns of

CHAP. IV. GRAVIES. 97 luvhesj mineesy Nanqvettes, &c., &c., and convert it into dishes as nourishing' as those of meat freshly cooked, and it may be economically made in small quantities with any tnmmings of undressed beef, mutton, or veal, mixed together, which are free from fat, and not sinewy: flavonr may be given to it at once by chopping op with them th lean part only of a slice or two of ham, or of highlycured beef. 8HUr OF BEEF OTOCK FOB GBAYIE8. There is no better foundation for strong grayies than shin of beef Btewed down to a jelly (which it easily becomes), with the addition only of some spice, a bunch of savoury herbs, and a moderate proportion of salt; this, if kept in a cool larder, boiled softly for two or three minutes every second or third day, and each time put into a deaDy well-scalded pan, will remain good for many days, and may easily be converted into excellent soup or gravy. Let the bone be broken in one or two places, take ont the marrow, which, if not wanted for immediate use, should be clarified, and stored for future oecMsions; put a pint and a half of cold water to the ponnd of beef, and stew it very gently indeed for six or seven hours, or even longer should the meat not then be quite in fragments. The bones of ciufs feet which have been boiled down for jelly, the liquor in which the head has been cooked, and any remains of ham quite freed from tho smoky parts, from rust, and fat, will be serviceable additions to this stock. A couple of pounds of the neck of beef may be added to six of the shin with very good effect; but for white soup or sauces this is better avoided. Shin of beef, 6 lbs.; water, 9 pints; salt, 1 oz.; large bunch of savoury herbs; peppercorns, 1 teaspoouful; mace, 2 blades. BICH PALE TEAL OEAYT, OB OONSOlOfE. The French, who have always at hand their stock-pot of good batdUan (beef soup or broth), make great use of it in preparing their graviefl. It is added instead of water to the fresh meat, and when this, in somewhat larger proportions, is boiled down in it, with the addition only of a bunch of parsley, a few green onions, and a moderate seasoning of salt, a strong and very pure-flavoured pale gravy is produced. When the best joints of fowls, or of partridges have been taken for fricassees or cutlets, the remainder may be stewed with a pound or two of veal into a eonsnmtniy which then takes the name of chicken or of game gravy. For a large dinner it is always desirable to have in readiness such stock as can easily and quickly be converted into white and other sauces. To make this, arrange a slice or two of lean ham in a stewpan or saucepan with three pounds of the neck of veal once or twice divided (unless the thick fleshy part of the knuckle cau be had), and pour tjo them H

98 MODERN COOKERY. chap. IT. three fiill pinto of Btrong beef or real broth; or, if this cannot conveniently bo done, increase the proportion of meat or diminish that of the liquid, substituting water for the broth; throw in some salt after the boiling has commenced, and the gravy has been well skimmed, with one mild onion, a bunch of savoury herbs, a little celery, a carrot, a blade of mace, and a half-saltspoonful of peppercorns; stew those very gently for four hours; then, should the meat be quite in frngments, strain off the gravy, and let it become sufficiently cold to allow the fat to be entirely cleared from it. A handful of nicely pre pared mushroom-buttons will much improve its flayour; and the bones of boiled calf's feet, or the fresh ones of fowls, will be found excellent additions to it. A better method of making it, when time and trouble are not regarded, is to heat the meat, which ought to be free of bones, quite through, with from a quarter to half a pint of broth only, and when on probing it with the point of a knife no blood issues from it, and it has been turned and equally doie, to moisten it with the remainder of the broth, which should be boiling. Lean of ham, 6 to 8 os.; neck or knuckle of veal, 3 lbs.; strong broth, 3 pints (or veal, 4 lbs., and water, 3 pinto); salt; bunch of savoury herbs; mild onion, 1; carrot, 1 large or 2 small; celery small head; mace, 1 large blade; peppercorns, i saltopoonful; 4 hours or more. Or: ham, i lb.; veal, 4 lbs.; broth, third of a pint; nearly 1 hour. Additional broth, 3 pinto: 3 to 4 hours. BIOH DEEP-OOLOUaED TEAL GBAYT. Lay into a large thick stewpau or saucepan, from half to three quarters of a pound ef undressed ham, freed entirely from fat, and from the smoked edges, and sliced half an inch thick; on this place about four pounds of lean veal, cut from the best part of the knuckle or from the neck (part of the tillet, which in France is often used for it instead, not being generally purchasable here, the butchers seldom dividing the joint); pour to them about half a pint of good broth, and place the pan over a brisk fire until it is well reduced; then thrust a knife into the meat, and continue the stewing more gently until a glaze is formed as we have described at page 10. The latter part of the process must be very slow; the stewpan must be frequently shaken, and the gravy closely watched that it may not bum: when it is of a fine deep amber colour, pour in sufficient boiling broth to cover the meat, add a bunch of parsley, and a few mushrooms and green onions. A blade or two of maoe, a few white peppercoms, and a head of celery, would, we think, be very admissible additions to this gravy, but it is extremely good without. Half the quantity can be maiie, but it will then be raUier more troublesome to manage. Undressed ham, 8 to 12 oz.: lean veal, 4 lbs.; broth, i pint; 1 to When thare it no provUion of this in the houte, the quantity may bo mado trith a small proportion of bef and the trimminge of the real, by the directiona Cbr BouiUon, Chapter L

CHAP. IT. GRAVIES. 99 2 hoars. Broth, 3 to 4 pints: bunch of parsley and green onions, or 1 Portugal onion; mushrooms, i to pint: 1 to 2 hours. GOOD BEEF OR VEAL ORAYT. (ENGLISH RECEIPT.) Flour and try lightly in a bit of good butter a couple of pounds of either beef or yeal; dndn the meat weU from the fat, and lay it into a small thick stewpan or iron saucepan; pour to it a quart of boiling water; add, after it has been well skimmed and salted, a large mild onion sliced, very delicately fried, and laid on a sieve to drain, a carrot also alioed, a small bunch of thyme and parsley, a blade of mace, and a few peppercorns; stew these gently for three hours or more, peas the gravy throueh a sieve into a clean pan, and when it is quite cold clear it entirely from fat, heat as much as is wanted for table, and if not sufficiently thick stir into it from half to a whole teaspoon ful of arrowroot mixed with a little mushroom catsup. Beef or veal, 2 lbs.; water, 2 pints; fried onion, 1 large; carrot, 1; small bunch of herbs; salt, 1 small teaspoonful or more; mace, 1 blade; peppercorns, 20: 3 to 3 hours. A RICH ENGLISH BROWN GRATT. Brown lightly and carefully from four to six ounces of lean ham, thickly slicai and cut into large dice; lift these out, and put them into the pan in which the gniv is to be made; next, fry lightly also, a couple of pounds of neck oi beef dredged moderately with flour, and slightly with pepper; put this, when it is done, over the ham; and then brown gently and add to them two or three eschalots, or a Portugal onion; should neither of these be at hand, one not large common onion must be used instead. Pour over these ingredients a quart of boiling water, or of weak but well-flavoured broth; bring the whole slowly to a boil, clear off the scum with great care, throw in a saltspoonfhl of salt, four cloves, a blade of mace, twenty corns of pepper, a bunch of savoury herbs, a carrot, and a few slices of celery: these last two may be fried or not as is most convenient. Boil tne gravy very softly until it is reduced to little more than a pint; strain, and set it by until the fat can be taken from it. Heat it anew, add more salt if needed and a little mushroom catsup, cayenne- vinegar, or whatever flavouring it may require for the dish with wHch it is to be served; it will seldom require any thickening. A dozen small mushrooms prepared as for pickling, or two or three morels, previously well washed and soaked, may be added to it at first witn advantage. Half this quantity of gravy will be sufficient for a single tureen, and the economist can diminish a little the proportion of meat when it is thought too much. PLAIN GRAVY FOR VENISON. Trim away the fat from some cutlets, and lay them into a stewpan; tet them over a clear fire, and let them brown a i.ttle in their own

100 MODERN COOKERT. chap. IV. nravj; then add a pint of boilinff water to each pound of meat Take off the scum, throw in a little salt, and boil tne gravy until reduced one halt Some cooks broil the cutlets lightly, boil the gravy one hour, and reduce it after it is strained. For appropriate gravy to serve with yenison see " Haunch of Venison' Chapter XV. A RICH GRAVY POR VENISON. There are tew eaters to whom this would be acceptable, the generality of them preferring infinitely the flavour of the venison itself to any which the richest gravy made of other meats can afford; but when the flavour of a well-made EspagnoUia likely to be relished, prepare it by the receipt of the following page, substituting plain ttrong mutton stock for the veal gravy. SWEET SAUCE, OR GRAVY FOR VENISON. Add to a quarter-pint of common venison gravy a couple of glasses of port wine or claret, and half an ounce of sugar in lumps. Christopher North's sauce, mixed vrith three times its measure of gravy, would be an excellent substitute for this. ESPAGNOLE (SPANISH SAUCB). A higMyiflavoured Gravy, Dissolve a couple of ounces of ood butter in a thick stewpan or saucepan, throw in from four to six sliced eschalots, four ounces of the lean of an undressed ham, three ounces of carrot, cut in small dice, one bay leaf, two or three branches of parsley, and one or two of thyme, but these last must be small; three cloves, a blade of mace, and a dozen corns of pepper; add part of a root of parsley, if it be at hand, and keep the wnole stirred or shaken over a moderate fire for twenty minutes, then add bv decrees one pint of very strong veal stock .or gravy, and stew the whole gently from thirty to forty minutes; strain it, skim off the fat, and it will be ready to serve. Butter, 2 oz.; eschalots, 4 to 6; lean of undressed ham, 4 oz.; carrots, 3 oz.; bay leaf, 1; little thyme and parsley, in branches; cloves, 3; mace, I blade; peppercorns, 12; little parsley root: fried gently, 20 minutes. Strong veal stock, or gravy, 1 pint: stewed very softly, 30 to 40 minutes. ESPAGNOLE, WITH WINE. Take the same proportions of ingredients as for the preceding Espagnole, with the addition, if they should be at hand, of a dozen small mushrooms prepared as for stewing; when these have fried gently in the stewpan until it appears of a reddish colour all round, stir ia a tabiespoonful of floor, and when it is lightly browned, add

CHAF. IV. GRAVIES 101 in amall portions, letting each one boil up before the next is poured in, and snaking the pan well round, three quarters of a pint of not and gwd yeal gravy, and nearly half a pint of Madeira or sherry. When the sauce has boiled gently for half an hour, add to it a small quantity of cayenne and some salt, if this last be needed; then strain it, skmi off the fat entirely should an appear upon the surface, and serve it very hot. A smsller proportion of wine added a few minutes before the sauce is ready for table, would perhaps better suit with English taste, as with longer boiling its flavour passes off almost en tiiely. Either of these Espagrioles poured over the well bruised remains of pheasants, partridges, or moor fowl, and boiled with them for an hour, will become most admirable game gravy, and would generally be considered a superlative addition to other roast birds oftheir kind, as well as to the b'.sh or salmi, for which see Chapter XV. Ingredients as in preceding receipt, with mushrooms 12 to 18; Madeira, or good sherry, i to pint. JUS DES ROONONS, OR, KIDNEY ORAYY. Strip the skin and take the fat from three fresh mutton kidneys, slice and flour them; melt two ounces of butter in a deep saucepan, and put in the kidneys, with an onion cut small, and a teaspoonful of fine herbs stripped from the stalks. Keep these well shaken over a dear fire until nearly all the moisture is dried up; then pour in a pint of boiling water, add half a teaspoonful of salt, and a little cayenne or conunon pepper, and let the gravy boil gently for an hour and a faalf or longer, if it be not thick and rich. Strain it through a fine sieve, and take off the fat. Spice or catsup may be added at pleasure. Mntton kidneys, 3; butter, 2 oz.; onion, 1; fine herbs, 1 teaspoonful: I hour. Water, 1 pint; salt, ) teaspoonful; little cayenne, or black pepper: 1) hour. • ObM, - This is an excellent cheap gravy for haricots, curries, or bashes of mutton; it may be much improved by the addition of two or three eschalots, and a small bit or two of lean meat. ORAYY IN HASTE. Chop fine a few bits of lean meat, a small onion, a few slices ol carrot and turnip, and a little thyme and parsley; put these with half an ounce of butter into a thick saucepan, and keep them stirred until they are slightly browned; add a little spice, and water in the proportion of a pint to a pound of meat; clear the gravy from scum, let it boil half an hour, then strain it for use. Meat, lib.; 1 small onion; little carrot, turnip, thyme, and parsley; batter, i oz.; doves, 6; corns of pepper, 12; water, 1 pint: hour. CHEAP GRAYY FOR A ROAST FOWL. When there is neither broth nor gravy to be had, nor meat of wbidi either can be made, boil the neck of the fowl after having cut

102 MODEBN COOKEKY. chap. iv.

it small, in half a pint of water, with any slight seasonings of spice or herbs, or with a little salt and pepper only; it should stew very softly for an hour or more, or the quantity will be too much reduced. When the bird is just ready for table, take the gravy from the drip Eing-pan, and drain off the fat from it as closely as possible; strain tne quor from the neck to it, mixing them smoothly, pass the gravy again through the strainer, heat it, add salt and pper or cayenne, if needed, and serve it extremely hot. When this is done, the fowl should be basted with good butter only, and well floured when it is first laid to the fire. Many cooks always mix the gravy from the pan when game is roasted, with that which they send to table with it, as they think that it enriches the flavour; but to many persons it is peculiarly distasteful. Neck of fowl; water, pint; pepper, salt (little vegetable and spice at choice): stewed gently, 1 nour; strained, stirred to the gravy of the roast, well cleared from fat. ANOTHER CHEAP ORAYY FOR A FOWL. A little good broth added to half a dozen dice of lean ham, lightly browned in a morsel of butter, with half a dozen corns of pepper and a small branch or two of parsley, and stewed for half an hour, will make excellent gravy of a common kind. When there is no broth, the neck of the chicken must be stewed down to supply its place. GRAVY OR SAUCE FOR A GOOSE. Mince, and brown in a small saucepan, with a slice of butter, two ounces of mild onion, When it begins to brown, stir to it a teaspoonful of flour, and in five or six minutes afterwards, pour in by degrees the third of a pint of good brown gravy; let this simmer fifteen minutes; strain it, bring it again to the point of boiling, and add to it a teaspoonful of made mustard mixed well with a glass of port wine. Season it with cayenne and pepper and saUy if this last be needed. Do not let the sauce botl alter the wine is added, but serve it very hot. Onions, 2 oz.; butter, 1 oz.: 10 to 15 minutes. Flour, 1 teaspoonful: 5 to 6 minutes. Gravy, pint: 15 minutes. Mustard, 1 teaspoonful; port wine, 1 glassful; cayenne pepper; salt See also Christopher Is orths own sauce. ORANGE GRAVY FOR WILD FOWL, Boil for about ten minutes, in half a pint of rich and highlyflavoured brown gravy, or Espagnole half the rind of a Seville orange, pared as thin as possible, and a small strip of lemon-rind, with a bit of sugar the size of a hazel-nut. Strain it off, add to it a quarter pint of port or claret, the juice of half a lemon, and a tablespoonful of Seville orange-juice: season it with cayenne, and serve it as hot as possible.

CHAP. IT. GRAVIBS. 103 GraTj, i pint; the rind of a Seville orange; lemon-peel, 1 small strip; sugar, size of hazel-nut: 10 minutes. Juice of ) a lemon; SeTille orange-juice, 1 tablespoonful; cayenne. See also Christopher North's own sauce. MEAT JELLIES FOB FIBS AND SAUCES. A Teiy finn meat jelly is easily made by stewing slowly down equal parts of shin of beef, and knuckle or neck of vesJ, with a pint of cold water to each pound of meat; but to give it flavour, some thick slices of lean unboiled ham should be added to it, two or three carrots, some spice, a bunch of parsley, one mild onion, or more, and a moderate quantity of salt; or part of the meat may be omitted, and a calf's head, or the scalp of one, very advantageously substituted for it, though the flavouring must then be heightened, because, thongh very gelatinous, these are in themselves exceedingly insipid to the taste. If rapidly boiled, the jelly will not be clear, and it will be difficult to render it so without clarifying it with the whites of eggs, which it ought never to require; if very gently stewed, on the contrary, it will only need to be passed through a fine sieve, or cloth. The fat must be carefully removed, after it is quite cold. The shin cf beef recommended for this and other receipts, should be from the middle of the leg of young heifer beef, not of that which is large and coarse. Middle of small shin of beef, 3 lbs.; knuckle or neck of veal, 3 lbs.; lean of ham, i lb.; water, 3 quarts; carrots, 2 large, or 3 sniali; bunch of parsley; 1 mild onion, stuck with 8 cloves; 2 small bayleaves; 1 large blade of mace; small saltspoonful of peppercorns; Bait, I oz. (more if needed): 6 to 6 hours' very gentle stewing. Obs. - A finer jelly may be made by using a larger proportion of veal than of beef, and by adding dear beef or veal broth to it instead of water, in a small proporiiun at first, as directed in the receipt for eonsommey see page 98, and by pouring in the remainder when the meat is heated through. The necks of poultry, any inferior joints of them omitted from a fricassee or other dish, or an old fowl, will further improve it much; an eschalot or two may at choice be boiled down in it, instead of the onion, but the flavour should be scarcely perceptible. A CHEAPER HEAT JELLT. One calf's foot, a pound and a half or two pounds of neck of veal or beef, a small onion, a carrot, a bunch of parsley, a little spice, a bit or two of quite lean ham, dressed or undressed, and five half pints of water, boiled ven slowly for five or six hours will give a strong, though not a highly-flavoured jelly. More ham, any bones of unboiled meat, poultry, or game will, in this respect, improve it; and the liquor in which fowls or veal have been boiled for table should, when

104 MODERN COOKERY. chap. iy. At hand, be used for it instead of water. These jellies keep much better and longer wlien no vegetables are stewed down in them. GLAZE. This is merely strong clear gravy or jelly boiled quickly down to tlie consistence of thin cream; but this reduction must be carefully managed that the glaze may be brought to the proper point without being burned; it must be attentively watched, and stirred without being quitted for a moment from the time of its beginning to thicken; when It has reached the proper degree of boiling, it will jelly in dropping from the spoon, like preserve, and should then be poured out immediately, or it will burn. When wanted for use, melt it gently by placing the vessel which contains it (see article Glazing Chapter IX.) in a pan of boiling water, and with a paste-brush Ay it on to the meat, upon which it will form a sort of clear varnish. In consequence of the very great reduction which it undergoes, salt should be added to it sparingly when it is made. Any kind of stock may be boiled down to glaze $ but unless it be Ktrong, a pint will afford but a spoonful or two: a small quantity of it, however, is generally sufficient, unless a large repast is to be served. Two or three layers must be given to each joint. The jellies which precede this will answer for it extremely well; and it may be made also with shin of beef stock, for common occasions, when no other is at hand. ASPIO, OB CLEAB SAYOURT-JELLT. Boil a couple of calf's feet, with three or four pounds of knuckle of veal, three quarters of a pound of lean ham, two large onions, three whole carrots, and a large bunch of herbs, in a gallon of water, till it is reduced more than half. Strain it oflf; when perfectly cold, remove every particle of fat and sediment, and put the jeily into very clean stewpan, with four whites of eggs well beaten: keep it stirred until it is nearly boiling; then plice it by the side of the fire to simmer for a quarter of an hour. Let it hcttle, and pour it through a jelly-bag until it is quite clear. Add, when it first begins to boil, three blades of mace, a teaspoonful of white peppercorns, and sufficient salt to flavour it properly, allowing for the ham, and the reduction. French cooks flavour this jelly with tarragon vinegar when it is clarified; cold poultry, game, fih, plovers' eggs trumes, and various dressed vegetables, with many other things often elaborately prepared, and highly ornamental, are moulded and served in it, especially at hirge dejeuners and himilar repasts. It is also much used to decorate raised pies, and hams; and for many other purposes of the toble. Calf's feet, 2; veal, 4 lbs.; ham, lb.; onions, 2; carrots, 3; herbs, large bunch; mace, 3 blades; white whole pepper, 1 teaspoonful; water, 1 gallon: 6 to 6 hours. Whites of eggs, 4: 16 minutes.

CHAP T.

BADGES.

105

CHAPTER V.

Values.

INTBODUOTOBT BEIIARJUI.

Bom Jfaritf, or Water Bath.

Thk difference between good and bad cookery can scarcely be more strikingly shown than in the manner in which sauces areprepared and served. If well made, appropriate to the dishes they accompany and sent to table with them as hot as pns&ihle, they not only gire a heightened relish to a dinner, but they prove that both skill and taste have been exerted in its arrangements. When coarsely or carelessly prepared, on the contrary, as they too often are, they greatly discredit the cook, and are anything but acceptable to the eaters. Melted butter, the most common of all - the one sauce of England" as it is called by foreigner:, and which forms in reality the basis of a large number of those which are served in thid country - is often so ill prepared, being either oiled or lumpy, or composed principally of flour and water, that it says but little for the state of cookery amongst ns. We trust that the receipts in the present chapter are so far clearly given, that if strictly followed they will materially assint the learner in preparing tolerably palatable sauces at the least. The cut at the commencement of the chapter exhibits a vessel called a hain mai-ie, in which saucepans are placed when it is necessary to keep their contents hot without allowing them to boil: it b extremely useful when dinners are delayed after they are ready to serve. TO TBICKEN SAUCES. When this is done with the yolks of eggs, they should first be well beaten, and then mixed with a spoonful of cold stock should it be at Liuid, and with one or two of the boiling sauce, which should be

106 MODERN COOKERY. cHAP. v. stirred very quickly to them, and they must in turn be stirred briskly to the sauce, which may be held over the fire, and well siiaken for an instant afterwards but never placed upon it, nor allowed to boil. To the roux or French thickening (which follows), the gravy or other liquid which is to be mixed with it should be poured boiling and in small quantities, the saucepan being often well shaken rouodl and the sauce made to boil up after each portion is added. If this precaution be observed, the butter will never float upon the surface, but the whole will be well and smoothly blended: it will otherwise be difficult to clear the sauce from it perfectly. For invalids, or persons who object to butter in their soups or sauces, flour only mixed to a smooth batter, and stirred into the boiling liquid may be substituted for other thickening: arrowroot also used in the same way, will answer even better than flour. FRENCH THICKENINO, OB BROWN BOUZ. For ordinary purposes this may be made as it is wanted for use; but when it is required for various dishes at the same time or for cookery upon a large scale, it can be prepared at once in sufficient quantity to last for several days, and it will remain good for some time. Dissolve, with a very gentle de:ree of heat, half a pound of good butter, then draw it from the fire, skim it well, give time for it to settle, pour it gently from the sediment into a very clean frying-pan, and place it over a slow but clear fire. Put into a dredging box about seven ounces of fine dry flour; add it gradually to the butter, shake the pan often as it is thrown in, and keep the thickening constantly stirred until it has acquired a clear light brown colour. It should be very .slowly and equally done, or its flavour will be unpleasant. Pour it into ajar, and stir a spoonful or two as it is needed into boiling soup or gravy. When the butter is not clarified it will absorb an additional ounce of flour, the whole of which ought to be fine and dry. This thickening may be made in a welltinned stewpan even better than in a frying-pan, iind if simmered over a coal fire it should be placed high above it, and well guarded from smoke. •WHITE BOnZ, OB FRENCH THICKENINa. Proceed exactly as for the preceding receipt, but dredge in the flour as soon as the butter is in full simmer, and be careful not to allow the thickening to take the slightest colour: this is used for white gravies or sauces. SAUCE TOURNEE, OB PALE THICKENED GBAYT. Sauce tourn6e is nothing more than rich pale gravy made with veal or poultry (see Consomme Chapter IV,) and thickened with deli

?flAP. T. SAUCES. 107 eate white roux. The French give it a flavonring of mushrooms and green onions, by boiling some of each in it for about half an hour before the sauce is served: it must then be strained, previously to being dished. Either first dissolve an ounce of butter, and then dredge gradually to it three-quarters of an ounce of flour, and proceed aa for the preceding receipt; or blend the flour and butter perfectly with a knife before they are thrown into the stewpan, and keep them stirred without censing over a clear and gentle fire until they have shnmered for some minutes, then place the stewpan high over the fire, and shake it constantly until the roux has lost the raw taste of the flour; next, stir very gradually to it a pint of the gravy, which should be boiling. Set it by the side of the stove for a few minutes, skim it thoroughly, and serve it without delay. Butter, 1 oz.; flour, ) oz.; strong pale gravy, seasoned with moshrooiEs and green onions, 1 pint. 06. 3. - With the addition of three or four yolks of very fresh eggs, mixed with a seasoning of mace, cayenne, and lemon-juice, this becomes Oerman sauce, now much used for fricassees, and other dishes; and minced parsley (boiled) and chili vinegar, each in sufficient quantity to flavour it agreeably, convert it into a good fish sauce. BBCHAMEL. This is a fine French white sauce, now very much served at good English tables. It may be made in various ways, and more or less expensively; but it should always be thick, smooth, and rich, though delicate in fiavour. The most ready mode of preparing it is to take an equal portion of very strong, pale veal gravy, and of good cream (a pint of each for example), and then, by rapid boiling over a very dear fire, to reduce the gravy nearly half;, next, to mix witn part of the cream a tablespoonful of fine dry flour, to pour it to the remainder, when it boils, and to keep the whole stirred for five minutes or more over a slow fire, for if placed upon a fierce one it would be Uable to bum; then to add the gravy, to stir and mix the sauce perfectly, and to simmer it for a few minutes longer. All the flavour siiould be given by the gravy, in which French cooks boil a handful of mushrooms, a few green onions, and some branches of parsley before it m reduced: but a good bichamel may be made without tbem, with a strong eoruomme (see pale veal gravy, page 98) well reduced. Strong pale veal gjavy (flavoured with mushrooms or not), 1 pint: reduced half. Rich cream, 1 pint; flour, 1 tablespoonful: 5 minutes. With gravy, 4 or 5 minutes. Obg - Velaute, which is a rather thinner sauce or gravy, is made by simply well reducing the cream and stock separately, and theu mixing them together without any thickening.

108 MODERN COOKEBY, chap. t. BicHAMBL MAIORB. (A cheap White Sauce.) A good hkihamel may be made entirely without meat, when eoo nomy is an object, or when no gravy is at hand. Put into a stewpan, or a well-tinned and thick saucepan, with from two to three ounces of butter, a carrot, and a couple of small onions, cut in slices, witli a handful of nicely-deaned mushroom buttons, when these last can be easily procured; and when they have stewed slowly for half an hour, or until the butter is nearly dried up, stir in two tablespoonsful of flour, and pour in a pint of new milk, a little at a time, shaking the stewpan well round, that the sauce may be smooth. Boil the bechamel gently for half an hour; add a little salt, and cayenne; strain, and reduce it, if not quite thick, or pour it boiling to the yolks of two fresh gs. ANOTHER COMMON BECHAMEL. Cut half a pound of veal, and a slice of lean ham or smoked beef into small dice, and stew them in butter, with vegetables, as directed, in the foregoing receipt: stir in the same proportion of flour, then add the milk, and let the sauce boil very gently for an hour. It should not be allowed to thicken too much before it is strained. Ohs, - Common bSchamel with the addition of a spoonful of mademustard, is an excellent sauce for boiled mutton. RICH MELTED BUTTER. This is more particularly required in general for lobster sauce, when it is to be served with turbot or brill, and for good oyster sauce. Salmon is itself so rich, that less butter is needed for it thau for sauce which is to accompany a drier fish. Mix to a very smootlx batter a dessertspoonful of flour, a half-saltspoonful of salt, and hall" a pint of cold water: put these into a delicately clean saucepan, witli from four to six ounces of well-flavoured butter, cut into small bits, and shake the sauce strongly round, almost without cessation, until the ingredients aie perfectly blended, and it is on the point of boiling; let it simmer for two or three minutes, and it will be ready for use. The best French cooks recommend its not being allowed to boil as they say it tastes less of flour if served when it is just at tlio x int of simmering. Cold water, pmt; salt, spoonful; flour, 1 dessertspoonful: 3 to 4 minutes. Butter, 4 to 6 oz. MELTED BUTTER. (A good common Receipt.) Put into a basin a large teaspoonful of flour, and a little salt, then mix with tnem very gradually and very smoothly a quarter of a pint

CHAP. ?. SAUCES. 109 of cold water; tarn these into a small clean sancepan, and shake or stir them constantly over a clear fire until they have boiled a couple of minutes, then add an ounce and a half of butter cut small, keep the sauce stirred until this is entirely dissolved, give the whole a minute's boil, and serve it quickly. The more usual mode is to put the butter in at first with the flour and water; but for inexperienced or unskilful cooks the safer plan is to follow the present receipL Water, ipint; flour, 1 teaspoonful: 2 minutes. Butter, 1 oz.: 1 minute. Ohs. - To render this a rich sauce, increase or even dovhle the proportion of butter. FRENCH MELTED BUTTER. Pour half a pint of food but not very thick, boiling melted butter io the well-beaten yolks of two or three fresh eggs, and stir them briskly as it is added; put the sauce again into the saucepan, and shake it high over the fire for an instant, but do not allow it to boil or it will curdle. Add a little lemon-juice or vinegar, and serve it immediately. KORFOLK SAtrCE, OR RICH MELTED BUTTER WITHOUT FLOUR. Put three tablespoonsful of water into a small saucepan, and when it boihi add four ounces of fresh butter; as soon as this is quite dissolved, take the saucepan from the fire, and shake it round until the nuce looks thick and smooth. It must not be allowed to boil after the butter is added. Water, 3 tablespoonsful; butter, 4 oz. WHITE MELTED BUTTER. Thicken half a pint of new milk with rather less flour than is directed for the common melted butter, or with a little arrowroot, and stir into it by degrees after it has boiled, a couple of ounces of fresh butter cut small; do not cease to stir the sauce until this is entirely dissolved, or it may become oiled, and float upon the top. Thin cream, substituted for the milk, and flavoured with a few atrips of lemon-rind cut extremely thin, some salt, and a small quantity of pounded mace, if mixed with rather less flour, and the same proportion of butter, will make an excellent sauce to serve with fowls or other dishes, when no gravy is at hand to make white sauce in the usual way. BURNT OR BROWNED BUTTER. Melt in a frying-pan three ounces of fresh butter, and keep it stirred slowly over a gentle fire until il 13 of a dark brown colour; then pour to it a couje of tablespoonsful of good hot vinegar, and

110 MODERN COOKEBY. chap. ?. season it with black pepper and a little salt. In France this is a fS&vourite sauce with boiled skate, which is served with plenty of crisped parsley, in addition, strewed over it. It is also often poured over poached eggs there: it is called beurre noir. Butter, 3 oz.; vinegar, 2 tablespoonsful; pepper; salt. CLARIFIED BUTTER. Put the butter into a veiy clean and well-tinned saucepan or enamelled stewpan, and melt it gently over a clear fire; when it just begins to simmer, skim it thoroughly, draw it from the fire, and let it stand a few minutes that the butter-milk may sink to the bottom; then pour it clear of the sediment through a muslin strainer or a fine hair-sieve; put it into jars, and store them in a cool place. Butter thus prepared will answer for all the ordinary purposes of cookery, and remain good for a great length of time. In France, large quantities are melted down in autumn for winter use. The clarified butter ordered for the various receipts in this volume, is merely dissolved with a gentle degree of heat in a small saucepan, skimmed, and poured out for use, leaving the ick sediment behmd. YERT GOOD EGG SAUCE. Boil four fresh eggs for quite fifteen minutes, then lay them into plenty of fresh water, and let them remain until they are perfectly cold. Break the shells by rolling them on a table, take tnem off, separate the whites from the yolks, and divide all of the latter into (quarter-inch dice; mince two of the whites tolerably small, mix thenx lightly, and stir them into the third of a pint of nch melted butter or of white sauce: serve the whole as hot as possible. Eggs, 4: boiled 15 minutes, left till cold. The yolks of all, whites 'of 2; third of pint of good melted butter or white sauce. Salt as needed. SAUCE OF TURKETS' EGGS. (Excellent,) The eggs of the turkey make a sauce much superior to th )se of the common fowl. They should be gently boiled in plenty of water for twenty minutes. The yolks of three, and the whites of one and a half, will make a very rich sauce if prepared by the directions of the foregoing receipt The eggs of the guinea fowl also may be converted into a similar sauce with ten minutes boiling. Their delicate siaa will render it necessary to increase the numb taken for it. COMMON EGG SAUCE. Boil a couple of eggs hard, and when quite cold cut the whites and yolks separately; mix them well, put them into a very hot tnieeny

CHAP. T. SAUCES. Ill and pour boiling to tbem a quarter of a pint of melted batter: stir, and serve the sauce immediately. Whole eggs, 2; melted batter, i pint EGO SAUCE FOR CALF8 HEAD. This is a provincial sauce, served sometimes -with fish, and with calfs bead likewise. Thicken to the proper consistence with flour and butter some good pale veal gravy, throw into it when it boils from one to two Targe teaspoonsml of minced parsley, add a slight squeeze of lemon -juice, a little cayenne, and then the eggs. Veal gravy, pint; flour, I4 oz.; butter, 2 oz.; minced parsley, 1 dessertspoonful; lemon-juice, 1 teaspoonful; little cayenne; gs, 3 to 4. ENGLISH WHITE SAUCE. Boil softly in half a pint of well-flavoured pale veal gravy a few very thin strips of fresh lemon-rind, for just sufficient time to give their flavour to it; stir in a thickening of arrow-root, or of flour and batter, add salt if needed, and mix with the vy a quarter of a pint of boiling cream. For the best kind of white sauce, see bechamel. Good pale veal gravy, pint; third of 1 lemon-rind: 15 to 20 minutes. Freshly pounded mace, third of saltspoonful; butter, 1 to 2 oz.; floor, 1 teaspoonM (or arrow-root an equal quantity); cream, ipint TERT COMMON WHITE SAUCE. The neck and the feet of a fowl, nicely cleaned, and stewed down in half a pint of water, imtil it is reduced to less than a quarter of a pint, witn a thin strip or two of lemon-rind, a small blade of mace, a small branch or two of parsley, a little salt, and half a dozen corns of pepper, then strained, thickened, and flavoured by the preceding re eeipt, and mixed with something more than half the quantity of cream, wiU answer for this sauce extremely well; and if it be added, when made, to the liver of the chicken, previously boiled for six minutes in the gravy, then bruised to a smooth paste, and passed through a sieve, an excellent liver sauce. A little strained lemon-juice is generally added to it when it is ready to serve: it should be stirred very briskly in. DUTCH SAUCE. Pat into a small saucepan the yolks of three fteah eggs, the juice of a laige lemon, three ounces of Dutter, a little salt and nutmeg, and a wineglassful of water. Hold the saucepan over a clear fire, and keep the saoce stirred until it nearly boils: a little cayenne may be aided. The safest way of making all sauces that will curdle by being allowed to boU, is to pat them into a jar, and to set the jar over the

112 MODERN COOKERY. chap. t. fire in a flaneepfin of boiling water, and then to stir the ingdiento constantly until the sauce is thickened sufficiently to sere. Yolks of eg:g:s, 3; juice, 1 lemon; butter, 3 oz.; little salt and nutmeg; water, 1 wineglflssful . cayenne at pleasure. Obs, - A small cupful of veal gravy, mixed with plenty of blanched and chopped parsley, may be used instead of water for this sauce, when it is to be served wilh boiled veal, or with calf's head. FRICASSEE SAUCE. stir briskly, but by degrees, to the well-beaten yolks of two largre or of three small frefb eggs, half a pint of common English white sauce; put it again into the saucepan, give it a shake over the fire, but be extremely careful not to allow it to boil, and just before it is served stir in a dessertspoonful of strained lemon-juice. When meat or chickens are fricasseed, they should be lifted from the saucepan with a slice, drained on it from the sauce, and laid into a very hot dish before the eggs are added, and when these are just set the sauce should be poured on them. BREAD SAUCE. Pour quite boiling, on half a pint of the finest bread crumbB, an equal measure of new milk; cover them closely with a plate, and let the sauce remain for twenty or thirty minutes; put it then into a delicately clean saucepan, with a small saltspoonful of salt, half as much pounded mace, a little cayenne, ana about an ounce of fresh butter; keep it stirred constantly over a clear fire for a fewminutes, then mix with it a couple of spoonsful of good cream, give ft a boil, and serve it immediately. When cream is not to be had, an additional spoonful or two of milk must be used. The bread used lor sauce should be sialej and lightly grated down into extremely small crumbs, or the preparation will look rough when sent to table. Not only the crust, but all heavy-looking or imperfectly baked portions of it, should be entirely pared off, and it should be pressed against the grater only so much as will reduce it easily into crumbs. When stale bread cannot be procured, the new should be sliced thin, or broken up small, and beaten quite smooth with a fork after it has been soaked. As some will absorb more liquid than others, the cook must increase a little the above proportion should it be needed. Equal parts of milk and of thin cream make an excellent bread sauce: more batter can be used to enrich it when it is liked. Bread-crumbs and new milk, each ) pint (or any other measure) • loaked 20 to 30 minutes, or more. Suit, small saltspoonful; mace, half as much; little cayenne; butter, 1 oz.; boiled 4 to 6 minutes 2 to 4 spoonsful of good cream (or milk): 1 minute. Or: bread crumbs, pint; milk and cream, each i pint; and from 2 to 4 spoonsfal of either in addition.

CHAP. T.l SAUCES 113 Obi. - Yerj pale, strong yeal gravy is Bometimes poured on the bread crumbs, instead of milk; and these, after being soaked, are boiled extremely dry, and then brought to the proper consistence with rich cream. The gravy may be highly flaToured with mushrooms when this is done. BREAD SAUCE WITH ONION. Put into a verr clean saucepan nearly half a pint of fine breadcrumbs, and the white part of a large mild onion cut into quarters; pour to these three-quarters of a pint of new milk, and boil them very gently, keeping them often stirred until the onion is perfectly tender, which will be in from forty minutes to an hour. Press the whole through a hair-siere, which should be as clean as possible; reduce the sauce by quick boiling should it be too thin; add a seasoning of salt and grated nutmeg, an ounce of butter, and four spoonsful of cream; and when it is of a proper thickness, dish, and send it quickly to table. Bread-crumbs, nearly pint; white part of 1 large mild onion; new milk, i pint: 40 to 60 minutes. Seasoning of salt and grated nutmeg; butter, 1 oz.; cream, 4 tablespoonsful: to be boiled till of a proper consistence Obs. - This Ls an excellent sauce for those who like a subdued flaTour of onion in it; but as many persons object to any, the cook should ascertain whether it be liked before she follows this receipt. COMMON LOBSTER SAUCE. Add to half a pint of good melted butter a tablespoonful of essence of anchovies, a small half-sal tspoonful of freshly pounded mace, and less than a quarter one of cayenne. If a couple of spoonsful of cream should be at hand, stir them to the sauce when it boils; then put in the flesh of the tail and claws of a small lobster cut into dice (or any other form) of equal size. Keep the saucepan by the side of the fire nntil the fish is quite heated tiirough, but do not let the sauce boil again: senre it reir hot. A small quantity can be made on occasion with the remains of a lobster which nas been served at table. Melted butter, ) pint; essence of anchovies, 1 tablespoonful; pounded mace, small ) sal tspoonful; less than one of cayenne; eremm (if added), 2 tablespoonsful; flesh of small lobster. GOOD LOBSTEB SAUCE. Select for this a perfectly fresh hen lobster; split the tail carefully, and take out the inside coral; pound half of it in a mortar very moothly with less than an ounce of butter, rub it through a hairsieve and put it aside. Cut the firm flesh of the fish into dice of not leas than half an inch in size; and when these are ready, make as I

114 MODERN COOKERY. CHAP. V. xDucli good melted butter as will supply the quantitr of sauce required for table, and if to be senred with a turbot or other large fish to numerous company, let it be plentifully provided. Season it slightly with essence of anchovies, and well with cayenne, mace, and salt; add to it a few spoonsful of rich cream, and then mix a small portion of it very gradually with the pounded coral; when this is sufficientlj liquefied pour it into the sauce, and stir the whole well together; put in immediately the flesh of the fish, and heat the sauce thoroughly by the side of the fire without allowing it to boil, for if it should do so its fine colour would be destroyed. The whole of the coral may be used for the sauce when no portion of it is required for other purposes. OBAB SAUCB. The flesh of a fresh welUconditioned crab of moderate sise is more tender and delicate than that of a lobster, and may be converted into an excellent fish sauce. Divide it into small flakes, and add it to some good melted butter, which has been flavoured as for either of the sauces above. A portion of the cream contained in the fish mayfirst be smoothly mingled with the sauce. GOOD 0T8TBB 8AUGK. At the moment they are wanted for use, open three dosen of fine plump native oysters; save carefully and strain their liquor, rinae them separately in it, put them into a very clean saucepan, strain the liquor again, and pour it to them; heat them slowly, and keep them from one to two minutes at the simmering point, without allowing them to boU as that will render them hard. Lift them out and beard them neatlv; add to the liquor three ounces of butter smoothly mixed with a large dessertspoonful of floar; stir these with out ceasing until they boil, and are perfectly mixed; then add to them gradually a quarter of a pint, or rather more, of new milk, or of thiu cream (or equal parts of both), and continue the stirring until the sauce boils again; add a little salt, should it be needed, and a small quantity of cayenne in the finest powder; put in the oysters, and keep the saucepan by the side of the fire until the whole is thoroughly hot and begins to simmer, then turn the sauce into a well-heated, tureen, and send it immediately to table. Small plump oysters, 3 dozen; butter, 3 oz.; flour, 1 large dee. tertspoonful; the oyster liquor; milk or cream, full pint; little salt and cayenne. COMMON OTSTEB SAUOB. Prepare and plump two dozen of oysters as directed in the receipt above; add their strained liquor to a quarter of a pint of thick melted batter made with milk, or with half milk and half water; stir the

T. 8AUCE& 115 whole imtfl it boils, put in the oysters, and when they are quite heated timmgh send the sance to table without delay. Some persons like a little cayenne and essence of anchovies added to it when it is served with fish; others prefer the unmixed flavour of the oysters. Oysters, 2 dosens; their liquor; melted butter, pint. (Little cayenne and I dessertspoonful of essence of anchovies when liked.) SHRTMP SAUCB. The fish for this sauce should be very fresh. Shell quickly one pint of shrimps and mix them with half a pint of melted butter, to which a few drops of essence of anchovies and a little mace and cayenne have been added. As soon as the shrimps are heated through, dish, and serve the sauce, which ought not to boil after they are put in. Many persons add a few spoonsful of rich cream to all shell-iish sauces. Shrimps, 1 pint; melted butter, f pint; essence of anchovies, 1 teaspoonful; mace, i teaspoonful; cayenne, very little. ANCHOVY SAUCB. To half a pint of good melted butter add three dessertspoonsAil of essence of anchovies, a quarter of a teaspoonful of mace, and a rather high seasoning of cayenne; or pound the flesh of two or three fine mellow anchovies very smooth, mix it with the boiling butter, simmer these for a minute or two, strain the sauce if needful, add the spices, give it a boil, and serve it. Melted butter, i pint; essence of anchovies, 8 dessertspoonsful; jnaoe, i teaspoonful; cayenne, to taste. Or, 3 large anchovies finely pounded, and the same proportions of butter and spice. CREAM SAUCE POR FISH. Knead very smoothly Uuxther with a strong-bladed knife, a ktre teaspoonful of flour with Uiree ounces of good butter; stir them in a Tery clean saucepan or stewpan over a gentle fire until the butter is dissolved, then throw in a little salt and some cayenne, give the whole one minute's simmer, and add, veiy gradually, half a pint of good cream; keep the sauce constantly stunred until it boils, then mix with it a dessertspoonful of essence of anchovies, and half as much chili Tinegar or lemon-juice. The addition of shelled shrimps or lobsters eat in dice, will convert this at once into a most excellent sauce of cither. Founded mace may be added to it with the cayenne; and it way be thinned with a few spoonsful of milk should it be too thick. Omit the essence of anchovies, and mix with it some parsley boiled Terr green and minced, and it becomes a eood sauce for poultry. Botter, 3 oz.; flc nr, 1 large teaspoonful: 2 to 3 minutes. Gream •i pint; essence of anchovies, 1 large dessertspoonful (more if liked); duli vinegar or IcEoonguicei 1 teaspoonful; salt, i saltspoonfuL

116 MODERN COOKERY. cHAP. T. BHABP MAITRE d'hOTEL SAUCE. English Receipt) For a rich sauce of this kind, mix a dessertspoonful of flour with four ounces of good hutter, but with from two to three ounces only for common occasions; knead them together until they rettemble a smooth paste, then proceed exactly as f(r the sauce above, but substitute good pale Teal graij, or strong, pure-flAvoured veal broth, or shin of beef stock (which if well made hiis little colour), for the cream; and when these have boiled for two or three minutes "lii ih a tabiespoonful of common vinegar and one of chili vinegar, with as much cayenne as will flavour the sauce well, and some salt, should it be needed; throw in from two to three dessertspoonsful of finely-minced parsley, give the whole a boil, and it will be ready to serve. A tabit spoonful of mushroom catsup or of Harvey's sauce may be added with the vinegar when the colour of the sauce is immateriaU It may be served with boiled calf's head, or with boiled eels with good effect; and variooa kinds of cold meat and fih may be re-warmed for table in it, as we have directed in another part of this volume. With a little more flour, and a flavouring of essence of anchovies, it will make, without the parsley an excellent sauce for these last, when they are first dressed. Butter, 2 to 4 oz; flour, 1 dessertspoonful; pale veal gpravy or strong broth, or shin of beef stock, i pint; cayenne; salt, if needed; common vinegar, 1 tablespoonful; chili vinegar, 1 tablespoonfol. (Catsup or Harvey's sauce, according to circumstances.) VBENOH MAITBX D'HOTEL, OB STEWARD'S SAUCE. Add to half a pint of rich, pale veal gravy, well thickened with the white rotix of page 108, a good seasoning of pepper, salt, minced parsley, and lemon-juice; or make the thickening with a small tablespoonful of flour, and a couple of ounces of butter; keep these stirred con stautly over a very gentle fire from ten to fifteen minutes, then pour the gravy to them boiling, in small portions, mixing the whole well as it is added, and letting it boil up between each, for unless this be done the butter will be likely to float upon the surface. Simmer the sauce for a few minutes, and skim it well, then add salt should it be needed, a tolerable seasoning of pepper or of cayenne in fine powder, from two to three teaspoonsful of minced parsley, and the strained juice of a small lemon. For some dishes, this sauce is thickened with the yolks of eggs, about four to the pint. The French work into their bciuces generally a small bit of fresh butter just before they are taken from the fire, to give them mellowness: this is done usuailj for the Maitre d' Hotel Sauce. • Th Mattra d'Hotd U, pioprI j, the Bom$e

CHAP. T.l SAUCES. 117 IfAITBB d'hOTEL SAUCB MAIQBE, OB WITHOnT eBATT. Sobetitote half a pint of good melted butter for the gravy, and add to it the same seasonings as above, A double quantity of these sauces will be needed when they are required to cover a large fish; in that case they should be thick enough to adhere to it well. Melted butter, ) pint; seasontng of salt and pepper, or cayenne; minced parsley, 2 to 3 teaspoonsful; juice, 1 small lemon. For Cou) MAiTna dUot£L Sauoe, see Chapter YL THE lady's sauce. (ForJ'iah.) Pound to a very smooth paste the inside coral of a lobster with a small slice of butter, and some cayenne; rub it through tf hair-sieve, gather it together, and mix it very smoothly with from half to threequarters of a pint of sauce toumee or of cream fish-sauce, previously well seasoned with cayenne and salt, and moderately with pounded mace; bring it to the paint of boiling only; stir in quicaly, but gradually, a tablespoonful of strained lemon-juice, and serve it very hot. When neither cream nor gravy is at hand, substitute rich melted butter mixed with a dessertspoonful or two of essence of anchovies, and well seasoned. The line colour of the coral will be destroyed by boiling. This sauce, which the French call Sauce a VAurore, may be served with brill, boiled sole:, gray mullet, atid some few other kinds of iidh: it u quickly made when the lobster tmtter of Chapter YI. is in the house. Coral of lobster, pounded; cream sauce, or aauce toumH (thickened pale veal gravy), to pint; lemon-juice, 1 tablespoonful; salt, cayenne, and mace, as needed. Or: rich melted butter, instead of other sance; essence of anchovies, 2 dessertspoonsful; other seasoning, as above. Obs. - The proportion of spices here must, of course, depend on the flavouring which the gravy or sauce may already have received. GBNEYESB SAUCE, OB SAUCE OENBVOISS. Cot into dice three ounces of the lean of a well-flavoured ham, and put them with half a small carrot, four cloves, a blade of mace, two or three very small sprigs of lemon thyme and of parsley, and rather more than an ounce of butter, into a stewpan; just simmer them from three-quarters of an hour to a whole hour, then stir in a teaspoouful of flour; continue the slow stewing for about five minutes, and pi ur in by degrees a pint of good boiling veal gravy, and let the sauce again simmer softly for nearly an hour. Strain it off, heat it in a eieao saucepan, and when it boils, stir in a wineglassful and a half of Maigre, made without meat.

118 MODERN COOKERY. CBkr. ?. good sherry or Madeira, two tablespoonsful of lemon-juice, some cayenne, a little salt if needed, and a small tablespoonful of flour verj smoothly mixed with two ounces of butter. Give the whole a boil after the thickening is added, pour a portion of the sauce over the fish (it is served principally with salmon and trout), and send the remainder very hot to table in a tureen. Lean of ham, 3 oz.; J small carrot; 4 to 6 cloves; mace, 1 large blade; thyme and parsley, 3 or 4 small sprigs of each; butter, 1 to 1.) oz.: 60 to 60 minutes. Veal gravy, 1 pint: to 1 hour. Sherry or Madeira, 1 glassful; lemon-juice, 2 tablespoonsful; seasoning of cayenne and salt; flour, 1 tablespoonful; butter, 2 oz.: 1 minute. Obs. - A teaspoonful or more of essence of anchovies is usually added to the sauce, though it is scarcely required. SAUCE ROBERT. Gut four or five large onions into small dice, and brown them in a stewpan, with three ounces of butter and a dessertspoonful of flour. When of a deep yellow brown, pour to them half a pint of beef or of veul gravy, and let them simmer for fifteen minutes; skim the sauce, add a seasoninic of salt and pepper, and at the moment of serving, mix a dessertspoonful of made mustard with it. Large onions, 4 or 6; butter, 3 oz.; flour, dessertspoonful: 10 to 15 minutes. Qravy, J pint: 15 minutes. Mustard, dessertspoonful SAUCE PIQUANTE. Brown lightly in an ounce and a half of butter a tablespoonful of minced eschalots or three of onions; add a teaspoonful of flour when they are partially done; pour to them half a pint of gravy or of good broth, and when it boils add three chilies, a bay-leaf, and a verysmall bunch of thyme. Let these simmer for twenty minutes; take out the thyme and bay-leaf, add a high seasoning of black pepper, and half a wineglassful of the best vinegar. A quarter of a teaspoonful of cayenne may be substituted for the chilies. Eschalots, 1 tablespoonful, or three of onions; flour, 1 teaspoonful; butter, 1 i oz.: 10 to 15 minutes. Gravy or broth, i pint; chilies, 3; bay-leaf; tliyroe, small bunch: 20 minutes. Pepper, plenty; vinegar, i wineglassful. EXCELLENT HORSERADISH SAUCE. (To serve hot or cold mth roast beef.) Wash and wipe a stick of young horseradish, scrape off the cater skin, grate it as small as possible on a fine grater, then with two ounces (or a couple of large tableBpooiisful) of it mix a small teaspoonful of salt and four tablespoonsful of good cream; stir in briskly, and bj

AP, ?. SAUCES. 119 degrees, three dessertspoonsful of Tinegar, one of which should he chili vinegar when the horseradish is mild. To heat the sauce, put it into a small and delicately clean saucepan, hold it over, hut do not place it upon the fire, and stir it without intermission until it is near the point of simmering; but do not allow it to boil, or it will curdle instantlj. Horseradish pulp, 2 oz. (or 2 large tablespoonsful); salt, 1 teaspoonfol; good cream, 4 tablespoonsful; vinegar, 3 dessertspoonsful (of which one should be chili when the root is mild, 0b9. - Common English salad-mixture is often added to the grated horseradish when the sauce is to be served cold. HOT ROBSEBADISH SAUCS. (To serve with boiled or stewed meat orjish,) Mix three ounces of young tender grated horseradish with half a pint of good brown gravy, and let it stand by the side of the fire until it is on the point of boiling; add salt if required, a teaspoonful of made mustard, and a dessertKpoonful of garlic or of eschaloi vinegar; or the same quantity of chui vinegar, or twice as much common vinegar. Some cooks stew the horseradish in vinegar for ten minutes, and, after having drained it from this, mix it with nearly half a pint of thick melted butter. Horseradish, grated, 3 oz.; brown gravy, ) pint; made mustard, 1 teaspoonful; eschalot or garlic vinegar, 1 dessertppoonful (or chili vinegar, the same quaniity, or common vinegar twice as much). CHBISTOFHEB NORTH'S OWN SAUCE FOB MANT MEATS. Throw into a small basin a heaped saltspoonful of good cayenne pepper, in very fine powder, and half the quantity of salt; add a BDoall dessertspoonful of well-refined, pounded, and sifted sugar; mix these thoroughly; then pour in a tablespoonful of the strained juice of a fresh lemon, two of Harvey's sauce, a teaspoonful of the ?ery best mushroom catsup (or of cavice), and a small wineglassful of port wine. Heat the sauce by placing the basin in a saucepan of boiling water, or turn it into ajar, and place this in the water. Serve it directly it is ready with geese or ducks, tame or wild; roast pork venison, fawn, a grilled ble-bone, or any other broil. A slight flaTour of garlic or eschalot vinegar may be given to it at pleasure. Some persons eat it with fish. It is good cold; and, if bottled directly it is made, may be stored for several days. It is the better for being mixed some hours before ii is served. The proportion of cayenne may he doubled when a very pungent sauce is aesired. Ck3ra€teristieall9, th tali of thlv ftauce ought, perhaps, to prevail more strongly over the nigoitf but it will be found for moat taatea aufficieoily fiqmani m Uia.

120 MODERN GOOKEBT. cHAF. T. Chod cayenne pepper in fine powder, 1 heaped saltspoonful; salt, half as much; pounded sugar, 1 small dessertspoonful; strained lemon-juice, 1 tablespoonful; Harveys sauce, 2 tablespoonsful; best mushroom catsup (or cay ice), 1 teaspoonful; port wine, 3 tablespoonsful, or small wineglassful. (Little eschalot, or garlic vinegar at pleasure.) Ohe. - This sauce is exceedingly ood mixed with the brown gravy of a hash or stew, or with that which is served with game or other dishes. OOOSEBERRT SAUCE FOR MACKEREL. Cut the stalks and tope from half to a whole pint of quite youngs gooseberries, wash them well, just cover them with cold water, and boil them very gently indeed, until they are tender; drain and mix them with a small quantity of melted butter, made with rather less flour than usual. Some eaters prefer the mashed gooseberries without any addition; others like that of a little ginger. The best way of making this sauce b to turn the gooseberries into a hair-sieve to drain, then to press them through it with a wooden sj oon, and to stir them in a clean stewpan or saucepan over the fire with from half to a whole teaspoonful of sugar, just to soften their extreme acidity, and a bit of fresh butter about the size of a walnut. When the fruit is not passed through the sieve it is an improvement to seed it. COMMON SORREL SAUCE. Strip from the stalks and the large fibres, from one to a couple of quarts of freshly-gathered sorrel; wash it very clean, and put it into a well-tinned stewpan or saucepan (or into an enamelled one, which would be far better), without any water; add to it a small slice of good butter, some ppper and dt, and stew it gently, keeping it well stirred until it is exceedingly tender, that it may not bum; men. drain it on a sieve, or press the liquid well from it; chop it as fine aa possible, and boil it again for a few minutes with a spoonful or two of gravy, or the same quantity of cream or milk, mixed with a halfteaspoonful of flour, or with only a fresh slice of good butter. The beaten yolk of an egg or two stirred in iust as the sorrel is taken from the fire will soften the sauce greatly, and a saltspoonful of pounded sugar will also be an improvement ASPARAGUS SAUCE, FOR LAMB CUTLETS. Green cut the tender points of some young asparagus into half-inch lengths, or into the size of peas only; wash them well, then drain and throw them into plenty of boiling salt and water. When they are quite tender, which may be in from ten to fifteen minutes, turn them into a hot strainer and drain the water thoroughly from them

CHAP v. SAUCES. 121 pnt them, at the instant of serving, into half a pint of thickened veal gravy (see iouce toumSe) mixed xnth the yolks of a couple of eggs, and well seasoned with salt and cayenne, or white pepper, or into an equal (quantity of good melted hutter: add to this last a squeeze of lemon- nice. The asparagus will become yellow if reboiled, or if left long in the sauce before it is served. Asparagus points, i pint: boiled 10 to 15 minutes, longer if not quite tender. Thickened veal grav, pint; yolks of eggs, 2. Or: good melted butter, i pint; Icmon-juice, small dessertspooxiful, seaBoning of salt and white pepper. CAPER SAUCE. Stir into the third of a pint of good melted butter from three to four dessertspoonsful of capers; add a little of the vinegar, and dish the sauce as soon as it boils, keep it stirred after the berries are added: part of them may be minced and a little ehili vinegar substituted for their own. Pickled nasturtiums make a very good sauce, and their flavour is sometimes preferred to that of the capers. For a large joint, increase the quantity of butter to half a pint. Melted butter, third of pint; capers, 3 to 4 dessertspoonsful BROWN CAPER SAUCE. Thicken half a pint of good veal or beef gravy as directed for mmee taumee and add to it two tablespoonsful of capers, and a dessertmoonful of the pickle liquor, or of chili vinegar, with some cayenne ii the former be used, and a proper seasoning of salt. Thickened veal, or beef gnvj, pint; capers, 2 tablespoonsful; caper liquor or chili vinegar, 1 dessertspoonful. CAPER SAUCE FOR FISH. To nearly half a pint of very rich melted butter add six spoonsful of ttroRg veal gravy or jelly, a tablespoonful of essence of anchovies, and some chili vinegar or cayenne, and from two to three tablespoonsful of capers. AVhen there is no gravy at hand substitute a half wineglassful of mushroom catsup, or of Harvey8 sauce; though these deepen the colour more than is desirable. COMMON CUCUMBER SAUCE, Fare, slice, dust slightly with pepper and with flour, two or three young encumbers, and fry them a fine brown in a little butter, or dissolve an ounce and a half in a small stcwpan or iron saucepan, and shake them in it over a brisk fire' from twelve to fifteen minutes; pour to them by decrees nearly half a pint of strong beef broth, or of brown gravy; add nit, and more pepper if required;

122 MODERN COOKEBT. chaf. t stew the whole for five minutes, and send the sauce very hot to table. A minced onion may be browned with the cucumbers when it is liked, and a spoonful of vinegar added to them before they are served. Cucumbers, 2 or 3; butter, 1 oz.; broth or gravy, nearly I pint; salt, pepper. A170THEB OOMMON 8AU0E OF CUCmCBEBS. Cucumbers which have the fewest seeds are best for this saace. Pare and slice it€o or three, should they be small, and put them into a saucepan, in which two ounces, or rather more, uf butter have beea dissolved, and are beginning to boil; place them high over the fi.re, that they may stew as softly as possible, without t&ing colour, for three-quarters of an hour, or longer should they require it; add to them a good seasoning of white pepper and some salt, when they are half done; and just before they are served stir to them half a teaspoonful of flour, mixed with a morsel of butter; strew in some minced parsley, give it a boil, and iiniBh with a spoonful of good yiuegar. WmTB OUCUMBEE SAUCE. Quarter some young quickly-grown cucumbers, without many seeds in them; empty them of these, and take off the rinds. Cut them into inch lengths, and boU them from fifteen to eighteen minutes in salt and water; press the water from them with the back of a apoon, and work them through a sieve; mix them with a few spoons ful of bichamel, or thick white sauce; do not let them boil again, but serve them venr hot. A sauce of better fiavour is made by boiling the cucumbers m veal gravy well seasoned, and stirring in the beateu yolks of two or three eggs and a little chili vinegar or lemon-juice, at the instant of serving. Another also of cucumbers sliced, and stewed in I utter, but without being at all browned, and then boiled in pale veal gravy, which must be thickened with rich creana, is excellent. A morsel of sugar improves thi sauce. Cucumbers, 3: 15 to 18 minutes. White sauce, i pint. WHITE MUSHBOOM BAUGB. Cut off the stems closely from half a pint of small button muphrooms; clean them with a little salt and a bit of flannel, and threw them into cold water, slightly salted, as they are done; drain them well, or dry them in a soft cloth, and throw them into half a pint of boiling bichamel (see page 108), or of white sauce made with very fresh milk, or thin creami thickoned with a tablespoonful of flour and two ounces of butter. Simmer the mushrooms from ten to twenty minutes, or until they are quite tender, and dish the saiice; which should be properly seasoned with salt, mace, and cajenue.

CHAF. Tj SAUCES. 128 Mnshrooinsy ) pint; white sauce, i pint; seasoning of salt, mace, and cayenne: 10 minutes. AHOTHER IfUBHBOOM SAUOX. Prepare from half to a whole pint of very small mushroombuttons with grent nicety, and throw them into an equal quantity of tauee toumSe; when ther are tender add a few spoonsful of rich cream, gire the whole a boil, and serve it. Either of these sauces may be sent to table with boiled poultry, breast of veal, or veal cutlets: the sauee toumee should be thickened rather more than usual when it is to be used in this receipt. Mashrooms and sauce toumSe each, to whole pint: stewed till tender. Cream, 4 to 8 tablespoonsful. BBOWN IfUSHBOOH 8AU0B. Very small flaps, peeled and freed entirely from the fur, will answer for this sauce. Leave them whole or quarter them, and stew them tender in some rich brown gravy; give a full seasoning of mace and cayenne, add thickening and salt if needed, and a tablespoonful of good mushroom catsup. COMMON TOMATA SAUCE. Tomatas are so juicy when ripe that they require little or no liquid to reduce them to a proper consistence for sauce; and they vary so exceedingly in size and quality that it is difficult to give precise directions for the exact quantity which in their unripe state is needed for them. Take off the stalks, halve the tomatas, and gently i queeze out the seeds and watery pulp; then stew them softly with a few spoonsful of gravy or of strong broth until they are quite melted. Press the whole through a hair-sieve, and heat it afresh with a little additional gvy should it be too thick, and some cayenne, and salt. Serve it very hot. Fine ripe tomatas, 6 or 8; gravy or strong broth, 4 tablespoonsful: i to i hour, or longer if needed. Salt and cayenne sufficient to season the sauce, and two or three spoonsful more of gravy if required. Oba, - For a large tureen of this sance, increase the proportions; and should it be at first too liquid, reduce it by quick boihng. When neither gravy nor broth is at hand, the tomatas may be stewed perfectly tender, but very gently, in a couple of ounces of butter, with some cayenne and salt only, or with the addition of a very little finely minced onion; then rubbed through a sieve, and heated, and served without any addition, or with only that of a teaspoonful of chili vinegMr; or, when the colour is not a principal consideration, with a few spoonsful of rich cream, smoothly mixed with a little flour to

124 MODERN COCKERY, chap. v. prevent its curdling. The sauce must be stirred without ceasing should the last be added, and boiled for four or five minutes. A FINEB TOMATA SAUCE. Stew very gently a dozen fine red tomatas, prepared as for the preceding receipt, with two or three sliced eschnlotA, four or five chilies or a capsicum or two (or iu lieu of either, with a quarter of a teaspoonful of cayenne pepper), a few small dice of lean ham, and half a cupful of rich gravy. Stir these often, and when the tomatas are reduced Soite to a smooth pulp, rub them through a sieve; put them into a ean saucepan, with a few spoonsful more of rich gravy, or Espoff noltj add salt if needed, boil the sauce stirring it well for ten minutes, and serve it very hot. When the gravy is exceedingly good and highly flavoured, the ham may be otnittid: a dozen small mushrooms nicely cleaned may also be sliced and stewed with the tomatas, instead of the eschalots, when their flavour is preferred, or they may be added with them The exact proportion of liquid used is immaterial, for should the sauce be too thin it may b reduced by rapid boiling, and diluted with more gravy if too thick. BOILED APPLE SAUCE. Apples of a fine cooking sort require but a very small portion of liquid to boil down well and smoothly for sauce, if placed over a gentle fire in a close-shutting saucepan, and simmered as noftlv as possible until they are well broken; and their flavour is injured by the common mode of adding so much to them, that the greater part must be drained off again before they are sent to table. Pare the fruit quickly, quarter it, and be careful entirely to remove the cores; put one tablespoonful of water into a saucepan before the apples are thrown in, and proceed, as we have directed, to simmer them until they are nearly ready to serve: finith the sauce by the receipt which follows. Apples, ) lb.; water, 1 tablespoonful; stewed very softly: 30 to 60 minutes. Oha, - These proportions are sufficient only for a small tureen of the Kauce, and should be doubled for a large one. For this, and all other preparations, apples will be whiter if just dipped into fresh water the instant before the are put into the stewpan. They should be quickly lifted from it, and will stew down easily to sauce with only the moisture which hangs about thenu They iihouid be watched and often gently aiirred, that they may be equally done. BASED APPLE SAUCE. (Good.) Pnt a tablespoonful of water into a quart basin, and fill it with good boiling apples, pared, quartered, and carefully cored; put a

CHAP. T.J SAUCES. 125 plate orer, and set them into a moderate oren for about an hour, or until tbej are reduced quite to a pulp; beat them smooth with a clean wooden spoon, adding to them a little sugar and a morsel of fresh butter, when these are liked, though they will scarcely be required. The sauce made thus is far superior to that which is boiled. When no other oven is at band, a Dutch or an American one would probably answer for it; but we cannot assert this on our own experience. Good boiling spples, 1 quart: baked 1 hour (more or less according to the quality uf the fruit, and temperature of the oren); bugar, 1 ox.; batter, i oz BBOWN APPLE SAUCE. Stew gently down to a thick and perfectly smooth marmalade, a pound of pearmains, or of any other well-flavoured boiling apples, in about the third of a pint of rich brown gravy: season the sauce rather highly with black pepper or cayenne, and serve it very hot. Gurry sauce will make an excelleut substitute for the gravy when a very piquant accompaniment is wanted for pork or other rich meat. Apples pared and cored, 1 lb.; good brown gravy, third of pint i to 11 hour. Pepper or cayenne as needed. WHITB ONIOW SAUCE. Strip the skin from some large white onioufi, and after having taken off the tops and routs cut them in two, throw them into cold water as they are done, cover tbem plentifully with more water, and boil them very tender; lift them out, drain, and then press the water thoroughly from them; chop them small, rub them through a sieve or strainer, put them into a little rich melted butter mixed with a spoonful or two of cream or milk, and a seasoning of salt, give the saoee a boil, and serve it very hot. Portugal onions are superior to aoT others, both for this and for most other purposes of cookery. JTor the finest kind of onion sauce, see Soubise, which follows. BBOWN OBION SAUCE. Out off both ends of the onions, and slice them into a saucepan in which two ounces of butter have been dissolved; keep them slewing gently over a clear fire until they are lightly coloured; then pour to tbem half a pint of brown gravy, and when they have boiled until they are perfectly tender, work the sauce altogether through a strainer i it with a little cayeune, and serve it very hot.

ANOTHEB BBOWN ONION SAUCE. MiDce the onion, stew them in butter until they are well coloured, •tir in a deasertipoonful of flour, shake the stewpan over the fire for

126 MODERN COOKERY. chap. . three or four minutes, pour in only as much broth or gravy as will leare the sauce tolerably thick season, and serve it. BOUBISE. (English Receipt) Skin, slice, and mince quickly two pounds' weight of the white part only of some fine mild onions, and stew them in from two to three ounces of good butter over a rery gentle fire until they are reduced to a pulp, then pour to them three-quarters of a pint of rich Teal gravy; add a seasoning of salt and cayenne, if needed; skim off the fat entirely, press the sauce through a sieve, heat it in a clean stewpan, mix it with a quarter of a pint of rich boiling cream, and serve it directly. Onions, 2 lbs.; butter, 2 to 3 oz.: 30 minutes to 1 boor. Yeal gravy, ) pint; salt, cayenne: 5 minutes. Cream, i pint, BOUBISE. (French Receipt.) Peel some fine white onions, and trim away all tough and dis. coloured parts; mince them small, and throw them into plen of boiling water; when they have boiled quickly for five minutes drain them well in a sieve, then stew them very softly indeed in an ounce or two of fresh butter until thev are dry and perfectly tender; stir to them as much bechamel as will bring them to the consistence of very thick pea-ROup, pass the whole through a strainer, pressing the onion strongly that none may remain bind, and heat the sauce afresh, without allowing it to buiL A small half-teaspoonful of pounded sugar is sometimes added to this eottbise. White part of onions, 2 lbs.: blanched 5 minutes. Butter, 2 oz.: 30 to 50 minutes. Bechamel, ) to 1 pint, or more. Obs. - These sauces are served more frequently with lamb or mutton cutlets than with any other dishes; but they would probahlj find many approvers if sent to table with roast mutton, or boiled vetil. Half the quantity given above will be sufficient for a moderateaiEed dish. lOLD BAOOUT OF OARUC, OR, L'aIL ? LA B0BDELAI8B. Divide some fine cloves of garlic, strip off the skin, and when all are ready throw them into plenty of boiling water slightly salted; in five minutes drain this from them, and pour in as much more, which should also be quite boiling; continue to change it every five or six minutes until the garlic is quite tender: throw in a moderate proportion of salt the last time to give it the proper flavour. Drain it thoroughlyi and serve it in the (&sh with roast mutton, or pat it iofeo

CHAP. Y. SAUCBS. 127 good brown gnrf or white sance for table. By cban'ng very frequently the water in which it is boiled, the root will be deprived of its natarally pungent flavonr and amell, and rendered extremely mild: when it is not wished to be quite so much so, change the water ereiy ten minutes only. Garlic, 1 pint: 15 to 25 minutes, or more. Water to be changed erery 5 or 6 minutes; or every 10 minutes when not wished so very nuld. Gravy or sauce, 1 pint.

MILD ESCHALOT AAUOE. Prepare and boil from half to a whole pint of eschalots by the preceding receipt; unless very large, they will be tender in about fifteen minutes, sometimes in less, in which case the water must be poured from them shortly after it has been changed for the second time. When grown in a suitable soil, and cultivated with care, the eschalots are sometimes treble the size that they are under other circamstancea; and this difference must be allowed for in boiling them. Drain them veUp and mix them with white sauce or gravy, or with good melted butter, and serve them very hot,

A niTE SAUOE, OR PUREB OF YEOBTABLE ICABROW. Pare one or two half-grown marrows and cut out all the seeds; take a pound of the vegetable, and slice it, with one ounce of mild onion, into a pint of strong veal broth or of pale gravy; stew them very softly for nearly or quite an hour; add salt and cayenne, or white pepper, when they are nearly done; press the whole through a fine and delicately clean hair-sieve; heat it afresh, and stir to it when it boils about ihe third of a pint of rich cream. Serve it with boiled chickens, stewed or boiled veal, lamb cutlets, or any other delicate meat. When to be served as a pur6e, an additional halfpound of the vegetable mat be used; and it should be dished with small fried sippets round it. For a maigre dih, stew the marrow and onion quite tender in butter, and dilute them with half boiling water and half cream Vegetable marrow, 1 lb.; mild onion, 1 oz.; strong broth or pale gravy, 1 pint: nearly or quite 1 hour. Pepper or cavenne, and salt as needed; good cream, from i to of pint. For puree, i lb. more of

BXCELLENT TURNIP, OR ARTICHOKE SAUCE FOB BOILED MEAT. Pare, slice, and boil quite tender, some finely-grained mild turnips, pFre the water from them thoroughly, and pass them through a sieve. Dissolve a slice of butter in a clean saucepan, and stir to it a large teaspoonfol of flour, or mix them smoothly together before they are pat in, and shake the saucepan round until Uiey boil: pour to

128 MODERN COOKERY. chap. T. them rerj gradually nearly a pint of thin cream (or of good milk mixed with a portion of crenm), add the turuips with a half-teafipoonful or more of salt, and when the whole ia well mixed and very hot, pour it over hoiled mutton, veal, lamb, or poultry. There should be sufficient of the sauce to cover the meat entirely; and when properly miide it improves greatly the appearance of a joint. A little cayenne tied in a muslin may be boiled in the milk before it is mixed with the turnips. Jerusalem artichokes make a more delicate sauce of this kind even than turnips; the weight of boih regetables most be taken nfter they are pared. Pared turnips or artichokes, 1 lb.; fresh butter, IJ oz.; flour, 1 large teaspoonful (twice as much if all milk be used); salt, i teaspoonful or more; cream, or cream and milk mixed, from to 1 pint. OLITE BAUCB. Remore the stones from some fine French or Italian olives bj paring the fruit close to them, round and round in the form of a corkscrew: they will then resume their original shape when done. Weigh six ounces thus prepared, throw them into boiling water, let them blanch for five minutes; then drain, and throw them into cold water, and leave them in it from half an hour to an hour, proportioning the time to their sal tn ess; drain them well, and stew them gently from fifteen to twenty-five minutes in a pint of very rich brown gravy or Espagtiole (see Chapter IV.); add the juice of half a lemon, and serve the sauce very hot. Half this quantity will be sufficient for a small party. Olives, stoned, 6 oz.; rich gravy, 1 pint: 15 to 25 minutes. Juice, i lemon. Obs.ln France this sauce is served very commonly with ducks, and sometimes with beef-steaks, and with btewed fowL CELERY SAUCE. Slice the white part of from three to five heads of young tender celery; peel it if not very young, and boil it in salt and water for twenty minutes. If for white sauce put the celery, after it has been well drained, into half a pint of veal broth or gravy, and let it stew until it is quite soft; then add an ounce and a half of butter, mixed wiih a dessertspoonful of flour, and a quarter of a pint of thick cream or the yolks of three e&;gs. The French, after boiling the celery, which they cut very small, for about twenty minutes, drain and chop it; then put it with a slice of butter into a stew-pan, and season u with pepper, salt, and nutmeg; they keep these stirred orer the fii The objection to maikiny a Joint with thU or sny other uuce is, that U speedily becomes cold when spread over its sarflwes a portion of It at ' should be served very hot in a tureen.

CSAP. yj 8AUGE& 129 for two or three minutes, and then dredge in a dessertspoonful of flour: when this has lost its raw taste, they pour in a sufficient quantity of white grary to moisten the celery, and to allow for twenty minutes' longer boiling. A very good common celery sauce is made by simply stewing the celery cut into inch-lengths in butter, until it hins to be tender; and then adding a sinful of flour, which must be allowed to brovm a little, and half a pmt oigood broth or beef gravy, with a seasoning of pepper or cayenne. Celery, 3 to 5 heads: 20 mmutes. Veal broth, or gravy, pint 20 to 40 minutes. Butter, 1 02.; flour, 1 dessertspoonful; cream, i pint, or three yolks of eggs. WniTE CHESTNUT SAUCE. Strip the outer rind from six ounces of sound sweet chestnuts, then throw them into boiling water, and let them simmer for two or three minutes, when the second skin will easily peel ofi: Add to them three quarters of a pint of good cold yeal gravy, and a few strips of lemon rmd, and let them stew gently for an hour and a quarter. Press them, with the gravy, through a hair-sieve reversed and placed over a deep dish or pan, as they are much more easily rubbed through thus than in the uroal way: a wooden spoon should be used in preference to any other for the process. Add a little cayenne and mace, some salt if needed, and about six tablespoonsful of rich cream. Keep the sauee stirred until it boils, and serve it immediately. Chestnuts without their rinds, 6 oz.; veal gravy, f pint; rind of lemon: 1 hour. Salt; spice; cream, 6 tabkspoonsful. Oh9. - This sauce may be served ¥rith turkey, vrith fowls, or with stewed veal-cutlets. BUOWN CHESTNUT SAUCE. Substitute rich brown gravy for the veal stock, omit the lemonrind and cream, hdghten the seasoninffs, and mix the chestnuts with a few spoonsful of ISspagnole or highly flavoured gravy, ailer they have been passed through the sieve. PARSLEY-GREEN, FOR COLOURING SAUCES Gather a quantity of young parsley, strip it from the stalks, wash H very clean, shake it as dry as possible in a cloth, pound it in a mortar, press all the juice closely from it through a hair-sieve leversed, and put it into a clean jar; set it into a pan of lH)iling water, and in about three minutes, if gently simmered, the juice will be poached sufficiently; lay it then upon a clean sieve to drain, and it will be ready for use. Spinach-green, for which particular directions will be found at the eoDunencement of Chapter XXIV., is prepared in the same manner. The juice of various nerbs pounded together may be pressed from Uiem through a sieve and added to cold sauces. K

130 HODEBN COOKEET. chip, t.

TO CRISP PARSLEY. Wash some branches of young parsley well, drain them from the niter, and swing them in a clean cloth until they are quite dry; place them on a sheet of writing paper in a Butch oven, before a brisk fire, and keep them frequently turned until they are quite crisp. They will become so in from six to eight minutes. FRIED PARSLEY. When the parsley has been prepared as for crisping, and is quite dry, throw it into plenty of lard or butter, which is on the point of boiling; take it up with a skimmer the instant it is crisp, and drain it on a cloth spread upon a sieye reyersed, and placed before the £re. MILD MUSTARD. Mustard for instant use should be mixed with milk, to which a spoonl or two of yery thin cream may be added. MUSTARD THE COMMON WAY. The great art of mixing mustard is to haye it perfectly smooth, and of a proper consistency. The liquid with which it is moistened should be added to it in small quantities, and the mustard should be well rubbed, and beaten with a spoon. Mix half a teaspoonful of salt with two ounces of the flour of mustard, and stir to them by deecs sufficient boiling water to reduce it to the appearance of a thick batter: do not put it into the mustard-glass until it is cold. Some persons like a nalf-teaspoonful of sugar in the finest powder mixed with it. It ought to be sufficiently diluted always to drop easily from the spoon; ana to bring it to this state more than a quarter of a pint, and less than half a pint of liquid will be needed for foiDu: ounces of the best Durham mustar d. For Tartar mustard see Chapter YJl. FRENCH BATTER. (For frying vegetables and far appUy peachy or orange fritters. Gut a couple of ounces of good butter into small bits, pour on it less than a quarter of a pint of boiling water, and when it is dissolyed add three quarters of a pint of cold water, so that the whole shall not be quite milk warm; mix it then by drees and very smoothly with twelye ounces of fine dry flour and a smaU pinch of salt if the batter be for fruit fritters, but with more if for meat or vegetables. Just before it is used, stir into it the whites of two eggs beaten to a solid froth; but previously to this, add a little water should it appar too thick, as some flour requires more liquid than other to bnng it to the proper consistence; this is an excelingly light crisp batter, excellent for the purposes for which it is named.

CHAP, v. SAUCES. 181 Butter, 2 oz.; water, from $ to nearly 1 pint; little salt; flour, i lb.; whites of 2 eggs, beaten to snow. TO PKEPARE BREAD FOR FRYING FISH. Cut thick slices from the middle of a loaf of light stale bread, pare the crust entirely from them, and dry them gradually in a cool oven until they are crisp quite through; let them become cold, then roll or beat them into nne crumbs, and keep them in a dry place for use. To strew over hams or cheeks of bacon, the bread should be left all night in the oven, which should be sufficiently heated to brown, as well as to harden it: it ought indeed to be entirely converted into equally-coloured crust. It may be sifted through a dredging-box on to the hams after it has been reduced almost to powder. BB0W19ED FLOUR FOR THICKENING SOUPS AND GRAVIES. Spread it on a tin or dish and colour it, without burning, in a gentle oren or before the fire in a Butch or American oven: turn it often, or the edges will be too much brovnied before the middle is enough 80. This, blended with butter, makes a convenient thickening for soups or gpravies of which it is desirable to deenen the colour; and it requires less time and attention than the French raux of page 10 FRIED BREAD-CRUMBS. Grate lightly into very fine crumbs four ounces of stale bread, and s?iake them through a cullender; without rubbing or touching them with the hands. Dissolve two ounces of fresh butter in a frying-pan, throw in the crumbs, and stir them constantly over a moderate fire, until they are all of a clear golden colour; mt them 4)ut with a skimmer, spread them n a soft cloth, or upon white blotting paper, laid upon a sieve reversed, and dry them before the fire. They may be more delicately prepared by browning them in a gentle oven without the addition of butter. Bread, 4 oz.; butter, 2 oz. FRIED BREAD FOR GARNISHING. Out the crumb of a stale loaf in slices a quarter of an inch thick; form them into diamonds or half diamonds, or shape them with a paste-cutter in any another way; fry them in fresh butter, some of a yeiy pole brown and others a deeper colour; dry them wdl, and place them altematel V round the dish that is to be eamished. They may be made to adhere to the edge of the dish when they are required for ornament only, by means of a little flour and white of egg brushed over the ode which is placed on it: this must be allowed to dry besS&re they are aerred. For SwxBT-FUDDiRO Sauces, see Chapter XX. TUs is not oMessary when they aie lightly and finely grated of nnifona 9vu

132 MODERN COOKERY. chap. YL,

CHAPTER VI. tf0l2r Bmts, BMi, tic. SUPERIOR MINT-SAUCE (To serve with lamb.') The mint for this sauce should be fresh and young, for when old it is toUjg;h and indigestible. Strip the leaves from 3ie stems, wash them with great nicety, and drain them on a sieve, or dry them in a doth; chop them very fine, put them into a sauce-tureen, and to three heaped tablespoonsflQ of the mint add two of pounded sugar; let them remain a short time well mixed together, then pour to them gradually six tablespoonsful of good vinegar. The sauce thus made IS excellent, and far more wholesome than when a larger proportioa of vinar and a smaller one of sugar is used for it; but, aner the first trial, the proportions can easily be adapted to the taste of the eaters. COMMON MINT-SAUCE. Two tablespoonsful of mint, one 2u9etablespoonful of pale brown sugar, well mixed together, and a Quarter of a pint of vinegar, stirred until the sugar is entirely dissolveo. STRAINED MINT SAUCE. Persons with whom the mint in substance disagrees can have the flavour of the herb without it, hj mixing the ingredients of either oT the preceding receipts, and straining the sauce after it has stood for two or three hours; the mint should be well pressed when this i done. The flavour will be the more readily extracted if the mint and sugar are well mixed, and left for a time before the vinegar is

CHAP Tl. COLD SAUCES, SALADS, ETC. 133 PINE HORSERADISH SAUCE. (70 serve with cdH roast stewed or hoUed heef The root for this excellent sauce should be young and tender, and mted down on a very fine bright grater, quite to a pulp, after it has been washed, wiped, and scrap free from the outer skm. We have given the proportions for it in the preceding chapter, but repeat them here. Horseradish, 2 heaped tablespoonsful; salt, 1 moderate teaspoonflil; rich cream, 4 tablespoonsful; good dnegar, 3 dessertspoonsful (of which one may be chili vinegar when the root is mild.) When the other ingredients are smoothly mingled, the vinegar must be stirred briskly to them in very small portions. A few drops of garlic or shalot vinegar can be added to them when it is liked. COLD MAITRE d'HOTEL, OR 8TEWARDS SAUCE. Work well together until they are perfectly blended, two or three ounces of good butter, some pepper, salt, minced parsley, and the strained juice of a sound lemon of moderate size. The sauce thus prepared is often put into broiled fish; and laid in the dish under broiled kidneys, beef-steaks, and other meat. For 2 oz. butter, 1 heaped teaspoonful young minced parsley; juice of 1 lemon; 1 small saltspoonful salt; seasoning of white pepper. Ohs. - The proportion of parsley may be doubled when a larger ouantity is liked: a little fine cayenne would often be preferred to ue pepper. GOLD DUTCH OR AMERICAN SAUCE, FOR SALADS OF DRESSED YEOETABLES, SALT FISH, OR HARD EGOS. Put into a saucepan three ounces of good butter very smoothly blended with a quite small teaspoonful of flour, and add to them a large wineglassful of cold water, half as much sharp vinegar (or very fresh, strained, lemon-juice) a ndtspoonful of salt, and half as much cayenne in fine powder. Keep these shaken briskly round, or stirred over a clear fire, until they form a smooth sauce and boil rapidly; then stir them verjr quickly to the beaten yolks of four fresh eggs, which will immediately give the sauce the consistence of cust; pour it hot over the safad, and place it on ice, or in a very cool larder until it is quite cold: if properly made, it will be very thick and smooth, and slightly eetj as if it contained a small portion of isinglass. A dessertspoonful of parsley, - or of tarragon,-- can be mingled with it at pleasure or any flavour given to it with store-sauces which is liked. It converts flakes of salt-fish, sliced potatoes Tnew or old) and hard eggs, into excellent salads.

134 MODEBN COOKERY. fcHitP. Yi.

ENGLISH SAUCE FOR SALAD, COLD MEAT, OR COLD FISH. The first essential for a smooth, well-made English salad dressing, is to have the yolks of the eggs used for it sufficiently hard to be reduced easily to a perfect paste. They should be boiled at least fifteen minutes, and should have become qtdte cold before they are taken from the shells; they should also be well covered with water when they are cooked, or some parts of them will be tough, and will spoil the appearance of the sauce by rendering it lumpy, unless they be worked through a sieve, a process which is always better avoided if possible. To a couple of yolks broken up and mashed to a paste with the back of a wooden spoon, add a small saltspoonful of t, a large one of pounded sugar, a few grains of fine cavenne, and a teaspoonful of cold water; mix these well, and stir to them by degrees a quarter of a pint of sweet cream; throw in next, stirring the sauce briskly, a tablespoonful of strong chili vinegar, and add as much common or French vinegar as will acidulate the mixture agreeably. A tablespoonful of either will be sufiicient for many tastes, but it iseasy to increase the proportion when more is liked. Six tablespoonsful of olive oil, of the purest quality, may be substituted ror the cream: it should be added in very small portions to the other ingredients, and stirred briskly as each is added until the sauce resembles custard. When this is used, the water should be omitted. The Siquancy of this preparation - which is very delicate, made by the irections just given - may be heightened by the addition of a little eschalot vinegar, Harvey's sauce, essence of anchovies, French mustard, or tarragon vinegar; or by bruising with the eggs a morsel of garlic, half the size of a hazel-nut: it should always, however be rendered as appropriate as may be to the dish with which it is to be served. Obs. 1. - As we have before had occasion to remark, garlic, when very sparingly and judiciously used, imparts a remarkably fine savour to a sauce or gravy, and neitner a strong nor a coarse one, as it doeswhen used in larger quantities. The veriest morsel (or, as the French call it, a mere soupgon) of the root, is sufficient to give this agreeable piquancy, but unless the proportion be extremely small, the effect will be quite different. The Italians dress their salads upon a round of delicately toasted bread, which is rubbed with lic, saturated with oil, and sprinkled with cayenne, before it is laid into the bowl: they also eat the bread thus prepared, but ynth less of oil, and untoasted often, before their meals, as a digester. Obs. 2. - French vinegar is so infinitely superior to English in. strength, purity, and flavour, that we cannot forbear to recommend, it in preference for the use of the table. We have for a long time past been supplied with some of most excellent quality (labelled. Vinaigre de jBordeaiix) imported by the Messrs. Kent & Sons, g Upton-on- Severn, who supply it largely, we believe, both to wholesale and retul venders in town and country.

CHAP. Ti. COLD SAUCES SALADS, ETC. 135 THE POETS RECEIPT FOR SALAD. Two large potatoes, passed through kitchen sieve Unwonted softness to the salad give; Of mordent mustard, add a single spoon, J istrust the condiment which bites so soon; But deem it not, thou man of herbs, a fault, To add a double quantity of salt; Three times the spoon with oil of Lucca cro¥ni, And once with vinegar, procured from town; True flavour needs it, and your poet begs The pounded yellow of two well-boiled eggs; Let onion atoms lurk within the bowl. And, scarce suspected, animate the whole; And lastly, in the flavoured compound toss A magic teaspoon of anchovy sauce: Then, though green turtle fail, though venison & tough. And ham and turkey are not boiled enough, Serenely full, the epicure may say - Fate cannot harm me, - I have dined to-day. Two well-boiled potatoes, passed through a sieve; a teaspoonful of mustard; two teaspoonsful of salt; one of essence of anchovy; about a quarter of a teaspoonful of very finely-chopped onions, well bruised into the mixture; three tablespoonsful of oil; one of vineffar; the yolks of two ep, hard boiled. Stir up the salad immediate before dinner, and stir it up thoroughly. NJB. - As this salad is the residt of great experience and reflection, it is hoped young salad makers will not attempt to make any improvements upon it. fiAUCE MAYONNAISE. (For salads J cold mealfpordtryJUh or vegetables,) This is a very fine sauce when all the ingredients used for it are good; but it will prove an uneatable compound to a delicate taste unless it be made with oil of the purest quality. Put into a large basin the yolks only of two very fresh eggs, carefully freed from specks, with a little salt and cayenne; stir these well together, then add about a teaspoonful of the purest salad oil, and work the mixture round with a wooden spoon until it appears like cream. Four in by slow degrees nearly half a pint of oil, continuing • Note. - This receipt, though long privately circulated amongst the fi-iends and acquaintance of its distinguished and regretted author, now (with permisaion) appears for the first time in print. We could not venture to deviate by a word fntvn the original, but we would suggest, that the mixture forms almost a tubstitute for aalad, instead of a mere dressing. It is, however, an admirable compoiind for those to whom the slight flavouring of onion is not an objection.

136 MODERN COOKERY. chap. vt. nt each interval to work the sauce as at first until it resumes the smoothness of cream, and not a particle of the oil remains visible; then add a couple of tablespoonsful of plain French or of tarragon vinegar, and one of cold water to whiten the sauce. A bit of clear veal jelly the size of an egg will improve it greatly. The reader who may have a prejudice agamst the unboiled eggs which enter into the composition of the Mayonnaise, will find that the most fastidious taste would not detect their being raw, if the sauce be well made; and persons who dislike oil may partake of it in this form, without bein aware of its presence, provided always that it be perfectly fresh, and pure in flavour, for otherwise it will be easily perceptible. Yolks of fresh unboiled eggs, 2; salt, tspoonful, or rather more; cayenne; oil, full third of pint; French or tarragon vinegar, 2 tablespoonsful; cold water, 1 tablespoonful; meat jelly (if at hand, size of an egg. RED OR GREEN MAYONNAISE SAUCE. Colour may be given cither to the preceding or to the following Sauce Mayonnaise by mingling with it some hard lobster-coral reduced to powder by rubbing it through a very fine hair -sieve: the red hue of this is one of the most brilliant and beautiful that can be seen, but the sauce for which it is used can only be appropriately served with fish or fish -salads. Spinach-green will impart a fine tint to any preparation, but its flavour is objectionable: that of parsley -green is more agreeable. Directions for both of these are contained in the previous chapter. IMi'ERIAl B1AY0NNAI8E. (An elegant jellied scucef or salad-dressing,) Put into a bowl half a pint of aspiCy or of any very dear pale jellied stock (that made usually for good white soup will 8er'e for the purpose excellently); add to it a couple of spoonsful of the purest olive-oil, one of sharp vinegar, and a little fine salt and cayenne. Break up the jelly quite small with the points of a whisk of osier-twigs, stir the ingredients well together, and then whisk them gently until they are converted into a smooth white sauce. Thb receipt was derived originally from an admirable French cook, who stood quite at the head of his profession; but as he was accustomed to purvey for the tables of kings and emperors, his directions require some curtailment and simplilying to adapt them to the resources of common English life, lie directs the preparation to be mixed and worked - to use a technical expression - over ice, which cannot always be commanded, except in opulent establishments, and in large towns. It is MoDsienr Careme, to whose somewhat elaborate bat admirable works, pnblished thirty years or oiore since, all modem cooks appear to be spedaUy indebted.

CHAP. VI. COLD SAUCES, SALADS, ETC. 137 not, however, essential to the success of this sauce, which will prove extremely good if made and kept in a cool larder; or, if the bowl in which it is mingled be placed in a pan of cold water, into which plenty of saltpetre and sal-ammoniac, roughly powdered, are thrown at the moment it is set into it. In this country a smaller proportion of oil, and a larger one of acid, are usually preferred to the common French salad-diings, in which there is generally a very small portion of vinegar. To some tastes a spoonful or two of cream would improve the present Mayonnaise, which may be varied also with chili, tarragon, or other flavoured vinegar. It should be served heaped high in the centre of the salad, for which, if large, double the quan tity directed here should be prepared. REMOULADE. This differs little from an ordinary English salad-dressing. Found very smoothly indeed the yolks of two or three hard-boiled eggs with a teaspoonful of mustard, half as much salt, and some cavenne, or white pepper. Mix gradually with them, working the whole well together, two or three tablespoonsful of oil and two of vinegar. Should the sauce be curdled, puur it by degrees to the yolk of a raw €, stirring it well round as directed for the Mayonnaise. A spoonful of tarrafron, cucumber, or eschalot-vinr, may be added with very good effect; and to give it increased relish, a teaspoonful of cavice, or a little of flarveys sauce, and a dessertspoonful of chili vinegar may be thrown into it. This last is an exceflent addition to all cold sauces, or salad-dressings. Hard yolks of 2 or of 3 eggs; mustard, 1 teaspoonful (more when liked); salt, teaspoonful: pepper or cayenne; oil, 3 tablespoonsful; vinegar, 2. If cunlled, yolk of 1 raw egg. Good additions: tarragon or eschalot, or cucumber- vinegar, I tablespoonful; chili vinegar, 1 dessertspoonful; cavice or Harvey's sauce at pleasure. Ohe. - A dessertspoonful of eschalots, or a morsel of garlic, very finely minced, are sometimes pounded with the yolks of eggs for this

OXFORD DRAWN SAUCE. Mingle thoroughly a tablespoonful of brown sugar with a teanioonful of made mustard, a third as much of salt, some pepper, from three to four tablespoonsful of very fine salad-oil, and two of strong vinegar; or apportion the same ingredients otherwise to the taste. FORCED EGGS FOR GARNISHING SALAD. Found and press through the back of a hair-sieve the flesh of three very fine, or of four moderate-sized anchovies, freed from the bones jnd skin. Boil six fresh eggs for twelve minutes, and when they are

138 MODERN GOOKEBT. chap. yz. perfectly cold, halve them lenhwise, take out the yolks, pound them to a paste with a third of tneir volume of fresh hutter, then add the anchovies, a quarter of a teaspoonful of mace, and as much cayenne as will season the mixture well; heat these together thoroughly, and fill the whites of egg neatly with them. A morsel of garfic, perfectly hlended with the other ingredients, would to some tastes improve this preparation: a portion of anchovy-hutter, or of potted ham, will supply the place of fish in it very advantageouy. &5t 6; anchovies, 4; hutter, size of 2 yolks; mace, i teaspoonful; cayenne, third as much. ANCHOVY BUTTER. (Excellent.) Scrape the skin quite clear from a dozen fine mellow anchovies, free the flesh entirely from the hones, and pound it as smooth as possihle in a mortar; ruh it through the hack of a hair-sieve with a wooden spoon; wipe out the mortar, and put hack the anchovies with three quarters of a pound of very fresh hutter, a small halfsaltspoonful of cayenne, and more than twice as much of finely grated nutmeg, and freshly pounded mace; and beat them together until they are thoroughly blended. If to serve cold at table, mould the butter in small shapes, and turn it ont. A little rose pink (which is sold at the chemists) is sometimes used to give it a fine colour, but it must be sparingly used, or it will impart an unpleasant flavour, and we cannot much recommend its use: it should be well pounded, and very equally mixed with it. For kitchen use, press the butter down into jars or pattypans, and keep it in a cool place. Fine anchovies, 12; butter, lb.; cayenne, small saltspoonful; nutmeg and mace, each more than twice as much; rose pink (if used) i teaspoonful. This proportion difiers from potted anchovies only in the larger proportion of butter mixed with the fish, and the milder seasoning of spice. It will assist to form an elegant dish if made into pats, and stamped with a tasteful impression, then placed alternately with pats of lobster-butter, and decorated with light foliage. It is generally eaten with much relish when carefully compounded, and makes excellent sandwiches. To convert it into a good fish sauce, mix two or three ounces of it with a teaspoonful of flour and a few spoonsful of cold water, or of pale veal stock, and keep them constantly stirred until they boil. The butter should not be moulded directly it is taken from the mortar, as it is then very soft from the beating. It should be placed until it is firm in a very cool place or over toe, when it can be done conveniently. LOBSTER BUTTER. Pound to the smoothest possible paste the coral of one or two fresh hen lobsters, mix with it ahsut an equal proportion of fresh firm but

CHAP. TJ.J COLD SAUCES, SALADS, ETC. 13 ter, and a moderate seaso&iiig of mace and cayenne, witl a little salt if needed. Let the whole be thoroughly blended, and set it aside in a cool larder, or place it over ice until it is su£Sciently firm to be made into pats. Serve it garnished with curled paxey, or with any light foliage which will contrast well with its brilliant colour. The eraral may be rubbed through a fine sieve before it is put into the mortar, and will then require but little pounding. An excellent preparation is produced bv mingling equal proportions of lobster and of anchovy butter in the mortar, or one- third of the anchovy with two of lobster: to this some of the white flesh of the latter can be added to give another variety, after it has been prepared by the receipt for wtudirettesy Chapter III. TBTJFFLED BUTTER (AND TRUFFLES POTTED IN BUTTER.) (For the breakfast or luncheon table,) Cut up a pound of sweet fresh butter, and dissolve it gently over a dear fire; take off the scum which will gather thickly upon it, and when it has simmered for three or four minutes, draw it from the fire, and let it stand until all the butter-milk has subsided; pour it softly £rom this upon six ounces of ready-pared sound French truffles, cut into small, but rather thick, slices, and laid into a delicately clean enameUed saucepan; add a full seasoning of freshly pounded mace and fine cayenne, a small saltspoonful of salt, and naif a not large nutmeg. When the butter has become quite cold, proceed to heat the truffles slowly, shaking the saucepan ouen briskly round, and steAv them as gently as possible for twenty minutes, or longer should they not then be very tender. If allowed to heat, and to boil quickly, th will become hard, and the preparation, as regards the truffles, will be a comparative failure. Lift them with a spoon into quite dry earthen or china pans, and pour the butter on them; or add to them sufficient of it only to cover them well and to exclude the air, and pot the remainder of the butter apart: it will be finely flavoured, and may be eaten by delicate persons to whom the truffle itself would be injurious. It may also be used in compounding savoury sauces, and for moistening small croustades before they are fried or baked. The truffles themselves will remain good for months when thus prepared, if kept free from damp; and in flavour they will be found excellent. The parings taken from them will also impart a very agreeable savour to the butter, and will serve extremelv well for it for immediate use. They will also be valuable as additions to gravies or to soup. We should observe, that the juice which will have exuded from the truffles in the stewing will cause the preparation to become mouldy, or otherwise injure it, if it be put into the pans either with them or with the butter. The truffles must be well drained from it when they are taken from the saucepan, and the butter must remain

140 lIODEBN COOKERT. cH4F. VL undisturbed for a few minutes, when it can be poured clear from the juice, which will have subsided to the bottom of the pan. We have given here the result of our first experiment, which we found on further trial to answer perfectly. ENGLISH SALADS. The herbs and vegetables for a salad cannot be too freshly &;athcred i they should be carefully cleared from insects and washed with scrupulous ni-ety; they are better when not prepared until near the time of sending tnem to table, and should not be sauced until the instant before they are served. Tender lettuces, of which the stems should be cut off, and the outer leaves be stripped away, mustard and cress, young radishes, and occasionally chives or small green onions (when the taste of a party is in favour of these last) are tne usual ingredients of summer salads. (In early spring, as we have stated in another chapter, the young white leaves of tne dandelion will supply a very wholesome and excellent salad, of which the slight bittemesss is to many persons as agreeable as that of the endive.) Half-grown cucumbers sliced thin, and mixed with them, are a favourite addition with many persons. In England it is customary to cut the lettuces extremely tine; the French, who object to the flavour of the knifey which they fancy this mode imparts, break them small instead. Young celery alone, sliced and dressed with a rich salad mixture, is excellent: it is still in some families served thus always with roast pheasants. Beet-root, baked or boiled, blanched endive, small salad-herbs which are easily raised at any time of the year, celery, and hardy lettuces, with any ready-dressed vegetable, will supply salads through the winter. Cucumber vinegar is an agreeable addition to these. FRENCU SALAD. In winter this is made principally of beautifully-blanched endive, washed delicately clean and broken into small branches with the fingers, then taken from the water and shaken dry in a basket of peculiar form, appropriated to the purpose, or in a fine cloth; then arranged in the salad bowl, and strewed with herbs (tarragon generally, when in season) minced small: the dressing is not added until just before the salad is eaten. In summer, young lettuces are substituted for the endive, and intermixed with a vanety of herbs some of which are not generally cultivated in England. FRENCH SALAD DUESSIKG. Stir a saltspoonful of salt and half as much pepper into a large spoonful of ou, and when the salt is dissolved, mix with them four Salad-bojilcetB are also to bo found in many good English kitchens, bat they are not in such general use here an on the ouutinenu

CHAP. Tl. COLD SAUCES, SALADS, ETC. 141 additional spoonsful of oD, and pour the whole over the salad; let it be well turned, and then add a couple of spoonsful of tarragon vinegar j mix the whole thoroughly, and. serve it without delay. The ad should not be dressed in this way until the instant before it is wanted for table: the proportions of salt and pepper can be increased at pleasure, and common or cucumber vinegar may be substituted for the tarragon, which, however, is more fiequently used in France than any other. Salt, 1 spoonful: pepper, as much; oil, 5 saladspoonsful; tarragon, or other vinegar, 2 spoonsfuL DE8 CERNEAUX, OK WALNUT 8ALD. This is a common summer salad in France, where the growth of walnuts is generally abundant, but is not much served in England; though the sweet flavour of the just-formed nut is very agreeable. Take the walnuts when a pin will pierce them easily pare them down to the kernels, and toss them gently, just before they are served, in a French or English salad-dressing (the former would generally be preferred we tmnk), and turn them into the salad-bowl for tabic.

SUFFOLK SALAD, Fill a salad-bowl from half to three parts full with very tender lettuces shred small, minced lean of ham, and hard-boiled eggs, or their yolks only also minced, placed in alternate layers; dr the mixture with English salad sauce, but do not pour it into the bowl until the instant of serving. A portion of cold chicken (or veal), cut in thin slices about the size of a shilling, may be added when convenient; the ham and eggs also may be sliced instead of being minced, and the whole neatly arranged in a chain or otherwise round the inside of the bowL

YORESHIRB PLOUGHMANS SALAD. Mix treacle and vinegar, in the proportion of one tablespoonful of the first to two of the latter: add a little black pepper, and eat the sauce with lettuces shred small (with an intermixture of young onions when they are liked).

AN EXCELLENT SALAD OP YOUNQ VEGETABLES. Pare off the coarse, fibrous parts from four or five artichoke bottoms, boiled quite tender, well drained, and freed carefully finvm the insides; cut them into quarters, and lay them into the salad-bowl; arrange over them some cold new potatoes and young carrots sli( moderately thin, strew minced tarragon chervil, or any other herbs which may be better liked, thicldy

142 MODERN COOKEBT. cHAr. YL over the surface, and sauce the salad with an English or Preach dressing just before it is sent to table. Very young fxench beans cut into short lozenge-shaped lengths, or asparagus points, can be added to this dish at pleasure; or small tufts of cauliflower may be placed round it. When these additions are made, the herbs are better omitted: a little of the liquor of pickled Indian mangoes may be advantageously mixed with the sauce for this salad, or in lieu of it some chili vinegar or cayenne pepper. The Dutch or American sauce of the previous pages would also make an appropriate dressing for it.

SORREL SALAD (To serve with Lamh-ctUlets VeaUcutteU or Roast Lamb). This, though a very agreeable and refreshing salad, is not to be recommended when there is the slightest tendency to disorder of the system; for the powerful acid of the uncooked sorrel might in that case produce serious consequences. Take from the stems some very young tender sorrel, wash it delicately clean, drain it well, and shake it dry in a salad-basket, or in a soft cloth held by the four comers; arrange it lightly in the bowl, and at the instant of serving, sauce it simply with the preceding French dressing of oil with a small portion of vinegar, or with a Mayonnaise mixed with chili instead of a milder vinq;ar. The sorrel may be divided with the fingers and mingled with an equal propor'tion of very tender lettuces; and, when it is not objected to,f mixed tarragon may be strewed thickly upon them. To some tastes a small quantity of green onions or of eschalots would be more agreeable.

LOBSTER SALAD. First, prepare a sauce with the coral of a hen lobster, pounded and rubbed through a sieve, and very gradually mixed with a good mayonnaise, remoulade, or English salad-dressmg of the present chapter. Next, half fill the bowl or more with small salad herbs, or with young lettuces finely shred, and arrange upon them spirally, or in a chain, alternate slices of the fiesh of a large lobster, or of two middling-sized ones, and some hard-boiled eggs cut thin and evenly. Leave a space in the centre, pour in the sauce, heap lightly some small salad on the top, and send tne dish immediately to table. The coral of a second lobster may be intermingled with the white flesh of the It should be especially avoided rhen dysentery, or other diseases of a similar nature, are prevalent. We mention this, hecanse if more general preeaation were observed with regard to diet, great suffering would, in many instanoes, be avoided. f The peculiar flavour of this fine aromatic herb is less generally relished in EngUnd than in many other countries; but when it is not disliked it may be used with great advantage in our cookery: it is easily cultivated, aad quite deserves a nook in every kitchen-garden.

CSAP Ti. COLD SALADS, SAUCES, ETC. 143 fish with Terj good effect; and the forced eggs of page 137 may he placed at intervals round the edge of the bowl as a decoration, and an excellent accompaniment as well. Another mode of making the salad is to lay the split bodies of the fish round the bowl, and the daws, freed carefully from the shells, arranged high in the centre on the herbs; the soft yait of the bodies may be mixed with the sauce when it is liked; but the colour will not then be good. Obs. - T he ad dition of cucumber in ribbons (see Author's Receipt, Chapter XVJLL laid lightly round it, is always an agreeable one to lobster salad: tney may previously be sauced, and then drained from their dressinff a little. A more wholesome and safer mode of imparting the flavour of the cucumber, however, is to use for the saUd vinegar in which that vegetable has been steeped for some hours after having been cut up BouL JlS excellent ' HERRINa SALAD. Swedish Receipt,) Soak, skin, split, and bone a large Norway herring; lay the two sides along a dish, and slice them slopingl; (or substitute for this one or two fine Dutch herrings). Arrange in symmetrical order over the fish slices of cooked beet-root, cold boiled potatoes, and pickled gherkins; then add one or two sharp apples chopped small, and the yolks and whites, separately minced, of some hard-boiled eggs, with any thing else which may be at hand, and may serve to vary tastefully the decoration of the dish. • Place these ingredients in small heaps of welL-oontrasting colours on the surface of tne salad, and lay a border of curled celery leaves or parsley round the bowl. For sauce, rub the yolk of one hard-boiled egg quite smooth with some salt; to this add oil and vinegar as for an ordinary salad, and dilute the whole with some thick sour cream. Ohe, - ' Sour cream ia an ingredient not much approved by Eng lish taste, but it enters largely into Grerman cookery, and into that of Sweden, and of other northern coimtries also. About half a pound of cold beef cut into small thin shavings or collops, is oflen added to a herring-salad abroad: it may be either of simply roasted or boiled, or of saUed and smoked meat. TARTAR SAUCE. S€ttice a la Tartare). Add to the preceding remxndade or to any other sauce of the same nature, a teaspoonful or more of made mustard, one of finely-minced ahalots, one of parsley or tarragon, and one of capers or of pickled gherkins, with a rather hign seasoning of' cayenne, and some salt if needed. The tartar-mustard of the previous chapter, or good French mnstazdy Is to be preferred to English for this sauce, whidii is usually

144 MODERN GOOKEBT. chap, n made very pungent, and for inrbich anj ingredients can be used to the taste ivhich will serve to render it so. Tarragon vinegar, minced tarragon and esdialots, and plenty of oil, are used for it in France, in conjunction with the yolks of one or two gs, and chopped capers, or gherldns, to which olives are sometimes added. 8IIRIMP CHATNET. 'Mauritian Receipt) Shell with care a quart of fresh shrimps (for the mode of doing this see Chapter III.) mince them quickly upon a dish with a large sharp knife, then turn them into a mortar and pound them to a perfectly smooth paste. Next, mix with them very gradually two or three spoonsful of salad oil of the best quality, some young green chilies chopped small (or when these cannot be procured, some good cayenne pepper as a substitute), some young omons finely minced, a little saJt if required, and as much vinegar or strained lemon juice as will render the sauce pleasantly acid. Half a saltspoonful or more of powdered ginger is sometimes used in addition to the above ingredients. When they are preferred, two or three small shalots minced and well bruised with the shrimps may be substituted for the onions. The proportion of oil shoula be double that of the viner used; but in this preparation, as in all others of the same nature, individual taste must regulate the proportion of the most powerful condiments which enter into its composition. All chatneys snould be quite thick almost of the consistence of mashed turnips, or stewed tomatas, or stiff bread sauce. They are served with curries; and also with steaks, cutlets, cold meat, and fish. In the East the native cooks crush to a pulp upon a stone slab, and with a stone roller, the ingredients which we direct to be pounded. On occasion the fish might oe merely minced. When beaten to a paste, they should be well separated with a fork as the chilies, &c., are added. CAPSICUMS CHATNEY. Slice transversely and very thin, into a bowl or pan of spring water, some large tender green capsicumbs, and let them steep ior an hour or two; then drain, and dress with oil, vinegar, and salt. For ToMATA and Sausagr Chatnet, see Chapter of Foreign Cookery. • The sauce can be mode thoa either when their flavour is not liked.

CHAP, rn.

STORE SAUCES.

145

CHAPTER vrr.

Mushrooms, Eschalots, and Tomatas.

OBSEBVATIONS.

A WELL selected stock of these will always prove a convenient re'Boarce in simple cookery for giving colour and flavour to soups, gravies, and made dishes; hut unless the consumption he considerable, they should not be over-abundantly provided, as few of them are improved by age, and many are altogether spoiled by long keeping, especially if they be not perfectly secured from the air by sound corking, or if stored where there is the slightest degree of damp. To prevent loss, they should be examined at short intervals, and at the first appearance of mould or fermentation, such as will bear the process snould be reboiled, and put, when ain quite cold, into clean bottles; a precaution often especially needful for mushroom catsup when it has been made in a wet season, or when it has not been very 4refully prepared. This, with essence of anchovies, walnut catsup IIarveys sauce, cavice, lemon-pickle, chili, cucumber, and eschalot

146 MODERN COOKERY. chap, viu vinegar, will be all that is commonly needed for family use; but there is at the present day an extensive choice of these stores on sale, some of which are excellent. CHETNEY SAUCE. (JBengcd Receipt), Stone four ounces of good raisins, and chop them, small, with half a pound of crabs, sour apples, unripe bullaces, or of any other hard acid fruit. Take four ounces of coarse brown sugar, two of powdered ginger, and the same quantity of salt and cayenne pepper; grind these ingredients separately in a mortar, as mie as possible; then pound the fruits well, and mix the spices with them, one by one; beat them together imtil they are perfectly blended, and add gradually as much vinegar as will make the sauce of the consistence of thick cream. Put it into bottles with an ounce of garlic divided into cloves, and cork it tightly. Stoned raisins, 4 oz.; crabs, or other add fruit, lb.; coarse sugar, 4 oz.; powdered ginger, 2 oz.; salt, 2 oz.; GarU cayenne pepper, 2 oz.; garlic, 1 oz.; vinegar, enough to dilute it properly. Ohs, - This favourite oriental sauce is compounded in a great variety of ways; but some kind of acid fruit is essential to it. The mango is used in India; here gooseberries, while still hard and green, are sometimes used for it; and ripe red chilies and tomatas are mixed with the other ingredients. The sauce keeps better if it be exposed to a gentle degree of heat for a week or two, either by the side of the fire, or in a full southern aspect in the sun: the heat of a very $hw oven, in which it might be left for a night, would propably nave a still better effect. In this case it must be put into a jar or bottles, and well secured from the air. Half a pound of gooseberries, or of these and tamarinds from the shell, and green apples mixed and the same weight of salt, stoned raisins, brown sugar, powdered ginger chilies, and garlic, with a pint and a half of vinegar, and the juice of three large lemons, will make another genuine Bengal chetney. FINE MUSHROOM CATSUP. One of the very best and most useful of store sauces is good home-made mushroom catsup, which, if really well prepared imparts an agreeable flavour to any soup or sauce with which it is mingled, and at the same time heightens the colour without imparting the Hard acid frait in a cmde state is, we think, an ingredient not much to be recommended; and it is always better to deviate a litUe firom ' an approved receipt" than to endanger health by the use of ingredients of a qnestionable character. Gooseberries or tomatas, after being subjected to a moderate degree of heat, mij(ht be eaten with far Jess hazard.

CHAP. Yn. 8TOBE SAUCES. 147 "bitter sweetness which the burnt sugar used as ' browning in clumsy cookery so often does. The catsup ought, in fact, to be rather the pure essence of mushrooms, made with so much salt and spice only as are required to preserve it for a year or longer, than the compound of mushroom-juice, anchovies, shalots, allspice, and other condunents of which it is commonly composed, especially for sale. Directions to be observed in making and for keeping the catsup. - Let the mushrooms be collected when the weather is dry, for if rathered during, or immediately after rain, the catsup made wiUi mem will not keep well. Cut off the stalsL-ends to which the earth adheres, before the mushrooms are broken np, and throw them aside, as they shotdd never be nsed for the catsup. Reject also such of the flaps as are worm-eaten or decayed. Those which are too stale for use may be detected by the smell, which is very offensive. When the mushroom first opens, the under-side is of a fine pale saknon colour; this changes soon to a sort of ashy-brown, which deepens almost to black as the mushroom passes &om its maturity to a state of decay. As it yields a greater abundance of juice when it is fidly ripe, it is usually taken in that state for these sauces; but catsup of hnc and delicate flavour, though somewhat pale in colour, can be made even of mushroom-buttons if they be snced up small and tamed often in the liquid which will be speedily drawn from them Inr the application of salt; a rather smaller proportion of which anonld be mingled with them than is directed for the following leoeipt. Every thing nsed in preparing the catsup should be delicately dean and very dry. The bottles in which it is stored, after being dried in the usual way, shotdd be laid into a cool oven for an hour or two before they are filled, to ensure their being free from the slightest diree of moisture, but they must be quite cold before the catsup is poured into them. If the corks be sealed so as to exclude the air effectually, or if well-cleansed bits of bladder first dried, and then Tendered flexible with a little spirit of any kind (spirits of wine is convenient for such purposes), be tied closely over them, and the bottles can be kept in a cool place free from damp, the catsup will xemam good for a long time.

HUSH ROOM CATSUP. Receipt: - Break up small into a deep earthen pan, two gallons of large ripe mushroom-flaps, and strew amongst them three quarters, of a ponnd of salt, reserving the larser portion of it for the top. Let them remain two days, and stir them gently with a wooden spoon often during the time; then turn them into a large stevTAn or enamelled saucepan, heat them slowly, and simmer them for fineen or twenty minutes. Strain the liquor closely from them without pres

148 MODERN COOKEEY. cHAP. vii. sure; strain and measure it; pnt it into a verv clean stcwpan, and boil it quickly until it is reduced nearly half. For every quart allow half an ounce of black peppercorns and a drachm of mace; or, instead of the pepper, a quarter of a teaspoonful (ten trains) of good cayenne; pour the catsup into a clean jug or jar, lay a folded cloth over it, and keep it in a cool place imtil the following day; pour it gently from the sediment, put into small bottles, cork them well, and rosin them down. A teaspoonful of salad oil may be poured into each bottle before it is corked, the better to exclude the air from the catsup. Mushrooms, 2 gallons: salt, f lb.; to macerate three or four days. To each quart of liquor, j oz. black pepper, or quarter of a teaspoonful of cayenne; and 1 drachm of mace: to )e reduced nearly half. Obs, 1. - Catsup made thus will sot be too salt, nor will the flavour of the mushrooms be overpowered by that of the spices; of which a lair quantity, and a greater variety, can be used at vrUl. We can, however, answer for the excellence of the present receipt from long experience of it. When the catsup is boiled down quite early in the day, it may be bottled the same night: it is necessary only, that it should ha perfectly cold before this is done. Obs, 2. - When the mushrooms are crushed, or mashed, as some authors direct, the liquor will necessarilv be very thick; it is better to proceed as above, and then to boil the liquor which may afterwards be extracted from the mushrooms by pressure, with the sediment of the catsup, and sufficient cloves, pepper, allspice, and ginser, to flavour it highly: this second catsup will be found very usefiu to mix with common thickened sauces, hashes, and stews. MUSHROOM CATSUP. (Another Receipt) Break a peck of large mushrooms into a deep earthenpan; strew three quarters of a pound of salt amongst them, and set tnem into a very cool oven for one night, with a fold of cloth or paper over them. The following day strain off the liquor, measure, and boil it for fifteen minutes; then, for each quart, add an ounce of black pepper, a quarter of an ounce of allspice, half an ounce of ginger, and two large blades of mace, and let it boil fast for twenty minutes longer. When thoroughly cold, put it into bottles, cork them well, and dip the necks into melted bottle-cement, or seal them so as to secure the catsup from the air. Mushrooms, 1 peck; salt, f lb. Liquor to boil, 15 minutes. To each quart, oz. black pepper; i oz. allspice; oz. ginger; 2 blades mace: 20 miniites. DOUBLE MUSHROOM CATSUP. On a gallon of fresh mushrooms strew three ounces of salt, and ponr to them a quart of ready-made catsup (that which is a year old will

CHP. VII. STOBE SAUCES. 149 do if it be perfectly ffood); keep these stirred occasionally for four days, then drain the liquor very dry from the mushrooms, and boil it for fifteen minutes with an ounce of whole black pepper, a drachm of mace, an ounce of ginger, and three or four grains only of cayenne. Mushiooms, 1 gaUon; salt, 3 oz.; mushroom catsup, I quart: peppercorns, 1 oz.; mace, 1 drachm; ginger, 1 oz.; cayenne, 3 to 4 grains: 15 minutes. COMPOUND OR cook's CATSUP. Take a pint and a half of mushroom catsup when it is first made and ready boiled (the double is best for the purpose), simmer in it for fire minutes an ounce of small eschalots mcely peeled; add to these half a pint of walnut catsup, and a wineglassful of cayenne vinesar, or of chili viner; give the whole one boil, pour it out, and when cold, bottle it with the eschalots in it. Mushroom catsup, H pint; eschalots, 1 oz.; walnut catsup or pickle, 1 pint; cayenne or chili yinegar, 1 wineglassful. WALNUT CATSUP. The vinegar in which walnuts have been pickled, when they have lenuiined in it a year, will generally answer all the purposes for which this catsup is required, particularly if it be drained from them and boiled for a' few minutes, with a little additional snice, and a few eschalots; but where the vinegar is objected to, it may be made either by boiling the expressed juice of young walnuts for an hour, with six ounces of fine anchovies, four ounces of eschalots, half an ounce of black pepper, a quarter of an ounce of doves, and a drachm of mace, to every quart; or as follows: - Pound in a mortar a hundred young walnuts, strewing amongst them as they are done half a pound of salt; then pour to them a qnait of strong vinegar, and let them stand until they have become quite black, keeping them stirred three or four times a dav; next add a quart of strong old beer, and boil the whole together for ten minutes; strain it, and let it remain until the next day; then pour it off clear from the sediment, add to it half a pound of anchovies, one lai head of garlic bruised, half an ounce of nutmegs bruised, the same quantity of cloves and black pepper, and two drachms of mace: boil these together for half an hour, and the following day bottle and cork the catsup well. It will keep for a dozen years. Many persons add to it, before it is boiled, a bottle of port wine; and others recommend a large bunch of sweet herbs to be put in with the spice. 1st Recipe. Eroressed juice of walnuts, 1 quart; anchovies, 6 oz.; eschalots, 4 oz.; black pepper, ) oz.; cloves, oz.; mace, 1 drachm . 1 hour. 2iuL Walnuts, 100; salt, lb.; vinegar, 1 quart: to stand till

i.

1 50 MODERN COOKERY. cHAP. TH. black. Strong beer, 1 quart; anchovies, 1 lb.; I head garlic; nut inegs, i oz.; doves, ) oz.; black pepper, 1 oz.; mace, 2 drachms hour. ANOTHER GOOD RECEIPT FOR WALNUT CATSUP. Beat a hundred green walnuts in a large marble mortar until they are thoroughly bruised and broken, and then put them into a stone lar, with half a pound of eschalots, cut in slices, one head of garlic, lalf a pound of salt, and two quarts of vinegar; let them stand for ten da;s, and stir them night and morning. Strain off the liquor, and boil it for half an hour with the addition of two ounces of anchovies, two of whole pepper, half an oimce of cloves, and two drachms of mace; skim it well, strain it off, and when it is quite cold pour it gently from the sediment (which may be reserved for flavouring common sauces) into small dry bottles, secure it &om air by sound corking, and store it in a dry place. Walnuts, 100; eschalots, ) lb.; garlic, 1 head, salt, i lb.; vin;ar 2 quarts: 10 days. Anchovies, 2 oz.; black pepper, 2 oz.; mace, oz.: cloves, oz.: J hour. LEMON PICKLE OR CATSUP. Either divide six small lemons into quarters, remove all the pips that are in siht, and strew three ounces of salt upon them, and keep them turned m it for a week, or, merely make deep incisions in them, and proceed as directed for pickled lemons. When they have stood in a warm place for eight days, put into a stone jar two ounces and a half of flnely-scraped horseramsh, and two ounces of eschalots, or one and a half of garlic; to these add the lemons with all their liquor, and pour on them a pint and a half of boiling vinegar in which half an ounce of bruised ginger, a quarter of an ounce of whole white pepper, and two blades of mace have been simmered for two or three minutes. The pickle will be fit for use in two or three months, but may stand four or five before it is strained off. Small lemons, 6; salt, 3 oz.: 8 days. Horseradish, 21- oz.; eschalots, 2 oz., or garlic 1 oz.; vinegar, 1 pint; ginger, i oz.; whole white pepper, i oz.; mace, 2 blades: 3 to 6 months. Obs.- These highlv-flavoured compounds are still much in favour with a certain class of housekeepers; but they belong exclusively to English cookery: they are altogether opposed to the practice of the l'rench cuisine as well as to that of other foreign countries. PONTAO CATSUP FOR FISH. On one pint of ripe elderberries stripped from the stalks, pour three quarters of a pint of boiling vinegar, and let it stand in a cool oven all night; the next day strain off the liquid without pressure.

CHAP. TIL J STOBE SAUCES. 151 and boil it for five minutes xntb a half-teaspoonful of salt, a small lace of ginger, a blade of mace, forty corns of pepper, twelve cloves and four eschalots. Bottle it with the spice when it is quite cold. BOTTLED TOMATAS, OR TOMATA CATSUP. Cut half a peck of ripe tomatas into quarters; lay them on dishes and sprinkle over them half a pound of salt. The next day drain the Juice from them through a hair-sieve into a stew-pan, and boil it for naif an hour with three dozens of small capsicums and half a pound of eschalots; then add the tomatas, which should be ready pulped through a strainer. Boil the whole for thirty minutes longer; have some clean wide-necked bottles, kept warm by the fire, fill them with the catsup while it is quite hot; cork, and dip the necks into melted bottle-resin or cement. Tomatas, i peck; salt, i lb.; capsicums, 3 doz.; eschalots, i lb. hour. After pulp is added, i hour. Obs. - This receipt has been kindly contributed by a person who makes by it every year large quantities of the catsup, which is considered excellent: for sauce it must be mixed with gravy or melted Imtter. We have not ourselves been able to make tnal of it. EPICUREAN SAUCE. . Mix well, by shaking them in a bottle, a wineglassflil of Ihdiaa soy, half a pint of chili vinegar, half a pint of walnut catsup, and a pint and a naif of the best mushroom catsup. These proportions make an excellent sauce, either to mix with melted butter, and to serve with fish, or to add to difierent kinds of gravy; but they can be varied, or added to, at pleasure. Indian soy, 1 wineglassful; chili vinegar, i pint; walnut catsup, i pint: mushix om catsup, 1 pint. TARRAGON VINEGAR. Gather the tarragon just before it blossoms, which will be late in July, or early in August; strip it from the larger stalks, and put it into small stone jars or wide-necked bottles, and in doine this twist some of the branches so as to bruise the leaves and wring tnem asunr; then pour in sufficient distilled or very pale vinegar to cover the tarragon; let it infuse for two months, or more: it will take no harm even by standing all the winter. When it is poured of strain it ver dear, put it into small dry bottles, and cork them well. Sweet basil vinesar is made in exactly the same way, but it should not be left on the leaves more than three weeks. The jars or bottles shotdd be filled to the neck with the tarragon before the vinegar is added: its flavour is strong and peculiar, but to many tastes very agreeable. It imparts quite a foreign character to the dishes for which it is used.

152 MODEBN COOKEBT chap vn

GREEN MIKT VINHGAR. Slightly chop, or bruise, freshly-gathered mint, and put it into bottles; till them nearly to the necks, and add vinegar as for tarragon: in forty days, strain it off, and bottle it for use. The mint itself, ready mincad for sauce, will keep well in vinegar, though the colour will not be very fi;ood. The oung leaves stripped from the stems, should be used for this preparation. CUCUMBER VINEGAR. First wipe, and then, without paring, slice into a stone far some young and quickly-grown cucumbers; pour on them as much boiling vinegar as will cover them well, with a teaspoonful of salt, and twothircb as much of pepnercoms to the pint and a half of vinegar: it may remain on them for a month, or even for two, if well defended from the air: it should then be strained, allowed to settle, and poured quite clear into small dry bottles, which should be well corked. A mild onion can be intermixed with the cucumbers, when its flavour is considered an improvement CELERY VINEGAR. Throw into a pint and a half of ready boiling vinegar a few grains of cayenne, or half an ounce of peppercorns, a large saltspoonful of salt, and a pint of the white part of the roots and steins of some fine fre celery sliced up thin: let it boil for two or three minutes, turn it into a stone jar, and secure it well from the air as soon as it is cold It may be strained off and bottled in three or four weeks, but may remain as many months in the jar without injury. ESCHALOT OR GARLIC VINEGAR. On from four to six ounces of eschalots or on two of;arlic peeled and bruised, pour a quart of the best vineccar; stop the jar or bottle dose, and in a fortnight or thi'ee weeks tte vinegar may be strained off for use: a few drops will give a sufficient flavour to a sauce, or to a tureen of gravy. Eschalots, 4 to 6 oz.; or, garlic, 2 to 4 oz.; vinegar, 1 quart: 15 to 21 days Obs. - These roots may be used in smaller or in larger proportion, as a slighter or a stronger flavour of them is desired, and may remain longer m the vinegar without any detriment to it ESCHALOT WINE. This is a far more useful preparation even than the preceding one, cinoe it can be used to impart the flavour of the eschalot to dishes fox

CBAP. vn. STOBE SAUCES. 153 "which add ia not required. Peel and slices or bmiBe, four ounces of eschalots, put them into a bottle, and add to them a pint of sherry; in a fortnight pour off the wine, and should it not be strongly flavoured with the eschalots, steep in it two ounces more, for another fortnight; a half-teaspooniul of cayenne may be added at first. The bottle should be shaken occasionally, while the eschalots are infusing, hut should remain undisturbed for the last two or tbree days, that the wine may be dear when it is poured off to bottle for keeping. Sweet-basil wine is made by steeping the fresh leaves of the herb in wine, from ten to fifteen days. Eschalots, 4 oz.; sherr', I pint: 15 days, or more. BORSRUADISH TINEOAR. On four ounces of young and freshly-scraped horseradish pour a ouart of boiling vinegar, and cover it down closely: it will be ready for use in three or four days, but may remain for weeks, or months, before the vinar is poured off. An ounce of minced eschalot may be sabstituted &r one of the horseradish, if the flavour be liked. CAYENNE VINEGAR. Put from a quarter to half an ounce of the best cayenne nepper into a bottle, and pour on it a pint of pale vinegar. Cork it closelyi and shake it well every two or three days. It may remain any length of time before it is poured off, but will very soon be ready for use. Good cayenne pepper, to i oz.; vinegar, 1 pint: infuse from 2 weeks to 12 months. LEMON DRAKBV. (For flavovrxng tweet dishes,') Fill any sized wide-necked bottle lightly with the very thin rinds of fresh lemons, and cover them with gooa brandy; let them remain for a fortnight or three weeks only, then strain off the spirit and keep H well corked for use: a few apricot-kernels blanched and infused with the lemon-rind will give it an agreeable flavour. DRIED MUSHROOMS. Peel small, sound, freshly-gathered flaps, cut off the stems, and scrape out the fur entirely; then arrange the mushrooms singly en tins or dishes, and dry them as gradually as possible in a gentle oven. Put them, when they are done, into tin canisters, and store them where they will be secure from damp. French cooks give them a single boil in water, from which they then are well drained, and dried, as usnaL When wanted for table, they should be put into cold gravy, lowly heated, and gently simmered, until they are tender.

154 MODEEN COOKERY. chap. tii. MUSHROOM POWDER. "When the mushrooms have been prepared with great nicety, and dried, as in the foregoing receipt, pound them to a very fine powder; sift it, and put it immediately into small and perfectty dry bottles; cork and seid them without delay, for if the powder be Ions exposed to the air, so as to imbibe an humidity, or if it be not weU secured from it in the bottles, it will be likely to become putrid: much of that which is purchased, even at the best Italian warehouses, is found to be so, and, as it is sold at a very high price, it is a great economy, as well as a surer plan, to have it carefully prepared at home. It is an exceedingly useful store, and an excellent addition to many dishes tind sauces. To insure its being good, the mushrooms should be gathered in dry weather, and if any addition of spices be made to the X)owder (some persons mix with it a seasoning of mace and ca3renne), they should be put into the oven for a whife before they are uaed: but even these precautions will not be sufiicient, unless the powder be stored in a very dry place after it is bottled. A teaspoonful of it, with a quarter of a pint of strong veal gravy, as much cream, and a small dessertspoonful of flour, will make a good hichamel or white auce. EXCELLENT POTATO FLOUR, OR ARROWROOT. Fectde de Pommes de terre.) Grate into a large vessel full of cold water, six pounds of sound mealy potatoes, ana stir them well together. In six hours pour oflf the water, and add fresh, stirring the mixture well; repeat this process every three or four hours during the day, change the water at night, and the next morning pour it off; put two or three quarts more to the potatoes, and turn them directly into a hair-sieve, set over a pan to receive the flour, which may then be washed through the sieve, by pouring water to it. Let it settle in the pan, drain off the water, spread the potato-sediment on dishes, dry it in a slow oven, flift it, and put it into bottles or jars, and cork or cover them closely. The flour thus made will be beautifully white, and perfectly flavourless. It will remain good for years. Ohs, - This admirable farina, or starch of potatoes, is now much more widely known and vended in England than it was some years fiince. It can at present be procured at most forei warehouses and general grocers; but we would recommend its being home-made by the directions given above, which we have had closely followed for many years wiui the best possible success. TO MAKE FLOUR OF RICE. Take any quantity of whole rice, wash it thoroughly, changing the water several times; drain and sress it in a cloth, then spread it on a

CHAP, vn. 6T0RE SAUCES. 155 dkb, and dry it perfectly; beat it in a mortar to a smooth powder, and sift it through a fine sieve. When used to thicken soup or sauces, mix it with a small quantity of cold water or of broth, and pour it to them while they are boiling. This flour, when newly made, ia of much purer flavour than any iisuaUy prepared for sale. POWDER OF SAYOITRT HERDS. All herbs which are to be dried for storing should be gathered in fine weather; cleared from dirt and decayed leaves; and dried quickly, but without scorching, in a Dutch oven before the fire, or in any other that is not too much heated. The leaves shotdd then be stripped from the stalks, pounded, sifted, and closely corked in separate bottles; or several kinds may be mixed and pounded together for the convenience of seasoning in an instant gravies, soups, forcemeats, and made dishes: appropriate spices, celery-seed, and dried lemonpeel, all in fine powder, can be added to the herbs. TARTAR MUSTARD. Kub four ounces of the best Durham mustard very smooth with a full teaspoonful of salt, and wet it by degrees with strong horseradish vinegar, a dessertspoonful of cayenne, or of chili vinegar, and one or two of tarragon vinegar when its flavour is not disliked. A quarter of a pint of vinegar poured boiling upon an ounce of scraped liorseradisb, and left for one night, closely covered, will be ready to use for this mustard, but it will be better for standmg two or three days. Durham mustard, 4 oz.; salt, large teaspoonful; cayenne, or chili vinegar, 1 dessertspoonful; horseradish vinegar, third of pint. Obs, - This is an exceedingly pungent compound, but has many approvers. ANOTHER TARTAR MUSTARD. Mix the salt and mustard smoothly, with equal parts of horseradish vinegar, and of chili vinegar. Mustard made by these receipts will keep long, if put into jars or bottles and closely corked. Cucumber, scnalot, or any other of the flavoured vin;ar8 for which we have given receipts, may in turn be used for it, and mushroom, gherkin, or India pickle-liquor, likewise.

15G

MODEBX COOK£ET.

CUAP. VIII.

CHAPTER VIII.

Jfflramtals.

Weighing Machine, qucncc of their throwing together at random (or

GSNERAX REMARKS. The coarse and unpalatable compounds 80 constantly met with under the denomination of forcemeat, even at tables otherwise tolerably well served, show with how little attention they are commonly prepared. Many very indifferent cooks pique themselves on never doing any thing by rule, and the conse „ It random (or "by guess" as they call it) the ingredients vnich ought to be proportioned with exceeding exactness is repeated failure in all they attempt to do. Long experience, and a very correct eye may, it is true, enable a person to dispense with weights and measures without hazarding the success of their operations; but it is an experiment which the learner will do better to avoid. A large marble or Wedgwood mortar is indispensable in making all the finer kinds of forcemeat; and equally so indeed for many other purposes in cookery; no kitchen, therefore, should be without one; and for whatever preparation it may be used, the pounding should be continued with patience and perseverance until not a single lump or fibre be perceptible in the mass of the articles beaten together. This particularly applies to potted meats, which should resemble the smoothest paste; as well as to several varieties of forcemeat. Of these last it should be observed, that such as are made by the French method (see quenelles) are the most appropriate for an elegant dinner, Two or three mortars, yarying in size, should be in every hooscholtl where it is expected that the cookery should be well oonduuted: they are often required also for many other domestic puqioses, yet it is not unusual to find both these and acales, weights, and measures of every kind, altogetlier wanting in EngUsIr kitchens.

CHAP. VUI. FOKCEMEATS. 157 either to serve in soups or to fill boned poultry of an kind; but vhen their exceeding lightness, which to foreigners constitutes one of their great excellences, is objected to, it may be remedied by substituting dry crumbs of bread for the panada, and pounding a small quantity of the lean of a boiled ham, with the other ingredients: however, this should be done only for the balls. No particular herb or spice should be allowed to predominate powerfully in these compositions; but the whole of the seasoning should be taken in such quantity only as will produce an agreeable savour when they are blended together. KG. 1. GOOD COMMON FORCEMEAT FOR ROAST TEAL, TURKEYS, &C. Grate very lightly into exceedingly fine crumbs, four ounces of the inside of a stale loaf, and mix thoroughly with it, a quarter of an ounce of lemon-rind pared as thin as possible, and minced extremely small; the same quantity of savoury herbs, of which two-thirds should be parsley, and one-third thyme, likewise finely minced, a little grated nutmeg, a half teaspoonful of salt, and as much common pepper or cayenne as will season the forcemeat sufiiciently. Break into these, two ounces of good butter in very small bits, add the unbeaten yolk of one egg, and with the fingers work the whole well together until it b smoothly mixed. It is usual to chop the lemonrind, but we prefer it lightly grated on a fine grater. It should always be fresh for the purpose, or it will be likely to impart a very unpleasant flavour to the forcemeat. Half the rind of a moderatesized lemon will be sufficient for this quantity; which for a large turkey must be increased one-half. Bread-crumbs, 4 oz.; lemon-rind, J oz. (or grated rind of lemon); mixed savoury herbs, minced, i oz.; salt, teaspoonful; pepper, to i of teaspoonful; butter, 2 oz.; yolk, 1 egg. Obs. - This, to our taste, is a much nicer and more delicate forcemeat than that which is made with suet, and wc would recommend it for trial in preference. Any variety of herb or spice may be used to give it flavour, and a little minced onion or eschadot can be added to it also; but these last do not appear to us suited to the meats for which the forcemeat is more particularly intended. Half an ounce of the butter may be omitted on ordinary occasions: and a portion of marjoram or of sweet basil may take tlie place of part of the thyme and parsley when preferred to them. wo. 2. ANOTHER GOOD COMMON FORCEMEAT. Add to four ounces of bread-crambs two of the lean of a boiled ham, quite free from sinew, and very finely minced; two of good butter, a dessertspoonful of herbs, chopped small, some lemon-grate, nutmeg, a little salt, a good seasoning of pepper or cayenne and one

158 MODERN COOKEBT. ghaf. vin. whole gg, or the yolks of two. This may be IHed in balls of moderate size, for fire minutes, to serve with roast yeal, or it may be put into the joint in the usual way. Bread-crumbs, 4 oz.; lean of ham, 2 oz.; butter, 2 oz.; minced herbs, 1 dessertspoonful; lemon-grate, 1 teaspoonful; nutmeg, mace, and cayenne, together, 1 small teaspoonful; little salt; 1 whole egg, or yolks of 2. 0• 3. SUPERIOR SUET FORCEMEAT, FOR VEAL, TURKEYS, &C. Mix well together six ounces of fine stale crumbs, with an eqna weight of beef-Kidney suet, chopped extremely small, a large dessertspoonful of parsley, mixed with a little lemon- thyme, a teaspoonful of salt, a quarter one of cayenne, and a saltspoonful or rather more of mace and nutmeg together; work these up with three unbeaten egg-yolks, and three teaspoonsful of milk; then put the forcemeat into a large mortar, and pound it perfectly smooth. Take it out, and let it remain in a cool place for half an hour at least before it is used; then roll it into balls, if it be wanted to serve in that form; flour and fry them gently from seven to eight minutes, and dry them well before they are dished. Beef suet finely minced, 6 oz.; bread-crumbs, 6 oz.; parsley, mixed with little thyme, 1 large dessertspoonful; salt, 1 teaspoonful; mace, large saltspoonful, and one fourth as much cayenne; unbeaten egg-yolks, 3; milk, 3 teaspoonsful: well pounded. Fried in balls, 7 to 8 minutes, or poached, 6 to 7. Obs. - The finely grated rind of half a lemon can be added to this forcemeat at pleasure; and for some purposes a morsel of garlic, or three or four minced eschalots, may be mixed with it before it is put into the mortar. KG. 4. COMMON SUET FORCEMEAT. Beef suet is commonly used in the composition of this kind of forcemeat, but we think that veal-kidney suet, when it could be obtained, would have a better effect; though the reader will easily comprehend that it is scarcely possible for us to have every variety of every receipt which we insert put to the test; in some cases we are compelled merely to suggest what appear to us likely to be improvements. Strip carefully every morsel of skin from the suet, and mince it small; to six ounces add eight of bread-crumbs, with the same proportion of herbs, spice, salt, and lemon-peel, as in the foregoing receipt, and a couple of whole eggs, which should be Teiy Slightly beaten, after the specks have been taken out with the point of a small fork. Should more liquid be required, the yolk of another eg, or a spoonful or two of milk, may be used. Half this quantity will be sufficient for a small joint of veal, or for a dozen balls, which, when it is more convenient to serve it in that form, may be fried or

CHAP, vm. FOBCEMEATS. 159 browued beneath the roast, and then dished round it, though this last k not a yery refined mode of dressing them. From eight to ten minutes will fry them weU. NO. 5. OTSTEB FORCEMEAT. Open carefully a dozen of fine plump natives, take off the beardsy strain their liquor, and rinse the oysters in it. Grate four ounces of the emmb of a stale loaf into fine light crumbs, mince the oysters but not too small, and mix them with the bread; add an ounce and a half of good butter broken into minute bits, the grated rind of half a small lemon, a small saltspoonful of pounded mace, some cayenne, a little salt, and a large teaspoonful of parsley. Mingle these ingredients well, and work them together with the unbeaten yolk of one egg and a little of the oyster liquor, the remainder of which can be added to the sauce which usually accompanies this forcemeat. Oysters, 1 dozen; bread-crumbs, 4 oz.; butter, 1 oz.; rind i small lemon; mace, 1 saltspoonful; some cayenne and salt; minced parsle 1 large teaspoonful; yolk 1 egg; oyster-liquor, 1 dessertspoonful rolled into balls, and £ried from 7 to 10 minutes, or poachea from 5 to 6 minutes. Oh. - In this preparation the flavour of the oysters should prevail entirely over that or all the other ingredients which are mixed with them. Ohs, 2. - The oyster-sausages of Chapter III. will serve excellently for forcemeat also. NO, 6. A FINER OYSTER FORCEMEAT. Pound the preceding forcemeat to the smoothest paste, with the addition only of half an ounce of fresh butter, should it be sufficiently dry to allow of it. It is remarkably good when thus prepared, and may be poached or fried in balls for soups or made dishes, or used to fill boned fowls, or the breasts of boiled turkeys with equally good effect NO. 7. MUSHROOM FORCEMEAT. Cut closely off the stems of some small, just-opened mushrooms, peel them, and take out the fur. Dissolve an ounce and a half of good butter in a saucepan, throw them into it with a little cayenne and a alight sprinkling of mace, and stew them softly, keeping them well shaken, from five to seven minutes; then turn them into a dish spread them over it, and raise one end, that the liquid may draia from them. When they are quite cold, mince, and then mix them witn four ounces of fine bread-crumbs, an ounce and a half of good Gutter, and part of that in which they were stewed should the forceQieat appear too moist to admit of the whole, as the yolk of one egg

160 MODERN COOKERY. CHAP.TIIL at the least, must be added, to bind the inredients together; strew in a saltspoonful of salt, a third as much of cayenne, and about the same quantity of mace and nutmeg, with a teaspoonful of grated lemon-rind. The seasonings must be rather sparingly used, tlat the flavour of the mushrooms may not be overpower by them. Mix the whole thoroughly with the unbeaten yolk of one egg, or of two, and use the forcemeat poached in small balls for soup, or fried and served in the dish with roast fowls, or round minced veal; or to fill boiled fowls, partridges, or turkeys. Small mushrooms, peeled and trimmed, 4 oz.; butter H oz.; slight sprinkling mace and cayenne: 5 to 7 minutes. Mushrooms minced; bread-crumbs, 4 oz.; butter, l oz. (with part of that used in the stewing); salt, 1 saltspoonful; third as much of cayenne, of mace, and of nutmeg; grated lemon-rind, 1 teaspoonful; yolk of 1 or 2 eggs. In balls, poached, 5 to 6 minutes; fried, 6 to 8 minutes. Obs. - This, like most other forcemeats, is improved by being well beaten in a large mortar after it is entirely mixed. NO. 8. FORCEMEAT FOR HARE. The first receipt of this chapter will be found very good for hare without any variation; but the liver boiled for three minutes and finely minced, may be added to it when it is thought an improvement: anotner half ounce of butter, and a small portion more of egg will then be required. A couple of ounces of rasped bacon, and a glass of port-wine, are sometimes recommended for this forcemeat, but we think it is better without them, especially when slices of bacon are used to line the hare. A flavouring of minced onion or eschalot can be added when the taste is in its favour; or the forcemeat No. 3 may be substituted for this altogether NO. 9. ONION AND SAGE STUFFING, FOit PORK, GEESE, OR DUCKS. Boil three large onions from ten to fifteen minutes, press the water from them, chop them small, and mix with them an equal quantity of bread-crumbs, a heaped tablespoonful of minced sage, an ounce of butter, a half saltspoonful of pepper, and twice as much of salt, and put them into the body of the goose; part of the liver boiled for two or three minutes and shred fine, is sometimes added to these, and the whole is bound together with the yolk of one egg or two; but they are quite as frequently served without. 'Ihc onions can be used raw, when their very strong flavour is not objected to, but the odour of the whole dish will then be somewhat overpowering. Large onions, 3; boiled 20 to 30 minutes. Sage, 2 to 3 dessertspoonsful ( or to 2 oz.); butter, 1 oz.: pepper, i teaspoonful; sait 1 teaspoonful

CHAP.Yin. FORCEMEATS. 161 The body ol a goose k K metimes entirely filled with mashed potatoes, seasoned with salt and pepper onl;f; or mixed with a small quantity of eschalot, onion, or herb-seasonings. KO 10. MR. ODOKk's forcemeat FOR DUCKS OR GEESE. Two parts of chopped onion, two parts of bread-crumbs, three of batter, one of pounded sage, and a seasoning of pepper and salt. This receipt we have not proved. NO. 11. FORCEMEAT 3ALI FOR MOCK TURTLE SOCPS. The French forcemeat. No. 17 of the present Chapter, is the most refined and appropriate forcemeat to serve in mock turtle, but a more solid and highly seasoned one is usually added to it in this country. In very common cookery the ingredients are merely chopped smiul and mixed together with a moistening of;gs; but when the trouble of pounding and blending them properlv is objected to, we would recommend the common veal forcemeat No. 1, in preference; as the undressed veal and suet, when merely minced, do not produce a good effect. Four ounces each of these, with an ounce or so of the lean of a boiled ham, and three ounces of bread-crumbs, a large dessertspoonful of minced parsley, a small portion of thyme or marjoram, a saltspoonful of white pepper, twice as much or more of salt, a little cayenne, half a small nutmeg, and a couple of eggs, well mixed with a fork first to separate the meat, and auer the moistening is added, with the fingers, then rolled into ball, and boiled in a little soup for twelve minutes, is the jmanner in which it is prepared; but the reader will find the following receipt very superior to it:--Rasp, that is to say, scrape with a knife clear from tne fibre, four ounces of veal, which should be cut into thick slices, and taken quite free from skin and fat; chop it fine, and then pound it as smoothly as possible in a IsLTge mortar, with three ounces of the rasped fat of an unboiled ham of good flavour or of the finest bacon, and one of butter, two ounces of bread-crumbs, a tablespoonful of the lean of a boiled ham, should it be at hand, a goed seasoning of cayenne, nutmeg, and mace, mixed together, a heaped dessertspoonful of minced herbs, and the yolks of two ggs; jx acn a small bit when it is mixed, and add any further seasoning it may require; and when it is of good flavour, roll it into halls of moderate size, and boil them twelve minutes; then drain and drop them into the soup. No forcemeat should be boiled in the soup itself, on account of the fat which would escape from it in tiie process: a little stock should be reserved for the purpose. Very common:- Lean of neck of veal, 4 oz.; beef-kidney suet, 4 oz., both finely chopped; bread-crumbs, 3 oz.; minced parsley, large dessertspoonful; thvme or marjoram, small teaspoouful; lean of boiled ham, I to 2 oz.; white pei per, 1 saltspoonful; sfdt, twice as much; i imail nutmeg; eggs, 2: in balls, 12 minutps. M

162 MODERN COOEEBT. chap. Yin. Better forcemeat: - Lean veal rasped, 4 oz.; fat of nnboiled ham, or finest bacon, 3 oz.; butter, 1 oz.; bread-crumbs, 2 oz.; lean of boiled ham, minced, 1 large tablespoonful; minced herbs, 1 heaped dessertspoonful; full seasoning of mace, nutm, and cayenne, mixed; yolks 01 eggs, 2: 12 minutes. NO. 12. EGG BALLS. Boil four or fire new-laid eggs for ten or twelve minutes, and lay them into fresh water until they are cold. Take out the yolks, and pound them smoothly with the beaten yolk of one raw egg, or more, if required; add a little salt and cayenne, roll the mixture into ball? the size of marbles, and boil them for two minutes. Half a teaspoonfill of flour is sometimes worked up with the esgs. Hard yolks of eggs, 4; 1 raw; fittle salt andcayenne: 2 minutes. NO. 13. BRAIN CAKES. Wash and soak the brains well in cold water, and aflerwaids in hot; free them from the skin and large fibres, and boil them in water, slightlv salted, from two to three minutes; beat them up with a teaspoonful of sage very finely chopped, or with equal parts of sage and parsley, half a teaspoonful or rather more of salt, half as much mace, a little white pepper or cayenne, and one egg; drop them in small cakes into the pan, and fry them in butter a fine light brown: two yolks of eggs will make the cakes more delicate than the white and yolk of one. A teaspoonful of flour and a little lemon-grate are sometimes added. NO. 14. ANOTHER RECEIPT FOR BRAIN CAKES. Boil the brains in a little good veal-gravv very gently for ten minutes; drain them on a sieve, and when cold cut them into thick dice; dip them into beaten yolk of egg, and then into very fine breadcrumbs, mixed with salt, pounded spices, and fine herbs minced extremely small; fry them of a light brown, drain and dry them well, and drop them into the soup or hash after it is dished. When broth or gravy is not at hand, the brains may be boiled in water. NO. 15. CHESTNUT FORCEMEAT. Strip the outer skin from some fine sound chestnuts, then throvr them into a saucepan of hot water, and set them over the fire for a minute or two, when they may easily be blanched like almonds. Put them into cold water as they are peeled. Dry them in a cloth, and weigh them. Stew six ounces of them very gently from fifteen to twenty minutca in just sufficient strong veal-graYy to cover thenu

CHAP, vm. FOBCEMEATS. 163 Take them np, drain them on a sieve, and when cold ponnd them perfectly smooth with half their weight of the nicest bacon rasped dear from all rust or fibre, or with an equal quantity of fresh butter, two ounces of diy bread- crumbs, a small teaspoonful of grated lemon rind, one of salt, half as much mace or nutmeg, a moderate quantil of cayenne, and the unbeaten yolks of two or of three eggs. This mixture makes most excellent forcemeat cakes, which must he moulded with a knife, a spoon, or the fingers, dipped in flour; more should be dredged over, and pressed upon them, and they should be slowly fried from ten to fifteen minutes. Chestnuts, 6 oz.; yeal-gravy, ) of a pint: 15 to 20 minutes. Bacon or butter, 3 oz.; bread-crumbs, 2 oz.; lemon-peel and salt, 1 teaspoonful each. KG. 16. AN EXCELLENT FRENCH FORCEMEAT. Take six ounces of yeal free from fat and skin, cut it into dice and pot it into a saucejnn with two ounces of butter, a large teaspoonful of parsley finely minced, half as much thyme, salt, and grated lemonrind, and a sufficient seasoning of nutmeg, cayenne, and maoe, to flayour it pleasantly. Stew these tfery gentlr irom twelye to fifteen minutes, then lift out the yeal and put into the saucepan two ounces of bread-crumbs; let them simmer until they haye absorbed the grvj yielded by the meat; keep them stirred until they are as dry as possible; beat the yolk of an egg to them while they are hot, and set them asde to cool. Mince and pound the veal, add the bread to it 88 soon as it is cold, beat them well together, with an ounce and a half of fresh butter, and two of the finest bacon, quite freed from rust, and scraped clear of skin and fibre; put to them the yolks of two small gs and mix them well; then take the forcemeat from the mortar, and set it in a yery cool place until it is wanted for use. Yeal, 6 oz.; butter, 2 oz.; minced parsley, 1 teaspoonful; thyme, salt, and lemon-peel, each i teaspoonful; little nutmeg, cayenne, and mace: 12 to 15 minutes. Bread-crumbs, 2 oz.; butter, 1 oz.; rasped bacon, 2 oz.; yolk of eggs, 2 to 3. Ob9. - When this forcemeat is intended to fill boned fowls, the iiyers of two or three boiled for four minutes, or stewed with the yeal ibr the same length of time, then minced and pounded with the other ingredients, will be found a great improyement; and, if mushrooms can be procured, two tablespoonsful of them chopped small, should be stewed and beaten with it also. A small portion of the best end of the neck will afford the quantity of lean required for this receipt, and the remains of it will ma&e excellent grayy. NO. 17. FRENCH FORCEMEAT CALLED QUENELLES. Tius is a peculiarly light and delicate kind of forcemeat, which by good French cooks is compounded with exceeding care. It is seryed

164 MODEBN COOKEfiT. cHAP.vn abroad in a variety of forms, and is made of very finely •grained white veal, or of the undressed flesh of poultry, or of rabbits, rasped quite free from sinew, then chopped and pounded to the finest paste, first by itself, and afterwards with an equal quantity of boiled calf s udder or of butter, and of panada, which is out another name for bread soaked in cream or gravy and then dried over the fire until it forms a sort of paste. As the three ingredients should be equal in volume not in weight, they are each rofled into a separate ball before they are mixed, that their size majr be determined by the eve. When the fat of the fillet of veal (which in England is not onen divided for sale, as it is in France) is not to be procured, a rather less proportion of butter will serve in its stead. The following will be found a very good, and not a troublesome receipt for veal forcemeat of this kind. Rasp quite dear from sinew, after the fat and skin have been entirely cleared from it, four ounces of the finest veal; chop, and pound it well: if it be carefully prepared there will be no necessity for passing it through a sieve, but this should otherwise be done. Soak in a small saucepan two ounces of the crumb of a stale loaf in a little rich but pole v gravy or white sauce; then ress and drain as much as possible of the moisture from it, and stir it over a gentle fire until it is as dry as it will become without burning: it will Ihere in a ball to the spoon, and leave the saucepan auite tlry when it is sufficiently done. Mix with it, while it is still not, the yolk of one egg, and when it is quite cold, add it to the veal with three ounces of very fresh butter, a quarter of a teaspoonful of mace, half as much cayenne, a little nutmeg, and a saltspoonful of salt. When these are perfectly beaten and well blended together, add another whole egg after having merely taken out the specks: the mixture will then be ready for use, and may be moulded into balls, or small thick oval shapes a little flattened, and poached in soup or gravy from ten to fifteen minutes. These quenelles may be served by themselves in a rich sauce as a comer dish, or in conjunction with other things. They may likewise be first poached for three or four minutes, and left on a drainer to become cold; then dipped into egg and the finest bread-crumbs and fried, and served as croquettes. NO. 18. FORCEMEAT FOR RAISED AND OTHER COLD PIES. The very finest sausage-meat highly seasoned, and made with an equal proportion of fat and lean, is an exceedingly good forcemeat for veal, chicKen, rabbit, and some few other pies; savoury herbs minced small may be added to heighten its flavour if it be intended for immediate eating; but it wm not then remain good quite so long, unless they should have been predously dried. To prevent its beings too dry, two or three spoonsful of cold water should be mixed with it l)efore it is put into the pie. One pound of lean veal to one and a quarter of the pork-fat is sometimes used, and smoothly pounded

CHAP.Tin.l F0BCEMBAT8. 165 -with a high seasoning of spices, herhs, and eschalots, or garlic; but we cannot recommend the introduction of these last into pies unless they are especiallj ordered: mushrooms or truffles maj be mixed with any kmd of forcemeat with far better effect Equal parts of yeal and fat bacon, will also make a good forcemeat for pies, if chopped finely, and well spiced. usage-meat, well seasoned. Or: yeal, 1 lb.; pork-fat, H lb.; salt, 1 oz.; pepper, i to oz.; fine herbs, spice, &c., as in forcemeat No. 1, or sausage-meat. Or: yeal and bacon, equal weight, seasoned in the same way. PANADA. This is the name giyen to the soaked bread which is mixed with the French forcemeats, and which renders them so peculiarly delicate. Pour on the crumb of two or three rolls, or on that of any other yery light bread, as much good boiling broth, milk, or cream, as will coyer and moisten it well; put a plate oyer to keep in the steam, and let it remain for half an hour, or more; then drain off the superfluous liquid, and squeeze the panada diy by wringing it in a thin cloth into a ball; put it into a small stewpan or enamelled saucepan, and. pour to it as much only of rich white sauce or of grayy as it can easily absorb, and stir it constantly with a wooden spoon oyer a clear and gentle fire, until it forms a yery dry )aste and adheres in a mass to the spoon; when it is in this state, mix with it thoroughly the unbeaten yolks of two fresh eggs, which will ye it firmness, and set it aside to become quite cold before it is put into the mortar. The best French cooks giye the highest degree of sayour that they can to this panada, and add no other seasoning to the forcemeats of which it forms a part: it is used in an equal proportion with the meat, and with the calTs udder or butter of which they are composed, as we haye shown in the preceding receipt for queneUes. They stew slowly for the purpose, a small bit of lean ham, two or three minced eschalots, a bayleaf, a few mushrooms, a little parsley, a cloye or two, and a small blade of mace in a little good butter, and when they are sofiSciently browned, pour to them as much broUi or grayy as will be needed for the panada; and when this has simmered from twenty to thirty minutes, so as to haye ac(uired the propter flayour without being much reduced, they strain it oyer, and boil it into the bread. Hie common course of cookery in an English kitchen does not oilen require the practice of the greater niceties and refinements of the art: and irovble (of which the French appear to be perfectly regardless when the excellence of their preparations is concerned) is tnere in general so much thought of, and exclaimed against, that a more smnmary process would probably meet with a better chance of

A quicker and rougher mode of making the panada, and indeed

166 MODERN COOKBRY. CHAF. TUl. the forcemeat altogether, is to pour strong veal broth or gravy upon itf and after it has soaked, to boil it dry, without any addition except that of a little fine spice, lemon-grate, or any other favourite English seasoning. Minced herbs, salt, cayenne, and mace, may be bten with the meat, to which a small portion of well-pounded ham may likewise be added at pleasure.

CHAP. IX. BOILIKO, SOASTIKG, BTC 167

CHAPTER DL A noBouoH practical knowledge of the proceflses described in the present chapter will form a reuly good cook far sooner and more completely than any array of mere receipts can do, however minutely they may be explained; they should, therefore, be well studied and eomprehended, before any attempt is made to compoun d difficult dishes; and the principles of roasting, boiling, stewing, and baking, at least, ooght to be clearly understood by every servant who undertakes the duties of what is called z 2asn cookery which is, in fact, of more importance than any other, because it is in almost universal request m this country for families of moderate fortune; and an person who excels in it wiU easily become expert in what are considered the higher branches of the art. In a vast number of English kitchens the cookery fails from the hurried manner in which it is conducted, and from the excess of heat produced by the enormous coal-fires constantly kept burning there at all seasons, without which ignorant servants imagme no dinner can be properly cooked; a mistake which cannot fail quickly to become iiparent to the most inexperienced reader who will give a natient trial to the slow methods cdT cooking recommended in the following pages. These wiU be found to combine exceeding economy in the consumption of fuel, with a degree of superiority in the food prepared by them, which would scarcely be credited unless it were put to the tt.. In stewing, and baking in closely covered vessels, this superiority is more particularly remarkable; and we would willingly give a fiur laiver space to so useful a subject than our limits will permit: we are, however, compelled, though with ret, to restrict ourselves to such details as we have now supplied m various parts pi this ToLume. TO BOIL MEAT. BoiHng, in the usual English manner, is the least advantaous of 11 modet of cooking meat, cause a larise portion of the nounshment

168 MODERN COOKEBT. chap. iz. which it contains is withdrawn from it in the process, and it is usually very insipid. in flavour. We have aleady given, at the commencement of Chapter I., the suhstanoe of Liebeg8 instructions for scientific boiling; but for the convenience of the reader, we will briefly recapitulate them here, with such additions as our own obserrAIron Boiler. tloiL has enabled us to supply. In making soup, gravy, or savoury jelly of any kin'd, the principal object is to extract from the meat used for the preparation, all tlie nutriment and savour which it can be made to yield. This is eflTectedl by putting it into cold water, and heating it very slowly indeed, and. then keeping it for a specified time at the point of boiling, or letting it simmer in the gentlest manner; but when the meat itself is required for food, its nutritious juices must be prevented from escaping as much as possible, which is done by plunging it into fast boiling water for a few minutes, to contract the pores of the surface (to haen it in fact), and addinff immediately afterwards as much cold water aa will reduce the whme to a moderate temperature. Fart of the water should then be taken away, as meat snould never be cooked ia a larger quantity than is absolutely needed to keep it entirely covered until it is readv to serve; for tms reason it should be always boiled in a vessel nearly of its own size. Large joints should be neatly trimmed, washed extremely otn and skewered or bound firmly mto good shape, when they are of a nature to require it; brought to boil over a moderate fire, and simmer imtil they are done, the scum being carefully and entirelv cleared from the surface of the water, as it thers there, which will be principaUy from within a few minutes of its beginning to boil, and during a few minutes afterwards. If not thorougnly skimmed ofiT at the proper time, it will sink, and adhere to the joint, giving it a very uninvitmg appearance. Pickled or salted meat requires longer boiling than fresh; and tliat which is smoked and dried longer still: this last should always be laid into cold water, slowly heated, and if, from anv circumstances time cannot have been allowed for soaking it properly and there is a probability of its being too salt when served, it should be brought very softly to boil in a laige quantity of water, which should in part be changed as soon as it becomes quite briny, for as much more that is ready boiling. It is customary to lay rounds of beef, and other large joints, upon a fish-plate, or to throw some wooden skewers under them, to prevent their sticking to the vessel in which they are cooked; and it is aa well to take the precaution, though unless they be placed over a very fierce fire, they cannot be in danger of this. The time allowed lor tiiem is about the same as for roasting, from fifteen to twenty minates

CHAP, n.

BOILINO5 BOASTING ETC.

169

to the pound. For cooking rounds of beef ind other ponderous joints, a pan of this form is very conyenient. By means of two almost equally expensive preparations, called &poelee and a blanc the insipidity which results from boiling meat or vegetables in water only may be removed, and the whiteness of either will be better preserved. Turkeys, fowls, sweet- Large stockpot breads, calTs brains, cauliflowers, and artichoke bottoms, are the articles for which the ooelee and the blanc are more especially used in expensive foreign cooKery: the reader will jude by the following receipts how far they are admissible into that of Sie economist. po&l£e. Cut into large dice two pounds of lean veal, and two pounds of fat bacon cured without saltpetre, two large carrots, and two onions; to these add half a pound of fresh butter, put the whole into a stewpan, and stir it with a wooden spoon over a gentle fire until the veal is very white, and the bacon is partially melted; then pour to them three pints of clear boiling broth or water, throw in four cloves, a small bunch or two of thyme and parsley, a bay-leaf, and a few corns of white pepper; boil these gently for an hour and a half, then strain the poSe through a fine sieve, and set it by in a cool place. Use it instead of water for boiling the various articles we nave already named: it will answer for several in succession, and will remain good for many days. Some cooks order a pound of butter in addition to the bacon, and others substitute beef-suet in part for this last. A BLANC. Put into a stewpan one pound of fat bacon rasped, one pound of beef-suet cut small, and one pound of butter; the strained juice of two lemons, a couple of bay-leaves, three cloves, three carrots, and three onions divided into dice, and less than half a pint of water. Simmer these gently, keeping them often stirred, until the fat is well melted, and the water has evaporated; then pour in rather more than will be required for the dish which is to be cooked in the blanc; boil it softly until all the ingredients have given out their full flavour, ddm it well, add salt if needed, and strain it off for use. A calTs head is oflen boiled in this.

ROASTING.

Boasting, which is quite the favourite mode of dressing meat in this country, and one in which the English are thought to excel, requires unremitting attention on the p of tiie cook rather than

170

MODEBN COOKERY.

chap. xz

Bottle Jack.

any great exertion of skill. Large kitchens are usually fitted with a smokejack, bv means of which several spits if needful can be kept turning at the same time; but in sinall establishments, a roaster which allows of some economy in point of fuel is more commonly used. That shown in the print is of very advantaus construction in this respect, as a joint may be cooked in it with a comparatively small fire, the heat being strongly reflected from the scieen upon the meat: in consequence of this, it should never be placed very close to the grate, as the surface of the joint wouM then become dry and hard. A more convenient form of roaster,, with a spit placed horizontally, and turned by means of a wheel and chain, of which the movement is regulated by a spring contained in a box at the top, is of the same economical order as ihe one above; but eaters of very delicate taste urge, as an objection to this apparatus, as well as to that shown above, that the meat cooked in either, derives from the tin by which it is dosely surrounded, the flavour of baJked meat. The bottle-jack, with a common roasting-screen containing shelves for warming plates and dishes, and other purposes, is not liable to the same ob jection. To roast well with it (or with p=3 viii smoke-jack), make up a fire propor v o Sf tioned in width and height to the joint which is to be roasted, and which it should surpass in dimensions every way, by two or three inches. Place some moderate-sized lumps of coal on the top; let it be free from smoke and improyed Spring Jack. ashes in front; and so compactly ar ranged that it will neither require to be disturbed, nor supplied with fresh fuel, for some considerable time after the meat is laid down. Spit or suspend the joint, and place it very far from the fire at first; keep it constantly basted, and when it is two parts done, move it nearer to the fire that it may be properly browned; but guard carefully against its

The bottleMftck is wound up like a watch, hj means of a key, and tnma veiy regnlarlj until it has nm down.

OBAF. IZ. BOILING BOASTING ETC. 171 being burned. A few minutes before it is taken from the spit, sprinkle ft little fine salt oyer it, baste it thoroughly with its own dripping, or with butter, and dredge it with flour: as soon as the froth is well liaen, dish, and serve the meat. Or, to ayoid the necessity of the frothixif which is often greatly objected to on account of the raw taste retamed by the flour, dredge the roast liberally soon after it is first laid to the fire; the flour will then form a savoury incrustation upon it, and assist to prevent the escape of its juices. When meat or poultry is wrapped in buttered pper it must not be floured until this is removed, which should be fifteen or twenty minutes before either is served. Bazxm Liebeg, whom we have already so often quoted, says, that roasting should be conducted on the same principle as boiling; and that sufficient heat should be applied to the surface of the meat at onoe, to contract the pores and prevent the escape of its juices; and that the remainder ofthe process should be slow. When a joint is first laid to the fire, therefore, it should bo placed for twenty minutes or half an hour sufficiently near to eflect this, without any part, and the fat especially, being allowed to acquire more than the slightest colour, and then drawn back and finished by the directions at the end f this section. The speedy application of very hot basting-fat to every part of the meat, would probably be attended with the same result as subiecting it to the full action of the fire. It is certain that roasts which are constantly and carefully basted are always very superior to those which are neglected in this respect. Bemember always to draw back the dripping-pan when the fire has to be stirred, or when fresh coals are thrown on, that the cinders and ashes may not fall into it. When meat is very lean, a slice of butter, or a small uantity of clarified dripping, should be melted in the pan to baste it with at m-st; though the use of the latter should be scrupulously avoided for poultry, or any delicate meats, as the flavour it imparts is to many persons peculiarly objectionable. Let the spit be kept bright and dean, and wipe it before the meat is put on; balance the joint well upon it, that it may turn stidily, and if needful secure it with screw-skewers. A cradle spit, which b so constructed that it contains the meat in a sort of framework, instead of passing through it, may be often very advantageously used insteaa of an ordinary one, as the perforation of the meat by this last must always occasion some escape of the juices; and it is, moreover, particularly to be objected to in roasting joints or poultiy which have been boned and filled with forcemeat. The cradle spit (for which see Turkey Boned and Forced," Chapter XIV.) IS much better suited to these, as well as to a sucking pig, stuigeon, salmon, and other large fish; but it is not very common to be found in our kitchens, many of which exhibit a singular scantiness of the conveniences which assist the labours of the cook. For heavy and substantial joints, a quarter of an hour is generally allowed for every pound of meat; and with a sound fire and frequent

172 MODEBN COOKEBT. cHAF. iz. basting, will be found safficient when the process is condueted in the usual manner; but bv the slow metiiadss we shall designate it, almost double the time will be required. Fork, veal, and lamb, should always be well roasted; but many eaters prefer mutton and beef rather under-dressed, though some persons have a strong objection to the sight even of any meat that is not thoroughly cooked. Joints which are thin in proportion to their weight, require less of the fire than thick and solid ones. Ribs of beef, for example, will be sooner ready to serve than an equal weight of the rump, round, or sirloin; and the neck or shoulder of mutton, or spare rib of pork, than the leg. When to preserve the succulence of the meat is more an object than to economise fuel, beef and mutton should be laid at twice the usual distance from the fire, after the surface has been thoroughly heated, as directed bv Licbeg, and allowed to remain so until they are perfectly heated through; the roasting, so managed, will of course be slow; and from three hours and a half to four hours will be necessary to cook by this method a leg of mutton of ordinary size, for which two hours would amply suffice in a common way; but the flesh will be remarkably tender, and the flow of gravy from it most abundant. It should not be drawn near the fire imtil within the last half or diree quarters of an hour, and should then be placed only so close as to brown it properly. No kind of roast indeed should at any time be allowed to take colour too quickly; it should be heated dually, and kept at least at a moderate distance from the fire until it is nearly done, or the outside will be dry and hard, if not bumedt while the inside will be only half cooked. STCAMINQ. The application of steam to culinary pur poses is becoming rery general in our kitchens at the present day, especially in those of larffe establishments, many of which are furnished with apparatus for its use, so admirably constructed and so complete, that the process may be conducted on an extensive scale with very slight trouble to the saucepan -ith steamer. ' P 9 he further advantage of being at a distance from thefire the steam beinff conveyed by pipes to the vessels intended to receive it. Fish, butcher's meat, poultry, vegetables, puddings, maccaroni, and rice, are all subjected to its action, instead of being immersed in water, as in simple boiling: and the result is to many persons perfectly satia£ictory; though, as there is a diflerence of opinion amongst first-rate cooks, with regard to the comparative ments of the two modes of dressing meat and fish a trial should be given to the steaming on a mall scale, before any great expenses are mcurred for it, whicn may

CHAP. IX. BOILING BOASTING £TC. 173 be done eaaly with a common saucepan or boiler, fitted like the one shown above, with a simple tin steamer. Servants not accustomed to the use of these, should be warned against boiling in the vessel itself any thing of coarse or strong flavour, when the article steamed is of a delicate nature. The vapour from soup containing onions, for example, would have a very bad effect on a sweet pudding, and on many other dishes. Care and discretion, therefore, must be exercised on this point. By means of a kettle fixed over it, the steam of the boiler in the kitchen range may be made available for cooking, in the way shown by the engraving, which exhi- n bits fish, potatoes, and their sauces, all in PvTj:p progress of steaming at the same time. vV zr o The limits of our work do not permit us to enter at much length upon this subject, but the reader who may wish to understand the nature of steam, and the various modes in which its agency may be applied to domestic purposes, will do well to consult Mr. Webster's excellent work,t of which we have more jMirticularly spoken in another chapter. The quite inexperienced cook may require to be told, that any article of food which is to be cooked by steam in a saucepan of the form exhibited in the first of the engravings of this section, must be prepared exactly as for boiling, and laid into the sort of strainer affixed to the top of the saucepan; and that water, or some other kind of liquid, must be put into the saucepan itself, and kept boiling in it, the lid being first closely fixed into the steamer. STEWING. rhis very wholesome, convenient, and economical mode of cookery is by no means so well imderstood nor profited by in England as on the continent, where its advantages are fully appreciated. So very small a quantity of fuel is necessary to sustain the gentle degree of ebullition which it requires, that this alone would recommend it to the careful housekeeper; but if the process be skilfully conducted, meat softly stoved or stewed, in close-shutting, or luted vessels, is in every respect equal, if not superior, to that which is roasted; but it must be simmered only, and in the gentlest possible manner, or, instead of being tender, nutritious, and highly palatable, it will be dry, hard, and indigestible. The common cooking stoves in this country, as they have hitherto been constructed, have rendered the exact regulation of heat which stewing requires rather difficult; and • Inrented and sold by Mr. Etans, Fish-street Hill. 4 Eneyclopadia of Dome$tie Economy. LoNoaux & Co. i Secarely dosed with a band of paste passed round the edges, and pressed tightly orer them. The late or luting used for chemical apparatus is of a kind

174

HOBEBN COOKEBT.

chap. n.

Hot Plate.

the smoke and blaze of a laige coal fire are yeiy unfayonrable to many other modes of cookery as well. The French have generally the advantage of the embers and ashes of the wood which is their ordinary fuel; and they have always, m addition, a stove of this construction, in which charcoal or braise (for explanation of this word, see remarks on preserving, Chapter XXV.") only is burned; and upon which their stewpans can, wnen there is occasion, be left uncovered, without the danger of their contents being spoiled, which there generally is with us. y yr-,, -=j - p=r It w true, that of late great improvements yy_ E have been made in our own stoves; and the hot plates, or hearths with which the kitchens of good houses are always furnished, are admirably adapted to the simmering system; but when the cook has not the convenience of one, the stewpans must be placed on trivets high above the fire, and be constantly watched, and moved, as occasion may require, nearer to, or further from the flame. No copper vessels from which the inner tinning is in the slightest degree worn away should be used ever for this or for any other kind of cookery; or not health only, but life itself, may be endangered by them. We have ourselves seen a dish of acid fruit which had been boiled without sugar in a copper pan from which the tin linuig was half worn away, coated with verdigris after it had become cold; and from the careless habits of the person who had prepared it the chances were greatly in favour of its being served to a family afterwards, if it had not been accidentally discovered Salt acts upon the copper in the same manner as acids: vegetables, too, from the portion of the latter which they contain, have the same injurious efiect, and the greatest danger results from allowing preparations containing any of these to become cold (or cool) in the ste vpan, in contact with the exposed part of the copper in the inside. Thick, well-tinned iron saucepans will answer for all the ordinary purposes of common English cookery, even for stewing, provided they have tightly-fitting lids to prevent the escape of the steam; but the copper ones are of more convenient form, and better adapted to a sufor order of cookery. Sugar, being an antidote to the poisonous effects of Terdigris, ehonld be plentifully taken, dissoJved in water, so as to form a iymp, by persona who may unfortunately have partaken of any dish into which this duigerous ingrediexi has entered.

CHAP. IX. STEWING AND BBOILING. 175 The enamelled stewpans and saucepans which have now very much Euperseded the old-fashioned metal ones for many purposes, are peculiarly suited, from the nicety of the composition with which they are lined, and which resemhles earthenware, to the preparation of fine preserves, and all very delicate compounds, as well as to those of milk, and of various articles of diet adapted to invalids; and they possess the further advantage of being easily kept beautifully dean. Care should be taken not to allow anything which they may contain to bum to them, which it will quickly do if they be placed flat upon a fierce fire; and when this has once occurred, there will always be some difficulty in preventing their contents from adhering to them where they have been burned. They should always be filed with water immediately after being emptied, and will then merely require to be well washed and rinsed with more boiling water; but when they have been neglected, strong soda and water would be boiled in them for a few minutes. BROILINO. Broiling is the best xKtssible mode of cooking and of preserving the flavour of several kinds of fish, amongst which we may spedfy mackerel and whitings; it is also incomparably superior to frying for steaks and cutlets, especially of beef and mutton; and it is far better adapted also, to the preparation of food for invalids; but it should be carefully done, for if the heat be too fierce, the outside of the meat will be scorched and hardened so as to render it imeatable; and if, on the contrary, it be too gentle, the a Conjuror. gravy will be drawn out, and yet the flesh will remain so entirely without firmness, as to be unpleasant eating. A brisk fire, perfectly reejram smoke a very clean gridiron, tender meat, a dish and plates as hot as they can be, and great despatch in sending it to table when done, all are essential to the servins of a good broS. The gridiron should be heated, and rubbed with mutton suet before the meat is laid on, and it should be placed slopingly over the fire, that the fat may run off to the back of the grate, instead of falling on the live coals and smoking the meat: if this precaution should not prevent its making an occasional blaze, lifl; the gridiron quickly beyond the reach of the smoke, and hold it away until the fire is dear again. Steaks and chops should be turned often, that the juices may be ket in, and tihiat tiiey may be equally done in every part If, for this purpose, it should be necessary for want of steak-tongs to use a fork, U should be passed through the outer skin or fat of the steak, but never stuck into the lean, as by that means much of the gravy will

176 MODEBN COOKBRT. chap. n. escape. Most eaten prefer broiled beef or mntton, rather underdressed; but lamb or pork cutlets should always be thoroughl cooked. When a fowl or any other bird is cut asunder before it is broiled, the inside should first be laid to the fire: this should be done with kidneys also. Fish is less dry and of better flavour, as well as less liable to be smoked, if it be wrapped in a thickly buttered sheet of writing paper before it is placed on the gridiron. For the more delicate-skinned kinds, the bars should be rubbed with chalk instead of suet when the paper is omitted. Cutlets, or meats of any other form, when eed and crumbed for broiling, should afterwards be dipped into darid butter or sprinkled with it plentifully, as the egg-yolk and bread will otherwise form too dry a crust upon it. 2rench cooks season their cutlets both with salt and pepper, and brush a little oil or butter over them to keep them moist; but unless this be done, no seasoning of salt should be given them until they are just ready to be dished: the French method is a very good one. Steaks or cutlets may be quickly cooked with a sheet or two of lighted paper onl, in the apparatus shown in the preceding page, and called a conjuror. Lift off the cover and lay in the meat properly seasoned, with a small slice of butter under it, and insert the lighted paper in the aperture shown in the plate; in from eight to ten minutes the meat will be done, and found to be remarkably tender, and very palatable: it must be turned and moved occasionalljr during the process. This is an especially convenient mode of cooking for persons whose hours of dining are rendered uncertain by the nature of their avocations. For medical men engaged in extensive country practice it has often proved so; and we would especially recommend it to the notice of emigrants, to whom it would often prove invaluable. The part in which the meat is placed is of block tin, and fits closely into the stand, which is of sheet iron. The conjuror from which our design was drawn, was purchased in a country town in Essex, and was exceedingly well made, and very cheap. We find on inquiry that the maker has quitted the place, or we would insert his address. PRYINO. This is an operation', which, though appa rently very simple, requires to be more careftilly and skilfully conducted than it commonly is. Its success depends principally on allowing SRut Pan. attain the exact degree of heat which shall give firmness, without too ouick browning or scorching, before anything is laid into the pan; &r, if this be neglected, the article fried will be saturated with fat, and remain pale and flaccid. When the requisite degree of colour is acquired before the cooking is complete, the pan should be placed high above the fire, that it may be continued slowly to the proper

CHAP. IZ

BOILING5 BOASTING, &C.

177

point. Steaks and cutlets should be seasoned with salt and pq per and dredged on both sides lightly nth flour before they are laid into the pan, in which they should be often moved and turned that they may be equally done, and that they may not stick nor bum to it. From ten to fifteen minutes will fry them. They should be evenly sliced, about the same thickness as for broiling, and neatly trimmed and divided in the first instance. Lift them mto a hot dish when done; pour the fat from the nan, and throw in a small slice of butter; stir to this a large teaspoonful of flour, brown it gently, and pour in by degrees a quarter of a pint of hot broth or water; shake the pan well round, add pepper, salt, and a little good catsup, or any other store sauce which may be preferred to it, and pour the gravy over the steaks: this is the most common mode of saucing and serving them. Minute directions for fish, vegetables, omlets, and diflerent preparations of batter, are given in their proper places; but we must acain observe, that a veiy small fr3dng pan (scarcely larger than a dmner-plate) is necessary for manv of these; and, indeed, the large and thick one suited to meat and fish, and used commonly for them is altoher unfit for nicer purposes. l%e ioute-pan, shown in the preceding page, is much used by French cooks instead of a frying-pan; it is more particularlv convenient for tossing quickly over the fire small collops, or aught else which requires but little cooking. All fried dishes, which are not sauced, should be served extremely djy upon a neatly-folded damask cloth: they are best drained upon a sieve reversed placed before the fire. A wire basket of this form is convenient for frying parsley and other herbs. It must be plac in o pan well filled with fat, and lifted out quickly when the herbs are done: they may likewise be crisped in it over a clear fire, without any fat. The frying-pans fitted with wire __,, ., .. linings that lift iTand out of them, wire Bket for Prytag. which have lately come much into use in good kitchens, are so excellently adapted to save trouble, and so convenient for preparing delicately light patties, croquettes, rissoles, and other dishes of a similar nature, that no cook who is expected to serve them in the best manner should be without one. They should all be arranged upon this wire lining, and plunged together into the boiling fat; and well drained on it when they are lifted out

Wire Lfni&g of I-'ryinj pan.

Modern SautS Pan.

178

AtODEBN COOK£BT.

chap, el

BAKING OB OVEN COOKKBY. The improYed construction of the oyens connected with all modem cooking stoves, gives great facility at the present day for home bakings even in very small establishments; and without this convenience it is impossible for justice to be done to the person who conducts the cookery; as Nottingham Jar. many and great disadvantages attend the sending to a public oven; and it is very cuscouraging to a servant who has prepared her dishes with nicety and skill, to nave them injured by the negligence of other persons. One of the best modes of cooking with which we are acquainted is by means of a jar, resembling in form that shown above, well pasted down, and covered with a fold of thick paper, and then placed in a gentle oven. Rice is most excellent when thus slowly baked with a certain proportion of liquid, either by itself, or mingled with meat, fish, or miit; but we must reserve for another volume particulars of this little system of slow oveu'Cooheryy in which for some years past we have had numberless experiments made with almost uniform success: it is especially suited to invalids, from preserving the entire amount of nourishment contained in the articles of food dressed by it; and it is to their use that we hope to appropriate it. The oven may be used with advanta for many purposes for which it is not commonly put into requisition. Calves' feet, covered with a proper proportion of water, may be reduced to a strong Jelly if left in it for some hours; the half-head, boned and rolled, will be foimd excellent eating, if laid, with the bones, into a deep pan and baked quite tender in sufficient broth or water, to keep it covered in every part until done; good soup also may be made in the same way, the usual ingredients being at once added to the meat, with the exception of the vegetables, which will not become tender if put into cold li(uid, and should therefore be thrown m aJder it begins American Oven.i simmer. Baking is likewise one of We have scarcely done justice in the former editions of this work to these very useful litUe ovens, which we have found, after long trial, better adapted to some purposes than brick or iron ones, because preparations which require it, (those of Indian com, for example) can be heated in them more gradually; and when once the management of them is understood, they will answer admubly for delicate sweet puddings, and for cakes, with the adrantage of requiring bat very moderate firt.

TL-- -. -

OUY IX.3 BOILING BOASTING, &C. 179 the best modes of dressing varions kinds of fish: pike and red mullet amongst others. Sahnon cut into thick slices, freed from the skin, well seasoned with spice, mixed with salt (and with minced herbs, at pleasure), then arranged evenly in a dish, and covered thickly Tvith erombs of bread, moistened with clarified batter, as directed in Chapter 11., for baked soles, and placed in the oven for about half an hour, will be found yerv rich and highly flavoured. Part of the middle of the salmon left entire, well cleaned, and thoroughlydried, then seasoned, and securely wrapped in two or three fol of thickly buttered paper, will also proVe excellent eating, if gently baked. (This may likewise be roasted in a Dutch oven either folded in the paper, or left without it, and basted with batter.) Hama, when freshly cured, and not over salted, if neatly trimmed, sod covered with a coarse paste, are both more juicy, and of finer flavour baked than boiled. Savoury or pickled beef too, put into a deep pan with a little gravy, and plenty of butter or diopped suet on the top, to prevent the outside from becoming dry; then covered with paste, or with several folds of thick paper, and set into a moderate oven for four or five hours, or even longer, if it be of lam weight, is an excellent dish. A goose, a leg of pork, and a sucking jag, if properly attended to whOe in the oven, are said to be nearly, or quite as good as if roasted; but baking is both an unpalatable and an unprofitable mode of cooking joints of meat in general, though its great convenience to many persons who have but &w other lacuities for obtaining the luxury of a hot dinner renders it a very common one. It is usual to raise meat from the dish in which it is sent to the oven by placing it, properly skewered, on a stand, so as to allow potatoes or a batter pudding to be baked under it. A few button onions, freed from the outer skin, or three or four large ones, cut in halves, are sometimes put beneath a shoulder of mutton. Two sheets of paper spread separately with a thick layer of butter, claiified marrow, or any other fat, and fastened securely over the outade of a joint, will prevent its being too much dried by the fierce heat of the oven. A few spoonsful of water or gravy should be poured into the dish with potatoes, and a little salt sprinkled over them. A celebrated French cook recommends braising in the oven; that is to say, after the meat has been arranged in the usual manner, and just brought to boil over the fire, that the braising pan, closelystopped, uionld be put into a moderate oven, for the same length of time as would be required to stew the meat perfectly tender.

180 MOPKRN COOKERY. .CHAr. ix.

BRAISING.

Braising is but a more expensive mode of stewing meat The following French recipe will explain the process. We would observe, however, that the layers of beef or veal, in which the =;55:( joint to be braised is imbedded, can ''' afterwards be converted into excellent soup, vy, or glaze; and that there need, m consequence, be no waste nor any unreasonable degree of expense attending it; but it is a troublesome process, and quite as good a result may be obtained by simmering the meat in very English BFaiBing-pan. gtrong gravy. Should the flavour of the bacon be considered an advantage, slices of it can be laid over the article braised, and secured to it with a fillet of tape. " To braise the inside (or small JUlet as it is called in France) of a sirloin of beef: Baise the fillet dean from the joint; and with a sharp knife strip off all the skin, leaving the surface of the meat as smooth as possible; have ready some stri of unsmoked bacon, half as thick as your little finger, roll them m a mixture of thyme finelv minced, spices in powder, and a little pepper and salt. Lard the fillet quite through vnith these, and tie it round with tape in any shape you choose. Line the bottom of a stewpan (or braising-pan) with sfices of bacon; next put in a layer of beef or veal, four omons, two bay-leaves, two carrots, and a bunch of sweet herbs, and place the fillet on them. Cover it with slices of bacon, put some trimmings of meat all round it, and pour on to it half a mnt of good beef broth or gravy. Let it stew as gently as possible for two hours and a half; teke it up, and keep it very hot; strain, and reduce the gravy by quick boiling until it is thick enough to glaze with; brash the meat over with it; put the rest in the dish with die fillet, after the tape has been removed from it, and send it directly to table." Equal parts of Madeira and gray are sometimes used to moisten the meat. o attempt should be made to braise a joint in any vessel that is not very nearly of its own size A round of buttered paper is crenerally put over the more delicate kinds of braised meat, to prevent tLcir being browned by the fire, which in i ranee is sometimes put round the lid of the braising-pan, in a groove made on purpose to contain it. The embers of a wood fire mixed with the hot ashes, are best adapted to sustain the regular but gentle degree of heat required for this mode of cooking.

CHAP. EC.

BOILING, BOASTING, &C.

181

Braising pans are of various forms. They are often shaped like a ham-kettle, and sometimes like the design at the commencement of this section; but a stewpan of modem form, or any other Teasel which vill admit of embers being placed upon the lid, ynH answer for the purpose as well. Ci)mmon cooks sometimes stew meat in a mixture of butter and water, and call it hraUing, LARDINQ.

Copper Stewpan.

Lordhig PlDB. Cut into slices, of the same length and thickness, some bacon of the finest quality; trim away the outsidcs, place the slices evenly upon each other, and with a sharp knife diviae them obliquely into small strips of equal size. For pheasants, partridges, hares, fowls, and frieandecntXj the bacon should be about the eighth of an inch square, and two inches in length; but for meit which is to be larded Juite through, instead of on the outside merely, the bits of bacon properly ed lardoons) must be at least the third of an inch square. In general, the breasts only of birds are larded, the backs and thighs of hares, and the whole of the upper surface of fricandeau: these should be thickly covered with small lardoons, placed at regular intervals, and in lines which intersect each other, so as to form rather minute diamonds. The following directions for larding a pheasant will serve equally for poultry, or for other kinds of game: - Secure one end of the bacon in a slight larding-needle, and on the point of this take up sufficient of the flesh of the bird to hold the lardoon firmly; draw the needle through it, and part of the bacon, of which the two ends should be left of equal length. Proceed thus, until the breast of the pheasant is entirely garnished with ' lardoons, when it ought to resemble in appearance a cake thickly stuck with strips of aunonds. The larger strips of bacon, after being rolled in a high seasoning of minced herbs and spices, are used to lard the inside of meat, and they should be proportioned to its thickness, as they must be passed quite through it. For example: a four-inch slice from a rump of beef will require lardoons of very nearly that length, which must be Tbe line -vrhich passes ronnd this stewpan just above the handle, is a mistake of the designer, and eonvoys an eironeooB idea of the form of the ooyer, and it o to have been omitted.

182 MODEBK COOKEBT. chap. IZ drawn through with a large larding-pin, and left in it, with the ends just out of sight on either side. In France, truffles, anchovies, slices of tongue, and of &t, all trimmed into proper shape, are occasionally used for larding. The bacon employed there for the purpose is cured without any saltpetre (as this would redden the white meats), and it is never smoked: the receipt for it will be found in Chapter XTTT. A turkey is sometimes larded with alternate lardoons of fat bacon and of bullock's tongue, which has been pickled but not dried: we apprehend that the lean of a half-boiled ham, of good colour, would answer the purpose quite as well, or better. Larding the surface of meat, poultry, or game, gives it a good appearance, but it is a more positive improvement to meat of a drv nature to interlard the inside with laige lardoons of weU-seasoneay delicate striped English baoon.

BONING. Yeiy minute directions being given in other parts of our yolume for this, we confine ourselves here to the following rules: - in disengaging the flesh from it, work the knife always twse to the bone and take every care not to pierce the outer skin. TO BLANCH MEAT OB YEOETABLES. This is merely to throw either into a pan of boiling wat for a few minutes, which gives firmness to the first, and is necessary for some modes of preparing vegetables. The breast only of a bird is sometimes held in the water while it boils, to render it firm for larding. To preserve the whiteness of meat, and the bright green of vegetables, they are lifted ftx m the water after the have boiled a few minutes, and are thrown immediately into spnng water, and left till cold. 5 to 10 minutes. GLAZING. This process we have explained at the article Glaze Chapter IV. The surfiue of the meat should be covered evenly, with two or three separate layers of the glaze, which, if properly made, soon becomes firm. A ham should be wdl dried in the oven before it is laid on. Cutlets of all kinds may be e lazed before th are sent to table, with very good effect The figure above represents a glaze-pot and brush, used for heating and applying

CHAP. IX.

BOILING, BOASTING, &&

183

the preparation: ajar placed in a pan of boiling water may be sob stitnted for the first, when it is not at hand.

TOASTmo,

A yery cheap apparatus, by which chops can be dressed before a dear fire, is shown by the mvtt of these figures; and the second is peculiarly conyenient when bread or muffins are required to be toasted expeditiously and in laree quantities, without much time and attention being bestowed upon tnem.

TO BROWN THB SURFACB OF A DISH WITHOUT BAKING OB PLACIKO IT AT THE FIRE. This is done with a salamander, as it is called, formed like the engraying below; it is heated in the fire, and held oyer the dish sufSdently near to giye it colour. It is yery much used in a superior order of cookery. A kitchen shoyel is sometimes substituted for it on an emergency.

iM

MODEBN COOKERT.

CBAF. Z.

CHAPTER X.

1. Sirioln. 9. Romp. 8. Edge-boDe. 4. Buttock, or Hound. 6. Moose Buttock. 6. Veiny Piece 7. Tliick Flank. 8. Tliin Flank. 9. Leg. 10. Fore Bib. (FhreBibi.)

11. Middle Bib. (FimrBibO IS. Chuck Bib. (Three Ribe.) 13. Shoulder, or Leg of Motton Piece. 14. Brisket. 15. Clod. 18. Keck. 17. Shin. 18. Cheek.

TO CHOOSE BEEF. Beef is in realitj in season throngh the entire year, but it is best daring the winter months, when it will hang a sufficient time to become tender before it is dressed. Meat of a more delicate nature is better adapted for the table in summer. The ChrUlnuu be of England is too much celebrated to require an mention here. If yoang and fireshly killed, the lean of ox-beef will be smootlily grained and of a fine, healthy, carnation-red, the fat ther white toaq yellow, and the suet white and firm. Heifer-beef m more

CHAP. 2. J BEEF 185 closely gprained, and rather less bright of colour, the bones are considerably smaller, and the fat of a purer white. Of bull-beef we only speak to warn our readers that it is of all meat the coarsest and the most rank in flavour. It may be known by its dark hue, its close tough fibre, and the scanty proportion, bad appearance, and strong odour of its fat. In choice and well-fed beef, the lean will be found intergrained with fat: very lean meat is generally of an inferior quality. The ribs, the sirloin, and the rumn, are the proper joints for roasting. The round, or buttock, the edgebone, the second roimd, or mouse-buttock, the shin, the brisket, the shoulder or leg of mutton piece, and the clod, may be boiled or stewed. The neck is senerally used for soup or gravy; and the thin flank for collaring The best steaks are cut from the middle of the rump; the next t from the veiny piece, or from the chuck-rib. The mside of the sirloin, commonly used for the purpose in France, makes by far the most delicate steaks; but though exceedingly tender, they are considered by some English epicures to be wanting in flavour. 'Tht finest part of the sirloin is the chump-end, which contains the laiger portion of the fillet; of the ribs, the middle ones are those generauy preferred by experienced housekeepers

TO ROAST SIRLOIN; OR RIBS OF BEEF. Let the joint hang as lone as it can possibly be kept perfectly sweet. When it is first brought in, remove the pipe of marrow whicn runs along the backbone; and cut out the kernels from the fat. Be Tery careful in summer to guard it from flies; examine it firequently in warm or damp weamer; and scrape off with a knife, or wipe away with a dry cloth, any moisture which may appear on the sorfiice: when this has been done, dust some powdered ginger or pepper over it Unless the joint should be veir large, its appearance will be improved by taking off the ends of the bones, which may then be salted for a few days, and afterwards boiled. Spit the beef firmly; place it near the fire to render the surface firm, as directed in the article Roasting of Chapter IX.; then draw it to a distance and let it remain so until the heat has well penetrated the interior; and, if from prejudice the old method be still preferred, heat it very mdually in the first instance (in either case baste it constantly), and let It be drawn nearer to the fire for the last half hour or more of roasting, merely to brown it well. Persons who object to meat being frothed ioT table, have it drcdced with flour when it is first placed a. the fire, and sprinkled with nne salt when it is nearly done. It ia not necessary to paper the fat of bee as many cooks duect, if proper attention be given to it while roasting. As a general rule, it may be observed, that when the steam from

186 MODEBN COOKEKT. chap. x. the meat draws strongly towards the fire, it is nearly or quite ready to serve. The time required to roast it vrill depend on the state of the weather, the size and strength of the Ere, the thickness of the joint, the use or non-use of a meat-screen or reflector, the general temperature of the kitchen, and other contingencies. A quarter of an hour for each pound of meat is commonly allowed for solid, heavy joints, and, if the directions we have given be attended to, this will not be found too much even for persons who prefer beef somewhat rere: it must be left longer at the fire if wished very thoroughly roasted, and quite double the usual time when the plan we have noticed at page 172, is adopted. When likely to be sent to table hashed, minced, or dressed a second time in any way, the juices of the meat should be dried up as little as possible when it is first cooked. ROAST RUMP OF BEEF. As this joint is genendl; too much to serve whole, as much of it as will form a handsome dSsh should be cut from the chump end to roast. It must be managed as the sirloin, to which it is commonly preferred by connoisseurs. When boned and rolled into the form of a fillet of veal, as it sometimes is, nearly or quite an additional hour dbould be allowed to dress it.

TO ROAST PART OF A ROUIYD OF BEEF. The natural division of the meat will show where the silver side 3f the round is to be separated from the upfjer or tongue side, which is the proper part for roasting, and which will be found equally good and profitable for the purpose, if allowed to hang as long as it can be kept sweet before it is dressed. Care should be taken in dividing the meat, not to pierce the inner skin. The silver side, with the udder, if there should be one to the joint, may be pickled, spiced, or simply salted, and will be excellent either way. The outside fat should be drawn tightly round the remainder of the beef, which must be firmly dkewered, or bound with tape, to keep it in form. It will require long roasting at a strong, sty fire, and should be kept constantly basted. Beef, 14 lbs.: 4i to 5 hours. Obs.-We think that larding the beef quite through with large lardoons of firm fat, of udder, or of bacon, would be an improvement; and we ought also to obsei-ve, that unless it be delicate and of fine quality, it wiU not answer well for roasting. The meat will be much sooner done in hot weather than in cold. If frozen, it must be thawed very gradually before it is put to the fire, or no length of timo will roast it; this will be effected better by laying it into cold water for i faonrs bflfOK it is wanted, than by any other means.

CHAP 3C.J BEEF. 187

TO BOAST ? FILLET OF BBBF. Raise the fillet tcom the inside of the sirloin, or from part of it, th a sharp knife; leave the fat on, trim off the skin, lard it through, or all over, or roast it quite plain; baste it with butter, and send It very hot to table, with tomata sauce, or iouce piquante, or eschalot sauce, in a tureen. It is sometimes served with brown gravy and currant jelly; it should then be garnished with forcezneat-balls, made as for hare. If not very large, an hour and a quarter will roast it well with a brisk fire. Obs, - The remainder of the joint may be boned, rolled, and roasted, or braised; or made into meat cakes; or served as a miniature round of beefl 1 hour. BOAST BEEF STEAK. If extremely tender, a hum slice from the middle of the rump will make an excellent small dish of roast meat, when a joint is not easily to be procured. Let it be smoothly cut, from an inch to an inch and a half thick, flattened on a table, and the inside sprinkled with a little fine salt and cayenne, or common pepper. Make a roll of forcemeat, as No. 1, Chapter YIII., adding, at jeasure, a flavouring of minced onion or eschalot, and increasing the (uantity of spices; place this on one end of the steak, and roll it up ghtly m it; skewer and bind the meat so that the forcemeat cannot escape; fasten a buttered paper over it, and roast it an hour and a half, or more, according to its size. Twenty mmutes before it is served, take off the paper and flour the meat, which should be kept well basted with butter all the time it is roasting. Send brown gravy to table with it, and pour a little over the beef. 1 hour, or more. TO BBOIL BEEF STEAKS. The steaks should be from half to three quarters of an inch thick, equally sliced, and freshly cut from the middle of a well kepl finely grained, and tender rump of beef. They should be neatly trimmed, and once or twice divided, if very lar The fire, as we have already said in the general directions for broiling (page 175, must be strong and clear. The bars of the gridiron should be thin, and not very dose together. When they are thoroughly heated, without being foffidently burning to scorch the meat, wipe and rub them with fresh mutton suet; next pepper the steaks sJightly, but never season them with salt before they are dressed; lay them on the gridiron, and when done on one side, turn them on the other, being carefiil to catch, in the dish in which they are to be sent to table, any gravy

188 MODERN COOKEBT cHAP. x vhicli may threaten to drain from them when they are moved. Let them he served the instant they are taken from the fire; and have ready at the moment, dish, cover, and plates, as hot as they can he. From eight to ten minutes will be sufficient to broil steaks for the generality of eaters, and more than enough for those who like them but partially done. Genuine amateurs seldom take prepared sauce or gravy with their steaks, as they consider the natural juices of the meat sufficient. When any accompaniment to them is desired, a small . quantity of choice mushroom catsup may be warmed in the dish that is heated to receive them; and which, when the not very refined flavour of a raw eschalot is liked, as it is by some eaters, may previously be rubbed with one, of which the huqge end has been cut off. A thin slice or two of fresh butter is sometimes laid under the steaks, where it soon melts and mingles with the gravy which flows from them. The appropriate tureen sauces for broiled beef steaks are onion, tomata, oyster, eschalot, hot hoiaeradish, and brown cucumber, or mushroom sauce. Obs, 1. - We have departed a little in this receipt from our previous instructions for broiling, by recommending that the steaks should be turned but once, instead of often, as all great authorities on the subject direct. By trying each method, our readers will be able to decide for themselves upon the preferable one: we can only say, that we have never eaten steaks so excellent as thoac wiiich have been dressed exac&y in accordance with the receipt we have iust given, and we have taken infinite pams to ascertain the really oest mode of preparing this very favourite English dish, which so constantly makes its appearance both carelessly cooked and ill served, especially at private tables. Ohs, 1. - It is a good plan to throw a few bits of charcoal on the fire some minutes before the steaks are laid down, as they give forth a strong heat without any smoke: a coke fire is also advantageous for broiling them. The upright gridirons, by which meat is rather toasted than broiled, though used in many kitchens, and generally pronounced exceedingly convenient where they have been tried, do not appear to us so well adapted for dressing steaks as those of less modem fashion, which are placed over, instead of before the fire. BEEF STEAKS 1 LA FRANQAISE. The inside of the sirloin freed from skin and cut evenly into round quarter-inch slices, should properly be used for these; but when it cannot be obtained, part of the rump must be substituted for it. Season the steaks with fine salt and pepper, brush them with a little clarified butter, and broil them over a clear brisk fire. Mix a tea spoonful of parsley minced extremely fine, with a large slice of fresh butter, a little cayenne, and a small quantity of nit. When tha

CHAT. X. BEEF. 189 Steaks are done, put the mizture into the dish intended for them, lav them upon it, and garnish them plentifuUy with fried potatoes. It is an improTement to squeeze the juice of half a lemon on the hutter bdbre the meat is heaped over it. The potatoes should he sliced rather thin, coloured of a fine hrown, and placed evenly round the meat. BEEF STEAKS 1 LA FRANAISE (eNTr£e). (Another Receipt) Cut the beef into small thin steaks as above, season them with fine salt and pepper, dredge them lightly with flour, and fry them in butter over a brisk fire; arrange them in a chain round aTery hot dish, and pour into the centre the olive sauce of Chapter Y. STEWED BEEF STEAK (ENTRiE). This may be cut from one to two inches thick, and the time of stewing it must be proportioned to its size. Dissolve a slice of butter in a lurge saucepan or stewpan, and brown the steak on both sides, moving it often that it may not bum; then shake in a little flour, and when it is coloured pour in by degrees rather more than sufficient broth or water to cover the meat. When it boils, season it with salt, take off the scum, slice in one onion, a carrot or two, and half a turnip; add a small bunch of sweet herbs, and stew the steak ?ery softly from two hours and a half to three hours. A quarter of an hour before it is served, stir well into the gravy three teaspoonsful of rice flour smoothly mixed with a little cayenne, half a wineglassful of mushroom catsup, and a slight seasoning of spice. A leaspoonfol of currie powder, in addition, idll improve both the flavour and the appearance of the sauce. The omon is sometimes browned with the meat; and the quantity is considerably increased. Eschalots may be used instead, where tneir strong flavour is approved. A few button-mushrooms, stewed from twenty to thirty minutes with the meat, wiU render the catsup unnecessary. Wine, or any favourite store sauce, can be added at will. 2i to3 hours. FRIED BEEF STEAK. We have little to add here to the directions of Chanter IX., which are sufficient to enable the cook to send a dish of fried steaks to table properly dressed. Currie sauce, highly onioned is frequently served with them. BEEF STEAK STEWED IN ITS OWN GRAVT. (Good and wholesome,') Trim all the fat and skin iVom a rump steak of nearly an inch Chick, and divide it once or twice; just dip it into cold water, let it

190 MODERN COOKERY. cblip. z. • drain for an instant, sprinkle it on both sides with pepper, and then flour it rather thickly; lay it quite flat into a well- tinned iron saucepan or stewpan, which has been rinsed with cold water, of which three or four tablespoonsful should be left in it Place it over (not upon) a very gentle fire, and keep it just simmering from an hour and a half to an hour and three quarters, when, if the meat be good it will have become perfectly tender. Add salt to it when it first begins to boil, and turn it when rather more than half done. A couple of spoonsM of gravy, half as much catsup, and a slight seaBomng of spice, would, to many tastes, improve this dish, of which however, tine (peat reconmiendation is its wholesome simplicity, whidi renders it suitable to the most delicate stomach. A thi mutton cutlet from the middle of the leg is excellent dressed thus, litolfhour. BEEF OR MUTTON CAKE. Very good,) Chop two pounds of lean and very tender beef or mutton, with three quarters of a pound of beef suet; mix them well, and season, them with a dessertspoonful of salt, nearlv as much pounded doves, a teaspoonful of pounded mace, and half a teaspoomul of cayenne. Line a round bakmg dish with thin slices of fat bacon, press the meat closely into it, smooth the top, and cover it with bacon, set a plate on it with a weight, and bake it two hours and a quarter. Take off the bacon, and serve the meat hot, with a little rich brown gravy, or set it by until cold, when it will be equally good. The fat of the meat which is used for this dish can be choppea up with it instead of Buet, where it is liked as well; and onion, or eschalot, shred fine, minced savoury herbs, grated lemon-peel, rasped bacon, or mushrooms cut small, may in turn be added to varv it in flavour. Lean beef or mutton, 2 lbs.; suet, lb.; salt and cloves in powder, each a dessertspoonful; mace, 1 teaspoonful; half as much cayenne baked 2 hours. Ohs, - A larger portion of suet or of fat will render these cakes lighter, but will not otherwise improve them: they may be made of veal or of venison, but one-third of mutton suet or of fat bacon should be mixed with this last GERMAN STEW. Cut into about three-inch squares, two pounds and a half of the leaner part of the veiny piece of bee or of any joint which is likely to be tender, and set it on to stew, with rather letis than a quart of cold broth or water, and one large onion sliced. When these begin to boil, add a teaspoonful of salt, and a third as much of pepper, and let them simmer gently for an hour and a half. Have ready some young white cabbages, parboiled; press the water well from them, lay them in with the bee and let the whole stew for another

CHAP.X.J BEEF. 191 hoar. More onions, and a seasoning of mixed spices, or a few bits of Jean bacon, or of ham, can be added to this stew when a higher flavour is desired; but it is very good without. Beef, 2) Ibe.; water, or broth, 1 pint; onion, 1; salt, 1 teaspoonfol; third as much pepper: 1 hour. Parboiled cabbages, 3 or 4; 1 hour. WELSH STEW. Take the same proportions of beef, and of broth or water, as for the Grennan Stew. When they have simmered gently for an hour, add the white port of from twenty to thirty leeks, or two dozens of button onions, and five or six young mild turnips, cut in slices, a small lump of diite sugar, nearly hali a teaspoonnd of white pepper,. and more than twice as much salt. Stew tne whole sofUy from an boor and a quarter to an hour and a half, after the yegetables are added. Beef and water as above: 1 hour. Leeks, 20 to 30: or small onions, 24; young turnips, 6; small lump of sugar; white pepper, nearly teaspoonful; salt, twice as much: li to 1 hour. ? GOOD ENGLISH STEW. On three pounds of tender rump of beef, freed from skin and fat, and cut down into about two-inch squares, pour rather more than a quart of cold broth or gravy. When it boUs add salt if required, and a IMe cayenne, and keep it just sunmering for a couple of hours; then put to it the grated rind of a large lemon, or of two mill ones, and half an hour after, stir to it a tablespoonful of riceflour, smoothly mixed with a winlassful of mushroom catsup, a dessertspoonful of lemon-juice, and a teaspoonful of soy: in fifteen minutes it will be ready to serve. A glass and a half of port, or of white wine, will greatly improve this stew, which may likewise be ibvoured with the store-sauce of page 146, or with another, which we find exoeUent for the purpose, made with half a pint of port wine, the same of mushroom-catsup, a quarter pint of walnut pickle, a tablespoonful of the best soy, and a dessertspoonful of cayennevinnur, all well shaken together and poured into a bottle containing the thin rind of a lemon and two fine mellow anchovies, of moderate size. A few delicately fried forcemeat-balls may be slipped into it after it is dished. Obs.- The limits of our work will net permit us to devote a further space to this class of dishes, but an intelligent cook will find it easy to vary them in numberless ways. Mushrooms, celery, carrots, sweet herbs, parboiled new potatoes, green peas, rice, and cunie-powder may be advantageously used for that purpose. Oxtails, just blanched and cut into joints, will be found excellent substitutes for the beef: mutton and veal also may be dressed in the fftiff g yny. The meat and yegetables can be browned before broth

192 MODERN OOOKEBT. chap, x or water is poured to them; but though, perhaps, more sayoury, the stew will then be much less delicate. Each kind of vegetable should be allowed something more than sufficient time to render it perfectly tender, but not so much as would reduce it to pulp. TO STEW 8HIN OF BEEF. Wash, and set it on to stew in sufficient cold water to keep it just coyered until it is done. When it boils, take off the scum and put an ounce and a quarter of salt to the gallon of water. It is usual to add a few cloves and some black pepper, slightly bruised and tied up loosely in a fold of muslin, two or more onions, a root of celery, a bunch of savoury herbs, four or five carrots, and as many turnips, either whole or sliced: if to be served with the meat, the two last will require a little more than the ordinary time of boiling, but otherwise they may be simmered with the meat from the binning. Give the beef from four to five hours gentle stewing; and serve k with part of its own liquor thickened and flavoured, or quite plain. An excellent dish for a family may be made by stewing the thick fleshy part of the shin or leg, in stock made of the knuckle, with a few bits of lean ham, or a slice of hung beef from which the smoked edges have been carefully pared away, and some spice, salt, and vegetables: by frying these last before they are thrown into the souppot the savour of the stew will be greatly heightened; and a tureen of good soup may be made of its remains, after it has been served at table. Ox-cheek, after having been soaked for four or five hours, and washed with great nicety, may be dressed like the shin; but as it haa little flavour, the gravy should be struned, and quite cleared from fat, then put into a clean saucepan, and thickened as soon as it boils, with Uie following mixture: - three dessertspoonsful of rice-flour, nearly a wineglassml of catsup, a teaspoonsful of currie-powder, or a little powdered ginger and cayenne. When these have stewed for ten minutes, dish the head, pour the sauce over, and serve it. Shin of beef, 4 to 5 hours. Ox-cheek, 2 to 3 hours. FRENCH BEEF ? LA MODE. A common Receipt) Take seven or eight pounds of a rump of beef (or of any ether tender joint), free from bone, and skewer it firmly into a good shape. Put two ounces of butter into a thick saucepan or stewpan, and when it boils stir to it a tablespoonfal of flour; keep these well shaken over a gentle fire until they are of a fine amber colour; then lay in the bed", and brown it on both sides, taking care that it shall not stick to the pan. Four to it by slow drees, letting each portion boil before the next is added or the butter will float upon the sortfu:e and be difficult to dear off afterwards, three quarters of a pint

CHAP, z. BEEF. 198 of hot water or gravy; add a bunch of savonry herbs, one laige or two small carrots cut in thick ces, two or three moderate-sized onions, two bay-leaves, and saffident pepper and salt to season the grav. Let the meat simmer gently from four to five hours, and turn it when it is half done. When ready to serve, lift the beef into a hot dish, lay the vegetables round, and pour the gravy over it, after havinff taken out the herbs and skimmed away the fat. In France, half or the whole of a calfs foot is stewed with the beef which is there generally larded widi thick lardoons of fat bacon. (For larding, see Chapter X.) Veal dressed in this way is even better than beef. The stewpan used for either should be as nearly of the size of the meat as possible. Beef, 7 to 8 lbs.: 4 to 5 hours.

BTEWBD SIRLOIN OF BEEF. As a matter of convenience we have occasionally had this joiat stewed instead of roasted, and have found it excellent. Cut out the inade or fillet as entire as noesible, and reserve it for a sei arate dish; then remove the bones witn care, or let the butcher do this. Spread the meat flat on a table and cover the inside with thin slices of striped bacon, after having first strewed over it a mixed seasoning of a small teaspoonful of salt, half as much mace or nutmeg, and a moderate quantity of pepper or cavenne. Roll and bind the meat up firmlv, lay it into a stewpan or thick iron saucepan nearly of its size, and aad the bones and as much good beef broth as will nearly cover the joint. Should this not be at hand, put a few slices of lean ham or bacon under the beef, and lay round it three pounds of neck or knuckle of veal, or of stewing beef divided into several parts; then pour to it cold water instead of broth. In either case, so soon as it Las boiled a few minutes and been well cleaned from scum, throw in a large faggot of savoury herbs, three or four carrots, as many leeks, or a large onion stuck with a dozen cloves; and an hour later two blades of mace, and half a teaspoonful of peppercorns. Stew the beef very gently indeed from four to five hours, and longer, should the joint be large: serve it with a good JSspagnole sauce piquante, or brown caper sauce. Add what salt may be needed before the vegetables are thrown in; and, after the meat is lifted out, boil down to soup or gn,YY the hqaor in which it has been stewed. To many tastes it would be an improvement to flour and brown the outside of the beef in butter before the broth or water is poured to it: it may also be stewed (but somewhat lonser) half-covered with rich gravy, and turned when partially done. Minced eschalots may be strewed ' ver the inside before it is rolled, when their strong savour is relished, or veal forcemeat may supply their place.

194 DOMESTIC COOKEBT. ghap.z.

TO 8TBW ? RUMP OF BEEF. HbSs joint is more eamlT cured, and is of better wpeannce when ihe bones are remoyed before it is dressed. Boll and bind it fiimlj -with a fillet of tape, cover it with stroxiff cold beef broth or gravy, and stew it very gently indeed from six nonrs to between seven aoi eight; add to it, after the scum has been well cleared off, one lazge or two moderate-sized onions stuck with thirty doves, a head of celery, two carrots, two turnips, and a large fiiggot of savoury herbs. When the beef is perfectly tender quite through, which may be known by probing it with a sharp thin skewer, remove the fillets of tape, dish it neatly, and serve it with a rich EipagnSU and a garnish of forced tomatas, or with a highly-flavoured brown English gravy, and stewed carrots in the dish: for these last the mild pre paration of garlic or eschalots, of page 122, may be substituted with good effect. They should be well dnined, laid roimd the meat and a little brown gravy should be poured over the whole. This is the most sunple and economical manner of slewing the beef; but shonkL a richer one be desired, half roast the joint, and stew it aitervrards in strong gniy to which a pint of mushrooms, and a pint of sheny or Madem, should be added an hour before it Is ready for table. Keep it hot while a portion of the gravy is diiekened with a well-made brown xoux (see Chapter IV.), and seasoned with salt, cayenne, and any other spioe it may require. Garnish it with laige balls rf foicemeat highly seasoned wkh mmoed eschalots, rolled in gg and breadrcrumu and fried a fiiK golden brawn. Plainly stewed from 6 to 7 or 8 boon. Or: half xossted then stewed £h m 4 to 5 hours. 06.Grated horse-radish, mixed with some well-thickened brown ppravy, a teaspoonfnl of mustard, and a little lemon-juice or vinegar, IS agood auioe fixr steived bee£

FAXJLTBB. (BHnciB.) Pint rub them well with salt, to cleanse them well; then wash them thoroughly in several waters, and leave them to soak for half an hour before they are dressed. Set them over the fire in cold water, and boil them gently until die skin will peel off and tiie palates are tolerably tender. It is difficult to state the exact time required for this, as some will be done in two houra and a hal and others in not less than from four to five hours. When thus pce red, the palates may be cut into various forme, and sinmioed until to serve in rich brown gravy, highly flavoured with ham, cenne, wine, and lemon-peel; or tibey will make an excellent enme. As they are veiy insipid of themselves, they require a sauce of some piquanqr, in which, after they have been peeled and trimmed, ibtej

CHAP. Z. BEEF. 195 should be stewed firom twenty to Haitr minutes, or until thej aie perfectly tender. The black parts of them mnst be cnt away, when the skin is taken off. An onion, stuck with a few cloves, a carrot diced, a teaspoonful of whole white pepper, a slice of butter, and a teaspoonful of salt, may be boilea with the palates in the first instance; and they will be found yo good, if sent to table in the carried gravy of Chapter XYI., or m the Soubise of Chapter YL, made thinner than the receipts direct. Boiled firom 2 to 4 or 5 hours. Stewed from 20 to 30 minutes. Obs.-A French cook of some celebrity, orders the palates to be laid on the gridiron until the skin can be easily peeled or scraped off; the plan seems a good one, but we have not tned it. BEEF PALATES. iNeapoiiAm 3i6de.) Bofl the palates until the skin can be eamly removed, tiun stew them very tender in good veal broth, lay them on a drainer and let them cool; cut them across obliquely into strips of about a quarterinch in width, and finish them by either of t he re ceipts for dressing "MMinj which will be found in Chapters XVULL and XX. . 8TEWED OX-TAILS. Hier should be sent from the butcher ready j nnted. Soak and wash them well, cut them into loints or into lengths of two or three joints, and cover them with cold broth or water. As soon as they boil remove the scum, and add a half-teaspoonful of salt or as much more as may be needed, and a little common pepper or cayenne, an omon stuck with half a dozen doves, two or three small carrots, and a fanmch or two of parsley. When these have simmered for two hours and a quarter, try the meat with a fork, and should it not be perfectly tender, let it remain over the fiie until it is so. Ox-tails aomelames reauire nearly or quite three hours stewing: they may be MTved with tne vegetables, or with the gravy strained from them, and thickened like tiie English stew of the present chxpta. Ox-tails, 2; water or broth to cover them; salt, 4 teaspoonful, or more; little pepper or cayenne; onion, 1; cloves, 6; canxits, 2 or 3; puvley, 2 or 3 branches: 2 to 3 hours. BBOILBD OX-TAIL. (BNTSiE.) (Very good.) When the ox-tail is ready for the stewpan, throw it into plenty of boiling water slightly salted, and sbnmer it for fifteen minutes; tlien take it up and put it into fredi water to cool; wipe it, and lav It round in a small stewpan without dividing it, just cover it with good beef gravy, and stew it gently until very tender; drain it a

196 MODERN COOKERY. cHAP. X, little, sprinkle over it a small quantity of salt and cayenne, dip it into clarified butter and then into some fine bread-crumbs, with which it should be thickly covered, lay it on the gridiron, and when equally browned all over serve it immediately. If more convenient the ox-tail may be set into the oven or before the fire, until properly coloured: it may likewise be sent to table without broiling, dished upon stewed cabbage or in its own gravy thickened, and with tomats sauce, in a tureen. TO SALT AND PICKLE BEEF, IN YARIOUS WAYS. Let the meat hang a couple of days in mild weather, and four or five in winter, before it is salted or pickled. During the heat of summer it is better to inmierse it entirely in brine, that it may be secured alike from the flies, and from the danger of becoming putrid. Trim it, and take out the kernels from the fat; then rub a httle fine dry salt over it, and leave it until the following day; drain it well from the blood, which will be found to have flowed from it, and it ynll be ready for anj of the following modes of curing, which are all excellent of their kind, and have been well proved. In very cold weather, the salt may be applied quite warm to the meat: it should always be perfectly dry, and reduced to powder. Saltpetre hardens and renders the meat indigestible; sugar, on the contrary, mellows and improves it much; and it is more tender when cured with bay salt than when common salt is used for it. TO SALT AND BOIL A ROUND OF BEEF. Mix an ounce of salti)etre, finely powdered, with half a pound of very coarse sugar, and rub the beef thoroughly with them; in two days add three quarters of a pound of common salt, well dried and beaten; turn and rub the meat well in every part with the pickle for three weeks, when it will be fit to dress. Just wash off the salt, and skewer the beef as round and as even as possible; bind it tightly with broad tape, cover it with cold water, place it over a rather brisk fire, and after it boils draw it to the side of the stove and let it simmer gently for at least five hours. Carrots, mashed turnips, or cabbages, are usually served with boiled beef; and horse-radish stewed for ten minutes in equal parts of vinegar and water, then pressed well from them, and mixed with some rich melted butter, is a good sauce for it. IBeef, 20 lbs.; coarse sugar, i lb.; saltpetre, 1 oz.: 2 days. Salt, lb.: 21 days. Boil 5 hours, or more. Obs, - Beef cured by this receipt if properly boiled, is tender, of good colour and flavour, and not over salt. The rump, edge-bone, and brisket may be salted, or pickled in the same way as the xound

CHAP. X. BEEP. 197

HAMBURGH PICKLE FOB BEEF, HAMS, AND TONGUE. Boil together, for twenty minutes, two gallons of water, three pounds of bay salt, two pounds of coarse sugar, two ounces of saltpetre, and two of black pepper, bruised, and tied in a fold of muslin; dear off the scum thoroughly, as it rises, pour the pickle into a deep earthen pan, and when it is quite cold lay in the meat, of which every part must be perfectly covered with it. A moderate-sized round of beef will be ready for table in a fortnight; it should be turned occasionally in the brine. Five pounds of common salt may be substituted for the quantity of bay salt given above; but the meat will not be so finely flavoured. Water, 2 gallons; bay-salt, 3 lbs.; saltpetre, 2 oz.; black pepper, 2 oz.; sugar, 2 lbs.: 20 minutes.

ANOTHER PICKLE FOR TONGUES, BEEF, AND HAMS. To three gallons of spring water add six pounds of common salt, two pounds of bay-salt, two pounds of common loaf sugar, and two ounces of saltpetre. Boil these over a gentle Are, and be careful to take off all the scum as it rises: when quite cold it will be fit for use. Bub the meat to be cured, with fine salt, and let it drain for a day in order to free it from the blood; then immerse it in the brine, talung care that every part of it shall be covered. Young pork should not remain more than from three to five days in the pickle but hams for drying may be left in it for a fortnight at least: tongues will be ready in rather less time. Beef may remain from one week to two, according to its size, and the degree of saltness deared for it. A little experience will soon teach the exact time required for the different kinds of meat. When the pickle has been in use for about three months, boil it up again gently, and take the scum carefully off. Add to it three pounds of common salt, four ounces of sugar, and one of saltpetre: it will remain good for many months. Water, 3 gallons; common salt, 6 lbs.; bay salt, 2 lbs.; loaf sugar, 2 lbs.; saltpetre, 2 oz.: boil 20 to 30 minutes. DUTCH, OR HUNG BEEF. For fourteen unds weight of the round, the rump, or the thick flank of beef mix two ounces of saltpetre with the same quantity of coarse sugar; rub the meat with tnem in every part, and let it remain for two days, then add one pound of bay salt, four ounces of common salt, and one ounce of groimd black pepper. Rub these ingredients thoroughly into the beef, and in four days pour over it a pound of treacle; rub and turn it daily for a fortnight; drain, and send it to be smoked. When wanted for table, put it into plenty of

198 MODEBK OOOKEBT. cBAP. X. boiling water, boil it slowly, and press it under a hcayy weight while hot. A slice of this beef, from which the edges have been caiefnlly trimmed, will serve to flavour soups or gravies as well as ham. Beef, 14 lbs.; saltpetre and coarse sugar, each 2 oz.: 2 dajs. Bay salt, 1 lb.; common salt, 4 oz.: pepper, 1 oz.: 4 dajs. Tieacle 1 lb.: 14 days. Obs. - Tluree quarters of a pound of coarse sugar may be rubbed into the meat at first, and the treacle may be altogether omitted; cloves and mace, too, may be added in the same proportion as for kedbee£ GOZiLAIIBD BEEF. Only the thinnest part of the flank, or the ribs, which are not so generally used for it, will serve conveniently for ooUaring. The first of these should be hun in a damp place for a day or two, to soften the outer skin; then ruobed with coarse sugar, and left for a couple of days; when, for eight pounds of the meat, one ounce of saltpetre and lialf a pound of dt should be added. In ten days it will be fit to dress. The bones and tough inner skin must be removed, and the beef sprinkled thicklv on the under side with parsley and other savoury herbs shred smaU, before it is rolled, which should be done very tightly: it must then be secured with a cloth, and bound as closely as possible with broad tape. It will require nearly or quite five hours of gentle boiling, and should be placed while hot under a weight, or in a press, without having the tape and doth removed. &id, 8 lbs.; sugar, 3 oz.; salt, 8 oz.: 10 days. B 1 6 hours. COLLABED BEEF (Amoikerwaif.y Mix half an ounce of saltpetre with the same quantity of pepper, four ounces of bay salt, and four of common salt; with these rub well from six to seven pounds of the thin flank, and in four days add seven ounces of treacle; turn the beef daily in the pickle for a week or more; dip it into water, bone it and skin the inside, roll and bind it up very tightlv, lay it into cold water, and boil it for three hours and a half. We have found beef dressed by this receipt extremely good: herbs can, of course, be added to it as usual. Spices and juniper beries would to many tastes improve it, but we give the receipt simply as we have been accustomed to have it used. Thin flank, 6 to 7 lbs.; bay salt, and common salt, each 4 oz.; saltpetre, h oz.; pepper, oz.: 4 days. Treacle, 7 oz.: 8 to 10 days. Boiled 8 hours. ? COMMON RECEIPT FOR BALTINO BEEF. One ounce of saltpetre, and a pound of common salt, will be sufficient for sixteen pounds of beef. Both should be well dried, and

X. BEEP. 199 ibiely pcywdered; tlie saltpetre mbbed first eonially over the meat, and toe salt next applied in eyerj part. It shoold be rubbed thoEKOiighly with the piekle and tuniea daily, from a week to ten daja. An oonee or two of sogar mixed with the saltpetre will lender the beef more tender and palatable. Bed; leibe.; saltpetre, 1 ox.; salt, 1 lb.: 7 to 10 days. BPfCBl MOWD OF BKEF iVerg MgkfyfawavetL) Bnb the beef well in every nart with half a pound of ooane brown sugar, and let it remain two oaTs; then reduce to powder, and mix tfaoroiihly before they are appued to the meat, two ounees of saltpetre, &ree quarters of a pound of common salt, a quarter of a pound of black pepper, three ounces of allajHce, and four of bruised junipcrbenies. Rub these ingredients strongly and equally over the joint, and do so daily for three weeka turning it at tne same time. Just waah off the spice, and put the beef into a tin, or covered earthen pan as nearly of its size as possible, with a cup ci water or gravy; over the top thickly with enopped beef-suet, and lay a eoarse thick cmst over the pan; place the cover on it, uid bake the meat frota five to six hours in a moderate oven, which should not, however, be flofficiently fierce to harden the outside of the joint, whidi, H properly managed will be exceedingly tender. Let it cool in the pan; and dear off the suet before it is dished. It is to be served cold, and will remain good for a fortnight. Beef, 20 to 25 lbs. weight; sugar, 3 oz.: 2 days. Saltpetre, 2 oz.; eomminn salt, lb.; blaek pepper, 4 oz.; allspice, 3 oz.; juniperherries, 4 oz.: 21 days. Baked 5 to 6 hours. Obi, - We have not ourselvea tested this receipt, but the meat cored by it has received such hih commendation m m several of our fiienda who have nartaken of it frequently, that we think we may safely insert it witnout. The proportion of allspice appears, to us more than would be agreeable to many tastes, and we would rather xecommend that part of it should be omitted, and that a portion of nutm, mace, and cloves, should be substituted for it; as we have fbond these spices to answer well in the following receipt. SPICED BEEF Oood and wholesome.') For twelve pounds of the round, rump, or thick flank of bee take a large teaspoonful of freshly-pounded mace, and of ground Uack pepper, twice as much of cloves, one small nutmeg, and a quarter of a teaspoonful of cayenne, all in the finest powder. Mt tnem well with seven oimces of brown sugar, rub the beef with them and let it lie three days; add to it then half a pound of fine salt, and

200 MODERN COOKERT. cHAP.z. rub and turn it once in twenty-fonr hours for twelve da3rs. Just -wash, but do not soak it; skewer, or bind it into good form, put it into a stewpan or saucepan nearly of its size, pour to it a pint and a half of good beef broth, and when it begins to boil, take off the scum, and throw in one small onion, a moderate-sized faggot of thyme and parsley, and two large, or four small carrots. £et it simmer quite sollly for four hours and a half, and if not wanted to serve hot leave it in its own liquor until it is nearly cold. This is an excellent and far more wholesome dish than the hard, bright-coloured beef which is cured with large quantities of salt and saltnetre: two or three ounces of juniper-berries may be added to it witn the spice, to heighten its flavour. Beef, 12 lbs.; sugar, 7 oz.; mace and black pepper, each, 1 large teaspoonful; cloves, in powder, 1 large dessertspoonful; nutmeg, 1; cayenne, i teaspoonful: 3 days. Fme salt, i lb.: 12 days. Beef broth for bouillon), 1 pint; onion, 1 small; bunch of herbs; carrots, 2 larse, or 4 small: stewed hours. Obs, - We give this receipt exactly as we have often had it used, but celery and turnips might be added to the gravy; and when the apeparance of the meat is much considered, three-quarters of an ounce of saltpetre may be mixed with the spices; the beef may also be plainly boiled in water only, with a few vegetables, or baked in a deep pan with a little gravy. No meat must ever be left to cool in the stewpan or saucepan in which it is cooked; it must be lifted into a pan of its own deptn, and the liquor poured upon it. ? MINIATURB ROUND OF BEEF. " Select a fine rib of beef, and have it cut small or large in width, according to your taste; it may thus be made to weigh irom five to twelve pounds, or more. Take out the bone, and wrap the meat round like a fillet of veal, securing it with two or three wooden skewers; place it in a strong pickle for four or five days, and then cook it, taking care that it does not boil, but only simmers, from forty minutes, or more according to its size. It is best to put it on in hot water, as it vnll not draw the gravy so much as cold. Man persons adjust a rib of beef in this way K r roasting: let them try it salted, ana they need not envy the possessor of the finest round of beef." We give the receipt to our readers in its original form, and we can assure them, from our own experience, that it is a good one; but we would recommend that, in dressing the meat, quite the usual time for each pound of it should be allowed. When boned and rolled at the butchers, the skewers should be removed when it is first brought in; it should be well wiped with a dry cloth, or washed with a little fresh brine, and a small quantity of salt and saltpetre should be rubbed over the inside, it may then be firmlv bound with tape, and will be quite ready to boll when taken from the pickle. The sirloin, after the inside fillet is removed, may be cured

2EAP. z. BEEF. 201 and dressed in the same way, and will be found super-excellent it the beef be well &tted and properly kept. The Hamburgh pickle (see page 197) is perhaps the best for these ioints. Part of the romp, taken clear of bone, answers admirably when prepared by this . receipt. BEEF ROLL OB CANELLON DE BCEITF. (£NTr£e.) Chop and mix thoroughly two pounds of lean and very tender beef with one pound of slightly striped bacon; season them with a large teaspoonM of pepper, a little salt, a small nutmeg, or twothirds as much mace, the grated rind of a lemon, or a teaspoonful of thyme and parsley finely minced. Form the whole into a thidc rouleau, wrap a buttered paper round it, enclose it in a paste made of flour and water, and send it to a moderate oven for a couple of hours. Bemove the paper and the crust, and serve the meat with a little brown grany. Lamb and veal are excellent dressed in this way, particularly when mixed with plenty of mushrooms. Brown cneumber sauce should be served with the lamb; and currie, or oyster sauee, when there are no mushrooms, with the veal. A flavouring of onion or of eschalot, where it is liked, can be added at Eleasure to the beef: suet, or the fat of the meat, may be substituted: r the bacon. Bee 2 lbs.; bacon, 1 lb.; pepper, i oz.; little salt; small nutmeg; rind of 1 lemon, or savoury herbs, 1 tablpoonful: baked 2 hours. MINCED COLLOPS AT7 NATTJRBL. IGnce finely a pound of very tender rump steak, free from iat or ddn; season it with a moderate quantity of pepper and salt, set it over a gentle fire, and keep it stirred with a fork until it is quite hot tiiat it may not gather mto lumps. Simmer it very slowly in its own gravy from ten to twelve minutes, and then, should it be too diT, add a little boiling water, broth, or gravy; stew it for two minutes longer, and serve it directly. These collops are particularly suited to persons in delicate health, or of weak digestion; and when an extra dish is required at a short notice, from the expedition with which they may be dressed, they are a convenient resource. 10 to 12 minutes. SAVOURY MINCED COLLOPS. Make a little thickenmg (see Brown Roux Chapter Y.) with about an ounce and a half of butter, and a dessertspoonful of flour; when h bns to be coloured, shake lightly into it a large teaspoonful of &iely-shred parsley or mixed savoury herbs, two-thirds as much Df salt, and half the quantity of pepper. Keep these stirred over a

202 If ODEBir COOKEBT. CKAP. lU gentle fire imtil the thkkening of deep yellair brown; then add a pound of mmp-Bteak, finely minced, and keep it well separated vriU a fork until it ia qnite hot; next ponr to it gradnally half a capful of boiling water, and stew die eouope Terr gently Imr ten nunntes. Before they are served, stir to them a little catsup, chili Yinegsr or lemon-iuice: a small quantity of minced onion, eschalot, or a particle of garlicy may be added at first to the thickening when the flayour is not objected to. ? RIGHBR TABIKFT OF HUTCED OOLLOFS Omit the winced herbs from the thickenmg, and season it witli cayenne and a small quarter of a teaspoonful of pounded mace. Sub stitute beef giayy for the boilmg water, and when the ooUopB axe nearly done, fill a wineglass with one fourth of mushroom catsup and three ofycfit wine, imd stir these to the meat Serre the oollops very hot, and gamlsh them with alternate forcemeat balls (see No. 1, Chapter YIIL) and fried sippets. If flayoured with a little vy made from the bones of a roast hare, and served with cninmt jdly, these coUops will scarcely be distinguished from game. flCOTCB MINCED OOLLOKS Chop the beef snudl, season it with salt and pepper, put it in its raw state, into small jais, and pour on the top some danfied butter When wanted for use put the clarified butter mto a frying-pan, and dice some onions into the pan and fry them. Add a uttle water to them, and put in the mmced meat. Stew it well, and in a few minutes it will be fit to serve. BEEP TONGUES. These may be cured by any of the receipts which we have already ffiven for picklirs; beef, or for those which will be found further on for hams and bacon. Some persons prefer them cured with salt and saltoetre only, and dried naturally in a cool and airy room. For such of our readers as like them highly and richly flavoured we give our own method of having them prepared, which is this: - ' Kub over the tongue a handful of fine salt, and let it drain until the following day; then, should it weigh from seven to eight pounds, mix thoroughly an ounce of saltpetre, two ounces of the coarsest sugar, and hsdf an ounce of black pepper; when the tone has been weU rubbed with these, add three ounces of bruised jumper-berries; and when it has laid two days, eight ounces of bay salt, dried and pounded; at the end of three days more, pour on it half a pound of treacle, and let it remain in the pickle a fortnight after tms; then hang it to drain, fold it in brown paper, and send it to be smoked over a wood fire for two or three weeks. Should the peculiar fiavour

z. BBEF. 203 of the jnniper-berrief prerail too miich, or be diBapproved, they im be in part, or altogether, omitted; aad ax ounces of sogar may be Tabbed into the tongue in the fint innfanee when it is iSked better than treacle. ToDgne, 7 to 8 Ibe.; nhpetre, 1 oi.; black pepper, i os.; sugar, 2 oz.; joniper-berries, 3 ok.: S days. Bay salt, 8 os.: 3 days. Treadcilb.: 14 days. Oftff.- Before the tongoe is salted, the root end, which has an nnfliarhtly arapearanee, should be tximnied away: it is indeed nsnal ta take it off entirely bst some fionilieB pre&r part of it left on lor the nkeoftiiefat. BEEF TONGUES. (A StffoOk Beeeipt,) For eaeh yeiy large tongoe, ndz with half a pound of salt two oonees of saltpetre and three quarters of a pound of the coarsest sugar; rub the Umfom daily, and turn them in the nickle for fiye weeks, when they will be fit to be dressed, or to be smoked. I hurge tongue; salt, lb.; sugar, lb.; saltpetre, 2 oz.: 5 weeks. TO DBE88 BEEF TONGUES. When taken fresh from the pickle they require no soaking, unless ihey should have remained in it much beyond the usual time, or have been cured with a more than common proportion of salt; but when they haye been smoked and highly dried, they should be laid for two or three hoars into cold, and as much Icmger into tepid water, before they are dressed: if extremely dry, ten or twelve hours must be allowed to soften them, and they should always be brought very slowly to boil. Two at three carrots and a laige bunch of savoury herbs, added after the scum is cleared off, will improve them. They should be simmered until they are extremely tender, when the skin will peel from them easily. A highly dried tongue of moderate size will usuaUy require irom three and a half to four hours boiling; an onsmoked one about an hour less; and for one which has not been salted at all a shorter time will suffice. BORDYKE BECEIPT FOB STEWING ? TONGUE. After the tongue has been soaked, trimmed, and washed with extreme nicety, lay it into a vessel of fitting size, and place round it three or four pounds of the nieck, or of any other lean cuttings of bee( with some bones of undressed veal, and jwur in sufficient cold water to keep it covered until it is done; or, instead of this, use strong unseasoned beef broth made with the shin, and any odd bits or bones of veal which may be at hand. Let the tongue be brought to boil very gradually, that it may be plump and tender. Remove the scum when it first rises, and when it is quite cleared off add a large

204 MODERN COOKEBT. chap. z. faggot of parsley, thyme, and winter sayonry, three ttrrots, a smaH onion, and one mild turnip. After three hours and a half of gentle simmering, probe the tongue, and if sufficiently done peel off the skin and serve it quickly. If not wanted hot for table, lay it upon, a very clean board or trencher, and fasten it down to it by passing a carving fork through the root, and a smaller one through the tip drawing the tongue straight with the latter before it is £ced in the board; let it remain thus untU it is quite cold. It is much the fashion at present to glaze hams and tongues, but this should never be attempted by a cook not well acquainted with the manner of doing it, and tne proper flavour and appearance of the glaze. For directions to make it, see pase 104. Wnere expense is not regarded, three or four pounds of veal may be added to the beef in this receipt, or the tongue may be stewed in a prepared gravy made with equal parts of beef and veal, and vegetables as above, but without salt: this may afterwards be converted into excellent soup. A fresh or an onsmoked tongue may be dressed in this way, but will require less time: for the former, salt must be added to the gravy. TO ROABT ? BEEF HEART. Wash and soak the heart very thoroughly, cut away the lobes;, fill the cavities with a veal forcemeat (No. 1, Chapter VIII.), secure it well with a needle and twine, or very coarse thread, and roast it at a good fire for an hour and a half, keeping it basted plentifully with butter. Pour melted butter over it, after it is dished, and send it to table as hot as possible. Many persons boil the heart for three quarters of an hour before it is put to the fire, and this is said to render it more delicate eating; the time of roasting must of course be proportionately diminished. Good brown gravy may be substituted for the melted butter, and currant jelly also may be served with it. 1 hour, or more. BEEF KIDNEY. Slice the kidney rather thin, after having stripped off the skin and removed the fat; season it with pepper, salt, and grated nutm, and sprinkle over it plenty of minced parsley, or e ual parts of larsley and eschalots chopped very small. Fiy the shces over a brisk fire, and when nicely browned on both sides, stir amongst them a teaspoonful of flour, and pour in by degrees a ciip of gravy and a glass of white wine; bring the sauce to the point of boiling, add a morsel of fresh butter and a tablespoonful of lemon-juice, and pour the whole into a hot dish garnished with fried bread. Ttaa is a French receipt, and a very excellent one.

cs&F. z. BEEF. 205 BEEF KIDNEY. (A plainer toay.) Triniy and cut the kidney into slices; season them with salt and pepper, and dredge them well with floor; fry them on hoth sides, and when ihej are done through lift them out, empty the pan, and make grayy for them with a raiall slice of hutter, a dessertspoonful of flour, pepper and salt, and a cup of hoiling water; shake these round and give them a minutes simmering: fuld a little mushroom catsup, lemon juice, eschalot vinegar, or any store sauce that will give a ood flavour. Minced herhs are to man tastes an improvement to this dish, to which a small quantity of omon shred fine can he added when it is liked. 6 to 9 minutes. ?N EXCELLENT HASH OF COLD BEEF. Put a slice of hutter into a thick saucepan, and when it hoils throw in a dessertspoonful of minced herhs, and an onion (or two or three eschalots) snred small: shake them over the fire until they are lightly hrowned, then stir in a tahlespoonful of flour, a little cayenne, 0ome mace or nutmeg, and half a teaspoonful of salt. When the whole is well coloured, jwur to it three-quarters of a pint or more of hzx th or gnivy, according to the (quantity of meat to De served in it. Let this hoil gently for fifteen nunutes; then strain it, add half a winilasBful of mushroom or of compound catsup, lay in the meat, and keep it h; the side of the fire untu it is heated through and is on the point of simmering, hut be sure not to let it boil. Serve it up in a very hot dish, and garnish it with fried or toasted sippets of bread. A COMMON HASH OF COLD BEEF OR MUTTON. Take the meat from the hones, slice it small, trim off the brown edges, and stew down the trimmings with the bones well broken, an onion, a bunch of thyme and parsley, a carrot cut into thick slices, a few peppercorns, four cloves, some salt, and a pint and a half of water. When this is reduced to little more than three quarters of a pint, strain it, dear it from the fat, thicken it with a large dessertspoonful of rice flour, or rather less of arrow-root, add salt and pepper if needed, boil the whole for a few minutes, then lav in the meat and heat it well. Boiled potatoes are sometimes sliced hot into a very common hash. Obs. - The cook should be reminded that if the meat in a hash or mince be allowed to boil, it will immediately become hard, and can then only be rendered eatable by very long stewing which is by no I dwable for meat which is already sufficiently cooked

S06 MODERN GOOKEBT. CHAF. X BRE8LAW OF BEEF. Trim the brown edges from lialf a pound of nndresaed nst beel -shred it small, and mix it with four ounces of fine br-cnimbsi, a teaspoonful of minced parley, and two-thirds as much of thyme, two ounces of butter broken small, half a capful of gravy or cream, a high seasoning of pepper and cayenne and mace or nutmeg, a small teaspoonful of ndt, and three la eggs well whisked. l£lt a little butter in a deep dish, pour in the beef, and bake it half an hour; turn it out, and send it to table with brown grayy in a tureen. When exeam or gravy is not at ha:id, an additional g or two and rather more butter must be used. We think that grated lemon-rind improves the breslaw. A portion of fat from the joint can be added where it is liked. The mixture is sometimes baked in butterei cape. Beef, i lb.; bread-erombs, 4 ox.; batter, 2 oz.; gravy or creamy i cupful; parsley, 1 teaspooxiful; thyme, two-thirds of teaspoonfol; eggs, 8 or 4, if sinall; nit, 1 teaspoooflil; pepper and notm, teaspoonfol each: bake i hoar. KORMAK SABH. Feel and firy two dozens of batfton onions in botter until they are lightly browned, then stir to them a tablespoonf ul of flour, and when tiie whole is of a deep amber shade, poor m a wineglaaBful andalialf of red wine, and a laige cap of boiling broth or water; add a seaaoiiing of salt and common peraer or cayenne, and a little lanon-pickle catsap or lemon-juice, and Doil the whole ontil the onions are oite tender; cut and trim into small handsome slioes the remains of eith a roast or boiled joint of beef, and arrange them in a clean saucepan; pour the gravy and onions on them, and let them stand for awhile to imbibe the flavour of the sauce; then place the hash near the fire, and when it is thoroughly hot lerre it immediately, without allowing it to boiL FRENCH RECEIPT FOR HASHED BOUILU. Shake over a slow fire a bit of batter the sise of an egg, and a tablespoonM of flour; when they have simmered for a minute, stir to them a little finely-chopped onion, and a dessertspoonfol of minced parsley; so soon as the whole is equally browneo, add sofficient pepper, salt, and nutmeg to season the haah properly, and from half to three (quarters of a pint of boiling water or of booiUon. Put in the beef cut mto small but thick slices; let it stand by the Gie and heat gradually; and when near the point of boilinff thicken the sauce with the yolks uf three;gs, mixed with a tabtespoooM of

CKAP. X.J BEEF. 207 lemon-juice. For change, oniit the eggs, and snbstitute a tablerooonful of catsup, and another of pickle gherkins minced or fluoed. BAKSD XIKCED BEBF liinoe tolerably fine, with a moderate proportion of its own &t, as much of the inside of a cold roast joint as will suffice for a di: that which is least done is best for the purpose. Season it rather highly with cayenne and mace or nutmeg, aim modentely with salt; add, when they are liked, one or two eschalots minced small, with a few diopped mushrooms either fresh or pickled, or two tablespoonsfnl of mushroom catsup. Mix die whole weU with a cnpAil of food graTy, . and put it into a deep dish. Flace on the top an mch-thick layer of bread-crumbs, moisten these plentifully with daiified butter passed tfaroQgh a small strainer oyer them, and send the minoe to a slow oven ibr twenty minutes or brown it in a Ihitch oven. SAUmDEBB. Spread on the dish in which the saunders are to be served, a layer of smoothly mashed potatoes, which have beoi seasoned with salt and mixed with about an ounce of butter to the pound. On these imread €iially and thickly some ujiderdressed beef or mutton minced and mixed with a little of the gravy that has run from the joint, or with a iew spoonsfnl of any other; and season it with salt, pepper, and a SDoall quantity of nutmeg. Hace evenly over this another layer of potatoes, and send the dj to a moderate oven Ibr half an hour. A very superior kind of saunders is made by substitating fresh meat for roasted; but this requires to be baked an hour or something more. Sausage-meat highly seasoned may be served in this way, instead of beef or mutton. TO BOIL MABBOW BOBES. Let the laige ends of the bones be sawed by Hxe butcher, so that wiien they are dished they may Stand uprit; and if it can be 4oiie conveniently, let them be Traced in the same manner in ihe vessel in which they are boiled. Put a bit of paste, made with flour and water, over the ends where the marrow is visible, and tie a cloth tightly over them; take the paste off before the bones are sent to table, and serve them, placed upright in a napkin, with slices of dry toasted bread apart. When not wanted for immediate use, they may be partially boiled, and set into a cool place, where they will lemain good for many days. Laige marrow bones, 2 hours; moderate sized, Ij- hour. To keep: boil them 1 hour, and from i to f hour more when wanted fiir table.

208 IfODEBN COOKEBT. chap. X.

BAKED MARROW BONES. When the bones have been sawed to the length of a deep pie-dish, wash and wipe them dir, lay them into it, and cover them entirely with a good batter. Send them to a moderate oven for an hour or more, and serve them in the batter. CLARIFIED MARROW FOR KEEPING. Take the marrow from the bones while it is as fresh as possible; cat it small, put it into a very clean jar, and melt it with a gentle heat, either in a pan of water placed over the fire, or at the month of a cool oven; strain it through a muslin, let it settle for a minute or two, and pour it, clear of sediment, into small jars. Tie skins, or double folds of thick paper, over them as soon as the marrow is cold, and store it in a cool place. It vrill remain good for months. OX-CHEEK STUFFED AND BAKED. (Chody and not expensive.) Geanse, with the greatest nicety, a fresh ox-cheek by washing, scraping it lightly with a knife, and soaking out the blood; then put it into jlenty of warm water, and boil it gentlv for about an hour. Throw in a large teaspoonful of salt, and carenilly remove all the scum as it rises to the surface. Let it cool after it is lifted out, and then take away the bones, remembering always to work the knife close to them, and to avoid piercing the skin. When the cheek has become cold, put into it a good roll of forcemeat, made by the receipt Kos. 1, 2, or 3, of Chapter IX., or substitute the oyster or mushroom forcemeat which follows; but in any case increase the quantity onehalf at least: then skewer or bind up the cheek secuiely, and send it to a moderate oven for an hour or an hour and a half. It should bo baked until it is exceedindy tender quite through. Drain it well from fat, dish it, withdraw the skewers, or unbind it gently, and either sauce it with a little good brown gravy, or send it to table with melted butter in a tureen, a cut lemon, and cayenne, or with any sauce of Chapter Y., which may be considered more appropriate.

CHAP. XI.

VEAL.

209

CHAPTER XI.

Ha L Loin, Best End. S. Lois, Chump End. 5. iillet 4L Hind KancUe. 6. Fore Knuckle.

So, 6. NeekBettEnd. 7. Neok, Seng End. 8. Blade Bone. 9. Breast, Best End. 10. Breast, Brisket End.

In season all the year, but scarce and ezpensire in mid-winter, and very early spring.

TO CHOOSE TEAL. VjiAi should be fat, finely grained, white, firm, and not overffrbwn: for when very large it is apt to be coarse and tough. It is more difficult to keep than any other meat except pork, and should never be allowed to acquire the slightest tsdnt before it is dressed, as any approach to putridity renders it equally unwholesome and offensive to the taste. The fillet, the loin, the shoulder, and the best end of the neck, are the parts generally selected for roasting; the breast and knuckle are more usually stewed or boiled, although the former IS excellent roasted. The udder or firm white fat of the fillet, is much used by French cooks instead of butter, in the composition of their forcemeats: for these, it is first well boiled, then left until quite cold, and afterwards thoroughly pounded before it is mixed with the other ingredients. The head and feet of the call' are

210 MODERN COOKERY. cHAP. XI. valuable articles of food, both for tbe nutriment which the gelatinous parts of them afford, and for the grt variety of modes in which they may be dressed. The kidneys, with the rich fat that surrounds them, and the sweetbreads, are well known delicacies; the liver and the heart also are very good eating; and no meat is so generally useful for rich soups and gravies as veal. TO TAKE THE HAIR FROM A CALF's HEAD WITH THE SKIN ON. It is better to do this before the head is divided; but if only the half of one with the skin on can be procured, it must be managed in the same way. Put it into plenty of water which is on the point of simmering but which does not positively boil, and let it remain in until it does so, and for five or six minutes afterwards, but at the first ill bubble draw it from the fire and let it merely scald; then lift it out, and with a knife that is not sharp scrape on the hair as closely as possible. The butchers have an instrument on purpose for the operation; but we have had the head look quite as well when done in the manner we have just described, as when it has been sent in ready prepared by them. After the hair is off, the head should be well washed, and if it cannot be cooked the same day, it must be wiped extremely dry before it is hung up; and when it has not been divided, it should be left whole until the time approaches for dressing it. The brain must then be taken out, and both that and the head well soaked and washed with the greatest nicety. When the half head only is scalded, the brain shoiud first be removed. Calves feet are freed from the hair easily in the same manner; indeed, we find it a better mode of having it cleared firom them than the one we have given in Chapter XXTl., though that is practised by many good butchers. BOILED calf's BEAD When the head is dressed with the skin on, whkh many persons prefer, the ear must be cut off quite dose to it; it will require three quarters of an hour or upwards of additional boiling, and should be served covered with fined cmmbs: the more usual mode, howevert is to boil it without the skin. In either case first remove the brain, wash the head delicatelv clean, and soak it for a quarter of an honr cover it plentifully with cold water, remove the scum as it rises with great care, throw in a little salt, and boil the head gently until it is perfectly tender. In the mean time, wash and soak the brains first in cold and then in warm water, remove the skin or film, boil them in a small saucepan from fourteen to sixteen minutes, acocnrdinff to their sage, and when they are done, chop and mix them with eight or ten size leaves boiled tender and finely minced; or, if prefened, with

CKAP.ZX. TEAL. 211 boiled parsl instead; mnn them in a spoonful or two of melted butter, or white sauce; skin the tongue, trim off the root, and serve it in a small dish with the brains round it. Send the head to table Teiy hot with parsley and batter poured oyer it, and some more in a tureen. A cheek of bacon, or very delicate pickled pork, is the usual accompaniment to boiled calTs head. We haye giyen here ihe common English mode of serving this di b some persons considered the best, and by others, as ezoiogly msipid. On the continent, tomata sauce takes place of the pnsley and butter; and rich oyster or Dutch sauce, are varieties often substituted for it in this country. With the skin on, from 2 to 2f hou; without the skin, from 1 tolf hovr. calf's HBADy THE UTARDBR's WAT. (An exceUenl Beeeipt) Boil the half-head until tcderably tender; let it eool, sod bone it entirely; replace the brain, lay the head into a stewpan, and simmer it gently for an hour in rich gravy. From five-and-twenty to thirty minutes before it is dished, add half a pint of mushroom-buttons. Thicken the gravy, if needful, with rice flour or with flour and butter, and serve plenty of forcemeat-balls roimd the head. For dishes of this kind, a little sweet-basil wine, or a few spriffs of the herb itself impart a very agreeable flavour. When neither these nor mushrooms are within reach, the very thin rind of a small but freah leiDoa may be boiled in the gravy, and the strained juice added at the instant of serving. Boiled from 1 to 2 hours; stewed 1 hour. O&f .- The skin, with tke ear may be left on the head fosr this leeeipt, and the latter slit into narrow strips from the tip to within tat inch and a half of the base; which win give it a fleathery and ornamental appearanee, the heML may then be gUied or not at pkasoze. PKBPABKD calf's HEAD. (2 CooAV JIteeipt) Take sway the brains and tongue from the half of a cdfs head, and then remove the bones, bei careftil in doin so to keep the knife m close to them as possible, and to avoid piercing the outer akin: in this consists the whole art of boning, in which an attentive cook may eioily render herself expert. Next wash the head and dry it in a clean cloth; sprinkle over the inside a little pounded mace, and cayenne or white pepr; roll it up tightly, and bind it round with tape or twine. Lay into a small stewpot three or four pounds of neck of veal or of beci twice or thrice divided, and place the

212 MODERN COOKERT. chap. XI. Head npou it with the bones well broken; pcur in half a grallon of cold water, or as much as will suffice to keep the head covered until it is done, and simmer it very gently from an hour and a quarter to an hour and three quarters. When it is extremely tender, lift it out, and if wantea for table, remote the binding, and serve it very hot, with currie sauce, rich oyster sauce, or i; sauce and brown gravy; but should the remains, or the whole ofit be required for the following receipts, jwur no gravy over it: in the latter case do not take off the tape for several hours. Tlie tongue may be stewed with the head, but will require rather leas time. We do not think it needful to repeat in every receipt our directions for adding salt to, and removing carefully the scum from, meat that is stewed or boiled, but the cook must not neglect either. When the trouble of boning is objected to, it can be dispensed with for some of the dishes which follow, but not for all. After the head is taken out, boil the gravy until it is well reduced, and rich: it should be strongly jellied wnen cold. A bone of ham, or a slice of hung beef will much improve its flavour; but vegetables must be avoided if it be wanted to Keep: a little spice and a faggot of parsley may be added to it, and a calf's foot will be sure to give it the requisite degree of firmness. This receipt is for a head without the skin. BUBLINOTON WHIMSET. Set aside until quite cold half a calf's head dressed by the prececdng receipt. If, on cutting it, the gelatinous part should not appear perfectly tender, pare it off closely from the head, weigh and mince it; put it into a pint of good gravy, and stew it gently from ten to nfteen minutes. Mince as much more of the head as win make up a poxmd in weight after the edges are trimmed ofT, and part of the fat is taken away; add to this three ounces of the lean of a boiled ham finely chopped, the grated rind of a laTyie lemon, three teaspoonsful of parsley and one of thyme shred rery small, three quarters of a teaspoonful of mace, half a small nutmeg grated, a teaspoonful of salt, and a half-quarter one of cayenne; stir the whole well together, and put it, with half a pint more of gravy, to the portion which has been already simmered. When the whimsey has boiled sofUi from four to five minutes, pour it into moulds or pans, in which slices of the tongue have been evenly arranged, and when quite cold it will turn out very firmly. It may be garnished, before it is sent to table, with branches of parsley, which should, however, be perfectly dry; and when served for supper or luncheon, it may be accompanied by a salad dressing. Calf's head, 1 lb.; lean of ham, 3 oz.; gravy, 1 pint; xind of 1 large lemon; parsley, 3 teaspoonsful; thyme and salt, each 1 teaspoonful; mace, f teaspoonful; i nutmeg; cayenne, i part of teaspoonful: 5 minutes.

CHAP. XI. I TEAL. 213 Obs. - The remaiiui of a plain boiled head may be made to serve for this dish, provided the gravy used with it be well jellied and of high flavour. Slices from the small end of a boiled uid smoked oz-tongne, from their bright colour improve greatly its appearance. It should be tasted before it is poured out, that sidt or any other seasoning may be added if needful. After three or four days keeping, should any mould apar upon the surface, take it off, re-melt the whimsey, and give it two minutes boil. For change, the herbs may be omitted, and the quantity of ham increased, or some minced tongue substituted for it CUTLETS OF CALF'S HEAD. Prepare, by the Cook's Receipt, half a calfs head with or without the skm on; only, in the latter case, allow more .time for the boiling. When it is quite cold, remove the fillets of tape, and cut the head into slices of half an inch thick, brush them with yolk of egg, and dip them into fine bread-crumbs, seasoned with the grated rind of half a lemon, half a teaspoonful of minced savoury herbs, some cayenne, and a little of the lean of a boiled ham chopped very small, should this last be at hand. Fiy the cutlets in butter of a fine light brown, make some gravy in the pan as for veal cutlets, and add to it the juice of half a lemon; or mix a large teaspoonful of currie- powder, and one of flour, very smoothly with the butter, shake them over the fire for four or five minutes, and let the gravy simmer as much longer, after the water is added; or serve the cutlets, covered with good mushroom sauce. HASHED calf's HEAD. (rEHOVE.) When the whole of this dish has to be prepared, make for it a quart of stock, and proceed in all else as directed for mock turtle soap (page 24); but after the head has been parboiled, cut down a fall pound and a half of it for the hash, and suce it small and thick, instead of dividing it into dice. Make the brains into cakes (see page 162), and garnish the dish with forcemeat - balls, rolled in eg, and in the finest bread-crumbs, then fried a delicate brown, and irell drained, and dried upon a warm sieve reversed. The wine and other seasonings should be the same as for the soup. Rich gravy, 1 quart; flesh of calf's head, full H lb.; wine, and other seasonings, as for mock turtle soup. Obs. - The gravy for this should be stewed with ham, eschalots, ftc, exactly as for the soup. cheap hash of calf's head. Take the flesh from the bone of a cold boiled head, and put it aside until wanted'; take about three pints of the liquor in which it was cooked; break the bones, and stew them down with a small

214 MODERN COOKERY. chap. XL bunch of sayoory herbs, a carrot, or two should they be small, a little carefully fried onion, four cloves, a dozen coins of pepper, and either a slice or two of lean ham or of smoked beef. Wnen the liquid is redooed nearly half, strain it, take off the fat, thicken it with a little well made roux, or, if more convenient, with flour and butter, stirred into it, when it boils, or with rice flour or arrow-root, mixed with a little spioe, mushroom catsup, or Harvey's sauce, and a small quantity of lemon pickle or chili vinegar. Heat the meat slowly m the sauce when it is ready, but do not allow it to boiL The forcemeat. No. 1, of Chapter VIIL, may be rolled into balls, fried, and served round it. The fvy should be well seasoned. A little of Liebegs extract of beef (see Chapter L), or as much good beef broth as may be required for the hash, will convert this into a really good dish. For preparations wfaich are of themselves insipid, the Jeungh beef, of which we haTe often already spoken, is an admirable addition. TO DBBS8 COLD CALF'S HEAD OB TEAL A LA. XAITRB d'hOTEL. (gOOD.) (JBiUsh ReeeipL) Cat into small delicate slices, or into sodlops of equal size, sufficient oold calf s head or veal for a dish. Next knead very smoothly together with a knife two ounces of butter, and a small dessertspoonfm of flour; put these into a stewpan or well tinned saucepan, and keep them stured or shaken over a gentle fire until they have simmered for a minute or two, but do not let them take the slightest colour; then add to them in very small portions (letting the sauce boil up after each is poured in) half a pint of pale veal gravy, or of ffood shin-of-beef stock, and when the whole is very smoothly blended, and has boiled for a couple of minutes, mix together and stir to it a tablespoonful of common vinegar, a dessertspoonful of chili vinegar, a little cenne, a tablespoonful of good mushroom catsup, and a very tmau bit of sugar; and when the sauce again boils, strew a tablerooonful of minced parsley over the meat, lay it in, and let it stand by the fire xmtil it is quite heated through, but do not allow it to boil: if kept just at uie simmering point for ten or twelve minutes it may be served perfectly hot without. The addition of the mushroom catsup converts this into an English sanee, and renders it in colour, as well as in flavour, unlike the French one which bears the same name, and which is acidulated generally with lemon-juice instead of vinegai. Pickled mushrooms are sometimes added to the dish: the parsley when it is objected to may be omitted, and the yolks of two or three eggs mixed with a little cream may be stirred in, but not allowed to boil, just before the meat is serred. When veal is used for this hash instead of calf s head, it should m

XL TEAL. 215 cat into slices not mach larger than a ahilling, and fieed entirely from fat, sinew, and the brown edges. When neither broth nor gravy is at hand, a morsel or two of lean ham, and a few of the trimmings or bones of the head or joint, may be boiled down to mpply its place. Sufficient cold calf s head, or meat, for a dish; butter, 2 oz.; flour, 1 small dessertspoonful; grayy, or stroQff broth, I pint; vinegar, and mushroom catsup, of eauSi 1 tablespoouul; chili vinegar, 1 dessertspoonful; smaU bit of sugar; little cayenne, and salt if needed; parsley, 1 tablespoonful (pickled mushrooms or not at pleasure). Obs, - Soles or codfish are very good, if raised neatly from the bones, ta flaked and heated in this maitre d Hotel sauce. calf's hsab VBXvrs. (AKAot'9 Receipt) Tlie half of a fine lam calf s head with the skin on, will beit answer for this brawn. Take out the brains, and bone it entirely, or nt the butcher do this; rub a little fine salt over, and leave it to drain for ten or twelve hours; next wipe it diy, and rub it well in every part with three quarters of an ounce of saltpetre finely powdered (or with an ounce should the head be verjf large) and mixed with four ounces of common salt, and three of bay-mlt, slso beaten fine; turn the head daily in this pickle for four or five days, rubbing it a little each time; and then pour over it four ounces of treacle, and continue to turn it every day, and baste it with the brine very frequently for a month. Hang it up for a night to drain, fold it in brown paper, and send it to be smoked where wood only is burned, from three to four weeks. When wanted lor table, wash and scrape it very dean, but do not soak it; lay it, with the rind downwaras, into a saucepan or stewpan, which will hold it easilv; cover it wdl with cold water, as it will swell considerably in the cooking; let it heat rather slowly, skim it thoroughly when it first begins to sinmier, and boil it as gently as possible from an hour and three ouarten to a couple oi hours or more, should it not then be peffeeay tender ouite through; for unless sufficiently boiled, the akin, which eatly resembles brawn, will be unpleasantly toudh wben cold. When the fleshy side of the head is done, which willbe twenty minutes or half an hour sooner than the outside, pour the water from it, leaving so much only in the stewpan as will just cover the geliUinous part, and simmer it until this is thoroughly tender. The

I thus cured is very highly flavoured, and most exceUent eating. The reedpt for it is entirely new, having originated with ourselves. We give tne reader, in addition, the result of out Jirst experiment with it, libkh was entirely successful: - A half calf s head, not veiy Ittge, without the skm, pickled with three ounces of common salt, two of bay-flnlti half an ounce of saltpetre, one ounce of brown

216 MODERN COOKERY. cHAP.XS, Bugar, and hdfcai ounce of pepper left four days; then three ounces of treacle added, and the pickling continued for a month; smoked nearly as long, and boiled between one hour and a half, and two hours. The pepper was omitted in our second trial, because it did not improve the appearance of the dish, although it was an advantf in point of flavour. Juniper-berries might, we think, be added with advantage, when they are liked; and cayenne tied in a muslin mieht supply the place of the pepper. It is an infinite improvement to nave the skin of the head left on. TO ROAST A FILLET OF TEAL. Take out the bone and put a pood roll of forcemeat (No. 1, Chapter YHL.) under the flap, dividmg first, with a sharp knife, the skin from the meat sufficiently to admit the quantity required; secure it well, truss the veal mmly into good shape, place it at a distance ijrom the fire at first, and baste it with butter. The outside will have a richer crust of browning if the meat be washed, wiped tolerably dry, and well floured before it is laid to the fire. It should be carenilly watched, and basted often, that the fat may not bum. Four melted butter over it after it is dished, and serve with it a boiled dieek of bacon and a lemon. Roast it from three hours and a half, to four hours and a half according to its size. FILLET OF TEAL AU BECHAMEL, WITH 0Y8TEB8. Roast, in the usual way, a delicate fillet of yeal, and in preparing it for the spit be careful to bind it up tightly, so that no cavity may be left where the bone has been taken out While it is at the fire plump gently in their own strained liquor, without allowing them to Doil, half a pint of fine native oysters, and, afler having &ed them from the beards, set them aside; then boil the beards for fifteen or twenty minutes in nearly three quarters of a pint of good veal stock, or in strong veal broth, made for the purpose; strain them out, add the liquor of the oysters, also passed through a muslin or other fine strainer, and convert the broth into rich white sauce, of which there should be a full pint. When the veal is ready to serve, take it from the spit, dish it in a very hot dish, and cut out quickly from the centre in a cup-like form, about a pound of the meat, leaving a wide margin round the joint, to be carved in the usual way. Mince, as rapidly as possible, the white part of the veal which has been cut from the fillet, and the plumped oysters; put the whole into the white sauce, which should be ready heated, bring it to the foitd of boiling, pour it into the fillet, and send it immediately to table. The joint diould be placed under a well-heated cover, wnile the minoe is m course of preparation, and be kept near the fire. When the Knuckle of veal has been sent in with the fillet, a few thick slices from it may be taken for the sauce; but it should be

CHAT. XI.J VEAL. 217

boiled don sufficiently early to allow it to cool, and to haye every partide of fat removed from it before it is used. A pound of the meat ought to make, with the addition of the oyster liquor, sufficient gravy for the sauce. When expense is not a consideration, the bechamel of Chapter Y. may be made for it, and the fillet may be filled up entirely with whole oysters heated in it; or these may be intermixed with the veal cut into shilling-sized collops. Mushroombuttons, stewed white in butter, can be substituted for the oysters, when their season is past; and very small force-meat bidls, deli atdy filed, may then be piled entirely over the open part of the fillet Persons who may take exception at the idea of oysters with roast veal as not being in accordance with the common etiquette of the table, are recommended to give the innovation a trial before they reject its adoption.

BOILED FILLET OF TEAL. A small and delicately white fillet should be selected for this purpose. Bind it round with tape, after having washed it thoroughly; cover it well with cold water, and bring it gently to boil; watch, and clear off carefully, the scum as it rises, and be, at the same time, very cautious not to allow the water to become smoked. Let the meat be gendy simmered from three hours and a half to four and a half, according to its weight. Send it to table with rich white sauce, and a boUed tongue; or make for it in the first instance the oyster forcemeat of Chapter YIII., and serve with the veal a tureen ii well-made oyster sauce. 3 to 4 hours. ROABT LOm OF TEAL. It is not usual to stuff a loin of veal, but we greatly recommend the practice, as an infinite improvement to the joint. Make the same forcemeat as for the fillet; and insert it between the skin and the flesh just over the ends of the bones. Skewer down the flap, place the joint at a moderate distance from a sound fire, keep it constantly basted, and be especially careful not to allow the kidney fat to bam: to prevent this, and to ensure the good appearance of the joint, a buttered paper is often fastened round the loin, and removed about half an hour before it is taken from the fire. It is the fashion in some counties to servo egg'sauce and brown gravy with roast knn, or breast of veal. The cook will scarcelv need to be told that she must separate the tbn from the flank, with a sharp knife, quite from the end, to the plaoe where the forcemeat is to be put, and then skevrer the whole

218 MODEBN COOK£BT. cHAP. XI. veiy Beeaiely. When the veal is not papered, dredge it weH with flour soon aner it is hud to the fire 2 to 21 hoars. BOILED LOIN OF TEAL. If dressed with care and served with good sauces, this, when the meat is small and white is an excellent dish, and often more acceptable to persons of delicate habit than roast veal. Take from eight to ten pounds of the best end of the loin, leave the kidney in with all its fat, skewer or bind down the flap, lay the meat into cold water, and boil it as gently as possible from two hours and a cuarter to two and a half, deanns off the scum perfectly, as in dressmg the fillet Send it to table with well-made oyster sauce, or bechamel, or with white sauce well flavoured with lemon-juice, and with paral, boiled, pressed dry, and finely chopped. 2i to 2i hours. 6TEWBD LOIN OF TBAL Take part of a loin of veal, the chump end will do; put into larse, tnick, well-tinned iron saucepan, or into a stewpan, about a couple of ounces of butter, and skake it over a moderate fire until it begins to brown; flour the veal well iJl over, lay it into the saucepan, and when it is of a fine, equal, light brown, pour gradually in veal broth, gravy, or boiling water to nearly half its depSi; add a little sauce, one or two sliced carrots, a small onion, or more when the flavour is much liked, and a bimch of parsley; stew the y&l very softly for an hour or rather more; then turn it, and let it stew for nearly or quite another hour, or longer should it not be perfectly tender. As none of our receipts mtve been tried with luge, coarse veal, the cooking must be rulated by that circumstance, imd longer time allowed should the meat be of more than moderate size. Dish the joint, skim all the fat from the gravy, and strain it over the meat; or keep the joint hot while it is rapidly reduced to a richer consistency. This jb merely a plain family stew. BOILED BREAST OF VEAL. Let both the veal and the sweetbread be washed with exeeedini nicety, cover them with cold water, clear off the scum as it iiaes throw in a little salt, add a bunch of parsley, a large blade of maoe, and twenty white peppercorns; ammer the meat from an hour to an hour and a quarter, and serve it covered with rich onion sanoe. Send it to table very hot The sweetbread may be taken up when. half done, and curried, or made into cutlets, or stewed in brown gravy. When onions are objected to, substitute white sauce and a cheek of bacon for them, or parsley and butter, if jKsferred to it 1 to li hour.

CHAP. XL TXAIi. 219

TO ROAST A BREAST OF TEAL. Let the caul remain skewered over the joint till with within half an honr of its being ready for table: place it nt a moderate distance firom a brisk fire, baste it constantly, and in aboat an hoar and a half remove the caul, floor the joint, and let it brown. Dish and pour melted bntter oyer it, and senre it with a cut lemon, and any ether of the usual accompaniments to veal. It may be garnished with fried balls of the forcemeat (No. 1, Chapter YIII.) about the ue of a walnut. 2to8ihoiin. TO BONE A SHOULDER OF YBALy MUTTON, OR LAMB. Spread a dean cloth upon a table or drewer, and lay the joint t upon it, with the skin downwards; with a sharp knife cut off the flesh from the inner side nearly down to the blade bone, of which detach tlie edges first, then work the knife tader it, j keeping it always close to the hone and using aU possible precaution not to picroe the outer Shoulder ofVeU boned, akin; when it is in every jMurt separated from the flesh, loosen it from the socket with the point of the knife, and remove it; or, without dividing the two bones, cut round the joint until it is freed entirely from the meat, and proceed to detach the second bone. Hiat of the knuckle is frequently left in, but for some dishes it is neoessarv to take it out; in doing this, be careful not to tear the dsm. A most excellent grill may be made by leaving sufficient meat for it upon the bones of a shoulder of mutton, when they are removed firom the joint: it will be found very superior to the broiled blade-bone of a roaxt shoulder, which is so much liked by many people. STEWED SHOULDER OF VEAL. EngUtih Recent) Bone a shoulder of veal, and strew the inside thickly with savoury berbs minced small; season it well with salt, cayenne, and pounded maee; and place on these a layer of ham cut in thin slices and freed from rind and rust. Boll up the veal, and bind it tightly with a fillet; roast it for an hour and a half, then simmer it gently ib good brown gravv for five hours; add forcemeat balls before it is dished; kim we nt from the pravy, and serve it with the meat. This ceoeipt, for which we are mdebted to a oorrtdipondent on whom we

220 MODERN COOKERY CHAF. zx can depend, and which we have not therefore conadered it necessaijr to test ourselres, is for a joint which weighs ten pounds before it is boned. ROAST NECK OF TEAL. The best end of the neck will make an excellent roast A forcemeat may be inserted between the skin and the flesh, bj first separating them with a sharp knife; or the dish may be garnished with the forcemeat in balls. From an hour and a half to two hours will roast it. Pour melted butter over it when it is dish and serve it like other joints. Let it be floured when first laid to the fire, kept constantly basted, and always at a sufficient distance to prevent its being scorched. 1 to 2 hours. For the forcemeat, see No. 1, Chapter YUUL From 8 to 10 minutes will fry the balls. NECK OF VEAL A LA CRiME. (Or Au Bichamel) Take the best end of a neck of white and well-fed veal, detach the flesh fh)m the ends of the bones, cut them sufficiently short to S've the joint a good square form, fold and skewer the skin over lem, wrap a buttered paper round the meat, lay it at a moderate distance from a clear fire, and keep it well basted with butter for an hour and a quarter; then remove the paper and continue the basting with a pint, or more, of bechamel or or rich white sauce, until the veal is sufficiently roasted, and well encrusted with it Serve some bechamel under it in the dish, and send it ver hot to table. For variety, give the bichamel in making it a high flavour of mushrooms, and add some small buttons stewed very white and tender, to the portion reserved for saucing the joint. 2 to 2i hours. VEAL GOOSE. (C% of London receipt,) ' This is made with the upper part of the flank of a loin of veal (or sometimes that of the fiUeQ covered with a stuffing of sage and onions, then rolled, and roasted or broiled. It is served with brown gravy and apple sauce, is extremely savoury, and has many admirers. We transcribe the exact receipt for this dish, which wis Procured for us from a house in the dty, which is famed for it. We ad it tested with the skin of the best end of a fine nech of vcal from which it was pared with something more than an inch depth

CBAP. XL YRAL. 221 of the flesh adhering to it It was roasted one hour, and aiswered extremely well. It is a convenient mode of dressing the flank of the Teal for eaters who do not object to the somewhat coarse savour of the preparation. When the tendrana or gristles of a breast, or part of a breast of yeal are required for a separate dish, the remaining portion of the joint may be dressed in this way after the bones have been taken out; or, without removing them, the stuffing may be inserted under the skin. KNUCKLE OF TEAL EN RAGOUT. Cut in smaU thick slices the flesh of a knuckle of Teal, season it witii a little fine salt and white pepper, flour it lightly, and fry it in butter to a pale brown, lay it into a very dean stewpan or saucepan, and just cover it with boiling water; skim it clean, and add to it a faggot of thyme and parsley, the white part of a head of celery, a SDl quanti of cayenne, and a blade or two of mace. Stew it very sofUy from an hour and three quarters to two hours and a half. Thicken and enrich the gravy u needful with rice-flour and mushroom catsup or Harveys sauce, or with a large teaspoonful of flour, mixed with a slice of butter, a little eood store-sauce and a glass of sherry or Madeira. Fried forcemeat balls of No. 1, Chapter vlLL maybe added at pleasure. With an additional quantity of water, or of broth (made with the bones of the joint), a pint and a half of young green peas stewed with the veal for an hour will give an agreeable variety of this dish. BOILED KNUCKLE OF TEAL. Afler the joint has been trimmed and well washed, put it into a vessel well adapted to it in size, for if it be very larse, so much water will be required that the veal will be deprived of its flavour; it should be well covered with it, and very gently boiled until it is perfectly tender in every part, but not so much done as to separate from the bone. Clear oflthe scum with scrupulous care when the simmering first commences, and throw in a small portion of salt; aa this, if sparingly used, will not redden the meat, and will otherwise much improve it. Parsley and butter is usually both poured over, and sent to table with a knuckle of veal, and boiled bacon also should accompany it. From the sinewy nature of this joint, it requires more tnan the usual time of cooking, a quarter of an hour to the pound not being sufficient for it. Teal 6 to 7 lbs.: 2 hours or more. KNUCKLE OF VEAL WITH RICE. Four over a small knuckle of veal rather more than sufficient rater to cover it; bring it slowly to a boil; take off all the scum

MODERN COOKEBT. OHAP. zi. with great care, throw in a teaspoonful of salt, and when the joint has simmered for abont half an hour, throw in from eight to twelve ounces of well washed rice, and stew the veal gently for an hour and a half longer, or until both the meat and rice are perfectly tender. A seasoning of cayenne and maoe in fine powder with more salt, should it be required, must be added twenty or thirty minutes before they are serred. For a sapeiior stew good yeal broth may be substituted for the water. Yeal, 6 lbs.; water, 3 to 4 pints; salt, 1 teaspoonful: 80 to 40 minutes. Rice, 8 to 12 oz: 1 hour. Ob8,-A quart or even more of full grown green peas added to the Teal as soon as the scum has been cleared off will make a most excellent stew. It should be well seasoned with white pepper, imd the mace should be omitted. Two or three cucumbers, pared and freed from the seeds, may be sliced into it when it boils, or four or five younff lettuces shred small may be added instead. Green onions also, when they are liked, may be used to give it flaTonr. SMALL PAIN DB TEAV, OR, YEAL CASE. Chop separately and very fine, a pound and a quarter of yeil quite free from iat and skin, and six ounces of beef kidney-soet; add a teaspoonful of salt, a iiill third as much of white pepper and of mace or nutmeg, with the grated rind of half a lemon, and turn the whole well together with the chopping-knife until it is thoroughly mixed; then press it smoothly into a small round boJdng dish, and send it to a moderate oven for an hour and a quarter. Lift it into a clean hot dish, and serre it plain, or with a little brown grayy in a tureen. Three ounces of the lean of a boiled ham minced small, will very much improve this cake, of which the size can pe increased at will, and proportionate time allowed for dressing it. If baked mh hot oven, the meat will shrink to half ita proper size, and be very dry. When done, it should be of a fine light brown, and like a cake in appearance. Yeal, Ik lb.; beef-suet, 6 oz.; salt, 1 teaspoonftti; pepper and mace, or nutm, f teaspoonfiil each; rind of lemon; luiin (when added) 3 oz.; baked 1 hour. BORDYKB TSAL GAKB. Good.) Take a pound and a half of veal perfectly clear of fat and skin and eight ounces of the nicest stripea bacon; chop them senarately, then mix them well together with the grated rind of a small lemon, half a teaspoonful of salt, a fourth as much of cayenne, the third part of a nutmeg grated, and a half-teaspoonful of freshly pounded mace

CHAP. XL TEAL. 22 When it is pressed into the dish, let it be somewhat higher in the centre than at the edge; and whether to he served hot or cold, lift it out as soon as it comes from the oyen, and place it on a strainer that the fat may drain from it; it will keep many days if the under side be dry. The bacon should be weighed after the rind, and any rust it may exhibit, have been trimmed from it This cake is excellent cold, better indeed than the preceding one; but slices of cither, if preferred hot, may be warmed through in a Dutch oven, or on the gridiron, or in a few spoonsful of gravy. The same ingredients made into small cakes, well floured, and slowly fHed from twelve to fifteen minutes, then served with gravy made in the pan as for cutlets, will be found extremely good. Yeal, 1 lb.; striped bacon, 8 oz.; salt and mace, 1 teaspoonful each; rind of lemon, 1; third of 1 nutmeg; cayenne, 4 grains; baked li to 1 hour. FRIOAKDBAir OF TXAL. (ENTRifi). French cooks always prefer for this didi, which is a common one in their own country, that part of Ihe fillet to which the fat or udder is attached; but the flesh of the flner part of the neck or loin, raised clear from the bones, may be made to answer the purpose nearly or quite as well, and often much more conveniently, as the meat with us is not divided for Je as in France; and to purchase the entire fillet for the sake of the fricandeau would render it exeeedingly expensive. Lay the veal flat upon a table or dresser, with Sie skin uppermost, and endeavour, with one stroke of an exceedingly sharp knife, to dear this ofi and to leave the surface of the meat extremely smooth; next lard it tiiickly with small lardoonsj as directed for a pheasant (page 181), and make one or two incisions in the imderside with uie point of a knife, that it may the better imbibe the flavour of the seasonings. Take a stewpan, of sufficient size to hold the fricandeau, and the proper quantity of vegetables compactly arranged, without much room beinlefl round the met. Put into it a couple of large carrots, cut in thick slices, two omons of moderate size, two or tmee roots of parsley, three bay lesres, two small blades of maee, a branch or two of lemon thyme, and a little ca3renne, or a saltspoonfhl of white peppercorns. Eaise tiwse liigh in the centre of the stewpan, so as to support the meat,. and pr e v e nt its touching the gravy. Cover them with slices of very fiii bacon, and place the fricandeau gostly on them; then pour in as wmA. good veal broth, or stock, as will nearly cover the vetables witboat reaching to the veid. A calfs foot, sjlit in two, may with advantage be laid under them in the first instance. Stew the fiieandeau very gently for upwards of three hours, or until it is found to be extremely tender when probed with a fine skewer or a laidiDg-pin. Plenty of live embers must then be put on the lid of Called by them the notJT.

224 MODERN COOKERY. CHAP. XI. the stewpan for ten minutes or a qoarter of an Hour, to render the lardoons firm. Lift out the fricandeau and keep it hot; strain and reduce the gravy very quickly, after having skimmed off eyery particle of fat; glaze the veal, and serve it on a ragout of sorrel, cucumbers, or spinach. This, though rather an elaborate receipt, is the best we can offer to the reader for a dish, which is now almost as fashionable with us as it is common on the Continent. Some English cooks have a very summary method of preparing it; they merely lard and boil the veal until they can 'cut it with a spoon," then glaze and serve it with brown gjravv in the dish." This may be very tolerable eating, but it will bear small resemblance to the French fricandeau. 3 to 4 hours SPRINa-STEW OF VEAL. Cut two pound of veal, free from fat, into small half-inch thick cutlets; flour them well, and fry them in butter with two small cucumbers sliced, sprinkled with pepper, and floured, one moderate sized lettuce, and twenty-four green gooseberries cut open lengthwise and seeded. When the whole is nicely browned, lift it into a thick saucepan, and pour gradually into the pan half a pint, or rather more, of boiling water, broth, or gravy. Add as much salt and pepper as it requires. Give it a minutes simmer, and pour it over the meat, shaking it well round the pan as this is done. Let the veal stew gently from three quarters of an hour to an hour. A bunch of sreen onions cut small may be added to the other vegetables if liked; and the veal will eat better, if slightly seasoned with salt and pepper before it is floured; a portion of fat can be left on it if preferred. Veal 2 lbs.; cucumbers, 2; lettuce, 1; green gooseberries, 24; water or broth, i pint or more: f to 1 hour. NORMAN HARRICO. Brown in a stewpan or fry liffhtly, after having sprinkled them with pepper, salt, and flour, from two to three pounds of veal cutlets. If taken from the neck or loin, chop the bones very short, and trim away the greater portion of the fat. Arrange them as flat as the can be in a saucepan; give a pint of water a boil in the pan in which they have been browned, and pour it on them; add a small faggot of parsley, and, should tiie flavour be liked, one of green onions also. Let the meat simmer softly for half an hour; then cover it with small new potatoes which nave had a single boil in water, give the saucepan a shake, and let the harrico stew very gently for another half hour, or until the potatoes are quite done, and the veal is tender. AVhen the cutlets are thick and the potatoes approaching their full size, more time will be required for the meat, and the vegetables may be at once divided: if extremely

CHAP xj. VEAL. 225 yonng they will need the previous boil. Before the harrico is serredf skim the fat from it, and add salt and pepper should it not be suffidentlj seasoned. A few bits of lean ham, or shoulder of bacon browned with the Teal, will much improve this dish, and for some tastes, a little acid will render it more agreeable. Very delicate pork chops may be dressed in the same way. A cutlet taken from the fillet and freed from fat and skin, answers best for this dish. Additional vetables, cooked apart, can be added to it after it is dished. Peas boiled very green and well drained, or young carrots sliced and stewed tender in butter, are both well suited to it. Veal, 2 to 3 lbs.; water (or gravy), 1 pint; new potatoes U to 2 lbs.; faggot, parsley, and green onions: 1 hour or more. PLAIN VEAL CUTLETS. Take them if possible free from bone, and after having trimmed them into proper shape, beat them with a cutlet-bat or paste-roller until the fibre of the meat is thoroughly broken; flour them well to prevent the escape of the grav, and fry them from twelve to fifteen minutes over a nre which is not sufficiently fierce to bum them before they are quite cooked through: they should be of a fine amber brown, and perfectly dime. Lift them into a hot dish, pour the fat from the pan, throw in a slice of fresh butter, and when it is melted, stir or dredge in a dessertspoonful of flour; keep these shaken imtil tiiey are well-coloured, then pour gradually to them a cup of gravy or of boiling water; add pepper, salt, a little lemon-pickle or juice, give the whole a boil, and pour it over the cutlets: a few forcemeat balls fried and served with them, is usually a very acceptable addition to this dish, even when it is eamished or accompanied with rashers of ham or bacon. A morsel mglaze or of the jelly of roast meat, should when at hand be added to the sauce, which a little mushroom powder would further improve: mushroom sauce, indeed, is considered by many epicures, as mdispensable with veal cutlets. We have recommended in this one instance that the meat should be thoroughly betUeUj because we find that the veal is wonderfully improved by the process, which, however, we still deprecate for other meat. 12 to 15 minutes. VEAL CUTLETS A l'iNDIENNE, OR INDIAN FASHION. (eNTr£e.) Mix well together four ounces of very fine stale bread-crumbs, a teatpoonfal of salt, and a tablesnoonful of the best currie powder. Cut dovm into small well-shaped cutiets or coUops, two pounds of veal free from fat, skin, or bone; beat the slices nat, and dip them fint into some beaten cff-yolks, and then Tuto the seasoned crumbs; moisten them again with egg, and pass tuem a second time through bread-crumbs. When aU are ready, fry them in three or four ounces of b liter over a moderate fire, firam twelve to fourteen minutes. For

226 MODERN COOKEBr. chap. n. sauce, mix smoothly with a knife, a teaspoonful of flour and an equal quantity of curric-powder, with a small slice of butter; shake these in the pan for about five minutes, pour to them a cup of gravy or boiling water, add salt and cayenne if required and the strained juice of half a lemon; simmer the whole till well flavoured, and pour it round the cutlets. A better plan is, to have some ood currie sauce ready prepared to send to table with this dish; which may likewise be served nth only well-made common cutlet gravy, from the pan, ivhen much of the pungent flavour of the currie-powder is not desired. Bread-crumbs, 4 oz.; salt, 1 teaspoonful; currie powder, 1 tablespoonful; veal, 2 lbs.: 12 to 14 minutes. Obs. - These cutlets may be broiled; they should then be well beaten first, and dipped into clarified butter instead of egg before they are passed through the curried seasoning. TEAL CUTLETS, OR COLLOPS, A LA FRAN9AISE. (eMTR£e.) Cut the veal into small, thin, round coUops of equal size, arrange them evenly in a saute -pan, or in a small frymg-pan, and sprinkle a little fine salt, white pepper, and grated nutmeg on them. Clanfy, or merely dissolve in a clean saucepan ivith a gentle dree of heat, an ounce or two of good butter, and pour it equally over the meat. Set the pan aside until the dinner-hour, then fry the coUops over a clear fire, and when they are lightly browned, which will be in from four to five minutes, lift them into a hot dish, and sauce them with a little Espagnoley or with a gravy made quickly in the pan, and flavoured with lemon-juice and cayenne. They are excellent even without any sauce. 8 to 4 mmutes. SCOTCH COLLOPS. (ENTr£e.) Prepare the veal as for the preceding receipt, but dip the collops into beaten egg and seasoned bread-crumbs, and fry them directly in good butter, over a moderate fire, of a light golden brown; drain them well in lifting them from the pan, and sauce them like the collops d la Franqai$e. TEAL CUTLETS A LA MODE DE LONDRBS, OR, LONDOX FASHION. (entree.) Raise the flesh entire from the upper side of the best end of a nedi of veal, free it from the skin, and irom the greater portion of the firti slice it equally into cutlets little more than a quarter of an inch thidk, brush them with egg, strew them with fine bread-crumba, and fiy them of a light brown. Toast, or fry apart as many small slices of bacon as there are cutlets, and let them be trimmed nearly to the

HAP xt VEAL. 227 same shape; place tbem alternately on their edges round the inside of a hot dish (so as to form a sort of chain), and nour into the middle some rich gravy made in the pan, and very sligntly flavoured with eschalot; or substitute for this some good brown mushroom sauce. Saroury herbs, grated lemon-rind, nutmeg or mace, salt, and white pepper or cayenne, should be mixed with the bread-crumbs, in the proportions directed at page 213, for cutlets of calf's head; or the may be varied at pleasure. A cheek of bacon is best adapted to thu SWEETBREADS SIMPLY DBE89ED. (eNTr£e.) In whatever way sweetbreads are dressed, they should "first be well soaked in lukewarm water, then thrown into boiling water to blanch them, as it is called, and to render them firm. If lifted out after they hare boiled from five to ten minutes according to their size, and laid immediately into fresh spring water to cool, their colour will be the l)etter preserved. They may then be gently stewed for three quarters of an hour in veal gravy, which with the usual additions of cream, lemon, and egg-yolks, may be converted into a fricassee sauce for them when they are done; or they may be lifted from it, glazed and -served with good Spanish gravy; or, the fflazinff being omitted, they may be san with the sharp Maitre a Hotel sauce of page 117 They may also be simply floured, and roasted in a Dutch oven, being often basted with butter, and frequently turned. A full sized sweet bread, after having been blanched, will require quite three quarters of an hour to dress it. Blanched 5 to 10 minutes. Stewed f hour or more. SWEETBREAD CUTLETS. (ENTRis.) Boil the sweetbreads for half an hour in water or veal broth, and -when they are perfectly cold, cut them into slices of equal thickness, brush them with yolk of egg and dip them into very fine breadcrumbs seasoned with salt, cayenne, grated lemon-rind, and mace; £ry them in butter of a fine light brown, arrange them in a dish placing them high in the centre, and pour under them a gravy made m the pan, thickened with mushroom powder and flavoured with lemon-juice; or, in lieu of this, sauce them with some rich brown ffravy, to which a glass of sherry or Madeira has been added. When u can be done conveniently, take as many slices of a cold boiled tongue as there are sweetbread cutlets; pare the rind from them, trim them into good shape, and dress them with the sweetbreads, after thc have been egged and seasoned in the same way; and place each cutlet upon a slice of tongue when they are dished. For variety, -substitute croutons of fried brd stamped out to the size of the cutlets with a round or fluted paste or cake cutter. The crumb of a stale iott yeiy eyenly sliced, is best for the puipose.

228 MODERN COOKERY. chap. XL STEWED calf's FEET. (Cheap and Oood,) This is an excellent family dish, highly nutritious, and often very inezpensiye, as the feet during the summer are usually sold at a low rate. Wash them with nicety, divide them at the joint, and split the claws; arrange them closely m a thick stewpan or saucepan, and pour in as much cold water as will cover them ahout half an inch: tniee pints will he sufficient for a couple of large feet. When bro or stock is at hand, it is good economy to sulratitute it for the water, as h this means a portion of strong and well-flavoured jellied gravy vnU be obtained for general use, the full quantity not being needed as sauce for the feet. The whole preparation will be much improved by laying a thick slice of the lean of an unboiled ham, knuckle of bacon, hung beef, or the end of a dried tongue, at the bottom of the pan, before the other ingredients are added; or, when none of these are at hand, by suppling the deficiency with a few bits of lean beef or veal: the feet bemg of themselves insipid, will be much more palatable with one or the other of these additions. Throw in from naif to three quarters of a teaspoonful of salt when they begin to boil, and after the scum has been all cleared off, add a few branches of parsley, a little celery, one small onion or more, stuck with half a dozen cloves, a carrot or two, a large blade of mace, and twenty corns of whole pepper; stew them softly until the flesh will part entirely from the bones; take it from them, strain part of the gravy, and skim off all the fat, flavour it with catsup or any other store sauce, and thicken it, when it boils, with arrowroot or flour and butter; put in the flesh of the feet, and serve the dish as soon as the whole is very hot. A glass of wine, a little lemon juice, and a few forcemeat balls, will convert this into a very superior stew; a lumdful of mushroom- buttons also simmered in it for half an hour before it is dished, will vary it agreeably. Calfs feet (large), 2; water, 3 pints; salt, to teaspoonful; onions, 1 to 3; cloves, 6; peppercorns, 20; mace, large blade; little celerv and parsley; carrote, 1 or 2: stewed softly, to 3 hours. Musnroom catsup, 1 tablespoonful; flour, or arrowroot, 1 laige teaspooonful; butter, 1 to 2 oz. Cayenne, to taste calf's liver stoted, or stewed. From three to four pounds of the best part of the liver will be sufficient for a dish of moderate size. First lard it quite through by the directions of page 181, with large lardoons, rolled in a seasoning of spice, and of savoury herbs very finely minced; then lay it into a •tewpan or saucepan just fitted to its size, and pour in abont half a

CHAP. ZI.J TEAL. 229 pint of broth or gray; heat it rerj gently, and throw in, when it bins to simmer, a sliced carrot, a soudl onion cut in two, a small bnnch of parsley, and a blade of mace; stew the liver as softly as possible over a very slow fire from two hours and a half to three nours; thicken the gravy with a little brown roux (see pajo lOT), or with a dessertspoonful of browned flour; add a couple of glasses of white wine, and a little spice if needed, and serve it very hot, after having taken out the herbs and vegetable. The liver may be stewed without being larded; it may likewise be browned all over in a carefully made roux before the ravy is poured to it: this must then be made to boil, and be added m small portions, the stewnan being well shaken round as each is thrown in. The wine can be altojBether omitted; or a wineglassful of port mixed with a little lemon-juice, may take the place of sherry. After the liver has been wiped very dry, minced herbs may be strewed thickly over it before it is laid into the stewpan; and it may be served in its own gravy, or with a auce piguaate. Liver, 3 to 4lb8: 2 to 3 iiours TO ROAST CALFS LIVER. Take the whole or part of a fine white sound liver, and either lard it as a fricandeau upon the surface, or with large strips of highlyseasoned bacon in the inside (see Larding, page 181; or should either of these modes be objected to, merely wrap it in a wellbuttered paper, and roast it from an hour to an hour and a quarter, at a moderate distance from a clear fire, keeping it constantly basted. Bemove the paper, and froth the liver well from ten to fifteen minutes before it is done. It should be served with a sauce of some piquancy, such as a poivrade or brown eschalot, in addition to some good gravy. Frencn cooks steep the liver over-niht in vinegar, with a sliced onion and branches of savoury herbs laid over it: this whitens and renders it firm. As an economical mode, some small bits of the liver may be trimmed off, floured, and lightly fried with a siloed onion, and stewed down for gravy in three quarters of a pint of water which has been poured into the pan, with the addition of a few peppercorns, and a small bunch of herbs. A seasoning of salt must not be forgotten, and a little lemon pickle, or juice, would generally be considered an improvement. 1 to 1 hour. BLANQUBTTE OF TEAL OR LAMB, WITH MUSHROOMS. (BNTniE.) Slice yery thin the white part of some cold veal, divide and trim it into scallops not larger tnan a shilling, and lay it into a clean saucepan or stewpan. Wipe with a bit of new flannel and a few

23Q MODERN COOKERY. ohap. XL grains of salt, from a quarter to half a pint of mushroom-buttons, and slice; them into a little butter which just begins to simmer; stew them in it from twelve to fifteen minutes, without allowing them to take the slightest colour; then lift them out and lay them on the veal. Pour boiling to them a pint of sauce tottmee Tsee page 108); let the blanquetie remain near, but not dose to the nre for awhile; bring it nearer, heat it slowly, and when it is on the point of boilhig mix a spoonful or two of the sauce from it with tne well beaten yolks of four fresh eggs; stir them to the remainder; add die strained juice of half a small lemon; shake the saucepan above the fire until the sauce is just sel and serve the bkmquette instantly. Cold veal, lb.; mushrooms, i to nint: stewed in 1 oz. butter, 12 to 15 minutes. Sauce ioumie, or tnickened veal gravy, 1 pint; yolks of eggs, 4; lemon-juice, 1 tablespoonful. Obs. - Ally white meat may be served en bkmquette. The mushrooms are not indispensable for it, but they are always a great improvement. White sauce substituted for the thickened veal gravy will at once convert this dish into an inexpensive English fricassee Mace, salt, and cayenne, must be added to either preparation, should it require seasoning. MINOED YBAL. When there is neither gravy nor broth at hand, the bones and trimmings of the meat must be boiled down to furnish what is required for the mince. As .cold meat is very light in weight, a pound of the .white jiart of the veal will be sufficient for a disn, and n r this quantity a pint of gravy will be needed. Break down the bones of the joint well, add uie trimmings of the meat, a small bunch of savoury herbs, a slice or two of carrot or of celery, a blade of mace, a few white peppercorns, and a bit or two of lean ham, boHed, or unboiled if it can be had, as either will improve the flavour of the mince. Four to these a pint and a half of water, and stew them genUy for a couple of hours; then strain off the gravy, let it cool, and clear it entirely from the fat Cut the white part of the vetd small with a very sharp knife, after all the gristle and brown edges have been trimmed tLvm, Some persons like a portion of flit minced with it, others object to the addition altogctner. Thicken the gravy with a teaspoonfiil and a half of flour smoothly mixed with a small slice of butter, season the veal with a saltspoonfVil or more of salt, and half as much white pepper and grated nutmeg, or pounded mace; add the lightly-grated rmd of half a small lemon; mix the whole well, put it mto the gravy, and heat it thoroughly by the side of the fire without allowing it to boil; serve it with pafe toasted sippets in and round the dish. A spoonful or two of creank is always an improvement to thia mince.

CHAP. XL VEAL. 231

UINCED TEAL AKD OYSTERS. The most elegant mode of preparing this dish is to mince ahont a pound of the wmtest part of the mside of a cold roast fillet or loin of veal, to heat it thout allowing it to hoil, in a pint of rich white B&nce, or becJuanel, and to mix with it at the moment of serying;, three dozens of small oysters ready hearded, and plnmped in their own strained liquor, which is also to he added to the mince; the requisite quantity of salt, cajenne, and mace should he sprinkled oyer the yeal hefore it is put into the sauce. Garnish the dish with pale fried sippets of hread, or with flewroM of hrioche, or of puffpaste. Nearly half a pint of mushrooms minced, and stewed white in a little hutter, may he mixed with the yeal instead of the oysters; or should they he yery small they may he added to it whole: from ten to twelye minutes wiQ he sufficient to make them tender. BaJls of delicately fried oyster-forcemeat laid round the dish will giye another good yariety of it. Teal minced, 1 Ih.; white sauce, 1 pint; oysters, 3 dozen, with their liquor; or mushrooms, pint, stewed in hutter 10 to 12 minutes. TEAL-SYDNEY. (gOOD.) Four hoiling on an ounce and a half of fine hread-crumhs nearly half a pint of good yeal stock or grayy, and let them stnd till cool; mix with them then, two ounces of lieef-suet shred yery small, half a pound of cold roast yeal carefully trimmed from the hrown edges, skm, and fat, and finely minced; the grated rind of half a lemon, nearly a teaspoonftd of salt, a little cayenne, the third of a teaspooDiul of mace or nutmeg, and four well-heaten eggs. Whisk up tne whole well together, put it into a buttered dish, and bake it from three quarters of an hour to an hour. Cream may he used instead of grayy when more conyenient, hut this last will giye the better flayour. A little clarified butter put into the dish lfore the other ingredients are poured in will be an improyement. Bread-crumbs, 1 oz.; yy or cream, nearly pint; beef-suet, 2 oz.; cold yeal, lb.; rmd of ) lemon; salt, small teaspoonful; third as much mace and nutmeg; little cayenne; eggs, 4 large or 5 smaU: to 1 hour. FRICASSEED TEAL. Diyide into small, thick, handsome slices of equal size, about a couple of pounds of yeal, quite free from fat, bone, and skin; dissolye a couple of ounces of butter in a wide stewpan, and lust as it begins to boil lay in the yeal, and shake it oyer the fire imtil it is quite firm • JZmroM, ilowen, or flover-Uke figures, oat out with tin shiqpes.

232 MODERN COOKERY. chap, xi on both sides but do not allow it to take the slightest colour. Stir in a tablespoonful of flour, and when it is well mixed with the cutlets, pour gradually to them, shaking the pan often, sufficient boiling veal-gravy to almost cover them. Stew them gently from Mecn to sixteen minutes, or longer should they not be perfectly tender. Add a flavouring of mace, some salt, a quarter-pint of ricn cream, a couple of ege-yolks, and a little lemon-juice, observing, when the last are add the directions given for a blanguette of veu, page 229. Strips of lemon-rind can be stewed in the gravy at pleasure. Two or three dozens of mushroom-buttons, added twenty minutes before it is served, will much improve this fricassee. SMALL ENTRiES OF SWEETBREADS, CALF's BRAINS AKD BARS, For tables of which the service consists rather of a great variety of light dishes (entries) than of substantial English fare, the ears, brains, sweetbreads, gristles or tendrans and the tail of a ciedf, may be dressed in many different ways to supply them; but they require a really good style of cookery, and many adjuncts to render them available for the purpose, as they do not possess much decided natural flavour, and their insipidity would be apt to tire if it were not relieved by the mode of prepanng them. We shall give some few especial receipts for them m the chapter on foreign cookery, should sufficient space remain open for us to admit them; and insert here only such slight general mrections as may suffice for preparing some of them in a simple form; as they are not in reality or firstrate importance. All of them may be served with good curried, or highly-flavoured tomato-sauce, after having been stewed in strong broth or graver. The brains and sweetbreads cut into small dice or scallops, and mixed with bkhamel, or with common unite sai. may be used to fill small voUaU'vetds or patty cases. The cars are usually filled in part with forcemeat, or a preparation of the brains, and placed upright when dished; and the upper part is cut into narrow fringe-like strips. For " Tendrons de Veau' and " Breast of veal rolled and stewed, the reader is referred to Chapter XXXIV

CII-.P. XII.

MUTTOIL

233

CHAPTER XIL

lid 1. Leg. 3. BMtEndorLoiB. 8. Chomp ISnd of Loin. 4. Neek, Best End. B. Keek, Scrag End.

50. 6. Sbonlder. 7. Breast. A Saddle ia the Two Loins. A Chine, the Two Necks.

Matton u best suited for table in antomn. winter, and early spring. It is not considered qaite so good when grass-lamb is in f season, nor daring the sultry months of summer.

TO CHOOSE MUTTON. Tile best mutton is Amall-boned, plump, finely-grained, and shortleta; the lean of a dark, rather than of a bright hue, and the fat wnite and dear: iivhen this is yellow, the meat is rank, nd of bad quality. Mutton is not considered by experienced judges to be in perfection until it is nearly or quite five years old; but to avoid the additional expense of feeding the animal so long, it is commonly faroufiht into the market at Uiree years old. The leg and the loin are the superior joints; and the preference would probably be given more frequently to the latter, but for the superabundance of its fat, which renders it a not very economical dish. The haunch consists of the leg and the part of the loin adioining it; the saddle, of the two kuis together, or of the undivided hack of the sheep: these last are

234 MODEBN COOKERY. cHAP. xn. always roasted and are served usually at good tables, or for company-dinners, instead of the smaller joints. The shoulder, dressed in the ordinary way, is not very hignly esteemed, but when boned, rolled, and filled with forcemeat, it is of more presentable appearance, and to many tastes, far better eating; though some persons prefer it in its natural form, accompanied by stewed onions. It is occasionally boiled or stewed, and covered with rich onion sance llie flesh of that part of the neck which is commonly .called the "best end, or the bach ribsy and which adjoins the loin, is the most succulent and tender portion of the sheep, and makes an excellent small roast, and is extremely good served as cutlets, after being divested of the superabundant fat. It is likewise very frequently boiled; but so cooked it makes but an unsightly and insipid dish, tiiough an idea prevails in this country that it is a very wholesome one. Cutlets (or chops as the butchers term them) are commonly taken from the loin, and are generally charged at a higher rate than joini of mutton, in consequence, probably, of the constant demand for them. They may likewise be cut from the saddle, but will then be very large, and of no better quality than when the two loins which form the saddle are divided m the usual way, tlpngh a certain degree of £uhion has of late been accorded to them. The scrag, or that part of it which joins the head, is seldom used for any other purpose than making broth, and should be taken off before the joint IS dressed. Cutlets from the thick end of the loin are commonly preferred to anv others, but they are frequently taken likewise from the best end of the neck (sometimes called the back-ribs) and from the middle of the leg. Mutton kidneys are dressed in various ways, and are excellent in many. The trotters and the head of a sheep may be converted into verjr good dishes, but they are scarcely wortn the trouble which is reauired to render them palatable. The loin and the leg are occasionally cured and smoked like hams or bacon. TO ROAST A HAUNCH OF MUTTON, f This joint should be well kept, and when the larder-accommodations of a house not are good, the butcher should be requested to hang it the proper tune. Koast it carefully at a large sound fire, and let it remain at a considerable distance for at least a couple of hours; then draw it nearer, but never sufficiently so to bum or injure the faL Keep it constantly basted; flour it soon after it is laid to the fire, instead of frothing it, as this latter mode is not generally relished, ough fashion is in its favour. In from three and a half to four hours, the haimch will be done, and it wiU require something less of Many years Bince, these " taddle-back cutlets were supplied to as by a conntry batcher, and though of Tery fine South Down mutton, had no particolar tmportance attached to them, nor were they considerei as remarkably new, f We recommend Liebe's directions for roasting (page 171), to be appUed han, and for the jointa which follow.

GHAT. XILj MUTTON. 235 time when not kt back at first, as we have advised. Serve it with a good Espagnote or with plain mutton-gravy and cnrrant-ielly. This joint, when the meat is of very fine qudity, may be dressea and served exactly like venison. 34 to 4 hours. 5 hours or more by the slow method. ROAST SADDLE OF MUTTON. This is an excellent joint, though not considered a verv economical one. It is usual for the butcher to raise the skin from it before it is sent in, and to skewer it on again, that in the roasting the juices of the meat may be better preserved, and the fat prevented from tidcing too much colour, as this should be but delicately browned. In. less than half an hour before the mutton is done, remove the skin, and flour the joint lightly after having basted it well. Our own great objection to frothed meat would lead us to recommend that the skin should be taken off half an hour earlier, and that the joint should be kept at sufficient distance from the fire to prevent the possibilitv of the fat being burned; and that something more of time should be allowed for the roasting. With constant basting, great care, and good management, the cook may always ensure the proper appearance of this, or of any other joint (except, perhaps, of a haunch of venison) -mtibout having recourse to papering or pasting, or even to replacing the skin; but when unremitted attention cannot be given to tnis one part of the dinner, it is advisable to take all precautions that can secore it from being spoiled. 2 to 2 hours. More if very large. TO BOAST A LEa OF MUTTON. In a cool and airy larder a leg of mutton will hang many days with advantage, if the kernel be taken out, and the flap wiped very diT when it is first brought in; and it is never tender when freshly kafied: in warm weather it should be well dredged with pepper to preserve it from the files. K washed before it is put upon tne spit, it flhould be wiped as dry as possible afterwards, and well floured soon after it is laid to the fire. When the excellence of the joint is more xegparded than the expense of fuel, it should be roasted by what we haye denominated the slow method; that is to say, it should be kept at a considerable distance from the fire, and remain at it four hours instead of two: it may be drawn nearer for the last twenty or thirty minutes to give it colour. The gravy will flow from it in great abundance when it is cut, and the meat will be very superior to that roasted in the usual way. When this plan is not pursued, the mutton should stiU be kept quite a foot from the fire until it is heated through, and never brought sufficiently near to scorch or to herden any part. It should be constemUy hasted with its own fat, for if this be neglected, all other precautions will fail to ensure a good roast t

236 MODEEN COOKEBT. cHAP.xn. and after it is dished a little fine salt shoiAd be sprinkled lightly cm it, and a spoonful or two of boiling water ladled over. This is the most palatable mode of serving it, but it may be frothed when it is preferred so, though we would rather recommend that the floor should be dredged on in the first instance, as it then prevents the juices of the meat from escaping and forms a savoury coating to it; while the raw taste which it so oiten retains with mere frothing is to many eaters especially obiectionable. Leg of mutton, 7 to 8 lbs.: slow method 4 hours, common method 1 to 2 hours. Obs, - Many common cooks ixjure their roasts exceedingly by pouring abundance of hot water over them, "to make gravy as they call it. This should never be done. The use of any portion may, perhaps, be rationally objected to; but when the joint is not carefully cooked it is sometimes very dry without it. A few spoonsful of Liebees extract of meat will supply excellent gravy for this, or for any otner dish of roasted meat BRAISED LEO OF MUTTON. Take out the bone as far as the first joint by the directions of the following receipt; roll some large strips of bacon in a seasoning of mixed spice, and of savoury herbs minced extremely fine or dried and reduced to powder, and with these lard the inside of the boned portion of the joint; or fill the cavity with forcemeat highly seasoned with eschalot or garlic. Sew up the meat, and place it in a braising-pan or ham-kettle nearly of its size, with slices of bacon under and over it, two or three onions, four or five carrots, two bay leaves, a large bunch of savoury herbs, a few bones, or bits of undressed mutton or veal, and about three quarters of a pint of gravy. Stew the meat as softly as possible from four to five hours, and keep live embers on the pan (or, as this mode of cooking is not gencrtd in England, set the mutton, if it can be done conveniently, into a moderately-heated oven, after having luted the edges of the vessel in which it is arranged with a bit of coarse paste); lift it out, strain the gravy, reduce it quickly to glaze, and brush the meat with it; or merely strain, free it from fat, and pour it over the mutton. White beans (haricots blanc8 boiled tender and well drained, or a mild ragout of garlic or escnalots, may be laid in the dish under it. The joint can be braised equally well without any part of it being booed. 3 to 5 hours LEO OF MUTTON BONED AND FORCED. Select for this dish a joint of South Down or of any other delicatesized mutton, which has been kept sufiiciently long to render it veiy tender. Lay it on a clean cloth spread upon a table, and turn the underside upwards With a sharp-edged boning-knife cut throu

CHAP xiLj mutton; 237 the middle of the skin, from the knuckle to the first joint, and raise it fh)m the flesh on the side along which the hone runs, until the knife is just ahove it, then cut through the flesh down to the hone; irark the knife round it in every part till you reach the socket; next remoye the flat hone from the uurge end of the joint, and pass the knife freely round the remaining one, as it is not needful to take it . out dear of the meat; when you again reach the middle joint, loosen the skin round it with great care, and the two hones can then he . drawn out without being divided. T his b eing done, fill the cavities with the forcemeat, No. 1. (Chapter Vlll.), fulding to it a somewhat high seasoning of eschalot, garlic, or onion; or cut out with the bone, nearly a nound of the inside of the mutton, chop it fine with six ovmoes of delicate striped bacon, and mix with it thoroughly three quarters of an ounce of narsley, and half as much of tnyme and winter savoury, all mincea extremely small; a half teaspoonful of pepper (or a third as much of cayenne); the same of mace, salt, and nutmeg, and either the grated rind of a small lemon, or four eschalots flnelv shred. When the lower part of the leg is filled, sew the skin neatly together where it has been cut open, and tie the knuckle itnind tightly, to prevent the escape of the gravy. Replace the fiat bone at the large end, and with a long needle and twine, draw the edfCB of the meat together over it. K it can be done conveniently, it better to roast the mutton thus prepared in a cradle spit or upon s bottle-jack, with the knuckle downwurds. Place it at first far from the fire, and keep it constantly basted. It wiH require nearly or quite three hours roasting. Remove the twine before it is served, and aend it very hot to table with some rich brown gravy A BOILED LEO OF MUTTOX WITH TONGUE AND TURNIPS. (An excellent Receipt) Trim into handsome form a well-kept, but perfectly sweet leg of mutton, of middling weight; wash, but do not soak it; lay it into a ?easel aa nearly of its size as convenient, and pour in rather more than aufiicient cold water to cover it; set it over a good fire, and when it begins to boil take off the scum, and continue to do so untilno more appears; throw in a tablespoonful of salt (afler the first flkimming), which will assist to bring it to the surface, and as soon as the liquor is clear, add two moderate-sized onions stuck with a dozen cloves, a large faggot of parsley, thyme, and winter savoury, sod four or five large carrots, and half an hour afterwards as many We hare left this receipt unaltered, ioetead of applying to it Baron Liebeg's directions tar his improved method of boiling meat, becanse his objections to the iiBiiieman of the joint in cold water are partially obviated, by its being placed iBBanediately over a sound fire, and heated qnickly; and the mutton is very good QttM dressed.

238 HODEBK COOKERT. cHAP. xn. tumipB. Draw the pan to the side of the fire, and let the mutton be simmered gently from two hours to two and a half, from the time of its first beginning to boil. Serve it with caper, brown cucumber, or oyster sauce. If stewed softly as we have directed, the mutton will be found excellent dressed thus; otherwise, it will but resemble the unpalatable and ragged-looking joints of fast-boiled meat, so constantly sent to table by common English cooks. Any undressed, bones of veal, mutton, or beef, boiled with the joint will improve it much, and the liquor will then make excellent soup or houiUon. A small smoked ox-tongue boiled very tender will generally be much approved as an accompaniment to tne mutton, though it is out of the usual course to serve them together: innovation on established usages is, however, sometimes to be recommended. The tongue should be garnished with well-prepared mashed turnips, moulded with a tablespoon into the form of a half-egg, and sent to table as hot as possible; or the turnips may be dished apart 2 to 2i hours. ROAST OK STEWED FILLET OP MUTTON. Cut some inches from either end of a large and well-kept leg of mutton, and leave the fillet shaped like one of veal. Remove the bone, and fill the cavity with forcemeat (No. 1, Chapter VIII.), which may be flavoured with a little minced eschalot, when its flavour is liked: more forcemeat may be added by detaching the skin sufiSciently on the flap side to admit it. When thus prepared, the fillet may be roasted, and served with currant-jelly and brown gravy, or with only melted butter poured over it; or it may be stewed gently for nearly or quite four hours, in a pint of gravy or broth, after having been floured and browned all over in a couple of ounces of butter: it must then he turned every hour that it may be equally done. Two or three small onions, a faggot of herbs, a couple of carrots sliced, four or five cloves, and twenty whole peppercorns can be added to it at will. Boasted 2 hours, or stewed 4 hours. 06.- At a large fire, half an hour less of time will roast the mutton sufficiently for English taste in general. TO ROAST A LOIN OF MUTTON. The flesh of the loin of mutton is superior to that of the leg, when roasted; but to the frugal housekeeper this consideration is usually overbalanced by the great weight offat attached to it; this, however, when economy is more considered than appearance, may be pared oft and melted down for various kitchen uses. TVlien thus reduced is size, the mutton will be soon roasted. If it is to be dressed in the usual way, the butcher should be desired to take off the skin; and care should be taken to preserve the fat from being ever so lightly btuned t

CHAP, xn. JIUTTON 239 it should be managed, indeed, in the same manner as the saddle, in every respect, and carved also in the same way, either in its entire length or in oblique slices. Without the fat, 1 to 1 J hour; with 1 J to If hour. TO DRESS A LOIN OP MUTTON LIKE VENISON. Skin and bone a loin of mutton, and lay it into a stewpan, or braisin-pan, with a pint of water, a large onion stuck with a dozen clovc8,lialf a pint of port wine and a spoonful of vinegar; add, when it boils, a smafl faggot of thyme and parsley, and some pepper and salt: let it stew three hours, and turn it often. Make some gravy of the bones, and add it at intervals to the mutton when requir ' This receipt comes to us bo strongly recommended by persons who have partaken frequently of the dish, that we have not thought it ueedful to prove it ourselves. 3 hours. ROAST NECK OP MUTTON. This is a very favourite joint in many families, the flesh being more tender and succulent than that even of the loin; and when only a small roast is required, the best end of the neck of mutton, or the middle, if divested of a large portion of the fat and cut into ffood shape, will furnish one of appropriate size and of excellent quiuity. Let the ends be cut quite even and the bones short, so as to give a haadsome squareness of form to the meat. The butcher, if diiected to do so, will cnop off the chine bone, and divide the long bones sufficiently at the joints to prevent any difficulty in separating them at table. From four to five pounds weight of the neck will require from an hour to an hour and a quarter of roasting at a clear and brisk, but not Jierce, fire. It should be placed at a distance until it is heated through, and then moved nearer, and kept thoroughly basted untU it is done. Tomatas baked or roasted may be sent to table with it; or a little plain gravy and red currant-jelly; or it may be served' without either. When the entire joint, with the exception of the scrag-end (which should always be taken off), is cooked, proportionate time must be allowed for it. TO ROAST A SHOULDER OP MUTTON. Flour it well, and baste it constantly with its own dripping; do not place it dose enough to the fire for the fat to be in the slightest decree burned, or even too deeply browned. An hour and a half will roast it, if it be of moderate size. Stewed onions are often sent to table with it. A shoulder of mutton is sometimes boUedf and SDOthered with onion sauce lihaoi

240 HODEBN COOKEBT. chap, zil

THE cavalier's BROIL. Ilall roast or stew, or parboil, a small, or moderate-sized shoulder of mutton; lift it into a not dish, score it on both sides down to the bone, season it well with fine salt and cayenne or pepper, and finish cooking it upon the mdiron over a brisk fire. Skim the fat from any grraT that may have flowed from it, and keepthe dish which contains it quite hot to receive the joint again. Warm a cupful of pickled mushrooms, let a part of them be minced, and strew them over the broil when it is ready to be served; arrange the remainder round it, and send it instantly to table. The reader will sctfcely need to be told that this is an excellent dish

FORCED SHOULDER OF MUTTON. Cut off all the flesh from the inside of the joint down to &e bladebone, and reserve it for a separate dish. It may be lightly browned with some turnips or carrots, or both, and made into a small harrico or stewed simply in its own gravy, or it will make in part, a pie or pudding. Bone the mutton (see page 219), flatten it on a table, lay over the inside some thin and neatlv-trimmed slices of striped bacon, and spread over them some good veal forcemeat (No. 1, Chapter YIIL) to within an inch of the outer edge; roll the joint up tightly towards the knuckle (of which the bone may be left in or not, at pleasure), secure it well with tape or twine, and stew it gently in good gravy, from four hours to four and a half. 4 to 41 hours. Obs, - In France it is usual to substitute sausage-meat for the bacon and veal stufling in this dish, but it does not appear to us to be well suited to it MUTTON CUTLETS STEWED IN THEIR OWN GRAVY. (Good.) Trim the fat entirely from some cutlets taken from the loin; just dip them into cold water, dredge them moderately with pepper, and plentifully on both sides with flour; rinse a thick iron saucepan with spring water, and leave three or four tablespoonsful in it; arrange tne cutlets in one flat layer, if it can be done conveniently, and place them over a very gentle fire; throw in a little salt when they b to stew, and let them simmer as softly as possible but without ceasing, from an hour and a quarter to an hour and a half If dressed with great care, which they require, they will be equally tender, easy of digestion, and nutritious; and being at the same time free from everythmg which can disagree with Uie most delicate stomach, the reoeipt will be found a valuable one for invalids. The mutton should be of

CHAP, xn. MUTTON. 241 good quality, but tbe excellence of tbe dish mainly depends on Its being most gently stewed; for if allowed to boil quickly all the gravy will be dried up, and the meat will be unfit for table. The cutlets must be turned when they are half done: two or three spoonsful of water or gravy may be added to them should they not yield sufficient moisture; or if closely arranged in a single layer at first, water may be poured in to naif their depth. Tne advantage of this receipt is, that none of the nutriment of the meat is lost; for that which escapes from the cutlets remains in the gravy, which should all be served with them: any fat which may be perceived upon it should be carefully skimmed off. Cold broth used for it instead of water will render it extremely good, li to If hour. TO BROIL MUTTON CUTLETS. (eNTRE.) These may be taken from the loin, or the best end of the neck, but the former are generally preferred. Trim off a portion of the fat, or the whole of it, unless it be liked; pepper the cutlets, heat the gridiron, rub it with a bit of the mutton suet, broil them over a bjisk fire, and turn them often until they are done; this, for the generality of eaters, will be in about eight minutes, if they are not more than half an inch thick, which they should not be. French cooks season them with pepper and salt, and brush them lishtly with dissolved butter or ou, Ijfore they are laid to the fire, ana we have found the cutlets so managed extremely good. Lightly broiled, 7 to 8 minutes. Well done, 10 minutes. O&.-A cold MaStre dHotel sauce may be laid under the cutlets when they are dished; or they may be served quite dry, or with brown gravy; or with ood melted butter seasoned with mushroom catsup, cayenne, and chili vinegar or lemon-juice. CHINA. CHILO Mince a pound of an undressed loin or leg of mutton, with or "without a portion of its fat; mix with it two or three young lettuces flhred small, a pint of young peas, a teaspoonful of salt, half as much pepper, four tablespoonsfuf of water, n'om two to three ounces of good butter, and, if the flavour be liked, a few green onions minced. Keep the whole well stirred with a fork ovet a clear and gentle fire watn it is quite hot, then place it closely covered by the side of the stove, or on a high trivet, that it may stew as softly as possible for s couple of hours. One or even two half-grown cucumbers, cut small by scoring the ends deeply as they are sliced, or a quarter of a pint of minced mushrooms may be added with good effect; or a dessertspoonful of currie-powder and a large chopd onion. A dish of boiled rice should be sent to table with it. MuttoUf 1 pint; green peas, 1 pint; young lettuces, 2; salt, 1 tea-

S42 MODESN COOKEBT. chap xu. spoonful; pepper, teaspoonful; water, 4 tablespoonsful; butter, 2 to 3 oz.: 2 noors. Varieties: cucumbers, 2; or mushrooms minced, i pint; or currie-powder, 1 deseertspoonful, and 1 laii onion. A GOOD FAMILY STEW OP MUTTON. Put into a broad stewpan or saucepan, a flat layer of mutton chops, freed entirely from fat and from the greater portion of the bone, or inpreference a cutlet or two from the leg, divided into bits of suitable size, en just dipped into cold water, seasoned with pepper, and lightly dredged with flour; on these put a layer of mild turnips sliced hafr an inch thick, and cut up into squares; then some carrots of the same thickness, with a seasoning of salt and black pepper between them; next, another layer of mutton, then plenty of vegetables, and as much weak broth or cold water as will barely cover the whole; bring them slowly to a boil, and let them just simmer from two io three hours, according to the quantity. One or two minced onions may be strewed between the other vtables when their flavour is liked. The savour of the dish will be increased by browning the meat in a little butter before it is stewed, and still more so by nying the vegetables lightly as well, before they are added to it A head or two of celery would to many tastes improve the flavour of the whole. In summer, cucumber, green omons, shred lettuces, and green peas may be substituted for the winter vegetables. Mutton, free from fat, 2 lbs.; turnips, 3 lbs; carrots, 3 lbs. f celeiT (if added), 2 small heads: 2 to 3 hours. Obs. - The fat and trinunines of the mutton used for this and for other dishes into which only the lean is admissible, may be turned touseful account by cutting the whole up rather small, and then, boiling it in a quart of water to the pound, with a little spice, a bunch of herbs and some salt, until the fat is nearly dissolved: the liquid will then, if strained off and left until cold, make tolerable broth, and the cake of fat which is on the top, if again just melted and poured free of sediment into small pans, will serve excellentlj for conmion pies and for frying kitchen dmners. Less water will of course produce broth of better quality, and the addition of a small quantity of fresh meat or bones will render it very good. AN IRISH STEW. Take two pounds of small thick mutton cutlets with or without fat, according to the taste of the persons to whom the stew is to be served; take also four pounds of good potatoes, weighed after they are pared; slice them thick, and put a portion of them in a flat layer into a large thick saucepan or stewpan; season the mutton well with pepper, and place some of it on the potatoes; cover it with another layer, and proceed in the same manner with all, reserving plenty of the vegetable for the top; pour in three quarters of a pink

csAP. zn. MUTTOK. 843 of cold water, and add, when the stew hegins to hofl, an ounce of salt; let it siinmer gently for two hours, and serve it yery hot. When the addition of onion is liked, strew some minced oyer the potatoes. Mutton cutlets, 2 lbs.; potatoes, 4 lbs.; pepper, oz.; salt, 1 oi.; water, pint: 2 hours. Oft.- For a real Irish stew the potatoes should be boiled to a mash: an additional quarter of an nour may be necessary for the full quantity here, but for half of it two hours are quite sufficient A BAKED IRISH STEW. TtU a brown upright Nottingham jar with alternate layers of mutton (or beef), sliced potatoes, and mild onions; and put in water and seasoning as above; cover the top closely with whole potatoes (pared), and send the stew to a moderate oven. The potatoes on the top should be well cooked and hroumed before the stew is served. We have not considered it necessary to try this receipt, which was given to us by some friends who keep an excellent table, and who recommended it much. It is, of course, suited only to a quite plain iamUy dinner. The onions can be omitted when their flavour is not liked. CUTLETS OF COLD MUTTON. Trim into well-shaped cutlets, which should not be very thin, the remains of a roast loin or neck of mutton, or of a qmte underdressed stewed or boiled joint; dip them into egg and well-seasoned bread-crumbs, and broil or fry them over a quick fire that they maybe browned and heatod through without beinK too much done. This is a very good mode of serving a half roasted loin or neck. When the cutlets are broiled they should be dipped into, or sprinkled thickly with butter just dissolved, or they will be exceedingly dry; a few additional crumbs should be made to adhere to them aner they are moistened with this. MUTTON KIDNEYS A LA FRANQAISE. (ENTRiE.) Skin six or eiffht fine firesh mutton kidneys, and without opening them, remove tne fat; slice them rather thin, strew over them a large dessertspooniul of minced herbs, of which two-thirds should be pardey and the remainder thyme, with a tolerable seasoning of pepper or cayenne, and some mie salt Melt two ounces of butter in a frying-pan, put in the kidneys and brown them quickly on both sides; when nearly done, stir amongst them a dessertspoonful of flour and shake lliem well in the pan; pour in the third of a pint of gravy (or of hot water in default of this), the juice of half a lemon, and as much of HiEiryeys sauce, or of mushroom catjup. as will fsyonr the whole pleasantly; bring these to the point of boiling, and

244 MODERN COOKEEY. cilAP. xn. pour them into a dish garnished with fried sippets, or lift oat the Kidnejs first, give the saacc a boil and pour it on them. In France, a couple of glasses of champagne, or, for variety, of claret, are frequently added to this dish: one of port wine can be substituted for cither of these. A dessertspoonful of minced eschalots may be strewed over the kidneys with the herbs; or two dozens of very small ones previously stewed until tender in fresh butter over a gentle fire, may be added after they are dished. This is a very excellent and approved receipt. Fried 6 minutes. BROILED MUTTON EIDNEYS. Split them open lengthwise without dividing them, strip off the skin and fat, run a fine skewer through the points and across the back of the kidneys to kee) them flat while broiling, season them with pepper or cayenne, lay them over a dear brisk fire, with the cut sides towards it, turn them in from four to five minutes, and in as many more dish, and serve them quickly, with or .without a cold Mfdtre dHotel sauce under them. French cooks season them with pepper and fine salt, and brush a very small quantity of oil or clarified butter over them before they are broiled: we think this an improvement. 8 to 10 minutes. OXFOKD RECEIPT FOR MUTTON KIDNEYS. (BREAKFAST DISH, OR ENTREE.) Fry gently in a little good butter, a dozen croutons (slices of bread, of uniform shape and size, trinuned free from crust), cut half an inch thick, about two inches and a half wide, and from three to four in length: lift them out and keep them hot. Split quite asunder tax fine fresh kidnevs, after having freed them from the skin and &t; season them with fine salt and cayenne, arrange them evenly in a dean frying-pan, and pour some clarified butter over them. Fiy them over a somewhat brisk fire, dish each half upon a crouton make a sauce in the pan as for veal cutlets, but use gravy for it instead of water, should it be at hand; add a little wine or catsup, pour it roand the croutons and serve the kidneys instantly. 10 minutes. TO ROAST A FORE QUARTER OF LAMB. This should be laid to a clear brisk fire, and carefully and plentifully basted firom the time of its becoming warm until it is ready for table; but though it requires quick roasting, it must never be placed sufficiently near the fire to endanger the fat, which is very liable to catch or bum. Alien the ioint is served, the shoulder should be separated from the ribs with a sharp knife; and a small slice of fresh butter, a little cayenne, and a squeeze of lemon juice

XII. lamb: 245 hoold be laid between them; if the cook be an expert carver, this had better be done before the lamb is sent to table. The cold Afidtre tTHotel sauce of Chapter VI. may be substituted for the usual ingredients, the parsley being omitted or not, according to the taste. Se good mint sauce, and a fresh fialad with this roast. A leg, shoulder, or loin of lamb should be cooked by the same directions as the quarter, a difference only being made in the time allowed for each. Fore quarter of lamb, If to 2 hours. Leg, 11 hour (less if very small); shoulder, 1 to 1 hour. 06i.--The time will vary a little, of course, from the difference inthe weather, and in the strength of the fire. Lamb should always be ttxef roasted. SADDLE OF LAMB. This is an exceedingly nice joint for a small party. It should be roasted at a brisk fire, and kept constantly basted with its own dripping: it will require from an hour and three quarters to two hours roasting. Send it to table with mint sauce, brown cucumber sauce, and a salad. It to 2 hours. Ob$. - The following will be found an excellent receipt for mint sanoe: - With three heaped tablespoonsful of finely-chopped young mint, mix two of pounded and sifted sugar, and six of the best vinegar: stir it until the sugar is dissolved. ROAST LOIN OF LAMB Place it at a moderate distance from a clear fire, baste it frequently, froth it when nearly done, and serve it with the same sauces as the preceding joints. A loin of lamb may be boiled and sent to table with white cucumber, mushroom, common white sauce, or parsley and butter. 1 to 1 hour. STEVFED LEa OF LAMB WITH WHITE SAUCE. (eNTr£b.) Choose a small plump leg of lamb, not much exceeding five pounds in weight; put it mto a vessel nearly of its size, with a few trimmings or a bone or two of undressed veal if at hand; cover it with warm water, bring it sdowly to a boil, clear off the scum with great care when it is first thrown to the surface, and when it has all been flkimmed off, add a faggot of thyme and parsley, and two carrots of moderate size. Let the hunb simmer only, but without ceasing, for n hour and a quarter; serve it covered with bechamel or rich "Rnglinh white sauce, and send a boiled tongue to table with it, and 0oroe of the sauce in a tureen 1: hour. This may bo served as a remove in a amlll imceremonious dinner.

246 HODEBN COOKXBT. chap.xh.

LOIN OF LAMB STEWED IN BUTTER. (bNTr£e.) Wash the joint, and wipe it ver dry; skewer down the flap, and lay it into a close-phutting and thick stewpan or saucepan, in which three ounces of good butter have been just dissolved, but not allowed to boil; let it simmer slowly over a very gentle fire for two hours and a quarter, and turn it when it is rather more than half done. Lift it out, skim and pour the fpcsLYj over it; send asparagus, cucumber, or saubUe sauce to table with it; or brown gravy, mint sauce, and a salad. 2i hours. LAMB OR MUTTON CUTLETS, WITH SOUBISE SAUCE. (eNTr£e.) The best- end of two necks of either will be required for a handsome dish. Cut them thin with one bone to each; trim off the fat and all the skin, scrape the bones very clean that they may look white, and season the cutlets with salt and white pepper; brush them with egg, dip them into very fine bread-crumbs, tnen into clarified butter, and again into the bread-crumbs, which should be flattened evenly upon them, and broil them over a vexy clear and brisk fixe, or fry them in a little good butter of a fine clear brown; press them in two sheets of white blotting paper to extract the grease, and dish iJiem in a circle, and pour into the centre a saubise sauce, or 9 puree of cucumbers. Brown cucumber sauce or a rich gravv, may be substituted for either of these in serving a quite simple dmner. Cutlets of the loin may be dressed in the same way after being dipped into crumbsof bread mixed with a full seasoning of minced herbs, and with a small quantity of eschalot when its flavour is liked. The small flat bone at the end of the cutlets should be taken off, to give them a good appearance. LAMB CUTLETS IN THEIR OWN GRATY. Follow exact V the receipt for mutton cutlets dressed in the same way, but allow for those of lamb fifteen or twenty minutes less of tiine, and an additional spoonful of liquid. CUTLETS OF COLD LAMB. See the receipt for Cutlets of Cold Mutton, page 243.

CBAF ZnL

FOBK.

247

CHAPTER Xm.

No.

No.

1. IheSpueBIto.

4. Fore Loin.

SLBaiid.

5. Hind Loin

S.Bdl7. or Spring.

6. Leg.

In seAxm from Michaelmas to March: should be avoided in rery weather.

TO CHOOSE P09K. This meat is so pToyerbially, and we believe even dangerously unvholeaome when ill fed, or in any degree diseased, that its quality should be closely examined before it is purchased. When not homereared, it should be bought if possible of some respectable farmer or miller, unless the butcher who supplies it can be perfectly relied on. Both the fat and lean should be very white, and the latter finely grained; the rind should be thin, smooth, and cool to the touch; if It be clammy, the pork is stale, and should be at once rejected; it ought also to be scrupulously avoided when the fat, instead of being quite clear of all blemish, is full of small kernels which are indicative of disease. The manner of cutting up the pork varies in different counties, and also according to the purposes for which it is intended. The le are either made into hams, or slightly salted for a few days and boiled; they are also sometimes roasted when the pork is not large nor coarse, with a savoury forcemeat inserted between the skin

MODERN COOKEEY. chap. xxA. and flesh of the knuckle. The part of the shoulder proTincially called the hand, is also occasionally pickled in the same way as hams and bacon, or it is salted and boiled, but it is too sinewy for roasting. After these and the head have been taken off, the remainder, without further division than being split down the back, may be converted into whole sides, or flitches as they are usually called, of bacon; but when the meat is large and required in part for various other purposes, a chine may be taken out, and the fat pared off the bones o£ the ribs and loins for bacon; the thin part of the body converted into pickled pork, and the ribs and other bones roasted, or made into pies or sausages. The feet, which are generally salted down for immediate use, are excellent if laid for two or three weeks into tHe same pickle as the hams, then well covered with cold water, and slowly boiled until tender. The loins of young and delicate pork are roasted with the skin on; and this is scored in regular stripes of about a quarter of an inch wide with the point of a sharp knife, before the joints are laid to the fire. The skin of the leg also is just cut through in the same manner. This is done to prevent its blistering, and to render it more easj to carve, as the skin (or crackling) comes so crisp and hard in tbe cooking that it is otherwise sometimes difficult to divide it. To be at any time fit for table, pork must be perectlff sweet, and thoroughlv cooked; great attention also should be given to it when it is in pickle, for if any part of it be long exposed to the air, without being turned into, or well and frequently basted with the brine, it will often become tainted during the process of curing it. TO MELT LARD. Strip the skin from the inside fat of a freshly killed and well-fed pig; slice it small and thin; put it into a new or well-scalded jar, set it into a pan of boiling water, and let it simmer over a dear fire. As it dissolves, strain it into small stone jars or deep earthen p&QS, and when perfectly cold, tie over it the skin that was cleared from the lard, or bladders which have been thoroughly washed and wiped very dry. Lard thus prepared is extremely pure in flavour, and keeps perfectly well if stored in a cool place; it maybe used with advantage m making common pastry, as well as for frying fish, and for varioos other purposes. It is better to keep the last drunings of the &t apa from that which is first poured off, as it will not be quite so fine in quality. TO PRESERVE UNMELTED LARD FOR MANY MONTHS. For the particular uses to which the leaf-fat, or fleed, can be advantageously applied, see fleed-crust. Chapter XVIII. It may be kept well during the summer months by rubbmg fine salt rather plentifully upon it when it is first taken from the pig, and letting it lie for a couple of days; it should then be well dramed, and covered with t

CHAP. xni.J

PORK.

249

A SUCKING PIG.

ftron; brine; this in wanner weather should be changed occasionally. When wanted for use, lay it into cold water for two or three hours, then wipe it dry, and it will have quite the eflfect of the fresh fleed when made into paste. Inner fat of pig, 6 lbs.; fine salt, i to lb.: 2 days. Brine; to each quart of water, 6 oz. salt. TO ROAST After the pig has been scalded and prepared for the spit, wipe it as dry as possible, and put into the Dody about half a pint of fine bread-crumbs, mixed with three heaped teaspoonsful of sage, minced very small, three ounces of good butter, a large snltspoonful of salt, and two-thirds as much of pepper or some cayenne. &w it up with soil, but strong cotton; truss it as a hare, with the fore legs skewered back, and the hind ones forward; lay it to a strong clear fire, but keep it at a moderate distance, as it would quickly blister or scorch if placed too near. So soon as it has become warm, rub it with a bit of butter tied in a fold of muslin or of thin cloth, and repeat this process constantly while it is roasting. When the gravy begins to drop from it, put basins or small deep tureens under, to catch it in. As soon as the pig is of a fine light amber brown and Uie steam draws strongly towards the fire, wipe it quite dry with a dean cloth, and rub a bit of cold butter over it. When it is half done, a pig iron, or in lieu of this, a large flat iron should be hung in the centre of the grate, or the middle of the pig will be done long before the ends. When it is ready for table lay it into a very hot dish, and before the spit is withdrawn, take off and open the head and split the body in two; chop toother quickly the stuffing and the brains, put them into half a pint of good veal gravy ready thickened, fidd a glass of Madeira or of sherry, and the gravy which nas dropped from the pig; pour a small portion of this under the roast and serve the remainder as hot as possible in a tureen: a little pounded mace and cayenne with a squeeze of lemon-juice, may be added, should the flavour require heightening. Fine bread sauce, and plain gravy should likewise be served with it. Some persons still prefer the oldfiuliioned currant sauce to any other: ana many have the brains and staffing stirred into rich melted butter, instead of gravy; but the receipt which we have ven has usually been so much approved, that we can recommend it with some confidence, as it stands. Modem taste would perhaps be rather in favour of rich brown gravy and thick tomata sauce, or sauce poivrade. • A deep oblong dish of suitable size seems better adapted to this purpose.

250 MODEBN COOKERY. chat. xm. In dishing the pig lay the body fiat in the middle, and the head and ears at the ends and sides. When very pore oil can be obtained it is preferable to butter for the basting: it snould be laid on with a buncn of feathers A pig of three weeks old is considered as best suited to the table, and it should always be dressed if possible the day it is killed. li to If hour. BAKED PIG. Prepare thepi exactly as for roasting; truss, and place it in the dish in which it is to be sent to the oven, and anoint it thickly in every part with white of egg which has been slightly beaten; it will require no basting, nor fuither attention of any kind, and will be well •crisped by this process. PIG A LA TARTARS When the shoulders of a cold roast pig are left entire, take them off with care, remove the skin, trim them into good form, dip them into clarified butter or very pure salad oil, then into fine crumbs highly seasoned with cayenne and mixed with about a half-teaspoonful of salt Broil them over a clear brisk fire, and send tiiem quiddy to table, as soon as they are heated through and equally browned, with tomata sauce, or sauce Robert, Curried crumbs and a currie-sauoe will give an excellent variety of this dish; and savoury herbs with two or three eschalots chopped small together, and mixed with the bread-crumbs, and brown eschalot sauce to accompany the broil, will likewise be an acceptable one to many tastes. SUCKING PIG EN BLANQUETTB. (ENTREE.) Raise the flesh from the bones of a cold roast pig, free it from the crisp outer skin or crackling, and cut it down mto small handsome slices. Dissolve a bit of butter the size of an egg, and throw in a handful of button-mushrooms, cleaned and sliced; shake these over the fire for three or four minutes, then stir to them a dessertspoonful of flour and continue to shake or toss them gently, but do not allow them to brown. Add a small bunch of parsley, a bay-lea a middling-sized blade of mace, some salt, a small quantity of cayenne r white pepper, half a pint of good veal or beef broth, and from two to three glasses of light white wine. Let these boil gently until reduced nearly one third; take out the parsley and mace, -lay in the meat, and bring it slowly to the point of simmering; stir to it the beaten yolks of three fresh eggs, and the strained juice of half a lemon Serve the bianquette y&ry hot

CHAP, xni. PORK. 251

TO BOAST PORK. When the skin is left on the joint which is to be roasted, it must be scored in narrow strips of equal width, before it is put to the fire, and laid at a considerable distance from it at first, that the meat may be heated through before the skin hardens or begins to brown; it must never stand still for an instant, and the iMisting should be constant. Fork is not at the present day much served at very good tables, particularly in this form; and it is so still less with the old savoury stuffing of sage and onions, though some eaters like it always with the leg: when it is ordered for this joint, therefore, prepare it as directed for a goose, at page 160, and after having loosened the skin from the knuckle, insert as much as can well be secured in it A little clarified butter or salad oil may be brushed over the skin quite at first, particularly should the meat not be very fat, but unless remarkably lean, it will speedily yield sufficient dripping to baste it with. Joints from which the fat has been par will require of course far less roasting than those on which the crackling is retained. Brown ffravy, and apple or tomata sauce, are the usual accompaniments to all roasts of porlc except a sucking pig ther should alwavs be thoroughly cooked. Leg of pork of 8 lbs., 3 hours; loin of from 5 to 6 lbs., with the kiii on, 2 to 2i hours; spare rib of 6 to 7 lbs., 1 hour. TO ROAST A SADDLE OF PORK. The skin of this joint may be removed entirely, but if left on it must be scored lengthwise, or in the direction in which it will be carved. The pork should be young, of fine quality, and of moderate size. Boast it very carefully, either by the directions given in the precedimr receipt, or when the skin is taken off, by those for a saddle of mutton, allowing in the latter case from three quarters of an hour to a full hour more of the fire for it in proportion to its weight. Serve it with ffood brown gravy and tomata sauce, or sauce Robert; or with apple sauce should it be preferred. 20 minutes to the pound, quite TO BROIL OR FRY PORK CUTLETS. Cut them about half an inch thick from a delicate loin of pork, trim ihem into neat form, and take off part of the fat, or the whole of it when it is not liked; dredge a little pepper or cayenne upon them, and broil them over a clear and moderate fire from fifteen to eighteen minutes: sprinkle a little fine salt upon them just before they are dished. They maj be dipped into g and then into brndcrumb8 mixed with minced sage, and finished in the usual

252 MODERN COOKERY. cHAP.Xin way. AVhen fried, flour them well, and season them vdth salt and pepper first. Serve them with gravy in the pan, or with sauce Bobert. cobbett's receipt for curinq bacon. " All other parts being taken away, the two sides tliat remain, and which are csHlGd flitches, are to be cured for bacon. They are fintt rubbed with salt on their inside, or flesh sides, then placed one on the other, the flesh sides uppermost in a salting trough, which has a gutter round its edges to drain away the brine; for to have sweet and fine bacon, the flitches must not be sopping in brine, which gives it the sort of taste that barrel-pork and sea-junk have, and than which is nothing more villanous. Everyone knows how different is the taste of fresh dry salt from that of salt in a dissolved state. Therefore, cliange the salt often; once in four or five days. Let it melt and sink in, but let it not lie too long. Change the flitehes, put that at the bottom which was first on the top. Do this a couple of times. This mode will cost you a great deal more in salt than the sopping mode; but vrithout it your bacon will not be bo sweet and fine, nor keep so well. As to the time required for making the flitches sufficiently salt, it depends on circumstances; the thickness of the flitch, the state of the weather, the place wherein the salting is going on. It takes a longer time for a thick than for a thin flitch; it takes longer in dry than in damp weather, it tidces longer in a dry than in a damp place. But for the flitches of a hog of five score, in weather not very dry or verj damp, about six weel may do; and as yours is to be faty which receives little injury from over-salting, give time enough; for you are to have bacon till Christmas comes again. The place for salting should, like a dairy, always be cool, but always admit of a free circulation of air; confined air, though cool, will taint meat sooner than the midday sun accompanied vrith a breeze. With regard to smoking the bacon, two precautions are necessary: first to hang the flitches where no ram comes down upon them, and next, that the smoke must proceed from wood, not peat, turf, nor coal. As to the time that it requires to smoke a flitch, it must depend a ood deal upon whether there be a constant fire beneath, and whetner the fire be large or small. A month will do if the fire be pretty constant, and such as a farm house fire usually is. But oversmoKing, or rather, too long hanging in the air, makes the bacon rust. Great attention should, therefore, be paid to this matter. The flitch ought not to be dried up to the hardness of a board, and yet it ought to be perfectly dry. llefore you hang it up, lay it on the floor, scatter the flesh-skle pretty thickly over with bran or vrith some fine .saw-dust, not of deal or fir. Hub it on the flesh, or pat it well down upon it This • If broiled, with the addition of these a little darifled butter most be added 10 the egg, or sprinkled on the cutlets.

CHAP, xui. POBK. 253 keeps the smoke from getting into the little openings, and makes a sort of crust to be dried on. To keep the bacon sweet and good, and free from hoppers, sift fine some clean and dry toood'oshes. Put some at the bottom of a box or chest long enough to hold a flitch of bacon. Lay in one flitch; and then put in more ashes, then another flitch, and cover this with six or eight inches of the ashes. The place where the box or chest is kept ought to be drty and should the ashes become damp they should be put in the fire-place to dry, and when cold, put back again. Witn these precautions the bacon will be as good at the end of the year as on the first day. Obs. - Although the preceding directions for curing the bacon are a little yague as regards the proportions of salt and pork, we think those for its after-management will be acceptable to many of our readers, as in our damp dimate it is often a matter of great difficulty to preserve hams and bacon through the year from rust. A GENUINE YORKflHIUB EECEIPT FOR CURING HAMS AND BACON. • Let the swine be put up to fast for twenty-four hours before hey are killed (and observe that neither a time of severe frost, nor very damp weather, is favourable for curing bacon). After a pig has been killed and scalded, let it hang twelve hours before it is cut up, then for every stone or fourteen pounds weight of the meat, take one pound of salt, an ounce and a quarter of saltpetre, and half an ounce of coarse sugar. Rub the sugar and saltpetre first into the fleshy parts of the pork, and remove carefully with a fork any €xtravasated blood that may appear on it, together with the broken vessels adjoining; apply the salt especially to those parts, as well as to the shank-ends of the hams, and any other portions of the flesh that are more particularly exposed. Before the salt is added to the meat, warm it a little bemre the fire, and use only a part of it in the first instance; then, as it dissolves, or is absorbed by the meat, add the remainder at several difierent times. Let the meat in the mean while lie either on clean straw, or on a cold brick or stone floor: it will require from a fortnight to three weeks curing, according to the state ofthe atmosphere. When done, hang it in a cool dry place, where there is a thorough current of air, and let it remain there untO it is perfectly dry, when the salt will be found to have crystallized upon the surface. The meat may then be removed to your store, and kept in a dose chest, surroimded with clean outer straw. If very large, the hams will not be in perfection in less than twelve months from the time of their being stored.' Pork, 20 stone; salt, 20 lbs.; saltpetre, 20 oz.; sugar, 10 oz. • 14 to 21 days.

254 HODEBN COOKERT. cBAr. xin

KENTISH MODE OF CUTTING UP AND CURING A PIG. To a porker of sixteen stone Kentish weight (that is to say, eight pounds to the stone, or nine stone two pounds of conunon weight), allow two gallons of salt, two pounds of saltpetre, one pound oi coarse sugar, and two pounds of oay-salt well dried and reduced to powder. Put aside the hams and cheeks to he cured hy themsel; let the feet, ears, tail, and eye-parts of the head be salted • r immediate eating; the blade-bones, and ends of the loins and ribs reserved for sausage-meat should it be wanted, and the loin and spare-ribs for roasting. Divide and salt the remainder thus: Mix well together the saltpetre, sugar, and bay-salt, and rub the pork gently with them in every part; cover the bottom of the pickling tub with salt, and jMck in the pork as closely as possible, with a portion of the remaining salt between each layer. A very little water is sometimes sprinkled in to facilitate the dissolving of the salt into a brine, but this is always better avoided, and in dfunp weather will not be needed. Kin a £ rtnight it should not have risen, so as almost entirely to cover the meat, boil a strong brine of salt, saltpetre, sugar, and bay-salt; let it remain until perfectly cold, and then ur it over the pork. A board, with a heavy stone weight ujx)n it, should be kept upon the meat to force it down under the brine. In from three to four months it will be fit for table, and will be delicate and excellent pickled pork. The pickling parts of a porker of sixteen stone (Kentish weight, or nine stone two pounds of common weight, or fourteen pounds to the stone); common salt, 2 gallons; saltpetre, 2 lbs.; coarse sugar, 1 lb.: bay-salt, 2 lbs. FRENCH BACON FOR LARDING. Cut the bacon from the pig with as little lean to it as possible. Rub it well in every part with salt which has been dried, reduced to powder, and sifted; put the layers of bacon close against and upon each other, in a shallow wooden trough, and set in a cool, but not a damp cellar; add more salt all round the' bacon, and lay a board, with a very heavy weight upon it. Let it remain for six weeks, dien hang it up in a dry and airy place. Fork, 14 lbs.; adt, 14 oz.: 6 weeks. TO PICKLE CH£EE:S OF BACON AND HAMS. One pound of common salt, one pound of the coarsest sugar, and one ounce of saltpetre, in fine powder, to each stone (fourteen pounds) of the meat will answer this purpose extremely well. An ounce of black pepper can be added, if liked, and when less sugar is preferred, the proportion can be diminished one half, and the quaU'

CHAF. xm. POBK. 255 titj of salt as mucb increased. Bacon also may be cured by this receipt, or by the Bordyke one for hams. A month is sufficient time for the sicdting, unless thepork be very large, when five weeka must be allowed for a ham. The ingredients should be well mixed, and all applied at the same time. To eacn 14 lbs. of pork, salt, 1 lb.; coarse sugar, 1 lb.; saltpetre 1 oz.; pepper (if used), 1 oz.: 4 to 5 weeks. aiONSIBUB UDS'S RECEIPT, HAMS SUPERIOR TO WESTPHALIA. (JExceUeni.') Take the hams as soon as the pig is sufficiently cold to be cut up, rub them well with common salt, and leave them for three days to drain; throw away the biine, . and for a couple of hams of from fifteen to eighteen pounds weight, mix together two ounces of saltpetre, a pound of coarse sugar, and a pouna of common salt; rub the hams in every part with these, lay them into deep picklingpans with the rind downwards, and keep them for three days well covered with the salt and sugar; then pour over them a bottle of good vinegar, and turn them in the brine, and baste them with it daily for a month; drain them well, rub them with bran, and let them be hung for a month high in a chimney over a wood-fire to be smoked. Hams, of from 15 to 18 lbs. each, 2; to drain 3 days. Common salt, and coarse sugar, each 1 lb.; saltpetre, 2 oz. 3 days. Vinegar,. 1 bottle: 1 month. To be smoked 1 month. Obs. - Such of our readers as shall make trial of this admirable receipt, will acknowledge, we doubt not, that the hams thus cured are in reality superior to those of Westphalia. It was originnlly S'ven to the public by the celebrated French cook. Monsieur Ude. e directs that the hams when smoked should be hung as high as possible from the fire, that the fat may not be melted; a veiy necessary precaution, as the mode of their being cured renders it peculiarly liable to do so. This, indeed, is somewhat perceptible in the cookmg, which ought, therefore, to be conducted with especial care. The hams should be very softly simmered, and not overdone. They should be large, and of finely-fed pork, or the receipt will not answer. We give the result of our first trial of it, which was perfectly successful, the ham cured by it being of the finest possible flavour. L of Suffolk farm-nouse pork, 14 to 15 lbs.; saltpetre, IJ oz.; strong coarse salt, 6 oz.; coarse sugar, 8 oz.: 3 days. Fine whitewine vinegar, 1 pint. In pickle, turned daily, 1 month. Smoked over wood, 1 month. Obs. - When two hams are pickled together, a smaller proportion We have not had the trial made ourselyes, but we think they would be eyeo ftoer baked than boiled.

256 MODERN COOKE a Y. chap, xui, of the ingredients is required for each, than for one which is cured by itself. SUPER-EXCELLENT BACON. For seyeral successive years, after first testing the above receipt, we had it adopted for curing bacon, with even more highly satisfactory results, as it was of incomparable flavour, and remained ffood for a great length of time, the vmesar preserving it entirely from becommg rusted. Well-fed pork of delicate size was always used for it, and excellent vinegar. The ingredients were added in the proportions given in the receipt for the Suffolk ham whidi preceeds this, and the same time was allowed for the salting and smokmg HAMS. Bordyhe Receipt.) After the hams have been rubbed with salt, and well drained from the brine, according to our previous directions, take, for each fourteen pounds weight of the pork, one ounce of saltpetre in fine powder mixed with three ounces of very brown sugar; rub the meat in every part with these, and let it remain some hours, then cover it well with eight ounces of bay-salt, dried and pounded, and mixed with four ounces of common salt: in four davs add one pound of treacle, and keep the hams turned daily, and well basted with the pickle for a month. Hang them up to drain for a night, fold them m brown paper, and send them to be smoked for a month. An ounce of ground black pepper is often mixed with the saltpetre in this receipt, and three ounces of bruised juniper- berries are rubbed oh to the meat before the salt is added, when hams of a very high flavour are desired. Ham, 14 lbs.; saltpetre, 1 oz.; coarse sugar, 3 oz.: 8 to 12 hours Bay-salt, lb.; common salt, 4 oz.: 4 days. Treacle, 1 lb.: 1 month. To heighten flavour, black pepper, 1 oz.; juniper-berries;, doz. TO BOIL A HAH. The degree of soaking which must be given to a ham before it is boiled, must depend both on the manner in which it has been cured, and on its age. If highly salted, hard, and old, a dav and night, or even longer, may be requisite to dilate the pores sufficiently, and to extract a portion of the salt. To do either effectually the water must be several times changed during the steeping We genenillv find hams cured by any of the receipts which we have given in this chapter quite enough soaked in twelve hours; and they are more frequently laid into water only early in the morning of the day on which they are boiled. Those pickled by Monsieur Ude's receipt need much less steeping than any others. After the ham has beea

CHAP, xm. PORK. 257 scraped, or brushed, as clean as possible, pare away lightly anv part which, firom being blacJcened cr rusty, would dimgnre it; though it is better not to cut the flesh at all unless it be really requisite lor the good appearance of the joint. Lay it into a ham-kettle, or into any other vessel of a similar form, and cover it plentifully with cold water; bring it very slowly to boU, and clear on carefully the scum which will 1 thrown up in great abundance. So soon as the water has been cleared from this, cSaw back the pan quite to the edge of the stove, that the ham may be simmered softly out steadily, until it is tender. On no account allow it to boil fast. A bunch of herbs and three or four carrots, thrown in directly ailer the water has been skimmed, will improve it When it can be probed very easily with a sharp skewer, or larding-pin, lift it out, strip off the skin, and should there be an oven at hand, set it in for a few minutes after having laid it on a drainer; strew fine raspings over it, or grate a hard-toasted crust, or sift upon it the prefMured bread of Chapter Y., unless it is to be glazed, wnen neither of these must be used. Small ham, 3) to 4 hours; moderate sized, 4 to 4 hours; very large, 5 to 5 hours. Ohs. - We have seen the following manner of boiling a ham recommended, but we have not tried it: - ' Put into the water in which it is to be boiled, a quart of old cider and a pint of vinegar, a large bunch of sweet herbs, and a bay leaf. When it is two- thirds done, skin, cover it with raspings, and set it in an oven imtil it is done enough: it will prove incomparably superior to a ham boiled in the usual way. TO QABNISH AND ORNAMENT HAMS IN YARIOUS WAYS. When a ham has been carefully and delicately boiled, the rind while it is still warm, may be carved in various fanciful shapes to decorate it; and a portion of it left round the knuckle in a semicircular form of four or five inches deep, may at all times be easily 8Collopped at the edge or cut into points wmdykes). This, while preserving a character of complete simplicity for the dish, will eive it an air of neatness and finish at a slight cost of time and trouble. A paper frill should be placed round the bone. The Germans cut the ham-rind after it has been stripped from the joint, into small leaves and similar " prettinesses, and arrange them in a garland, or other approved device, upon its suiface. In Ireland and elsewhere, bread evenly sliced, and stamped out with cutters mach smaller than a fourpenny-piece, then carefully fried or coloured in the oven, is used to form designs upon hams after they are glazed. Lare dice of clear firm savoury jelly form their most eppropriate garnish, because they are intended to be eaten toith thetn, • This ihotild be done with a confectionary or paste eatter. S

258 MODEBN COOKEBT. coAP. xm. For the maimer of makiiig this, and glase also, see Chapter jy. The ham shown in Plate Y., which follows the directions for Carving, is of yery good appearance; but in common KngliRh Mtchens generally, eren the degree of artistic skill required to n rm its decorations well, is not often to be met with. FRENCH RBCEIFT FOB BOILXNG A HAM. After having soaked, thoroughly cleaned, and trimmed the ham, put over it a little very sweet clean hay, and tie it up in a thin cloth; place it in a ham Kettle, a braiang jnn, or any other vessel as nearly of its size as can be, and cover it with two parts of cold vrater and one of light white wine (we think the reader will perhaps find cider a good substitute for this); add, when it boils and has heea skimmeC four or five cairots, two or three onions, a large bunch of savoury herbs, and the smallest bit of garlic Let the whole suimer eently from four to five hours, or longer should the ham be veiy large. When perfectly tender, lift it out, take off the nnd, and sprmkle over it some fine crumbs, or some raspings of bread mixed with a little finely minced parsley. Obi. - Foreign cooks generally leaye hams, braised joints, and various other prepared meats intended to be served cold, to cool down partially in the liquor in whioh they are cooked; and this renders them more succulent; but for snuiU Irugal £BuniIies the plan does not altogether answer, because the moisture of the sur&ee (which would evaporate quickly if they were taken out ouite hot) prevents their keeping well for any length of time. The samo objection exists to serving hams laid upon, or closely garnished with savoury jeUy (aspic) wnich becomes much more quiddy unfit for table than the hams themselves. These considerations, which may appear insignificant to some of our readers, will have weight with those who are compelled to r;ulate their expenses with economy. TO BAKE A HAM. Unless when too salt firom not being sufficiently soaked, a ham (particularly a young and Iresh one) eats much better baked than boiled, and remains longer good. The safer plan to ensure its bemg sufficiently steeped, is to la it into plenty of cold water over night. The following day soak it for an hour or more in warm water, waah. it delicately dean, trim smoothly off all rusty parts, and lay it with the rind downwards into a laige common pie-dish; press an oiled paper closely over it, and then fasten secmnely to the edge of the disn a thick cover of coarse paste; and send the ham to a moderate oven, of which the heat will be well sustained until it is baked. Or, when more convenient, lay the ham at once- rind downwaidaHNa

GRAF. xulJ TOBKc 259 the paste, of which sufficient should he made, and rolled off to an inch in ckness, to completely envelope it Press a sheet of oiled Mlscap paper upon it; gather up the paste firmly all round, draw and pinch tne eds togewer, and fold them over on the upper side of the ham, taking care to dose them so that no grayy can escape Send it to a well-heated, hut not a fierce oven. A very small ham will require quite three hours baking, and a large one five. The erust and the skin must be remoyed while it is hot When part only of a ham is dressed, this mode is better fiur than bdling it. TO BOIL BACON. When yery highly salted and dried, it should be soaked for an hour before it is dressed. Scrape and wash it well, coyer it plentifully with cold water, let it both heat and boil slowly, remoye all the scum with care, and when a fork or skewer will penetrate the bacon eaalj lift it out, strip off the skin, and strew raspings of bread oyer the top, or grate upon it a hard crust which has bn toasted until it is crisp quite through; or should it be at hand, use for the purpose the bread recommended at page 103, then diy it a little oefore the fire, or set it for a few minutes into a gentle oyen. Bacon requires long boiling, but the precise time depends upon its quality, the flesh of young porkers becoming tender much sooner than that of older ones; sometimes too, the manner in which the animal has been i renders the meat hard, and it will then, unless thoroughly cooked, proye very indigestible. From ten to fifteen minutes less for the pound, must be allowed for unsmoked bacon, or for pickled pork. Smoked bacon (striped), 2 lbs., from li to 1 hour; unsmoked bacon or pork, 1 to li hour. Obi. - The thickest part of a large side or flitch of bacon will req uire from twenty to tnirty minutes longer boiling than the thinner aide. BAOON BROILBD Oil FRIED. Cut it eyenly in thin slices or rashers as they are generally called, pare from them all rind and rust, curl Ihem round, fisten them with small slight skewers, then fry, broil, or toast them in a Dutch oyen; draw out the skewers before they are sent to table. A few minutes will dress them either vray. They may also be cooked without being curled. The rind should always be taken off, and the bacon gently toasted, grilled, or fried, that it may be well done without h&ng too much dried or hardened: it should be cut thin, DRESSED BASHERS OF BACON. Slice rather thicker than for fiyinff some cold boiled bacon, and strew it lightly on both sides wiw fine raspuigs of bread, or with

260 HODEBN COOKERY. cHAP.xm. a grated emst which has been very slowly and gradually touted until brown quit through. Toast or warm the rashers in a Dutch oven, and serve them with veal cutlets, or any other delicate meat The bacon thus dressed is much more delicate than when broiled or firied without the previous boiling. 4 to 5 minutes. TONBRIDGE BRAWN. Split open the head of a pig of middling size, remove the brain and all the bones, strew the mside rather thickly with fine salt, and let it drain until the following day. Cleanse the ears and feet in the same manner: wipe them all from the brine, lay them into a large pan, and rub them well with an ounce and a half of saltpetre rriixed with six ounces of sugar; in twelve hours, add six ounces of salt; the next day pour a quarter of a pint of good vinegar over them, and keep them turned in the pickle every twenty-four hours for a week; then wash it off the ears and feet, and boil them for about an hour and a half; bone the feet while they are warm, and trim the gristle fh m the large ends of the ears. When these are ready, mix a large grated nutmeg with a teaspoonM and a half of maoe, half a teaspoomnl of cayenne, and as much of cloves. Wash, but do not soak the head; wipe and flatten it on a board; cut some of the flesh from the thickest parts, and when the whole of the meat has been seasoned equally with the spices) lay it on the thinnest; intermix it with that of the ears and feet, roll it up very tight, and bind it firmly with broad tape; fold a thin pudding-cloth quite closely round it, and tie it securely at both ends. A braising-pan, from its form, is best adapted for boiling it, but if there be not one at hand, place the head in a vessel adaptal to its size, with the bones and trimnungs of the feet and ears, a laive bunch of savoury herbs, two moderate-sized onions, a small head of celery, three or four carrots, a teaspoonfnl of peppercorns, and sufficient cold water to cover it well; boil it very Dtlv for four hours, and leave it until two parts cold in the liquor m which it was boiled. Take off the cloth, and put the brawn between two dishes or trenchers, with a heavy weight on the upper one. The next dav take off the fillets of tape, and serve the head whole or sliced with the brawn sauce of Chapter YL ITALIAN PORK CHEESE. Chop, not very fine, one pound of lean pork with two pounds of the inside fat; strew over, and mix thoroughly with them three teaspoonsful of salt, nearly half as much pepper, a half-tablesnoonfiil of mixed parsley, thyme, and sage (and sweet-basil, if it can be procured), all minced extremely small. Press the meat closely and evenly into a shallow tin, - such as are used for Yorkshire puadings will answer well, - and bake it in a very gentle oven from an hour to aa hour and a half: it is served cold m slices. Should the pro-

CHAP, xm. PORK. 261 portion of fiit be considered too much, it can be diminisbed on a second trial. Minced mnsbrooms or tmffles may be added with very good effect to all meat-cakes, or compositions or this kind. Lean of pork, 1 lb.; fat, 2 lbs.; salt, 3 teaspoonsful; pepper, 1 J teaspoonful; mace, teaspoonihl; nutmeg, 1 small; mixed nerbs, 1 laige tablespoonfol: 1 to 1) hour. SAUSAGE-MEAT CAKBf OR, PAIK DE POBC FRAIS. Season yerp highly firom two to three pounds of good sausagemeat, both with spices and with sage, or vrith thyme and parsley, if these be preferred; press the mixture into a pan, and proceed exactly as for the veal-cake of Chapter XL A few minced eschalots can be mixed with the meat for those who like their flavour. SAUSAGES. Common farm-house sausages are made with nearly equal parts of fat and lean pork, coarsely chopped, and seasoned with salt and pepper only. They are put into skins (which have previously been turned inside out, scraped very thin, washed with extreme nicefy, and wiped very dry), then twisted into links, and should be hung in a cool airy larder, when they will remain good for some time. Odd scraps and trimmings of pork are usually taken for sausage-meat when the pig is killed and cut up at home; but the chine and blade-bone are preferred in general for the purpose. The pork rinds, as we have already stated, will make a strong and almost flavourless jelly, which may be used with excellent effect for stock, and which, with the addition of some pork-bones plenty of vegetables, and some dried peas, will make a very nutritious soup for those who do not object to the pork-flavour which the bones will give. Half an ounce of salt, and nearly or quite a ouarter of an ounce of pepper wiU sufficiently leason each pound of tne saussge-meat KENTISH SAUSAGE-MEAT. To three pounds of lean pork, add two of fat, and let both be taken clear of skin. As sausages are lighter, though not so delicate, when the meat is somewhat coarsely chopped, this difference should be attended to in making them. When the fkt and lean are partially mixed, strew over them two oimces and a half of dry salt, beaten to powder, and mixed with one ounce of ground black pepper, and three urge tablespoonsful of sage, very finely minced. Turn the meat with the chopping-knife, until the ingredients are well blended. Test it before it is iSken off the block, by fr3ring a small portion, that if more seasoning be desired, it may at once be added. A fUll-sized nutmeg, • Bee Soupe det Gallet, Chspier i.

232 HODEBN COOKERY. chap. zm. and a email dessertepoonsfdl of pounded mace, wonld, to many tastes, improve it. This sausage-meat is usuaUvformed into cakes, which, after heing well floured, are roasted in a JDutch oven. They must be watched, and often turned, that no port may be scorched. The meat may also be put into skins, and dressed in any other way. Lean of pork, 8 lbs.; iat, 2 lbs.; salt, 2j oz.; pepper, 1 oz, i minced sage, 8 large tablespooxisful. EXCELLENT SAUSAGES. 7, and then together, one pound and a quarter iy free m m fat, skin, and sinew, with an equal weight of lean pork, and of the inside fat of the pig. Mix well, and strew over the meat an ounce and a quarter of salt, half an ounce of pepper, one nutm grated, and a la$ve teaspoonful of pounded mace Turn, and chop the sausages until tney are equally seasoned throughout, and tolerably fine; press them into a clean pan, and keep them in a very cool place. Form them, when wanted for table, into cakes something less than an inch thick; and flour and fey them then for about ten minutes in a little butter, or roast them in a Dutch or American oven. Lean of veal and pork, of each 1 lb. 4 oz.; fat of pork, 1 lb. 4 oz.; salt, li oz.; pepper, ) oz.; nutmeg, 1; mace, 1 Icae teaspoonful: fried in cakes, 10 minutes. POUNDED SAUSAGE-HEAT. Very good,) Take firom the best end of a neck of veal, or from the fillet or loin, a couple or more pounds of flesh without any intermixture of fat or skin; cho it small, and pound it thoroughly in a large mortar, with half its weight of the inside, or leaf-fat, of a pig; proportion salt and spice to it by the preceding receipt, form it mto cakes, and fry it as above. BOILED SAUSAGES. (ENTRiB.) In Lincolnshire, sausages are fiuently boiled in the skins, and served upon a toast, as a comer dish. They should be put into boiling water, and simmered from seven to ten minutes, acc(iiig t tiieir size. SAUSAGES AND CHESTNUTS. (ENTBis.) An excellent dish. (French.) Roast, and take the husk and skin from forty fine Spanish chestnuts; fry gently, in a morsel of butter, six small flat oval cakes of fine sau8ae;e-meat, and when they are well browned, lift them out and pour mto a saucepan, which should be bright in the inmde, the greater part of the fat in which they have been fried; mizwidiitft

aup zm. FORK. 963 lance teaspoonful of flour, and stir these over the Are 131 they are weU and equally browned; then pour in by degrees nearly half a pint of strong beef or veal broth, or grayy, and two glasses of good white wine; add a smaU bunch of sayouiy herbs, and as much salt snd pepper, or cayenne, as will season the whole properly; give it a boil, lay in the sausages round the pan, and the cnestnuts in he centre; stew them very softly for nearly an hour; take out the herbs, dish the sausages neatly, and heap tne chestnuts in the centre, strain the sauce over them and serve them very hot There should be no sage mixed with the pork to dress thus. Chestnuts roasted, 40; sausages, 6; gravy, nearly pint; sheny 'sr Madeira, 2 wineglassesful: stewed toother from 50 to 60 miiAtes. TRUFFLED BAU6AOE8. Saucisses aux Tniffet.) With two pounds of the lean of young tender pork, mix one ponnd of fat, a quarter of a pound of truffles, minced very small, an ounce and a half of salt, a seasoning of cayenne, or quite half an ounce of white pepper, a nutmeg, a teaspooidiu of freshly pounded maoe, and a dessertopoonful or more of savoury herbs oried and reduced to powder. Test a morsel of the mixture; heighten any of the seasonings to the taste; and put the meat into deficatel clean skins: if it be for immediate use, and the addition is liked, moisten it, before it is dressed, with one or two glassesfhl of Maddra. The substitution of a dove of garlic for the truffles, will convert these into Saudues a t ASL or garlic sausagea.

284

MODEBN COOKERY.

chap, xit

CHAPTER XIV.

TO CHOOSE POULTRY. Youno, pltunp, -well-fed, but not over-fatted poultxy Is the bestThe skin of fowls and turkeys should be clear, white, and finely grained, the breasts broad and full-fleshed, the legs smooth, the toei pliable and easily broken when bent back; the bunls should also be heavy in proportion to their size. This applies equally to geese and ducks, of which the breasts likewise shomd be very plum, and the feet yellow and flexible: when these are red and hard, the bills of the same colour, and the skin full of hairs, and extremely coarse, the birds are old. White-legged fowls and chickens should be chosen for boiHpg, because theur appearance is the most delicate when dressed; but the dark-legged ones often prove more juicy and of better flavour when roasted, and their colour then is immaterial. Every precaution should be taken to prevent poultry from becoming ever so slightly tainted before it is cooked, but unless thm weather be exceedingly sultry, it should not be quite freshly killed

CHAP- HV. POULTRY. 265 pigeons only are the better for being bo, and are thought to lose their flATOur by hanging even a day or two. Turkeys, as -we have stated in our receipts for them, are yery tough and poor eating if not suffidentljr long kept. A goose, also, in winter, should hang some days before it is dressed, and fowls, likewise, vrill be improyed by it. AU kinds of poultry should be thoroughly cooked thoueb without being oyerdone, for nothing in general can more effectually destroy the appetite than the taste and appearance of their flesh when brought to table half roasted or boiled TO BONE A FOWL OR TURKEY "WITHOUT OPENING IT. After the fowl has been drawn and singed, wipe it inside and out with a clean cloth, but do not wash it. Take off the head, cut through the skin all round the first joint of the legs, and pull them from the fowl, to draw out the large tendons. Baise the flesh first from the lower part of the back-bone, and a little also from the end of the breast-bone, if necessary; work the knife gradually to the socket of the thigh; with the point of the knife detauch the joint from it, take the end of the bone firaily in the fineers, and cut the flesh dean from it down to the next ioint, round which pass the point of the knife carefully, and when the skin is loosened from it in every part, cut round the next bone, keeping the edge of the knife close to It, until the whole of the leg is done. Remove the bones of the other leg in the same manner; then detach the flesh from the back and breast-bone sufficiently to enable you to reach the upper joints of the wings; proceed with Uiese as with the legs, but be especially cardiil not to pierce the skin of the second joint . it is usual to leave the pinions imboned, in order togive more easily its natural form to the fowl when it is dressed. The merrythought and neck-bones may now easily be cut away, the back and side-bones taken out without bein divided, and the breast-bone separated carefully from the flesh (which, as the work progresses, must be turned back from the bones upon the fowl, until it is completely inside out). After the one remaining bone is removed, draw the wings and legs back to their proper form, and turn the fowl right side outwards. A turkey is boned exactly in the same manner, but as it requires a yery large proportion of forcemeat to fill it entirely, the legs and wings are sometimes drawn into the body, to diminish the expense of this. If very securely trussed, and sewn, the bird may be either b(ed, or stewed in rich gravy, as well as roasted, after being boned and forced; but it must be most gently cooled, or it may burst. ANOTHER HODB OP BONING A FOWL OR TURKEY. Cut throiuh the skin down the centre of the back, and raise the flesh carefulfy on either side with the point of a sharp knife, until the sockets of the wings and thighs are reached. Till a uttle practice has

266 MODERN COOKEBT. chap. xi. been gained, it will perhaps be better to bone these joints before nrooeeding fturther; but after they are onoe detached from it, the wliole of the body may easily be separated from the flesh and taken oat entire: only the neck-bones and merrythought will then remain to be remoyed. The bird thus prepared may either be restored to its original form, by filling the legs and wings with forcemeat, and the body with the liyers of two or three fowls mixed with alternate layen of parboiled tongue freed from the rind, fine sausaoe meat, or yeal forcemeat, or thm slices of the nicest bacon, or aught else of good flayour, which will giye a marbled appearance to the fowl when it is caryed; and then be sewn up and trussed as usual; or the legs and wings may be drawn inside the body, and the bird being first flattened on a table may be coyered with sausage meat, and the yarious other ingredients we haye named, so placed that it shall be of eanal thickness in eyery part; then tiffhtly rolled, bound fijrmly toffetner with a fillet of broad tape, wrapped in a thin pudding-doui, closely tied at both ends, and dressed as follows:- Put it into a braisingpan, stewpan, or thidc iron saucepan, bright in the inside, and fitted as nearly as may be to its size; add all the chicken bones, a bunch of sweet herbs, two carrots, two bay-leayes, a large blade of mace, twenty-four white peppercorns, and any trimmings or bones of undressed yeal which may be at hand; coyer the whole with sood yeal-broth, add salt, if needed, and stew it yery softly, from an hour and a quarter to an hour and a half; let it cool in the liquor in which it was stewed; and after it is lifted out, boil down the ffrayy to a jell3r and strain it; let it become cold, clear off the fat, and senre it cut into huve dice or Toughed, and laid round the fowl, which is to be seryed cold. If restored to its form, instead of being rolled, it must be stewed gently for an hour, and may then be sent to table hot, coyered with mushroom, or any other good sauce that may be preferred; or it may be left until the following day, and seryed garnished with the jelly, which should be firm, and yeiy clear and well-flayoured; the liquor in which a calTs foot has been boiled down, added to the broth, will giye it the necessary degree of consistence. French cooks add three or four onions to these preparations of poultry (the last of which is called a galantine); but these our own taste would lead us to reject. Rolled, U to li hour; galantine, 1 hour. Odf .- A couple of fowls, boned and rolled, make an excellent pie. TO BONE FOWLS FOR FRIOASSEESy OURKEBS, AKD PIBS. • First canre them entirely into joints, then remoye the bones, beginning with the legs and winfi;B,at the head of the laigest bone; hold Uiis with the fingers, and work the knifb as directed in the reoeipl aboye. Theremainder of the birds is too easily done to require any instructions.

CHAP. XI7.

POITLTBY.

267

TO BOAST A TURKEY. InYery cold weather a turkey in its feathers will hang (in an airy larder) quite a fortnight with adTantage; and, however fine a . quali of bird it may be, unless sufficiently Ions ke)t, it will prove not worth the dressing, though it should always be perfecdy sweet when prepwred for table. Pluck, Turkey for roasting. draw, and singe it with exceeding care; wash, and then dry it thoroughly with clean cloths, or merely wipe the outside well, without werang it, and pour water plentifully tnrough the inside. Fill the breast with forcemeat (No. 1, Chapter YIU.)) or with the finest sausage meat, luffhly seasoned with minced herbs, lemon-rind, mace,, and cayenne. Truss the bird firmly, lay it to a clear sound fire, baste it constantly and bountifully with butter, and serve it when done with good brown gravy, and well-made bread sauce. An entire chain of delicate fried sausages is stiU often placed in the dish, Tound a turkey, as a garnish. It is usual to fold and fasten a sheet of buttered writing paper over the breast to prevent its being too much coloured: this iould be removed twenty minutes b efore the bird is done. The forcemeat of chestnuts (No. 15, Chapter VJJi.) may be veiy advantageously substituted for the commoner kinds in stumnc it, and the body may then be filled with chestnuts, previously stewed until tender in rich gravy, or simmered over a slow fire in plenty of rasped bacon, with a high seasoning of mace, nutmeg, and cayenne, until they are so; or, instd of this, well-made chestnut sauce, or a sh of stewed chestnuts, may be sent to table with the turkey. Obe, 1. - BaronLiebigs improved method of roasting will be found at p. 171, and can be followed uways instead of the directions given here. l to 2 hours. Oht. 2. - A turkey should be laid at first far firom the fire, and drawn nearer when half done, though never sufficiently so to scorch it; it should be well roasted, for even the most inveterate advocatesof under -dressed meat will seldom tolerate the taste or sight of partially-raw poultry TO BOIL A TURKST. A delicate but plump henturkey of moderate size should be selected for boiling. Free the skin most carefully from all the stumps, and draw the bird, using tne neatest precaution not to break die gall bladder; singe it with miting paper, take off the head Turkey fbrboiung.

268 UODEBN COOKEKY. cnip. Si7. and neck, ent through the skin round the first joint of the less, and draw them off: this is best accomplished by £uteninff m feet to a strong hook, and then pulling the bird away from it. Wash it ezceingly clean, and then 'vnpeit dry, fill the breast with the forcemeat No. 1 or 2 of Chapter vHI., or with the oyster, chestnut or French forcemeat, of which the receipts are given in the same chapter. In trussing it draw the 1 mto the body, break the breast-bone, and give the turkey as round and plump an appearance as can be. Put it into plenty of warm water, or into as mudi boilinff water as will rise about an inch over it, and when it has quiteboiled for ten minutes, cool it down by the addition of cold water, and then take out a portion of it, leaving only as much as will keep the bird thoroughly covered until it is ready for table. Clear ou the scum with the greatest care as it is thrown to the surface, and boil the bird very gently from an hour and a half to two hours and a quarter. A ver large turkey would require a longer time, but it is unsuited to this me of cooking. When the oysterforcemeat is used, a large tureen of rich oyster sauce should accompany the dish; but celery sauce, or sood white sauce, may otherwise be sent to table with it; and a boded tongue or a small ham is usually served in addition. For a plain family dinner, a delicate cheek of bacon is sometimes substituted for either of these, and parsley and butter for a more expensive sauce. Fast boiling will cause the skin of the bird to break, and must therefore be especially avoided: it should hang for some days before it is dressed, for if quite freshly killed it vrill not be tender, but it must be perfedfy sweet to be fit for table. Truss the turkey by the directions of introductory chapter on trussing. Moderate-sized turkey, H to 2 hours; large turkey, longer; yeiy nudl one, less time. TUBKET BONED AND FORCED. (An excellent disk.) Take a small, well-kept, but quite sweet hen-turkey, of from seven to eight pounds weight, and remove, by the receipt for a fowl (page 265), all the bones except those of the pinions, without opening the bird; draw it into shape, and fill it entirely with exceedingly fine sausage meat, begpning with the legs and wings; plump the breast well in prepanng it, and when its original form is quite restored, tie it securely at both ends, and at the extremities of the legs; pass a slight iron skewer through these and the body, and another through the wings and body; then lay a tmne over the back of the turkey, and pass it under the ends of the first skewer cross it in the centre of tiie back, and pass it under the ends of the As we haye ekewhere stated, all meat and fish are iinred by being codkaA in a much laiger quantity of water than ia alnolate required for them.

CHAP. XIV. FOULTBT 269 pecond skewer; then cany it over the pinions to keep them firmly in their place, and iasten it at the neck. When a cradle spit, of which the engraving below shows the form, and which opens with a joint to receive the roast, is not at hand, a bottle jack will be found more

Cradle Spit. convenient than any other for holding the turkey; and afler the hook of this is passed through the neck, it must be further supported by a string running across the back and under the points of the skewer which confines the pinions to the hook; for, otherwise, its weight would most probably cause it to fall. Flour it well, place it far from the fire until it is heated through, and baste it plentifully and incessantly with butter. An hoiu: and three quarters will roast it well. Break and boil down the bones for ffravy in a pint and a half of water, or good veal broth, with a little salt, a few slices of celery, a dozen corns of pepper, and a branch or two of parsley. Brown gently in a morsel of fresh butter, a couple of ounces of lean ham, add to them a slight dredging of flour, and a little cayenne, and pour to them the broth from the bones, after it has boiled for an hour, and been strained and skimmed; shake the stewnan well round, and stew the gravy until it is wanted for table; clear it entirely from &t, strain, and serve it very hot. An eschalot or half an onion may be browned with the ham when either is liked, but their flavour is not, we think, appropriate to poultry. The turkey may be partially filled with the forcemeat No 1 or 3 of Chapter VJH., and the sausage-meat may then be placed on either side of it. Hen turkey between 7 and 8 lbs. weight, boned, filled th sausage-meat, 3 to 4 lbs.; or with forcemeat No. 1, or with No. 3, Chapter VI., 1 lb. (that is to say, 1 lb. of bread-crumbs, and the other ingredients in proportion.) Sausage-meat, 2 to 3 ll. roasted 1 hour. Ohs. - When a common spit is used for the turkey, it must be fastened to, and not put upon it. Bread sauce can be served with the bird, or not, at pleasure. It will be found an improvement to moisten the sausage-meat with two or three spoonsful of water: it should be finely minced, well ipiced, and mixed with herbs, when the common forcemeat is not wd in addition. In preparing it a pound and a quarter of fat should be mized with each pound of the lean. To gi the turkey a very good appearance, the breast may b larded bj the directions of page 181.

270 MODEBK COOKERY. chap. ZIT. TURKEY ? LA FLAMAMDB OB, DIMDB POUDRiB. Prepare as for boiling a fine well-kept hen tnrkey; wipe the nside thoroughly with a dry doth, but do not wash it; throw in a litUe salt to &aw out the blood, let it remain a couple of hours or more, then drain and wipe it again; next, rub the outside in every part with about four ounces of fine dry salt, mixed with a large tablespoonftd of pounded sugar; rub the turkey well with these, and turn it every day for four days; then fill it entirely with equal parts of choice sausage-meat, and of the crumb of bread soaked in boiling milk or cream, and wrung dry in a cloth; season these with the grated rind of a large lemon and nutmeg, mace, cayenne, and fine herbs, in the same proportion as for veal forcemeat (Kb. 1, Chapter VIU). Sew the turkey up very securely, and whai truMcd, roll it in a doth, tie it closely at both end put it into boiling water, and boil it very gentlv between three and four hours. When taken up, sprinkle it thicldy with fine crumbs of bread, mixed with plenty of parsley, shred extremdy small. Serve it cold, with a sauce made of the strained juice and grated rind of two lemons, a teaspoonful of made mustand, and one of pounded sugar, with as much oil as will prevent its being more than pleasantly add, and a little salt, if needed; work these together until perfectly mixed, and send them to table in a tureen. This receipt was given to us abroad, by a Flemish lady, who had had the dish often served with great success in Paris. We have inrted it on her authority, not on our own experience; but we think it may be quite dependea on.

TO BOAST A TURKBY POULT. The tnrkej-ponlt is in seaaon whenever it is of soficient size to serfe. In tht earlier spring montlas it is Teiy high in price, but in summer, and as tba antomn adTances, mar be had at a more reasonable oosl The eat demand for turkeys in England towards Christmas, and the care which they nqidre in being reared, causes them to be brought much less abundantly into the mazkets when young, than they are in foreign countries; in many of which Ihfiy an very plentiful and very eheap. A turkey-poult or half grown turkcr, makes a ddicate roast, which some persons much prefer to the ftdl-grown bird. It is served with the head on, but is generally in other respects trussed like & capon or a large fowl, except for fashionable tables, for which it is sometimes arranged with the 1 t?ngted back at the first joint, and the feet brought dose to the thiffhs in the same manner as those of • woodcock. It should be well oasted with good butter, and will require from an hour to an hour and a quarter8 roasting. If fott the second course, it may be dished on water-cresses: pour a little gravy round it in the dish, and send more to table with it m a tnreeii.

CHAP. XI7. POTJLTET. 271

TO ROAST ? GOO0B. In beat season from September to Msreh. AAer it has been plncked and singed with care, put into the body of the goose two parboiled onions of moderate size finely chopped, and mixed with half an oimce of minced sage-leaves, a saltspoonful of salt, and half as much black pepper, or a proportionate quantity of cayenne; to these add a small slice of ' fresh butter. Truss the goose, and after _ it is on the spit, tie it finnly at both ends Goose for roasting. that it may turn steadily, and that the seasoning may not escape; roast it at a brisk fire, and keep it constanj basted. Serve it wiUi brown gravy, and apple or tomata sauce. When the taste is in favour of a stronger seasoning than the above, which occurs we apprehend but seldom, use raw onions for it and increase the quantity; but should one still mflder be preferred, mix a handful of fine bread-crumbs with the other ingredients, or two or three minced apples. The body of a goose is aometimes filled entirely with mashed potatoes, which, for this purpose, ought to be boiled very dry, and well blended with two or three ounces of butter, or with some thick cream some salt, and white pepper or cayenne: to these minced sage and parboiled onions . can al be added at pleasure. A teaspoonful of made-mustu half as much of salt, and a small portion of cayenne, smoothly mixed with a glass of port wine, are sometimes poured into the goose just before it is served, through a cut made in the apron. H to II hour.. ObM. - We extract, for the benefit of our readers, from a work in onr possession, the following passage, of which we have had no opportunity of testing the correctness. '' Geese, with sage and omons, may be depriv of power to breathe forth any incense, thus: Fare from a lemon all the yellow rind, taking care not to bruise the fruit nor to cut so deeply as to let out the juice. Place this lemon in the centre of the seasoning within the bird. When or before it is brought to table, let the flap be gentlv opened, remove the lemon with a tablespoon; avoid breaking, and kt it instantly be thrown away, as its white pithy skin will have absorbed aU the gross particles which else would have escaped." TO ROAST A GREBN OOOBB. Season the inside with a little pepper and salt, and roast the goose at a brisk fire from forty to fifty minutes. Serve it with good brown gravy only. To this sorrel-sauce is sometimes added at not veiy mod English tables Green geese are never stuffed.

272 UODEBK COOKEBT. chap, xit

TO BOAST A FOWL. Fowls are alwayB in aeftson when they etn be procured raffidently young to be tender. About Febmary they become dear and scarce; and amaU spring ohiokena are generally Tuy ezpenslTe. As sommer advances they dedine in price. Strip off the feathers, and carefully pick every stomp firom the iskin, as nothing can be more unI inyitii than the appearance of any kind of poultry where this has been neglected, nor more indicative of Fowl for roastiiig. slovenliness on the part of the cook. Take off the head and neck dose to the body, but leave sufficient of the skin to tie over the part that is cut. In drawing the bird, do not open it more than is needful and use great precaution to avoid breaking the gall-bladder. Hold the legs in boilinff water for two or three minutes that the skin mav be peeled from them easily; cut the claws, and then, with a bit of lighted writing-paper, singe off the hairs without blackening the fowl. Wash, and wipe it afterwards very dry, and let the liver and gizzard be made delicately dean, and fastened into the pinions. Truss uid spit it firmly; flour it well when first laid to the fire, basAe it frequently with butter, and when it is done draw out the skewers, dish it, pour a little good gravy over, and send it to table with bread mushroom, egg, chestnut, or olive sauce. A common mode of serving roast fowls in France is aux cressom that is, laid upon yoong water-cresses, which have previously been freed from the onter leaves, thoroughly washed, shaken dry m a dean doth, and sprinkled with a little fine salt, and sometimes with a small quantity of vinegar: these should cover the dish, and after the fowls are placed on them, gravy should be poured 3ver as usual. The body of a fowl may be filled with very small mushrooms prepared as for partridges (see irtridges with mushrooms), then sewn up, roasted, and served with mushroom-sauce: this is an excellent mode of dressing it. A little rasped bacon, or a bit or two of the lean of beef or veal minced, or cut into dice, may be put inside the bird when either is considered an improvement; but its own liver, or that of another fowl, will be found to impart a much. finer flavour than any of these last; and so likewise will a teaspoonfiil of really good mushroom-powder smoothly mixed with a slice of good butter, and a seasoning of fine salt and cayenne-f Full-sized fowl, 1 hour: young chicken, 2 to 35 minutes. This is done with many other roasts which are senred in the second conne; kut the vinegar is seldom added in this coontiy. f We cannot much recommend these mmn tuptrjluitim of the taU.

?. XIV. POULTRY. 273 Ohs, - As we have already observed in our general remarks on roosting, the time mnst be regulated by various drcumstancet which we named, and which the cook should always take into consideration. A buttered paper should be fastened over the breast, and removed about fifteen minutes before the fowl is served: this will prevent its taking too much colour. ROAfiT FOWL. (A French Receipt) Fill the breast of a fine fowl with good forcemeat, roast it as usual, and vrhen it is very nearly ready to serve take it from the fire, pour lukewarm butter over it m every part, and strew it thickly with very fine bread-crumbs; sprinkle these again with butter, and dip the fowl into more crumbs. Put it down to the fire, and when it is of a dear, fight brown all over, take it carefully from the spit, dish, and serve it with lemon-sauce, and with gravy thickened and mixed with plenty of minced parsley, or with brown gravy and any other sauce usually served with fowls Savoury herbs shred small, spice, and lemon-grate, may be mixed with the crumbs at pleasure. Do not pour gravy over the fowl when it is thus prepared. TO ROAST ? GUINEA FOWL. Let the bird hang for as man days as the weather will allow; then stuff, truss, roast, and serve it like a turkey, or leave the head on and lard the breast Send gravy and bread-sauce to table with it in either case: it will be found excellent eating. I to 1 hour. FOWL A LA CARLSFORS. (eNTr£e.) Bone a fowl without opening the back, and restore it to its original form by filling the vacant spaces in the legs and wings with forcemeat; put a roU of it also mto the body, and a larse sausaee freed from the skin on either side; tie it very securely at botii enos, truss It with fine skewers, and roast it for a full hour, keeping it basted plentifully with butter. When anpearance is not regarded, the pnions may be taken off, and the legs and wings drawn inside the IdwI, which will then require a much smaller proportion of forcemeat: - that directed for veal vdll answer quite well in a seneral wty, but for a dinner of ceremonv. No. 17 or 18 of the same Copter, should be used in preference. The fowl must be tied securely to the vnt, sot put upon it. Boned chickens are excellent when entirely DUed with well-made mushroom forcemeat, or very delicate and nicely seasoned sausage-meat, and either roasted or stewed. Brown iravy, or mushroom sauce should then be sent to table with them.

I

274 MODEBN COOKEBT. chap. xiT.

BOILED FOWLS. g ljaf White-legged poultry should jSSSKm'' always be selected for bolHng Bl7'i V- " as it is of better colour when BBiil 'Vs 'i' dressed than any other. Truss rtSSjmimk firmly and neatly, with fci(7FyN the legs drawn into the bodies, mtSmikisiSBBsi and the wings tvristed over the FowiYor boiiine backs; let them be well covered with water, which should be hot, but not boiling when they are put in. A full-sixed fowl will require about three quarters of an hour from the time of its beginning to simmer; but young chickens not more than from twenty to twenty-five minutes: they should be very gently boiled, and the scum should be removed with mat care as it gathers on the surface of the water. Either of the following sauces may be sent to table ifith them: parslev and butter, bSchofnd English white sauce, Cfpta celery, or white-mushroom sauce. The fowls are often mahed with small tufts of delicately boiled cauliflower placed round them; or with young vegistable marrow scaroelv larger than an egg, merely pu and halved after it is dressed: wMte sauce must be served with both of these. The livers and gizzards are not, at the present daj;, ever served in the wings of boiled fowls. The livers may be simmered for four or five minutes, then pressed to a smooth paste with a wooden spoon, and mixed very gradually with the sauce, which should not bou after they are added. Full-sized fowl, i hour: young chickens, 20 to 2 minutes. 0&.- Rather less than half a gallon of cold added to an equal ouantity of boiling water, will bring it to the proper dree of heat lOT putting in the fowls, or the same directions may be observed for them as those given for a boiled turkey. For richer modes of boiling poultiy, see Blanc and PoUie Chapter IX. TO BROIL A CHICKEN OR FOWL. Either of these, when merely split and broiled, is very dry and unsavoury eating; but will be greatly improved if first boiled gently from five to ten minutes and left to become cold, then divided, £ppea into egg and well seasoned bread-crumbs, plentifully sprinkled with clarified butter, dipped again into the crumbs, and broiled over a dear and gentle fire from half to three quarters of an hour It should be served very hot, with mushroom-sauce or with a little good plain gravy, which may be thickened and flavoured with a teaoonfbl of mushroom-powder mixed with half as much flour and a little butter; or with some Sspagnole. It should be opened at the back, and evenly divided quite through; the legs should be trosBed like

CHAP. MT. POULTRT. 276 those of a boiled fowl; the breast - bone, or liat of the back may be removed at pleasare, and both sides of the biid should be made as flat as they can be that the fire may penetrate every nut eqaaSfy: the inside shonld be first laid towards it. The neck, met, and gizzard may be boiled down with a small quantity of onion and carrot, previously browned in a morsel of butter to make the grwjr; and the liver, after having been simmered with them for five or siz minutes, may be used to thicken it after it is strained. A teaspoonful of lemonuice, some cayenne, and minced parsley should be added to it, and a fittle arrow-root, or flour and batter. to f hour.

pre the

FRICASSEEa FOWLS OB OHICEENS. (eNTr£b.) To make a firicassee of good appearance without great expense, irepare, with exceeding nicety, a couple of plump chidtens, strip off skin, and carve them very neatly. Beserve the win brets, uicriTihoughts, and thighs; and stew down the inferior jomts with a couple of blades of mace, a small bunch of savoury herbs, a few white peppercorns, a pint and a half of water, and a small half-teaspoonful of salt. When something more than a third part reduced, stndn the vy, let it cool, and skim off every particle of fat. AxioDgB the joints which are to be fricasseed in one layer if it can be done conveniently, and pour to them as much of the gravy as vnll nearly cover them; add tne very thin rind of half a fine uesh lemon, and smmer the fowls gently firom half to three quarters of an hour;. throw in sufficient mlt, pounded mace, and cayenne, to give the sauce a pood flavour, thicken it with a laipe teaspoonful of arrow-root, and stir to it the third of a pint of nch boiling cream; then lift the atewpan from the fiie, and shake it briskly round while the beaten yolks of three firesh gs, mixed with a spoonful or two of cream, are added; continue to shake the pan gently above the fire till the sauce is just set, but it must not be allowed to boil, or it will curdle in an instant, i to hour. ENGLISH CHICKEN OUTLBTS. (bNTr£b). Skin and cut into joints one or two young chickens, and remove the bones with care from the breasts, merrthoughts, and thighs, which are to be separated from the 1. Mix well tcffether a teaspoonfrd of salt, nearly a fourth as much of mace, a little grated nutmeg, and some cayenne; flatten and form into good shape, the boned joints of chicken, and the flesh of the wings; rub a little of the seasoning over them in every part, dip them into beaten en, and then into very fine bread-crumbs, and fry them eently in fiesh butter until ey are of a delicate brown. Some of me bones and triminingi may be boiled down in half a pint of water, with a roll of lemon-ped, a little salt, andeight or ten white pepperooms, to make the gravy

276 MODERN COOKEBY. chap. Xiy which, after being strained and cleared from fat, may be poured hot to some thickening made in the pan with a slice of fresh batter and a dessertspoonful of floor: a teaspoonf ol of mushroom-powder would improve it greatly, and a small quantity of lemon-jmce should be added before it is poured out, with salt and cayenne if required. File the cudets high in the centre of the dish, and serve the sauce under them, or in a tureen. CUTLETS OP FOWLS, PARTRIDGES, OR PIGEONS. (eNTr£e.) (French Receipt,) Take closely off the flesh of the breast and wing together, on either side of the bone, and when the large fUeU as they are called are thus raised from three birds, which wilfgiye but six cutlets, take the strips of flesh that lie under the wings, and that of the menythoughts, and flatten two or three of these together, that there may be nine cutlets at least, of equal size. When all are ready, fry to a pale brown as many diamond-shaped sippets of bread as there are fillets of fowl, and let tnem be quite as large; place these before the fire to dry, and wipe out the pan. Dip the cutlets into some yolks of gs, mixed with a little darified butter, and strew them in every part with the finest bread-crumbs, moderately seasoned with salt, cayenne, and pounded mace. Dissolve as much ffood butter as will be required to dress them, and fry them in it of a light amber-colour: arrange them upon the sippets of bread, pile them high in the dish, and pour a rich brown gravy or Espagnole round, but not over them. FRIED CHICKEN A LA MALABAR. (ENTRis.) This is an Indian dish. Cut up the chicken, wipe it dry, and rub it well with currie-powder mixed with a little salt; fry it in a bit of butter, taking care that it is of a nice light brown. In the mean time cut two or three onions into thin dices, draw them out into rings, and cut the rings into little bits about half an inch long; fry them for a long time gently in a little darified butter, until they have gradually dried up and are of a delicate yellow-brown. Be careful that they are not burnt, as the burnt taste of a single bit would spoil the flavour of the whole. When they are as dry as chips, without the least grease or moisture upon them, mix a little salt with them, strew them over the fried chicken, and serve up with lemon on a plate. We have extracted this recdpt from a clever little work called the " Hand-Book of Cookery." HASHED FOWL. (eNTREE.) After having taken off in jomts, as much of a cold fowl otfowU as will suffice for a dish, bruise the bodies with a paste roller, pour to them a pint of water, and boil them for an hour and a half to ti?o

CHAP. XIV POULTBT. 277 hoars, with the addition of a little pepper and salt onl, cr with a small quantity of onion, carrot, and sayoury herbs. Strain, and skim the fat from the gravy, put it into a clean saucepan, and, should it require thickening, stir to it, when it boils, half a teaspoonful of flour smoothly mixed with a small bit of butter; add a httle mushroom catsup) or other store-sauce, with a slight seasoning of mace or nutm. Lay in the fowl, and keep it near the fire until it is heated qiiite through, and is at the nomt of boiling: serve it with fried sippets round the dish. For a nash of higher relish, add to the bones Wnen they are first stewed dovm a large onion minced and browned in butter, and before the fowl is dished, add some cayenne and the juice of half a lemon. PBENCH AND OTHER RECEIPTS FOR MINCED FOWL. (ENTniE.) Buse from the bones all the more delicate parts of the flesh of either cold roast, or of cold boiled fowls, clear it from the skin, and keep it covered from the air until it is wanted for use. Boil the hones well bruised, and the skin, vnth three quarters of a pint of water until reduced quite half; then strain the gravy and let it cool; next, having first skunmed off the fat, put it into a clean saucepan, with a quarter of a pint of cream, an ounce and a half of butter well mixed with a dessertspoonful of flour, and a little pounded mace, and erated lemon-rind; keep these stirred until they boil, then put in the fowl, finely minced, with three or four hard-boiled eggs chopped small, and sufficient salt, and white pepper or cayenne, to season it properly. Shake the mince over the fire until it is just ready to hoil, stir to it quickly a squeeze of lemon-juice, dish it with pale sippets of fried bread, and serve it immediately. When cream cannot easily be obtained, use milk, with a double quantity of butter and flour. To make an English mince, omit the hard eggs, heat the fowl in the preceding sauce or in a common bScJuxmel or white sauce, cUdi it with small delicately poached gs (those of the guinea-fowl or bantam for example), laid over it in a circle, and send it quickly to table. Another excellent variety of the dish is also made by coverii the fowl thickly with veij fine bread-crumbs, moistening them with churified butter, and giving them colour with a salamander or in a quick oven. FRXTOT OF COLD FOWLS Cut into joints and take the skin fh m some cold fowls, lay them into a deep dish, strew over them a little fine salt and cayenne, add the juice of a lemon, and let them remain for an hour, moving them occasionally that they may all absorb a portion of the add; then dip them one by one into some French batter (see Chapter Y.), and fry theia a pale brown over a gentle fire. Serve them garnished witn • Por Tninsel fowl tad ojtUn, follow the receipt for yesl, page aSL

378 HODEBN COOKEBT. chap. Sf. Ipanlex. Afewdropsof eschalot ymegar maybe I with thelemon-jaioe which is poured to the fowls, or slices of nw onion or eschalot, and small branches of sweet herbs may be laid amongst them, and cleared off before they are dipped into the batter. Grayy made of the trimmings, thickened, and wdl flavoured, may be Bent to table with them in a tureen: and dressed bacon (see page 29 in a dish apart 8CAIX0PS OF FOWL AU BBCHAMEL. (eNTr£e.) Baise the flesh from a couple of fowls as directed for cutlets in the forcing receipt, and take it as entire as possible from either side of the breast; strip off the skin, lay the fillets flat, and slice them into snudl thin scallops; dip them one by one into clarified butter, and anraiupe them evenly in a delicately clean and not large fiving-pan; sprinUe a seasoning of fine salt over, and just before the dish is wanted for table, fry them quickly without allowing them to brown; dnin them well from the Dutter, pile them in the centre of a hot dish, and sauce them with some boiling bichameL This dish may be quickly prepared b taking a readydressed fowl frt m the spit or stewpan, ana by raising the fillets, and slicing the scallops into the bailing sauce before they have had time to cool. JFzieid, 3 to 4 minutes.

QRILLADB OF COLD FOWLS, Carre and soak the remains of roost fowls as for the fritoi which preeedes, wipe them dry, dip them into clarified butter, and then into fine bread-crumbs, and brou them gently over a yeiy dear foe. A Attle findy-minced lean of ham or grated lemon-peel, with a seasoning of cayenne, salt, and mace, mixed with the cmmblB will vary this disn agreeably. When fried instead of broiled, the fowls may be dipped into yolk of egg instead of butter; but this renders them too diy for broiling.

FOWLS A LA MATOMNAISB. Carve with great nicety a couple of cold roast fowls; place the infbrior joints, if they are served at all, dose together in the middle of a dish, and arrange the others round and over them, piling them high in the centre. Garnish them with the hearts of young Tettooes cut La two, and hard-boiled epgs, halved lengthwise. At the moment of serving, pour over the fowls a well-made mayormaUe sauce (see Chapter vl.;, or, if preferred, an English BaladdrGnng, compounded with thick cream, instead of oiL

CHAP. XIT. POULTBT. 279

TO ROAST DUCKS. Dneks are in season all tlie year, bnt are thought to be in their perfeotioB about June or early in July. Daddings (or half grown ducks) are in the greatest reqnest in spring, when there is no game in the market, and other poultry is somewhat scarce. In preparing these for the spit, be careful to clear the skin entirely from the stumps of the feathers; take off the hoids and necks, but leave the feet on, and hold them for a few minutes in boiling water to loosen the tskin, which must be peeled off. Wash the inside of the birds by pouring water through Ducks nraed. them, but merely wipe the outsides with a dry cloth. Put into the bodies a seasoning of parboiled onions mixed with minced sage, salt, pepper, and a slice of butter when this mode of dressing them is liked; but as the taste of a whole party is seldom in its favour, one, when a cou le are roasted, is often served without the stuffing. Gut off the pinions at the first joint from the bodies, truss the feet behind the backs, spit the birds firmly, and roast them at a brisk fire, but do not place them sufficiently near to be scorched; baste them constantlv, and when the breasts are well plumped, and the steam from them draws towards the fire, dish, and serve them quickly with a little good brown gravy poured round them, and some also in a tureen; or instead of tnis, with some which has been made with the necks, gizzards, and livers well stewed down, with a slight seasoning of browned onion, some herbs, and spice. Young ducks, h hour: frdl sized, from f to 1 hour. (7.- Olive-sauce may be served with roast as well as with stewed ducks. STBWED DUCK. (eNTRE.) A couple of quite youi ducks, or a fine, frdl-grown, but still tender one, will be required for this dish. Cut either down neatly into joints, and arrange them in a single layer if possible, in a wide stewpan; pour in about three quarters of a pint or strong cold beef stock or gravy; let it be well cleared frt)m scum when it begins to hcHlj then throw in a little salt, a rather frill seasoninff of cayenne, and a few thin strips of lemon-rind. Simmer the ducks very softly for three quarters of an hour, or somewhat longer should the joints be large; then stir into the gravy a tablespoonml of the finest riceflonr, mixed with a wineglassful or rather more of port wine, and a dessertspoonful of lemon-juice: in ten minutes after, dish the stew tmd som it to table instantly

280 MODERN COOKERY. chap. ST. The ducks maj be served with a small portion only of their sauce, and dished in a circle, with green peas a la FrancaUe heaped high in the centre: the lemon-rind and port wine should then be altother omitted, and a small bunch of green onions and parsley, with two or three young carrots, may be stewed down with the birds, or three or four minc eschalots, delicately Med in butter, may be used to flavour the gravy. The tumi)8 an bevrre, prepared by the receipt of Chapter XYII., may be substituted for the peas; and a well made JSspagnole may take the place of beef stock, when a dish of high savour is wished for. A duck is often stewed without being divided into joints. It should then be firmly trussed, half roasted at a quick fire, and laid into the stewpan as it is taken from the spit; or well browned in some French thickening, then half covered with boiling gravy, and turned when partially done: from an hoar to an hour and a quarter will stew it well. TO BOAST PIGEONS. In. season from March to Michaelmas, and whenever tliej can be had joang.1 These, as we have already said, should be dressed while they are very fresh. K extremely young they will be ready in twelve hours for the spit, otherwise, in twenty-four. Take off the heads and necks, and cut off the toes at the first joint draw them carefully, and pour plenty of water through them: wipe them dry, and put into each bird a small bit of butter lightly dipped into a little cayenne (formerly it was rolled in minced parsley, but this is no longer the fashionable mode of preparing them). Truss the wings over Pigeon, for roting. keeping them well and constantly basted with butter. Serve them with brown gravy, and a tureen of parsley and butter. For tiie second course, dish them upon young water-cresses, as directed for roast fowl caa cressonsy page 272. About twenty minutes will roast them. 18 to 20 minutes; five minutes longer, if laige; rather less, if very young. BOILED PIGEONS. Truss them like boiled fowls, drop them into plenty of boiling water, throw in a little salt, and in fifteen minutes lift them out, pour parsley and butter over, and send a tureen of it to table with them.

OHAP. XT.

GAME. CHAPTER XV.

281

TO CHOOSE GAMi:. Buck venison, vrhich is in season only from June to Michaelmas, is considered tijier than doe venison, which comes into the market in October, and remains in season through November and December: neither should be cooked at any other part of the year. The greater the depth of fat upon the haunch the better the quality of the meat will be, provided it be clear and white, and the lean of a dark hue. If the cleft of the hoof, which is always left on the joint, be small and smooth, the animal is youns; but it is old when the marks are the reverse of these. Imougn the haunch is the prime and tavourite joint of venison, the neck and shoulder are also excellent, dressed in various ways, and make much approved pies or poMticM as they are usually called. K kept to the proper point, and w dressed, this is the most tender of all meat; but care is necessary to bring it into a fitting state for table without its be It mutt be observed that TeniBon is not in periSection when young: like mntton, it requires to be of a certain age before it is brought to table. The word d applies also to the thickest part of the hauneh. and it is the depth gl the fat oa this which decides the ooalitj of the joint.

282 MODEBK COOKEBT. cHAP. ZY coming offensive. A free current of air in a larder is always a great advantagje, as it assists materially in preserring the sweetness of every thing which is kept in it, while a close damp atmosphere, on the contra, is more destnictiye of animal food of all kinds eren than positive heat. The fumes of creosote are said to be an admirable presenratiye against putrescence, but we have not ourselves yet had experience of the fact. All moisture should be wiped daily, or even more frequently, from the venison, with soft cloths, when any appears upon the surface; and every precaution must be taken to keep off the flies, when the joint is not hung in a wire-safe. Black pepper thickly powdered on it will generdly answer the purpose: with conmion care, indeed, meat may alwajrs be protected from their attacks, and to leave it exposed to them in warm weather is altogether inexcusable in the cook. Hares and rabbits are stiff when freshly killed, and if young, the ears tear easily, and the claws are smooth and sharp. A hiue in cold weather will remain good from ten to fourteen days; care onl must be taken to prevent the inside from becoming musty, which it will do if it has been emptied in the field. Pheasants, partridges, and other game may be chosen by nearly the same tests as poultry: by opening the bill, the staleness will be detected easily if they have been too lon kept. With few exceptions, game depends almost entirely for the mie flavour and the tenderness of its flesh, on the time which it is allowed to hang before it is cooked, and it is never good when very fresh; but it does not follow that it should be sent to table in a rdidly offensive state, for this is agreeable to few eaten and disgusting to many, and nothing should at any time be served of which the appearance or the odour may destroy the appetite of any person present. TO ROAST ? HAUNCH OF YENISON. To give venison the flavour and the tenderness so much prized by epicures, it must be well kept; and by taking the I necessary precautions, it will hang a considerable time without detriment. Wipe it with soft dry cloths wherever the slightest moisture appears on the surface, and dust it plentifully with fre8hly-;round peeper or powdered ginger, to preserve it fix)in the flies. The application of the pyrolieous or acetic add would effectually protect it from these, as well as from the effects of the weather; but the joint must then be, not only well washed, but Booked for some considerable time, and this would be very detrimental. To prepare the venison for the spit, wash it slightly with tepid water or merely wipe it thoroughly with damp cloths, and dry it -afterwards with clean ones; then lay over the fat side a laige sheet

CHAP. XT. GAME. 283 of thickly-buttered paper, and next a paste of flour and water about three quarters of an inch thick; cover this aain with two or three idieets of stout paper, secure the whole well with twine, and lay the haunch to a sound clear fire; baste the per immediately with butter or cluified dripping, and roast the jomt from three hours and a half to four and a hali, according to its weight and quality. Doe Teoison will require half an hour less time than buck yenison. Twenty minutes before the joint is done remove the paste and paper, baste uie meat in every part with butter, and dredge it very lightly with flour; let it take a pale brown colour, and send it to table as hot as possible with gravy in a tureen, and good currant jelly. It is not now customary to serve any other sauces with it; but should the oldfkahioned sharp or sweet sauce be ordered, the receipt for it will b found at piu;e 100. d to 4i hours. Ob$, - The kind of gravy appropriate to venison is a matter on wludi individual taste must oedde. When preparations of high savour are preferred to the pure flavour of the game, the Espagrwle (or Spanish sauce) of Chapter IV. can be sent to table with it; or either of the rich English ffravies which precede it When a simple mdSavoured one is better liked, some mutton cutlets freed entirely fiom fat, then very slightly broiled over a quick fire, and stewed gently down in a light extract of mutton prepcud by Liebeg's directkma, Chapter I., for about an hour, will produce an excellent plain gravy: it should be seasoned with salt and pepper (or fine cayenne) only. When venison abounds, it should be used for the gravy instead of mutton. TO STEW A SHOULDER OF VENISON. Bone the joint, by the directions given for a shoulder of veal or mutton (see Chaut XI.); flatten it on a table, season it well with cayenne, salt, ana pounded mace, mixed with a very small proportion of aUspioe; lay over it thin slices of the fiit of a loin of well-fed mutton, roll and bind it tiehtly, lay it into a vessel nearly of its flize, and pour to it as much good stock made with equal parts of beef and mutton as will nearly cover it; stew it as Aovrlj as possible from three hours to three and a half or longer, should it be very large, and turn it when it is half done. Dish and serve it with a good EtpamalU made with part of the gravy in which it has been stewed; 4X thicken this slightly with rioe-nour, mixed with a glass or more of daiet or of port wine, and as much salt and cayenne as will season the gravy properly. Some cookf sou: the slices of mutton-fat in wine before they are laid upon the joint; but no process of the sort will ever give to an kind of meat the true flavour of the venison, which to most eaters is far finer than that of the wine, and should always be allowed to prevail over all the condiments with which it is dressed. Thoee

£84 MODEBN COOKEBT. cHAP. XT howeyer, who care for it less than for a dish of high artificial savour, can have eschalots, ham, and carrot, lightly broomed in good batter added to the stew when it first b to boiL Si to 4 hours. TO HASH VENISON. For a superior hash of yenison, add to three quarters of a pint ot strong thickened brown gravy, Christopher Korths sauce, in the proportion directed for it in the receipt of page 295 .f Cut the venison in small thin slices of equal size, arrange tnem in a dean saucepcui pour the gravy on them, let them stana for ten minutes or more, then place them near the fire, and bring the whole very slowly to the point of boiling only: serve the hash immediately in a not- water dish. For a plain dinner, when no gravy is at hand, break down the bones of tne venison sxnall, after the flesh has been cleared from them, and boil them with those of three or four undressed mutton-cutlets, a slice or two of carrot, or a few savoury herbs, and about a pint and a half of water or broth, until the liquid is reduced quite one third. Strain it ofi, let it cool, skim off all the fat, heat the gravy, thicken it when it boils with a dessertspoonful or rather more of arrow-root, or with the brown roux of pae 107, mix the same sauce with it, and finish it exactly as the richer hash above. It may be served on sippets of fried bread or not, at choice. TO BOAST A HARE. In season from September to the Ist of March. After the hare has been skinned, or cased, as it is called, wash it very thoroughly in cold water, and afterwards in warm. If in any dree overkept, or musty in the inside, which it will sometimes he when emptied before it is hun up and neglected afterwards, use vmegar, or the pyroligneous add, well diluted, to render it sweet; then again throw it into abundance of water, that it may retain no taste of the scmL Fierce with the point of a knifis any parts in which the Uood appears to have settled, and soak Hare truaied. tnem in tepid water, that it may be well drawn out. Wipe the hare dry, fill it with the forcemeat Ko. 1, Chapter YUL, sew it up, truss and spit it firmly, baste it for Minced oollops of Teniaon may be prepared exactly like thoae of beef; aad. veniaon-eatleta like thoee of mutton: the neck may be taken for both of tbeee. f Haying been inadrertently omitted from its proper place, this w arip t i tBanafiacred to the end of the present Chapter.

CHAP. XT. GAMS. 285 ten minutes with lukewarm water mixed with a very little salt; throw this away, and put into the nan a quart or more of new milk $ keep it constantly laded over the hare until it is nearly dried up, then add a large lump of butter, flour the hare, and continue the basting steadily until it is well browned; for unless this be done, and the roast be kept at a proper distance from the fire, the outside will become so dry and hard as to be quite uneatable. Serve the hare when done, with good brown gravy (of which a little should be poured round it in the dish), and with fine red currant jelly. This 18 an approved English method of dressing it, but we would recommend m preference, that it should be basted plentifully with butter from the bpnning (the strict economist may substitute clarified beefdripping, or marrow, and finish with a small quantity of butter only; and that the salt and water should be altogether omitted. Fiik-rate cooks merely wipe the hare inside and out, and rub it with its own blood before it is laid to the fire; but there is genexully a rankness about it, especially after it has been many days killed, which, we should say, renders the washing indispensable, unless a coarse game-flavour he liked. li to labour. ROAST HARB. Superior Receipt) A hare may be rendered fiu: more plump in appearance, and infinitely easier to carve, by taking out the bones of tne back and thighs, or of the former only: in removing this a very sharp knife should De used, and much care will be reauired to avoid cutting through the skin just over the spine, as it adheres closely to the b3ne. K'early double the usual quantity of forcemeat must be prepared: with this restore the legs to their original shape, and fill the body, which ould previously be lined with delicate slices of the nicest bacon, of which the rind and edees have been trimmed away. Sew up the hare, truss it as usual; hurd it or not, as is most convenient, keep it basted plentifully with butter while roasting, and serve it with the customai sauce. We have foxmd two tablespoonsful of the finest currant jelly, mdted in half a pint of rich brown gravy, an acceptable accompaniment to hare, when the taste has been in favour of a sweet sauce. To remove the back-bone, clear from it first the flesh in the inside; lay this back to the right and left from the centre of the bone to the tips; then work the knife on the upper side quite to the spine, and when the whole is detached except the skin which adheres to this, aeparate the bone at the first joint from the neck-bone or ribs (we know not how more correctly to describe it), and pass the knife with lantion under the skin down the middle of the back. The directions for boning the thighs of a fowl will answer equally for those of a hare, aiS we themore refer the reader to them.

286 MODEBN COOKEBY chap. XT 8TEWBD HASB. Wash and soak the hare thoroughly, wipe it y dir, cut it down into joints diyiding the largest, flour and brown it slightly in butter with some bits of lean ham, pour to them by degrees a pint and a half of gravy, and stew the hare very fently m m an hour and a half to two hours: when it is about one third done add the very thin rind dt half a laige lemon, and ten minutes before it is served stir to it a large dessertspoonful of rice-flour, smoothly mixed with two tablespoonsful of good mushroom catsup, a quarter of a teaspoonful or more of mace, and something less of cayenne. This is an excellent nlain receipt for stewing a hye; but the dish may be enriched with forcemeat (No. 1, Chapter VUI.) rolled into small balls, and simmered for ten minutes m the stew, or fried and added to it after it is dished; a higher seasoning of spice, a couple of glasses of port wine with a little additional thickening and a tablespoonftd of lemon-joioe, will all serve to give it a heightened relish. Hare, 1; lean of ham or bacon, 4 to 6 oz.; butter, 2 oz.; gravy, H pint; lemon-rind: 1 hour and 20 to 50 minutes. Rice-flour, I large dessertspoonAil; mushroom catsup, 2 tablespoonsful; mace, of teaspoonful; little cayenne (salt, if needed): 10 minutes TO BOAST A BABBIT. This, like a hare, is much improved by having the back-bone taken out, and the directions we( have given vnH enable the cook, with very little practice, to remove it without dimculfy. Line the inside, when Uiis is done, with thin Rabbit for nwstiiiK. slices of bacon, fill it with forcemeat TNo. 1, Chapter YIII), sew it np, truss, and roast it at a dear, brisk fire, and baste it constantly with butter. Flour it well soon after it is laid down. Serve it with good brown gravy, and with currant jelly, when this last is liked. For change, the back of the rabbit may be larded, and the bone left in, or not, at pleasure; or it can be plain roasted when more convenient. f to 1 hour; less, if small. TO BOIL BABBITS. Rabbits that are three parts grown, or, at all events, whidi are stifl quite young, should be chosen for this mode of cooking. Wash them well, tmas them firmly, with the heads turned and skewered to the sides, drop them Babbit for bofflng. into sufficient boiliiu water to keep them quite covered until they axe cooked, and simmer them gently firom thirty to foity-five miautes:

CHAP rv. GAME. 287 when WTV young they will require eyen leas time than this. Cover them with rich white sauce, mixed with the livers parboiled, finely pounded, and well seasoned with cayenne and lemonjuice; or with white onion sauce, or with parsley and butter, made with milk or cream instead of water (the hyers, minced, are often added to the last of these), or with good mushroom sauce. 30 to 45 minutes. FRIED RABBIT. After the rabbit has been emptied, thoroughly washed and soaked should it require it to remove any mustiness of smell, blanch it, that is to say, put it into boiling water and let it boll from five to seven minutes; drain it, and when cold or nearly so, cut it into joints, dip them into beaten egg, and then into fine bread-crumbs, seasoned with salt and pepper, and when all are ready, fry them in butter over a moderate nre, from twelve to fifteen minutes. Simmer two or three fltoips of lemon-rind in a little gravy, until it is well flavoured with it; boil the liver of the rabbit for five minutes, let it cool, and then mince it; thicken the gravy with an ounce of butter and a small teaspoonful of flour, add the liver, give the sauce a minutes boil, stir in two tablespoonsful of cream if at hand, and last of all, a small quantity of lemon-juice. Dish the rabbit, pour the sauce under it, and serve it quickly. If preferred, a gravy can be made in the pan as for veal cutlets, and the rabbit may be simply fried. TO ROAST A PHBASAirr. Lin season from the beginning of October to the end of Jannary. The licensed term of pheasant shooting commences on the Ist of October, and terminates on the 2nd of Febmary, bnt as the birds will remain perfectly good in cold weather lior two or three weeks, if from that time hung in a well-yentilated larder they eontanne, correctly speaking, in iea$on so long as they can be preserved kt for table after the regular market for them is dosed: the same role applies eqaallv to other TSiieties of game. Unless kept to the proper point, a pheasant is one of the most tough, diy, and flavourless birds that is sent to table; but when it has hung as many days as it can without becoming really tainted, and is well roasted and served, it is most excellent eating. Pluck oflfthe feathers carefully, cut a slit in the back of the nedc to remove the crop, then draw the bird in the usual way, and either wipe the inside very clean with a damp doth, or pour water through it; wipe the outside hiTui' also, but with a dry cloth; cut off the toes, turn the head of the bird under the wins, with the bUl laid straight along the breast, skewer the 1, which must not be crossed, lour the pheasant well, lay it to a brisk fire, and baste it constantly and plentifully with well flavoured butter. Send bread-sauce and good brown gravy to table with it. The entire breast of the bird may be larded by the directions of Chapter X When a brace is served, one

288 MODEBN COOKEBT. ctiAF. XT is sometimes larded, and the other not; but a much handsomer appearance is given to the dish by larding both. About three quarters of an hour will roast them. f hour; a few minutes less, if liked very much underdone; ve or ten more for thorough roasting, with a good fire in both cases. BOUDIN OF PHEASANT A LA RICHELIEU. (eNTr£e.) Take, quite clear from the bones, and £rom all skin and sinew, the flesh of a half-roasted pheasant; mince, and then pound it to the smoothest paste; add an equal bulk of the floury part of some fine roasted potatoes, or of such as have been boiled by Captain Kater's receipt (see Chapter XVIL), and beat them together until they are well blended; next throw into the mortar something less (in volume) of fresh butter than there was of the pheasant-sh, with a high seasoning of mace, nutmeg, and cayenne, and a half-teaspoonfbl or more of salt; poimd the mixture afr for ten minutes or a quarter of an hour, keeping it turned from the sides of the mortar into the middle; then add one by one, after merely taking out the erms with the point of a fork, two whole eggs and a yolk or two without the whites, if these last will not render the mixture too moist. Mould it into the form of a roll, lay it into a stewpan rubbed with butter,' jMur boilinjy water on it and poach it gently from ten to fifteen minutes. Lift it out with care, drain it on a sieve, and when It is quite cold cover it equallv with beaten e, and then with the finest bread-crumbs, and broil it over a clear fire, or fry it in butter of a dear golden brown. A good gravy should be made of the remains of Uie bird and sent to table with it; the flavour may be heightened with ham and eschalots, as directed in Chapter IV., pa 96, and small mushrooms sliced sideways, and stewed quite tender in butter, may be mixed with the houdin after it is taken from the mortar; or their flavour may be given more delicately by adding to it only the butter in which they have been simmerea, well presed, from them through a strainer. The mixture, which should be set into a very cool place before it is moulded, may be made into several small rolls, which will require four or five minutes poaching only. The flesh of partridges will answer quite as well as that of pheasant! for this dish. SALMI OF PHEASANT. See page 292.) PHEASANT CtTTLETS. (See page 275,) TO R0A8T PARTRIDGES. In season firom the first of September to the second of February, and as los&g as they can be preserved fit fur table team that time. Let the birds hang as long as they can possibly be kept without becoming o£fensive; pick them carefully, draw, and singe them

CHAP XT. GAME. 289 inpe the insides thoroughly -with a dean cloth; truss them with the head turned under the wing and the legs diawn close together, not crossed. Flour Uiem when first laid to the fire, and baste them plentifully with butter. Serve them with bread sauce, and sood brown gravy: a little of this last shomd be poured over them. In some counties they are dished upon fried bread-crumbs, but these are better handed round the table by them- Partridge trussed. selves. Where game is plentiful we recommend that the remains of a cold roasted partridge should be well bnused and boiled down with just so much water, or unflaYonred broth, as will make gravy for a brace of other birds: this, seasoned with salt, and cayenne only, or flavoured with a few mushrooms, will be found a very superior accompaniment for roast partridges, to the best meat-gravy that can be made. A little eschalot, and a few herbs, can be added to it at pleasure. It should be served also with boiled or with broiled partridges in preference to any other. 30 to 40 minutes. OAf.- Bather less time must be allowed when the birds are liked nnderdressed. In preparing them for the spit, the crop must be removed through a slit cut in the back of the neck, the claws clipped dose, and the legs held in boiling water for a minute, that they may be skinned the more easily. BOILED PARTRIDGES. This is a delicate mode of dressing young and tender birds. Strip off the feathers, clean, and wash them well; cut off the heads, truss the legs like those of boiled fowls, and when ready, drop them into a large pan of boiling water; throyr a little salt on them, and in fifteen, or at the utmost in eighteen minutes they will be ready to serve. Lift them out, dish them quickly, and send them to table with white mushroom sauce, with bread sauce and game gravy (see preceding receipt), or with celery sauce. Our own mode of having them served is usually with a slice of fresh butter, about a tablespoonful of lemon-juice, and a good sprinkling of cayenne placed in a very hot dish, under them. 15 to 18 minutes PARTRIDGES WITH MUSHROOMS. For a brace of young well-kept birds, prepare from half to three qnarters of a pint of mushroom-buttons, or very small flaps, as for picklin. Dissolve over a gentle fire an ounce and a half of butter, Sbiow in the mushrooms with a slight sprinkling of salt and eayeniie, simmer them from eight to ten minutes, and turn them With the butter on to a plate; when they are quite cold, put the u

290 MODERN COOKEBT. chap. XT. whole into the hodies of the partridges, sew them up, truss them securely, and roast them on a vertical jack with the heads downwards; or should an ordinary spit be used, tie them firmly to it, instead of passing it through them. Boast them the usual time, and serve them with brown mushroom sauce, or with gravy and bread sauce only, i The birds may be trussed like boiled fowls, lloured, and lightly browned in butter, half covered with rich brown gravy and stewed slowly for thirty minutes; then turned, and simmered for another half hour with uie addition of some mushrooms to the gravy; or they may be covered with small mushrooms stewed apart, when they are sent to table. They can also be served with tneir sauce only, simply thickened with a small quantity of fresh butter, smoothly mixed with less than a teaspoonful of arrowroot and flavoured with cayenne and a little catsup, wine, or store sauce. Partridges, 2; mushrooms, i to f pint; butter, 1 oz.; little mace and cayenne: roasted 30 to 40 minutes, or stewed 1 hour. Obs, - Nothing can be finer than the game flavour imbibed by the mushrooms with which the birds are filled, in this receipt BROILED PARTRUMIE. BreakfoBt Dish.) " Split a young and well-kept partridU;e, and wi it with a soft clean cloth inside and out, but do not waw it; broil it delicately over a verv clear fire, sprinkling it with a little salt and cayenne; rub a bit of fresh butter over it the moment it is taken from the fire, and send it quickly to table with a sauce made of a good slice of butter browned with flour, a little water, cayenne, sut, and mushroomcatsup, poured over it.' We give this receipt exactly as we received it from a house where we know it to have been greatly approved by various guests who have partaken of it there. BROILED PARTRIDGE. (French Receipt.') After having prepared the bird with great nicety, divided, and flattened it, season it with salt, and pepper, or cayenne, dip it into clarified butter, and then into very fine bread-crumbs, and take care that every part shall be equally covered: if wanted of particularly good ajppearance dip it a second time into the butter and crumbs. Place It over a very clear fire, and broil it gently from twenty to thirty minutes. Send it to table with brown mushroom sauoe, or tome Espagnole. THE FRENCH; OB RED-LEQQBD PARTRIDOE. This is dressed precisely like our common partridge, and is excellent eating if it be well kept; otherwise it is tough and devoid of

CHAP, xr. GAME. 291 flavonr. It does not, we believe, abound conunonly in England, its hostility to the gray partridge, which it drives always from its neighbourhoNod, rendering it an undesirable occupant of a preserve. It was at one time, however, plentiful in Suffolk, and in one or two of the adjoining counties, but great efforts, we have understood, have been made to exterminate it TO ROAST THE LANDRAIL OR CORN-CRAKE. This delicate and excellent bird is in its full season at the end of August and early in September, when it abounds often in the poulterers' shops. Its plumage resembles that of the partridge, but it is of smaller size and of much more slender shai)e. Strip off the feathers, draw and prepare the bird as usual for tne spit, truss it like a snipe, and roast it quickly at a brisk but not a fierce fire from fifteen to eighteen minutes. Dish it on fried bread-crumbs, or omit these and serve it with gravy round it, and more in a tureen, and with well made bread sauce. Three or even four of the birds will be required for a dish. One makes a nice dinner for an invalid. TO ROAST BLACK COCK AND GRAY HEN. In season dniixig the same time as the common grouse, and found like them on the moors, but less abundantly. These birds, so delicious when well kept and well roasted, are tough and comparatively flavourless when too soon dressed. They should hsDf therefore till they give unequivocal indication of being ready for the spit. Fick and draw them with exceeding care, ss the kin is easily broken; truss them like pheasants, lay them at a moderate distance from a clear brisk fire, baste them plentifullv and constantly with butter, and serve them on a thick toast whicn has been laid under them in the dripping-pan for the last ten minutes of their roastmg, and which will have imbibed a hish degree of savour: some cooks squeeze a little lemon-juice over it before it is put into the pan. Send ridi brown gravy and bread sauce to table with the birds. From three quarters of an hour to a full hour will roast them. Though kept to the pomt which we have recommended, they inll not offend even the most fastidious eater after they are dressed, as, unless they have been too long allowed to hang, the action of the fire will remove aU perceptible traces of their previous state. In the earlier nrt of the season, when warm and close packing have rendered either black same or grouse, in their transit from the North, apparently altogether unfit for table, the chloride of soda, welldiluted, may be used with advantage to restore them to a fitting state for it; though the copious washings which must then be re sorted to, may diminish something of their fine flavour. I to 1 hour. • Brought there by the late Marquis of Hertford, to his Sudboume estate.

292 HODEBN COOKERY. chap. xr.

TO ROAST GROUSE. Handle the birds yerjr lightly in plncking off the feathers; dnw them, and wipe the insidea with clean damp cloths; or first wash, and then dry them well; though this latter mode wonld not be appioyed senerally by epicures. Tmss the gronse in the same manner as the bmck game above, and roast them about half an hour at a clear and bride me, keeping them basted almost without intermission. Senre them on a buttered toast which has been laid under them in the pan for ten minutes, or with gravy and bread sauce only. I hour to 35 minutes. Obs. - There are few occasions, we think, in which the contents of the dripping-pan can be introduced at table with advantage; but in dressinjf moor game, we would strongly recommend the toast to be laid in it under the birds, as it will afford a superior relish even to the birds themselyes. A SALMI OP MOOR FOWL, PHEASANTS, OR PARTRIDGES. (ENTRiB.) This is an excellent mode of serving the remains of roasted game but when a superlative salmi is desired, the birds must be scarcely more then halt roasted for it In either case carve them very neaUy, and strip every particle of skin and fat from the legs, wings, and breasts; bruise the bodies well, and put them with the skin and other trimmings into a very clean stewpan. If for a simple and inexpensive dinner, merely add to them two or three sliced eschalots, a bay leaf, a small blade of mace, and a few peppercorns; then pour in a pint or rather more of good veal grav or strong broth, and boil it briskly until reduced nearly half; strain the gravy, pressing the bones well to obtain all the flavour, skim off the fat, aod a little cayenne and lemon-juice, heat the game very gradualhr in it, but do not on any account allow it to bou; place sippets or fried bread round a dish, arrange the birds in good form in the centre, give the sauce a boil,, and pour it on them. This is but a homely sort of salmi, though of excellent flavour if well made; it may require perhaps the ad£tion of a little thickening, and two or three glasses of ory white wine poured to the bodies of the birds with tne broth, would bring it nearer to the French salmi in flavour. As the spongy substance in the inside of moor fowl and black game is apt to be extremely bitter when they have been long kept, care should be taken to remove such parts as would endanger the preparation. FRENCH SALMI, OR HASH OF GAME. (ENTRifi.) Prepare underdressed or half-roasted game by the directions we have already given, and after having stripped the skin from tlM

CRAP XT. OAM£. 293 thighs, wings, and breasts, arrange the points evenly in a clean stew-pan, and keep them covered from the au: and dust till wanted. Cnt down into dice four ounces of the lean of an unboiled ham, and put it, with two ounces of butter, into a thick well-tinned saucepan or stewpan; add three or four minced eschalots (more, should a high favour of them be liked), two ounces of sliced carrot, four cloves, two bay leaves, a dozen peppercorns, one blade of mace, a small spriff or two of thyme, and part of a root of parsley, or two or three smaU branches of the leaves. Stew these over a gentle fire, stirring or abating them often, until the sides of the saucepan appear of a reddish-brown, then mix well with them a dessertspoonful.of flour, and let it take a little colour. Next, add by degrees, making the sauce boil as each portion is thrown in, three quarters of a pint of strong veal stock or gravy, and nearlv half a pmt of sherry or Madeira; put in the well-bruised bodies of the birds, and boil them from an hour to an hour and a half; straiii, and clear the sauce quite from fiit; pour it on the joints of game, heat them in it slowly; and when they are near the point of boUing, dish them immediately with delicately fried sippets round the disn. When mushrooms can be obtained, throw a dozen or two of small ones, with the other seasonings, into the butter. The wine is sometimes added to the vegetables, and one half reduced before the gravy is poured in; but though a sance of fine colour is thus produced the flavour of the wine is entirely lost TO ROAST WOODCOCKS OR SNIPES. In seaBon during the winter montbs, but not abundant nntil frost seta in. Handle them as little and as lightly as possible, and pluck off the feathers gently; for if this be violently done the skin of the birds will be broken. Do not draw them but after having wiped them with clean soil cloths, truss them with the head under the winff, and the bill laid close along the breast; pass a slight skewer throng the thighs, catch the ends with a bit of twine, and tie it across to keep the le straight Suspend the birds with the feet downwards to a birdiipit, flour them well, and baste them with butter, which should be ready dissolved in the pan or ladle. Before the trail begins to drop, whicn it will do as soon as they are well heated, lay a tmck round of bread, freed from the crust, toasted a delicate brown, and buttered on both sides, into the pan under them to catch it, as this is considered finer eating even than the flesh of the birds; continue the basting. Jetting the butter fall from them into the basting-spoon or ladle, as it cannot be collected again frm the dripping-pan should it drop there, in consequence of the toast or toasts being in it There should be one of these for each woodcock, and the trsil should be spread equally over it When the birds are done, which thev will be, at a brisk fire, in from twenty to twenty-five minutes, lay the toasts inta

292

HODEBN COOKERY.

TO ROAST GROUSE. ., '3 Handle the birds very lightly in plucking off the ta& 'arj, them, and vripe the insides with clean damp cloths; or '==r c:::,-; and then dry them well; though this latter mode would ' vl proved generally by epicures. Truss the grouse in thesa - - urr c as the blade game above, and roast them about half an ho - i and brisk me, keeping them basted almost without ! - r::. Serve them on a buttered toast which has been laid undt rzil, pan for ten minutes, or with gravy and bread sauce only. Qii? I hour to 35 minutes. ic. - ' Ohs, - There are few occaaons, we think, in which th; ' the dripping-pan can be introduced at table with advw: _7 dre8sinr moor game, we would strongly recommend th s-. ' laid in it under the birds, as it will afford a superior rdi .;e.,!!!!'' birds themselves. i.: A BALMI OF MOOR POWL, PHEASANTS, OR PAP 54. ' (bntrAb.) "a:;: This is an excellent mode of serving the remains of .. ' "cenQsr but when a superlative salmi is desircd, the birds mi:t ''s&Uiek. more then half roasted for it In either case carve the,,T. tHoQ and strip every particle of skin and fat from the It ' "" n breasts; bruise the bodies well, and put them with the trimmings into a very clean stewpan. If for a simple dinner, merely add to them t o or tlirce sliced esclis a small blade of mace, and a few peppercoraj; then f rather more of good eal grary or strong broths a tete. until Tuccd nearly half; strain the ravji preiqg to obtain all the flavour, skim otT the fat, add a lit lemon-juiec heat the rame very gta 3ually in it, btil

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294 MODERN COOKERY. chap.zv. very hot dish, dress the birds upon them, pour a little graTj rooad the bread, and send more to table in a tureen. Woodcock, 20 to 25 minutes; snipe, 5 minutes

TO BOAST THE PINTAIL, OR SEA PHEASANT. All irild-fowl is in foU season in mid--wmter: the more severe the veetho; the more abondant are the supplies of it in the markets. It may be had nsuflj from NoTember to March. This beautifhl bird is by no means rare upon our eastern coast, bot we know not whether it be much seen in the markets generalh'. It is most excellent eating, and should be roasted at a clear quick fiic well floured when first laid down, turned briskly, and basted vitk butter almost without cessation. If drawn from the spit in fins twenty-five to thirty minutes, then dished and laid before the fire &r two or three more, it will gire forth a singularly rich gravy. Score the breast when it is carved sprinkle on it a little cayenne and fat salt, and let a cut lemon be handed roimd the table when the bard ii served; or omit the scoring, and send round with it brown giavr, and Christopher Norths sauce made hot (For this, see t& w lowing page.) 20 to 30 minutes. TO ROAST WILD DUCKS. A bit of soft bread soaked in port wine, or in claret, is a umetimw put into them, but nothing more. Flour them well, lay them rather near to a very clear and brisk fire, that they may be quickly faroimed, and yet retain their juices. Baste them plentifully and ooaatantlT with butter, and, if it can be so rlated, let the spit turn with tbeoi rapidly. IVom fifteen to twenty minutes will roast them sufficJesdr for the generality of eaters; but for those who obiect to theai man imderdressed, a few additional minutes must be aUowed. Something less of time will suffice when they are prepared for persons who like them scarcely more than heated throu. Teal, which is a more delicate kind of wild fowl, is roasted in the same way: in from ten to fifteen minutes it will be enough done fat the fashionable mode of serving it, and twenty minutes will dress ii well at a good fire. A SALMI OR HASn OF WILD FOWL. Carve the birds very neatly, strip ofi the skin, and proceed ss fir the salmi of pheasants (page 292), but mix port or daret, instead of white wine, with the wn.yyy and give it a rather high seasonigrrf cayenne. Throw in the juice of half a small lemon before the stia is served, place fHed sippets round the dish, and send it to table m hot as possible.

CBAP. zr. GAME. 296 For a common hash boil the akin and trimmingt of thenld-fowl in some good broth, or gravy (with a couple of lightly fried eschalots or not, at choice), nntil their flavour is imnarted to it; then strain, heat, and thicken it slightly, with a little brown roux, or browned floor; add a wineglaasml of port wine, some lemon-juioe, and caygme; or sufficient of Christopher North's sauce to flavour it well; vinn the birds slowly in it, and serve them as soon as they are thoronghly hot, but without allowing them to boil

The following' receipt havings from madvertencej been omitted from (he chapter to which it properly belongs - as the reader has already been iiormed-a place is given to it herel CHBISTOPHER NOBTH's OWN 8AUCB FOR MANY MEATS. Throw into a small basin a heaped saltspooniul of good cayenne pepper, m very fine powder and naif the Quantity of salt; add a nuul dessertspoonful of well-refined, poundea, and sliced sugar; mix these thorougnly; then pour in a tablespoonM of the strained juice of a fresh lemon, two of Harvey's sauce, a teaspoonful of the very best mushroom catsup (or of cavice), and three tablespoonsM, or a smaU wineglassftil, of port wine. Heat the sauce by placing the basm in a saucepan of boiling water, or turn it into a jar, and place this in the water. Serve it directly it is readv with seese or ducks, tame or wild; roast pork, venison, fawn, a grilled blade-bone, or any other broil. A slight flavour of garlic or eschalot vinegar niay be giyen to it at pleasure. Some persons use it with fish. It is good cold; and, if bottled directly it is made, may be stored for several dm. It is the better for bemg mixed some hours before it is served. The proportion of cayenne may be doubled when a very pungent sauce V desired. Good cayenne pepper in fine powder, 1 heaped saltspoonful: salt, half as much; pounded sugar, 1 small dessertn)oomul; strained lemon juice, 1 tablespoonful; Harvey's sauce, 2 tablespoonsful; best nmshioom catsup (or cadce), 1 teaspoonful; port wine, 3 tablespoonsful, or small winlassful. (Little eschalot, or garlic-vinegar Ofti.- Tois sauce is exceedingly good when mixed with the brown gravy of a hash or stew, or with t which is served with game or other dishes.

294 MODERN COOKEBT. our.x?. % yezy hot dish, dress the birds upon them, pour a littk graTy roaaS the bread, and send more to table in a tureexL. Woodcock, 20 to 25 minutes; snipe, 5 minutes less. TO BOAST THE PINTAIL, OR SEA PHEASANT. All irild-fbwl is in fnll season in mid-winter: the mora seveie tlieirettbs. the more abxmdsnt are the supplies of it in the markets. It may be hid usi&y from Norember to March. This beautifhl bird is bj no means rare upon our eastern eosstbat we know not whether it be much seen in the markets generally. It is most excellent eating, and should be roasted at a clear qiuck fiie well floured when first laid down, turned briskly, and basted with butter almost without cessation. If drawn from the spat in from twenty-five to thirty minutes, then dished and laid before the fire fiir two or three more, it will give forth a singularly rich gravy. Score the breast when it is carv sprinkle on it a little cayenne and fine salt, and let a cut lemon be handed round the table When the biriii served; or omit the scoring, and send round with it brown gtm, and Christopher Norths sauce made hot. (For this, see toe ntlowing page.) 20 to 30 minutes. TO ROAST WILD DUCKS. A bit of soft bread soaked in port wine, or in claret, is sometinB put into them, but nothing more. Flour them well, lay them ntkr near to a very clear and brisk fire, that they may be quickly browned, and yet retain their juices. Baste them plenufulljr and ooDStsndj with butter, and, if it can be so regulated, let the spit turn with tbea rapidly. From fifteen to twenty minutes will roast them sofSdestb for the generality of eaters; but for those who object to thea torn underdressed, a few additional minutes must be allowed. Sometbins less of time will suffice when they are prepared for persons who Hke them scarcely more than heated throu. Teal, which is a more delicate kind of wild fowl, is roasted in tbe same way: in from ten to fifteen minutes it will be enough done fa the fashionable mode of serving it, and twenty minutes will dress it well at a good fire. A SALMI, OR HASH OF WILD FOWL. Carve the birds very neatly, strip off the skin, and proceed as fir the salmi of pheasants (page 292), but mix port or daret, instad d white wine, with the gnyji and give it a rather high seasoniiifff cayenne. Throw in the juice of half a small lemon before the tun is served, place fried sippets round the dish, and send it to table m hot as possible.

xr. GAME. 296 For a common hash boU the akin and trimminga of the wild-fowl in some good broth, or gravy (with a couple of lightly fried eschalots or not, at choice), nntil their flavour is imnarted to it; then strain, heat, and thicken it slightly, with a little brown roux, or browned floor; add a wineglaasfnl of port wine, some lemon-juice, and cayenne; or sufBcient of Christopher North's sauce to flavour it well; WBim the birds slowly in it, and serve them as soon as they are thoroaghly hot, but without allowing them to boil.

TkefoSowing receipt harnng from inadvertence, been omitted from (he chapter to which it properly belongs - as the reader has already been trfonied-a place is given to it herel CHRISTOPHER NORTH's OWN SAUCE FOR MANY MEATS. Throw into a small basin a heaped saltspoonful of good cayenne pemr, in very fine powder and naif the ouantitjr of salt; add a flnul dessertspoonful of well-refined, poundea, and siAed sugar; mix these thorougUy; then pour in a tablespoonful of the strained juice of a fresh lemon, two of Harvey's sauce, a teaspoonful of the lery best mushroom catsup (or of cavice), and three tablespoonsful, or a small wineglassful, of port wine. Heat the sauce by placing the bsan in a saucepan of boiling water, or turn it into a jar, and placo this in the water. Sorve it directly it is readv with seese or ducks, tame or wild; roast pork, venison, fawn, a gri&ed blade-bone, or any other broil. A slight flavour of garlic or eschalot vinegar may l e giren to it at pleasure. Some persons use it with fish. It is good cold; and, if bottled directly it is made, may be stored for several dm. It is the better for bemg mixed some hours before it is served. Tie proportUm of cayenne may be doubled when a very pungent sauce u desired, Oood cayenne pepper in fine powder, 1 heaped saltspoonfril: salt, half as much; pounded sugar, 1 small des8ertn)ooimil; strained lemon juice, 1 tablespoonful; Harvey's sauce, 2 tablespoonsful; best mushroom catsup (or cavice), 1 teaspoonful; port wine, 3 tablespoonsful, or small winlassful. (Little eschalot, or garlic- vinegar at pleasure Obs.-ThiB sauce is exceedingly good when mixed with the brown gnvy of a bash or stew, or with that which is served with game or other dishes.

294 MODERN COOKEBT. CHAT.Z?. very hot dish, dress the birds upon them, pour a little graTj Toad the bread, and send more to table in a tureen. Woodcock, 20 to 25 minutes; snipe, 5 minutes less. TO BOAST THE PINTAIL, OR SEA PHEASANT. All irild-ibwl is in fnll season in mid-winter: the mora seven ilie vesUici; the more abondant are the supplies of it in the markets. It may be had wuDj from NoTember to March. This beautiful bird is by no means rare upon our eastern eoast,biit we know not whether it be much seen in the markets generaUj. It is most excellent eating, and should be roasted at a dear qiu fire well floured when first laid down, turned briskly, and basted wiA butter almost without cessation. If drawn from the spit in finoB twenty-five to thirty minutes, then dished and laid before the fire &r two or three more, it will give forth a singularly rich grm,ry. SeoR the breast when it is carved sprinkle on it a little cayenne and fine salt, and let a cut lemon be handed round the table when the bird ii served; or omit the scoring, and send round with it brown gnir, and Christopher NortVs sauce made hot. (For this, see t& allowing page.) 20 to 30 minutes. TO ROAST WILD DUCKS. A bit of soft bread soaked in port wine, or in claret, is aumrii i Ti put into them, but nothing more. Flour them well, lay them ntker near to a very clear and brisk fire, that they may be quickly farowDsd and yet retain their juices. Baste them plenmuUjr and coust a ady with butter, and, if it can be so regulated, let the spit turn with thoa rapidly. Fom fifteen to twenty minutes will roast them suffideodT for the generality of eaters; but for those who object to thesk man underdressed, a few additional minutes must be allowed. SometUof less of time will suffice when they are prepared for persons who lib them scarcely more than heated through. Teal, which is a more delicate kind of wild fowl, is roasted ia the same way: in from ten to fifteen minutes it will be enough done fir the fashionable mode of serving it, and twenty minutes will dresi it well at a good fire. A SALHI OR HASH OF WILD FOWL. Carve the birds very neatly, strip off the skin, and proceed as ftr the salmi of pheasants (page 292), out mix port or dareC, instead d white wine, with the grav, and give it a rather high seaaoniiyrf cayenne. Throw in the juice of half a small lemon before the saliB is served, place fried sippets round the dish, and send it to table a hot as possible.

GKAP. XT. GAME. 296 For a commoii hash boil the skin and trimmingt of the wild-fowl in some good broth, or gravy with a couple of lightly fried eflchalots or not, at choice), until their navonr is imparted to it; then strain, lieat, and thicken it slightly, with a little brown roux, or browned iloar; add a wineglaasml of port wine, some lemon-juice, and cayenne; or sufficient of Christopher NortVs sauce to flavour it weU; warm the birds slowly in it, and serve them as soon as they are thorooghly hot, but without allowing them to boil.

177 olhwifig receipt havings Jrom madvertence been omitted from the ekapter to which it properly heUmgeas the reader has already been iarformed - a place is given to it here CHRISTOPHER KORTH's OWN SAUCE FOR MANY MEATS. Throw into a small basin a heaped saltspoonfnl of good cayome pepper, in veiy fine powder and naif the Quantity of salt; add a mull dessertspoonful of well-refined, poundea, and sifted sugar; mix these thorougnly; then pour in a tablespooniul of the strained juice of a fresh lemon, two of Harve's sauce, a teaspoonful of the very best mushroom catsup (or of cavice), and three tablespoonsful, or a small wiuifLissfnl, of port wine. Heat the sauce by placing the basin in a saucepan of boiling water, or turn it into a jar, and place this in the water. Starve it directly it is ready with geese or ducks, tame or wild; roast pork, venison, fawn, a gri&ed blade-bone, or any other broil. A slight flavour of garlic or eschalot vinegar may he given to it at pleasure. Some persons use it with fish. It is good eold; and, if bottled directly it is made, may be stored for several dm. It is the better for bemg mixed some hours before it is served. Tie proportion qf cayenne may be doubled when a very pungent sauce u desired. Oood cayenne pepper in fine powder, 1 heaped saltspoonfnl: salt, half as much; pounded sugar, 1 small dessertspooimil; strained lemon juice, 1 tablespoonful; Harveys sauce, 2 tablespoonsful; best mudiroom catsup (or cavice), 1 teaspoonful; port wine, 3 tablespoonsful, or small winlassful. (Little eschalot, or garlic-vinegar atpleasnreO Obs. - This sauce is exceedingly good when mixed with the brown gravy of a hash or stew, or with that which is served with game or other dishes.

294 MODERN COOKEBT. cHAP. XV. yery hot dish, dress the birds upon them, pour a little graTy round the bread, and send more to table in a tureen. Woodcock, 20 to 25 minutes; snipe, 5 minutes less. TO BOAST THE PINTAIL, OR BEA PHEASANT. All irild-ibwl is in fnll season in midwinter: the more serere the westher, the more sbnndsnt are the supplies of it in the markets. It may be had usually from NoTember to March. This beautifbl bird is by no means rare upon our eastern coast, but we know not whether it be much seen in the markets generally. It b most excellent eating, and should be roasted at a clear quick fire, well floured when first laid down, turned briskly, and basted with butter almost without cessation. If drawn from the spit in from twenty-five to thirty minutes, then dished and laid before the fire for two or three more, it will give forUi a singularly rich gravy. Score the breast when it is carv sprinkle on it a little cayenne and fine salt, and let a cut lemon be handed round the table when the bird is served; or omit the scoring, and send round with it brown gravy, and ChristoDher North's sauce made hot. (For this, see the following page.) 20 to 30 minutes. TO ROAST WILD DUCKS. A bit of soft bread soaked in port wine, or in claret, is sometimes put into them, but nothing more. Flour them well, lay them rather near to a very clear and brisk fire, that they may be quickly browned and yet retain their juices. Baste them plenmull and constantly with butter, and, if it can be so regulated, let the spit turn with them rapidly. Fom fifteen to twenty minutes will roost them sufficiently for the generality of eaters; but for those who object to thesi much imderdressed, a few additional minutes must be allowed. Something less of time will suffice when they are prepared for persona who like them scarcely more than heated throng. Teal, which is a more delicate kind of wild fowl, is roasted in the same way: in from ten to fifteen minutes it will be enough done for the fashionable mode of serving it, and twenty minutes will dress h well at a good fire. A SALMI, OR HASH OF WILD FOWL. Carve the birds very neatly, strip off the skin, and proceed as for the salmi of pheasants (page 292), but mix port or claret, instead dt white wine, with the mvy and give it a rather high seasoning of cayenne. Throw in the juice of half a small lemon before the sumi is served, place fried sippets round the dish, and send it to table hot as possible.

CHAP, xr. GAHE. 296 For a common hash bofl the Bkin and trimminflt of the wild-fowl in some good broth, or gravy (with a couple of lightly fried eschalots or not, at choice), nntil their flavour is miparted to it; then strain, heat, and thicken it slightly, with a little brown roux, or browned flour; add a wineglaasral of port wine, some lemon-juice, and cavenne; or sufficient of Christopher North's sauce to flavour it weU; warm the birds slowly in it, and serve them as soon as they are thoroughly hot, but without allowing them to boil.

TheoUawijig receipt havings from madvertencey been omitted from the chapter to which it properly behnge - as the reader has already been informed- a place is given to it here CHRISTOPHER NORTH's OWN 8AUCB FOR MANY MEATS. Throw into a small basin a heaped saltspoonful of good cayenne pepper, in very flne powder and naif the Quantity of salt; add a smuBll dessertspoonful of weU-refined, poundea, and sifted sugar; mix these thorougnly; then pour in a tablespoonful of the strained juice of a fresh lemon, two of Harves sauce, a teaspoonful of the very best mushroom catsup (or of cavice), and three tablespoonsful, or a SDudl winlassfnl, of port wine. Heat the sauce by placing the basin in a saucepan of boiling water, or turn it into a jar, and pliaco this in the water. Serve it directly it is ready with seese or ducks, tame or wild; roast pork, venison, fawn, a gri&ed blade-bone, or any other broil. A slight flavour of garlic or eschalot vinegar may lie given to it at pleasure. Some persons use it with fish. It is good cold; and, if bottled directly it is made, may be stored for several days. It is the better for bemg mixed some hours before it is served. lie proportion of cayenne may he doubled when a very pungent sauce udesirea. Oood cayenne pepper in fine powder, 1 heaped saltspoonful: salt, half as much; pounded sugar, 1 small desserUpoomul; strained lemon juice, 1 taluespoonfiil; Harvey8 sauce, 2 tablespoonsful; best mushroom catsup (or cavice), 1 teaspoonful; port wine, 3 tablespoonsful, or small winlassful. (Little eschalot, or garlic-vinegar at pleasure Obs. - Tnis sauce is exceedingly cood when mixed with the brown gravy of a hash or stew, or with that which is served with game or other dishes.

298

MODERN COOKERY

chap, xvl

CHAPTER XVL €mus, oM Pats, &t.

The great superiority of the oriental curries over those generally prepared in England is not, we believe, altogether the result of a •want of skill or of experience on the part of our cooks, but is attributable in some measure, to many of the ingredients, which in a fresh and green state add to much to their excellence, being here Tbeyond our reach. With us, turmeric and cayenne pepper prevail in them often far too powerfully: the prodigal use of the former should be especially avoided, as it injures both the quality and the colour of the currie, which ought to be of a dark green, rather than of a red or yellow hue. A couple of ounces of a sweet, sound cocoa-nut, lightly grated and stewed for nearly or quite an hour in the gravy of a currie, is a great improvement to its flavour: it will be found jmrticularly agreeable wim that of sweetbreads, and may be served in the currie, or strained from it at pleasure. Great care however, should be taken not to use, for the purpose, a nut that is rancid. Spinagc, cucumbers, vegetable marrow, tomatas, acid apples, green gooseberries (seeded), and tamarinds imported in the shell - not

CHAF. XTl. CUBBIES, POTTED HEATS, &C. 297 prescrred - may all, in their season, be added, with yeiy good effect, to curries of different kinds. Potatoes and celery are also occasionally boiled down in them. The rice for a cnrrie should always be sent to table in a separate dish from it, and in serring them, it should be first helped, and the eonie laid upon it. MS. AXM0TT8 GURBIE-rOWDBB Turmeric, eight ounces. Coriander seed, four ounces. Cummin seed, two ounces. Foenugreek seed, two ounces. Cayenne, half an ounce. (More or less of this last to the taste.) Let the seeds be of the finest quality. Dry them well, pound, and sift them separately through a lawn sieve, then weigh, and mix them in the above proportions. This is an exceedingly agreeable and aromatic powder, when all the ingredients are penectly fresh and good, but the preparing is rather a troublesome process. Mr. Amott recommends that when it is considered so, a high -caste chemist should be applied to for it MR. ARNOTt's CURRIE. Take the heart of a cabbage, and nothing but the heart, that is to say, pull awajr all the outside leaves unm it is about the size of an egg; chop it fine, add to it a couple of apples sliced thin. the juice of one lemon, half a teaspoonful of black pepper, with one large tablespoonful of my cume-powder, and mix toe whole well together. Now take six onions that have been chopped fine and fried brown, a garlic head, the size of a nutmeg, also minced fine, two ounces of fresh butter, two tablespoonsful orflour, and one innt of strong mutton or beef gravy; and when these articles are boiling, add tne former ingredients, and let the whole be well stewed up together: if not hot enough, add cayenne pepper. Next put in a fowl that has been roasted and nicely cut up; or a rabbit; or some lean chops of pork or mutton; or a lobster, or the remains of yesterday's cafrs head; or anything else you may fancy; and you will have an excellent currie, fit for kings to partake of. • WcU I now for the rice I It should be put into water which should be frequently changed, and should remam in for half an hour at least; this both clears and soaks it. Have your saucepan fall of water (the larger the better), and when it boils rapidly, throw the rice into it: it will be done in fifteen minutes. Strain it into a dish, wipe the saucepan dry, return the drained rice into it, and put it over We think it would be an improTement to diminish by two ounces the proportion of tonnerio, and to increase that of the ooiiaoder seed; bnt we haye not tried ic

298 MODERN COOKEBT. chap.xvx. a gentle fire for a few minutes, with a cloth over it: eycrj grain wHL be separate. When served, do not cover the dish Obs. - We have already given testimony to the excellence of Mr. Amott8 currie-powder, but we think the currie itself will be found somewhat too acid for English taste in general, and the proportion of onion and garlic by one half too much for any but well seasoned Anglo-Indian palates. After havina; tried his method of boiling the rice, we still give the preference to that of Chapter L, page 36. A BENGAL CUBRIE. Slice and fry three large onions in two ounces of butter, and lift them out of the pan when done. Put into a stewpan thiee other large onions and a small clove of garlic which have been pounded together, and smoothly mixed with a dessertspoonful of the best pale turmeric, a teaspoonful of powdered ginr, one of salt, and one of cayenne pepper; add to these the butter m which the onions were fried, and half a cupful of good gravy; let diem stew for about ten minutes, taking care that they shall not bum. Next, stir to them the fried onions and half a pint more of gravy; add a pound and a half of mutton, or of any other meat, free from bone and fat, and simmer it gently for an hour, or more should it not then be perfectly tender. Fried onions, 3 large; butter, 2 oz.; onions pounded, S laige; garlic, 1 dove; turmeric, 1 dessertspoonful; powdered ginger, salt sayenne, each 1 teaspoonful; gravy, cupful: 10 minutes. Gravy pint; meat, 1) lb.: 1 hour or more A DRT CURRIE. Skin and cut down a fowl into small joints, or a couple of pounds of mutton, free fVom fat and bone, into very small iMtk cutlets; rub them with as much currie-powder, mixed with a teaspoonful of flour and one of salt, as can be made to adhere to them: tnis will be from two to three tablespoonsfhl. Dissolve a good slice of butter in a deep, well-tinned stewpan or saucepan, and shake it over a brisk fire for four or five minutes, or until it bins to take colour; then put in the meat, and brown it well and equally, without allowing a morsel to be scorched. The pan should be shaken vigorously every minute or two, and the meat turned in it frequently. When this is done, lift it out and throw into the stewpan two or three large onions finely min, and four or five eschalots whn these last are liked; add • morsel of butter if needftil, and fry them until they begin to soften; then add a quarter of a pint of gravy, broth, or boiling water, and a laree acid apple, or two moderate-sized ones, of a good boiling kind, with the hearts of two or three lettuces, or of one hard cabbage, shred quite small (tomatas or cucumbers freed fVom their seeds can be substituted for these when in season). Stew the whole dowly until It

CHAP, zn. CUBBIES, POTTED MEATS, &ۥ 299' resembles a thick pulp, and add to it any additional liqnid that may be leooired, should it become too dry; put in the meat, and simmer the vrhoLe veiy sofUy until this is done, which will be in from three quarters of an hour to an hour. Prawns, shrimps, or the flesh of boiled lobsters may be slowly heated through, and served in this currie sauce with good effect, A COMMON INBIAK CURRIE. For each pound of meat, whether veal, mutton, or beef, take a. heaped tablpoonful of ood currie powder, a small teaspoonful of salt, and one of flour; mix these well together, and after haying cut down the meat'into thick small cutlets, or dice, rub half of the imxed Eler equally over it Next, fry gently from one to four or five onions sliced, with or without the addition of a small clove of: or half a dozen eschalots, according to the taste; and when they are of a fine golden brown, lift them out with a slice and lay them upon a sieve to drain; throw a little more butter into the pan and fiy the meat lightly in it; drain it well from the fat in taking it out, and lay it into a clean stewpan or saucepan; strew the onion over it, and pour in as much boiling water as will almost cover it. Mix the remamder of the curiie-powder smoothly with a little broth or cold water, and after the currie has stewed for a few minutes pour it in. shaking the pan well round that it may be smoothly blended with the gravy. Simmer Uie whole very softly until the meat is perfectly tender: this will be in from an hour and a quarter to two hours and a half, according to the quantity and the nature of the meat. Mutton will be the soonest done; the brisket end (gristles) of a breast of veal will require twice as much stewing, and sometimes more. A fowl wUl be ready to serve in an hour. An acid apple or two, or any of the vegetables which we have enumerated at the commencement of this chai ter, may be added to the currie, proper time being allowed for cooking each variety. Yeiy young green peas are liked by some people in it; and cucumbers pared, seed, and cut moderately small,. are always a good addition. A richer currie will of course be produced if gravy or broth be substituted for the water: either should be boiling when poured to the meat. Lemon-juice should be stirred in before it is served, when there is no other acid in the currie. A dish of boiLed rice must be sent to table with it. A couple of poundsof meat free fit)m bone, is sufficient quite for a moderate-sized dish of this kind, but three of the breast of veal are sometimes used for it, when it is to be served to a larce family-party of currie-eaters; from half to a whole pound of rice snould then accompany it. For the proper mode of boiling it, see page 36. The small grained, or Patna, is the kind which ought to be used for the purpose. Six ounces is suflicient for a not liurge. currie; and a pound, when boiled dry, and heated lightly in a dish, apoears an enormous quantity for a Diodem table.

300 MODERN COOKEBY. cSAF. XTI To each poand of meat, whether veal, mntton, or beef, 1 heaped tablespoonnil of good currie-powder, 1 small teaspoonful of salt, and a laige one of flour, to be well mixed, and hair nibbed on to the meat before it is fried, the rest added afterwards; onions fried, finom 1 to 4 or 5 (with or without the addition of a clove of garlic, or half a dozen eschalots); sufficient boiling water to nearly coyer the meat: vegetables, as in receipt, at choice; stewed, 1 to 2 hours: a fowl, 1 hour, or rather less; beef 2 lbs., 1) hour, or more; brisket of veal, 2i to 3 hours. Ohs, - Rabbits make a very good currie when quite young. Cayenne pepper can always be added to heighten the pungency of a currie, when the proportion in the powder is not considered sufficiit selim's curries. Captain White's.) These curries arc made with a sort of paste, which is labelled with the above names, and as it has attracted some attention of late, and the curries made with it are verv good, and quickly and easily Erepared, we give the directions iot them. " Cut a pound and a all of chicken, fowl, veal, rabbit, or mutton, into pieces an inch and a half square. Put from two to three ounces of fresh butter in a stewpan, and when it is melted put in the meat, and give it a good stir with a wooden spoon; add from two to three dessertspoonsful of the currie-paste; mix the whole up well together, and continue the stirring over a brisk fire from five to ten minutes, and the currie will be done. This is a dry currie. For a gravy currie, add two or three tablespoonsflil of boiling water after the paste is well mixed in, and continue the stewing and stirring from ten to twelve minutes longer, keeping the sauce of the consistency of cream. Prepare salmon and lobster in the same way, but very quickly, that they may come up firm. The naste may be rubbed over steaks, or cutlets, when they are nearly broiled; three or four minutes will finish iJiem. CURRIED HACCARONT. Boil six ounces of ribband maccaroni for fifteen minutes, in water slightly salted, with a ver small bit of butter dissolved in it drain it perfectly, and then put it into a full pint and a quarter of good beef or veal stock or gravy, previously mixed and boiled for twenty minutes, with a smul tablespoonful of fine currie-powder, a teaspoonful of arrowroot, and a little lemon-juice. Heftt and toss the Unless the meat De extremely tender, and oat small, it will require firom ten to fifteen minutes stewing: when no liquid is added, it most be stirred without SntermiBsion, or the paste will bum to the pan. It answers wdl for cutlets, and tox, mnllagatawny soup also; but makes a rery mild eonie.

CHAP. XVI. CUBBIES, POTTED MEATS, &C. 301 nuuicaroiu gently in this nntil it is well and equally covered with it. A small quantity of rich cream, or a little bechamel, will very much improve the sauce, into which it should be stirred just before the maccaroni is added, and the lemon-juice should be thrown in afterwards. This dish is, to our taste, far better without the strong flavouring of onion or garlic, usually given to curries; which can, however, be imparted to the gravy in the usual way, when it is liked. Ribband maccaroni, 6 oz.: 15 to 18 minutes. Gravy, or good beef or veal stock, full pint and i; fine currie-powder, 1 small tablespoonful; arrow-root, 1 tcaspoonful; little lemon-juice: 20 minutes. Maccaroni in sauce, 3 to 6 minutes. Ob$. - An ounce or two of grated cocoa-nut, simmered in the pTavy for half an hour or more, then strained and well pressed from It, is always an excellent addition. The pipe maccaroni, well curried, is extremely good: the sauce for both Kmds should be made with rich gravy, especially when the onion is omitted. A few drops of eschalot-vinegar can be added to it when the flavour is liked. CURRIED EGOS. Boil six or eight freah eggs uite hard, as for salad, and put them aside until they are cold. Mix well together from two to three ounces of good butter, and firom three to four dessertspoonsful of currie-powder; ae them in a stew-pan or thick saucepan, over a dear but moderate fire for some minutes, then throw in a couple of mild onions finely minced, and fry them gently until they are tolerably soft: pour to them, by degrees, from half to three quarters of a pint of broth or gravy, and stew them slowly until thev are reduced to pulp; mix smoothly a small cup of thick cream with two teaspoonsful or wheaten or of rice-flour, stir them to the currie, and simmer the whole until the raw taste of the thickening is gone. Cut the eggs into half inch slices, heat them quite through in the sauce without boiling them, and servo them as hot as possible. CURRIED SWEETBREADS. Wash and soak them as usual, then throw them into boiling water with a little salt in it, and a whole onion, and let them simmer for ten minutes; or, if at hand, substitute weak veal broth for the water. Lift them out, place them on a drainer, and leave them until they are perfectly cold; then cut them into half-inch slices, and either flour and fiy them lightly in butter, or put them, without this, into as much curried gravy as will just cover them; stew them in it very gently, firom twenty to thirty minutes; add as much lemon-juice or chili vinegar as will acidulate the sauce agreeably, and serve tiie currie very hot. As we have already stated in two or We And that a small porticm of Indian pickled mango, or of its liqnor, is an agreeable addition to a oorrie as irell as to mnllagatawny soup.

1(02 MODERN COOKERY. CHAF. xn. three preTious receipts, an ounce or more of sweet ireshly-grated cocoa-nut, stewed tender in the gpvy, and strained from it, bdbre the sweetbreads are added, will give a peculiarly pleasant flavour to all cunies. Blanched 10 minutes; sliced (fried or not); stewed 20 to SO minutes. CURRIED OYSTERS. " Let a hundred of large sea-oysters be opened into a basin without losing one drop of their liquor. Put a lump of fresh buttei into a ood-sized saucepan, and when it boils, add a large onion, cut into thin slices, and let it fry in the uncoyered stewpan until it is of rich brown: now add a bit more butter, and two or three tablespoonsful of currie-powder. When these ingredients are well mixed over the fire with a lyooden spoon, add gradually either hot water, or broth from the stock-pot; cover the stewpan, and let the whole boil up. Meanwhile, have ready the meat or a cocoa-nut, grated or rasped fine, put this into the stewpan with a few sour tamarinds (if they are to be obtamed, if nol a sour apple, chopped). Let the whole slnuner over the fire untQ the apple is dicBolyed, and the cocoa-nut very tender; then add a cupful of strong thidcenini made of flour and water, and sufficient salt, as a currie will not bear being salted at table. Let this boil up for five minutes. Have ready •also, a vegetable marrow, or part of one, cut into bits, and sufficiently boiled to require little or no iirther cooking. Put this in with a tomata or two; either of these vegetables ma be omitted. Kow put into the stewpan the oysters with their bquor, and the milk of the cocoa-nut, if it be perfectly sweet; stir them well with the former ingredients; let the currie stew gently for a few minutes, then throw in the strained juice of half a lemon. Stir the currie from time to time with a wooden spoon, and as soon as the oysters arc done enough serve it up with a corresponding dish of rice on the -opposite Ride of the table. The dish is considered at Madras the jiepltu ultra of Indian cookery." We have extracted this receipt, as it stands, from the Magazine of Domestic Economy, the season in whidi we have met with it not permitting us to have it tested. Such of our readers as may have partaken of the true Oriental preparation, will be able to judge of Its correctness; and others may consider it worthy of a triaL We should suppose it necessary to beard the oysters. CURRIED GRAVY, The quantity of onion, eschalot, or garlic used for a currie should be regulated by the taste of the persons for whom it is prepaied; the • NadTe oveterSi prepared as for aaxiee, may be ennied by tke receipt fiar eggs or sweetbreads, with the addition of their liaor.

CHAP, zvl cubbies, potted heats, &c. 303

very lai proportions of them which are acceptable to some eaters, preventmg others altogether from partaking of the dish. Slice, and 117 gently in a little good butter, from two to six large onions (with a bit of garlic, and four or five eschalots, or none of either), when they are coloiu equally of a fine yellow-brown, lift them on to a sieve reversed to drain; put them into a clean saucepan, add a pint and a half of good gravy, with a couple of ounces of rasped cocoanut, or of any of the other condiments we have already specified, which may require as much stewins as the onions (an apple or two, for instance), and simmer them softfy from half to three quarters of an hour, or until the onion is sufficiently tender to be pressed through a strainer. We would recommend that for a delicate currie this should always be done: for a common one it is not necessary; and many persons prefer to have the whole of it left in this last After the gravy has been worked through the strainer, and again boils, add to it from three to four dessertspoons of cnnie-powder, and one of flour, with as much salt as the gravy may requu, the whole mixed to a smooth batter with a small cm ful of £ood cream. Simmer it from fifteen to twenty minutes, ana it will be ready for use. Lobster, prawns, shrimps, maccaroni, hard-boiled eggBy cold calTs head, and various other meats ma; be heated and served in it with advantage. For all of these, and indeed for every kind of currie, add of some sort should be added. Chili vinegar answers well when no fresh lemon-juice is at hand. Onions, 2 to 6 (garlic, 1 clove, or eschalots, 4 to 5, or neither); fried a light brown. Gravy, H pint; cocoa-nut, 2 oz. (3, if very young): 1 to i hour. Currie-powder, 3 to 4 dessertspoonsful; flour, 1 desKrtspoonful; salt, as ned; cream, 1 small cupful: 15 to 20 minutes. Obs. - In India, curds axe fquently added to curries, but that may possibly be from their abounding much more than sweet cream in so hot a climate; POTTED VBATS. Any tender and well-roasted meat, taken free of fat, skin, and gristle, as well as from the dry outsides, will answer for potting admirably, better indeed than that which is generally baked for the purpose, and which is usually ouite deprived of its juices by the process. Spiced or corned beef also is excellent when thus prepared; and any of these will remain sood a long time if mixed witn cold fresh batter, instead of that which is clarified; but no addition that can be made to it will render the meat eatable, unless it be thoroughly pownded; reduced, in fact, to the smoothest possible paste, free from a Thia xniiflt be tded only just before the ourrie is dished, nhen any oeti froift ban been boiled in the grary: it may then be first blended with a waalXL portion of anow-root, or 2oiir.

S04 MODERN COOK£BT. chaf. XTL single lump or a morsel of unbroken fibre. If rent into fragments, instead of being quite cut through the grain in being minced, before it is put into the mortar, no beatmg vrill bring it to the proper state. Umess it be very dry, it is better to pound it for some time before any butter is added, and it must be long and patiently beaten after all the ingredients are mixed, that the whole may be equally blended and well mellowed in flavour. The quantity of butter required will depend upon the nature of the meat; ham and salted beef will need a larger proportion than roast meat, or than the breasts of poultry and game; white fish, from being less dry, will require comparatively little. Salmon, lobsters, prawns, and shrimps are all extremely eood, prepared in this way. They should, however, be perfectly fresn when they are pounded, and be set immediately afterwards into a very cool place. For these, and for white meats in neral, mace, nutmeg, and cayenne or white pepper, are the appropnate spices. A small quantity of cloves may oe added to hare and other brown meat, but allspice we would not recommend unless the taste is known to be in favour of it. The following receipt for pounding ham will serve as a general one for the particular manner of proceeding. POTTED HAil. (An excellent Receipt) To be eaten in perfection this should be made with a freshly cured ham, which, after bavins been soaked for twelve hours, should be wiped dry, nicely trimmed, closely wrapped in coarse paste, and baked very tender. When it comes from the oven, remove the crust and rind, and when the ham is perfectly cold, take for each pound of the lean, which should be weighed after every morsel of skin and fibre has been carefully removed, six ounces of cold roast veal, prepared with equal nicety. Mince these quite fine with an exceedingly sharp knife, taking care to cut through the meat, and not to tear the fibre, as on this much of the excellence of the preparation depends. Next put it into a large stone or marble mortar, and pound it to the smootnest paste with eight ounces of fresh butter, which must be added by degrees. When three parts beaten, strew over it a teaspoonftd of freshly-pounded mace, half a large, or the whole of a small nutmeg ffrated, and the third of a teaspoomul of cayenne well mixed together. It is better to limit the spice to this quantity in the first instance, and to increase afterwards either of the three kinds to the taste of the parties to whom the meat is to be served.! We do not find half a teaspoonful of cayenne, and nearly two teaspoonsful of mace, more See Baked Ham, Chapter XIII., page 258. f Spice, it mnet be obsenred, Taries so toij greatlj in its qxiallty thai la alwaya neceaaaiy in using it.

OOP. xz. CUBBIES POTTED HEATS, &C. 305 than 38 generally approTed. After the spice is added, keep the meat often turned firom tne sides to the middle of the mortar, that it ma be seasoned equsdly in every part When perfectly pounded, press it into small potting-pans, and pour darifiea butter over the top. If kept in a cool aim diy place, this meat will remain good for a fortnight, or more. Lean of ham, 1 lb.; lean of roast veal, 6 oz.; fresh butter, 8 oz.; mace, firom 1 to 2 teaspoonsful; large nutmeg; cayenne, to teaspoonful. Obs.- The roast veal is ordered in this receipt because the ham alone is generaUy too salt; for the same reason butter, fresh taken from the chum, or that which is but slightly salted and quite new, should be used for it in preference to its own fat. When there is no readydressed veal in uie house, the best part of the neck, roasted or stewed, will supply the requisite quantity. The remains of a cold boiled ham will answer quite well for potting, even when a little dry. POTTED CHICEEN, PARTRIDGE OB PHEASANT. Roast the birds as for tabic, but let them be thoroughly done, for if the gravy be left in, the meat will not keep half so well. Raise the flesh of the breast, wings, and merrythought, quite dear from the bones, take off the skin, mince, and then pound it very smoothly with about one third of its wdght of fresh butter, or something less, if the meat should appear of a proper consistence without the fiul quantity; season it with salt, mace, and cayenne only, and add these in small portions until the meat is rather highly flavoured with both the last proceed with it as with other potted meats. POTTED OX-TONQDB. Boil tender an unsmoked tongue of good flavour, and the following day cut from it the quantity desired for potting, or take for this purpose the remains of one which has already been served at table Trim off the skin and rind, weigh the meat, mince it very small, then pound it as fine as possible with four ounces of butter to each pound of tongue, a small teaspoonful of mace, half as much of nutmeg and doves, and a tolerably high seasoning of cayenne. After the spices are well beaten with the meat, taste it, and add more if required. A few ounces of any weU-roasted meat mixed with the tongue will give it firmness, in which it is apt to be defident. The breasts of turkeys, fowls, partridges, or pheasants, may be used for the purpose with good effect. Tongue, 1 lb.; butter, 4 oz.; mace, 1 teaspoonfhl; nntm and doves eadii, ) teanful; cayenne, 5 to 10 grams. This should neyer be ponred hot on jie meat: it should be less than miUsi -vtrm irhen added to it.

806 MODERN COOK£BT, caab

rOTTED ANCHOVIES. Scrape the anchones very clean, raise the flesh irom the bones, and pound it to a perfect paste in a Wedgwood or marble morta?: then with the back of a wooden spoon press it through a hair-dere reversed. Next, weigh the anchovies, and pound them again with double their weight of the freshest butter that can be procured, a high feeasoning of mace and cayenne, and a small quantity of finely-grated nutmeg; set the mixture by in a cool place for three or four hours to harden it before it is put into the potting pans. If butter be poured oyer, it must be only lukewarm; but the anchovies will keep w for two or three weeks without. A very small portion of roee-pink ma be added to improve the colour, but unless it be sroringly used, it will impart a bitter flavour to the preparation. The quantity of butter can be increased or diminishea in pronortion as it is wished tiiat the flavour of the anchovies should prevail. Anchovies pounded, 3 oz.; butter, 6 oz.; mace,, third of teaspoonfhl; half as much cayenne; little nutmeg LODSTER BUTTER For this see page 138, Chapter YL) POTTED SHRIMPS OR PRAWNS. Delicious.) Let the fish be quite freshly boiled, shell them quickly, and just before they are put into the mortar, chop them a uttle with a veiv sharp knife; pound them perfectly with a small quantity of fresh butter, mace, and cayeime. (See also page 92.) Shrimps (unshelled), 2 quarts; butter, 2 to 4 oz.; maoe, 1 small saltspoonful; cayenne, as much. POTTED MUSHROOMS. The receipt for these, which we can recommend to the reader, will be found in the next Chapter. MOULDED POTTED MEAT OR FISH. (For the second course.) Press yery closely and smoothly into a pan or mould the potted ham, or any other meat, of the present chapter, pour a thin layer of clarified butter on the top, and let it become quite cold. When wanted for tables wind round it for a moment a cloth which his bea

COAP.XTi. CURRIES, POTTED MEATS, &a 307 dipped into hot water, loosen the meat ntly from it with a thin kniie, turn it on to a h, and glaze it ligntly; lay a horder of small salad round it, with or vrithout a decoration of hard eggs, or surround it instead with clear savoury jelly cut in dice. The meat, for variety, may be equally sliced, and laid rularly round a pile of small salad. A exj elegant second course dish may be made wiUi potted lobsters iu this way, the centre being ornamented vdth a snudl shape of bbster butter. (See page 138.) POTTED HARE. The back of a well-roasted hare, and such other parts of the flesh as are not sinewy, if potted by the directions already given for ham and other meat, will be found superior to theame prepared as it usually is by baking it tender either with a large quantity of butter, or with barely sufficient water or CTavy to cover it; but when the _ . „, old-fashioned mode of pottin- is Wedgerood PeUe and KMr. preferred, it must be cleansed as for roasting, wiped c,. cat into joints, which, after being Reasoned with salt, cayenne for pepper),, and pounded cloves and mace or nutmeg well mingled, should be closely packed in a jar or deep pan, and slowly baked until very tender, with the addition oi Irom half to a whole pound of fresh butter laid equally over it, in small bits, or with only so much water or other liquid as will prevent its becoming hard: the jar must be well covered with at least two separate folds of thick brown paper tied closely over it. It should uien be left to become perfectly cold; and the butter (when it has been used) should b taken off and scraped free from moisture, that it may be added to the hare in pounding it. All skin and sinew must be casefully removed, and the flesh minced before it is put into tke mortar. Additional seasoning must be added if necessary; but the cook must remember that all should be well blended, and no particular nribce should be allowed to predominate in the flavour of the preparation When water or vy has been added to the hare, firm mm butter should be used m potting it: it will not reouire a very laorge proportion, as the flesh will be far less dry ana firm than when it is roasted, though more of its juices vnll have been withdrawn from k; and it will not remain good so long. The bones, gravy, head, and ribs, will make a small tureen of excellent soup. Thick traces of lean ham are sometimes baked with the hare, and pounded widt it.

SM

MODERN COOKBBT.

chap. xm.

CHAPTER XVII.

The quality of vegetables depends much both on the soil in which thej are gro Tn, and on the aegree of care bestowed upon their culture; but if produced in ever so great perfection, their ex c ellence will be entirely destroyed if they be badly cooked. With the exception of artichokes, which are said to be improved by two or three days keeping, all the summer varieties should be dressed before their first freshness has in any degree paed off (for their flavour is never so fine as within a few hours of tneir being cut or gathered); but when this cannot be done, precaution should be taken to prevent their withering. The stalk-ends of asparagus, cucumbers, and "vegetable-marrow, should be placed in from one to two inches of cold water; and all other kinds should be spread on a cool brick floor. When this has been neglected, they must be thrown into cold water for some time before they are boiled to recover them, though they will prove even then but very inferior eating. Vegetables when not sufficiently cooked are known to be so exceedingly unwholsome and indigestible, that the custom of serving them crnsp, which means, in reality, only half-boiled, should bt altogether disregarded when health is considered of more importance tha;i fofliiori; but they should not be allowed to remain in the water

CBAi xvn. VEGETABLES. 309 after they are quite done, or both their nutritive properties and their flavour will be lost, and their good appearance destroyed. Care should be taken to drain them thoroughly in a warm strainer, and to serve them very hot, with well-made sauces, if with any. Only dried peas or beans, Jerusalem artichokes, and potatoes, are put at first into cold water. All others require plenty of fast-boiling water, which should be ready salted and skimmed before they are thrown into it TO CLEAR YEGETABLES FROM INSECTS. Lay them for half an hour or more into a pan of strong brine, with the stalk ends uppermost; this will destroy the small smuls and other insects which cluster in the leaves, and they will fall out and sink to the bottom. A pound and a half of salt to the gallon of water will answer for this purpose, and if strained daily it will last for some time. TO BOIL VEGETABLES GREEN. After they have been properly prepared and washed, throw them into plenty of boiling water which has been salted and well skimmed; and Keep them uncovered and boiling fast until they are done, taking cTery precaution against their beinc smoked. Should the water be Tery hard, a smau half-teaspooniul of carbonate of soda, may be added with the salt, for every two quarts, and will greatly improve the eolour of the vegetables; but if used in undue proportion it will iigure them; green peas especially will be quickly peduced to a mash if boiled with too large a quantity. Water, 1 gallon; nit, 2 oz: soda, i oz.; or carbonate of soda, 1 teaspoonful POTATOES. (Remarks on their properties and importance.) There is no vegetable commonly cultivated in this country, we Tenture to assert, which is comparable in value to the potato when it is of a good sort, has been grown in a suitable soil, and is properly cooked and served. It must he very nutritious, or it woidd not sustain the strength of thousands of people whose almost sole food it constitutes, and who, when they can procure a sufficient supply of it to satisfy fully the demands of hunger, are capable of accomplishing the heaviest daily labour. It may not be wise to depend for subsistenoe on a root of which the crop unhappily is so frequently iu these dajrs destroyed or greatly iniured by disease, and for which it is so difficult to find a substitute that is equally cheap, wholesome, and satisfying; but we can easily comprehend the predilection of an entire people for a tuber whicn combines, like the potato, the so-

310 MODERN COOKERY. chap. XTXL lidi almost of bread, with the healthful properties of various other fresh vegetables, without their acidity; and which can also be cooked and served in so many different forms. The vrretched manner in which it is dressed in man English houses renders it comparativelY valueless, and accounts in a measure for the prodigality with which it is thrown away when cold, even in seasons when its price is highe8t.f TO BOIL POTATOES. (As in Ireland.) Potatoes, to boil well together, should be all of the same sort, and as nearly equal in size as may be. Wash off the mould, and scrub them very clean with a hard brush, but neither scoop nor apply a knife to them in any way, even to clear the eyes. Sinse them well, and arrange them compactly in a saucepan, so that they may not lie loose in the water, ana that a small quantity may suffice to cover them. Pour this in cold, and when it boils, throw in about a large teaspoonful of salt to the quart, and simmer the potatoes until the are nearly done, but for the last two or three minutes let them boil rapidly. When they are tender quite through, which may be known b probing them with a fork, pour all the water from them immediately, lilt the lid of the saucepan to allow the steam to escape, aikt ce them on a trivet, high over the fire, or by the side of it, until the moisture has entirely evaporated; then peel, and send them to table as quickly as possible, either in a hot napkin, or in a dish, of which the cover is so placed that the steam can pass off. There should be no dela in serving them after they are once taken from the fire. Irish &milies always prefer them served in their skins. Some kinds will be sufficiently boiled in twenty minutes, others in not less than three quarters of an hour. 20 minutes to 1 hour, or more. • The late Dr. Pereira has stated in Us excellent work on diet, page 370, that Dr. Baly, who has published some interesting observations on the anti-scorbntis qoality of the potato, says, " J$ ordinarily cooked, it it an admirttbU pre$en?atiM against the scnrvy," for which it appears to be also a cure, see the same work. f We cannot reftain from a few words of remark here on tne daily waste of wholesome food in this country which constitatea one of the most serious domesHe abuses that exist amongst us; and one which it is most painful to witness whUe we see at the same time the half-starvation of large masses of our people. It is an evil which the steady and resolute opposition of the educated classes would soon greatly check; and which ought not vainly to appeal to their good sense and good feeling, augmenting, as it must, the privations of the 6cantily-fed poor; for the " w utt" of one part of the community cannot fsil io increase the " toant " of the remainder. I " Because," in the words of our derer Irish correspondent, " the water through these parts is then admitted into the reiy heart of the vegetable; and the latent heat, after cooking, is not sufficient to throw it off: this renders the potatoes vsry unwholsme."

CHAP. Xm, VEGETABLES. 311 Oftf. 1. - The water in which they are boiled should barely cover the potatoes. After it is poured oS, they should be steamed for twenty minutes or half an hour, if large. Ohs. 2. - Habitual potato-eaters know well that this vegetable is never 0O ffood as when served in the skin tne instant it is taken from the fire, died in a hot napkin, or sent to table without a cover over it. It should also be clean and dry that it may at pleasure be txiken in the fillers and broken like bread, or held m the dinner napkin while the inside is scooped out with the fork, thus forming it into a sort of cup. The large Yorkshire Regents dressed and eaten in this way afford m themselves an almost sufficient meal. We have found fom long daily experience, that those which avera three, or at the utmost four to the pound, were the best in quahty, and remained so to quite the end of their season: they required as the spring advanceo, an hours boiling or more. TO BOIL POTATOES. (The Lancashire tcay,) Pare the potatoes, cover them with cold water, and boil them slowly until they are quite tender, but watch them carefully, that they may not be overdone; drain off the water entirely, strew some salt over them, leave the saucepan uncovered bv the side of the fire, and shake it forcibly every minute or two, untU the whole of the potatoes appear dry and floury. Lancashire cooks dress the vegetable in this way to perfection, but it is far from an economical mode, as a large portion of the potato adheres to the saucepan; it has, however, many admirers. 10 BOIL NEW POTATOES. These are never good unless fireshlv dug. Take them of equal fize, and rub off the skins with a brush or a very coarse doth, wash them dean, and put them without salt into boiling, or at least, auite hot water; boil them softly, and when they are tender enough to serve, pour off the water entirely, strew some fine salt over them, give them a shake, and let them stand by the fire in the saucepan for a minute; Uien dish and serve them immediately. Some cooks throw in a small slice of fresh butter, with the salt, and toss them gently in it after it is dissolved. This is a good mode, but the more usual one is to send melted butter to table 'with them, or to pour white sauce over them when they are very young, and served early in the reason. Veiy small, 10 to 15 minutes: moderate sized, 15 to 20 minutes. Ohs.Vfe always, for our own eating, have new potatoes steamed for ten minutes or longer after the water is poured fh m them, and thii:Jc they are much improved by the process. They should be tho foughlj' boiled before this is done.

312 MODEBN COOKERT. cHAP. xm.

NEW POTATOES IN BUTTER. Bub off the skins, wash the potatoes well and wipe them dry; put them with three ounces of good butter, for a small dish, and with four ounces or more for a large one, into a well-tinned stewpan or saucepan, and simmer them over a gentle iire for about half an hour Keep them well shaken or tossed, that they nbe equally done, and throw in some salt when they begin to stew. This is a good mode of dressing them when they are very young and watery. TO BOIL POTATOES. Captain Katers Receipt) Wash, wipe, and pare the potatoes, cover them with cold water and boil them gently until they are done, pour off the water, and 8i rinkle a little fine salt over them; then take each tato separately with a spoon, and lay it into a clean warm cloth, twist this so as to press all the moisture from the ve;etable, and render it quite round; turn it carefully into a dish placed before the fire, throw a doth over, and when all are done, send them to table quickly. Potatoes dieased in this way are mashed without the slightest trouble; it is also by far the best method of preparing them for puddings or for cakes. TO ROAST OR BAKE POTATOES. Scrub and wash exceedingly clean some potatoes nearly assorted in size; wipe them very dry, ana roast them in a Dutch oven before the fire, placing them at a distance from it, and keeping them often turned; or arrange them in a coarse dish, and bake them in a mo derate oven. Disn them neatly in a napkin, and send them very hot to table; serve cold butter with them. If to upwards of 2 hours. SCOOPED POTATOES. (eNTREMETS.) Wash and wipe some large I potatoes of a firm kind, and with a small scoop adapted to the purpose, t form as many diminutive ones as will fill a dish; cover them with cold water, and when they have boiled very gently for five minutes pour it off, and put more cold water to them; after they have simmered a second time for five minutes, drain the water quite away, place the cover of the saucepan so as to leave an inch or more of open space for the Or second cotirM diab. f This may be procured of any iromnonfer.

CHAP, xth. vegetables. 313 moistiire to eraporate, and let them steam by the aide of the £ re from four to five minutes longer. Dish them carefully, Dour white sauce OTer them, and serve them in the second course. Old potatoes thus prepfured, have often been made to pass for new ones, at the best tabus, at the season in which the firesh vegetable was dearest. The time required to boil them wUl of course vary with their quality we give the method wliich we have found very successful. CRISPED POTATOES, OB POTATO-RIBBONS. (eNTRBMXTS.) (Or to serve with Cheese,) Wash well, and wipe, some potatoes of good flavour; cut them up into slices of from half to a whole inch thick, free them fh m the skins, and then pare them round and roxmd in very thin, and vexy long ribbons. Lay them into a pan of cold water, and half an hour before they are wanted for table lift them on to a sieve that they may be well drained. Frv them in good butter, which should be very hot when they are thrown in, until they are quite crisp, and lightly browned; drain and dry them on a son cloth, pile them in a hot dish, strew over them a mixed seasoning of salt and cayenne in fine powder, and serve them without delay. For the second course, dress them in the same manner, but omit the cayenne. Five or six minutes will fry them FRIED POTATOES. ENTREMETS.) (A Plainer Receipt.) After having washed them, wipe and pare some raw potatoes, cut them in slices of eoual thickness, or into thin shaving and throw them Into plenr of boiling butter, or very pure clarified dripping. Tt them of a nne light brown, and very criro; lift them out with a skimmer, drain them on a soft warm cloth, msh them very hot, and sprinkle fine salt over them. This is an admirable way of dressing potatoes, veiy common on the Continent, but less so in Lngland than It deserves to be. Fared in ribbons or shavings of eaual width, as in the receipt above, and served dry and well fried, lightly piled in a dish, they make a handsome appearance, and are excellent eatinsr If slioed they should be somethmg less than a quarter of an incn thick. MASHED POTATOES. Boil them perfectly tender quite through, pour off the water, and steam them very dry by the directions already given in the receipt of Tagetables tnd fruit are now to generally foreed and brought so eaily into oar nunets, that there k little need of these espedienti at present.

314 MODEEN COOKEET. ciUP. XTH. pi 310, peel them quickly, take out every speck, and while they aro BtiU hot, press the potatoes through an earthen cullender, or bruise them to a smooth mash with a strong wooden fork or spoon, bat never pound them in a mortar, as that will reduce them to a close heavy paMe. Let them be entirely free from hanpe for nothing can be more indicative of carelessness or want of skill on the mirt of the cook, than mashed potatoes sent to table full of these. Melt in a lean saucepan a slice of good butter with a few spoonsful of milk, or, better still, of cream; put in the potatoes after having sprinkled flome fine salt upon them, and stir the whole over a gentle hre with a wooden spoon, until the ingredients are well-mixed, and the whole is veiy hot It may then m served directly; or heaped high in a dish, left rough on the surface, and browned before the fire; or it may be pressed into a well buttered mould of handsome form, which has been strewed with the finest bread crumbs, and shaken free from the loose ones, then turned out, and browned in a Dutch or common oven. More or less liquid will be required to moisten sufficiently potatoes of various kinds. Potatoes mashed, 2 lbs.; salt, 1 teaspoonful; butter, 1 to 2 os.; milk or cream, pint. Oh, - Mashed potatoes are often moulded with a cup, and then equally browned: any other shape will answer the purpose as well and many are of better appearance. ENQLISn POTATO BALLS, OR CROQUETTES. Boil some floury potatoes very dry, mash them as smoothly as possible, season them well with salt and white pepper, warm tnem with about an ounce of butter to the pound, or rather more if it will not render them too moist, and a few spoonsful of good cream. Boil them very dry; let them cool a little, roll them into balls, sprinkle over them vermicelli crushed slightly with the hand, and fry them a fine liffht brown. They may be dished round a shape of plain mashed potatoes, or piled on a napkin by themselves. They may likewise be rolled in e and fine bread-crumbs instead of in the vermicelli, or in ground rice, which answers very well for them. FOTATO B0ULETTE8. (eNTREMETS.) Good,) Boil some good potatoes as dry as possible, or let them be prepared by Captain Katers receipt; mash a pound of them very smoothly, and mix with them while they are still warm, two ounces of fresh butter, a teaspoonftil of salt, a fittle nutm, the beaten and strained yolks of four egs, and last of all the whites thoroughly whisked. Mould the mixture with a teaspoon and drop it into a small pan of boiling butter, or of very pure lard, and fry the bouhttee for five minutes over a moderate fire: they should be of a

AP. XVII. VEGETABLES. 315 fine pale brawii, and veiy light. Drain them well and dish them on a hot napkin. Potatoes, 1 lb.; butter, 2 oz.; salt, 1 teaspoonful; eggs, 4: 5 minutes. Obs, - These baukties are exceeding light and delicate, and make an excellent dish for the second course; but we think that a few spoonsful of sweet fresh cream boiled with them until the mixture becomes div, would both enrich them and improve their flavour. Th should be dropped into the pan with the teaspoon, as they ought to be small, and they will swell in the cooking. POTATO RI8S0LE8. French.) Mash and season the potatoes with salt, and white pepper or Cayenne, and mix vrith them plenty of minced parsley, and a small quantity of green onions, or eschalots; add sufficient yolks of eggs to bind the mixture together, roll it into small balls, and fry them in plenty of lard or butter over a moderate fire, or they will be too much browned before they are done through. Ham, or any other kind of meat finely minced, may be substituted for the herbs, or added to them. POTATOES A LA MaItRE d'hOTEL. Boil in the usual manner some potatoes of a firm kind peel, and let them cool; then cut them equally into quarter-inch slices. Dissolve in a very clean stewpan or saucepan from two to four ounces of good butter, stir to it a sxnall dessertspoonful of flour, and shake the pan over the fire for two or three mmutes; add by slow drees a small cupful of boiling water, some pepper, salt, and a tablespoonful of minced parsley; put in the potatoes, and toss them gently over a clear fire until they are quite hot, and the sauce adheres well to them: at the instant of serving add a dessertspoonful of strained lemon-juice. Pale veal gravy may be substitutea for the water; and the potatoes after being thickly sliced, may be quickly cut of the same size with a small round cutter. POTATOES A LA CREME. Prepare the potatoes as above, and toss them i of a pint or more of thick white sauce or of common or without the addition of the minced parsley. KOHL CAKNONy OR KALE CANNON. An Irish Receipt.) Mix in about equal proportions (these can be varied to suit the convenience of the moment) some smoothly mashed potatoes and

816 MODSBN COOKERY. gbap. xvh. some young sprouts or greens of an kind, first boiled quite tender. pressed very dry and chopped a bttle if needful. Alash up the whole well together, add a atanning of pepper and salt, a snuul bit of butter, and a spoonful or two of cream or milk; put a raw onicn into the middle of the mass, and stir it oyer a dear fire until it is yery hot, and sufficiently dry to be moulded and turned out lor table, or dished in the usual manner. Take out the onion before the kohl cannon Ib senred. In Ireland mashed parsneps and potatoes are mingled in the same way, and called parsnep camum. A mod summer yariety of the preparation is made there also with Windaor beans boiled toider, Mkmnea and bruised to a paste, then thoroughly blended with the potatoes. Turnips, too, are sometimes substitated for the jparsneps; but these or any other watery yetable should be well dried oyer a gentle fire as directed for mashen turnips in this chapter, before they are added to the potatoes. TO BOn. SEA-KALE. Wash, trim, and tie the kale in bunches, and throw it into plenty of boiling water with some salt in it. When it is perfectly tender, lift it out, drain it well from the water, and send it to table with good melted butter. When fashion is not particularly regarded we woidd recommend its being seired upon a toast like asparagiu. About twenty minutes will boil it, rather less for persons who like it crisp. 18 to 20 minutes. SEA-KALE STEWED IK GBATY. (eNTBEMETS.) Boil the kale for ten minutes in salt and water; drain it well, and put it into a saucepan with as much good brown grayy as will nearly coyer it; stew it gently for ten minutes or until it is tender, and aen& it to table in the grayr yery hot. Another excellent mode of serying this y;etable is, to boil it in salt and water, and to pour oyer it plenty of rich white sauce after it is dished SPINACH. (ENTREMETS. French Eeceipt.) Pick the spinach leaf by leaf from the stems, and wash it in abundance of spring water, changing it seyend times; then shake it in a dry cloth held by the four comers, or drain it on a large sieye. Throw it into sufficient well-salted boiling water to aUow it to float iVeely, and keepit pressed down with a skimmer that it may be equally done. When quite joun it will be tender in finom eight to ten minutes, but to ascertam if it be so, take a leaf and squeen it betiveen the fingers. 11' to be dressed in the French mode, drain, and

CHAF. xm. TEOETABLE8. 317 then throw it directly into plenty of firesh water, and when it is cool form it into halls and press the moisture thoroughly from it with the hands. Next, chop it extremely fine upon a clean trencher; put two ounces (for a large dish) of hutter into a stewpan or hright thick saucepan, lay the spinach on it, and keep it stirred oyer a gentle fire fixT ten minutes, or until it appears dry; dredge in a spoonful of flour, and turn the spinach as it is added; pour to it gradually, a few spoonsful of yery rich yeal grayy, or, if preferred, of good boiling cream (with the last of these a dessertspoonful or more of pounded sugar may he added for a second-course dish, when the true French mode of dressing the yecetahle is liked.) Stew the whole hriskly until the liquid is entirely ahsorhed; di, and serye the spinach yery hot, with small, pale fned sippets round it, or with leayes of puffpaste firesh from the oyen, or weU dri after hayinff been firiecL ¥ r ornament, the sippets may be fancifully shaped with a tin cutter. A proper seasoning of salt must not be omitted in this, or any other preparation of the spinach. SPINACH A l'aNGLAISE. (eNTRBMBTS.) (Or, English fashion) Boil the spinach as already directed, and after it has been well aqueezed and chopped, stir it oyer a moderate fire until it is yery dry; moisten it with as much thick rich grayy as will flayour it well, and turn and stew it quite fast until it is again yery dry; then press it into a hot mould of handsome form, turn it into a cush and serye it quickly. Two or three ounces of fresh butter may be laid into the saucepan with the spinach at first, as a substitute for the yy. When a perforated tm shape, ordinarily used for moulding ipmacfa, IB not at hand, one of earthenware, slightly buttered, will serye nearly 83 wdL SPINACH. Conmum English mocie.) Boil the spinach yery green in plenty of water, drain, and then press the moisture froni it between two trenchers; chop it small, put It into a clean saucepan, with a slice of firesh butter, and stir the whole until well mixed and yery hot. Smooth it in a dish, mark it in dice, and send it quickly to table. ANOTHER COMMON ENGLISH RECEIPT FOR SPINACH. Take it leaf by leaf firom the stalks, and be yery careful to dear it from any weeds that may be amongst it, and to firee it by copious and repeated washings from every particle of.sand, or earth. Put

318 MODERN COOKEBT. chap. XTii. it ioto a large weU-tinned stewpan or saucepan, with the -water onl which hangs ahout it; throw in a small spoonfnl of salt, and keep it constantly pressed down with a wooden spoon, and turned often for about a quarter of an hour, or until it is perfectly tender. Drain oS the superfluous moisture, chop the spinach quickly on a hot trencher; dhh and serve it inunediately. Fried sippets of bread should always be served round this vtable, unless it be prepared for an invalid. TO DRESS DANDELIONS LIKE SPINACH, OR AS A SALAD. (Very wkoletome.) This common weed of the fields and highways is an excellent vegetable, the young leaves forming an admirable atunct to a salad, and much resembling endive when boiled and prepared in the same way, or in any of the modes directed for spinach. The slit bitter ness of its flavour is to many persons very agreeable; and it is often served at well-appointed tables. It has dso, we believe, the advantage of possessing valuable medicinal qualities. Take the roots before the blossom is at all advanced, if they can readily be found in that state; if not, pluck off and use the youn leaves only. Wash them as clean as possible, and boil them tender m a large quantity of water salted as for sprouts or spinach. Drain them -iveU, press them dry with a wooden spoon, and serve them quite plain with melted butter in a tureen; or, squeeze, chop, and heat them afresh, with a seasoning of salt and pepper, a morsel of butter rolled in flour, and a spoonful or two of gravy or cream. A very large portion of the leaves will be requix for a dish, as they shrink exceedingly in the cooking. For a ralad, take them very young and serve them entire, or break them quite small with the fingers; then wash and drain them. Dress them with oil and vinegar, or with any other sauce which may be preferred with them BOILED TCTRNIP-RADISHEB. These should be freshly drawn, young and white. Wash and trim them neatly, leaving on two or three of the small inner leaves of the top. Boil them in plenty of salted water from twenty to thirty minutes, and as soon as they are tender send them to table well drained, with melted butter or white sauce. Commdn radishes when young, tied in bunches, and lx iled from eighteen to twenty five minutes, then served on a toast like asparagus, are very good. BOILED LEEKS. Trim off the coarser leaves from some jowne leeks, cut then into equal lengths, tie them into small bunches, and bodl them in plenty

CSAP. XVII. YEGETABLES. 319 of water which has been previously salted and skimmed; serve them on a toast, and send melted batter to table with them 20 to 25 minutes STEWED LETTUCES. Strip off the outer leaves, and cut away the stalks; wash the lettuces with exceeding nicety, and throw tnem into water salted as for all green vegetables. When they are quite tender, which will be in from twenty to thirty minutes, according to their ace, liit them out and press the water thoroughly from them; chop Siem a little, and heat them in a dean saucepan with a seasoning of pepper and salt, and a small slice of butter; then dredge in a litue flour and stir them well; add next a small cup of broth or gravy, boil them quickly until they are tolerably dry, then stir in a Httle pale vinegar or lemon-juice, and serve them as hot as possible, with fried sippetsround them. TO BOIL ASPARAGUS. With a sharp knife scrape the stems of the asparagus lightly but very clean, from within one to two inches of the green tender points;. throw them into cold water as they are done, and when all are ready,. tie them in bimches of equal size, cut the large ends evenly, that theasparagus may be all of the same length, and put it into plenty of boiling water prepared bj the directions of pae 309. Cut a round, of br quite half an mch thick, and after having pared off the crust, toast it a delicate brown on both sides. When the stalks of the asparagus are tender, lift it out directly, or it will lose both its colour and its flavour, and will also be liable to break; dip the toast quickly into the water in which it was boiled, and dish the vegetable upon It, with the points meeting in the centre. Send rich melted butter to table with it. In France, a small quantity of vinegar is stirred into the sauce before it is served; and many persons like the addition. Asparagus may be preserved for a da or two sufficiently fresh for use, b keeping the stalks immersed m an inch-deth of cold water; but it is never so good as when dressed directly it is cut, or within a few hours after 20 to 25 minutes. Ob$. - Abroad, boiled asparagus is yery frequently served cold, and eaten with oil and vinegar, or a sauce Mayonnaise. ASPARAGUS POINTS DRESSED LIKE PEAS. (eNTREMETS. This is a convenient mode of dressing asparagus, when it is too small and green to make a good appearance plainly boiled. Cut the points BO far only as they are penectly tender, in bits of equal size, not more than the tiiird of an inch in length wash them very dean.

320 MODEBN COOKERY CHAF. XTU and throw them into plenty of boiling irater, with the usual quantity of salt and a few grains of carbonate of soda. When they axe tolerably tender, which will be in fh)m ten to twelve minutes, drun them well, and spread them on a clean doth; fold it over them, wipe them gently, and when they are quite dry put them into a dean Btewpan witn a good slice of butter, wnich should be just dissolved before the asparagus is added; stew them in this over a brisk fire, shaking them o&n, for eight or ten minutes; dredge in about a small teaspoonful of flour, and add half that quantity of white sugar; then pour in boiling water to nearly cover the asparagus, and boil it rapidly imtil but little liquid remains: stir in the beaten yolks of two eggs, heap the asparagus high in a dish, and serve it veiy hot. The sauce should adhere entirely to the vegetable as in green peas a la Franise, TO BOIL GREEN PEAS. To be eaten in perfection these should be young, very fineahly gathered, and shelled just befbre they are boiled; should there lie great inequalitv in their size, the smaller ones may be separated from the others, and thrown into the saucepan four or five minutes later. Wash, and drain the peas in a cullender, put them into plenty of fast-boiling water, salted bv the directions of page 809; keep the pan uncovered, and let them boil rapidly until they are tender; drain them well, dish them quickly, and serve them very not, with good melted butter in a tureen; or put a slice of fresh butter into the midst of the peas, heap them well over it in the centre of the dish, and let it dissolve before they are disturbed. Never, on any aocoont, boil or mix mint with them unless it be expressly orderl, as it is particularly distasteful to many persons. It should be served in small heaps round them, if at all. 15 to 25 minutes, or more if old, GREEN PEAS A LA FRANQAISR, OR FBBNCn FASHION. (entremets). Throw a quart of young and freshly-shdled peas into plenty of spring water with a couple of ounces of butter, and with uie hand work them together undl the butter adheres well to the peas; lift them out, and drain them in a cullender; put them into a stewpan or thick saucepan without any water, and let them remain over a gentle fire, and be stirred occasionally for twenty minutes from the time of their fibrst beginning to simmer; then pour to them as much bailing water as will just cover them; throw in a small quantity of salt, anS keep them boiling quickly for forty minutes: stir well amongst them a small lump of sugar which has been dipped quickly into water, and a thickening of about half an ounce of butter very smoothly mixed with a teaspoonful of flour; shake them over the fire for two

CHAP, xvn. VEGETABLES. 321 inmates, and serve them directly heaped high in a very hot dish • there will he no sauce except that which adheres to the peas if they be properly managed. We have found marrowfats excellent, dreed by this receipt. Fresh and good butter should be used with them always Peas, 1 quart; butter, 2 oz.: 20 minutes. Water to cover the iieas; little salt: 40 minutes. Sugar, small lump; butter, oz.; flom', 1 teaspoonful: 2 minutes. GREEK PEAS WITH CREAM. (eNTREHETS.) Boil a quart of young peas perfectly tender in salt and water, and drain them as dry as possible. Dissolve an oimce and a half of butter in a clean stewpan, stir smoothly to it when it boils a dessertfipoonful of flour, and shake these over the fire for three or four minutes, but without allowing them to take the lightest colour; pour gradually to them a cup of rich cream, add a small lump of gagar pnounded, let the sauce boil, then put in the peas and toss tnem gently in it until they are very hot: disn, and serve them quickly. Peas, 1 quart: 18 to 25 minutes. Butter, 1 oz.; flour, 1 dessertspoonful: S to 5 minutes. Sugar, 1 saltspoonM; cream, 1 cupM. TO BOIL FRENCH BEANS. When the beans are very small and young, merely take off the ends and stalks, and drop them into plenty of spring water as they are done; when all are ry wash and dram them well, throw tiiem into a large saucepan of fast-boHing water, salted as usual (see page 309), and when they are quite tender, which will be in from twdve to eighteen minutes, pour them into a cullender, shake the water from them, dish, and send them quickly to table with good melted batter in a tureen. When from half to two parts grown, cut the beans obliquely into a lozenge form, or, when a less modem fashion 28 preferred, split them lengthwise into delicate strips, and then cut them once across: the strings should be drawn off with the tops and stalks. No mode of dressmg it can render this vegetable good when it is old, but if the sides be pared off, the beans cut thin, and boiled tender with rather more than the ordinary proportbn of soda, they inll be of excellent colour, and tolerably eatable. FRENCH BEANS A LA FRANQAISB. (bNTRBMBTS.) Boil, and drain them thoroughly; then put them into a clean stewpan, or well-tinned iron saucepan, and shake them over the fire until they are very dry and hot; add to them from two to four ounces of fresh butter cut into small bits, some white pepper, a little salt, and the juice of half a lemon; toss them eently for a few miniites over a dear fire, and serve them very hot. Should the tmtter torn to oil, a spooiiul or two of veal gravy or boiling water must be added. T

SaS MOBBSH GOOKXBT. cHAP. zm.

AH EXCBSJiEVT BECim FOB FRENCH BBAN8 ? LA FSAKfJkKB. Prepare as man yooog and fireahly-gBtliered beaaa as irill sezytt for a large dish, boil them tender, and drain the water well from them. Melt a couple of ounces of fresh batter, in a dean saucepan, and stir smoothly to it a small dessertspoonful of flour; keep these well shaken, and gently simmered until they are lightly browned, add salt and pepper, and pour to them by degrees a sxnall cupful of good veal gravy (or, in lieu of this, of sweet rich cream), toss the beans in the sauce until they are as hot as possible; sdr quickly in, as they are taken from the fire, the beaten yolks of two rresh egga and a IMls lemon-juice, and serve them without delay. The eggs and lemon are sometimes omitted, and a tablespoonful of minced parsley is added to the butter and flour; but this, we think, is scarcely an unproTemeot. Beans, 1 to 2 quarts: boiled 15 to 20 minuter Butter, 2 oc; flour, 1 dessertspoonfol; salt and pepper; yeal gravy, small cupfbl; yolks of eggs, 2; lemon-juice, a dessertspoonful. TO BOIL WnnMOR BEAMS, When young, freshly gathered, and well dressed, these beans, even with many persons accustomed to a luxurious table, are a favourite aecompaniment to a dish of streaked bacon, or delicate pickled pork. Shell them only just before they are wanted, then wash, drain, and throw them into boiling water, salted aa fbr peas. When they sre quite tender, pour them into a hot cullender, drain them Uioronghly, and send them to table quickly, with a tureen of parsky and biBtfeery or with plain melted butter, when it is preferred. A boilad che of bacon, trimmed f ci any blackened parts may be dished mfer the beans, upon occasion. 20 to 30 minutes; less, when very young. Oft.- When the skin of the beans appears wrinkled, they will generally be found sufficiently tender to serve, but they should be tasted to ascertain that they are so. This vetable is often skmned after it is boiled, and then gently tossed up with a little butter befine it is dished. DRESSED CUCUMBERS. Pare and slice them very thin, strew a little fine salt over them, and when they have stood a few minutes, drain off the water, by raising one side of the dish, and letting it flow to the other; poor it away, strew more salt and a moderate seasoning of l enper on them, add two or three tablcraoonsfrd of the purest salad-oil, and turn the cucumbers well, that tne whole may receive a portion of it; thcA pour over them from one to three dessertspoonanil of ehili viaq and a little conmum, should it be needed; turn them into a deaa t -nd serve them.

XT3E. TxaxTABUBa. 8SS Oh.-It reary yooDg, eneomben are usually cfareoed niilumt being pared, bat the tough rind of fhll-growii ooee being extremely indigestible, should be avoided. The vegetable, though it to duatfree 'with persons of delicate habit, -when sauced in the oonmion Enni mode, with salt, pepper, and vine only, may often be eaten by utem with impnnity when dressed with plenty of oiL It is difficnU to obtain this pmectly fireA and pore here; and hence, perhfups, arises in art the prejndioe which, am igst ns, is so oibsa found to esst agamst the nae eitius moat wholewune eoadinieiit MAMDRANG, OR MAIOMUX. (West Indian Eeceipt.) Chop together yery small, two moderate-flized cuemnbers, wiUi half the qnantity of mild onion; add the juice of a lemon, a saltspoonM or more of salt, a third as much of cayenne, and one or two glasses of Madeira, or of any other dry white wine. This prepara t Jon ia to be eerved with any aiid of roast meat ?NOTHEB RECEIPT FOB HANDBAM. Take three or four cucumbers, so youn as not to require paring; score the ends well, that when they are sliced th mi lall into small Inta; add plenty of young onions, cut fine, the imce of half a lemon, a glass of aherry or lnuideira, and a deasertspoonM of chili vinegar. DRBSSBD CUCVHBEBS. (Auih0f9 BeeeipL) Cut into lengths of an inch or rather more, one or two freshly gathered cucumbers, take off the rind, and then pare them round and round into thin ribbons, untQ the watery part is reached: - this is to be thrown aside. When all are done, sprinkle them with cayenne and fine salt, and leave them to drain a little; then arrange them lightly in a clean dish, and sauce them with very fin oil, well mixed with chili vinegar, or with equal parts of chili and of .common vinegar. Cucumbers, 2 or 3; salt, 1 to 2 saltspoonsful; little cayenne; oil, 6 to 8 tablespoonsful; chili vinegar, or equal parts of this and common vinegar, 2 to 4 tablespoonsful. Oh: - When the flavour oi eschalots is much liked, a teaspoonful or more of the vinpar in which they have been steeped or pickled may be added to this dish. STEWED CUCUlfBERS. (EngUsh mode) Pare, and split into quartezB, four or five fhll-grown but still young cucnmberB; iake out the seeds and cut each part in two; spiinkla

3S4 MODERN COOKEST. chap. xth. them with white pepper or cayenne; flour and fiy them lightly in a little hutter, lift them from the pan, drain them on a mere, then lay them into as much ffood brown gravy as ¥dll nearly cover thn, ana stew them gently from twenty-five to thirty minutes, or until they are quite tender. Should the gravy require to be thickened or flavoured, dish the cucumbers and keep them hot while a little flour and butter, or any other of the usual ingredients, is stirred into it. Some persons like a small portion of lemon-juice, or of chili vin added to the sauce; cucumoer vinar miffht be substituted for these with veiy good effect, as the vegetable loses much of its fine and peculiar flavour when cooked. 25 to 80 minutes. Obs. - The cucumbers may be left m entire lengths, thrown into, well-salted boiling water, and simmered for ten minutes, then; thoroughly drained upon the back of a sieve, and afteiiwards stewedi verv quickly until tender in some highly-flavoured brown gravy, or . in tne Spanish sauce of page 101. OUCUMBBBS ? LA FOULETTE. The cncombers for this dish may be pared and diced very ihin; or quartered, freed from the seeds, and cut into half-inch lengths; in either case they should be steeped in a little vinegar and sprinkled with salt for huf an hour before they are dressed. Drain, and then; press them dry in a soft doth; flour them well, put a slice of butter) mto a stewpan or saucepan bright in the ioside, and when it bepns to. boil throw m the cucumbers, and shake them over a gentle fire for ten minutes, but be careftd to prevent their taking the slightest colour; pour to them gradually as mudi strong, but very pale yealstock or vy as will nearly cover them; when it boils slam off the fat entirely, add salt and white pepper if needed, and when the cucumbers are quite tender, strew in a larse teaspoonfrd of finely' minced parsler, and thidken the sauce with &.e yolks of two or three gs. fVencn cooks add the flour when the v;etable has stewed in the butter, instead of dredging it upon them at first, and this is perhaps the better method. CUCUMBEBS A LA CRiiaS. Boil them tolerably tender in salt and water, drain them -well, then stew them for a few minutes in a thick bSehamel and serve them in iL FRIED CUCUMBERS TO SERVE IN COMMON HASHES ANB lONCES. If very younff they need not be pared, but otherwise, take off the rind, slice, and £edge them lightly with pepper and flour, but put no salt at first; throw them into yeiy hot butter or clarified drippuig, or they will not brown; when th are nearly done sprinkle some salt

CHAP, zyn. VEGETABLES. 325 amfnigft thezn, and as flocm aa they are qiiite tender, lift ih slice, drain them well, and place them lightly over the hash or mince. A small portion of onion may he filed with them when it it is liked. MELON. This in France and in other parts of the Continent is served and eaten with the bouiUi (or heef hoiled tender in the soup-pot), with a eeasoniDg of salt and pepper only; but the fruit is there fax more abundant, and of infinitely finer wth than with us, and requires so little care, companitiYely, that it is planted in many places in the open fields, where it flourishes admirably. TO BOIL GAULIFLOWEBS. ' ' Trim off the outside leaves, and cut the stems quite close to the cauliflowers; let them lie for an hour in plenty of cold water with a handftil of salt in it, to draw out any insects that may be amongst them; then wash them very thoroughly, and examine them well, to be assured that none remain in any part of them; throw them into a large pan of boiling water salted as for asparagus, and quite cleared £:om scum; for this, if not removed, will adhere to the cauliflowers and spoil their appearance. When the stalks are tender lift them out, dish them neatly, and send good melted butter to table with them. 20 to SO minutes. CATJLIFLOWEBS. (French Receipt) Cut the cauliflowers into small handsome tufts, and boil them until three parts done, drain them well, toss them for a moment in some Aick melted butter or white sauce, and set them by to cool. When they are quite cold, dip them separately into the batter of Chapter Y., fry them a lht brown, arrange them neatly iu a dish, and serve them very hot. CAULIFLOWERS WITH PABUBSAN CHEESE. Take all the green leaves from two or three fine white cauliflowers, and cut the stalks off very closely, so that they will stand upright in the dish in which they are served; boil them tolerably tender, but not sufiiciently so as to hazard their breaking; drain them well, and dish them, so as to give the whole the appearance of one cauliflower; pour a little good wnite sauce equally over the tops, and on this strew grated Parmesan cheese, drop over it a little clarified butter, ada another layer of cheese, and cover the whole with the finest breadcrumbs; moisten these with more clarified butter, and brown them

826 MODEBN COOKEBT. fcsAF.Xvn. witk a BalamaDder, or set the dish into the oven, to give them eolonr; pour white saooe round the eanliflowera, and send them very hot to table. CAULIFLOWERS A LA FBAlAISE. Strip away all the een leares, and divide each cauliflower into three or four parts, tnmming the stalks uite close; pot them, with the heads downwards, into a stewpaji which will just hold them, half filled with boiling water, into which an ounce of good butter and SMoe salt have previously been thrown; so sooo. as they are quite tender, drain the water from them, place a dish over the stewuan and. turn it gently upside down; arrange the vegetables neatlv in tne form, of one larj cauliflower and cover it with good melted butter, into which a little lemon-juice has been stirred. 12 to 1$ miuitefl. BBOCGOU This 10 boiied, and aerved in the aame manner aa cauliflowers when the heada are large; the atems of the branching broccoli are peded, and the vegetable, tied in bunches, is dressed fmd served, like aspazagus, upon a toast. 10 to ao mimitea. TO BOIL ARTICHOKES. After they have been soaked and weU washed, cut off the stems quite close, trim away a &w of the lower leaves, and clip the points of all; throw the artichokes into plenty of fast-boiling water, ready salted and skimmed, with the addition of the proportion of soda directed in rage 309, as this will greatly improve the colour of the vegetable. When remely voung, the artichokes will be tender in from half to three quarters of an hour, but they will require moie than double th'at time when at their fall growth: when the kavea can be drawn out easily they are done. Send good melted butter to table with them. They should be boiled always with the stalk-enda uppermost. Very young, i to J hour; full-grown, 1 J to 2 hours. Obs, - French cooks lift the tops fix m the artichKea before €bej are served, and replace them after having taken out the diokea: thv 18 an excelloit plan, but it must be expeditiously done to prevent the vegetable from oooling, FOB AJEITICHOBXS EN 6ALADE (See Chapter VL)

CHAP, xtil yBGSTABLBS. 8S7

TEGBTABLE HABBOW. it u cnstomaTy to gather thk when not larger than a turkey's egg, but we should say that the yegetahle is not then in its perfection. The flesh is whiter and of hetter flayonr when the gmird is about six inches long; at least we have found it so with the lands which have &llen under our observation. It may either be boiled in the skin, then pared, halved, and served upon a toast; or quartered, freed from the seed, and left until cold, then dipped into egg and fine crumbs of bread, and fried; or it may be cut into dice, and re-heated in a little ood white sauce; or stewed tend in butter, and served in wellthickeaed veal gravy, flavoured with a little lemon-juice. It may likewiae be masl hv the receipt whidi we have given for tumips, and in that form wiU be fiyana exeeUent. The fraidi make a fan ciM dish of the Buunowi thvs: ther boil them tendor in water, and halve tiiem lengthwise as is usual, they then slice a flDDoall bit off eadi to make them stand evenly in the dish, and after having hollowed the insides, so as to leave a mere shell, about half an inch thick, they All them with a thid rich mince of white meat, and pour white sauoe round them; or they heap fined bread-crumbs over the tops, place the dish in the oven for a few minutes, and serve them without sauce. Sise of tuiey8 egQ, 10 to 15 minutes; moderate-sized, 20 to 30; large, f to 1 hour. B0A9T TOMATAS, (To iene mtk rwxat legy hin or shoulder of mtttott.') Sdect them nearly of the same tize, take off the stalks, and roast them eentlv in a Dutch oven, or if more convenient, place them at the e&e oi the dripping-pan, taking care that no fat m m the joint shall &I1 upon them, and keeping them turned that they may be equally done. From ten to fourteen minutes will roast them. STEWED TOMATAS Arrange them in a single layer, and pour to them as much gravy as will reach to half their height; stew them very softly untu the under sides are done, then tuni, and finish stewinff them. Thicken the gravy with a little arrow-root and cream, or wiui flour and batter, and aerve it round them. FOBCED TOMATA6. (JSngiiih Beceipt.) Cut the stems qmte close, slice off the tops of eight fine tomatafl and scoop out the inddes; press the pulp through a sieve, aad mix

828 MODERN COOKEfiT. chip. xm. with it one ounce of fine cnimbs of bread, one of butter broken yezy small, some pepper or cayenne, and salt. Fill the tomatas with the mixture, and huae them for ten minutes in a moderate OTon; serve them with brown grayy in the dish. A few small mushrooms stewed tender in a little butter, then minced and added to the tomata pulp will Terj much improve this receipt. Bake 10 minutes. FOSOED TOMATAB. (Frendi, Receipt.) Let the tomatas be well shaped and of equal size; diyide them, nearl V in the middle leaving the blossom-side the largest, as this only is to be used; empty them carefully of their seeds and juice, and fiU them with the following ingredients, which must previously be stewed tender in butter but without being allowed to brown: minced mushrooms and shalots, with a moderate proportion of parsley, some lean of ham chopped small, a seasoning of cayenne, and a little fine salt, if needed; let them cool, then mix with them about a third as much of fine crumbs of bread, and two yolks of eggs; fill the tomatas, cover them with fine crumbs, moisten them with clarified butter, and bake them in a brisk oven until they are well coloured. Serve them as a ffamish to stewed rump or sirloin of beef, or to a boned and forced Jeff of mutton. Minced lean of ham, 2 oz.; mushrooms, 2 oz.; bread-crumbs, 2 oz.; shalots, 4 to 8; palrsley, full teaspoonfiil; cavenne, quarter saltspoonful; little salt, if neded; butter, 2 oz.; yolks of eggs, 2 to 3: baked 10 to 20 minutes. Obs.The French pound the whole of these ingredients with a bit of garlic, before they fiU the tomatas with them, but this is not absolutely necessary, and the garlic, if added at all, should be parboiled first, as its strong flavour, combined with that of the eschalots, would scarcely suit the general taste. When the lean of a dressed ham is at hand, only the herbs and vegetables will need to be stewed in the butter; this should be mixed with them into the forcemeat which an intelligent cook will vary in many ways. PITBEE or TOMATAS. Divide a dozen fine ripe tomatas, squeeze out the seeds, and take off the stalks; put them with one small mild onion (or more, if liked), and about half a pint of very good gravy, into a well-tinned stewpaa or saucepan, and simmer them for nearly or quite an hour; a couple of bay-leaves, some cayenne, and as much salt as the dish mav requxre, should be added when they begin to boil. Press them through a sieve, heat them again, and stir to them a quarter of a pint of good cream, previously mixed and boiled for five minutes with a teaspoonfiil

CHAP, xtil yegetables. 329 of flour. This pure ia to be served with calTs head, veal cutlets, boiled knuckle of veal, calTs brains, pr beef palates. For pork, beef geese, and other brown meats, the tomatas should be reduced to a proper consistence in rich and highly-flavoured brown gravy, or iSpuiiah sauce. TO BOIL OREEN INDIAN CORN. When still quite green and tender, the ears of maize or Indian com are very ffood boilea and served as a vegetable; and as they will not ripen well in this country unless the summer be unusually wann and &vourable, it is an advantajgeous mode of turning them to account. Strip away the sheath which encloses them, and take ofl the long silken fibres from the tops; put the com into boiling water salted as foT asparagus, and boil it for about half an hour. Drain it well, dish it on a toast, and send it to table with melted butter. The Americans, who have it served commonly at their tables, use it when more lly f;Town than we have recommended, and boU it without removing the inner leaves of the sheath; but it is sweeter and more delicate before it has reached so advanced a state. The grains may be freed from the corn-stalks with a knife, and tossed up with a slice of fresh butter and some pepr and salt, or served simply like green peas. Other modes of dressing the young maize will readily suggest tnemselves to an intelligent cook, and our space will not permit us to enumerate them. 25 to 30 minutes. MUSHROOMS AU BBURRE. (Delicious.) Cut the stems from some fine meadow mushroom-buttons, and clean them with a bit of new flannel, and some fine salt; tiien either wipe them dry with a soft cloth, or rinse them in fresh water, drain tiiem anickly, spread them in a dean cloth, fold it over them, and leave tiem for ten minutes, or more, to dry For every pint of them thus prepared, put an ounce and a half of fresh butter into a thick iron saacepan, shake it over the fire until it Just hegma to brown, throw in the mushrooms, continue to shake the saucepan over a dear fire that they may not stick to it nor bum, and when they have simmered three or four minutes, strew over them a little salt, some cayenne, and pounded mace; stew them until they are perfectly tender, heap them in a dish, and serve them with their own sauce only, for breakout, supper, or luncheon. Nothing can be finer than the flavour of the mushrooms thus prepared; and tiie addition of any liquid is far from an improvement to it. They are very cood when diidned from the butter, and served cold, and in a cool larder may be kept for Beveral days. The butter in which they are stewed is admirable for flayoaring gravies, sauces, or potted meats. Small flaps, freed from

330 MODEBH COOKERY. csAP. Xfli. the fur axkd skia, may be stewed in the same way; and either tibeie, or the buttons, serv under roast poultxy or partridges, will gire a dish of very superior reli. Midow mushrooms, 3 pints, fresh butter 41 oz.: 3 to 5 nmmtes. Salt, 1 small teadpoonful; mace, half as much; cayenne, third of saltspoonM: 10 to 15 minutes. More spices to be added if required - much depending on their quality; but they should not overpower the flavour of the mushrooms. 06.- Persons inhabiting parts of the country where mushrooms are abundant, may send them easily, when thus prepared (or when potted by the following receipt), to their friends m cities, or in less productive counties, if poured into jars, with sufficient butter to cover them, they will travel any distance, and can be re-wacmed for use. POTTED MUSHROOMS. Prepare either small flaps or buttons witili great nioety, without wetting Ihem, and wipe the former very dry, after the appHeation of the salt and flannel. Stew them quite tender, with the same proportion of butter as the mushrooms an bettrre, but increase a little the quantity of spce; when they are done turn them into a large dish, spread them over one end of it, and raise it two or three inches that they may be well drained from the butter. As soon m they aie quite cold, press them very closely into small potting-pans; joor lukewarm clarifled but&r thickly over them, and store them m a cool dry place. If intended for present use, merely turn them down upon a clean shelf; but for longer keeping cover the tops first with very dry paper, and then with melted mutton-suet. We have ourselves had the mushrooms, after being simply spread upon a dish while hot, remain perfectly good in tiiat state for seven or eight weeks: they were prepared kte in the seascm, and the weather was eousequently oool during the interval. MUSHROOM-TOAST; OB CROUTE AUX CHAMPIGITONS. (JEzeeOent) Ckit the stems closely from a quart x more, of onall just-pened mushrooms; peel them, and tal&e out the gills. Diaeolve from. two to three ounces of fresh batter in a well-tiniied aauoan cr 0tewpan, put in the mushrooms, strew ova them a quarter of a teaqKX)nfiu of pounded mace mixed with a little cayenne mad let them stew over a gentle fire from ten to fifteen minntes; toss or tir them often during the time; then add a small deasertspoeofiil of flour, and shake the pan round until it is lightly browned. Next pour in, by slow degrees, half a pint of gfavy or of good beefhroth;duid when the muibrooms have stewed eaidy in tlai te a

csAP. xyn.1 VEGETABLES. 331 couple of miimtes, throw in a little salt, and a squeeze of lemon-juicCt and pour them on to a crusty cut about an inch and a quarter thick, from the under part of a moderate-sized loaf, and fried in good batter a lieht brown, afler haying been first slightly hollowed in the innde. lew milk, or thin cream, may be used with yery good effect instead of the grayy; but a few strips of lemon-rind, and a small portion of nutmeg and mushroom-catsup should then be added to the sauce. The bre may be buttered and grilled oyer a gentle fire instead of being Med, and is better so. Small mushrooms, 4 to 5 half pints; butter, 3 to 4 oz.; mace, mixed with a little cayenne, i teaspoonful: stewed softly 10 to 15 minuter Flour, 1 small dessertspoonful: 3 to 5 minutes. Grayy or broth, pint: 2 minutes. Little salt and lemon-juice. TRUFFLES AND THEIR USES. The trufile, or underground mushroom, as it has sometimes been called, is held in almost eztrayagant estimation by epicures, and enters largely into what may be termed first-class cookery, both in England and abroad; though it is mHch less generally known and used here than in France, Germany, and other parts of the Continent, where it is far more abundant, and of yery saperior quality. As it is in constant demand for Inxuriously-seryea tables, and has hitherto, we belieye, baffled all atteinpts to increase it by cultiyation, H bears usually a high price in the English market,t and is seldom to be had cheap in any; but although too costly for common conRUDptiQn, where the expenditure is regulated by rational economy, it may at times be made to supply, at a reasonable expense, some ezoeilent store-prenarations for tne breakfast and lunche i-table; as a small portion will impart its peculiar flayour to them. The blaiest truffles are considered the best All are in their perfection during the latter part of Noyember, December, and January; though they may be procured usually from October to Harch; yet as they are peculiarly subject to decay- or, properly speaking, become really putrid- from exposure to the air, it is an adyantage to haye them as early in their season as may be. In sumptuous households the yery finest foreign truffles are often •eryed om a vegetabie in the second course. It has heen named bj a celebrated gastronomer of past days, Le diamant d$ la euUine." f Varying from eight to sixteen shillings the ponnd at the best foreign warehouses. The truffles -which are pared, bottled and steamed like fhiit, are more expeDsire still; bat they can be kept after the season of the fresh ones is entirely past. English tmf&es - which are found in Hampshire (in the New Forest) - and in some few other of our counties, are very good, though seldom or erer equal in quality to those of France, Germany, and of differont parts of Italy. Tr most Mtooaed of tha Freaoh ones are from PmgoreU

332 MODEEN COOKEBT. chap. xni.

TO PBBPARB TRUFFLES FOB USB. First soak them for an hour or two in fish water, to loosen the earth which adheres to them; then rinse them well from it, and with a hard brush scrub them until not a particle of the mould in which lliey have been embedded can be seen upon them. This part of the operation should be especially attended to, because the parings are as useful as the truffles themselyes. It is often needful to leave them longer in the water after it has been changed; and even to soak them sometimes in lukewarm water also: when they tue perfectly cleaned, wipe them gently with a soft cloth, or fold them in to diy, should they be wanted for any preparation to which moisture would be injurious. TRUFFLES A LA SERYIBTTE. Select the finest truffles for this dish, be particular in Bmelling them, and reject any tibat have a musty smell. Wash and brush them well with cold water only, change it several times, and when they are perfectly clean line a stewpan with slices of bacon; put in the truffles with a bunch of parsley, green onions, and thyme, two or three bay-leaves, half a dozen doves, and a little sweet basil; pour in sufficient rich veisJ gravy to cover them, with the addition of from half a pint to half a bottle of champagne; boil them very sofUy fixr an hour, then draw them aside and let them cool in the gravy Heat them afr'esh in it when they are wanted for table; lift them out and drain them in a veiy dean cloth, and dish them nettly in a fine and beautifully white napkin, which will contrast as strongly as possible with the dark hue of the truffles. TRUFFLES Wash perfectly dean, wipe, and pare some truffles eztiemdy thin; slice them about the size of a pennv; put them into a saut pan (or small frying-pan), with a slice of firesh butter, some minced parsley and eschalot, salt and pepper; put them on the fire and stir them, that the may fry equally; when they are done, which will be in about ten minut, drain off part of the butter, and throw in a bi£ of fresh butter, a small ladlefrd of Spanish sauce (see page 101 th? juice of one lemon, and a little cayenne pepper. This is a di of nigh relish. TO BOIL SPROUTS, CABBAQES, SATOYS; LETTUCES, OR SNDITE. All green vegetables should be thrown into abundance of fSni boiling water ry salted and skimmed, with the addition of the small quantity of carbonate of soda which we have recommended, in a

CHAP. XYH. YEGETABLES. 333 3xreYioiis page of this chapter; the pan ahoula be left unoovered, and eveiy precaution taken to prevent the smoke from reaching its contents. Endive, sprouts, and spring greens, will only require copious washing before they are boiled; but savoys, large lettuces, and doseleaved cabbages should be thrown into salt and water for half an hour or more before they are dressed, with the tops downwards to draw out the insects. The stems of these last should be cut off, the decayed leaves stripped away, and the vetable halved or quaxtered, or split deeply across the stuk-end, and mvided entirely hetore it is disheo. very young greens, 15 to 20 minutes; lettuces, 20 to 30 minutes, large sav gys, or cabbages, 1 to 1 hour, or more. ubs. - When the stalk of anv kind of cabbage is tender it is ready to serve. Turnip-greens should be well washed in several waters, and Ixxiled in a very hu-ge quantity to deprive them of their bitterness. STEWED CABBAQE. Cot out the stalk entirely, and slice a fine firm cabbage or two in ver thin strips; throw them after they have been well washed and dramed, into a large pan of boilmg water ready salted and skimmed, and when they are tender, which will be in fom ten to fifteen minutes, pour tLem into a sieve or strainer, press the water thoroughly from them, and chop them slightly. Put mto a very clean saucepan about a couple of ounces of butter, and when it is mssolved add the cabbage with sufficient pepper and salt to season it, and stir it over a dear fire until it appears tolerably drv; then shake lightly in a tablespoonfhl of flour, turn the whole well, and add by slow degrees a cap of thick cream: veal gravy or good white sauce may be substituted for this, when preferred to it. TO BOIL TUENIPS. Fare entirely from them the fibrous rind, and either split the turnips once or leave them whole; throw them into boiling water alighUy salted, and keep them dosely covered firom smoke and dust untfl they are tender. When, small and young they will be done in tcom fifteen to twenty minutes; at their fim growth they will require from three quarters to a fhll hour, or more, of gentle boiling. After they become old and woolly they are not worth drening in any way. When boiled in their skins and pared afterwards, tiiey are said to be of better flavour and much less wateiy than when cooked in the usual Xonng tumips, 15 to 20 minutes: full grown, f to 1 hour, or more. TO MASH TURNIPS. Split them onoe or even twice should they be large after they are fared; boil them verf tender, and press the water thoroughly frran

384 MODEBK OOOXEBT. cOAP. XVS. thoa vHh • ample of trtndien, or mth Ihe bock of a large plate and one trenefaer. Toensnic their being fireeiSnnn lumps, it is better to pass them throtifh a collender or coarse hair-sieye, with a wooden spoon; though, when quite young, ther may be worked sufficient smooth without this, rut them into a clean saucepan, and stir them constantly for some minutes over a sentle fire, that they may be very diy; then add some salt, a bit of fiesh butter, and a little cream, or in lieu of this new milk (we would also recommend a seasoning of white pepper or cayenne, when appearance and fiishion are not particularly regarded), and continue to simmer and to stir them fbr five or six minutes longer, or until they have quite absorbed all the liiaid which has been poured to them. Serve them alwa as hot as possible. This is an excellent receipt; but the addition of a little good white sauce would render it still better. Turnips, weighed after they are pared, 3 lbs.: dried 5 to 8 minute. Salt, 1 teaspoonful; butter, 1 oz. to 1 oz.; cream or milk, nearly i pint: 5 or 6 minutes. TTmiaPS IK WHITB BXVCE. (ENTREMETS.) When no scoop for the purpose is at haad, cut some small findyffrained turnips into quarters, and pare them into balls, or into me stkttpe of plums or pears of equal size; arrange them evenly in a broad stewpan or saucepan, and cover them nearly with good veal broth, throw in a little salt, and a morsel of sugar, and toU them rather quickly until they are quite tender, but preserve them unbroken; lift them out, draining them well from the broth; Suk, and •poxa over them some thick white sauce. Aa an economy, a dtp of cream, and a teaspoonful of arrowroot, may be added to the brodi in which the turmps have stewed, to make the sauce; and when it boils, a small slice of butter may be stirred and well worked into it, should it not be sufficiently rich without. TURNIPS STEWED IN BUTTER. (OOOD.) This is an excellent way of dressing the vtable when it is mild and finely grained; but its flavour otherwise is too strong to be agreeable. After they have been washed, wiped quite dxy, and pared, slice the turnips neany half an inch thick, and divide them into dice, Just dissolve an ounce of butter for each half-poimd of the turnips, put them in as flat as they can be, and stew them very gently indeed, from three quarters of an hour to a full hour. Add a seasoning or salt and white pepper when they are half done. When thus prepared, they may be dished in tne centre of fiied or nicely bitnled mutton cutlets, or served by themselves. For a small dish: turnips, 1 lb.; butter, 3 oz.; seasoning of white pepi; salt, I teaspoonful, or more: f to 1 hour. Large dish: tninipsy 5) lbs.; butter 4 oi.

CBMJF. ZVIl TBOETABLE& 335

TtTRNIPS IN 6RATY. To s paand of turnips sliced and cnt into dice, poor a quarter of a pint of boiling real grayy, add a small Inmp of sugar, some salt and cayenne, or viiite pepper, and boil them quickly firom fifty to sixty mmutes. Serve them very hot. TO BOIL CABROTS. Wash the mould from them, and scrape the skin off lightly with the edge of a sharp knife, or, ould this be objected to, pare them as thin and as equally as possible; in either case free them from all bkmishefl, and riiiould thejf be rery laree, divide them, and cut the thick parts into quarters; rinse them if ell, and throw them into plenty of boiling water with some salt in it. The skin of very young carrots may be rubbed off like that of new potatoes, and from twenty to thirty minutes will then be sufficient to boil them; but at their fbll growth th will require from an hour and a half to two hours. It was formerly the custom to tie them in a doth, and to wipe the skin fixnn them with it after they were dressed; and old-fashioned cooks Btill use one to remove it; but all vegetables should, we think, be dished and served with the least possible delay after they are ready for table. Melted butter should accompany boiled carrots. Very young carrots, 20 to 30 minutes. Full-grown ones, li to 2 hours. CARROTS. (ENTRis.) (The Windsor Receipt) Select some good carrots of equal size, and cut the upper parts into eren lengths of about two inches and a hal then tnm one end of each into a point, so as to give the carrot the form of a sugar-loaf. When all are ready, throw them into plen of ready-salted boiline water, and boil them three quarters of an hour. Lift them out, and drain them well, then arrange them upright, and all on a level in a broad stewpan or saucepan, and pour m good hot beef-broth or vealgravy to half their height; add as much salt as ma be needed, and a small teaspoonful of sugar, and boil them briskly for half an hour, or longer, should they require it. Place them seam upright in dishing them, and keep tnem hot while a little good brown gravy is thickened to pour over them, fuad mixed with a large teaspoonful of parsley and a little lemon-juice; or sauce them with conunon bechatnel (see Chapter Y.), or white sauce, with or without the addition of parslcT'. Thick part of carrots cut m cones: bofled hour. With grayy or See fiatek pags 888

336 HODEBN COOEEBT. cHAP. xvn broth little salt and Busar: hour, or more. Sauce: thickoied grayy, bechamel made witnout meat, or common white sauce. Ooi. - The carrots dressed thus are exceedingly good without any sauce beyond the small quantity of liquid whicn wul remain in the Btewpan with them, or with a few spoonsful more of gravy added to this, and thickened with butter and a little flour. SWEET CARROTS. (ENTREMETS.) Boil quite tender some fine hiffhly-flavoured carrots, press the water from them, and rub them uirough the back of a fine hairsieve; put them into a clean saucepan or stewpan, and dry them thoroughly over a gentle fire; then add a slice of firesh butter, and when this is dissolved and well mixed with them, strew in a dessertspoonM or more of powdered sugar, and a little salt; next, stir in by oegrees some good cream, and when this is quite absorbed, and the carrots again appear dry, dish and serve them quickly with small sippets a Ja Reine (see page 5), placed round them. Carrots, 3 lbs., boiled quite tender: stirred over a gentle fire S to 10 minutes. Butter, 2 oz.; salt, i teaspoonful; pounded sugar, 1 dessertspoonful; cream, pint, stewed gently tcether untU quite diy. Obs.-ToT excellent masJted carrots omit the sugar, add a good seasoning of salt and white pepper, and half a pint of rich "brown gravy; or for a plain dinner ratner less than this of milk MASHED (or buttered) CARROTS (A DtUeh Eeceipt.) Prenare some finely flavoured carrots as above, and dry them over a ntle fire like mashed turnips; then for a dish of moderate sise mix well with them fix m two to three ounces of good butter, cut into small bits, keeping them toeU sHrred. Add a seasoning of salt and cayenne, and serve them ver hot, garnished or not at pleasure with small sippets (croutons) of fined brd. CARROTS AIT BBURRE, OR BUTTERED CARROTS. (French.) Either boil sufficient carrots for a dish quite tender, and then cut them into slices a quarter of an inch thick, or first slice, and then boil them: the latter method is the most expeditious, but the other best preserves the flavour of the yegetable. Drain them well, and while this is being done just dissolve firom two to three ounces of butter in a saucepan, and strew in some minced parsley, some salt, and white pepper x cayenne; then add the camrtSi and toss them

GBAF. ztil vegetables. 337 Tery gently until they are equally coyered with the sauce, which should not be allowed to boil: the pareW may be omitted a pleasure. Cold carrots may be rewarmed in this way. CARROTS IN THEIR OWN JUICE. (A nmpie but excellent Beceipt) By the following mode of dressing carrots, whether young or old, tbeir fiill flavour and all the nutnment they contain are entirely preaeryed; and they are at the same time rendered so palatable by it that they furnish at once an admirable dish to eat without meat, as well as with it. Wash the roots yery clean, and scrape or lightly pare them, cutting out any discoloured parts. Haye ready boiling and salted, as much water as will coyer tnem; slice them rather uiick, throw them into it, and should there be more than sufficient to just Jloat them Tand barely that), pour it away. Boil them genUy until they are tolerably tender, and then yeiy qtdckly, to eyaporate the water, of which only a spoonful or so should be left in the saucepan. Dust a seasoning of pepper on them, throw in a morsel of butter rollecl in flour, and turn and toss them gently untQ their juice is thickened by them and adheres to the roots. Send them immediately to table. They are excellent without any addition but the pepper; though they may be in many ways improved. A dessert-spoonftil of mmced parsley maybe strewed over them when the butter is added, and a little thick cream mixed with a small proportion of flour to prevent its curdling, may be strewed amongst tnem, or a spoonful or two of good gravy. TO BOIL PARSNEFS. These are dressed in precisely the same manner as carrots, but require much less boiling. According to their quality and the time of year, they will take from twen minutes to nearly an hour. Every speck or blemish should be cut team them after they are scraped, and the water in which they are boiled should be wdl skimmed They are a favourite accompaniment to salt fish and boiled pork, and may be served either mashed or plain. 20 to 25 minutes. FRIED PARSNEPS Bml them until they are about half done, lift them out, and let them cool; slice them rather thickly, sprinkle them with fine salt and white pepper, and firy them a pale brown in good butter. Serve them with roast meat, or dish them under it JERUSALEM ARTICHOKES. Wash the artichokes, pare them quickly, and throw them aa they are done into a saucepan of cold water, or of equal parts of milk and

338 HOBEEH COOKERY. cHAF. xm. water; and when they are ahoat half boiled add a little salt to them. Take them up the instant they are perfectly tender: this will he in £rom fifteen to twenty-fiye minutes, so much do they vary in sixe and as to the time necessaiy to dress them. K allowed to remain in the water affcer they are done, they become black and flayonrlesB. Melted butter should always be sent to table with them 15 to 25 minutes. TO FRY JERUSALEM ARTICHOKES (eNTREMETB.) Boil them from eiht to twelve minutes; lift them out, drain than on a sieve, and let them cool; dip them into beaten eggs, and oover them with fine bread-crumbs, iry them a light brown, drain, pile tiiem in a hot dish, and serve them quickly. JERDAAJLEM ABTICHOKES, A LA REINE. Wash and wipe the artichokes, cut off one end of each quite flat, and trim the other into a point; boil them in milk and water, M thn out the instant thev are done, place them up- i-.pright in the oish in which Vh? they are to be served, and " sauce them with a good bichar ArtSchokM au Bcbw. meZ, or with nearly half a pint of cream thickened with a desoertspoonful of flour, mixed with an ounce and a half of butter, and seasoned with a little mace and some salt When cream cannot be procured use new milk, and increase the proportion of flour and butter. MASHBD JEBUBALSM ARTICHOKES. Boil them tender, press the water well from them, and then proceed exactly as ibr mashed turnips, taking care to dry the artichokes well, both before and after the milk or cream is added to them; thev will be excellent if good white sauce be aabatitated fiir either of these. HARICOTS BLANCS. The haricot hkmc is the seed of a particolar kind of French bean,, of which we find some difficulty in aacertainmg the English name for though we have tried aeveiiu which resemMed it in appeannoe, we have found their flavour, Kto they were dresaed, very different and far from agreeable. The Ixt white Dutch rnnner, n, we believe, the proper variety for cooking; at least we have obtaiiied a small quantity under that name, which approached much more

nearly than any others we had tried to those whidi m had eatesi ' 13m iMricotS) when firaA iDr be tlunwa into ph

qSAP. xyil TSaETABLES. 339 bofling water, mth some salt and a small bit of butter; if dry, they must be previously soaked for an hour or two, put into cold water, brought to boil gently, and simmered until they are tender, for if boilea fast the skins -mil burst before the beans are done. Drain them thoroughly from the water when they are ready, and lay them into a clean saucepan over two or three ounces of fresh butter, a flmaU dessertspoonful of chopped parsley, and sufficient salt and pepper to season the whole; then gently shake or toss the beans until the are quite hot and equally covered with the sauce; add the strained juice of half a lemon, and serve them quickly. The vegetable thus dressed, is excellent; and it affords a convenient resource in the season when the supply of other kinds is scantiest. In some sountries the dried beans are placed in water, over-night, upon a stove, and by a very sentle degree of warmth are sufficiently softened by the following day to be served as follows:- they are trained from the water, spr on a dean cloth and wiped qmte diy, then lightly floured and fried in oil or butter, with a seasoning of pepper and salt, lifted into a hot dishi and served under roast beet, or mutton. TO BOIL BEET BOOT Wash the roots delicately clean, but neither scrape nor cut them ' for should even the small fibres be taken off before they are cooked, their beautiful colour would be much injured. Throw them into boiling water, and, according to thdr size, which varies greatlv, as they arc sometimes of enormous growth, boU them firom one hour and a half to two and a half, or longer if requisite. Fare and serve them whole, or cut into thick slices and neatly dished in a close circle: send melted butter to table with them. Cold red beet root is often intermingled with other vetables for winter salads; and it makes a pickle of remarkably brilliant hue. A common mode of serving it at the present day is in the last course of a dinner with the cheese: it is merely paia and sliced afier having been baked or boiled tender. .1 to 2) hours, or longer TO BAKE BEET BOOT. Beet root if slowly and carefolly baked until it is tender quite iliiough, is very rich and sweet in flavour, although less bright in colour than when it is boiled: it Is also, we believe, remairkably nutritious and wholesome. Wash and wipe it very dry, but neither cat nor break any part of it; then lay it mto a coarse earthen dish, and bake it in a gentle oven for four or five hours: it will sometimes require even a longer time than this. Pare it quickly if it be serreA hot; but leave it to cool first, when it is to be sent to table cdUL In slow oven firam 4 to 6 hours.

340 HODEBN COOKEBT. cHAP.zra.

STEWED BEET ROOT Bake or boil it tolerably tender, and let it remain until it is cold, then pare and cut it into slices; heat and stew it for a short time in some good pale veal gfayy (or in strong yeal broth for ordinary occasions), tnicken this with a teaspoonful of arrowroot, and half a cupM or more of good cream, and stir in, as it is taken from the fire, from a tea to a tablespoonful of chili vinegar. The beet root may be served likewise in tnick white sauce, to which, just before it is dished, the mild eschalot! of page 128 may be added.

TO STEW BED OABBAOE. (Flemith Receipt,) Strip the outer leaves from a fine and fih red cabbage; wash it well, and cut it into the thinnest possible slices, binning at the top; put it into a thick saucepan m which two or three ounces of good. Dutter have been just dissolved; add some pepper and salt and stew it very slowly indeed for three or four hours m its own juice, keeping it often stirred, and well pressed down. When it is perfectly tender add a tablespoonM of vinegu-; mix the whole up thoroughly, heap the cabbase in a hot dish, and serve broUed sausages round it; or omit these last, and substitute lemon-jniee cayenne pepper, and a half-cupful of good gravy. The stalk of the cabbage should JSe sput in quarters and taken entirely out in the first instance. S to 4 hours. BRUSSELS 8PB017T8. These delicate little sprouts, or miniature cabbages, which at thdr frillest growth scarcely exceed a laige walnut in sice, should be quite freshly gathered. Free them frtnn aU discoloured leaves, cut the stems even, and wash the sprouts thoroughly. Throw them into a pan of water properly salted, and boil them quickly from eight to ten minutes; dxain them toZZ, and serve them upon a rather thick round of toasted bread buttered on both sides. Send eood melted butter to table with them. This is the Belgian mode of aremng this excellent vegetable, which is served in France with the sauce poured over it, or it is tossed in a stewpan with a slice of butter and some pepper and salt: a spoonM or two of veal gravy (and sometimes a little lemon-juice) is added when these are pmectly mixed. 8 to 10 mmutes

CHAP XYn. YEGETABLES. 341

SALSIFY. We are surprised that a yetable so excellent as this should be so litUe cared for in England. Delicately fried in batter- which is a common mode of servinff it abroad- it forms a delicious second course dish: it is also good when plain-boiled, drained, and served in grayr, or even with melted butter. Wash the roots, scrape gently off the dark outside skin, and throw them into cold water as they are done, to jprevent their turning black; cut them into lengths of three or four mches, and when all are ready put them into plenty of boiling water with a little salt, a small bit of butter, and a couple of rnSul of white yinegar or the juice of a lemon: thev will be I in from three quarters of an hour to an hour. Try them with a fork, and when perfectly tender, drain, and serye them wiUi white sauce, rich brown grayy, or melted butter. ) to 1 hour. FBIED SALSIFY. (eNTBEHETS.) Boil the salsify tender, as directed aboye, drain, and then press it lightly in a soft doth. Make some French batter (see Chapter Y.), t£row the bits of salsify into it, take them out separately, and fry them a light brown, drain them well from the fat, sprixikle a little fine salt oyer them after they are dished, and serye them quickly. At English tables, salsify occasionally makes its appearance fried with egg and bread-crumbs instead of batter. Scorgonera is dressed in predsely the same manner as the salsify. BOILED CELERY. This yegetable is extremely good dressed like sea-kale, and seryed on a toast with rich melted butter. Let it be freshly duff, wash it with great nicety, trim the ends, take off the coarse outer-Teayes, cut the roots of equal leneth, tie them in bunches, and boil them in plenty of water, with dxe usual proportion of ilt, from twenty to thirty minutes. 20 to 30 minutes. STEWED CELERY. Cut fiye or six fine roots of celery to the length of the inside of the dish in which they are to be seryed; free them from all the coarser leayes, and from the green tops, trim the root ends neatly, and wash the yegetable in seyeral waters until it is as dean as possible; then, either boQ it tender with a little salt, and a bit of fredi butter the size of a walnut, in just suffident water to coyer it quit%

342 MODSSK COOKSBT. cHAP.XTO. drain it well, arrange it on a very hot dish, and ponr a thick hechamel, or white sauce over it; or stew it in hrotn or common stock, and serve it with very rich, thickened, Espagnole or brown gravy. It has a higher flavour when partially stewed in the sauce, after being drained thoroughly from the broth. Unless very large and old, it will be done in from twenty-five to thirty minutes, but if not quite tender, longer time must be allowed for it. A cheap and expeditious method of preparing this dish is to slice the celery, to simmer it until soft in as much good broth as will only just cover iky and to add a thickening of flour and butter, or arrow-root, with, some salt, pepper, and a smdl cupM of cream. 25 to 30 minutes, or more 8TSWED OniONS. Strip the outer skin from four or five fine Portugal omoDS, and trim the ends, but without cutting into the vegetable; arrange them in a saucepan of sufficient size to contain them all in one layer, just cover them with good beef or veal gravy, and stew them very gently indeed for a couple of hours: thev should be tender quite tnrough, but should not be allowed to fail to pieces. When large, but not mild onions are used, they should be first boiled for half an hour in plenty of water, then drained from it, and put into bculiiig gravy: strong, well-flavoured broth of veal or beef, is sometimei substituted for this, and with the addition of a little catsup, spice, and thickening, answers very welL The savour of this dish is heightened by flouring lightly and frying the onions of a pale brown before they are stewed. Portugal onions, 4 or 5 (if fried, 15 to 20 minutes); broth or gravy, 1 to U pint: nearly or quite 2 hours. Obs. - When the quantity of gravy is considered too much, the onions may be only half covered, and turned when the under side k tender, but longer time must then be allowed for stewing them 8TBWED CHBSTNUTS Strip the outer rind from forty or fifty fine sound Spanish cheat nuts, throw them into a large saucepan of hot water, and bring h to the point of boiling; when the second skin puts fh m them easily, lift them out, and throw them into plenty or cold water; peel, and wipe them drv; then put them into a stewpan or bright saucepan, with as much hishly-flavoured coM beef or veal gravy as will neariy cover them, ana stew them very gently firom three-qiiarters of an hour to a full hour: they should be quite tender, bat unbroken. Add salt, cayenne, and thickening if required, and serve the chestnuts in their gravy. We have found it an inrorovement to have them floured and tightly browned in a little good butter before thegr

6HAP. xm. TISQETABLSS. 343 are stewed, and also to add some thin strips of fresh lemon-rind to ihe gravy. Chestnuts, 40 or 50; gravy, f pint, or more: f to 1 hour. Obs. - A couple of bay-leaves and a slice of lean ham wiU five an improved flavour to the sauce should it not be sufficiently liai: the ham should be laid under the chestnuts, but not served with them. When these are to be browned, or even otherwise, they may be freed readily from the second skin by shaking them with a small bit of butter in a frying-pan over a gentle fire.

S44

HODEBN COOKERY.

chap. XYnz.

CHAPTER XVIIL

Timbale or PaM ChiucU

nrmoDUCTORY remarks. The greatest possible cleanliness and nicety should be observed in making pastry. The slab or board, paste-rollers, tins, catters, moulds, everything, in fact, used for it, and especially the hands, should be equally free from the slightest soil or Xwrticle of dust. The more expeditiously the finer kinds of paste are made . and despatched to the oven, and the less they are touched the better. Much . of their excellence depends upon the baking also. They should have a sufficient degree of heat to raise them quickly, but not so fierce a one as to colour them too much before tney are done, and still less to bum them. The oven door should remain closed after they are put in, and not removed until the paste is set. Large raised pies require a steadily sustained, or, what is technically call a soaking heat, and to ensure this the oven should be made very

Raised Pie Mould.

OHAP. xvnLj PASTBT. 345 hot, then cleared, and closely shut from half to a whole honr hefore it is used, to concentrate the heat. It is an advantage in this case to have a large log or two of cord- wood homed in it, in addition to the nsual fuel. In mixing paste, the water should he added gradually, and the whole gently drawn together with the fingers, until sufficient has heen added, when it shoidd he lightly kneaided until it is as smooth as possihle. When carelessly made, the surface is often left covered with small dry crumhs or lumps; or tiie water is poured in heedlessly in so laie a proportion that it hecomes necessary to add more flour to render it workable in any way; and this ought particularly to he avoided when a certain weight of all the ingredients has heen taken. TO GLAZE OB ICE PASTRY. The fine yellow glaze appropriate to meat pies is given with heaten volk of egff, which should he laid on with a paste hrush, or a small hunch of leathers: if a lighter colour he wished for, whisk the whole of the;g together, or mix a little milk with the yolk. The hest mode of idng fruit-tarts hefore they are sent to the oven is, to moisten the paste with cold water, to sift sugar thickly upon it, and to press it ligntly on with the hand; hut when a whiter icing is preferred, the pastry must be drawn from the oven when nearly baked, and brushed with white of egg, wisked to a froth; then well covered with the sifted su, and sprinkled with a few drops of water before it is put in again: this glazing answers also very well, though it takes a slight colour, if mbA before the pastry is baked. FEUILLETAGB, OR FINE FBENCH PUFF PASTE. This, when made b a good French cook, is the •perfection of rich light paste, and will nse in the oven from one to six inches in height; but some practice is, without doubt, necessary to accomplish this. In summer it is a great advantage to have ice at hand, and to harden the butter over it before it is used; the paste also between the intervals of rolling is improved by bein laid on an oven-leaf over a vessel containing it. Take an equal weight of good butter free from the coarse salt which is found in some, and which is disadvantageous for this paste, and of fine dry, sifted flour; to each pound of these allow the volks of a couple of eggs, and a small teaspoonful of salt. Break a few small bits of the butter very lightly mto the flour, put the salt into the centre, and pour on it sufficient water to dissolve it (we do not understand why the doing this should be better than wiiTing it with the flour, as in other pastes, bul such is the method always pursued for it); add a little more water to the eggs, moisten the flour gradually, and make it into a very smooth paste, rather For oUier pastry isings see chapter of " cakes."

346 MODESN GOOKEBT. CHAF. XVUX. lithe in imniDer, and nerer exceedingly stiff, thongh the moaite &ult, in the extreme, would render the crust unmanageable. Press, in a soft thin cloth, all the moisture from the remainder of the butter, and form it into a ball, but in doing this be careful not to soften it too much. Should it be in an unfit state for pastry from the heat of the weather, put it into a basin, and set the basin into a pan of water mixed with plenty of salt and saltpetre, and let it remain in a cool place for an hour if possible before it is used. When it is ready (and the paste should never be commenced until it is so), roll the crust out square, and of sufficient size to enclose the butter, flatten this a little upon it in the centre, and then fold the crust well over it, and roll it out thin as lightly as possible, after bavins dredged the board and paste roller with a little flour: this is culed giving it one hanu Then fold it in three, give it another turn, and set it aside where it will be very cool, for a few minutes; nve it two more turns in the same way, rollii; it each time very lightly but of equal thickness, and to the full leusth thAt it will reach, taJdog always especial care that the butter shafi not break through the pa.. Let it again be set aside to become cold; and after it has been twice more roUed and folded in three, give it a half turn, by folding it once only, and it will be read for use. Equal weight of the finest flour and good butter; to each pound of these, the yolks of two eggs, and a small saltspoonful of salt: 6i turns to be given to the paste. VERY GOOD LIGHT PASTB. Mix with a pound of sifted flour six ounces of fresh, pure lard, and make them into a smooth paste with cold water; press the buttermilk from ten ounces of butter, and form it into a ball, by twisting it in a dean cloth. BoU out the paste, put the ball of butter in the middle, close it like an apple-dumpling, and roll it very lightly until it is less than an inch thick; fold the ends into the middle, dust a little flour over the board and paste-roller, and roll the paste thin a second time, then set it aside for three or four minutes in a very cool place; give it two more turns, after it has again been left for a few minutes, roll it out twice more, folding it each time in three. This ought to render it fit for use. The sooner this naste is sent to the oven after it is made, the lighter it wiU be: if allowed to remain long before it is baked, it will be tough and heavy. flour, 1 lb.; lard, 6 oz.; butter, 10 oz.; little salt ENGLISH PtrFF-FASTE. Break lightly into a couple of pounds of dried and sifted floor eight ounces of butter; add a pinch of salt, and sufficient cold water The learner will perhaps find it easier to fold the paste secorelj round it iA the form of a domplisg, until a little experience has been aoqnired

CHAP. XTIII.J PASTBT. 347 to make the paste; work it as quickly and as liglttly as possible, imtil it 18 smooth and pliable, then lerelit with the paste-roller until it is three-quarters of an inch thick, and place regularly upon it six ounces of butter in small bits; fold the paste like a blanket pudcg. Toll it out again. Ivy on it six ounces more of butter, repeat the Tolling, dusting each time a little flour oyer the board and paste, add aain six ounces of butter, and roll the paste out thin three or four tunes, folding the ends into the middle. Floor, 2 lbs.; little salt; butter, 1 lb. 10 os. If Tcry rich paste be required, equal portions of flour and butter must be used; and the latter ma be diyided into two, instead of three parts, when it is to be rolled m. CREAM CRUST. (Avihors Receipt. Very good Stir a little fine salt into a pound of dry flour, and mix gradually with it sufficient yerj thick, sweet cream to form a smooth paste; it will be found sufficiently good for common family dinners, without the addition of batter; but to make an exoeUent crust, roll in four oonoes in the usual way, after haying giyen the paste a couple ot ttrnt. Handle it as lhtly as possible in making it, and send it to the oyen as soon as it is rrady: it may be used for firint tarts, camieIcoDS, puffs, and other y arieties of small pastry, or for good meat pies. Six ounces of butter to the pound of flour will giye a very rich cmsC. Flour, 1 lb.; salt, 1 small aaltspoonful (more for meat pies); rich cream, to pmt; butter, 4 oz.; for rich crust, 6 oz. PATE BRIsiE, OR FRENCH CRUST FOR HOT OR COLD HBAT FIES. Sift two pounds and a ouarter of fine dr flour, and break into it one pound of butter, work them together with the fingers until they resemble fine crumbs of bread, then add a small teaspoonful of salt, and make them into a firm paiste, with the yolks of four eggs, well beaten, mixed with half a pmt of cold water, and strained; or for a Bomewhat richer crust of the same kind, take two pounds of flour, one of butter, the yolks of four eggs, half an oimce of salt, and less than the half pint of water, and work the whole well until the paste is pcifectly smooth. Flour, 2 lbs.; butter, 1 lb.; salt, 1 small teaspooniVd; yolks of eggs, 4; water, ) pint. Or: flour, 2 lbs.; butter, 1 lb; yolks of eggs, 4; waiter, less than pint. PLEAD CRUST. FUad is the proyinckd name for the lesf; or inside fat of a which makes excellent crust when fresh, much finer, indeed,

348 MODEBN COOKEBT. chap xmz. after it is melted into lard. Clear it quite from skm, and slice it yexy thin into the flour, add sufficient salt to give flavour to the paste. and make the whole up smooth and firm with cold water; lay it on a dean dresser, and beat it forcibly with a rolling-pin xmtil the flead is blended perfectly with the flour. It may then be made into cakes with a paste-cutter, or used for pies, round the edges of which a knife should be passed, as the crust rises better when cut than if merely, rolled to the proper size. With the addition of a small quantity of butter, which may either be broken into the flour before the flead is mixed with it, or rolled into the paste after it is beaten, it wHl be found equal to fine puff crust, with the advantage of being more easy of digestion. Quite common crust: flour, 1 lb.; flead, 8 oz.; salt, 1 small teaspoonful. Good common crust: flour, 1 lb.; flead, 6 oz.; batter, 2 oz. Bich crust: flead, lb.; butter, 2 oz.; flour, 1 lb. The crust Is very good when made without any butter. COMMON SUET-CRUST FOR PIES. In many families this is preferred both for pies and tarts, to cmst made with butter, as being much more wholesome; but it should never be served unless especially ordered, as it is to some persons peculiarly distasteful. Chop the suet extremely small, and add froth six to eignt ounces of it to a pound of flour, with a few grains of salt; mix these with cold water into a firm paste, and work it veiy smooth. Some cooks beat it with a paste-roller, until the suet is perfectly blended with flour; but the crust is lighter without this. In exceedingly sultry weather the suet, not being firm enough to chop, may be sbced as tmn as possible, and well beaten into the paste after it is worked up. Flour, 2 lbs.; beef or veal kidney-suet, 12 to 16 oz.; salt (for fruit-pies), i teaspoonfrd, for meat-pies, 1 teaspoonful. VERY SUPERIOR SUET- CRUST. Strip the skin entirely from some fredi veal or beef kidney-suet; chop, and then put it into the mortar, with a small quantity of pnzeflavoured lard, oil, or butter, and pound it perfectly smoodb: it may then be used for crust in the same way that butter is, in mitHng Jmff-paste, and in this form wiU be found a most excellent substitute or it, for ?u t pies or tarts. It is not quite so good for those whiclr are to be served cold. Eight oimces of suet pounded with two of butter, and worked with the fingers into a pound of flour, will make an exceedingly ood short crust; but for a very rich one the proportion must be increased. Good short crust: flour, 1 lb.; suet, 8 oz.; batter, 2 oz.; salt, teaspoonful. Bicher crust: suet, 16 oz.; butter, 4 oz.; floor, 1 lb.; salt, 1 small teaspoonful

CHAP, zvm. PASTBT. 349

TEBT BICH SHORT CBUBT FOR TARTS. Break ligbily, with the least poBsible handling, six ounces of batter into eight of flour; add a dessertspoonful of pounded sugar, and two or three of water; roll the paste, for several minutes, to blend the ingredients well, folding it together like puff-crust, and touch it as little as possible. Flour, 8 oz.; butter, 6 oz.; pounded sugar, 1 dessertspoonful irater, 1 to 2 spoonsful. BXOELLENT SHORT 0RU6T FOR SWEET PASTRY. Crumble down yery lightly half a pound of butter into a pound of flour, breaking it quite smaU. Mix well with these a slight pinch of salt and two ounces of sifted sugar, and add sufficient milk to make them up into a very smooth and somewhat firm paste. Bake this slowly, and keep it pale. It will be found an admirable crust if well made and lightly handled, and will answer for many dishes much better than pufif-paste. It mU, rise in the oyen too, and be extremely light Ten ounces of butter wiU render it very rich, but we find eight quite sufficient. BRIOCHE PASTE The brioche is a rich, light kind of unsweetened bun or cake, very commonly sold, and sery to all classes of people in France, where it is made in great perfection by good cooks ana pastrycooks. It is fashionable now at English tables, though in a different form, seryin prindpallyas a crust to enclose rissoles or to make cannelons and mtters. We haye seen it recommended for a vol-au-vent for which we should say it does not answer by any means so well as the fine pufiT-paste called feutUetage, The large proportion of butter and eggs which it contains render it to many persons highly indigestible; and we mention this to warn inyalids against it, as we haye known it to cause great suffering to persons out of health. To make it, take a couple of pounds of fine dry flour, sifted as for cakes, and separate dht ounces of this from the remainder to make the leayen. Put it into a small pan, and mix it lightly into a lithe paste, with half an ounce of yeast, and a spoonful or two of warm water; make two or three slignt incisions across the top, throw a doth oyer the pan, and place it near the fire for about twenty minutes to rise. In the interyal make a hollow space in the centre of the remainder of the • It ahonld be remarked, that the direotionB for brioehe-makixig are principally dsrlTed from the French, and that the pound in their conntrr weighs two onnoet more than with ni: this difference will aceonnt I6r the diflicnlty of working in the nnmber of eggs which they generally speoiiy, and which render the paste toa

350 MODEBN COOKEBT. oUP. xmL flonr, and pnt into it half an ounce of salt, as mnen fine sifted sngar, and half a gill of cream, or a dessertspoonful of water; add a pound of butter as free from moisture as it can be, and ouite so from large grains of salt; cut it into small bits, put it into tiie flour, and pour on it one by one six fresh eggs freed from the specks; then with the fingers work the flour genUy into this mass until the whole fiiima a perfectly smooth, and not stiff paste: a scTenth eg or the yolk of one, or even of two, may be added with advantage jf the flour will absorb them; but the brioche must always be tcarkabUy and not so moist as to adhere to the board and roller disagreeably. When the leaven is well risen spread this paste out, and the leaven over it; mix them well together with the hands, then cut the whole into several portions, and change them about that the leaven may be incorporated perfectly and equally with the other ingredients: when this is done, and the briocne is perfectly smooth imd pliable, dust •ome flour on a doth, roll the brioche in it, and lay it into a pan. Place it in summer in a eool place, in winter in a warm one. It is usually made over-niffht, and baked in the early part of the followlog day. It should then be kneaded up afiesh the firrt thins in the morning. To mould it in the usual £ rm, make it into baUa dt uniform sixe, hollow these a Utile at the top by pressing Uie thnn round them, brush them over with yolk of egg, and nut a second much smaller ball into the hollow part of each; glaae tnem entirely with yolk of egg, and send them to a uick oven for half an hour or more. The paste may also be made into the form of a large cake, then placed on a tin, or copper oven-leaf, and supported with a pasteboard in the b aking; for the form of which see introdnctoiT page of Chanter XXYII. Slour, 21be.; yeasty ios.; salt and migar, each i oz.; batter, 1 lb; qCg86to8 MOPERN POTATO PA8TT. (An excellent famif dieki A tin mould of the construction shown in the plate, with m perforated moveable top, and a small valve to allow the escape of steam, must be had ibr this pasty, which is a good fiunily dish, and which may be varied in numberless ways. Arrange at the bottom of the mould from two to three pounds of mutton cutlets, fieed, according to the taste, from all, or from the greater portion of the fiit then washed, lightly dredged on both sides with ibur, and j'- ii r with salt and pepper, or cayenne. Pour to them aoffident broth or water to make the gravy, and add to it at pleasure, a tablespoonfiil of mmroom catsup or of Harvey's sauce. Have ready boiled and 90ry BMothlv mashed, with about an ounoe of butter, and a spocoIbl or two of'milk or cream to each pound, as many good pot at oct wiU form a crust to the pasty of quite three indies tldck; pst the

CSUT znzLJ

PAsnrc;

351

eorer on the monld and arrange these equally njpon it, leaving them a little rough on the surface. Bake the paty in a moderate oven finom three-quarters of an hour to an hour and aquarter, according to its axe and its contents. Fin a folded napkin neatly round the mould, before it is served, and have ready a hot dish to receive the cover, which must not be lified off until after the pasty is on the table. Chicken, or veal and oysters; delicate pork chops with a seasoning of sage and a little parboiled onion, or an eschalot or two finely mino; partridges or rabbits neatly carved, mixed with small mushrooms, and moistened with a little good stock, will all give excellent varieties of this dish, which may be made likewise with highly seasoned slices of ealmoa freed from the skin, tpiinklol with fiitt herbs or intermixed with shrimps; clarified butter, rich v stock, or good white wine, may be poured to them to form the eravy. To thicken this, a little flour should be dredged m o& the fish pefoie it is laid into the mould. Other kinds, such as eoo, mixlleti madkerel HI fillets, salt fish (previonaiy k at tiie point of boiline until three parts done, then pulled into fiako, and put into the mould with hard eggs sliced, a little cream, fiour, butter, cayenne, and anchovy-

I and baked with mashed paraneps on the top), will all answer well for this pasty. Veal, when used for it, sboiud be well beaten fixvt: sweetbreads, sliced, may be laid in with it For a pasty of moderate nze, two pounds, or two and a half of meat, and from three to four of potatoes, will be sufficient; aquarter of a pint of milk or cream, two smsU teaspttmsful of salt, imd fin m one to two ounces of butter must be mixed up with these last •

GAA8EROLB OF BICB.

Broeeed exactly m for GabrieUeV poddiiig (see Chapter XXL) but flubstitiite good veal broth or stock for the milk, and add a couple of omaeei mrare of butter. Fiil the casKrc when it is

• AUigtr. ' firaafiir

of oream and butter well dried into the potatoes over a are msihewiU render tbecnist of ths pssiioliar and

352 MODEBN COOKERY. chap. XTUI emptied, with a rich mince or fricassee, or with stewed oysters in a hichamel sance. French cooks make a very troublesome and elaborate affair of this dish, putting to the rice to make it " meUow a great deal of pot-top fat, slices of fat ham, &c., which must afterwards be well drained off, or picked out j&om it; but the dish, made as we have directed, will be found excellent eating, and of veiy elegant appearance, if it be moulded in a tasteful snape. It must have a quick oven to colour, without too much drying it The rice for it must be boiled sufficiently tender to be crushed sily to a smooth paste, and it must be mashd with a strong wooden spoon against the sides of the stewpan until all the ains are broken. It may tiien, when cool, be made like a raised pie with the hands, and decorated with a design formed on it with a carrot cut into a point like a grayer. For a large casserole, a pound of rice and a quart of gniyy will be required: a bit of bread is sometimes used in filling the mould, cut to the shape, and occupying nearly half the inside, but always so as to leave a thick and compact crust in eveiy part. Part of the rice which is scooped from tne inside is sometunes mid with the mince, or other preparation, with which the casserole is filled A QOOD COMUON ENGLISH GAME PIE. liaise the flesh entire from the upper side of the best end of s well-kept neck of venison, trim it to the length of the dish in which the pie is to be served, and rub it with a mixture of salt, cayenne, pounded mace, and nutmeg. Cut down into joints a fine youn£ hare which has hung from eiffht to fourteen days, bone t he ba £ and thighs, and fill them wi& forcemeat No. 1 (Chapter YUL, page 157), bnt put into it a double portion of butter, and a small quantity of minced eschalots, should their fiavour be liked, and the raw liver of the hare, chopped small. Line the dish witii a rich short crust (see page 337), lay the venison in the centre, and the hare closely round and on it; fill the vacant spaces with more forcemeat, add a few spoonsful of well-jellied graw, fasten on the cover securdy, ornament it or not, at pleasure, ana bake the pie for two hours in a well heated oven. The remnants and bones of the hare and venison may be stewed down into a small quantity of excellent soup, or with a less proportion of water into an admirable gravy, part of which, after having been cleared from fat, may be poured into the pie. The jelly, added to its contents at first, can be made, when no sadb stock IS at hand, of a couple of pounds of shin of beef boiled down in a quart of water, which must be reduced quite half and seasoned only with a good slice of lean ham, a few pepnercoms, seven or dffht doves, a blade of mace, and a little salt One pound and a half of flour will be suffident for the crust; this, when it is so prdbned, may be laid round the sides only of the didi, instead of entirdr over it Xhe prime joints of a second hare may be sabstitated nxr tlie

CHAP, xvin. PASTRT. 353 ?enison when it can be more easily procured; bnt the pie made entirely of venison, without the forcemeat, will be far better. Baked 2 hours. Obs, - These same ingredients will make an excellent raised pie, if the yenison be divided and intermixed with the hare: the whole should be highly seasoned, and all the cavities filled with the forcemeat No. 18 (Chapter YIU.), or with the truffled sausage-meat of page 263. The top, before the paste is laid4 ver, should be covered iirith slioes of fat bacon, or with plenty of butter, to prevent the sarfaoe of the meat from becoming hard. No liquid is to be put into the pie until after it is baked, if at all. It will require from half to a fuU nour more of the oven than if baked in a dish.

MODERN CHICKEN PIE. Skin, and cut down into joints a couple of fowls, take out all the bones, and season the flesh highly with salt, cayenne, pounded mace, and nutmeg; line a dish with a thin paste, and spread over it a laer of the finest sausage-meat, which has previously been moistened with a spoonful or two of cold water; over this place closely together some of the boned chicken joints, then more sausage-meat, and continue thus vnth alternate layers of each, until the dish is full; roll out, and fasten securely at the edges, a cover half an inch thick, trim off the superfluous paste, make an incision in the top, lay some paste leaves round it, glaze the whole with yolk of egg, and bake the pie from an hour and a half to two hours in a well heated oven. Lay a sheet or two of writing-paper over the crust, should it brown too quickly. Minced herbs can be mixed with the sausage-meat at pleasure, and a small quantity of eschalot also, when its flavour is much liked: it should be weU moistened with water, or the whole will be unpalatably dr. The pie may be served hot or cold, but we would rather recommend the latter. A couple of very young tender rabbits will answer exceedingly -well for it instead of fowl and a border, or half paste in the dish will generally be preferred to an entire lining of the crust, which is now but rarely served, unless for pastry, which is to be taken out of the diah or mould in which it is baked before it is sent to table. A COMMON OHICKSN PIE. Prepare the fowls as for bdling, ent them down into joints, and season them with salt, white pepper, and nutm or pounded maoe; arrange them neatly in a dish boraered vdth paste, lay amongst them three or four fresh eggs boiled hard, and cut in halves, pour in some •old water, put on a thi cover, pare the edge, and ornament it, The second or third forcemeat mentioned under this No. (18), would be the most appropriate for a game pie. A A

854 MODERN COOKERY. TcHAF. XYIIL make a hole in the centre, lay a roll of paste, or a few leaves ronnd it, and bake the pie in a moderate oven from an honr to an hoar and a half. The back and neck bones may be boiled down with a bit or two of lean ham, to make a little additional gravy, which can be poured into the pie after it is baked. FIOBON PIE. Lay a border of fine pnff paste round a large dish, and cover the bottom with a veal cutlet or tender rump steak, free from fat and bone, and seasoned with salt, cayenne, and nutmeg or pounded mace; prepare with great nicety as many freshly-killed young pigeons as the dish will contain in one layer; put into each a slice or ball of butter, seasoned with a little cayenne and mace, lay them into the dish with the breasts downwards, and between and over them put the volks of half a dozen or more of hard-boiled eggs; stick plenty of butter on them, season the whole well with salt and spice, pour in some cold water or veal broth for the gravy, roll out the cover threequarters of an inch thick, secure it well round the edse, ornament it highly, and bake the pie for an hour or more in a w-heated oven. It is a great improvement to fill the birds with small mushroombuttons, preparea as for partridges (see Chapter XY.): their livers also may be put into them. BEEF-STEAK PIE. From a couple to three pounds of rump-steak will be sufficient for a good family pie. It should be well kept though perfectly sweet for in no form can tainted meat be more offensive tnan when it is enclosed in paste. Trim off the coarse skin, and part of the fat should there be much of it (many eaters dislike it altogether in nes and when this is the case every morsel should be carefully cut away). If the beef should not appear very tender, it may be gently beaten with a paste-roller until the fibre is broken, then dividra into slices half as large as the hand, and laid into a dish bordered with paste. It should be seasoned with salt and pepper, or cayenne, and sufficient water poured in to make the gravy, and keep the meat moist. Lay on tne cover, and be careful always to brush the edge in every part with egg or cold water, then join it securely to the paste which IS round the rim, trim both off close to the dish, pass the point of the knife through the middle of the cover, lay some slight roll or ornament of paste round it, and decorate the border of the pie in any of the usual modes, which are too common to require descriptioiu Send the pie to a well-heated, but not fierce oven for about an hour and twenty minutes. To make a richer beef-steak pie put bearded oysters in alternate layers with the meat, add their strained liquor to a little (rood gravy in which the beards may be simmered for a few minutes to give it further flavour, and make a light puff paste for

CHAP, xym. PASTBT. 355 the crust. Some eaters like it seasoned with a small portion of minced onion or eschalot when the oysters are omitted. Mushrooms improve all meat-pies. Veal pies may be made by this receipt, or by the second of those which follow. Slices of lean ham, or parboiled ox-tongue, may be added to them. 1 to 14 hour.

COMMON MUTTON PIE. A pound and a quarter of flour will make sufficient paste for a moderate-sized pie, and two pounds of mutton freed from the greater portion of the fat will fill it Butter a dish and line it with about half the jMiste rolled thin; lay in the mutton evenly, and sprinkle over it three-quarters of an ounce of salt, and from naif to a whole teaspoonful of pepper according to the taste; pour in cold -water to within an inch of the brim. Roll the cover, miick should be quite half an inch thick, to the size of the dish; wet the edges of the paste with cold water or white of egg, be careful to dose them securely, cut them off close to the rim ofthe dish, stick the point of the knife through the centre, and bake the pie an hour and a quarter in a well-heated oven. Plour, H lb.; minced suet rather less than i lb.; or, butter, 4 oz., and very pure lard, 2 or 3 oz.; mutton, 2 lbs.; salt, oz.; pepper, half to a whole teaspoonful; water, i pint: li hour.

A GOOD MUTTON PIB. Lay a half-paste of short or of puff crust round a buttered dish; take the whole or part of a loin of mutton, strip off the fat entirely, and raise the flesh clear from the bones without dividing it, then slice it into cutlets of equal thickness, season them well with salt and nepper, or cayenne, and strew between the layers some finely-minced nerbs mixed with two or three eschalots, when the flavour of these last is liked; or omit them, and roil quite thin some good forcemeat (which can be flavoured with a little minced eschalot at pleasure), and lay it between the cutlets: two or three mutton kidneys intermingled with the meat will greatly enrich the gravy; pour in a little cold water, roll the cover half an inch thick, or more should the crust be short, as it will not lise like puff paste, close the pie very securely, trim the edges even with the dish, ornament the pie wording to the taste, make a hole in the centre, and bake it from in hour and a half to a couple of hours. The proportions of paste and meat may be ascertained by consulting the last receipt. Gravy made with part of the bones, quite cleared from fat, and left to become cold, may be used to fill the pie instead of water.

S56 MODERN COOKEBT. chaf. XTOX

RAISED PIES. These may be made of any size, and with any kind of meat, poultry, or ame, but the whole must be entirely free from bone. Vllen the crust is not to be eaten, lit is made simply with a few ounces of lard or butter dissolved in boiling water, with which the flour is to be mixed (with a spoon RaiMd Pie. at first, as the heat would be toe Seat for the hands, but afterwards vnth the finrs to a smooth and m paste. The French, who excel greatly m this form of pie, use for it a good crust which they call a pate brisee (see page 347), and this is eaten usually with the meat which it contains, la either case the paste must be sufficiently stiff to retain its form perfectly after it is raised, as it will have no support to;)reYent its falling. The celebrated Monsieur Ude gives the following directions for moulding it to a proper shape without difficulty; and as inexperienced cooks generally find a little at first in giving a jrood appearance to these pies, we copy his instructions for them: "• Take a lump of paste proportionate to the size of the pie you are to make, mould it in the shape of a sugar loaf put it upright on the table, then with the pidms of your hands flatten the sides of it; when you have equalized it all round and it is quite smooth, squeeze the middle of the point down to half the height of the paste, then hollow the inside by pressing it with the fingers, and in doing this be careful to keep it m every part of equal Uiickness. Fill it,t roll out the cover, g the edges, press them securely t ether, niake a hole in the centre, lay a roll or paste round it, and encircle this with a wreath of leaves, or ornament the pie in any other way, according to the taste; glaze it with beaten yolk of egg, and bake it from two to three hours in a well-heated oven if itbe small, and from four to five hours if it be large; though the time must be related in some measure by the nature of the contents, as well as by Uie size of the dish. Obs,-We know not if we have succeeded in making the leader We remember having partaken of one which was brought firom Bordeaux, and which contained a small boned ham of delicious flaToor, sormotinted by boned partridges, above which were placed fine larks likewise boned; iJl the interstices were filled with saper-exoellent forcemeat, and the whole, being a solid mass of nourishing Tiands, would have formed an admirable tniTeller's larder in itself. f For the mode of doing this, see obserrations, page 258, and Chapter XXXIY A ham must be boiled or stewed tender, and freed from tlie skin and blackened parts before it is laid in; poultry and game boned; and all meat hi

CHAP, xvin. PA8TBT. 357 comprehend that this sort of pe (with the exception of the cover, for whidi a portion mast at first he taken off) is made from one solid lump of paste, which, afler having heen shaped into a cone, as Monsieur iJde directs, or into a hiffh round, or oval form, is hollowed hy pressing down the centre with the knuckles, and continuing to knead the inside equally round with the one hand, while the ouier is pressed close to the outside. It is desirable that the mode of doing this should be once seen by the learner, if possible, as mere verbal instructions are scarcely sufficient to enable the quite-inexperienced cook to comprehend at once the exact form and appearance which should be given to the paste, and some degree of exCiess is always necessary to mould a pie of this kind well with the rs only. The first attempts should be made with very small pies, which are less difficult to manage. A VOL-AU-VENT. (eMTr££.) This dish can be successfully made only with the finest and lightest puff-paste (see feuiUetagey page 345), as its height, which ought to be from four to five inches, depends entirely on its rising m the oven. KoU it to something more than an - _ inch in thickness, and cut it to the shape and size of the inside of the dish in which it is to be served, or stamp it out with a fluted tin of proper dimensions; then mark the cover evenly about an inch from the edge all round, and ornament it and the border also, with a knife, as tancy may direct; brush yolk of egg quickly over them, and put the vol-au-vent immediately into a brisk oven, that it may rise well, and be finely coloured, but do not allow it to be scorched. In from twenty to thirty minutes, should it appear baked through, as well as sufficiently browned, draw it out, and with the point of a knife detach the cover carefully where it has been marked, and scoop out all the soft unbaked crumb from the inside of the vol-au-vent; then turn it gently on to a sheet of clean paper, to drain the butter from it. At the instant of serving, fill it with a rich fricassee of lobster, or of sweetbreads, or with turhot a la creme or with the white part of cold roast veal cut in thin collops not larger than a shilling, and heated in good white sauce with ovsters (see minced veal and oysters, page 251), or with any other of the preparations which we shall inmcate in their proper places, and send it immediately to table. Tlie vol-au'vent, as the reader will perceive, is but the case, oi cnst, in which various kinds of delicate ragouts are served in an elegant form. As these are most frequently composed of fish, or of

358 MODERK COOKEBT. chap. rvni. meats which have heen already dressed, it is an economical as well as an excellent mode of employing such remains. The sauces in which they are heated must be quite thick, for they would otherwise soften, or even run through the crust. This, we ought to obsenre, should be examined before it is filled, and should any part appear too thin, a portion of the crumb which has been taken out, should be fastenea to it with some beaten egg, and the whole of the inside brushed lightly with more egg, in order to make the loose parts of the vol-au'vent stick well together. This method is recommended by an admirable and highly experienced cook, but it need only be resorted to when the crust is not solid enough to hold the contents securely. For moderate-sized vol-au-ventj flour, J lb.; butter, lb.; salt, small saltspoonful; yolk, 1 egg; little water. Larger voUau-vent, i lb. flour; other ingredients in proportion: baked 20 to SO minutes. Oba. - When the voUau-vewt is cut out with the fluted cutter, a second, some sizes smaller, after being just dipped into hot water, should be pressed nearly half through the paste, to mark the coyer. The border ought to be from three-quarters of an inch to an inch and a half wide.

A VOL-AU-VEKT OP FRUIT. (eNTREMETS.) After the crust has been uLHde and baked as above, fill it at the moment of serving with peaches, apricots, mogul, or any other richly flavoured plums, which have been stewed tender in svrup; lijEt them from this, and keep them hot while it is boiled rapiclly almost to jelly; then arrange the ft'uit in the voUau-venLi and pour Uie syrup over it. For the manner of preparing it, see compotes of fruit, Chapter XXIY.; but increase the proportion of sugar nearly half, that the juice may be reduced quickly to the proper consistency for the vol-au'vent. Skin and divide the apricots, and quarter the peaches, unless they should be very small.

VOL-AU-YENT A LA CRiME. (eNTREMETS.) After having raised the cover and emptied the tfol-au-vent lay it on a sheet of paper, and let it become cold. Fill it just before it is sent to table with fruit, either boiled down to a rich marmalade, or stewed as for the preceding vol-aU'Vent, and heap well flavoured, but not too highly sweetened, whipped cream over it. The edge of the crust may be blazed by sifting sugar over it, when it is drawn from the oven, and holding a salamander or red hot shovel above it; or it may be left unglazed, and ornamented with bright coloured fruit jelly.

CHAP, xvm PA8TET. 359

OYSTER PATTIES. (ENTRis). Line some small patty-pazis with fine puff-paste, rolled thin and to preserve their form when baked, put a bit of bread into each; lay on the covers, pinch and trim the edges, and send the patties to a brisk oven. Plump and beard from two to three dozens of small ovsters; mix very smoothly a teaspoonful of flour with an ounce of butter, put them into a clean saucepan, shake them round over a gentle fire, and let them simmer for two or three minutes; throw in a little salt, pounded mace, and cayenne, then add, by slow degrees, two or three spoonsful of rich cream, give these a boil, and pour in the strained liquor of the oysters; next, lay in the fish, and keep at the point of boiling for a couple of minutes. Raise the covers from the patties, take out the bread, fill them with the oysters and their sauce, and replace the covers. We have found it an improvement to stew the beards of the fish with a strip or two of lemon-peel, in a little good ?eal stock for a quarter of an hour, then to strain and add it to the Bauce. The oysters, unless very small, should be once or twice divided. COMMON LOBSTER PATTIES. Prepare the fish for these as directed for fricasseed lobster. Chapter II., increasing a little the proportion of sauce. Fill the patty-cases with the mixture quite hot, and serve immediately. SUPERLATIVE LOBSTER-PATTIES. (Authars Receipt.) Form into balls about half the size of a filbert either the cutlet-mixture or the pounded lobster of Chapter 111., roll them m the sifted coral, warm them through very ly, have ready some hot patty-cases (see page 361 ), pour into each a small spoonful of rich white sauce, or Sauce a VAurore (see page 118), lay the balls round the edge, pile a larger one in the centre, and serve the whole very quickly. The Dresden patties of page 387 may be thus filled.

""

GOOD CHICKEN PATTIES. (ENTIliB ) Raise the white flesh entirely from a young undressed fowl, divide it once or twice, and lay it into a small clean saucepan, in which These pattins should be made small, with a thin crust, and wtU UM with the oysters aud iheir sauce. The subBtitution of fried crumbs for the covers will wary them very agreeably. For lobster patties, prepare the fish as for a veif •Mni, but cut it smaller.

360 HODEBN GOOKEBT. chaf xtih. about an ounce of butter has been dissolved, and just bna to simmer; strew in a slight seasoning of salt, mace, and cayenne, and stew the chicken very softly indeed for about ten minutes, taiking every precaution against its browning: turn it into a dish with the butter, and its own gravy, and let it become cold. Mince it with a sharp knife; heat it. without allowing it to boil, in a little good white sauce (which may be made of some of the bones of the fowl), and fill ready-baked patty-crusts, or small vol-aU'VenU with it, just before the are sent to table; or stew the flesh only just sufficiently to render it firm, mix it after it is minced and seasoned with a spoonful or two of strong gravy, fill the patties, and bake them from fifteen to eighteen minutes. It is a great improvement to stew and mince a few mushrooms with the chicken. The breasts of cold turkey, fowls, partridges, or pheasants, or the white part of cold veal, minced, heated in a bichamel sauce, will serve at once for patties: they may also be made of cold game, heated in an Espagnole or in a good brown gravy. PATTIES A LA PONTIFE. (ENTR£i!:.J A fast day or Maigrt disk.) Mince, but not very small, the yolks of six fresh hard-boiled eggs; mince also and mix with them A couple of fine truffles, a large saltspoonful of salt, half the quantity of mace and nutmeg, and a fourth as much of cayenne. Moisten these ingredients with a spoonful of thick cream, or bechamel maigre (see page 109), or with a dessertspoonful of clarified butter; line the patty-moulds, fill them with the mixture, cover, and bake them from twelve to fifteen minutes in a moderate oven. They are excellent made with the cream-cmst of page 347. Yolks hard-boiled eggs, 6; truffles, 2 large; seasoning of salt, mace, nutmeg, and cayenne; cream, or bechaniel maigre, 1 tablespoonful, or clarified butter, 1 dessertspoonful: baked moderate oven, 12 to 15 minutes. Obs. - A spoonful or two of jellied stock or gravy, or of good white sauce, converts these into admirable patties: the same ingre dients make also very superior rolls or cannelons. For Patties 1 la Cardinale, small mushroom-buttons stewed as for partridges, ChaptbT XIII., before they are minced, must be substituted for truffles; and the butter in which they are simmered should be added with them to the eggs. EXCELLENT MEAT ROLLS. Pound, as for potting (see page 305 and with the same propor tion oi butter and of seasonings, some naif-roasted veal, chicken, at The bottled ones will answer well for these

CHAP, xym.

PASTBT.

361

turkey. Make some forcemeat by the receipt No. 1, Chapter VL, and form it into small rolls, not larger than a finger; wrap twice or thrice as much of the pounded meat equally round each of these, first moistenuiff it with a teaspoonful of water; fold them in good pufi"paste, and bake them from fifteen to twenty minutes, or until the crust is perfectly done. A small quantity of the lean of a boiled ham may be finely minced and pounded with the veal, and very small mushrooms, prepared as for a partridge (page 329), may be subetituted for the forcemeat. SMALL VOLS-AU-TENTS, OR PATTT-CABES.

mm mm

These are quickly and easily made with two round paste-cutters, of which one should be little more than half the size of the other: to give the pastry a better appearance, they should be fluted. Roll out some of the lightest pun-paste to a half-inch of thickness, and with the larger of the tins cut the number of patties required; then dip the edge of the small shape into hot water, and press it about half through them. Bake them in a moderately quick oven from ten to twelve minutes, and when they are done, with the point of a sharp knife, take out the small rounds of crust from the tops, and scoop all the crumb from the inside of the patties, which may then be filled with shrimps, oysters, lobster, chicken, pheasant, or any other of the ordinary varieties of patty meat, prepared with white sauce. Pried crumbs may be laid over them instead of the covers, or these last can be replaced. For sweet dishes, glaze the pastry, and fill it with rich whipped cream, preserve, or boiled custard; if with the last of these put it back into a very gentle oven until the custards are set. ANOTHER RECEIPT FOR TARTLETS. For a dozen tartlets, cut twenty-four rounds of paste of the usual sie, and form twelve of them into rings by pressing the small cutter quite through them; moisten these with cold water, or white of egg, aod lay them on the remainder of the rounds of paste, so as to form tlie rims of the tartlets. Bake them from ten to twelve minutes, fill ftbem with preserve while they are still warm, and place over it a

362 MODERN COOKEBT. chap. ZTIH. small ornament of paste cut from the remnants, and baked gently of a light colour. Serve the tartlets cold, or if wanted hot tor table put them back into the oven for one minute after they are filled. A SEFTON OR TEAL CUSTARD. Pour boiling, a pint of rich, dear, pale veal gravy on six fiiesli Cttgs, which have been well beaten and strained: sprinkle in directly the grated rind of a fine lemon, a little cayenne, some salt if needed and a quarter- teaspoonful of mace. Put a paste border round a dish, pour in, first two ounces of clarified butter, and then the other ingredients; bake the Seflon in a very slow oven from twenty-five to thirty minutes, or until it is quite firm in the middle, and send it to table with a little good gravy. Very highly flavoured game stock, in which a few mushrooms have been stewed, may be u for this dish with great advantage in lieu of veal gravy; and a sauce made of the smallest mushroom buttons, mav be served with it in either case The mixture can be baked in a whole paste, if preferred so, or in well buttered cups; then turned out and covered with the sauce before it is sent to table. Rich veal or game stock, 1 pint; fresh eggs, 6; rind, 1 lemon; little salt and cayenne; pounded mace, teaspoonful; butter, 2 oz.: baked, 25 to 30 minutes, slow oven.

Work together with the fingers, ten ounces of butter and a pound of flour, until they resemble fine crumbs of bread; throw in a small pinch of salt, and make them into a firm smooth paste with the yolks of two eggs and a spoonful or two of water. Butter thickly, a plain tin cake, or pie mould (those which open at the sides, see plate, page 344, are best adapted for the purpose;; roll out the paste thin, place the mould upon it, trim a bit to its exact size, cover the bottom of the mould with this, then cut a band the height of the sides, and press it smoothly round them, joining the edge, which must be moistened with egg or water, to the bottom crust; and fasten upon them, to prevent their separation, a narrow and thin band of paste, also moistened. Next, fill the mould nearly from the brim with the following marmalade, which must be quite cold when it is put in. Boil together, over a gentle fire at first, but more quickly afterwards, three pounds of eood apples with fourteen ounces of pounded sugar, or of the finest Lisbon, the strained juice of a large lemon, throe ounces of fresh butter, and a teaspoonful of pounded cinnamon, or the lightly grated rind of a couple of lemons: when the whole is perfectly smooth and dry, turn it into a pan to cool, and let it be quite cold before it is put into the paste. In early autumn, a larger proportion of sugar may be reouired, but this can be regulated by the taste When the mould is filled, roll out the cover, lay it cardfully

CHAP. xvra-J PA8TET. 363 oyer the marmalade that it may not touch it; and when the cake is secnrely closed, trim olf the superfluous paste, add a little pounded sugar to the parings, spread them out very thin, and cut them into leaves to ornament the top of the cake, round which they may he placed as a sort of wreath. Bake it for an hour in a moderately brisk oven; take it from the mould, and should the sides not be Buffidently coloured put it back for a few minutes into the oven upon a baking tin. Lay a pajr over the top, when it is of a fine light brown, to prevent its bemg too deeply coloured. This cake should be served hot. Paste: flour, 1 lb.; butter, 10 oz.; yolks of egp;s, 2; little water. Marmalade: apples, 3 lbs.; sugar, 14 oz. (more if needed); juice of lemon, 1; rinds of lemons, 2; butter, 3 oz.: baked, 1 hour TOURTE HERINGViE OR TART WITH ROYAL ICING.t Lay a band of fine paste round the rim of a tart-dish, fill it with any kind of fruit mixed with a moderate proportion of sugar, roll oat the cover very evenly, moisten the edges of the paste, press them together carefully, and trim them off close to tne dish; spread equally over the top, to within rather more than an inch of the edge all round, the whites of three fresh eggs beaten to a quite solid froth and mixed quickly at the moment of using them with three tablespoonsful of dry sifted snear. Put the tart into a moderately brisk oven and when the crust nas risen well and the icing is set, either lay a sheet of writing-paper lightly over it, or draw it to a part of the oven where it will not take too much colour. This is now a fashionable mode of icing tarts, and greatly improves their appearance. Bake half an hour. A GOOD APPLE TART. A pound and a quarter of apples weighed after they are pared and cored, will be sufficient for a small tart, and four ounces more for one of moderate size. Lay a border of English puff-paste, or of cream-crust round the dish, just dip the apples into water, arrange them very compactly in it, higher in the centre than at the sides, and strew amonest them from three to four ounces of pounded sugar, or more would they be very acid: the grated rind and the Btrained juice of half a lemon will much improve their flavour. Lay • Or, instead of these, &sten on It with a little white of egg, after it is taken tmm. the oven, some ready-baked leaves of almond-paste (see page 860), either plain or oolonred. The limits to which we are obliged to conilne this volnme, compel us to omit joanj receipts which we would gladly insert; we have, therefore, reiected thoeo which may be found in almost every English cookery book, for such as are, we spprehend, less known to the reader: this will account for the small numbcor of receipts for pies and fruit torts to be found in the present chapter.

364 MODERN COOKERT. chap xtui on the coyer rolled thin, and ice it or not at pleasure. Send the tart to a moderate oven for about half an hour. This may be converted into the old-fashioned creamed apple tart, by cutting out the cover 'While it is still quite hot, leavinf only about an inch- wide border cf paste round the edge, and pourmg over the apples when they have become cold, from half to three-quarters of a pint of rich boGed custard. The cover divided into triangular sippets, was formerly stuck round the inside of the tart, but ornamental leaves of pale puff- paste have a better effect. Well-drained whipped cream may oe substituted for the custard, and be piled high, and lightly over thefhiit. TART OF TBRT YOUNG OREBN APPLES. (gOOD.) Take very young apples from the tree before the cores are formed, clear off the buds and stalks, wash them well, and fill a tart-dish with them after having rolled them in plenty of sugpar, or strew layers of sugar between them; add a very smiJl quantity of water, and bake the tart rather slowly, that the fruit may be tender quite throuffh. It will resemble a green apricot-tart if carefully made. We give this receipt from recollection, having had the dish served often formerly, and having found it nery good. BARBERRY TART. Barberries, with half their weight of fine brown sugar, when they are thoroughly ripe, and with two ounces more when they are not quite so, make an admirable tart. For one of moderate siie, put into a dish bordered with paste three quarters of a pound of bfurbenies stripped from their stalks, and six ounces of sugar in alternate layers; pour over them three tablespoonsful of water, put on the cover, and bake the tart for half an hour. Another way of making it is, to line a shallow tin pan with very thin crust, to mix the fimit and sugar well together with a spoon before they are laid in, and to put bars of paste across instead of a cover; or it may be baked without either. THE lady's TOURTE AND CHRISTMAS TOURTB ? LA CHATELAINE. To make this Tovrte which, when filled, is of pretty appearance, two paste-cutters are requisite, one the size, or nearly so, of the inside of the dish in which the entremeU is to be served, the other not • The French make their fttiit-tarts genertlly thus, in lerae shadow pen& Flmns, split and stoned (or if of small kinds, left entire), cheiries and currants freed from the stalks, and Tarioos other fruits, all roiled in plcnu of sugar, are baked in the uncovered crust; T this is baked by itself and tlma filled afterwards with fruit previously stewed tender.

CHAP, XYiii. PASTBT. 365 more than an ineh in diameter, and both of them fluted, as will be seen by hthe engraying. To make the paste for it, throw a Bmall half saltspoonful of Ladyi Tourte. f finest flour, and break lightly into it four ounces of fresh butter, vhich should be firm. lk£ike these up smoothly with cold milk or -water, of which nearly a quarter of a pint will be sufficient, unless the butter should be very hard, when a spoonful or two more must be added. Koil the paste out as lightly as possible twice or thrice

if needful, to blend the butter thoroughly with it, and each time either fold it in three by wrapping the ends over each other, or fold it oyer and oyer like a roll pudding. An additional ounce, or even two, of butter can be used for it when yery rich pastry is Uked, but the tourte will not then retain its form so well. Boll it out evenly to Bomething more than three-quarters of an inch in thickness, and press the large cutter firmly tnrough it; draw away the superfluous paste, and lay the tottrte on a liehSy floured baking-tin. Koll the remainder or the paste until it is less than a Quarter of an inch thick, and stamp out with the smaller cutter- of which the edge should be dipped into hot water, or slightly encrusted with flour- as many rounds as will form the border of the tourte. In placing them upon it, lay the edge of one over the other just sufficiently to give a shelllike appearance to the whole; and with the finger press lightly on the opposite part of the round to make it adhere to the under paste. Kezt, with a sharp -pointed knife, make an incision very evenly loiind the inside of the tourte nearly close to the border, but be extremely careful not to cut too deeply into the paste. Bake it in a gentle oven, from twenty to thir minutes. When it is done, detach the crust from the centre, where it has been marked with the knife,, take out part of the crumb, fill the space high with apricot-jam, or with any other choice preserve, set it again for an instant into the oven, and serve it hot or cold. Spikes of blanched almonds, filberts, or pistachio-nuts, may be strewed over the preserre, when they are considered an improvement; and the border of the pastry may be glazed or ornamented to the fancy; but if well made, it wUl generallpr please in its quite simple form. It may be oonverted into a delicious entree by filling it either with oysters, or sliced sweetbreads, stewed, and served in thick, rich, white aaoce, or hSchameL Lobster also prepared and moulded as for the new lobster patties of page 359, will form a superior dish even to these. Obs-Six ounces of flour, and three of butter, will make suffident jMttte for this tourte when it is required only of the usual moderate size. If lidier paste be used for it, it must have two oi

366 MODEBK GOOKEBT. LcHAP. XTin. three additioiial turns or rollings to prevent its losing its form in tlie oven. ChrLstmtu Tourte a la Ch&telaine. - Make the case for this towrte as for the preceding one, and put sufficient mince-meat to fill it handsomely into a jar, cover it very securely with paste, or with two or three folds of thick paper, and bake it gently for half an hour or longer, should the currants, raisins, &c not he fully tender. Take out the inside of the tourte heap the hot mince-meat in it, pour a little fresh brandy over; just touch it with a strip of lighted writingpaper at the door of the dining-room and serve it in a blaze; or if better liked so, serve it very hot without the brandy, and with Devonshire cream as an accompaniment. 6EN0I8ES A LA REINE, OB HER MAJESTY 8 PASTRY. ISIake some nouiUes (see page 5), with the yolks of four fresh eggs, and .when they are all cut as directed there, drop them lightly into a pint and a half of boiling cream (new milk will answer quite as well, or a portion of each may be used), in which six ounces of fresh butter have been dissolved. When these have boiled quickly for a minute or two, during which time they must be stirred to prevent their gathering into lum add a small pinch of salt, and six ounces of sugar on which the rinds of two lemons have been rasped; place the saucepan over a clear and very gentle fire, and when the mixture has simmered from thirty to forty minutes take it ofiT, stir briskly in the yolks of six eggs, and pour it out upon a delicately clean baking-tin which has been slightly nibbed in every part with butter; level the nouUles with a knue to something less than a quarter of an inch of thickness, and let them be very evenly spread; put them into a moderate oven, and bake them of a fine equal brown: should any air-bladders appear, pierce them with the point of a knife. On taking the paste from the oven, divide it into two equal parts; turn one of these, the under-side uppermost, on to a clean tin or a large dish, and spread qu ckly over it ajar of fine apricot-jam, place the other half upon it, the brown side outwards, and leave the paste to l)ecome cold; then stamp it out with a round or diamond-shaped cutter, and arrange the genoises tastefully in a dish. This pastry will be found delicious the day it is baked, but its excellence is destroyed by keeping Peach, green-gage, or magnum bonum jam, will serve for it quite as well as apricot. We strongly recommend to our readers this preparation, baked in patty-pans, and servoi hot; or the whole quantity made into a pudding. From the smaller ones a little may be taken out with a teaspoon, and replaced with some preserve just before they are sent to table; or they may thus be eaten cold. Sufficient of cream for this purpose can easily be prepared ftom good milk.

CHAP. XTin. PASTRT. 367 NouHles of 4 eggs; cream or milk, 1 pint; butter, 6 oz.; sngar 6 oz.; rasped rinds of lemons, 2; grain of salt: 30 to 40 minutes Yolks of eggij 6: baked from 15 to 25 minutes

ALMOND PASTE. Por a mngle dish of pastrj, blanch seven ounces of fine Jordan almonds and one of bitter; throw them into cold water as they are done, and let them remain in it for an hour or two; then wipe, and pound them to the finest paste, moistening them occasionally with a few drops of cold water, to prevent their oiling; next, add to, and mix thoroughly with them, seven ounces of highly-refined, dried, and sifted sugar; put them into a small preserving-pan, or enamelled stewpan, and stir tnem over a clear and very gentle fire until they are so dry as not to adhere to the finger when touched; turn the paste immediately into an earthen pan or jar, and when cold it will be ready for use. Jordan almonds, 7 oz.; bitter almonds, 1 oz.; cold water, 1 tablespoonful; sugar, 7 oz. Ohs, - The pan in which the paste is dried, should by no means be placed upon the fire, but high above it on a bar or trevet: should it be allowed by accident to harden too much, it must be sprinkled plentifully with water, broken up quite small, and worked, as it warms, with a strong wooden spoon to a smooth paste aain. We have found this method perfectly successful; but, if time will permit, it should be moistened some hours before it is again set over the file TARTLETS OF ALMOND PASTE. Bntter slightly the smallest-sized patty-pans, and line them with the almond-paste rolled as thin as possible; cut it with a sharp knife close to their edges, and bake or rather dry the tartlets slowly at the mouth of a very cool oven. K at all coloured, they should be only of Uie palest brown; but they will become perfectly crisp without long their whiteness if left for some hours m a very gently- heated stove or oven. They should be taken from the pans when two- thirds done, and laid, reversed, upon a sheet of paper placed on a dish or boud, before they are put back into the oven. At the instant of . serving, fill them with bright-coloured whipped cream, or with peach or apricot jam; if the preserve be used, lay over it a small star or other ornament cut from the same paste, and dried with the tartlets. SiHed sugar, instead of flour, must be dredged upon the board and roller in usins almond paste. Leaves and flowers formed of it, and di led graduaSy until perfectly crisp, will keep for a long time in a 'When these are olg'ected to, use half a pound of the swec 4 almonds.

868 HODEBN COOKERT. chai. xtdl tin box or canister, and they form elegant decorations for pastry. When a fluted cutter the size of the pattypans is at hand, it will be an improyement to cut out the paste witn it, and then to press it lightly into them, as it is rather apt to break when pared off with a knife. To colour it, prepared cochineal, or spinacn-green, must be added to it in the mortar. FAIRY FANCIES. (Faniames de Fs.") A small, but very inexpenaye set of tin cutters must be had for this pretty form of pastry, which is, how_ eyer, quite worthy of so s%ht a cost r The short crust, of pase 349, answers for it better than puff paste. Roll it thin and yery eyen, and with the larger tin, shaped thus, cut out a dozen or more of small sheets; then, with a couple of round cutters, of which one should be about an inch in diameter, and the other only half the size, form four times the number of rings, and lay them on the sheets in the manner shown in the engraying. The easier mode of placing them regularly, is to raise eacn ring without remoymff the small cutter from it, to moisten it with a cameVs hair brush dipped in white of eeg, and to lay it on the paste as it is gently loosened from the tin. When all the pastry is prepared, set it into a yery gentle oyen, that it may become crisp and yet remain quite pale. Before it is sent to table, fill the four divisions of each antoim with preserve of a different colour. For example: one ring with apple or strawberry jelly, another with apricot jam, a third with peach or green-gage, and a fourth with raspberry lelly. The cases may be iced, and ornamented in yarious ways before they are baked. They are prettiest when formed of white almond-paste, with pink or pale mreen rinffs: they may then be filled, at the instant of serying, with wdl-drained whipped cream. MINCEMEAT. Avihor's Receipt.) To one pound of an unsalted ox-tongue, boiled tender and eat free from the rind, add two pounds of fine stoned raisins, two of beef kidney-suet, two pounds and a half of currants well cleaned and dried, two of sood apples, two and a half of fine Lisbon sogar, finun half to a whde pound of candied peel accordlpg to the tastCi the

CHAP, xvm. PASTBT. 369 grated rinds of two large lemons, and two more boiled quite tender, and chopped np entirely, with the exception of the pips, two small nutmegs, half an ounce of salt, a large teaspoonful of pounded mace, rather more of ginger in powder, half a pint of brandy, and as much good sherry or Madeira. Mince these ingredients separately, and mix the others all well before the brandy and the wine are added; press the whole into a Jar or jars, and keep it closely covered. It should be stored for a tew days before it is used, and will remain good for many weeks. Some persons like a slight flavouring of cloves in addition to the other spices; others add the juice of two or three lemons, and a larger quantity of brandy. The inside of a tender and well-roasted sirloin of beef will answer quite as well as the tongue. Of a fresh-boiled ox-tongue, or inside of roasted sirloin, 1 lb.; stoned raisins and minced apples, each 2 lbs.; currants and fine Lisbon sugar, each 2) lbs.; candied orange, lemon or citron rind, 8 to 16 oz.; boiled lemons, 2 large; rinds of two others, grated; salt, oz.; nutmegs, 2 small; pounded mace, 1 large teaspoonful, and rather more of ginger; good sherry or Madeira, pint; brandy, i pint. Obi,- The lemons will be sufficiently boiled in from one hour to one and a quarter. SUPBRLATIVB MINCEMEAT. Take four large lemons, with their weight of golden pippins pared and cored, of jar-raisins, currants, candied citron and orange-rind, and the finest suet, and a fourth part more of pounded sugar. Boil the lemons tender, chop them small, but be careful first to extract all the pips; add them to the other ingredients, after all have been prepared wi& great nicety, and mix the whole toell with from three to i&ur glasses of good brandy. Apportion salt and spice by the preceding receipt, n e think that the weight of one lemon, in meat, unproves this mixture; or, in lieu of it, a small quantity of crushed znacaroons added just before it is baked. MI'CE PIES, (entremets.) Butter some tin pattypans well, and Ime them evenly with fine puff paste rolled thin; fill them with mincemeat, moisten the edges of the covers, which should be nearly a quarter of an inch thick, dose the pies carefully, trim off the superfluous paste, make a small aperture m the centre of the crust with a fork or the point of a knife, ice the pies or not, at pleasure, and bake them half an hour in a wellheated but not fierce oven: lay a paper over them when they are partially done, should they appear likely to take too much colour. hour.

370 MODEBN GOOKEBT. cvlaif. xyih.

MhVCB PIES ROYAL. (eNTREMBTS.) Add to half a pound of good mincemeat an ounce and a half of pounded sugar, the grated rind and the strained juice of a large lemon, one ounce of clarified butter, and the yolks of four eggs; beat these well together, and half fill, or rather more, with the mixture, some pattypans lined with fine paste; put them into a moderate oven, and wnen the insides are just set, ice them thickly with the whites of the eggs beaten to snow, and mixed quickly at the moment with four heaped tablespoonsful of pounded sugar; set them immediately into the oven again, and bake them slowly of a fine light brown. Mincemeat, 4 Ih.; sigar, I) oz.; rind and juice, 1 large lemon; butter, 1 oz.; yolks, 4 eggs. Icing: whites, 4 gs; sugar, 4 tableBpoonsfuL THE monitor's TART, OR TOURTB A LA JVDD. Put into an enamelled stewpan, or into a delicately dean saucepan, three quarters of a pound of wellflavoured apples, weighed after they are pared and cored; add to them firom three to four ounces of rK unded sugar, an ounce and a half of fresh butter cut small, and half a teaspoonful of pounded cinnamon, or the lightly grated rind of a small lemon. Let them stand over, or by the side of a gentle fire until they begin to soften, and toss them now and then to mingle the whole well, but do not stir them with a spoon; they should all remain unbroken and rather firm. Turn them into a dish, and let them become cold. Divide three-auarters of a pound of good light paste into two equal portions; roll out one quite thin and round, flour an oven-leaf and lay it on, as the tart cannot so well be moved after it is made; place the apples upon it in the form of a dome, but leave a clear space of an inch or more round the edge; moisten this with white of eggy and press the remaining half of the paste (which should be rolled out to the same size, and laid carefully over the apples) closely upon it: they should be well secured, that the syrup from the fruit may not burst through. Whisk the white of an e to a froth, brush it over the tart witn a paste brush or a small bunS of feathers, siil sugar thickly over, and then strew upon it some almonds blanched and roughly chopped; bake the tart in a moderate oven from thirty-five to forty-five minutes. It may be filled with peaches, or apricots, half stewed like the apples, or with cherries merely rolled in fiine sugar; or with the pastry cream of page 173. Light pafcte, 1 to f lb.; apples, 12 oz.; butter, 1 or; sugar, 4 oz.; glazing of egg and sugar; some almonds: 35 to 45 minutes.

CHAP, xvm. PA8TBT. 371

PUDDING PIES, (entremets,) This form of pastry (or its name at least) is, we believe, peculiar to the coanty or Kent, where it is made in abundance, and eaten by all classes of people during Lent. Boil for fifteen minutes three ounces of ground rice in a pint and a half of new milk, and when taken from the fire stir into it three ounces of butter and four of sugar; add to these six well-beaten eggs, a grain or two of salt, and a flavouring of nutmeg or lemon-rind at pleasure. When the mixture is neay cold, line some lare pattypans or some saucers with thin puff paste, fill them with it three parts full, strew the tops thickly with currants which have been cleaned and dried, and bake the pudding-pies from fifteen to twenty minutes in a gentle oven. Milk, li pint; ground rice, 3 oz.: 1 minutes. Butter, 3 oz.; sugar, i lb.; nutmeg or lemon-rind; eggs, 6; currants, 4 to 6 oz. 15 to 30 minutes.

PUDDING PIES. (il commoner kind.) One quart of new milk, five ounces of ground rice, butter, one ounce and a half (or more), four ounces of sugar, half a small nutmeg grated, a pinch of salt, four large eggs, and three ounces of currants. COCOA-NUT CHEESE-CAKES. (eNTREMETS.) (Jamaica Receipt) Break carefully the shell of the nut, that the liquid it contains may not escape.-j" Take out the kernel, pare thinly off the dark skin, and grate the nut on a delicately clean grater; put it, with its -weight of pounded sugar, and its own milk, or a couple of spoonsful or rather more of water, into a silver or block-tin saucepan, or a very small copper stewpan perfectly tinned, and keep it gently stirred over a quite clear fire until it is tender: it will sometimes require an bourns stewing to make it so. When a little cooled, add to the nut, and beat well with it, some eggs properly whisked and strained, and the grated rind of half a lemon. Line some patt3rpan8 with fine paste, put in the mixture, and bake the cheese-cakes from thirteen to fifteen minutes. Grated cocoa-nut, 6 oz.; sugar, 6 oz.; the milk of the nut, or of • Or rice-flour. f This, as we hATe elsewhere stated, is hest secured by boring the sheU before it is broken. The milk of the nut should never be used unless it be vtry fresh.

372 MODERN COOKERY. cHAP. XVTtt water, 2 large tablespoonsful: to 1 hoar. "Efgs, 5: lemoii-Tind 4 of 1: 13 to 15 minutes 06.- We have found the cheese-cakes made with these proportions very excellent indeed, but shoidd the mixture be considered too sweet, another egg or two can be added, and a little brandy also. With a spoonful or two more of liquid too, the nut would become tender in a shorter time COMMON LEMON TARTLETS. Beat four eggs until they are exceedingly light, add to them gradually four ounces of pounded sugar, and whisk these together for five minutes; strew lightly in, if it be at hand, a dessertspoonful of potato flour, if not, of common flour well dried and sifted, then throw into the mixture by slow degrees, three ounces of good butter, which should be dissolved, but only just luke-warm: beat the whole well, then stir briskly in, the strained juice and the grated rind of one lemon and a half. Line some pattypans with fine pufi'-paste rolled very thin, fill them two-thirds full, and bake the tartlets about twenty minutes, in a moderate oven. Eggs, 4; sugar, 4 oz.; potato-flour, or common flour, 1 dessertspoonful; butter, 3 oz.; juice and rind of 1 full-sized lemon: kmked 15 to 20 minutes.

Blanch and pound to the finest possible paste, four ounces of fine fresh Jordan almonds, with a few drops of lemon-juice or water, then mix with them, very gradually indeed, six fresh, and thoroughly well-whisked eggs; throw in by degrees twelve ounces of pounded sugar, and beat the mixture without intermission all the time; add then the finely grated rinds of four small, or of three large lemons, and afterwards, by very slow degrees, the strained juice of all. When these ingredients are perfectly blended, pour to them in small portions, four ounces of just liquefied butter (six of clarified if exceedingly rich cheese-cakes are wished for), and again whisk the mixture lightly for several minutes; thicken it over the fire like boiled custard, and either put it into small pans or jars for storing,t or fill with it, one third fiill, some pattypans lined with the finest paste; place lightly on it a layer of apricot, orange, or lemonmarmalade, and on this pour as much more of the mixture. Bake the cheese-cakes from fifteen to twenty minutes in a moderate oven. They are very good without the layer of preserve. A few ratifias, or three or four macaroons rolled to powder, or a stale spoof or Naples biscuit or two, reduced to the finest crumbs, may be substltatcrd Sot either of these: more lemon, too, can be added to the taste. •f This preparation will make excellent fancJwneite or pa6ti7-andwiches. It win not curdle if gently boiled for two or three minutes (anid stirred withouf ceasing), and it may be long kept afterwards.

CHAP, xvm.2 PASTRY, 373 Jordan almonds, 4 oz.; eggs, 6; sugar, 12 oz.; rinds and strained juice of 4 small, or of 3 quite large lemons; butter, 4 oz. (6 for rich cheese-cakes); layers of preserve. Baked 15 to 20 minutes, moderate oven APPEL KRAPFEN. German Receipt) Boil down three-quarters of a pound of good apples with four ounces of pounded sugar, and a small glass of white wine, or the strained juice of a lemon; when they are stewed quite to a pulp, keep them stirred until they are thick and dry; then mix them gradually with four ounces of almonds, beaten to a paste, or very finely chopped, two ounces of candied orange or lemon-rind shred extremely small, and six ounces of jar raisins stoned and quartered: to these the Germans add a rather high flavouring of cinnamon, which is a very favourite spice with them, but a grating of nutmeg, and some fresh lemon-peel, are, we think, preferable tor this composition. Mix all the ingredients well together; roll out some butter-crust a full back-of-knife thickness, cut it into four-inch squares, brush the edges to the depth of an inch round with beaten egg, fill them with the mixture, lay another square of paste on each, press them very securely together, make, with the point of a knife, a small incision in the top of each, glaze them or not at pleasure, and bake them rather slowly, that the raisins may have time to become tender. They are very good. The proportion of sugar must be regulated by the nature of the fruit; and that of the almonds can be diminished when it is thought too much. A delicious tart of the kind is made by substituting for the raisins and candied orange-rind, two heaped tablespoonsful of very fine apricot jam. CRiME PATISSliRB; OR PABTRT CREAM. To one ounce of fine flour add, very gradually, the beaten yolks of three fresh eggB; stir to them briskly, and in small portions at first, three-quarters of a pint of boiling cream, or of cream and new milk mixed; then turn the whole into a clean stewpan, and stir it over a very gentle fire until it is quite thick, take it ofl and stir it well up and round; replace it over the fire, and let it just simmer from .nix to eight minutes; pour it into a basin, and add to it inunediately a couple of ounces of pounded sugar, one and a half of fresh butter, cut small, or clarified, and a spoonful of the store mixture of page 153, or a little sugar which has been rubbed on the rind of a lemon. The cream is rich enough for common use without further addition; but an ounce and a half of ratifias, crushed almost to powder with a paste-roller improves it much, and they should be mixed with it for the receipt which follows.

374 MODERN COOKERY. chap. XTOL Flour, 1 oz.; yolks of eggs, 3; boiling cieam, or milk and cream mixed, pint: just simmered, 6 to 8 minutes. Butter, 1) oz. sugar, 2 oz.; little store-flavouring, or rasped lemon-rind; ratifias, IJ oz. Obs, - This is an excellent preparation, which may be used for tartlets, cannelons, and other forms of pastry, with extremely good effect SMALL VOLS-AU-YENTS, A LA PARXSIENNE. (eNTREHETS.) Make some small voUau-vents by the directions of page 361, either in the usual way, or with the rings of paste placed upon the rounds. Ice the edges as soon as they are taken from the oven, by Billing fine sugar thickly on them, and then holding a salamander or heated shovel over them, until it melts and forms a sort of pale barley-sugar glaze. Have ready, and quite hot, some ereme patissiere made as above; fill the lools-au-venU with it, and send them to table instantly. These will be found very good without the icing PASTRY SANDWICHES. Divide equally in two, and roll off square and as thin as possible, some rich puff paste; lav one half on a buttered tin, or copper oven-leaf, and spread it lightly with fine currant, strawberry or raspberry jelly; lay the remaining half closely over, pressing it a little with the rolling pin after the edges are well cemented together; then mark it into divisions, and bake it from fifteen to twenty minutes in a moderate oven. LEMON SANDWICHES. Substitute for preserve, in the preceding receipt, the lemon cheesecake mixture of page 372, with or without the almonds in it FANCHONNETTES. (eNTREMBTS). KoU out very thin and square some fine puff paste, lay it on a tin or copper oven-leaf, and cover it equally to within something less than an inch of the ede with peach or apricot jam; roll a second bit of paste to the same size, and lay it carefully over the other, having first moistened the edges with beaten egg, or water; press them together securely, that the preserve may not escape; pass a pastebrush or small bunch of feathers dipped in water over the top. aSt sugar tliickly on it, then with the back of a knife, mark the paste into divisions of uniform size, bake it in a well-heated but not neroe oven for twenty minutes, or rather more, and cut it while it is Almond-paste is sometimes sabstitnted for this.

CHiip. xvin. PASTRY. 375 still hot, where it is marked. The &nchonnettes should he ahout three inches in length and two in width. In order to lay the second crust over the preserve without disturbing it, wind it lightly round the paste-roller, and in untwisting it, let it fidl gently over the other part. This is not the form of pastry called by the TrejKAifancJumnettes, Fine puff paste, 1 lb.; apricot or peach jam, 4 to 6 oz.: baked 20 to 26 minutes JBLLT TARTLETS; OB CUSTARDS. Put four tablespoonsful of fine fruit-jelly into a basin, and stir to it gradually twelve spoonsful of beaten egg; if the preserve be rich and sweet, no sugar will be required.' Line some pans with paste rolled very thin, fill them with the custard, and bake them about ten minutes. STRAWBERRT TARTLETS. (gOOD.) Take a full half-pint of freshly-fathered strawberries, without the stalks; first crush, and then mix them with two ounces and a half of powdered sugar; stir to them by degrees four well-whisked eggs, beat the mixture a little, and put it into pattypans lined with fine paste: they should be only three parts filled. Bake the tartlets from ten to twelve minutes. RASPBERRY PUFFS. Boll out thin some fine puff-paste, cut it in rounds or squares of equid size, lay some raspberry jam into each, moisten the edges of the paste, fold and press them together, and bake the puffs from fifteen to eighteen minutes. Strawberry, or any other jam will serve for them equally well. CREAMED TARTLETS. Line some patt3rpan8 with very fine i aste, and put into each a layer of apricot jam; on this pour some thick boiled custard, or the pastry cream of page 373. Whisk the whites of a couple of eggs to a solid froth, mix a couple of tablespoonsful of sifted sugar with them, lay this icing lightly over the tartlets, and bake them in a gentle oven irom twenty to thirty minutes, unless they should be very small, when less time must be allowed for them.

Roll out, rather thin, from six to eight ounces of fine cream-crust, or feuiUetage (see page 345); take nearly or quite half its weight of Strawberry or raspberry jellj will answer admirably for these.

376

MODERN COOKEBT.

chap. xym.

grated Parmesan, or something less of dry white English cheese; sprinkle it equally over the paste, fold it together, roll it out veir lishtly twice, and continue thus until the cheese and crust are well nuxed. Cut the ramekins with a small paste-cutter; wash them with yolk of egg mixed with a little milk, and bake them about fifteen minutes. Serve them very hot Cream-crust, or feuiUeitge 6 oz.; Fannesan, 3 oz.; or Englisb cheese, .2 oz.: baked 12 to 15 minutes.

Mould for large Vols-au-vents or Tourtr.

Paste Plncerg.

' CHAP, xa. 80UfFL6S,.OJ£LETS, &0. 877

CHAPTER XIX.

SOUFFLis, Thb admirable lightness and delicacy of a well-made sauflS render it generally a Tery favourite dish, and it is now a fashionable one also. It may be greatly varied in its composition, but in all cases must be served the very instant it is taken from the oven; and even in passing to the dining-room it should, if possible, be prevented from sinking by a heated iron or salamander held above it A common soume-pan may be purchased for four or five shillings, but those of silver or plated metal, which are of the form shown at the conunencement of this chapter, are of course expensive; the part in which the souffle is baked is placed within the more ornamental dish when it is drawn from the oven. A plain, round, cake-mould, with This is giTen to every description of iovffld in the same munner as to Savoy or fipone-cakea, by mingling gently with the other ingredients the whites of eggs wmsked to a solid mass or tnow frothy - that is to say, that no portion of them most remain in a liquid state. For the proper mode of preparing them, see commencement of the chapter of Cakes: ot(tf-padding8 are rendered light In the same manner, and steamed Instead of being boiled.

378 MODERN COOKERY. cKAP. XIX a strip of imting paper six inches high, placed inside the rim, will answer on an emeincy to bake a souffle in. The following recdpt will serve as a gide for the proper mode of making it: the process is always the same whether the principal ingredient be whole rice boiled very tender in milk and pressed tnrough a sieve, bread-crumbs soaked as for a pudding and worked through a sieve also, arrow-root, potato-flour, or aught else of which light puddings in general are made. Take from a pint and a half of new milk or of cream sufficient to mix four ounces of flour of rice to a perfectly smooth batter; put the remainder into a very dean, well-tinned saucepan or stewpan, and when it boils, stir the rice briskly to it; let it simmer, keeping it stirred all the time, for ten minutes, or more should it not be veiy thick; then mix well with it two ounces of fresh butter, one and a half of pounded sugar, and the grated rind of a fine lemon (or let the suffar which is used for it be well rubbed on the lemon before it is crushed to powder); in two or three minutes take it from the fire, and beat ouickly and carefully to it by degrees the yolks of six eggs; whisk the whites to a very firm solid froth, and when the pan is buttered, and all else quite ready for the oven, stir them gently to the other ingredients; pour the souffle immediately into the pan and place it in a moderate oven, of which keep the door closed for a quarter of an hour at least. When the souffle has risen very high, is of a fine colour, and quite done in the centre, which it will be in from half to three-quarters of an hour, send it instantly to table. The exact time for baking it depends so much on the oven that it cannot be precisely specific We have known quite a small one not too much iMiked in forty-five minutes in an iron oven; but generally less time will suffice for them: the heat, however, should always be moderate. New milk or cream, l pint; flour of rice, 4 oz.; fresh butter, 2 oz.; pounded sugar, H oz.; eggs, 6; grain of salt; rind, 1 lemon 30 to 45 minutes. Ohs. I. - The souffle may be flavoured with vanilla, orange-flowers, or aught else that is liked. Chocolate and coffiae also may be used for it with soaked bread: a very strong infusion of the last, and an ounce or two of the other, melted with a little water, are to be added to the milk and bread. Ohs. 2.- A souffle is commonly served in a dinner of ceremony as a remove of the second-course roast; but a good plan for this, as for a fondu is to have it quickly handed round, instead of bemg placed upon the table. LOUIBE FRAKKS' CITRON 60UFFl£ To obtain the flavour of the dtron-rind for this celebrated Swedish •ouffliy take a lump of sugar which weighs two ounces and a hali and rub it on the fhiit to extract the essence, or should th dtroB

CHAP. XIX. BOITFFLfeS, 0MLET8, &C. 379 not be sufficiently fresh to 3neld it by this means, pare it off in the thinnest possible strips and infuse it by the side of the fire in the cream of which the souffli is to be made. Should the first method be pursued, crush the sugar to powder and dry it a little before it is added to the other ingredients. Blend very smoothly two ounces of potato-fiour with a quarter of a pint of milk, and pour boiling to them a pint of good cream; stir the mixture in a large basin or bowl until it thickens, then throw in a grain of salt, two ounces of fresh butter ju . dissolved in a small saucepan, and the sugar which has been rubbed on the citron; or should the rind have len pared, the same weight some of which is merely pounded. Add next, by degrees, the thoroughly whisked yolks of six fresh eggs, or seven should they be very small. Beat the whites lightly and quickly until they are snfiiciently firm to remain standing in points when dropped from the whisk; mix them with the other ingredients at the mouth of the oven, but without heating them; fill the smffli' pan less than half full; set it instantly into the oven, which should be gentle, but not exceedingly slow, dose the door immediately, and do not open it for fifteen or twenty minutes: in from thirty to fcrty the souffle will be ready for table unless ttie oven should be very cool r a fierce degree of heat will have a most unfavourable effect upon it. Rind of half citron (that of a Seville orange may be substituted on occasions); sugar, 2 oz.; cream, 1 pint; potato-flour, 2 oz.; milk, pint; butter, 2 oz.; yolks and white of 6 large or of 7 small eggs: 30 to 40 minutes, or more in very slow oven. 0h9. - The fresh citron would appear to be brought as yet but very sparingly into the English market, though it may sometimes be procured of first-rate fruiterers. Nothing can well be finer than its highly aromatic flavour, which is infinitely superior to that of any other fruit of its species that we have ever tasted. We have had delicious preparations made too from the young green citron when extremely small, of which we may have occasion to speak elsewhere. A FONDUy OR CHEESE SOUFFli. M