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System of Domestic Cookery, 1822

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TITLE: A modern system of domestic cookery, or, The housekeeper's guide
AUTHOR: M Radcliffe
PUBLISHER: J Gleave (?), No 191 Deansgate, Manchester (?)
DATE: 1822
THIS VERSION: This transcript is based on the online version at archive.org, digitized by Google from an edition in the collections at The University of Michigan. This is an Optical Character Recognition scan, it has been partly edited, but still contains very significant errors.


MODERN SYSTEM
OF
DOMESTIC COOKERY
OR
THE HOUSEKEEPER'S GUIDE

ABRANGED ON THE MOST ECONOMICAL PLAN

FOB €ONTAIMIKG

The nott approved directions for Pvrchaniigy Preserving, and Cooking Botcher's Meat, Fish, Poultry, and Game.
The best mode of Trassfaig and Carving.
The art of composing the most simple and moat hi^ly finished Brcrtha, Gravies, Soaps, and
The mysteries of Potting and PickImg.
The art €i making all sorts of Confectionary and Pastry.
An improved mettiod of making British Wines and Cordials.
Instractions for Brevring and Baking.
And, Observations on CnUnary Poisons.

A COMPLETE
FAMILY physician;

AND
mSTRUCnONS to FBMALS SBRVANTS in BVBRY SITUAnON,
Sbowfaif the belt metlioda of pctAinntiiK thdr variou dotlei.

THB WHOLB BEING THB RESULT OF ACTUAL EXPERIMENTS.

By m.;^adcliffe.

TO WHICH ABI ADDED,
AS AN APPENDIX,
SOME VALUABLE INSTRUCTIONS ON THE MATlAGBMENT OF THE KITCHEN AND FRUIT GARDENS. '

PRINTED AMD PUBLISHED BY J. GLEAVS.

No. 191, Deaoagate.


PREFACE.

CXMyKERY, like every other art, has been moving forward to perfection by slow degrees; and yet daily improvements are still making, as must be the case in every art depending upon fancy and taste. In. the production of the present work the Editor has endeavoured to render it reaDy and universally useful; and that it may be so, care has been taken to insert no dish which has not been proved, and every attention has been paid in directing the proportions of each ingredient in the different compositions, not merely to.make them inviting to the appetite, but agreeable and useful to the stomach, - nourishing without being inflammatory, and savoury without being surfeiting. At the same time the Editor has studied to describe his receipts in so plain and intelligible a manner, that they may be as easily understood in the kitchen, as he trusts they will be relished in the dining room.

Although this work will be found of general utility to all families not keeping men-cooks, yet it is hoped, by the multiplicity and varied nature of the receipts, it will be rendered particularly serviceable to all hotel and inn-keepers, who will readily discover ample funds of refreshment, in the -different departments of culinary science.

IV. PREFACE.

Many receipts will be found for articles, which being in daily use, the mode of preparing them may be supposed too well known to require a place in a cookery book; yet as we rarely meet with butter properly melted, good toast and water, or well-made coffee, &c. there is no apology offered for minuteness on these points.

The Editor is indeed confident that no book . of the same kind ever contained a more truly valuable and complete System- of Domestic Cookery. Health, economy, and elegance, constitute its leading principles. The whole has been revised by an experienced cook of much celebrity, and who has communicated several modem improvements.

Preceding the culinary department the editor has affixed some valuable observations on domestic management y the importance and utility of which vrill be readily acknowledged by the judicious mistress and housekeeper.

The Art of Carving is a necessary branch of information. It not only enables a woman to do the honours of the table, but makes a considerable difference in the consumption of a family. In the following sheets the proper mode of carving each joint, fowl or fish, with neatness and dexterity, is clearly pointed out, and illustrated by suitable engravings, - ^an attention to which will greatly facilitate the acquisition of this useful and elegant art.

The Directions for Marketing contain much useful information respecting the quality of different articles of provision; and BiUs of Fare

PREFACE. V.

are giyen in sufficient variety to enable the cook to diversify the table throughout the year.

The mode of covering and decorating the table is a matter of considerable concern^ and one that admits of much taste and judgment. The instructions on this head Will be found of real use to the young ajid inexperienced housekeeper.

The respective branches of Pastry and Ciwfectionarjfy with the best methods of Potting^ Pickling J Preserving y &c. are given in the clearest and most intelligible manner.

The instructions for Brewing Malt Liquor have been communicated by a skilful and experienced brewer, and are adapted to families in various circumstances.

The mode of making choice British Wines hte lately become an object of attention, siilce foreign wines became so extremely expensive. The Editor, having had much experience in this l^epartment, is enabled to give directions that will qualify the thrifty female to excel in making and managing these elegant luxuries of life. Numerous excellent receipts are also given for making compound^ imperial^ and highly Jlavoured Cordials and Liqveurs,

The articles which relate to Family Medicine have been inserted under the recommendation of an eminent Physician. They will tend to explode many old, absurd, and fatal errors; to destroy confidence in pernicious nostrums; and to teach the properest mode of preserving health. The directions given in case of accidents, which demand immediate assistance, ought to be possessed by every family.

VI. PKErACE.

The advice to fenude servants is adapted to all the vajrious situationar which they can occirpy, and contaiQB such valuable information as may qualify them to dkcharge the duties of their situations with credit to themselves, and satisfaction to their employers.

The Editor has appended to the work sbme usefVir instructions on Gardening, in which' will be fouud a concise and clear sketch of the management of such: articles in th6 vegetable system as, by proper atteiition, may be had in succession from the month of January to that of December.

In conclusion, it remains only to be stated, that a copiauLS Index is annexed, which, it is hoped, will be perfectly clear and useful to every tmderstanding, and by which the reader may immediiEttely i^^r to any article in the book.

CONTENTS.

Pag€ Introduction,

Observations on Domestic Management 1

Directions /or Carving 13

Directions for Trussing ...» 22

Of Marketing, 28

Ohservatums on keeping and dressing Meat 38

Beef 44

Veal 60

Venison..... ...« 03

Turtle 07

Pwrk 103

Mutton 127

Lamb 140

Fish 140

Poultry and Game 108

Broths, SoupSf Gravies, and Sauces 226

Savoury Pies and Patties 307

Puddings 327

Pancakes and Fritters 351

Vegetables 356

Salads 373

Pastry and Confectionary 377

Pleasant and Relishing Dishes 466

Pickles 481

Bread, Tsa-Cakes, S^e 401

Home Brewery 502

British Wines, Cordials, fyc. 516

Bills of Fare, Family Dinners, Sfc 544

Culinary Poisons 553

Family Physician • 550

Advice to Female Servants 502

Poultry Yard 647

Meansof Destroying Noxious Insects, Sfc 653

On Letting and Hiring Houses and Lodgings 658

! .

OBSERVATIONS

1

{ Oft * X a"

DOMESTIC MANAGEMENT*

Ik the variety of acquirements which adorn the feiiiale sex^ domestic occupations stand the most conspicuous, atid are the most useful. A well arranj,red and steadily conducted system of domestic management is the foundation of alt the comfort and welfare of social life, and of private families in particular; and^ where this is wanting, no family can be truly respectable and happy.

It is a cause of regret,- that in general females, whose famHies move in the higher circles of life, frequently despise fiunily arrangements, their whole time and attention being absorbed by mere ornamental accomplishments On the othet hand, those belonging to the lower classes of society are ei^ couraged to devote themselves to those high and polished branches of education which are utterly inconsistent with the circumstances of their families. This error, so plainly percept tible in the common occurrences of life, is productive of much human misery.

In domestic management, as ni education^ so much depends upon the particular circumstances of each individual case, that it is impossible to point out a system which can be generally applicable. The most that can be done is to suggest some leading principles, and point out certain errors to be avoided^ for the assistance of the inexperienced, on their entering upon tlus Important department of female life.

To persons who possess contracted incomes, a proper attention to domestic concerns will prove highly beneficial^ 1 B '

Z DOMBSTIC COOKERT.

thereby enabling them to support a neat, nay, even an elegant appearance, reflecting honour on themselves, and causing' satisfaction to their fainilies.

Females should be early taught to prefer the society of their homes, to engage themselves in domestic duties^ and to avoid every species or idle vanity, to which thousands of them owe their ruin; and, above all things, to consider their parents as their best friends,, who are interested only in their welfare: then indeed we might hope to see all as it should be, and to have daily evidence of real comfort and happiness. Were females thus instructed, they would soon learn to discriminate between the solid enjoyments of domestic peace, and the fleeting phaii« loms of delusive pleasure.

It is natural to imagine, that when a female marries, -she does so from a principle of love. It must surely, therefore, be admitted that her duties then become most seriously important, ) ecause her station. is more responsible than it previously was.. She will then have to superintend the affairs of the man with whose destiny she has united her own; the domestic part of which falls particularly within the sphere of her management, .and the duties of which she ought actively to execute, as far as is consistent with prudent economy; without which even princely fortunes must fail: in which case, her husband will soon discover her knerits, and place a proper value on the treasure he possesses.

One family mast not be governed in its management by what another family may do. Each one best knows its owu resources, and should consult them alone. What might be meanness in one, might be extravagance in another; consequently there cao^beno standard of reference but that of individual prudence. The most fatal of all things to private families, is to indulge an ambition of making an appearance above their fortunes, professionSr or business, whatever these may be. Their expenses oi^ht to be so restricted within their means, as to make them easy and independent. More evils may be traced ^to a thoughtless ambition of appearing above our situation than the idle vanity that prompts it ever pauses to reflect on.

The next point both for comfort and respectability, is, that all the hooseboU economy shotdd be uniform, not displaying a parade of show in one things and a total want of comfort fa

ON DOMESTIC MANAGEMENT. 3

laotber. Besides the contemptible appearance that this must have to every person of good sense, it is productive of conseqoences, not only of present, but of future injury to a family^ Out are too often irreparable.

In great cities in particular, how common is it that, for the ?anity of having a showy drawing-room to receive company, the family are confined to a close back room, where they have scarcely either air or light, the want of which must materially prejudice their health. Another fruit of evil is the seeing more company, and in a more expensive manner, than is com* patible with the general convenience of the family, introducing with it ao expense in dresi, and a dissipation of time^ from which it suffers in various ways.

A fundamental error in domestic life, of very serious extent, as it involves the health • f the whole family, arises from the mistaken notions of the mistress of the house upon the subjects of diet and cookery.

It is very common for persons to have theories of thewhol^ someness and unwholesomeness of diet; but these are seldom founded upon a real knowledge of the nature of the food, or of the beat manner of preparing it, but on the vague authority of some family receipts or traditions, which often prove very fallacious guides. While many more have no thought on tbc subject, but of indulging their appetites.

It should be the serious reflection of every mistress of a family, that the li^alth of it, in all its branches, depends in a great measure upon her judgment in diet and cookery; but pre-eminently that of her children, from their tender natures* This more especially requires attention in great cities, to counteract as much ks possible the want of purity in the air, and the restraints from free exercise. She will then, no doubt, both J

from duty and inclination, make it her business to inform herself ^

upon these subjects, diat she may fultil this charge so peculiarly '

belonging to the female sex, with the affectionate duty due to her husband, children, and domestics, that as a wife, mother, and mistress of a family, they have a right to expect fVom her.

The leading consideration about food ought always t« be its whelesomeness. Cookery may produce sayonry and prettylooking dishes without their possessing any of the qualities of food. It is at the same time both a serious and Indicrous reflec*

4 DOMESTIC COOKERY.

tion, that it should be thought to do honour to our friencls and ourselves to set out a table where indij^estion and the whole catalogue of human diseases lie lurking in almost every dish. Yet this is both done, and taken as a compliment.

The domestic arrangements of a family belonging entirely to the female, the table, of course, becomes entitled to no email share of her attention in respect to its expenditure, appearance, and general supplies.

Taste and judgment are highly requisite in this department^ because the credit of keeping a good and respectable table depends not (as of old,) on the vast quantity of articles with which it is covered, but the neatness, propriety, and cleanliness^ in which the whole is served up, which alone can confer real credit on her who directs the preparation.

Dinner parties are very expensive, and certainly fall very heavy on persons whose incomes are moderate; such [persons, therefore^ should n^ support a custom productive of unpleasant ponsequences, by lending it the sanction of their example. •But if it is found requisite occasionally to give dinners, it -should be done in a liberal and genteel manner, otherwise it is iar better to decline it altogether.

A certain degree of caution is requisite in providing even a family dinner, as a casual visitor may unexpectedly enter, whose company cannot be avoided; and every man feels his Consequence hurt, should such a visitor chance to drop in to a dinner not sufficiently good ch: abundant: a table should therefore be furnished according to the income and rank of its master: thus I would not have a tradesman emulate the expenditure and appearance of a noble, nor a noble of royalty. A good plain dinner,, of which there should be sufficient, with clean linen and decent attendance^ will obviate every difficulty; and the entrance of an unexpected visitor will occasion no additional trouble, and all uneasy sensations on account of the appearance of the dinner will be banished from the breasts of the master and mistress, by which harmony and enjoyment will of course ensue*

This mode of providing a table may be extended to every class of society, where each individual should have a table provided according to the fortune which must pay for it; and such am arrangement will meet with the respect and approbation of all serious persons*

ON DOMESTIC MANAGBMENT. li

Ctrving also, though seldom attended to, merits attention; for, without a due knowledge of it, the honours of a table cannot be performed with propriety, or without considerable pain. It also makes a great difference in the daily consumption of a fiunily. I therefore recommend my readers to study this use* fal branch of domestic knowledge, which can be attained only by constant practice, as written instructions can merely point out the way which practice must render perfect, and without which no person can preside with honour at the head of a table.

Where there are young persons in a family, it would greatly improve them, were they made to take the head of the table^ under the superintendance of their parents, by whose salutary Sections they would soon discharge the duty thus throwii opon them with equal ease and grace, and learn more in dne month's practical employment, than they would in twelve months' observation. This would also prepare them to disefaarge their duties in a proper manner when they become mis* tresses themselves. For my own part, I can imagine nothing more disagreeable than to behold a person at the head of a Well-furnished table, presiding only to haggle and spoil the finest articles of provision; by which great waste is occasioned, and, we may add, some disgust, because many delicate persons, when helped in a clumsy manner, absolutely loathe the provisions, however good, thus set before them. The directions for carvitig immediately following these observations, with the illustrative plates annexed, will be found extremely useful to the inexperienced carver.

Every lady who fills the situation of a mistress of a family, will, I am confident, upon mature reflection, be convinced, that much depends on the vigilance of her conduct, as far as respects good management and domestic economy; the most trifling events should claim her notice, for the keen eye of a superior can alone restrain servants and dependants within proper bounds, and prevent that waste which would otherwise ensue. No female should ever harbour a moment*s doubt respecting her power to conduct and manage a family, even if previously unused to it, as many of her senior- friends will freely give her their advice; and a short practical ex« )9erience uriil soon render her able to estimate the best

I

• DOMESTIC COOKERY.

node of management, and aUo teach her how to keep her family expenditure agreeable to her income, and how -to lay out her money to the greatest advantage. Where persona depend for their support and comfort on the skill and active exertions of a father, much also depends on the mother, who, should ahe be a bad manager, will soon undo all that her husband has done; but should she understand her duties, prosperity will smile upon the family, and perhaps fortune may be ultimately secured.

Persons who possess the means, should always pay for every article in ready money, the benefit of which they will very soon experience; and tradesmen \%ill be careful to supply such valuable customers with the betit of their goods. They are also willing to sell their goods cheaper for money than on credit, consequently, by properly attending to this circumstance, a considerable saving may be made in the course of a year. I would also recommeod my readers never to change their tradespeople without some serious cause of offence, as, after dealing some time with a tradesman, he considers you a valuable customer, obeys your orders with punctual attention, and invariably serves you with the best goods he can procure, with the ?lew of securing your future support, and a recommendation of hid shop to your friends.

A person of moderate income should make every purchase herself; and to do this well, she should make herself acquainted with the best articles, and the relative value of each, by which she will occasionally make one pound go as far as many less active and experienced persons would two. Although 1 dp not intend by the above to advocate the cause of bargains, which generally in the end prove losses; on the contrary, I recommen4 whatever maybe purchased to be of the best quality, which, yoi^ may rely on it, will go farthest. Stated rules cannot be fully given, as rank, fortune, and habit, must determine many points; however, attentive inspection can be no disgrace even to the most elevated or wealthy. One great advantage resulting froo^ this elose attention is, that servants will soon discover that such a mistress must not be trifled with, and will consequently respect, {ear, and serve her, better than they otherwise would do.

Waste of every description should be cautiously avoided; notliing can be more criminal, when we reflect that ther^ are

ON DOMBSTIC MANAGEMENT. 9

thoasands of our fellow-creatures dying from want, whiles by the bounty of Providence, we have the full enjoyment of every good thing. Wastefulneas, thereibre, should never be tolerated in any of the necessaries of life. Every respectable family, by proper attention, may do much good to their poor neighbours, witboot injury to themselves, by properly preparing the offal of their houses, and distributing it to such as are in want; this would be affording much actual relief at the ezpenoe of little more than, trouble.

Regularity should be punctually observed in all families, as by keeping good hours much time is gained. By breakfasting early in the morning, servants have a fair day before them; and they should, when convenient, be suffered to retire to rest at an early hour, by which meant they will not be late on the foHowiDg morning.

This method will also render less servants necessary. I am sensible that many of my fair readers may imagine this to be of little consequence, but I can assure them thai they will ultimately find, that regular and early houra in a family is of serious importance to every branch of it, as far as relates to comfort; and it should be remembered that servants have feelings equally with ourselves.

What an active person may perform in the course of one year by punctual attendance to regular hours, and a persevering industry, mould, if calculated, astonish a common observer by its extent and utility. In respect to servants, a mistress should be extremely careful whom she hires, and be particular in procuring a good character from the persons with whom they have previously resided. It is also the solemn duty of a mistress to be just in givinir a character to such servants as leave her^ because a servant's whole dependance rc^ts entirely on the pos« session' of a good character; destitute of which, inevitable ruin must Mlow. This is a duty, the breach of which nothing can extenuate; fbr by giving an* undeaerved bad character to a good servant, through caprice, eternal infiimy must be reflected on the person who does so. Faithful, honejft servants should be treated with renpect and kindness; and when an occahion offers, they should be duly rewarded, which will create emulation in ethers; but never UMum kept than sufficient*

fl

t

V

BOMESTIG COOKSRY.

It 18 priident and ecsanonical to have a 6uffi«leni qtf aatitjr of household articles and culinary ulensik. The stock should in« Yariably be well kepi up; and to do this efiectually requitea tome consideratioii.

Much time will also be saved, if etery article is kept km lie prbper place, clean. And remember every thing should he mended the moment it is ii^ured, and never mpplfed to anf cikoF MH than that far which it was omginaUy designed: by whiflii mode of management any thing will last much longer thaa it otherwise would do.

Never pay even the smallesk btt), without having a reeeipl for the sum, or yon will frequendy have to pay the eaoie biU twice. You should weigh every artide» su^ as meat», breads groceries, &c. when sent home, before the person who brii^ them, that in case their weight should be short (which fre* queiitly happens,) he may return the goods, and vouch for the truth of the circumstance.

In a well regulated family^ every article should be kept m constant readiness, such as broken sugar, pounded spices, &Cp by which much trouble will be prevented when such articles art wanted for immediate use. Servants should also be required t» pay the same attention in waiting on the family, when alone, em they do when there is company: this will soon become a regular habit, and visitors will occasion but little additional trouble.

When noonings or suppers arfe served, care should, be taken to have such things in readiness as Ore proper for either: •# change of which may be agreeable, and if duly/managed, will be attended with little expense and much convenience.

A ticket should be exchanged by the copk for every loaf of bread, which when returned will show the number id be paid for; as tallies may be altered, unless one is kept by each party.

Those who are served with birewers beer, or any other articles not paid for weekly or on delivery, should keep a hool^ for entoring the dates; which will not only serve to prevent overcharges, but will show the whole year's consumption at one

view.

An inventory of furniture, lirien, and china, aboold be kept, and the things examined by it twice a y/Hir, ce oftener if there be a change of servanU; into each of whose care th^ articles used by him or her should be intruBted, with a list, as

1

OK DOfliSOTfO BIASAOSMBNT. •.

b dam wMi fbrtp. Tkh«li of pvlshmnt, with the fanfly. niat» nsoibOTedt and apeeifyng what bed it beloogi to» BhouW bt tewed on eeeh feather-bed, beftoler^ pBlaer, and btanket* Knives, forkt» onl henseKilotksy ece ofteD deficieot; tlwee accidents might be obviated, if an article at the head 08 mf^tf lilt required tie fonnee afaoald be yrddaced whofe ok broken, and tiM mocked fart of the Hnen, though ail tbe othcre ehouki bevorn out. The nidiieeneiH to take eane pf gii^a la in aame* mtasnre veaeored^ bj the iaareaoid. price given fiur okl ffintgli88.--*Thooe who wish §m trifl&diBbea, bfit)ter 4tai)dfl^ &0. at a lower ehaege d^n ent-glessy any boy fcheoi made in mmiMe^ of which there is great variety that look extremely well, i£ wptt plieed nenr tfaw looie. beautiful artidea.

Thopiioeofstarehdependeiipenthatof fldnij; tlie heafe wtiE hsef^ goodi in a dry mmat soewi te^ootne yean; tIpereAte whoa bfftnd la chea^^it ma^ he tx ught eo adhnaotag^ amd cod^eied close.

SooAH. being aw frtide of eoniideraUe expenee in all families, the purchase demands particular atteatien* Ths: cheapest does not go «o lar '^ (^t uioee tdhied-; ai^^- tbece ia a difeeeiioe even in ehe ij^gveo of «weetnefs. The white sheuld be. ohoaea thai is dese, heaift, and dhiningi ' Thft^aft* sort of brown has a bright gravelly look,, and it is/ often to faft beeghl pwre aa impoited* East IncKa qugaia era inet* fbnthe pMs, bttt nel; ao strange eonaoquendy iinftt fisr winea attk sweetmeaaa, .hmt do wail foe oomnioa purposes^ if good off theic kind. To prepare white sugar, pounded^ seUin^ it with m bqMlle, and atf ttegv wartea leas than a. mortar.

Caind^ Made in cool wfatber- ore beat; and whew tbeic pnee^ asidthaitof toiq^ whiab rise and fidl tagether, is likely: to bo higher, it wttl he. prudme to faiy in the atock cf boA» IWr iHforaaati^ the ehai^dkr can al wnya give. Tb^ are fanltar tm beeping- eigfa on tea nuxitba, and will not iagnre for tmn years, if properly placed in the cool; and there ase §mm artiele» that better deserve eare^ in buying/ and alloeviqg a due quantity of, noeerding to the aiaenf the faaaily*

Paper, by keeping, improves in quality: and if boogfaA \j half or whole, eoame flreoa huige deiden, will bf aaueh chsaper than pnvcdMed by the-quiee. llie higl prioe of thin article atngr ho aeoenatvl for by the nddilnnal dutiea, and

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10 J BOMfiSTIC COOKERY.

a larger cobsunption, basides the monopoly of rags:. of the latter it is said there is some scarcity, whidi might . be obviated if aa order were given to a servant in ^very family to keep a bag to receive all the waste bits from cuttings oaty &c.

Vegetables will keep best on a stone floor if the air be ex« duded. - Meat in a cold dry. place.- 'Sugar and sweetmeats require a dry place; so does salt.- -Candies cold^ but not damp. -•-Dried meats, hams, &c. the same. - All sorts of seeds for puddings, saloop, rice, Ac. should . be dose covered, to preserve from insects; but that will not prevent it, if long kqpt.

Bread is so heavy an article of expense, that all waste . should be guarded ajy^ainst; and having it cut in the room will tend mudi to prevent it. Since the scardty in 1795 and J 800, ' that plan has been much adopted. It should not be cut until a day old. Earthen pans and covers keep it best.

Straw to lay aipples on should be quite dry, to prevent a musty tastOi

Laige peara should be tied up by the stalk.

Basil, savory, or knotted marjoram, or London thyme, to be used when herbs art ordered; but with discretion, ae liiey are very pungent.

The best means to preserve blankets from moths is to fold and lay them und^ the feather-beds that are in use; and they should be shaken occasionally. When soiled, they should be washed, not scoured.

Soda, by softening the water, saves a great deal of soap, it should be mdted in a large jug of water, some of whidi pour into. the tubs and boiler; and when the lather becomes weak, add more. The liew improvement in sof^ soap is» if properly used, a saving of near half in quantity; and though samething.dearer than the hard, reduces the price of washing coBsiderablyk .

Many good laundresses advise soaping linen in warm water the night previous to washing, as fadUtating the operation with kJM friction.

Soap should be cut with a wire or twine, in pieces that will' make a long-sqiijire, when first, bvought in, and kept out of the sir two or three weeks; for if it dry quidc^ it will crack, «n4

ON in MBSTIC MANAOSMEKT. 11

when mti, hrtkk. Tot it on a abelf, leaving a space between, and let it grow hard gfwdaally.. Thoa^ it wiH save a Ml tfaifd in the oontimiption.

Some of the lemons and orangea used for . joice should be pared first to preserve the peel dry; some should be halved, and when sqQeesedy the palp cot out, and the ootaides 'dried for grating. If for boiling in any liqaid^ the first way is besti When these fruits are cheap, a proper quantity should be bought and prepared as above directed, especially by those who live in the country, where they cannot always be had; and they are perpetually wanted in cookery.

V^n whites of eggs are used for jelly, or other purposes^ contrive to have pnddmg, custard, &c. to employ the y dka also. Should you not want them for several hodn, beat them up with a little water, and put them in a oool place, or they will be hardened and useleas. It was a mistake of old, to think that the whites made cakes and puddings heavy j on the contrary, if beaten long and separately, they contribnta greatly to give lightness, are an advantage to paste, and make a pretty dish beaten with fruit, to set in cream, &c.

If copper ntensils be used in the kitchen, the cook should he charged to be very carelnl not to let the tin be robbed ofi^ and to have them fresh done when the least defect appears and never to pot by any soup, gravy, Ac. in them, or any othier metal utensil; stone and earthen vessels should be pro ^ vided for those purposes, as likewise pletity of common dishes^ that the tabl^set may not be used to put by cold meat.

Tin vessels, if kept damp, soon rust, which causes holes. Fenders^ and tin linings of flower-pots, &a should be painted eveiy year or two.

Vegetables soon toor, and eorrode metals and glased red ware, by whidi:a fllxoDg poison is produced. Some.years ago^ the deatii of several gentlemen was occasioned at Sak-ktU, by theooqk sending a ragout to the table, whiah she had kept frototthe preceding day in a copper vessel badly tinned.

Vinegar, by its acidity, does the same, the glaaing being i4. lead or arsisBic.

To coiA Uqnors in hot weather, dip a doth in cold water, and wrap it round the bottle two or three times, then place it in the snn; renew the process onoe.or twice*

If BOHBrAv coosmnr.

The bett ivay of vcalding ^mn,' or boiling inmefs^t, inia m •tone jar on a hoi irob bea#tfa; or l^y psiting the Te8tel:iDto a eaocepan of water, called a water-batb.

If cbocolii(e« cdfiee^ jdly» gmiel^ bark, tftc. be auileffcid to boil orer^.tlieBtiiength isioBt The cook Bhobld be aioodraged tp be cureAil -a£ ooale tod dnders: for the kitter tlwue is a new contmranoe totift, wtthoiit diiperting the daat of the aafaes, by meaai of a covered tilt bvclBet.

Small OMil wetted fnalceB^he ation^^ fire for the back, 'but most remain ontoudred ontil it eake. CinderB, Ugb% «wet» give a great degvee of beat, tod aiw better than coal fiir fur¦acea, inming-stoiroBy and o^ens.

Yhe cookehoukl be oharged to tike care of jelly-bage, tafiea lor the-colkred'thingB,' &e. u'hidi,if not perfectly acakled^ and kept'dry, give an 'unpleasant' flavour when noat u^ed.

Gold w«tar tinrowa on cast iioa, when hot, wf II caute it to cracft.

in eoBcUlsion we beg loafve to offer a few 4 b8ervadons lor the use of hoMekafirt in piatitular.'

A g^od beusekstper it kivaluabie; bat the vavions and imp^ftaat dtttidB of ker atatibn require suck' a bembinaeida of goaU^es^ that vely lew arerfbdnd to«aiccl in efwyipavlicukr,

A housekeeper uoght 4x be inliaiateiy abcpBainMd witk tba duties of BoNraBts of every degree. Sbeouirkt to tiemiidp inn, and vigilant. She sbeukipesiess-a-eompetept'kmiw fe dgef of figures, wtthoot 'i^bieb €^»ean acaroely kec^« lialisfiietoi^ ecoount; imd ahbbkl, akovse all things, have proper 'ideas of mrder. Thoee Who ure iguorant of tftie Means c^ viainsgtfig^ must not only waste many useful things, but also cause, cooob Aagrin tb'tliehr master or mistress'l)^ tkeir^gceat irregularity. They are idwaya in a 4bi 8t}e, and aitwiqrain oonliiddn; sbeir MaFf^rs-geC fafied, and tkey dwn lose n all pMper oeiatBBiid ^er the other /Servants. Thetfeeegoiiig instruoiioiiB '^iil W found exl»mdy useful to ho««€ boepers,'aiKl mtyte read #Mi edv«iftt4ge:ky their mietnessos.

We earnestly advise all housekeepeirs to aet With sodh pro* datevrabd^gHMrity, as^uify enaure cbe reepcot f itHe seevanta ehder tkeaJL; ^ to baue as leSir p^le ecAMog lAfr ehim when the family is akoetit laa^pMsUde, usiU might Meoe Am^

Qttor i e t tmil t U» Idbe tepmpet libertiM. WbM strangers eo«« OB a VMi, let them be4re4ted wkktht eeine retpMt •» it dbown Item by their lorJ and kdy« l«et it4lto he thiMr oaa** Hanistiidf, however kboriovi^ lo to up iAlhememiiig befora inj of the eervMls, and let 4hcm nc^er go to bed ttntil thfgr hwe aetii Ihe doon mtad windows fMopetly telened. bi r«pwvii^ lk9 aeFfaDtB let.it he done mkh lenderneee^ end nevw eiaggerate their faults. Hotremer, m •Ibe seomrity of tUm hoow ilspmds on the oervsniB keeping good hovvs, it is propAr to ceapkfli of «his fiuik, when Beithmr advioe not veproof has hod snj efisct. la the ohoiee of new ser?etit» let them hi ss U smei y csiitioiier and inquire atridlir ints tiieir ohovastMr.

If the-bousskeeper attend to these rides* all ittipropev wMMr nil! be avoided, the honour and iafteveet of her Piaster ^rJM km puslectsd, ate will beoome an eiample to^heyonnger Bes w an te» the family to which she is atteched will be peepceted and -she mttestabliBh bar #wn nepntatbn on a firm and Isetinf bsels.

DIRECTIONS foil CARVING.

CAVING Is an atlalliment -so elssentlal to the CbnYenience tfnd ceiii f aft of social life, psrtiiularly in females of every rank, that some directions cannot but prove acceptable. These directions will, however, be concisely plain. Utility is the sole object of tbem, and this consideration must limit their application to suob articles, as ase genersUy found nfQu .the tables of most families of respecttbiliiy*

C«rnx}ig has of late devol^Acd chiefly Dpon geiitlemen.; rbnt^ wh^er the task of hcjping.iiie compaqy rests with the master or mistress, 4»ire should be taken that theeeat of tbe.cwrverbe sufficiently high to command the table, jsoas to reiwicr xisipg nnuecesss^. Itwill always 410 advissble to. have a ^ood steel placed upon the table by the side of the carver^ unless whece there are servants constantly in attendance, when it will bOjpro* per to have it on the side-taUe.

14 BOM^TIC COOKERY.

The carving-knife shoald be light, yet of a tufltfeiit and. the edge very keen. In using it, no great personal strength is requisite, as constant practice will render it an easy task to carve the most diificiilt articles^Mnore depending o». ^ ^ address than force; bat, in order to prevent trouble, ^e fWpf-' ^V of mutton, yeal» lamb, &c. should be divided by the bOtxj j P^ when they may be easily cut through, and fine slices of meat taken off from between eVery two bones.

As fish is always served before meat, and meat before poultry, we fliiall trsat of the respective articles in that order.In helping fish, be careful not to break the flakes; which in cold and very fresh salmon are large, and contribute much to the beauty of its appearance. On this account a 'fish-knife, not being sharp, divides H best* Help a part^of the roe, milt, or liver, to ea^ persoi^ The beads of carp, part of those of cod and salfnon, sounds of cod, and fins oif turbot, are likewise esteemed niceties, and are to be attended to aceord* iBgly.

Of butcher's meat the more fleshy joints are to be cut in thin smooth slices, neatly done; and in joints of beef and mutton, the knife should always be passed down the bone by those who wish to carve with propriety, and great attention should be paid to help every person to a portion of the best parts.

Observe tha^ in cutting up any wild fowl, dude, goose, or turkey, for a large party, if you cut the slices dowii./ronilpinion to pinion, without m^ng wings, there wiU be a.,gi^ii^ nijpnber of prime pieces.

FISH.

CoJTs Heotf.- This shonld be cut with a spoon or fish trowel; the parts about the back-bone, or the shoulders, are the best and most firm; take off a piece quite down to the bone, in the direction a, b, c, d, potting in the spoon at «, r, and with each slice of fish give a piece of the sound, whidi ties underneath the back-bone and lines it, the meat of which is thin, and a little darker coloured than the body of the fish itself; tiiis may be got by passing a spocm undemeatha in the direction if,/.

MtUldm-ffMtUm^

«.

/.

l IRBCTION8 FOR CASVIK6. l6

. SUboN.- Of boiled salmon there is one ptrt more fat and rich than the other* The belly-part Is the fiitter of the two, iBd it is castomary to give to those who like both, a thin slice of each; for the one, cut it out of the beliy-part, the other out of the back.

ilftfcAroTf/.- Slit the fish along the back with a knife, and tike off one whole side, but not too near the head, as the meat about the gills is generally black, aind iU-flavoured. It is usual to ask whether a hard or soft roe be preferred.

5(9&s.- These are generally sent to table two ways, some fried, others boiled: they are to be cut right through the middle, bone and all, and a* piece of the fish, perhaps a third or fourth part, according to its sise, given to each. The same may be done with many other fish, cutting them across, the same way aa mackarel.

Tkrbot, - The fish-knife, or trowel, is to be entered in the eentret or middle, over the back-bone, and a piece of the fish, as much aa will lie on the trowel, to be taken off on one side close to the bones. The thickest part of the fish is always most . sateemed, but not too near the head or tail; and when the meat on one side is removed close to the bones, the whole back« bone is to be raised with the knife and fork, and the under side is then to be 9erved«

La^sfer.- As this is seldom sent to table whole, it is only necessary to say that the tail is reckoned the prime part, and next to that the daws.

jEWs.- Eels are cut into pieces through the bone, and the ttickest part is esteemed the best.

MEAT.

jlitch hone of Beef. -^ An the outside of this joint is alwaya. ifflpaited in its flavour, from the water in which it is boiled a thick slice must be cut off the whole length of the jointy beginning at a, and catting it all the way even, and through the mMe anr&ce, ftom tf to 5. The soft fiit, which resembles marrow, lies on the back, below the letter c, and the firm fiit. must be cut in thin horizontal slices at the point d; bat as some like the soft, and some the firm fiit, it is necessary to ask which is preferred. The upper part, as it is here placed on the dish^ is the fullest of gravy; but there are some who prefer

1 . i oiimiiTic coeKiRY;

» 8llc« from th^ im^ 8td#. The uk^wt tint keep»llM' meat properly togetiM* mken botUf^- i$ «h«wn in the plate at 4U Tiki* should be djt$mn out beibf e it is served op; or if it be neeeseavy te le^vie ht dsewev iti it sboold be e silver one.

Sirloin of Beef may be begun either at the end, or by cutting iiita tbe aaiddle. K is ueual i» inquire whether the outside or the Histde ie pPiHirred. For the outside the slice sheuUI be oet down to the bones; aiMk the aanoe wttli e^ery foklowing helping. Slice the inside liliewkie^ end gi^ae with elMEb piece aeeseof the soft fht.

Brinllwt of Jiief^.^Thta part is^ always boiled^ mk4 is^ te be out lile* \0Hg way, quit^ dovm te the bone, alter ha? iiig out o9 the outside, &t irst cut, whksh ywoL mimi ne^er help any oii» te, uitlesa lAiey dtsiie it, whioh is seldpei the case. The (ht cut with this slice is a firm grisly fat; bue a ac»ftev iht nay be jeune uKiee^HaaM^*

Rmmd, op Buttoek af ii «e^:-- This vequiree no print te point out 4lew k shouUI be carved. A thiek alice shoeld be out off aU pound the buttock; and, thue cut Into, thin slicea OMiy be cut ll'eiDtlie te ^: but ae It Is a dish thai is frequency biengbt to the table eold, a secelid iayv It sheuki idwaya be eet oafNisoiue aire evoit.

Fillet of VeaL - In an ox this part is round ef beef. Aek wihelher the browfr outside be liked, otherwise help the next rfioe. The bene ie take»e»t, and the meat tied eleee* beft re dressing; which make the fillet very solid. It shoekl be eut th^, and very" smooth •-A stwffiHg^is pat Into the Hap, wbich completely covers it, you must eut €leep^ inte thi», and help e thin slice, as likewise of fat. From carelessness in not covering the latter with paper, it is sonietitoes dried up, to the great disappoiatmeat eC the caraai^

Bpomt of rimk^-Jdv^ part^ whieb U eaUad the brlakety ia thiekeil, a^vd has giJtM^a; pat yeur kniHb about foav ioahee iVem t^edgee^ thia, aad cat thaeugh it, whioh wiilr aeparat^ the r&e from the' bri^at. Ask wMbb i» ehoaen^ and bel)p» aooopdhig^y.

^tdf'O' Aa^ baa a great-diet^ ei" meat upon it, if prepevly muai^ed'. CM sHcea ftem oto-d, letCSngldie kwib gaokm te thebone» Pmtheieaby part^ a tha neek^nd^, there Keathe throabaweHbrtaid, ^i^ you ahoiiid htf pa attee of ftana r te

t DIRECTIONS FOR CARVING. 17

d with the other part. Many like the eye, which you miist cut oot with the point of your knife^ and divide in two. If the jaw*bone be taken o€^ there will be (bond some fine lean. . Under the head is the palate, which is esteemed a nicety: the lady of the house should be acquainted with all things that are thought so, that she may distribute them among her guests.

Shoulder of Mutton. - This is a very good joint, and by many preferred to the leg; it being very full of gravy, if properly roasted, and produces many nice bits. The figure represents it as laid in the dish with its back uppermost. When it is first cut, it should be ia^he hollow part of ip, m the direction of a, b, and the knife should be passed deep to the bone. The prime part of the fat lies on the outer edge, and is to be cut out in thin slices in the direction e. If many are at table, and the hollow part cut in the line a, b, is eaten, some very good and delicate slices may be cut out on each side of the ridge of the blade bone, in the direction e, d. The line between these two dotted lines, is that in the direction of which the edge or ridge of the blade-bone lies, and cannot be cut across.

Leg of Mutton. - A leg of wether mutton (which is the best flavoured) may be known by a round lump of fat at the edge of the broadest part, as at a. The best part is in the midway St b, between the knuckle and further end. Begin to help there, by cutting thin deep slices to c. If the outside is no^ fat enough, help some from the side of the broad end in slices from e to /. This part is not juicy; but many prei^ the knuckle, which in fine mutton wiU be very tender though dry. There are very fine slices on the back of the leg: turn it up, and cut the broad end; .not in the direction yon did the other side, but longways. To cut out the aramp^bone, take hold of the shank with yourjleft hand, and cut down to the thigh4ione at if; than pass the knife under the cramp-bone in the direction

A Fore-quarter of Lamb. Separate the shoulder fVora the scoven (which is the breast and ribs,) by passing the knifis under the direction of ./i, b, c, d; keeping it towards you horizontally to prevent cutting the meat too much off the boner* If grass*lamb, the shoulder being large, put it into another dish. Squeeze the juice of half a Seville orange, or lemon^ on I D

18 BOlfEBXIC COOlCERT.

ifae Other fMUfty And sprinkle a little ealt aad pepper. Thei^ veparate the gristly put from the ribs, in the line, e, c; add. help either from that, or from the ribe, as may be chi^seiw

Haumch of Venuam.-^Cni down to the hone in the line a, d^ e» to let out the gravy: then torn the broad end of the haunck toward yon, put in the knife at 4, and cut as deep as you can to the end of the hausdi d r then help in Ibni dices, observing to give some fat to each person. . There ia more fat (which i^ a favodrite part) on the left side of c and d than on the other; and those who help mast take care to proportion it, as likewise the gravy according to the naniber of the company.

Bauneh of Mviton is the leg and part of the loin, cut so as jk resemble hsmnch of venison, and is to be helped at table i» the same manner.

Saddle (f Mntton. - Cut long thin slioesifrom the tail to the end, bC^nning close to the back-bone. If n large joint, th^ dice Bsay be divided. Cut some fat from the sides.

Tottgue.^^A tongue must be cut across, in the line a, Iv «nd a slice taken from thenoe. The most tender and juicy slices will be about the middle, or between the line a, h^ and the root. For the fiit aod kernel with it, cut iiff a slice of root on the right of the letter b at the bottom.

jBRsm may be cnt three ways; the common method is to begii^in the middle, by long slices from a to ft^, from the centre throagh the thick fat. This beings to the prime at first; which is likewise aeoomplished by catting a small round hole •on the tep of the ham aeai e, and with a sharp knife enlarging that by cutting successive thin circles: this preserves the gravy^, aiid fceoM the meet moist.

The last iM most savin^'^vay is to begin at the hock-'cncl (which maiiy 4we meat fiind ol) And proceed onwards.

Ham that is used for pies, should be cut from the under iside^ first taking off a thi:k sUee.

Leg of Porft.- 'This joint, whether boiled or roasted, is oea% ip to tMo aa a legof mutton roasted, and cut op in the same manner. The close firm flesh aboiit the knuckk nljj .tnany esteemed the best. \ * ^ ¦

SWikhig Pfg.- -The cook usually, divides the body before it is sent to tabl^ and gamishas the dish with the jibwaand ears.

a^ttrjeiMiltUim,.

BIRBCrtOMS FOR CARVIHO* M

' Hie fint tluog it, to sepsnile « ihoulikr frdoi the earcase «& oo€ tide. Hid thtea tkt leg aecoediiig to the difeoden giveo bj the dotted line, «, *, e. The ribt arethen ta be divkWL into about two bdpinga; and an ear or jaw fHiewDted with then, end plenty of saooe. The jointa naj either be divided inte two each, or pieces tnayiie cot from them. The ribs «• eateemcd the&eatpart; botaome people prefo the neak-eod* between the aheoldera.

POULTRY AND AAMB.

Geos&^^nt off the apron in ^e circular line c, b, e, and ponr into the body a g aaa of Port wine, and a large tei^apoon* fbl of mnatard, irst miied at the aadebeard* Tom the nedc-* end of the gooee toward yon» and cut the whole breatt in long iHoaa from one wing to another; but only remove them aa yoa help each person, unleaa the ooaapany ia an large aa to require the legs aiao. Thia way givea more prime bita than by making wings. Take off the leg, by putting the fork into the email end of sthe bone, pressing it to the body, and having passed the knife at tf, turn the leg back, and tf a young bird, it wiH easily aeparate. To take off the wing, put yoor fiork into the aeadl end of the pinmn, and press it cloie to the body; then pnt in the knife at mi and liivide the jeintp taking it down in the direction d, e. JHotfaang but practice will enable people tQ hit the joint exactly at the first trial. When the leg and wing of one side are done, go on to the othei*; but it is not eiken necessary to cut np the whole goose, unless the compaaiy be ?eiy laiJge. The bestparts of a goose are the breast slices, the fleshy part of the wing, which may be divided from the pinion; the thigh bone, which may be easily divided in the joint ftom the legbaoebrdrumetadc; the pinion, and nest the side bones. For those who like sage and onion draw it out with a qpomi firom the body, at the place where the apron is taken from, and «Bix it with the gravy, which should ftrst be poured fipom the boat into the body of the goose, befoxte any one be helped. The nraip is a nice piece to those -who like it; and the-cMease is by some prs0vred to other parts, as being more juicy and aaeee savoury. Of a gtum g-H the most ddicate paid are thebrcaati and the griitfesKt the lower part of it.



!M^ . DOMESTIC COOICERY.

A FowL-^K boiled fowl's legs a^ bent liiwArds, and tucked into the belly; but before it is served, the skewers are to be removed. Lay the fowl on your plate,, and place the joints, as you cut,' on the dish. Take the wing off in the direetionof «, to 6, only dividing the joint with your knife; and then with your fork lift up the pinion, and draw the wings towards the legs, and the muscles will separate in a more complete form than if cut. Slip the knife between the leg and body, and cut to the bone; then with the fork turn the leg back, and the joint will give way, if the bird is not old. When the four quarters are thus removed, take off the merrythought from a, ami the neck-bones; these last by putting in the knifo at c, and pressing it under the long .broad part of the bone in the line Ct b; then lift it up, and break it off from the part that sticks ta the breast. The next thing is to divide the breast from the carcase, by cutting through the tender ribs close to the breast, quite down to the taiL Then lay the back upwards, put your knife into the bone half-way from the neck to the rump, and on raising the lower end it will separate readily. Turn the rump from you, and very neatly take off /the two sidesmen, and the whole will be done. As each part is taken off, it should l« turned neatly on the dish; and care should be taken that what is left geies properly from table. The breast and wings are thought the best parts; but the legs are mo«t juicy in young fowls. After all, more advantage will be gained by observing those who carve well, and a little practice, than by any written directions whatever.

A Pkea9aHt*'^The bird in the annofed engraving is as

trussed for the spit, with its head under one of its wings.

When the skewers are drawn out, and the bird served, the

following is the way to carve it: Fix yoiir fork in the centre

of the breast; slice it down in the. line a, b; take off the leg

on one side of the dotted line 6, d; then cut off the wing on

the same side in the line c, . f. Separate the leg and wing on

the other skle^ and then cut off the slices of breast yon divided

.before. Be careful how you take off the wings, for if you

ahould cut too near the neck, aa atg*, you will hit on the

neck-bone, from which the .wing must be separated. Cut off

.'the merrythought in the line/, gr, by passing the knifa under

it towards the nec)L. Cut the Qther parts as in a fowl* The

BIRBCTIONB FOR CARVING. 21

Ifttutf wings, and merrythoiight, are ike most esteemed; but the kg has a higher flavoar.

TWAi^r.- -Roasted or boikd, a turkey is trvssed and sent up to tabk Uke a fowl, and cut up in every respeet like a phsBsaat The best parts are die white ones, the breast, wingi, and neck-bones. Merrytfaoa ^ it has none; the neck is taken away, and the hollow part under the Iweast stoicd with ferosd neat, which is to be cat in thin slices in the direo* tisD tnua the ramp to the neck, and a slice given with eadi piece of turkey. It is csastomary not to cut up more than the braHt of this bird; and, if any more be wanted, to belp with ODS of the wings.

Perlru(g«.««The partridge is here represented as just taken fioom the spit; but before it is served up the skewers must be withdrawn. It is cut up in the same way as a fowl. The wings must be cut o€ in the line tf, h, and the merrythought in the line c, if . The prime parts of a partridge are the wings, breast, and merrythought; but the bird being small, die two latter are not rften divided. The wing is considered as the best, and the tip of it esteemed the most delieate morsel ef the whole.

P^geims.- Cut them in half, either from top to bottom or across. The lower part is generally thought the best; but the direst way is to cut from the neck to a, rather than from c to b, by a, which is the most fashionable. The figure represents the back of the pigeon; and the direction of the knife is in the line c, h, by a, if done the last way.

Dmek or MaUard. - First raise the pinions and lege, but do not cut them off; then raise the merrythought from the breast, and laoe it down both sides with yonr knife.

W^odeoek, Pttur, Smipe, cr Cwrkw.^^Tlub legs and wings must be raised in the manner of a fowl, epening'tfae head for the brains.

Clrcne.-* After the legs are unMded, cut off the winge; take them up, and sauce them with powdered ginger, vinegar, salt, -and. mustard.

ll8re.-^The best way of cutting it up is, to put the point

• of the knife under the shoulder at a, md so eut sli the way

down ta the rump, on one side of the baek-bone, in the line a,

i. Do the same an the other sid^ so that the iriiok hsore will

22 1 OME8TtC COOKEHY.

fas divided into 'three fparte. 'Cut the back into four« wU^' with the legs is the part most esteemed. The shoulder must be out off in •'cifcvlar line, as c, d, e: laj the pieces neatly on the diih as yo« eat them; and then help the company, giving seme puddhig and gmvy te every person. This way can only be practised when the hare is young: if oM, don't divide it down, which will require a strong asm; but put the knife between -die leg and faacfc, and give it a little torn inwards at (he joint; whiehyou must endeavour to hit» and not to break byiforoe« When both legs are taken off, Uiere is a fine collop on eadi side. of the. back; then divide the back into as many pieces as yon please, and take off the shoulders, which aee by •many prcrferred, and are called the 8portsman*s pieces. When every one is helped, cut off the head; put your knife between the upper and lower jaw, and divide them, which wiU enable you: 'to lay die upper flat on your plate; then put the. point of Ae k«ife into fSat centre, and cat the head into two. The ean and brains maybe then helped to those who choose them.

Oarve HMnU as directed the latter way &r hare; cutting the baok into tivo pieces, wluch with the legfs an the prime*

DIRECTIONS FOR TRUSSING.

j[*HOUGH die LoDdon poultensn traes every thing befbw they sand it home, yet it' is ahaekttely necessary that every cecdL should Jmow howto »erfann this business properly, as it frequently happens that families take their cooks wi^ them into the eouaitry, where they see obliged to draw and truss all kiada of pouUiy and game ihemsrives. Let them therefore be careful to attend to this general rule; take care that all Che ¦tubs eisejperfeotly removed; and when they draw any kind of peutery or game, Aey must be very particahurnot tobreak the .ga&, bcosnse .it will gisie tke bkd.st bitter and diaagieeahie: Anronr, #hiah nflithsip ^nshing ner itiping sriU be 4dble . t»

TRiraarffC.

E^'/frJOmtafiMan

ft':- i-'-ii ¦

DIRB0TIO198. VOS TRVSSfNG.

TImb tnoMT wiU bs nmtMialif anisted by % r di e ie a ^i to the ttmcicd pliMit, in wlitdi tke Hoper fimfr cT eaeh figme* ifll be found opfMttly delineated. We diatt »mi» proceed wilb ptfticnlar intlniCliana.

3Wbfy .*-MKkett yen have properly pidted your tutkey. Weak the kgi^boneclese to the lbet» and draw cut the ttringft frfln die tfaigb^ for * which pnrpoee you mutt pet it en a hoek fnnnwd i^awai the eralL €at eflT the neck doee to the beek; hat be earefal t» leave the erop-tkin auffieienliy long Do tuni •Tcr the back. Then proceed to take ont the crop, and looeen the liver and gut at the threat end with your anddle finger. ThenoBt off the vent, and teke out the got. With n eiiooked Bharp-pointed iron puU ont the gicsard, and the liver wilLeooQ ibOow. Be oire&J, however, not to break the galL With avetdeth wiipeoBtthe inaidepeifeetly denn. With a laqge knife out the bma^ibii- tfamugh oa each aide doie to tht bKk» and dnnr the legs okae te the crop. Then put a doth Ml the breaat, and heat the high hone down with a aoBiii^« NU titt it Uea fiat. Iff the tndLey ia tu be troaaad ttm boiling, cat the bga off; then put yenr aaiddle finger into the insiAe^ niae die akin of the l^;s, and pnt themr under the aprou cf the tuakey. Put a. akewcr in the joant of the wii^g and the Middle jont ef the leg, 4BBd run it through the body and the ether lq and wing. The Hver and gioaard aauat be pQ% in tBe pmiena; but tataa care firat to open the ginaidl and take out ^ filth ttoA gaE of the liver* Then torn the email end ef die pinion on the badk, and tie a packthread over th.e «nde af the lege to iaeep Aeenhi'thdr placea. If tte turkey ia to henaated, leave the l^ga en^ put a dcewer in the joint ef the wing, tudL the lega doae up» and put the akewer through the ¦MkUr of the leg and body. On t)ie ether aide put aaether dMwer in the anudl part of the leg. Put it doae on the aetaide of the aideamkn, and put the ekewer thMui^ and the ¦one en the ether aide. Put the liver and giaaatd between the pkuooB, and turn the point of the pinion en Che back. Thef^ pe^ doae above the pisnona^ another akewer through the bod r ef die turkey.

TuriLoy polu muat be truaaed in the ftUowing nmuner i Itfce the neek finn the head and bedy^ but do net seoaoeetW utkaktik They aw drawn in the -aane nuumev as a tadugr^

24 DOMESTIC cookery/

Pot a skewer through the joint of the pinion,- tuck the legs •close, run the skewer throu^ the middle of the leg, through the body, and so on the other side. Cut off the under pert of the bill, twist the skin of the neck round, and put the head on the point of the skewer, with the bill end forwin^s. Another skewer must be put in the sidesman, and the legs placed between the sidesman and apron on each side. Pass the skewer through all, and cot off the toe-nails. It is very common to lard them on the breast. The liver and gizzard may or may not be used, as you like.

Gffe^.-: Having picked and stubbed your goose clean, cot the feet off at the joint, and the pinion off at the first joint. Then cut off the neck close to the back; but leave the skin of the neck long enough to turn over the back. Pull out the 4;hroat, and tie a knot at the end. With your middle finger loosen the liver and other matters at the breast end, and cut it open between the vent and the rump. Having done this, draw out all the entrails, excepting the soal. Wipe it out clean with a wet doth, and beat the breast bone flat with a roliing-pin« Pot a skewer into the wing, and draw the legs, close up. Pot a skewer through the middle of the leg, and through- the body, Md the same on the other side. Put another skewer in the small of the leg, tuck it dose down to the sidesman, run it through, and do the same on the other, side. Cut off the end of the Tent, and make a hole large enough for the passage of the rump, as it holds the seasoning much, better by that

means.

DtfrA:^.- Dueks are trussed in he same manner as geese, excepting *tbat the feet are left on the ducks, and are tamed close to the legs.

/bie2f.- They must fir$t be picked very dean, and the neck cut off dose to the back. Then take out the crop, and witK your middle finger loosen the liver and other matters. Cut off the vent, draw it clean, and beat the breast»bone fiat, with a rdling-pin. If your fowl is to be boiled, cut off the nails of the fieet, and tudr them down close to the leg. Pot your finger into the inside, and raise the skin of the 1^^; then cut a hde in the top of the skin, and put the 1^ under. Put a ske#er in the first joint of the pinion, bring the middle of the leg close to h, pot the skewer through the middle of the leg» and

HIBICTIOHA POX TSU88INO.

*N^ tiw iMrfy. I o tiM SMM on the oUkt mk. ife^ flpcMd the gisaid» tekc o«t the filth, and the gall Mt of the liMr. Pirt the ginud end the liver in the puMons, and tnm tke poiat en the back. Remember to tie a string over the topa ef tbe lege, to keq them in their proper place. If your fawl ii-to be roaatedy put a akewer in the fint joint of the pinion^ •ad fanig ^ middle of the leg olooe to it. Pot the akewer tkoagh the middle of the leg, and throngh the body, and do tbemaMOB the other side. Pat another skewer in the smaH sf die leg, and thnHigh the ludesman. Do the same on the edwrade.. Putanother skewer throogh the skin of the feet. ToB flwat not loigat that the nails ai« to be out off.

• CUrhrns.** These mnst be picked and dratwn in the saaw naaaer as fowls. If the chickens are to be boiled, cat off the mih, give the sinews a nick on each side of the joint, put the ftdia at the vent, and then put in the rump. Draw the skin tight, ever the lega, put a skewer in the first joint of the liiaMa, and- bring the middle of the leg close. Pat the skewer tkivagh the mkklle of the legs, and throngh the body, and do tk saiae on the other side. Clean the gissard, and take ont ikegaH in the liver; put them into the pinions^ and turn the pMHsontlie back. U your cbiokensare to be roasted, cat off tk feet, pat a skewer in the first joint of the pinions, and fansg the middle of the leg close. Ron the akewer through the mkktte »f the leg, and through the body, and do the same n the other aide. Put another skewer into the sidesman, pat the legs between the apron an the sidesman, and run the dwwer through. Having cleaned the liver and giasard, put than hi the pinionB, tarn the pobts on the back and over the ¦ttk, and pull the breast shin.

WM Fmoi.^The directions we are giving will answer fer sD hinds of wild fowl in general. Havmg picked them clean, est off the neek close to the back, and with your middle finger hosdi'the liv*er and guts next the breast. Cut off the piniona it dirftti joiqit, then cut a slit between the vent and the mmp» umI draw them clean. Clean them properly with the long fatthera on the wing, cut off the nails, and torn the feet close to die legn. Put a skewier mto the pinions, pull the legs dose ts die breast, and- run the skewer thfongh the kB** ^^f ^^ I ¦

M JKIMBSTIC COOILART.

vfkffedttier.'^ioA. First out off tlie vent, iMrid thueii put ^

.P^ctJii.- * Yon .mast fimt piok ibesn, and 4aiil off the Mek . io^ to ike hiMBk. Then take ont the cc9p cvt off the vtm, .mmi draw but.the guts aii4 gi^aoaid, but l^ve in the liver, fir ^srpigeoD baa no.gall. If your pigeaua are to. be roasled* ciil off the toea» cut.a alit ia one of. the legi, and pat the other •thnongh. it. CNraw the leg tight tlo the pinion, put a akewer jihnmgfa .thci piniona, lega, and body, and ivith the handle of « knife faredL the JHfiast Ant. Oeaa die gizaaid, pat it in one of the pittioiiSy and tuni the point on the back. If .yoo intend to make a pileof theni» you linnet eut the feet off at the jgini inm the kgi^ and dtick them in the aidea close to the piniona. If th^ aoe to be stewed or boiled* they tnust he done in the name manner.

W4fodeocks and &iijpc«.^Theae biida ^re very tender to picky eSpeoiaMy if they be not quite freah. They mast there* fore be handled as little as posatbie, for even the heat of the luiad will sometimes putt off the skin, when the beauty ef your bird will be destroyed. When you have pidied thaat eleaB» ctit the pinions off at the first joint, and with the lianAa of rkoife beat the breast-bOne iiat. Turn tiie legs olaae In the thighs, and tie tbem together at the joints. Put the ikif^ close to the pinions, .put a skewer into the pinion, and run it throi^ the thighs, body, and the other pinion. Skin the bead, turn it, take out the eyes, and put the head on the point of the skewer with the^ bill close to the breaat. Wood* eocks, snipes, or plovers, are trussed in the same manner, bnt must never be drawn.

Lark$^ Wfuai-ears, 4r^.- When you have picked them dean, cut off tiieir heads, and the pinions at the 6ret joint. ]feat the breast'bone flat with the handle of a knife, turn the ftet dose to the legs, and put one into the other. Draw ont ihe giz»iid, aad run a afcewer thmmgh the middle of the bfdks of as many as you mMB to dresst Th^ must be tiei IP tihe spit. /

JRkfOsmUs:9md Parifulgf9,'^Pkk them very dean, «»t a alit at the back. of the neck, take out the crop, sand JiooifesL'tba Ktnr and gut next the breast with your fore-finger; then cut-off the vent, and draw them. Cut off the pinion at the first oint,

DIRBCYtONS roil TRV^StNG. ttf

•ad wipe ovi the inside with the pioioii you have cut off; for ym never need pick these birds beyond the first joint of the pinioa. Wth a rolling-pin beat the breast-bone flat, pat a Aewer in the pinion, and bring the middle of the legs close. Then run the skewer through the legs, body, and the other pinkn; bring the head, and put it oa the end of the skewer, the bill ftontbg the breast. Put another skewer into the sidesnna, and put the legs dose on each side the apron, and then nu the skewer through all. You must leave the beautiful feaChers on the head of the cock pheasant, and put paiper t# pft n tB t the bad eifebts of the fire. You must also save the long feathers in the tafl to stidc in the rump when roasted. In the same manner are trussed all kinds of moor-gfame. If they lie to be boiled, put the legs in the manner as in trussing a ibfrt for boffling.

iKfrft.-*-Having cut off the four legs at the first joint, tiU Ae skin of the back, and draw it over the hind l^gs. Leave the tail whole, draiAr the skin over the back, and slip ant Ihe fore legd. Cut the skin off the neck and head; but tAe care to leave the ears on, and mind to skin them. Tak^' out the Bveir, Kghts, Stc. but be sure to take the gut out of the fint Cut the sinews that lie under the hind legs, bring thiem ¦ptotfie forelegs, put a skewer through the hind teg, then flhrougfa^the fbre leg under the joint, run it through the body, and do Hbe same on the other side. Put another skewer thntaqglli the thick part of the hind legs and body, put the head j

Iwhvean the shoulders, and run a skewer through to keep it in ^*

iti place. Put a skewer in each ear to make them stand erect^' and ti^ a string round the middle of the body over the legs U lai^ flieiD in tbfeir plaee. You may truss a young faWn in the tafl^iaAn)ier, only mind to cut off th^ ears.

JIfaMffa.- *ttabbits are to be cased in the same manner as haica, oinly dfanerve to cut off the ears close to the head. Cut tbt i^ait opi^; and slit the legs about an inch upon each side dkf rtttip. iXake the hind legs lie flat, and bring the ends to the fore l€^. Put a skewer in the hind leg, then in the kfitlkg^M through the body. Bring the head' round, and pnV* it ^ili^ 'skewer, tf you want to roast tw   tog^her, truss tKin' AVftff Ibiigth. vrith six skewers through them both, so^ thkttfiey mkybrfproJ crly fastened on the spit.

2tt 1 OM«STlC COOKSB¥.

OP MARKETING.

• t

j[T is requisite, in the first place, to know the different parf^^ those animals which are brought into our markets, ready slaughtered, and generally denominated butcher's memt.

The ox, or cotr, when killed, is called keefy in which tlie fore-quarter consists of the haunch, which includes the c od» inanrow-bone, shin, and the sticking-piece, which is the neckend. The next is the leg of mutton-piece, which has part of the blade-bone; then the chuck, the . brisket, the fore-ribs, and middle rib, which is called the chuck-rib. The hind quarter contains the sirloin. and rump, the thin and thick flank, the veiny-piece, and the isch, aitch, or ash-bone, buttock, and leg. These are the principal parts of the carcase, besides ••which are the head, tongue, and palate. The entrails are, the sweetbreads, kidneys, skirts, and tripe; of the latter of which there are three sorts, the double, the roll, and the i^ed tripe. Beef is never out of season all the year round, though for salting £nd hangiag it is best from Michaelmas to Lady^ day.

In a sheep, the fore-quarter contains the neck, breaal, and shoulder; and the hind-quarter, the leg and loin. The two loins together are called a saddle of mutton, which is jesteem-. ed as a fine dish when the meat is small and fat. . Two necks together form the chine. Besides these, are the head and pluck, which includes the liver, lights, heart, sweetfiR»Rds, and melt. Mutton is b season from the middle of Augiost till May.

In a calf, the fore-quarter consists of the shoulder, neck, and breast; and the hind-quarter is the leg which contains the knuckle, the fillet, and the loin. The head and inwards are called the plud(; in Staffordshire, the culfs race; and in.

OF MARKBTIIVG. W

Laacuhire* thtmudcaif; it oonsiato of the heart, liver, lights, ait, and melt, aad what is called the skirts; the throat sweetbiead, and die wind-pipe sweetbread. Veal, from its speedy decay in hot or dose weather, is generally allowed to be best Iran Chjnstmas to June.

The fore-quarter of a i0mb eonsistsof a shoulder, neck, and breast, together. The hind-quarter is the leg and loin.. The head and pluck consists of the liver, lights, heart, nut, and Bidt; as also the fry, which \a formed of the sweetbread, lamb-stones, and skirts, with some of the liver. Lamb n^ay be had at all times in the year; but it is particularly in high tttaon at Christmas, when it is considered as one of the greatest presents that can be made from any person in London to another residing in the country.

Grtn-iamb comes in about April or May, according to the aature of the weather at that season of the year. In general it holds good to the middle of August.

FenUon^ ' if buck, comes in season in May, and ^ntinues 10 tin November; and if doe, its season is from Michaelmas to Candlemas. .

In a kogf the fore-quarter is the fore-leg and spring; and, if it is a large hog, you hiay cut off a spare-rib. The hindquarter is only the leg and loin. The inwards form what is called the haslet, which consists of the liver, crow, kidney, and skirts. Besides these there are chitterlins, or guts, the asaller parts of which are cleansed for sausages and blackpuddings.

What is called a b€e4m hog is cut differently, on account of making hams, bacon, and pickled pork. Here you have fine tpare^ribs, chines, and griskins, and fat for hog*s lard. The liver and crow are much admired fried with bacon.

The proper season for pork commences about Bartholomewtide, and lasts all the winter. When the summer beginp, it ^ws flabby, and is therefore not used except by those who are particularly attadied to that kind of animal provision.

Hams and bacon aie never out of season when careAifiy cared.

We shall eonclade this 'department widi the foliowing lisefcl illastratiicMis of the marketing plate.

M

lK»MBfTfC COORBKY

MARKETING PLATE.

Quarter.

1 Sirimn.

2 Rump.

8 Aiteh bone.

4 Battodc.

5 Mouse buttock.

6 Veiny piece.

7 Thick flank.

8 Thin flatfk.

9 Leg.

1 Loin, best end. S Loin, diump end. 8 Fillet. 4 Hind knuckle. 8 Fare knuckle.

BBBP.

Fore Quarier,

10 Fore rib; 6 ribs.

11 Middle rib; 4 ribs.

12 diuc^; dribs.

18 Shoulder, or leg of inatton piece.

14 Brisket.

15 Clod.

16 Neck, or sticking piece.

17 Shin.

VBAL.

6 Neck, best end.

7 Neck, scrag end.

8 Blade bone.

9 Breast, best end. . W ftreaat, brisket cad.

¥BNISON.

1 Haonch.

2 Neck.

8 Shoulder. 4 Breast.

tURTLB.

1 The spare-rib.

2 Hand.

3 BeUy, or spring.

1 Leg.

2 Loin, best end.

§ Lois, chump end. 4 Neck, best end. i Neck, scrag end.

4 Foreldin.

6 Hind loin. « Leg.

MUTTON.

5 fihoyldbr.

7 Breast.

A eMne is two niteb. A midh is two knns.

«F MARKETlNa. H

TO CHOOSE MEATS.

Beef.^lf the flesh of ox-beef is young it will have a fine smooth open grain* be of a good red, and feel tender. The fat ihoiild lodi white rather than yellow, for when that is of a deep colour, the meat is seldom good; beef fed by oilcakes is is general so, and the flesh is flabby. The grain of cow-beef u closer, and the fat whiter^ than that of ox-beef; but the lean is not of so bright a red. The grain of bull-beef is closer still» die fat hard and skinny, the lean of a deep red, and a stronger scent. Ox-beef is the reverse. It is the richest and largest; but in small families, and to some tastes, heifer-beef is better if finely fed. In old meat there is a streak of horn in flke ribs of beef: the harder this b, the older;. and the flesh is sot finely flavoured.

Ffo/.- The flesh of a bull-calf is the firmest, but not so white. The fillet of a cow-calf is generally preferred for the adder. The whitest is not the most juicy, having been made so by irequent bleeding, and having had whiting to lick. Choose the meat of which the kidney is well covered with thick white fat. If the bloody vein in the shoulder looks blue, or of a bright red, it is newly killed; but any other colour shows H stale. The other palts should be dry and white; if clammy or spotted, the meat is stale and bad. The kidney turns first is the loin, and the ^uet will not then be firm. The head, if new and sweet, must have the eyes plump and lively; bat if they are sunk or wrinkled, it is not good. This rule also applies to the head of a sheep or lamb.

Vtnimm.-^li the fat be clear, bright, and thick, and the cleft part smooth and close, it is young; but if the cleik is wide and rough, it is old. To judge of its sweetness, nm a very shatp nanow knife into the shoulder or haunch, and you wjU know by the soent. Few people like it when it has much of (he hmd'gcn*.

Port. -r-Pinch the lean, and if youqg it will break. If the rU is tough, thick, aad cannot be easily impressed by the fitafo; it ia old. A thin vind is a merit in all pork. When fresh, thn flesh will be snuiolli and cool; if dammy, it is tainted. Wbii b oallad nwasly poik ia very unwholesome; and may be ktown by the iiat 4seing Aill of kernels, which in good pock is sever the case. Posrk led at stiH^houses does not answer f fr

19 BOMS6TIC COOKJUKT.

curing mky way, the fat being spongy. Dairy-fed pork is the best.

Aftf/f on.- Choose this by the fineness of its grain^ good folour, and firm white fat. It is not the better for being young; if of a good breed, and well fed, it is better for age; but this only holds with wether-mutton: the flesh of the ewe is paler, and the texture finer. Ram mutton b very, strong* flavoured, the flesh is of a deep red, and the fat spongy.

Lamb. - Observe the neck of a fore quarter: if the i«in . is bluish, it is fresh; if it has a green or yellow cast, it is stale. In the hind quarter, if there is a faint smell under the .kidney, and the knudile is limp, the meat is stale. If the eyes ane sunk, the head is not fresh. Grass lamb comes into season in April or May, and continues till August. House lamb may be had in great towns almost all the year, but is in the higfiest perfection in December and January.

Bacon.- If the rind is thin, the fat firm, and of a red tiiig^, the lean tender, of a good colour, and adhering to the bone, you may conclude it good, and not old. If there are yellow Streaks in it, it is going, if not already rusty.

H4?m«.- Stick a sharp knife under the bone; if it comes out with a pleasant smell, the ham is good; but if tbe knife is daubed and has a bad scent, do not buy it. Hams short in the hock are best, and long-legged pigs are not to be chosen for any preparations of pork.

Brawn. r-The horny part of young brawn will feel moderately tender, and the flavour will be better; the rind of old will be hard.

s •

TO CHOOSE FISH.

Salmon.^K new, the ^h is of a fine red, (the gills paiti* * eolarlly) the scales bright, and the whole Ash stiflT. Whan jsst killed, there is a whiteness between the flakes, wtiieli gives ¦ great firmness; by keeping, Ihis melts down, and the HA is mo^rich. The Thames sslmon bears the highest prii:fe;'tftnt cftttgbl in the Severn is next in goodness, and is even pi efaY«d hyi$ome. Small heads, and thick in the neck, are best*

. Turiot^ if good, should be thick, and the bdly of a yellowisli white; if of a bluish cast, or thin, they ire imd. ' Thty a«r m, season the greatest p4rt of the sumnsr. .

• f?^.- Th^ gilla sfiotiW be Ter - red: the 'fist shouM Ifc Very thick at the neck, the flesh white anrf firm, and tlie eyei 'fh»h. When flabby they are not gooA, They are in season ftbin the beginning: of December til! ifit end of April.

Skdte.-lf good, they are very white and thick. If ttk) -flresk, they eat tough, but must not Ibe kept above two days.

Hrrringt.-lf good, their ^ils are of a ^ne red, and djfe «yes bright; as is likewise the whole f^sh, which must be stltf 'and firm.

Sprats -Choose by the saine rules as herring?. '

&fei.- If good, tRey are thick, and thfe belly is of acrcanl

colour; if thre is of a bhiish cast and flabbv: they are n6t fresh'.

They arc in the market almost the whole year, but arfe in thb

lligfaest perfection about midsummer.

fl^Mtings. - The firmness of the body and fins is to bfe looked to, as in herrings: their high seasoh is durmg the firA t&ree months of the year, but they may be had a great par( rfh.

MackareL^Choo^e as whitings. Their season is May^ Jrnie, and July. They Are so tender a fish that they carry and keep' Worse than any other.

Pike, - For freshness observe the above remarks. The best are taken in rivefs: they are a very dry fish, and are mucK indebted to stufling and sauce.

Cmf live some time out of water, attd may therefore get Wasted; it i* best to kill them as soon as caught, to prevent tk&. The same sign of firesimess attend them as other fish.

7 «cA.- They are a fine-flavoured fresh-water fish', and Aotdd be kilted and drcs^d as s6ob as caught. Wheh 'they are to be bought, examine whether the gills are red aAd hai^ f5 open, the' eyes bright, and the body stiff. The tench* Ibaa a sHmy matter about it, the clearness and brightness of whidK ^ ^bem freshness. The season is July, August, and Septenlbei*: ' P^rrA.- Take the general rules given to distinguish th^"^ fireflliness of other fish. They are not so delicate as carp* and lettcb.

JIW/W*.- The sea are- preferred td the fiver mullets, and the red to the grey. * They should be very firm; theif seiEtsdi is /logust! _ * .. .

Gudgeim$.--i!bey are ehosen by the s«me -iMeV it XfOi^t^ 3 F

a4 DOM&STIC COOK&ftT.

Adh. They ate laken in runnini; atrefunB; come in about iiiid«^ summer, and are in season five or six months.

5torg*eofif.-When good, they must have a fine blue in tli^e veins and gristle: the flesh should be perfectly white, and cut without crumbling.

Smelts, if good, have a fine silvery hue, are very firm^ and have a refreshing smell like cucumbers newly cut. They ave caught in the Thames and some other large rivers.

£f/«.- There b a greater difference in the goodness of ^eeb than of any other fish. Those taken in great floods are generally good, but in ponds they have usually a strong rank flavour. EiLcept the middle of summer, they are always ia season.

LoMeri.-^K they have not been long taken, the dawv will have a strong motion when you put your finger on the eyes and press them. The heaviest are the best, and it ki preferable to boil them at home. When you buy them ready boiled, try whether their tails are stiff, and pull up with a spring; otherwise. that part will be flabby* The coek-lobater is known by the narrow back part of his tail, and the two uppermost fins within it are stiff and hard; but those of the hen her soft, and the tail broader. The mak, though gene* rally smaller, has the highest flavour, the flesh is firmer, and the colour when boiled is a deeper red.

Cradf .- The heaviest are best, and those of a middling sijee are sweetest. If light they are watery; when in perfection th^ joints of the legs are stiff, and the body has a very agreeable smell. The eyes look dead and loose when stale*

Prawns and Shrimps.--yfhea fresh they have a sweet flavour, are firm and stiff, and the c(4our is bright,

C^^lcrs.- There are several kinds. When alive and strong the shell closes on the knife. They should be eaten as soon as opened, the flavour becoming poor otherwise. The rock-oyster is largest, but usually has a coarse flavour if eaten iraw.

Plates and Flounders. - They should be thick, firm^ aad

have their eyes bright. They very soon become flabby and

bad. They are both sea and river fish. The plaice is beat

when the body has a bluish cast. They are in season from

. Janvaij: to Msjrdi« and from July to September*

f r MARKETINGS.

TO CHOOSE POAJLTBY A1«D GAME.

A TwriBty Caek.-^U younig^ he has a smooth black leg, Mkb « liiort spur. The eyes full and bright, if ftesh, and the fetl JHf^ iad moist If atale, the eyes will be sunkt vni the ftetdiry.

Hnt'Twrkof is known by the saaie niles^ but if old, hsr k i will he led and rough.

(vttK.- The hill and feet of a young one will be yellow* sad there will be bat few hairs upon]]them; if old, they will ht nd; if fcesh« the fiaet will be pliable; if stale« dry and stiff. Geese are called green till three or four months old* Gitttt gsese should be scalded; a stubble goose should be picked dry.

Dttdbu*- Choose them by the same rules, -of having supplt fat, and by their being hard and thick on the breast and beUy, The feet of a taoM duck ave thaok, aad inclining to dusky yeUow; a wild one has the feet reddish, and smaller than tbi; tuae. They should be picked diy. Ducklings must bfi Rsldcd.

Pigeoms shoukl be loery fresh; wben they look flabby about 1W rtat, and this part is discoloured, they are stale. Thci kd should be supple; if old, the feet are harsh« The tame sees ase larger than the wild, and are thought best by some penous.; they should be fat and tender; but many are deceived IB thor siae^ becanscA full erop is as Ivrfpt as .the whole body, of a small pigeon.

The wood -pige m is large, and the flesh dark-oolonred; if jmperiy kept, and not over-roasted« the flavour is equal to teaL P/(0«crs. -^Choose those that feel hard at the vent, which shows they are fat. In other respects^ choose .them by tliof fame marks as odier fowl. When stale, the feet are dry. They will keep sweet a long time. There are three sorts: the grey, green, and bastard plover or lapwing.

Tke fufltfrtf.- This dainty bird is chooai in the same wumer as the turkey.

The BeMtkcock and Hen^ when joung, hai« smooth legs sad Mils, which become rough when old. You may judge of their freshness in the same manner as y ju do with the phea^ sent.

-f0 Daj^C^TIC COOKlifRY.

The Wheat ear. -This delicate bird in fpwh, if it hat a limber foot and fat rump; othen^'ise it is stale.

The Woodcock, if stale, will be dry-footed faiid if bad, its hose wiU be snotty, and the tiiroat iho6risb and muddy; but If new and fat, it wfll be Kmber-fobted/tfaick and haisd.

• A Capon is known by a ^drt fttt# pale cowb, a thick tmtip and belly, and a fat vein on the side of the breast: when yDtitif . Ih^ spurs win be short and blnnt, atid^the legs smooth; akd if fresh, the vent will be close and hard; bnt if sfeiAe,- iaose", which laiit remark, may be applied to cot^ks ttkA liens.

A Cook, when; 'oniing, has short anddtiblkd spu*** ani# If fresh, his vem will be hard and dose. Uul y^u isbiMiM lit particular in observing the spurs, iks the hi'asrket pedplc- tm^ gently scrape tlem, to glvethem the iippearanee of f6ui% cocks'.

A Hen is old, if her legs and comb be rough; hnt ytang; 1^ they are sinootii, Vbu may also judge of heffreshfte^ by the vent, in the same nianner as the cock. ^ ' * «i ¦ «

A Snipe is chosen in the same manner as !fie Woodcock'; btti the snipe, when f*esh, !s ftrt lA'fhe ^de'un^ the •'tmttgj ted feels thick in flie venf. ' . ^ .'-./? i .

Teal and Widgeon are suppl^footed when fresh; btft are Ary-footed when stale. ¦ If fat, tlicy are thick and Ward on the Miy; am! Iteft, If thin and soft.

tiare and Levirei. -^Iftht claw! afe -blunt and ruffged, the ters dry and tough, and the haundi thick, ttte ^lare is oH; but If the daws are smooth arid i^haTp, the ears easily tear, and the dd% in the lip is* tiot wuA spfead, it is N'onng. • ff fresh dnd newly killed, the body will be stiff, and the flesh pale. But ttk^ keep a good while by proper rare; and at^ best wheh rather beginning to turn, if the inside is preserved" from* bein^ musty." T*o know a rca! leveret, you shonlrl look f«r a khob' or stnall (one near the foot oh its fore leg; if tfiere is none, it is a hare.

KXbbit.-^lf it be old, it has long rough clawS, and grev hairs ftitcrmited' with its Wool*; hut when Jounjr, the wool and claws are smooth. If stale, it is supple, and the Iksh bluish, Mth akind 6f slime among it; birt if frfesh, it will bo Miff, and the flesh white and dry. *

Partridges, -^They arc in sensort in autumn, ft* young, the bill Is of a dark colour, and the legs yellowish; if fihesh, ffae ^nt will b6 firtn: this part will look greenish, if stale.

PkeuMti. - The cock-bird is accounted best, except when the hen is with egg. If young, he has short, blunt, or round sfHirs; but if old, they are long and sharp.

. ¦ ¦ / 4 ' • ' ' '

TO CHOOSE BUTTER.

Put a knife into the butter if salt, and smell it when drawn wt; if there is any thing tascid or unpleasant,, it is bad. Being made at different times, the layers in casks will varj[ pertly: and fou will dbt eisiLy come at thie goodness, but bf KBhoDping the ensk, and trying it between the stav«b. FreA hMff onght to maiM kke a nosegay, and be of an-^cinai « ikNif illlriiigh; if sour in sneU, it hnsiiot b^n si^oieotly wasii^ d; if viioy and o en, it in ^nbMy mi%^ ^th staler or nnf

TO. CBOOM. CHjfcBSUK.

OlMerve the cont «l theeheeM^ bttfdire f ou potc^Meit; Ibr if Jl fe ^M/^mMt a rongh aAd mggtd cont, 4yr lry at top, ^ou mtf^Vftti m§Jkd*\iMe wnona mndi nnt^ id it. if, h Ibe iMiit/ ipoigv, «r fdlM holte, Aere k reano*to taapectit is muiggii^v Whtnevtr yon fieteme WHy ptfrMMd plness «l the oataidey ftiet ntwter piniie ^en «o the hottfom; -for, thxwgh the bM in tkk^ cBsl mi^ be i ut smaU, iht porislied'part within may be tbn ifaifaln.

Rot A0 iMxfe md of Hie egg to your tonglie; if it iMi' vtihsiliinnbVi' *itt osw^aidl «ggd, the^ is a smdl cKvMon' rf the skin Mm the AeUj 'wfasah.ia Med Midi air, aivd i§ ^^ ttptible to the eye at the end. In looking thUM^ tH^M' againsttile rati «r a dindlei if iiesh, eggb mHH be prtliy cl^r. If IbejrnkalDathey'atenotfir^sb.: •

Eggs may be hqngbt cheapest whtntKe fa«nto fh«t biigiiittf lay in the spring before they sit; in Lent and Easter ttilb^bMooie 4ear« Thdy' mfxy be pveselvni Atesh by dippAig tfiem in baling itat&r and instantly ^ taking ;h «i 4»ut, or hf (^H^ ' the tUelfct nither nf whidi wayh in to pyefv^nt the aif pA^tff* through it; or kept on shelves with small holes to receive 4M(§ ^ ioeM, nasd; be tamed emery other day; csrcloee^fMiek^ in a keg, find faopffixred yMt^ sCtt ttg'ifBie«wat(0r .

M m MBSTlC CObKBRt.

OBSERVATIONS ON KEEPING AND DRESSING

MEAT.

f

ON KBBPINO MBAT.

In evejry sort of provisions, the best of the kind goes fiurdiest,. it cuts out with most advaatege, uid affoids fluost Bouriabbaeiit. Round of beef, fiUet ^ veal, and hg of nnt-' ton, are joints that bear a higher price; hut as they ha^ more solid meat, they deserve the prefeeeBce. It is worth notice, however, that those joints which are inftrior, may. be dressed as palatably; and being cheaper, they ought to be bought in turn; for, when they are wdghed vrtth the i^iae pieces, it makes the price of these cooie lower.

Ill loins of meat, the long pipe that runs bytfaebOBeflhoiiid be taken dut, as it is apt to taint; as also the ktraeb of beef. Bumps and aitch-bones of beef are often bruised by the blows the drovers give the beasts, and the part that has been stra^k always taints; therefore do not purchase these joints if bruised. The butcher should take out the kemela in the neck pieces, where the shoulder-dod is taken off, two from each round of beef; one in the middle, which is called the pope*s eye; the. other from the flap: there is also one in the thick ^j^udi, in the middle of the fat. If these aie not takea out, enpecially in the summer, salt will be of no uie for keeping the meat sweet* There is another kernel be t w e en the romp and the ^gebone.

As the butdwrs seldom attend to this matter, the cook should take out the kernels; and then rub the salt wdl into such beef as is for boiling, and slightly sprinkle that wbidi is for roasting.

The flesh of cattle that ate killed v^en not perfectly cleared of food soon spoils. They should fast twenty-four hours in winter, and double that lime in summer, before being killed.

The shank-bones of mutton shouhi be saved; and, after soaking and bruising, may be added to give richness to gra*

fc.- .

ON KKEFIKO AND DRBftSlN« MKAT. »

vtM or soups. They aie also partkularly nourishing to sick pcnoBs.

\V1ken sirloins of beef, or loins of veal or matton, come in, psrt of the suet may be cut off for puddings, or to clarify.

Meat and vegetables that the frost have touched, should be tosked in cold water two or three hours before used, or mof« if they are much ioed. Putting them into hot water, or to th^ fire till thawed, makes it impossible for any heat to dress them prapoly afterwards.

In warm weather, meat should be examined well when it cones in; and if flies have touched it, the part must he cut of, and then well washed. In the height of summer, it is a voy safe way to let meat that is to be salted lie an hour m npf oM water, rubfaiag well any part likely to have been fiy-bkwn; then wipe it quite dry, and have salt ready» and nb it tboroagkly in every part, throwing a handful over it betides. Turn it every day, and rub the pidde in, which wilt ¦ske it ready for the taUe in thsee or foinr days. If to be iwy much corned, wrap it in a well-flonrad cloth, after rubUig it with salt. This last method will com fiesk beef fit for tk.taUe the day it comes in, but it must be put into the pot vitta the water boils.

If the weather permit, meat eats much better for hanging t«D or three days befane it is salted.

When beef or pork is -salted for imraediato eating, the piece dMMid not wrigk more tfaaa five or six pounds. It must b^ thorooghfy salted, jnst befoee it is pat into the pot, aiMl fokM ipckMe in a -coarse cloth well fioured. By bemg mum f mi in UUng water, and boiling as long as any other salt beef of the same size, it will be as salt as if done four or five days.'

Great atlentioD is requisite in salting meat: and in the eoantry, where large quantities are ourad, this ia of particular iaportanoe. Beef and pork sheoM he well sprinkled, nnd m few hours afterwards hung to drain, before it is rubbed with the salt; which method, by cleansing the meat from the bk)od, •ervesto keep it from tasting strong. Ushould be turned eveiy^ ^y; and if wanted soon, should be nibbed as often. A «lting tab or lead may be used, and a cover to fit ckMO. These who use a good deal of salt meat will find it answer «dl to boil vp the pickle, skim it and ^hen cold, pour it ^orsf



/

I

*) 1 6MBfttlC tOOKKllV. ' •

«Mit Ihat has b«en spri^kfed &Ad drained. Salt is ^ m^c6 iii' creased in price, from the heavy duties^ as to require ^reA iOM in usillf it i aftcJ the brine ought not to be thrown away, as is the predice of some, afte^ once using

• Vhe ^Btet m trhlch meat has been boiled mukes an excelkftt sMp for the' poor, by adding to it tegctables, oatmeal, or ptas;

RottRted beef holies, or shank^boires of Tiart, mak^ fine peas-soap; and should be boiled with the' peas the day before ^1^, tWat the fkt ma^ be taken oft.

hi some femilies great Ibss is sustained by the spoiRflg- of IMtiU Th^ be^t Way to keqy ithat is to brf eatcti unsafted is; tH Mbre dk^*t Kl, to e*aitiiii^ ?t weR, wif)^ it every day; iitid pitt MtA^ pi^W of 'charieoal'oVer fl. Tf- m $at isbn^ught ftoin 4f distance in wartm wefttherj .rtfe butcher "^ould be ottieredto ^Vfer'it elose, and bring it early iri the morning; but even'tfaten, ITU is kept Oh the roa f whil^ he serves the cufvt^mcrs who fhe tmLfCBt to lihn, it will 'b« vefy likely to hk fly-blo#n. TItis happens^ )^ett hi the country.

Wash all meat before yon dress it:* if for boiKiig, llie ^ol^ur will be bett^ fbr soaking; but if ^r roastiii^,dry il

ON BOIUNQ*

The boiler and utensils skodid be kept dcfieatiily timxu

Puithe mu» into eidd nn^r, wAd flour it^ widL Ant. Meat Miltcl qnidL will be hord'p but care mut be takes tktt m lai ia g stow, it'doca sot ^lop^ortbe meitt will be -uiidadiaie* if thft-BlMfli iikcf^t ia, ttteiwnter will hti lesacn oibgIi;. tliere*tee when ytta wish it to boil away, take oflT the oover of the soap-pot*

Partbmlar ^ara nuwt be taken tfaut the pot is wall aidaUaed llii^ noaienft'it hoib, otherwise the tedaess moll be diap^raed) aivirthe-niaaii. The more soaps or broth ase skimmed, the hotter and* deaoer tkey Will be.

VegeiaUes should not be dressed with the inaat, except OBRnrots or pftsanepa with boiled beef»

An to the leaftli of tikne laqiitr^ liar boilmg, tht aizf »of thajoiot mast direct; as alaa the regular though alow pxo^ gnm^k makes; for if the 4oak, When tiU: to Under the oopV ' per fvbm bqilihg^qawl:/ iHv \t ttDp fcoia bqibng up alaU^ thw

6N KBEPINO and 0RBSSIlfO M^AT. 4t

wttl time will not be ittflicietit, and the meat 'will be under*

Weigh the meat; and allow for all solid joints a quarter of an hour for every pound, and some minutes (from ten to twenty) over, according as the family like it done.

In boiling veal some choose to put in milk to make it wkite; but, in general, it is preferred without, for if the water ksppens to be the least hard, it curdles the milk, and gives the veal « brown yellow cast, and often hangs in lumps about the piece. Oatmeal will do the same; but by dusting the veal, aad putting it into the water when cold, you may prevent the fculness of the water from hanging upon it. A leg of veal of twelve pounds weight will require three hours and a half boilisg: the slower it boils the whiter and plumper it will be. A ham of twenty pounds will take four hours and a half, and others in proportion. A tongue, if dry, takes four hours slow bnlhig, after soaking; a tongue out of pickle, from two hours aad a half to three hours, or more if very large; it must be judged by feeling whether it is very tender.

A leg of pork, or of lamb, takes the allowance of twenty nimntes above a quarter of an hour to a pound,

ON ROASTING.

For roasting, your fire should be regulated according to the thing to be dressed: if very little or thin, then you should have a pretty brisk fire, that it may be done quickly and. nice* ly; if a large joint, take care that a large fire is laid on to cake, and kept constantly fre.e from ashes at the bottom: and you must observe that the fire should never be stirred more than once during the time of roasting, on which occasion the meat and spit should be removed to a greater distance.

Beef of ten pounds will take above two hours and a half; twenty pounds will take three hours and three quarters, A neck of mutton will take an hour and a half, if kept at a Ipraper distance. A chine of pork, two hours. Obser\'e, that in frosty weather al kinds of meat require more time in dress« ittg. The meat should be put at a good distance from the fire, tad brought giradually nearer when the inner part becomes hot» which will prevent its being scorched while yet raw. Meat ihaaVji be much basted; and, when nearly 4one, floured to

t Q

m^U^ H look ' frothed* Vei^l and mutlon tluould h%ve a UMe paper put over the fat to preserve it. If not fat enough to ^low for basUng» a little gpod dripping anawem as well as

hitler.

The cook should be cai!eful not to run the spit through the

heat, p^MTts; and. should obierve that it be Well deaned before

and at the time of serving, or a black stab appears oa the

meat* In many joints the spit will pass into the bones, aad

run along them for awne distance, so aa not to iiynre the prime

ai the meat; mid the cook should have leaden skewera to Imu lance it with; for want of which, ignomnt servants are often

troubled at the time of serving In roasting meal; it is a very

lp)od way to put a little salt and water into the dri q»ingv-paii,

imd baste for a little while with this, before umng its own hi

on dripping. When dry, dust it with ikiur^ and baste as usuaL

Salting meat before it is put to roast draws out the gravy: it

, should only be. sprinkled when almost done. Time, distance,

hfurting often, and a dear fire of a proper sise for what is le quired, are the first articles of a good cook's attention in

roa^tifig.. Old meats do not.require so much ditfssing as young;

not that they are sooner done, Iwt they can be eaten with, the

gravy more in. A piece of writing-paper should be twisted

round the bone at the knuckle of a leg or shoulder of lamb,

mutton, or venison, when roasted, befinre they are served.

The best way to keep meat hot is to take it up when done,

though tiie company may not be come; set the dish over a pan

of hoilingL water, put a deep cover over it so as not to touch the

meat, and then throw a cloth over that» This- way will not dry

up tiie gravy*

ON BAKING.

a

Baking is one of the che^»est, and most convenient ways of dressing a dinner in small families; and it may truly be said, that the oven is often the only kitchen a poor man has, if he wishes to eiyoy a joint of meat at h mie with his family. It is not intended to deny the superior excellence of roastii^; but son^e joints when baked so nearly approach to ths same when roasteds that they have been earned to the taUe^ and eaten as such with great satisfactian*

ON KBE^iffo Ahi^ iiumn»o meat. m

Legs and loins of pork, legs of mutton, filkts of veal, and many other joints, will bake to great advantage if the meat be good, that is, well fed) and rather inclined to be fat; if the meat be poor, no baker can give satisfaction.

Hie time each article should take in baking depends much «peD the 0tete of the oven, and the bak^ is oonsUtered a sufficient judge» If diey mte settt to him in time, he must be very neglectful, if they are not ready at the time they are 'Mlei^. Thfe only thing to be observed pi^ious to this node 4teoAtry is, to have the pan, or whatever vessel you send yo«r ppovifcions in to tiie oten, perfectly dean, so that the article yOH have so CsxtfviAy prepared, may not be injured from neg' feet in deliiiiin6»s.

ON BROILING AND PRYING»

Bdbre you lay y6iir meat on the gndiroo, be careAtl tlM 70ur fir^ he very elear: the kind «f citfder termed coke makes Ae best fire for broiUtf^. Let your gridiron be very efean^ and Irh^n heatcfd by the fire, rub the bars vnA dean nmtton saec: Ms wUI bolh prevent Hie meat fnm being diseoftonreii, and hinder it from stickbg. Timi yonr meat qniddy while MiiA;^ and have a dish, placed on a ehafingdish of hot cods, toput your meat in as hatwi it is i^sady, imd caifry H hot and oorered to table. Observe never to baste any thing on the grid* iron, because that may be tttt means of burning it, and mMkg ft 4fii^y.

Be oareM altfayft to hee^ your frying-pan dem, tod SOS that ft Is prc^lrly tinned. Whon you Ay any sort if M, fyvt cfry Aem in a doth, and then flour them« What Jim winh fried things to look 9» wdl as possible, do them Mee over wiA egg and emmbs. Bread that is not state MRi( ^ t» grate qnke fine H/tXI not lo6k well. Hie fat yon "fry ia must dways be boiling hbt the moment the meat, fidi, &C4 are put in, and kept so till finished: a smdl quantity never fries wdl. Butter is not so good for the purpose, as it is apt io Irtfrn and blacken fish, and make them soft. When you have filed your fidi, lay them in a dish or hair sieve to drain, before you send them up to table.

44 bOMMTfC C06Kt lY

BEEF.

To $ali Beef red: which is extremely good to eat freoh from

the Pickle, or to hang to dry.

C/HOOSE a piece of beef with as little bone as you can, (the flank is most proper,) sprinkle it, and let it drain a day; thea rub it with common salt, (to which you may add a little of the coarsest sugar,) saltpetre, and bay-salt, but only a small proportion of the saltpetre, and you may add a few grains of cochineal, all in fine powder. Rub the pickle every day into the meat for a week, then only turn it: in eight days it will be excellent: in sixteen, drain it from the pickle; and let it be •moked at the oven-mouth when heated with wood, or send it to the baker's. A few days will smoke it.

It eats well, if boiled tender, with greens or carrots. If to be grated as Dutch, then cut a lean bit, boil it till extremely tender, and while hot put it under a press. When cold fold it in a sheet of paper, and it will keep in a dry place two or three mcmths, ready for serving on bread and butter.

The Dutch way to salt Beef*

Take a lean piece of beef; rub it well with treacle or brown Migar, and turn it often. In three days wipe it, and salt it with common salt and saltpetre beaten fine; rub these well in» and turn it every day for a fortnight. Roll it tight in a coarse cloth, and press it under a large weight; hang it to dry in a WQod-smoke, but turn it . upside down every day. When boiled in pump water, and pressed, it will grate or cut into •hivers, like Dutch beef.

Beef a-ta-mode.

Though what are called a-la*mode beef-shops swarm in the metropolis, there is not perhaps one place under that denomina* tion in London where the real beef a-la-mode is sold. What passes under this name in England is nothing more than the coarsest pieces of beef stewed into a sort of seasoned soap^ not

It id Superior to those of ox-cheek, or leg of beef/ aad fie-* qiently by no means so good. The real a-la^mode beef can ooly be made acooiding to the instructions given in this and the foQowing receipt.

The moet proper parts for this purpose are a small buttock, a kg of mutton piece, a clod, or part of a large bullock.

Cut into long slices some fat bacon, but quite free from yellow; let each bit be near an inch thick: dip them into vinegar, and then into a seasoning ready prepared of salt, black pepper, allspice, and a clove, all in fine powder, with parsley, chives, thyme, savory, and knotted marjoram, shted aa small as possible, and well mixed. With a sharp knife make holes deep enough to let in the larding; then rub the beef over with the Beasoning, and bind it up tight with tape. Set it in a wellthmed pot over a fire, or rather stove: three or four onions mutt be fried brown, and put to the beef, with two or three carrots, one turnip, a head or two of celer}% and a small quantity of water; let it simmer gently ten or twelve hours, or till extreme^ h tender, turning the meat twice.

Put the gravy into a pan, remove the fat, keep the beef covered, then put them together, and add a glass of port wine. Take oflT the tape, and serve with the vegetables; or you may strain them off, and send them up cut into dice for garnish. Onions roasted, and then stewed with the gravy, are a great hnprovement. A tea-cupful of vinegar should be stewed with the beef.

Jbeef a^a-^mode, another way*

Take about eleven pounds of the mouse-buttock, or clod of beef, or a Made bone, or the sticking-piece, or the like weight of the breast of veal; cut it into pieces of three or four mmces each; put two or three ounces of beef drippings, and a couple of large onions, into a large deep stew-pan; as socm as it is quite hot, flour the meat, put it into the stew-pan, keep stirring it with a wooden spoon: when it has been on abont ten minutes, dredge it with ' flour, and keep doing so till yon have stirred in as much as you think will thicken it, then cover H with boiling water, (it will take about a gallon) adding it by degrees, and stirring it together; skim it when it boils, and ^ pot in one drachm of ground black pepper, two of all

%

W DOMESTFC! COOKBttY.

Bpke, uid iom hay kafea: set ike pan by the side «f tlie 6m^ m at a/flifltattiee ov«r it, and let k stew wtry nUmfyiox abwU lltfee 4i(Mm; ifliea jon find the neat safiieien% "tender^ pot it into a tureen, and it is ready for table.

To the above dish many cooks add chanpiglions; bat as thc^se are almost always decayed, aad ofifcen of deletmous qaa-' lity» they are better left oat, and iidecd the bay leases deserve the same prohibition.

Beef a- la- Roy ai.

Take all the bones oat of a brisket of beef, and make boles in it about an inch from each otibier. FiU one hole with fat baeofi, a see^nd with chopped parsley, aad a third with chop-' ped oysters. Season these stuffings with pe{q[ er, salt, and nut-« «SK« When the beef is completely staffed, ]put it into a pan^ paMr upon it a pint of wine boiling hot, dredge it well with lour, and send it to the oven. Let it remain there three hours^ aad when it is taken oat, Aita off all the lat, pat the meat into your dish^ and strain the gravy over it. Garnish with pieUes*

Beef a-h-^Dauh^,

Take arump of beef, and cut out the bone or a part of tbaleg of mutton pieoe, t»r the mouse-buttock; out some fat bacon into slices as long as the beef is thiek, and about a quarter of an inch square* Take four blades of mace^ double that number of cloves, a little all-spioe, and half a nutm^ grated fine. Chop a good handfiil of parsley, and some sweet* Heifis of all sorts, very fine, aid season with aak and fmffpfx* Rttll th^ baoon mthese, and then take a laige larding paa» ^joA, witb it thmit the baoon through the beef. Having dona tUa^ ]liit it into « stew-pan, with a quantity «f brown gravy aafieient to ^over it. Chop thiee Uades of garlic veiy fine, sad put in some fresh mushrooms, two large onions, and a dovot. fitew it gently for six iMMirs, than take it oat, stsain off the goavy, and Alii off the lit. Put your meat and gravy infto'theiMn again, aid «dd to it a gill of white wine; let it stew fenlly tat half an hour more, and then add some artichoke battoms, mords and trdHes, some oysters, and a spoonfiri of vinegar. Then piat the meat into a soup dish, and pour the sauce over it.

BMP. 49

Take a aim fkot-otimB beef; lard it with hwam aeaaon^ ^ wMi pepper, aait; dbivee, uaoei and albqpioe. Put it into a ateW'pan withr a^piat of bveth, a glaM of nhite wine, a bno^ die ef parsley^ all afMrtaof aweet lierbi^ a dove of gailic, a «halot or two, four dovea^ pepper and aait. When the meat ia beiNane tesdep, cover it eloaa: akim the aanoe well, and alvain it: set k on the fiie» and let it boil till it is mdueed to a glaoe; Gkw the larded-side with, thia, and sevpe the meat en sonel

Beef BwiUU, or FreA Be^ BoiktL

TUa noiple biii most useful artide seems little uadentoed ia la^avd, wm by our best eeeh^. Because the name haa oiippatjBd in France, though the manner ia adopted all over die oaatinettt, a abgular noticm has heae generally prevailed^ that beef bouilliey literally meaning boiled beef, is in fact beef sever boiled at all; but merely stewed down till it parts with il9 eatire juices^ and eaten when thna rendered desAitute of nmskmenty accompanied by the soup, wiuch coataiaa all the Sooibess of the meat. This ia an tasqiHxrtant error, which it «dl beoomea us caaefiiUy to eradicate^ By a strange infiitua^ im$ «» aee kd in this country, amid aU our boasted attachneat to the fleah of the ox^ into a ridiadous idea» that,bccanse BMsted fteah beef and beiled satt beef am both exedknt food, nil beef roasted being bad, freah beef boiled Bsaat. necessarily be bad also.. Owing entirely to this fatal. ahanrd^y, do onr poor, in particular, sustain an incalculable loss of the most nooii^ing^ salubrious, and least expensive, flesh fbod. Were (besaiallbilS'Of fipesh beef, whieh thepoevosn alone purehase^ inrteadof being bunt to a eoiden agridMvan, ordiied up in an svea, dreased after Ae same mttinev as theHbeef bouiffie of hiace, Ilsly, Germany, Swed4#-.] eMnafk and Roasta, &o« tbey woiddafliMd faar Bsore than^^^Hible the nourishment which it new comaioikljr obtained from them. Beef bouiUie, we shall taiee the liberty to deftie, is not satt boUed beef, but fresh bsif boiM. This, in Eaglaad at least, ia a very neceasavy daimclioa, and we are desivoos ibcoibly to^impfess-it on opr easstsy, wheie we do not wish ever to see meat banished leetmn the ri chsat soups, good and sahtasy aathey undaubt^

48 »OMl TIC eOOKBRT.

edly are when followed by a moderate portion of solid flesh* The plain method of boiling fresh be^f^ called beef bouillie, b •imply this« -Boil slowly the thick end of a brisket, or. any other piece or pieces of good fresh beef, tying it round with packthread, or the pieces closely together, for, the purpose of not only securely keeping in the gravy, but occasioning the meat to cut up firmly, should any of it remain to be eaten cold. It is to be well covered with water, have a moderate quantity of salt thrown in when it begins to boil, be well seasoned, and have fresh boiling water added as the former boila away. A faggot of sweet herbs may at any time be put in; but the carrots, turnips, onions, celery, or any other vegetables made choice of, should not be added till within the last hour of the time the whole is wanted to be served up, when it is to be also finally seasoned with salt and pepper, &c. The time, of course, must be proportioned to the magnitude of the meat; which, however*, must .continue slowly boiling till it becomes quite tender; this, for about six pounds, will not be less than three hours. When done, it may be served up in the middle of the soup and vegetables; or the soup in a separate tureen, and the meat in a dish surrounded with vegetables, and strewed over with sprigs of parsley. This beef, which is excellent hot, is- at least equally' good cold; and, in general, preferred even to cold salt beef by almost all palates. It wants only a fair trial in England; where the necessity of salted provisions for seaserviee is considered by foreigners as having in some degiea vitiated the public taste with regard to boiled beef.

Cold Beef bouillie a-la-Maitre d'HoteL

Though beef bouillie may be eaten cold, either with picUes. salad, onions, horse-radish, boiled vegetables, &c. or with vinegar and mustard onlys^ short, exactly like other cold boiled beef; a very favourit^Bfty of eating it, on many parts of the continent, is by prepSig it what the French call a-lamaltre d^hotel; or, after the manner of the master of the hotels inn, or other house of public entertainment, for his own general table. The following is the mode in which it b thus served up. The beef being perfectly cold, and it will be by no means worse for having been dressed a day or two before, provided the flavour has not been lowered with making top large %

HEKP. ' 49

^luthy at sMlp, eiit it on a tresdier, in tlioes'^ of Dcarly Ktall* IB Im^ thick, aad aix ut three fingers in breadth, with ht in proportion to the lean, and lay on a dish as mnch as may be TttftMl/t for tffee ooeasion: then mix weH together, in a bMon, ehopped onion or thalots, pepper, salt, mnstaid, egg, oil, ?iiMgtf, See. exactly as for a salad; poor this mixture over the beef bonilie, and serve ii up garnished with water-cresses or tcraped horse-radish.

Beef Hmm$.

Cnt the leg of beef like a ham; and if the piece weigh fourteen pounds, you may mix a pound of s^t, a pound of brown sugar, an ounce of saltpetre, and an ounce oi bay salt. Pst tfa^ into the meat, turn and baste it every day» and let it he a month in the pickle. Then take it out, roll it in bran, end smoke it. Afterwards hang it in a dry place, and cut off pieees to boil, or broil it with poached eggs.

To Miew a Rump of Beef

Wash the beef well; and season it high with pepper, Cayenne, salt, albpice, three cloves, and a blade of mace, all ftKly po^deied. Bind it up tight, and lay it into a pot ^that will just hold it. Fry three large onions sliced, aad put them to it, with three carrots, two turnips, a shalot, four cloves, a bbdaof mace, and smne celery. Cover the meat with good •becf*hrotfa, or weak gravy. Simmer it as gently as possible forseveral hoars, tili quite tender. Clear off the fiU; and add to the giAvy half a pint of port;wine, a glass of vinegar, and ^ large spoonful of catsup; simmer half an hour, and serve in •sdee^idish: add half a pikit of table beer. The herbs to be ^¦edsfaonld be buniet, taxragon,. parskey, thyme, basil^ suvovy, M^oram, pennyroyal^ knotte^uurjoram, and some chives if yon ean get them; btt obeerve^B proportion the quantities to the pungency of the several so^B let there be a good handiid all together.

Garnish with carrots and turnips, or pi^es of different colovTs, cnt small, and laid in litde heaps separate; chopped panley dii¥es, beet-root, Ste^. If, when done, the.gra^y is toonn^i to ffll the dish, take only apart to seanon for serving; but ^ ites waler the better; and to laefeMe the riohiiei^ % H .

r

$0 t OMKSTIC CKKOKERY.

iddd a '£ew betf bobes. and. sMatkn of itonttoa io sUnwiin^ . A spooBfnl or two of nadc mustttrd is a jpr^ im Hrove]»epjt to ihe gravy*

lliinp rotttUd in ^oelknt: bitt:iA Ihe-^o^fy it k gcvieiaiiy sold ndhole with the akofebone» or oiut acvp^^Jifstead of toighthwiaa as in Londkui, wheve one pieoe is for boilipgj asd the rump Hevt stewing or toasting. Tb^ niu 4 be atlSeoded tq, the whole being too large to dress together*

To stew a Rump if 9^ another way.

Let the piece be paniy voantMi, then Uiy it in a pot with fbur pints of wtater, some, salt, a giU of vin^ar, three feMj^¦spoonftds of catsup^ a bunch of sweet heiiK, onions^ cikMed, and cayenne; cover it close, and let ft sinuter till tender; when enough, lay it hi a deep dish over liot water, and eorer H dose; then skim the gravy well, and add picklad aixiahioons and a spoonful of soy, thiekeii with floor and tetter, wanp the whole, and pour jt over the meat^ and serve with force. meat balls.

i To hake a Rmp of 9uf.

OaX out the bone quite dean^ then beat the flesh well with a rOHkig-pin, and Isard it with i piede of baixNi. ^Season yoilr bacon with pepper, salt, and dov^; and faud 'oci'oss the meat» thict it may oot handsomer. Season tiie meat ^wi^ p^pp^, ^tt, and doves; put it inte an ead^n 'fcA. Wl^;dli file broken bonea, half a pound of buttnr, aoaw ftitiy leaves, whole pepper, one or two ahaloAs, and aome .Meet %erbs. Let the top o^ the pan be covered quite dose, tften ^t it thto the ovOn, «nd it Will be doiie m about ats hoara. «Wfa¥n en6ng1l,'ifiki R off the fct dean, putthe meat into a diab, ^dd serve it lip- with a gMj^ragout cif nuflhioqms^ tnifflca, f^itfemeat-bldlS' ted y^s^Begga. Let tixe gravy which (eo^^&es from tH^e^^f be acflf, nieely seasoned to those tn^^ gredients.

^ To itew a ij^- of Be^.

. i With a shacfl^ knife cut off all the meaty leaving the gristly pflht fitat . to the bone: si^w the bone into sevenU ^¦flcuii». and. put thfiil with three-^fens of wal^r, six onionj^, four carrots, sweet herbs, h)rp leeks, a little allspice^^ salt.

mt U^ ^eplNsr, IaIo %» iron p«t to blew thftr the fitt* ail ifl^: IS Ae moniiiig skua off the hi, and bvrum^ «i^ lAtt neat inio nUces^ fry .it a aioe hro«m vitfi a pait if the ft^ thu» duttiaed; the remainder iriU roakie good ^ ornflt. bi the aaUMf pmik fry six Iturge .oaioiui; pat theaeaiul the ^iefti fff meat, together with a quart of table*beer, Into the pot irilk the Uqvor of ih^e boaea, adding movt oaEons, carrots, turnips, &c.: let the whole atew gently ei^ hoara; takenip the meat, and strain the liquor over it.

T0k0keaLegofBeef.

Cut the biaat off a leg of beef, and break the bones^ pot it iBto an earthen pan, ulth two onions and a baiidle of sweet herbs, and season it ^tih a spoonful of • whole pepper, and a few cloves and blades of inace. Cover it with water, and having tied the pot down close with brown paper, put it into the oven to bake. As soon as it is enough, tike it out and strain it liirough a sieve, and pick out all Ae fat and sinews, putting them into a saucepan, with a little gravy, and a piece of butter rolled' in ^our. Set the saucepan on the fire, shake it often, 4tnd when it is thoroogfaly hot, pour it into the dish, and send it to table. Ox cheek maj be done in the same manner; and if you. should ihiok it too strong, you may weaken it by pouring in a sufficient quantity of hot water; but cold water will spoil it.

To %M a fiimmd 4f Berf.

This shoold be carefully salted, and wet with the pidrle ¦for mij^t or ten days. Hie bone should be cut out first, tnd the beef skewered and tied up to make it quite round. It may be stuped witli parsley, if approved; in which ca^fe the holes to admM^ the parsl^uaust be made with a sharppointed knife, and the parsley ^Bsely cut, and stuffed in,(ight. As soon as it boils it should beilimmed, and afterwards kept boiling very gently.

A R&Mnd of BttJ JuTctd.

Knb your meat first with common salt, then a fitt e bay-salt, Bome salt-petre, and coarse sugar. Let it lay a full we^k in this pickle, turning it every day. On the day it is to be

b2 DOMESTIC COOKERY.

dressed, wash and dry it, lard it a little, and make holes, wfaklr fill with bread crumbs, marrow, or suet, parsley, grated tenooK peel, sweet-herbs, pepper, salt, nutmeg, and the yolk of nn egg, made into stuffing. Bake it with a little water and some small beer, whole pepper, and an onion. When it comes- front the oven, skim the fat dean off, put the meat into a dish, and poor the liquor over it. When cold, it makes a handsome aide*board dish for a large company.

To roast Ribs of Beef.

Spit, and lay the beef before a brisk iBre, baste with salt and water twenty minutes; then dry and flour it, and fasten seme clean buttered paper over the side of the meat, and let it remain there till the meat is enough.

To roast Ribs of Beef stuffed.

Make a stuffing as for fillet of veal, bone the beef, put the stuffing into the middle of it, roll it up, and bind it very tig^t* Let it roast gently about two hours and a half; or if very thick, three hours will do it sufficiently. Ser\e it up with a brown sauce, of either celery or oysters.

To stew a Brisket of Beef

Rub the brisket with common salt and saltpetre, let it lay four or five days, then lard it with fat bacon, and lay it in a stew-pan with a quart of water, a pint of strong beer, some sweet herbs, eight ounces of butter, three sBalots, some grated nutmeg and pepper, cover it dose, and stew it over a slow fire, for fi\e or six hours; thea strain the liquor, and thicken with burnt butter; lay the beef in a large dish, and pour it over; garnish with sliced lemon, and then serve it up.

To stew a Brisket of Beef another way^

Put the part which has the hard fat into a stew-pot with a small quantity of water: let it boil up, and then skim it carefully; add carrots, turnips, onions, celery, and a few peppercorns. Stew it extremely tender; then take out the flat bones, and remove all the fat from the soup. £ither serve that and the meat in a tureen; or the soup alone, and the meat on a dish, garnished with some vegetables. The following sauce is

BREF. W

feMdi admtfed» served wHh the beef:-^Take half a pint of the MMp, and mm it with a spoonful of caUap, a glasa of port wae, a tea-spoonful of made mustard, a little flour, a bit of Imtter, and salt: boil all together a few minutes, then pour it round the meat. Chop capers, walnuts, red eabbage, pickled cucomben, and chives or parsley, small, and put in separate heaps over it.

To press Beef.

Salt a bit of brisket, the thin part of the flank, or the tops of the ribs, with salt and saltpetre, five days; then boil it gently tiU extremely tender: put it under a great weight, or in a diecse-press, till perfectly cold.

It eats excellently cold, and for sandwiches.

• «

To make Hunters' Beef. The genuine method of curing this famous beef, hitherto confined to a few private funilies, chiefly at Brighthelmstone^ asd in the neighbouring country, is as follows; - Take a fine louid of beef, of about twenty-five pounds weight, for example; let it lie in spring-water two hours; then drain it, and rub in well two or three ounces of saltpetre, according as Uie nlting may be required. It is thus to remain twenty-four hoars; during which period, the saltpetre must be three or four times well nibbed in. Then add a pound of common salt; a tittk moie, or less, aa the degree of saltness may be desired: this, also, is to be well rubbed in thiee or four times durinf^. the next twenty*lbur hours; after which are to be added, a 4 iiaiter of a pound of ground allspice, two ounces of ground white pqvper, and one ounce of finely powdered long pepper, hi the brine thus made, let the berf remain ten days; rubbing it well twice a day during that time, and turning it once daily. - It is tfa^n to be taken out, washed in spring water, and piand on a stand, in a deep pan,; large enough to contain the beef, with a space of about two inches left all round. In this pan must be poured about two quarts of water, to cover the bottom to some depth. A quarter of a pound of beef suet, chopped very small; is next to be strewed over the top of the beef, which riiould rather be under the level of the brim of the pas; then make a thin crust of flour and water to cover the

M DOMESTIC COO KBRY.

put, jRit it istb an e^n ivot tfHougfa for bread, anil tNike it fair' kooiB. When taken from tite oven, and the oru«it ttmoimfA, pour over Mwe of thft li }aor m which it ivas baked, td ofeny li' ^ sfdde, 'pepper, and duet. Then put it by «iil cold, nAeti ifc may foe served op. The iiquor should be earelalty s«V8d, as it lyili be fbiind- an enoellctnt sufostitnte for gravy in made dishes, and will keep a great length of time. The ^icklci fi41l also serve for tongues, ^c. Before piitting this beef into the oven, it should be tied tightly round with tape or packthread, to preserve its form.

Ah e^ceUeni nukde of dfeuing Bte/'.

Hang three ribs three or four days; take out'^e bonea from the whole length, sprinkle the meat with salt, roll it tight, and roast it. Nothing can look nicer. The above done with spices, &c. and baked as hunters' beef, is excellent.

Anhe umy of dremng mmdardame Beif» Chop the meat small, with some salt, pepper, and oniona, to wtiidi add some rich gravy; widi this mixture fiM some sanoers or moulds three parts full, and fill them up with well mashed potatoes. Brown them before the fire.

*

To collar Beef.

, €h«Me the thin end of the fiaak of fine meliiMr barf, Imt not too iai; lay it into a dish with salt and Hdtpetre» turn and i^ it every day for a week, and keepiteool. Thea take .out. eveiy bone and gnatk, remove the akin of the imnde part, and^ovc* it thick with the following seasoning cut small i a lai ^ faandfai of parley, the same of sage, some d^aie, mmjotaniy and pennyroyal, pepper, and allspioe. Roll tiie meat up aatighA as possible, and bind it; then boil it gently foraewn ^ eight faouis. A dodi must be put round bcfoie the tape. Pat the beef nnder a good weight while hot, without nndoing it: the shape will then be oved. Part of abreast of veal rolled in with the beef, looka and eats very well.

. CoUatJkf Buf toasted. Take out the inside meat from a suloin of fa^ief, sprinkle at with vinegar, .and let it hang till the next day • iPrq aDe % stuffing as for hare, put this at one end of the meat, roll the

»KBP.

ten DiOMlilb bkld H v4ry tiote, aad toa^l it g&itf y for aii bwr •ad dnse ^(«ijrten» or « litUeHMre ov lesa^ pi» H rtioiiBd to tbt Ihkknow. Senre it ap witit gravy the sme «8 for iwr^, and with OBimitjeUy.

To ^ot7 Beef 'Steaks.

It is remarkable, that this very commoa artide of wl^ole-^ some British food, and which every persoo is suppo^ capaUk of dressmg, is neverthelescf seldom served up in any degree of perfection. The following instructions, it is presumed, will in future prevent liie ^nerftl' veproacb of what may be deBtaibaled simple -cookery, so far as rdatea to a beef-steak. Fioai a Aie ox rump^ let eaob. rt»ak be out three^quattos of sa iach thick. Be careful the fire is very dear, and the grid* tma perfectly clean. When the gridiron is hot, lay on the 9tcab, and broil them tiU they just begin to brown, aeawMd with a little pepper and salt. Then turn them; and, when the other side is brown, but not mote than half done^ lay them on a hot dish before the fire, with a slice of butter between every two steaks, and a little more seasbning of pepper aal teh. Let thenk nsmian in this state two or three minutes; and, aundng or shredding a shalot as fine as possible, add two tpoonfiil of good gravy, with a little ciltsup. Put the ste^ again oa the fire, after having drained them of tbeif Snty, and keep tutning them till they are sufficiently done. Place them, then on 'the diiAi, add the gravy i^h the shalot, Ik. t» them, garvMi with horse-radish finely scraped, and serve them up as hot as possible. Where the taste of shalots or catsup is not approved, either or both may be omitted.

The MnflM ii w^ of frying Betf-SUakt.

Fry yoar steaks in butter a good brown; then put in ha}f t pint of watar, an onion sltood, a spoonful of wvdnut catsup; afitde caper liqaor, pepper, and salt; cover them close witfa a dish,, and let them stew gently; when, they are enough/ thicken the gravy with flour and butter, and serve them up.

To fry Beef'Sieahi mhoiker way. Cut yoar steaks about half an inch tbii^k; putthem into a iie«4pia, witli a^ood lump of b.ntt«r; 4et them^over a v«ry

U DOMESTIC COOKERY.

•low fire; keep turning them till the butter is beooiae u thick white gravy; pour it into a buain, and poar more batter to titem; when they are almost enough^ pour all the gravy iato your basin, and put more butter into your • pan; fry them a light brown over a quick fire; take them out of the pan; put them in a hot pewtei^ dish; slice a shalot among them; put a little in your gravy that was drawn from them, and pour it hot upon them: this is a very good way of dressing beefsteaks. Half a pound of butter will dress a large dish.

Beef'Steaks and OntoiM.

The steaks for this purpose should be fried, and nicely seasoned with pepper and salt: when the steaks are done, dien put in the sliced onions, and fry them a nice brown; put the •teaks on the dish, and the onions over them; put a^little mushroom catsup and a little gravy in the frying-pan; first put a Utile dust of fiour sufficient to make it thick; let it boil about one minute, and pour it over the steaks.

Beef' Steaks and Oyster Sauce.

. . Strain off the liquor from the oysters, and throw them into cold water to take off the grit, while you simmer the liquor with a bit of mace and lemon peel; then put the oyslew in, stew them a few minutes, and a little er^iam if you have it, and some butter rubbed in a bit of flour; let them boil uponoe; and have rump-ste«J(s, well seasolied and breiled, ready for throwing the oyster-sauoe over, the ownient . you ace . (o serve.

Staffordshire Beef* Steaks.

Beat them out a little with « roHing-pin, flour, and season; then fry with.sliqed cmion of a light brown; lay the steaks Into a stew-pan, a^d pour as much boiling water over them as will serve for sauce;. stew them very gently half an hour, and add a spoonfuLof catsup, or walnut-liquor, befoii^9g ^ n:e.

¦

Italian Beef-Steaks.

Cut a fine laige steak fiK m a romp that has been well hung, or it will do firom ^ny tender part: beat it, and season with pepper, salt, and onion; lay it in an iron stew-pan that has a cover to fit quite dose, and set it by the side of the fiie

tidiout water. Take care it doea not bum, but it uust'have a strong beat; in two or three hoars it will be quite tender, and then serve with its own gravy.

To stew Be^-SteahiB.

m

Half broil them, and lay them in a stew-pan, season agreeable to taste, add enough of strong gravy to cover them, and a bit of butter rolled in floury let them stew half an hour, then tkrow in the beaten yolks oi two egg8 and stir the whole ten' minutes; then serve it ufif.

i

Beef'SieaJfs rolled:

Take the steaks, and after beatbg them to make them; tender, pot upon them any quantity of high'*seasohed forcemeat, then roll them up, and secure their form tgr skewering. Fry them in mutton drippings, till they become of adeUcate. brown, when they should be taken from the fat in which they ^d been fried, and put into a stew-pan, with some good r^vy, a spoonful of red wine, and some catsup. Wlien sufficiently stewed, serve them up with the gravy and a few' pickled mushrooms.

Beef CoUops.

Take a large rump steak, or any piece of beef that is tender, and cut it into pieces pf the size and thickn^ of a crown piece, or larger. Hack them a little with a knife, then flour them, and having melted a little butter in your stew-pan, put in yoor oollops, and fry tbem quick f ^ about two tniniites. Then put in 'a pint of gravy, a bit of butter rolled in ilour, ttd seasflb it with pepper and salt. Cut fouir pickled cneum*' bees into thin slices, a few capers, half a walnut, and a little snion shred fine. Put these into the pan, and having stowed the whole together about five minutes, put them all hot wi» yoor dish, and^Bond them to table garnished with, lemon. .

Bfef Palates.

Simmer theifi in water several hours., till they IriU peel; then cut the palates into slices, pr leave them whole, as yoa choose; and stew them in a rich gravy till as tender as poa^ sible. Before you serve, season them with cayenne, salt, and

5$ DOMESTIC COOKERY.

catoup. If the glraTj was drawn clear, add also some buttar and floor.

If to be served white, boil them in milk, and ^tew them in . a fricassee-saace; adding cream^ butter, flour, and mushroompowder, and a little pounded mace.

To roast a Sirloin of Beef witk the Inside minced. When the beef is about three parts roasted, uke out the . meat fnmi the under side, mince it nicely^ season it with pepper and salt, and some shalot chopped very small. Against the beef is done enough, heat this with gravy just suffiqient to moisten it. Dish up the beef with the upper side downwards, put the mince in the inside, strew it with bread-crumbs ready prepared, have a salamander hot to brown them over of a fine colour, and then serve up the beef with scraped horseradish laid round it.

To dress the Inside of a cold Sirloin of Beef.

Cut out all the meat, and a little fat, into pieces as thick as your finger, and two inches long: dredge it with flour: and fry in butter, of a nice brown: drain the butter from the meat, and toss it up in a rich gravy, seasoned with pepper, salt, anchovy, and shalot. Do not let it boil on any account. Before you serve add two spoonful of vinegar. Garnish with crimpled parsley.

Another ufay.

Roast a sirloin of beef, and when it is done, take it off the spit, carefully raise the skin, and draw it off. Then cut out the lean part of the beef, but observe not to touch either the ends or sides. Hash the meat in the following manner: cut it into pieces about the size of a crown piece, put half a pint of gravy into a stew-pan, an onion chopped fine, two ^xx n« ful of catsup, some pepper and salt, six small pickled cucumbers cut in thin slices, and the gravy that comes from the beef with a little butter rolled in flour. Put in the meat, and shake it up for five minutes. Then put it on the sirloins, draw the skin carefully over, and send it to table. Garnish with lemon and pickles.

BBBP. ^

The Inride of a Sirhin 0/ Beef farced.

Lift pp the fat o£ the inside, cat out the meat quite dose

to the bone, and chop it small. Take a pound of suet, and

.chop that small; then put to them some crumbs of bread,

a little lemon peel, thyme, pepper, and salt, half a nutmeg

grated, and two shalots chopped 6ne. Mix all together with a

'gUn of red wine, and then put the meat into the place you

took it from; cover it with the skin and fat, skewer it down

irith fine skewers, and cover it with paper. The paper must

not be taken off till the meat is put en the dish, and your meat

'must be spitted before you take out the inside. Just before the

meat is done, take a- quarter of a pint of red wine, and two

shalots shred small, boil them, and pour it into the dish, vith

the gravy that comes from the meat. Send it hot to table, and

garnish with lemon.

The inside of a rump of beef forced must be done nearly in the same manner, only lift up the outside skin, take the middle of the meat, and proceed as before directed. Put it into the same place, and skewer it down close.

Beef Kidneys*

Cut them in thin slices, and set them over the fire, with a bit of butter, salt, pepper, parsley, onions, and a small clove of garlic; the whole shred small: when done, take them off the fire, but do not let them lie long, as they will become tough. Add a few drops of vinegar and a little cullis.

Hung Beef

Hang your beef till it begins to turn, Aen wipe it with • dean cloth, and salt it with a pound of bay salt, a quarter of a pound of saltpetre, and half a pound of coarse sugar; let it remain six weeks in this pickle, observing to turn it every day; then dry it.

Frieaeoee of cold Rotut Beef

Cut Che beef into very thin slices, shred a handful of parsley very small, cut an onion into quarters, and put all together into a stew*pan, with a piece of butter and some strong broth: season with salt and pepper, and simmer very gently a quarter of an hour; then mix into it the yolks of two

dd DOMBSTCO C0OKERY.

eggs, a glate of port wine,, .abd a spoonful of Vinegar; stir it quick, rub the dish with ahalot, and turn the fricaaaee into it.,

To dress cold Beef that has not been done enough, calk4 Beef

Olives.

Cut slices half an inch thick, and four inches square; lay on them a forcemeat of crumbs of bread, shalot, a little suet^ or fat, pepper, • and salt. Roll them, and fasten with m small skewer: pot them into a stew-pan with some gravy made of the l^f bones, or the gravy of the meat, and a spoonful or two of water, and stew them till tender. Fresh meat will do.

To dress the same, called Sanders,

Mince beef or muaon small, with onion, pepper, and salt; add a little. gravy, put it into scallop shells, or saucers, making them three parts full, and fill them up with potatoes^ mashed with a little cream; put a bit of butter on the top, and brown them in an oven, or before the fire, or with a salamander.

To dress the same, called Cecils.. Mince any kind of meat, crumbs of bread, a good deal of onion, some anchovies, lemon peel, salt, nutmeg, chopped parsley, pepper, and a bit of butter warm, and mix these over a fire for a few minutes; when cool eoouffh, make them up into balls of the size and shape of a turkey's egg, with an egg; sprinkle them with fin6 crumbs, and then fry them of a •yellow brown, and serve with gravjr a^ before directed for beef«* olives*

To pot Beef.

Take four pounds of beef, free from skin, or sinews, and rub it over with a composition of sugar, salt, and saltpetre, about half an ounce of each to the quantity of beef. In that stBte, let it He for twenty-four or forty-eijght hours, turning it over three or four times. Then put it into an oven with a little chopped suet, and aboot half a pint of water. When sufficiently stewed, drain the fiit and grsry from the meat, and pound it in a marble mortar till it bectnn^ perfectly

ADOoth, adding to it loiiie Ci3i^ifek White pepper^ salt, a little founded maoe^ a little of the dear gravy,, and about half a poand of butter melted to an oil, and added gradually during the beating. When reduced to an uniform and smooth con« nstcnoe^ put it into pots, and covrr with meked butter.*- When the.sroiBadi requires solid animal food, .and is deprived of the inistance of mastication, this kind of potted meat may be

as being restorative, and easy of digestion.

. I H ) It u^ t t r ^ i

To pot Beef another way.

Take two pounds of lean beef, rub it with saltpetre, and let it lie one night; theoi salt with common salt, and cover it with water four days in a woall pan. . J^ty it with a cloth, and seam with black pepper; lay it into as small a pan as will hold it, cover it with coarse paste, and bake it five hours in a very oool oven. Put no liquor in.

When cold, pick out the strings and fat; beat the meat Toy fine with a quarter of a pound of fine bueter just warm, hot not oiled, and as much of the gravy as will make it into a piste: put it into very small pots, and cover them with melted batter.

To pot Beef another way.

Take beef that has been dressed, eitlier boiled or. roasted; beat it in a mortar with some pepper, salt, a few cloves, grated nutmeg, and a little fine butter just warm.

This eats as well as the former, but the colour is not so fine. It is a good way for naiikg the remains of a large joint

To mince Beef.

Shred the underdone part fine, with some of the fat; put it into a small stew-pan, with some onion or shalot» (a very little will do,) a little water, pepper, and salt: boil it till the onion is quite soft . then put some of the gravy of the meat to it, and the mince. You must not let it boil. Have a small, hot dish with sippets of bread ready, and pour the mince uito It, but first mix a lar^e spoonful of vinegar with it: if *halot-vinegar is used, there will be no need of the onion nor the raw sfaalot.

03 DOMESTIC COOKERY.

To hash Beef.

Do it the same as in the last receipt; only the meat is to be in slices, and you may add a spoonful of walnut liquor or catsup.

No meat that is hashed should boil more than a minute, for it is owing to boiling hashes or minces^ that they get hard. All sorts of 8tews^ or meat dressed a second time, should be only simmered; and this last only hot through.

Haeked Buf and broiled Bones. Take roast beef left from a former dinner; cut the meat in as neat pieces as the beef will admit; the bones that are intend* ed for broiling should be cut short, so as to look neat on the dish; and likewise they should not be stripped very bare of the meat; score them, then pepper and salt them, and brou them over a clear fire; put the trimming of the bones and meat into a stew-pan or sauce-pan^ with two onions and a pint of water; set it on to boil slow for an hour; be carefiil not to let it boil fast; when boiled enough strain it into a basm; then put about half a spoonful of flour over the meat with a dredging-box, then put the meat into a stew-pan, and pour in the liquor the bones were boiled in, and toss it up by way ot mixing the flour and liquor: set it on the stove just to boil sufficiently to take the rawness of the flour off; put in about a table-spoonful of walnut, and the same of mushroom catsup; cut two gerkins in, and season it with a little pepper and salt; put the hash on the dish first, and the bones on the hash.

Beef.

Take a brisket of beef, and afWr mixing half a pound of coarse sugar^ a quarter of an ounce of saltpetre, two ounces of bay salt, and a pound of common salt, rub the mixture well into the beef; then put it into an earthen pan, and turn it every day. Let the meat remain in this pickle for the space of a fortnight,* when it may be boiled and sent up to the table with savoys, or other greens. When cold and cut into slices, It eats well with poivrade sauce.

Trembling Beef. Take a brisket of beef, and boil it gently for the space of five or six hours, or till made very tender. Season uie

inter widi salt, some allspice, two onuMit, two tamipSy ahd one currot. Put a piece of butter into a stew pan, and when melted, put in two spoonsful of flour, taking care to keep it stirring till it become quite smooth. Then put in a quart of gravy, a spoonful of catsup, some turnips and carrots cut into small pieces. Stew till the roots are become tender, and season with pepper and salt Skim off the fat, and when the beef k put into the dish, pour the sauce over it.

Red Beef far Slices.

Take a piece of thin flank of beef, and cut off the skin; thai rub it well with a mixture made with two pounds of oommon salt, two ounces of bay salt, two ounces of saltpetre, and half a pound of moist sugar, pounded in a marble mortar. Put it into an earthen pan, and turn and rub it every day for seven or eight days; then take it out of the brine, wipe it, strew over it pounded mace, cloves, pepper, s little allspice, and plenty of chopped parsley, and a few iblots. Then roll it up, biqd it round with a tape, boil it till tender, press it, and when it is cold cut it into slices, and gar* lUBh it with pickled barberries, fresh parsley, Hrany other gar** niah, as approved.

RolUd Buf that equals Hare.

Take the inside of a large sirloin, soak it in a glass of port wine, and a glass of vinegar .mixed, for forty-eight hours; have ready a very fine stuffing,, and bind it up tight Roast it on a lisnging-spit; and baste it with a glass of port wine, the same quantity of vinegar, and a tea-spoonful of pounded alls{Hce« Larding it improves the look and flavour: serve with a rich gravy in the dish; currant- jelly and melted butter, in tureens.

To make a Porcupine of the flat Ribs of Beef.

Bone the flat ribs, and beat it half an hour with a paste- pin; thea rub it over with the yolks of eggs; strew over it breadcrumbs, parsley, leeks, sweet marjoram, lemon peel shred fine, nutmeg, pepper, and salt; roll it up very dose, and bind it hard; lard it across with bacon, then a row of cold boiled tongue, a third row of pickled cucumbers, a fourth row of lemon peel;

^

64 DOMESTIC CObkSRY.

cb it over in r^mi an above tUI it ia larded all round; it will' look like red, groen^ white, and yellow dices; thenslplH. and pot it in a dieep pot with a pint of water; lay over a caill' ot vteal, to keep it frdm Boorching; tie it down with strong paper, and send it to the oven: whbn it comes out skim off the ftit^ aAd strain your gravy into a saucepan; add to it two spoonafdl of red D^ine, the same of browning, one of mushroom catsup, and half a lemon; Ihicktn it with a lump of butter rolled in flour; dish up the meat, and pour the gravy on the dish; lay round forcemeat balls; garnish with horse-radish, and serve it up. '

To make a mock Hare cf Beast's Heart '

Wash a large beast* s heart clean, and cut off the deaf ears, and stuff It with some forcemeat as you do a hare r lay a caul ci veal, or paper over the top, td keep in the stuffing; roast it either in a cradle*spit or a hanging one; it wiU take an hour and a half' before a good Ave; baste it with red wine; when roasted take the wine out of the dripping-pan, and skim off the fiit, and add a glass more wine; when it is hot put in some lumps of red currant jelly, and pour it in the dish; serve it up, and send inred currant jelly cut in slices on a saucer*.

Bead's Heart iarisd.

Take a good beast's heart, stuff it as before, and lard it alt over with little bits of bacon; dust it with flour, and cover it with paper, to keep it from being too dry, and send it to the oven; when baked, put the heart on your dish; take off th 5 fiit, and strain the gravy through a hair sieve; put it in a saucepan, with orie spoonful of red wine, the same of browning, and one of lemon pickle, half an ounce of moreis, one anchovy cut small, a little beaten mace; thicken it with flour and butter, pour it hot on your heart, and serve it up: garnish with barberries.

To take a Bmlloek's Heart. Take some crumbs of bread, chopped suet, (or a bit of butter) parsley chopped, sweet marjoram, lemon-peel grated, peppery salt, and nutmeg, with the yolk of an egg; mix diese

tiln^R Wg^Otet, itair tte h^M Ivkh ft, «tld send it tb tli% ovfeh WfaM ^ev fiterv^ ft ti)» #ith g^Vy, liA^tlled bdtl'er, and currant jelly in boats. The same toethods ar^ tb bCvUi^ whether you bake or roast it; hut if care is taken, baking it is the best way, as. it will be more regularly done than it can be by raAstirtg.

To roast Ton^ and Udder.

Aftdr dining the 1x ngae Well, saft ft ^&i coimnon «alt kad talqietHe three kla^s; tlien hdti U, and Ifleewtse a fine youtig niinet wiA MAt M to li, ^\ tol^afbly tifender; th^n tie the thick pat^ (ff iM^ to th6 thih p^rt bf the cAhet, ^nd toa^ the tongue and udder together.

Serve them with good gravy, and currant jelly sauce. A fe^ cloves should be studk in the udder. This is ah excellent dish.

Some people like lieftts* tongues cured with tlie root, in which case they lo6k much larger; biit othenMse the root roust he cut off close to the gullet, next to the tongue, but without bking away the fat under the tongue. The root roust be soaked iri salt and water, and extreroeljr well cleaned, before it is dressed; and the tongue should be laid in salt for a day and a night before pickled.

. To fickle Tongues far boiling.

Cut o^ the root, but leave a little of tlie kernel and fat« Sprinkle some 6alt, and let it drain from the slime till next day: then for each tongue mix a large spoonful of common salt;^ the same of coarse sugar, and about half as much of saltpetre; rub it well in, and do so evei y day. In a week add another heaped spoonful of salt. If rubbed every day, a tongue will he ready in a fortnight; but if only turned in the pickle daily^ it will keep four op five weeks without being too salt.

When you dry tongues write the date da a parchment, and tie it ou. Smoke them \ r dry them plain, if ^oa like best.

To pickle Tongues for boiling another way

Clean as above; for two tongues allow an ounce of saltpetrei ttid an ounce of sal-prunella; rub them Well. In two days ^ well rubbiogx cover them with common saltj turn Ihem

8 K

66 DOMESTIC COOKERY.

every day for three weeks^ then dry them, and rob over them bran, and smoke them. In ten days they will be fit to eat. Keep in a cool c)ry place.

To boil a Tongue.

If your tongue be a dry one^ steep it in water all night, then boil it three hours; if you would have it eat hot, stick it with cloves; rub. it over with the yolk of an egg; strew over it bread crumbs; bast6 it with butter; set it before the fire till it is a light brown; when you dish it up, pour a little brown gravy, or red wine sauce; lay slices of currant jelly round it.

N. B, If it be a pickled one, only wash it out of water.

To stew a Tongue.

Salt a tongue with saltpetre and common salt for a week, turning it every day. Boil it tender enough to peel: when done, stew it in a moderately strong gravy; season with soy, mushroom catsup, Cayenne, pounded cloves, and salt if neces« sary.

Serve with truffles, morels, and mushrooms. In both this receipt and the next, the roots must be taken off the tongues before salting, but some fat left.

An excellent way of doing Tongues to eat cold.

Season with common salt, and saltpetre, brown sugar, a little bay-salt, pepper, cloves, mace, and allspice, in fine powder^ for a fortnight: then take away the pickle, put the tongue into a small pan, and lay some butter on it; cover it with brown crust, and bake slowly till so tender that a straw would go through it

The thin part of tongues, when hung up to dry, grates like hung beef, and also makes a fine addition to the flavour ot omelets.

Stewed Ox-cheek, plain. Soak and cleanse a fine cheek the day before it is to be eaten; put it into a stew-pot that will cover close, with three quarts of water; simmer it after it has first boiled up and been well skimmed. In two hours put plenty of carrots, leeks, two or three turnips, a bunch of sweet herbs, some whole pepper, and four ounces of allspice. Skim it often; when the meat is

tender, take it out; let the soap get cold, take off the cake of At, and terve the soup sej^arate or with the meat.

It should be of a fine brown; which might be . done by buint sugar, or bj frying tome onions quite brown with flour, and simmering them with it. This last way improves theflavour of all soups and gravies of the brown kind.

If vegetables are not approved in the soup, they may be taken out, and a small roll be toasted, or bread fried and added. Celery is a great addition, and should always be served. Where it is not to be got, the seed of it gives quite as good a flavour, boiled in, and strained off.

To dre$B an Ox-chtek another way.

Soak half a head three hours, and dean it with plenty of water. Take the meat off the bones, and put it into a pan with a large onion, a bunch of sweet herbs, some bruised allspice, pepper, and salt.

Lay the bones on the top; pour on two or three quarts of water, and cover the pan close with brown paper, or a dish that will fit close. Let it stand eight or ten hours in a slow oven; or simmer it by the side of the fire, or on a hot hearth. When done tender, put the meat into a clean pan, aiid let it get cold. Take the cake of fat off, and warm the head in pieces in the soup. Put what vegetables you choose.

Ox-jttty or CoW'Fieeli, May be dressed in various ways, and are very nutritious in all.

Boil them; and serve in a napkin, with melted butter, mustard, and a large spoonful of vinegar.

Or broil them very tender, and serve them as a brown fricassee: the liquor will do to make jelly sweet or relishing, and likewise to give richness to soups or gravies.

Or cut them into four parts, dip them into an egg, and then flour and fry them; and fry onions (if you like them) to serve round. Sauce as above.

¦

Or bake them as for mock-turtle.

Marrow-hone$.

Cover the top with floured cloth; boil them, and serve with

dry toast.

W DOMEST.K (TQOKERT.

May be served in a tureen, 6tewe4 wk^h milk and onion till t^der. Melted butter foe sauee.

Or stew the thin part, cut into bite, m gravy: thicken with ioor and butter, and add alitde oatanp.

Or fricassee it with wlute sauce.

To frj^ Tripe in Batter.

Cut tjifff tripe, being firi^t. nicely prepared, into small pieces;, ^P.tbein. into a smooth light batter, a94 fry them in boiling pork lard of a finf9 light bro\i^. Tripe is very nice rubbed with yolk of eggs, strewed with bread crumbs and chopped parsley, and then fued. Fried onions may be served with it eit)iev way if ag^eeabl^.

To fry Trife another way. Make the batter thicker than for a pudding, cut the tripe tjie sa.mc^ as for a. fricassee; bave spn^e hot dripping; put the tripe in the batter, and ta)ce it out, one piece at a time, with either a fork or a skewer, and put it into tjie hot dripping, or laj:d, whichever i? most convenient (for my part, I should prefer dripping;) fry it of a nice brown; when done, put it on the back of a sieve, to drain the fat from it; then fry some parsley, that, has been picked apd dried before the fire; pat the tripe round the dish, and the parsley in the middle.

Boiled Tripe and Onions. The tripe should be cut in pieces, about two inches square; peel as many onions as' are wanteds and put them and the tripe into a sauce-pan, and as much water as will cover the tripe; put in a little milk, and a little salt; then set it on to boil, until the onions are well done; onions cannot be boiled too much; for the moi:e they are boiled in reason, the milder they are: it should be sept to ts^ble ii) a tureen.

Fricassee of Tripe, and Onion Sauce.

The tripe should not be more than half the size, for this

purpose, to that which goes up in a tureen; the onion sauce

is made in the same way as for boiled ducks; boil the tripe the

same way as for a tureen; when the tripe ia taken up, lay it

on a dean cloth, to draio tfie Uquor from il; then pot it on the 4Jfb» afiA the 9IW0Q, wioe ovei? iu

Soused Trife.

Boi] tb^ tPfipe, but not quite tend^; then pu^ it into salt 9jid water^ which m^st be cbapged ev^ry day till it is all used. Wbea jou dress the tri ^, cjip it into batter of flour and eggs, ^ ffy it of i ,gqo4 brown.

Bubble and Squeak

Is made from the wt^if^. of boiled a^ beef leftr from a fomer (}ini9^r» Cut. tb^ beef in neat sli^^j^ and put it between two plat(98. tiU wanted; If there is any cabbage left from the lasldjiyajer it will answer the purpose; it should be squeezed vcfy dry,, and then chQpped very fine; put a little clean drip* piog into the frying-pa i.: when hot, put. in the beef; sprinkle it with a very little pepper^ and fry it of a nice brown; season bolb sides; when the beef is done^ take ijt up and put it to keep bet while the cabbage is frying: the cabbage should be kept stiniog aboqt while ove^ the fire; it should be fried until all the fill is dried up: p it the cabbage on the middle of the dish, * «k the beef r4lind it

VEAL.

To keep Veal '

The part that frsi Uims bad of & leg of veal, is wbere the udikr it shewered b^fc; therefore the skewer should be taken ottt» and both that and the port under it wiped every day, by wUch v^9p» it. nill keep good three or four days in hot. wenber. Take care to cut out the pipe that runs along the chine of a loin of veal^ as you do of beef, to hinder it from tainting. The skirt of the breast of veal must likewise be taken off; and the inside of the breast wiped and scraped, nd sprinkled with- » little salt.

TO DOMESTIC CaOKBRT.

To rooit a Leg of Feal.

The fillet must be cut large or sniall, as best suits the number of your company. Take out. the bone, fill the space with a fine stuffing, and let it be skewered quite round; and send the large side uppermost. When half roasted, if not before, put a paper over the fat; and take care to allow a suflScient time, and put it a good distance from the fire, as the meat is very solid: serve witir melted butter poured over it. Some of tbis joint may be potted.

* «

T^disguise a Ltg of Veal.

Lard the top^de' of a leg of veal in rows with bacon, and stuff it well with forcemeat made of oysters; then put it into a large sauce-pan, with as much water as will cover it; put on a close lid, to keep the steam in; stew it gently till quite tender; then take it up, and boil down the gravy in the pan to a quart; skim off the fat, and add half a lemon, a spoonful of mxishroom catsup, a little lemon pickle, the crumbs of half a permy-loaf grated exceedingly fine; boil it in your gravy till it looks thick; then add half a pint of oysters; if not thick enough, roll a lump of butter in fiour and put it in, with half a pint of good cream, and the yolks of three eggs; shake your sauce over the fire, but do not let it boil after the eggs are in, lest it curdle; put your veal in a deep dish, and pour the sauce over it; garnish with crisped parsley and fried oysters. It is an excellent dish for the top of a large table.

Veid Hams,

Cut a leg of veal in the shape of a ham. Take half a pound of bay salt, two ounces of saltpetre, and a pound of common salt. Mix them all well together, with an ounce of beaten juniper berries, and rub the ham well with them. Lay it in a tray with the skinny side downwards, baste it every day with the pickle for a fortnight, and then hang it in a woodsmoke for a fortnight longer. When you dress it, you may boil it, or parboil and roast it. It will eat exceedingly pleasant either way.

To Boil a Knuckle of Veal The following is a very good method of dressing a knuckle of veal.- Boil with th^ veal a quarter of a pound of rioe, a

VBAL. 71

blade of maoe, and a few sweet herbs: when the knudde ia sofficientlj done for eatings take it out, and boil in the liquor a quarter oi a pound of vermicelli; adding, afterward^ half a pint of cream, a little fresh butter, with burnt flour, and same fried onions. The liquor, or sauce, may be served up either •epsrately or with the meat

«

To Ragout a Knuckle of Veal.

Cut a knnckle of veal into slices about half an inch thick; pepper, salt, and flour them; fry them a light brown; put the trimmings into a stew-pan, with the bone broke in several places; an onion sliced, a head of celery, a banch of sweet herbs, and two blades of bruised mace: pour in warm water enough to cover them about an inch: cover the pot dose, and let it stew Tery gently for a couple of hours: strain it, and then thicken it with flour and butter; put in a spoonful of catsup, a glass of wine, and juice of half a lemon; give it a boil up, ami strain into a clean stew-pan: put in the meat, make it hot, and serve up.

If celery is not to be had, use a carrot instead, or flavour it with celery seed*.

To etew a Knuckle of Veal.

As few people are fond of boiled veal, it may be well to leave the knuckle small, and take off some cutlets or collops before it be dressed; and as the knuckle will keep longer than the fillet, it is best not to cut off the slices till wanted. Break the bones to make it take less room; wash it well; and put it into a sauce-pan with three onions, a blade of mace or two, and a few pepper-corns; cover it with water, and simmer it till quite ready. In the mean time some macaroni should be boiled with it if approved, or rice, or a little rice flour, to give it a small degree of thickness: but do not put too much. ' Before it is served, add half a pint of milk and cream, and let it come up either with or without the meat.

To stew a Knuckle of Veal another way.

Lay at the bottom of your saucepan four wooden skewers cross-ways, then put in the veal, with two or three blades of macei a little whole pepper, a piece of thyme, a small onion.

n " DOMESTIC COOKERY.

a cruil of breldy attd two quitftB of wait€ir» Covei' k d6wn dose, nake it boti^ and then ofiily let it Mintner for tl^o iMfors. When enough, take it u), put it into your «diflh^ and slt^il Ih^ Hqiior owr it Garnish with leibMik

»

To fry a Knuckle of Veol.

Fry the knuckle with sliced onion and butter to a good brown; and have rtody p^to, letluofe, dnioH, and a cucumber or tWb^ «te#ed ita a smaU qnanftity of Water^ an hronr j thto «idd tbrae to the yeal; and atew it till the meat it ibendel* efriongh to tety but i^ot 6vefdooe» Thrdw in p^por^ nlt and a bit of ahred itAxki, aad serve all together.

Shotdder of Veal.

Cut off the knuckle, for a stew or gtBMy. Roast the ollnr part for stuffing: you may lard it. S^ve witfti tneked butter.

The blade-bone, with a good deal ^ meat left on, eats ex« tremely well with mushroom or oyster sauce;, or mtisbroeai catsup in butter.

To roast a "Neck of VedL. Saw off the chine bone^ and strip the meat from the ends of the ribs; chop off about an inch of the rib bones, put it on a lark spit, and tie it on the apit; butter and salt it, put double paper over it, and tie the paper on; keep it well basted while at the &re: put gravy and butter under the veal when dished.

Neck of Veal a-la-Royale, Cut off the scrag end and part of the chine-bone, to make it lie flat in the dish; then diop a few mushrooms, shalots» a little parsley and thyme, all very fine, with pepper and salt; cut middle-sized lards of bacon, and roll them in the herbs, &c. and lard the lean part of the neck: pat it in a stew-psn, with some lean bacon or shank of hami and the chine-bone and scrag cut in pieces, with three or four csrrots onions, a head of celery, and a little beaten mace; pour in as much water as will cover the pan Very closer and let it stew abwiy for two or three hours, till tender; then strain half a pmt of the liquor out of the pan, through a fine sieve; set it over a stove^ and let it boil; keep stirring it till it is dry at the boltooii and of a

VEAL. W

food farown; be sure you do, not let it born; then add more of the liquor strained free from fat, and keep stirring it till it becomes a fine thick brown glase; then take the veal out of the stew-pan, and wipe it clean, and pot the larded side down upon the glase; set it orer a gentle fire five or six minutes to take theglase; then lay it in the dish with the glazed side up, and put into the same stew-pan as much flour. as. will lie on a sixpence; stnr it about well, and add some of the braise-liquor^ if any be left; letit boil till it is of a proper thickness; steain it, and pour it in the bottom of the dish; squeeze in a little juice sf lemon, and serve it op.

Neck of Feal a^la-Braise.

Lard the best end with bacon rolled in parsley chopped fine, salt, pepper, and nutmeg: put it into a tosslir, and cover it with water. Put to it the scrag-end, a little lean bacon or bam, an onion, two carrots, two heads of celery; and about a glass of Madeira wine. Stew it quick two hours, or til] it is tender, but not too much. Strain off the liquor: mix a little flour and butter in a stew-pan till brown, and lay the veal in Ibis, the upper side to the bottom of the pan. Let it be over tbe fire till it gets coloured: then lay it into the dish; stir some of tbe liquor in, and boil it up; skim it nicely, and squeeze orange or lemon-juice into it.

Neek of Veal larded.

Take off the under bone of a neck of veal, leave only a part of the long bones on; trim it neatly, lard it, and roast it gently with a veal caul over it. Ten minutes before it is done take off the caill, and let the veal be of a very light colour. Wben it is to be served op put under it some sorrel sauce, celery heads, or asparagus tops, or serve it with mushroom nuce.

To stew a Neck of FetU.

Lard it with, large pieces of bacon rolled in pepper, and salt, shalots, and spices. Put it into your stew-pan with about three pints of broth, two onions, a laurel leaf, and a little hrandy. Let it sunmer gently till it is tender, then put it into

S L

^4 DOMEST)^ CbOKERT.

ydvct 6hh, uice th6 scam cleAn d ^ &te tiqtioip/ ittfd tb«n pMr it on tfas itteflt.

To rM$i « Ft7/i;« «/ Tirii/.

Put some aoaimon sttifflng in the flAp, eut tfa* flank fiicoe »ut, as it will make it more routid to skewer np, pnt it on ihe fipit, butter it well, sprinkle salt on it, put two aheeti of white kitchen pap^r o^er it, and tie it on with twine; two hours wiH roast it; put g^avy and hotter in the dish. When the pilper is taken off the veal, flour it well to make it of a nice brown: just before it is taken up, baste it with butter, and flour and salt it.

To otew a Fillet of Veal.

Take the fillet of a cow-calf, stuff it well under the udder, «nd at the bone*end quite through to the shank. Put it into ihe oten, with a fmi of water under it, till it is of a fine brdWO; then put it into a stew-pan, with three pints of gravy. SteW it till it is tender, and then put a few morels, truffles, a (tea« speonfiil of lemon-pickle, a large one of browning, one of catsup, and a little cayenne pepper. Thicken it with;a lump of butter roUed in flour. Take out your veal, and pnt it into a di^; then straiti the gravy, pour it over, and lay round forcemeat balls. Garnish with sliced lemon and pickles.

Filkt of Veal with CoUops.

Take a small fillet of veal, and cut what collops you want; Aen take the udder, and fill it with forcemeat; roll it rounds tie it with packthread across^ and roast it. LfSy your collops in the dish, and lay your ndder in the middle. Garnish with lemon.

BreaH of Veal.

Before roasted, if large, the two ends may be taken off and firied to stew, or the whole -may be roasted. Butter should be poured over it.

If any be left, cut the pieces into handsome sizes; put them into a stew-pan, and pour some broth over it; or if you have no broth, a little water will do: add a bunch of herbs, a blade or two of mace, some pepper, and an anchovy; stew till the meat is tender; thicken with butter and flour; and add a

liide catsup; otHw iffhok breast may be eUvfed, after cutti^jp 0t tbe two eni\%.

Serve tbe sweetbread whole upon it, which may either b^ atffwfd or parbo^aii ar^l thtm covered with crui»b9 bfirbs^ pepper, and salt, and browned in a Dutch oven*

If jou have a few mushrooms, truffles, and morels, 'stew them with it, and terve.

A boikd bmMt of yeal^ smotb^ed with onion^aiauce, ia an ^ififiUeot diah, if not old nor too Sat,

To ragout a Sreast of Veal,

Half-roast a breast of veal; then bone it, and put it in a tossing-pan, with a quart of veal gravy, one ounce of morels, the same of truffles; «(tew it tiU tender fnd just before you thicken the gr^vy piit in a few pysters, pickled poushri^ms, and pickled cucumbessj cut in small square pieces, the yolks of four eggs. boiled hard; cut your sweetbread in slices, and £ry it a l^ht brown; dish up your veal, and pour the gravy hot over it; lay your sweetbread rounds truffles, morels, and e^s upon it; garnish with pickled barberries. This is proper i^ either tiqp or side for dinner, or bottom for supper.

To ragout a Breast of Veat another way.

Take off tfie under bone, and cut the breast in half, lengthways; divide it into handsome pieces, not too large to help at •nee: put about two ounces of butter into a frying-pan, and £7 die veal till it is a light brown, then put it iuto a stew-pan with veal broth, or as much boiling water as will cover it, a bundle of sweet marjoram, common or lemon thyme, and parsley, with four cloves, or a couple of bkdes of pounded mace, three young onions, or one old one, a roll of lemoni-peel, a dosen corns of allspice bruised, and a tea^spoonful of salt; cover it dose, and let it all simmer very gently till the veal is tender, t. e. for about an hour and a half; if it is very thick, two hovrs; then strain off as much (about a quart) of the giayy, .as you think you will want, into a basin; set the stew^ pan, with the meat, &c. in it, by the fire to ke^ Jbot. To thioken the ^avy you have taken out, put an ounce and a half lof butter into a dean stew-pan; when it is melted, stir in as much flour as it will take, add the gravy by degrees, aeason it

76 DOMESTIC COOKERY.

with salt» let it boil ten minutes, skim it well, and season it with two table-spoonful of white wine, one of mushroom cat« iBup, and the same of lemon juice; give it a boil up, and it is ready: now put the veal into a ragout dish, and strain the gravy through a fine sieve to it

To stew a Breast of Veai.

Put a breast of veal into the stew-pan/ with a little broth, a glass of white wine, a bunch of sweet herbs, a few mushrooms, two or three onions, with some pepper and salt. Stew it over a gentle fire till it is tender; and when done, strain and scum the sauce. Garnish with forcemeat balls.

To roll a Breast of Veal.

* Bone it, take off the thick skin and gristle, and beat the meat with a rolling-pin. Season it with herbs chopped very fine, mixed with salt, pepper, and mace. Lay some thick slices of fine ham; or roll it into two or three calves' tongues of a fine red, boiled first an hour or two, and skinned. Bind it up tight in a cloth, and tape it. Set it over the fire to simmer, in a small quantity of water, till it is quite tender: this will take some hours. Lay it on the dresser, with a board and weight on it till quite cold.

Pigs' or calves' feet boiled, and taken from the bones, may be put in, or round it. The different colours laid in layers look well when cut: and you may put in yolks of eggs boiI« ed, beet-root, grated ham, and chopped parsley, in different parts.

Porcupine of a Breast of Veal.

Take a fine large breast of veal, bone it, and rub it over with the yolks of two eggs. Spread it on a table, and lay over it a little bacon cut as thin as possible, a handful of parsley shred fine, the yolks of i^ve hard boiled eggs chopped small^ a little lemon peel cut fine, the crumbs of a penny loaf steeped in cream, and season to your taste with salt, pepper, and nutmeg. Roll the breast of veal close, and skewer it up. Then cut some fat bacon, the lean of bam that has been a little boiled, and pickled cucumbers, about two inches long. Lard the veal with this in rows, first ham, then bacon, and then

VBAt., 77

eoeumbars, till you htve larded every pflort of it. Pat it into a deep earthen pot, with a pint of water, oorer it dose, and •et it in a alow oven for two hours. When it comes llrom the oven, skim off the fiit» and strain the gravy through a sieve into a stew-pan. Put into it a glass of white wine, a little lemon-pickle and caper liquor, and a spoonful of mushroom catsnp. Thicken it with a little butter rolled in fiour, lay your porcupine on the dish, and pour your sauce over it. Have ready a roll of forcemeat nuide thus: take the crumb of a penny loaf, half a pound of beef suet shred fine, the yolks of four eggs, and a few chopped oysters. Mix these well together, and season it to your taste with cayenne pepper, salt, and nutmeg. Spread it on a veal caul, and having- rolled it up dose like a coloured ed, bind it in a doth, and boil it an hour. This done, cut it into four slices, lay one at each end, and the others on the sides. Have ready your sweetbread cut in slices and fried, and lay them round it with a few mushrooms. This nukes a grand bottom dish at that time of the year when game is not to be had.

Pillow of Veal.

Having half roasted a neck or breast of veal, cut it int6 six pieces, and season it with white pepper, salt, and nutmeg. Take a pound of rice, put to it a quart of stock, some mace, snd a little salt Do it over a stove, or very dow fire, till it IB thick; but butter the bottom of the pan or dish you do it in. Beat up the yolks of six eggs, and stir them into it. Then take up a little round deep dish, butter it, and lay some of the rice at the bottom. Then lay the veal on a round heap, and cover it all over with rice. Wash it over with the yolks of eggs, and bake it an hour and a half. Then open the top, and pour in a pint of rich good gravy.

Saoowry Dish of Veai.

Having cut large collops out of a leg of veal, spread these abroad on a dresser, hack them with the back of a knife, and dip them into the yolks of eggs. Season with salt, mace, nut« meg, and pepper, beaten fine. Make forcemeat with some of yonr ved, beef suet, oysters chopped, sweet herbs shred fine, snd kitchen pepper: strew all these over your collops, roll and

W DOMESTIC C0OKBRT.

tie them up, put them on akewere^ tie theta to a tpit, $ad raaeK thecou To the reat of your forcemeat add.a raw egg or twoj aad loU them in balk and fry them* Put then into yow dish^ with your meat whoi r iii«ted» and make die aauoe with strong filoek, an anchovy, an eiehalot» a Uttte white wioe^ and some apice. Let it Jttev. a^d thicken it wttii 4 piece of butter tolled in flour. Pour ti^ aauce into the disb lay the meat to^ and serve.

Loin rf Veal en Epigram.

Roaeta loin of v^al pnipc^ly i&s eatii^c, then take it upt» and carefully cut off the ekin fimtu the hack part without htreaking it. Cut out the lean part, but leave Uie ends whole, to contain the IbUowing mincenifeat: mioee all the veal very fine with Ihe kidney part, put it into a little gravy, enongfa to BKUsten it with the gravy that comes from the loin. Put in a little pepper and salt, some lemon-peel shred fine, the yolks of three eggi^ and a bpoonful of cyiteup. Thicken ii with a little butter rolled in flour. Give it a shake or two over the £ie, put it into the loin, and pull the skin gently over it. If the akin should not quite oovter k, give Che part wanting a brown with a hot iron, or put it into an oven for about a quarter of an hour. Send it up hot, and garnish with lemon and bar« berries.

Chump of Veal a-hrDauhe.

Cut off the chump end of the loin; take out the edge-bone; stuff the hollow with good forcemeat, tie it up tight^ and lay it in a stew-pan, with the bone you took out, a little fijjggot of herbs, an anchovy, two blades of mace, a few white peppers, and a pint of good veal broth. Cover the veal with slices of fat bacon, and lay a sheet of white paper over it. Cover the pan close, simmer it two hoars, then take out the bacon, and glaze the veal. - Sei^e it on mushrooms, or with sorrel«sauce, or what else you please.

Veal-rolh of either cold Meat or fresh.

Cut diin slices; and spread on them a fine seasoning of a very few crumbs, a little chopped bacon or scraped ham, and a little suet, parsley, and ahalot, (xxr, instead of the paisley

rtAt. W

and shalot, scnne fresh iMiAroomi stewed and minced^) pepper, mit, and aanali piece of pounded maoe.

This stuffing maj either fill up the roll like a sausage, or be nilkd with the meat. In either case tie it up very tight^ •nd stew very slowly in a gravy, and a glass of dieny.

Serve it when tender, after skimming it nicely.

To make an excellent Ragout of cold Veal.

Eitfaar a neck, loin, or fillet of veal, will furnish this ex* ceUent ragout, with a very little expense or trouble.

Cut the veal into haftds^me cntl^; put a piece of butter, or rlean dripping, into a frying-pan; as soon as it ia hot, flour, «id firy the veal of a light brown: take it oat, and if you bsrc no gravy ready, put m pint of boiling water into the fryiag-pan, give it a boil for a minute, and strain it into a basin, while yott make some thickening in the following manner:--» Pot about an ounce of butter into a stew-pan; as soon as it Boelts, mix with it as much flour as will dry it up; stir it over the fire for a few minutes, and gradually add to it the gravy you made in the frying-pan; let them simmer together for ten numites, (till thoroughly incorporated;) season it with pepper, aak, and a little mace, and a wine glass of mushroom catsup^ or wine; strain it through a tammis to the meat; and stew very gently till the meat is thoroughly warmed. If you have any ready boiled bacon, cut it in slices, and put it in to warm with

Veal Florendine.

Mince a fine kidney or two of veal, with the surrounding £it; chop parsley and other fresh herbs, a large apple or two, some candied orange peel, and two or three hard yolks of eggs, ^oite small; then add a handful of nicely-pickled currants; two or three grated biscuits, or some crumbs of bread; a little beaten mace, cloves, nutmeg, and sugar; with a glass of numntain wine, and as much orange-flower water. Mix the whole well tqgether, lay a sheet of puff'-paste at the bottom and round a dish, put in the mixed meat, and lay over it a cutpaste lid garnished round the edge. Bake it in a slack oven; and serve it up quite hot, with sugar scraped over the top.

tfe DOMESTIC COOKERY.

narricoof Veal. *

iTake ttie best end oi" a small' neck; cut the" bones short, but leave It whole; then put' it into a stew-pan lust covered with brown gravy: and when it is nearly done, have reaay a pint of boiled peas, six cucumbers pared ancf 'sliceill ^aftcflwo cabbage-lettuces cut into ^9^t^,( ^^ ^wed m a little ^ood

bTRth t, pii,t. t^S».tei5^&^53lA^^ti5fitfc??LffW^^^ When.the.yeayf. i;j %,{i\A^ P^fir.tjhe. m!^, ft?^ XW^f^H qyeut, i^^^ay the^uce ^iX^iovf^^^^ imHh, .3; gu,

5' J,;.4 ..\,k .' '., • oi; '^-^y: v^' I . '».UT;iiiT ^xaBK oifi ni iB^d be*. J, , , To mtnce VeaL ., ,

lti .CJufe^P?ld ysftl^{};fipp ns,5p5si ^le,^ bi^t,%n jt c p,iSu^Hfo

take care not to let it IjQil j apd,i¥ d, ^ .Ijft.o^ ^j^^fj ^J,,^ ^^ flour. Put sippets of thin toasted bread, cut into a threecornered shape, round thfttfMiD \'^ ^\

1^ .»: U y^.U:- v'^ };.!: ^,^ ¦ i m'{ .": -.1 tfj u,:.', 'm\\ ll)^

Put jftailt^ o.fl«!^9qil9 wk*, half, %K^t/ifc paxH j* WS* PttBRTi And sah, .H ^Uc^i of» lempji,. a gpod^ j^ao^i of bifUV, fi^lflfi^'iiRl floqiV « teMSPO^rt rf teww pipklft wA «!la^ ttSPR^fttj^; tr^m. Kwp.#«Wng:k flw A§ A?^ iffl^f bi^;. Jij^hi diW^j of bnad reador. ii^ ibp ^iiafciWi tbfin,p^jHr^tl a F()^% ««gt f990 Gtotiiah wkksiiMdlfqfpOii . if,/:, , :. j.:m .,;. j^j .qij^ijii •'-¦•¦¦ ' • ^' ' - -"'i'^ '• '¦• • * '' »i'' 7 .* •! .: • v*^ n.'.lr ^ noofj;; ^

Cold fillet makes the fin^i'^Qo^tirDal;;; iM ^^o. 4xMyu^/i t. as follows:

Season a large slic^ VHh^ *l!!l6t^Sbft^e it is dressed with

ihio'ft'^dttrri^-1^ thoC'Wf^l'hicitfJiift^ holdf it^' filfitt'Iup -Wftk ^^yt^/ajWr^abf'it tlM^'hcAiWr th«h pbiAid it qtnie.«iMliifa is morUtr/kiAl'idd^d^KttaMtt ipaillilvill&^n^y tbarwA^KiiftMtb ftinT)dutiahii^,'»lM#*flVtWn«o6ii;:otk6rwi6e;' oiily a liAfeHuttei' Jtin^iS^ltM: "lH^tttidoa^, «(Mrit«^eff tfttH Mttm^^r,

f

FmiI mom eald Yad or irhite of cUebeiiy Miadaed «« directed b tlie iMt article, and put layers of k with hj am of has, pounded, or ratliar ybred; pnaa each dowi^ and CO? cr kHA ntttr.

• )

To nMitAfe Pea/«.

Boo, Ab, and cut a dried tongne as tfdn as poasiUe/and kat it well witk near a poiiad of batter, and n littk beaten naoe, till it is like a paste. Ha?e ready sone veal sttfwed, asd beat in the sane manner. Then pot some veal into potting-^ pots, and thin some tongue in lamps over the veal. Do not lay myonr tongiie in any form, bat lei it be in kimps, and it wilt tkescnl like maible. Fill yottr pat npdose nfidi veal, press k very hard down, and pour olarifiad butter «ver it Semei^ ber to keep it in a dry plajce, and when yim send itloflable, «it it iiOo slioes. Garnish ft with pkrsfaj^ f

VealCuilet$.

Cat the cntlets from tiie leg, and flat them with the chop'. per; thee cut half as many slices of streaky ba4;Q i, abonf two Of tivee inches long, fry the hficon of a nice brown; then.pnjt k isto a stew-pan; poar nearly all the fitt that pomeii from the Ucqa ont of the frying-pan, on a plate; than pnt in the veal cstieti, and fry them of a nice brown on both sides; then f^^ tkm to the booon; dust some fioar in Ijh^ fiy ing-pan^ and put diost half a pint of gravy, and a little mushroom. and, wa ^j t oteap; let it boil a minute or two; keep stirring it about, with t ipoon; then strain it through a bairraieya into the stew-pi^ tlist has the veal and bacon; squeeze a little lemon-jiiicei and MuoB it with a little white papper.

n fry Feet Cmtleh.

Cat your veal into slices of a moderate'tfiickni^, dtp ihem io the yolk of eggs beat ' up finf, and strew pver thcfin' cromM of bread, a few sweet herbs, soqie lemon peel;' and a lltUe grated nutmeg. Then put them into yoiir pan, ahd^firy thenk with fresh butter. While tbey are frying, make k HMe good ithvfi and when the meat is done, takeit odt, and lay it hi U diih before the fire. Shake a littk flour iM6 At pan, and atif

it round; put^tti^Vlt^'grttiry, wHll AMjilttf^^cf alembii; siif ( fch^ «bdb4ir^U itbfcftbiSri and poii ii «?et Ubf «wtkit4« OiVnish ijfiivih'diUI'^ilhdittd ktoiM: t

Veal Cutteti btrded^

• « • f, * /

Cut the best end of a neck of veal into chops^ leaving only ft pftrt of \hA long bonl^V tKen hlHl^ ¥lanch» and stew them t ftnd.MiBi thqr irft to he. sifted up, dfala end drj t^emj rphceltheai mnhad pftaidlsbr ted. put grMHAfUiip Sftujce^ «r, t hite tntirfimiia 4aiing» in thfelmiddtt*; •

^.•: •• • 1 ... .; . flHH^tM Jl^aifUcnon., ., . .,;, ., ^

:'. / CiAsliceaaUutlhM 4«arMri .of tollwiViitlli(;A .hefAtii«lft f«»tl% atelliiii^pin^ 4ild,Mi4hAm ott.ttoth i6fim i^ttb ^gg.ii.411^ 4ktm into H seusniiig of IbneiMl lonuabs; ftUM^d Aylvm^ u»otr MdJU^j^rim^ ptf^peiv sidi, laod a Ultle iittt p«g gratfd { tMt put them into papisr^ Mdedko^reiv Aad hfioA t)k9m'A:^.k^tih^ ft boat} melted buttei^, with a littte mushroom catsup.

« t

' tit, j(MP^ «Li^ ftbov^ tMHry theifti» lay thM i«Co h tttstii ^mlA k^p theni hot t dred^ a liMe fldor, add p ut a bit df bUtet ttttd th^ pAtk \ btoWtf it; then pour a liW^ boiliilg w&te^ hib i^ Uud bbifqiiibk: season wMb pepper, salt, attd talMipV Mi4 \J yu* oVef thetii/ ' • '- ' '";

' • Ot^ pr^poM to brfore; «EmT "dress the-^^ttets hi a HwtA i ^eA i jioiir 6)^it them m^eed 'buitet kAi mushtbdms. ' ¦ ' ' t)r» pepper, salt, and'' brbB' them, espetlalfy neck ^fhey af^ exceltent with hetbs.

« ¦ « «

Mince the meat, extreiftf^y small,, wid set it over the Hr^, lf] h ^^letape tsf lMij(^isti ^ l ^^e pepper and salt, and a ^ttle, i;fifan^^ a,few minutes; then put it into the scallop-shells. Md fill ^em with crumbs of bread over which put some ) its f^ bfttt^er^ and browte them before the fire» ^ .fit^r veal or chicken looks and cits well, prepared in tbis pvr,,M^ lightly, covered with crumbs of breads fried '; or H^ssfQ BMijy. be p^^, 00.19 Utile heaps. ^

A'

VSAU 93

TolumkriBl.

C«t yow vmI m tliin Topnd fllicet, tbefitteof Utf aeiiMn); pot them ioto a 9aucep«n, with a Iktle grtt^y anA iMfton -yie»l» cat eiceedingiy fine, and a tea-spoonful of lemon pickle; put it oTer the fire, and thicken it with flour and butter; when it botb pat in yjoiir veal; Just before'you diah it tip, put in a spoon* fid of creani; kj aippett JEound your dish, aod aerve ifup.

Fricanieau ^f FeaL

Cut a laige piece from die fiit side of the kg, abo«t nSne indies lang^ and half as thick and broad; beat it with tho KoifagrpBi; take ofl^ the skin, and trim off the rough edgee. Lirdtlie top and sides; and cover it with let bacon, and the» vidi white paper. Lay it into the stew -pan widi any pieces of andressed veal or mutton, fimr onions, a caitot sliced, a %got of sweet herbs, four blades of mace, four bay leaves, a pint of good veal or mutton broth, and four or five ounces 'of ksD ham- or gmuimon.' Giver the pan close, add let it Itew liovly three hours; then take up the meat, remove all the fat from the gravy, and boil it quick to a glaae. Keep the fricai^ deau gitite hot, and then glaze it; and serve it with tfa^ remain^ der of the glaze in the dish, and sorrel sauce in a sauce tureen.

« Jl ake&per, tui egfutify geeif   Firic9fuis^»i of VeflL With a sharp knife, cut the lean part of a large seek firom die best ^d, scooping it firum tiie bones the length of your hand, and' prepare it ha tiie same way as id the last jreceipt; (Me or lour bones only will be necessary, and they wtU malce &gmvy: bat if the prifne pait of the legis cot off, it spoila die whole.

I

Veal Olives. \

Cot half a dozen sUcee off a fillet of veal, half an nich thiek, and as k ng end squtfe ae you can; 4at them with a chopper, and rnb ^em over with an egg that has Iwen beat oii i pU^; cut some fat haoon asthin as poseiUe, fthe» saneaiae aa the veal, lay it on the veal, and rub it with alittle of the egg; make rtittle ved ibrcemesit, aiid spread it rety Hikk over the j

bacon; roH up the olives tight, rtfb them wM'the egg,- and then roll them in fine bread crumbs; put them on a hak spit.

84 DOMESTIC COfOKERT.

and roast them at a brisk fire; they will take three qaarters of an hour. Serve with brown gravy^ in which boil some mushrooms^ pickled^ or fresh. Garnish with balls, fried.

Veal Cake.

Boil six or eight ^gs hard; cut the yolks in two, and lay some of the pieces in the bottom of the pot; shake in a little chopped parsley, some slices of veal and ham, add then eggs again; shaking in after each some chopped parsley, with pepper and salt, till the pot is fiiU. Then put in water enough to c6ver it, and lay on it about an ounce of butter; tie it over with a double paper, and bake it about an hour. Then press it doae together with a spoon, and let it stand till cold.

It may be put into a small mould; and then- it will torn out beautifully for a supper or side dish.

Veal Sausages,

Chop equal quantities of lean veal and fat bacon, a handful of sage, a little salt and pepper, and a few anchovies. Beat all in a mortar; and when used roll and fry it, and serve it with fried sippets, or on stewed vegetables, or on white coUops.

Scotch CoUops.

Cut veal into thin bits about three inches over, and rather round; beat with a rolling-pin, and grate a little nutmeg over them; dip into the yolk of an egg, and fry them in a little butter of a fine brown: pour the butter off, and have ready warm to pour upon them; half a pint of gravy, a little bit of butter rubbed into a little fiour, the yolk of an egg, two large spoonfuls of cream, and a bit of salt. Do not boil the sauce, but stir it till of a fine thickness to serve with the coUops.

Veal CoUops.

Cut long thin coUops; beat them well; and lay on them « bit of thin bacon of the same size, and spread forcemeat on that, seasoned high, and also a little garlic and cayenne. Roll them up tight, about the siae of two fingers, but not more than two or three inches long; put a very small skewer to fasten each firmly; rub egg over; fry them of a fine brown, and pour a rich brown gravy over.

V£At. 85

To dress Coliaps quick.

Cttt ihem as thin as paper with a vety sharp knife, and in imall bits. Throw the skin, and any odd bits of the veal, into a little water, with a dust of pepper and salt; set theift on the fire while jou beat the coUops; and dip them into a seasoning of herbs, bread, pepper, salt, and a scrape of nutmeg, bat first wet them in tgg. Then put a bit of butter into a frying-pau, and give the collops a very quick fry; for as they are 80 thin, two minutes will do them on both sides; put them into a hot dish before the fire; then strain and thicken the S^^j pve it a boil in the frying-pan, and pour it over the coUops. A little catsup is an improvement

Or, fry them in butter, only seasoned with salt and pep« per; then simmer them in gravy, either white or brown, with bits of bacon served with them.

If white, add lemon peel and mace, and some cream.

To dress Scotch CoUops white.

Cut them oflT the thick part of a leg of veal, the size and thickness of a crown piece; put a lump of butter into a tossingpan, and set it over a slow fire; or it will discolour your collops: before the pan is hot, lay the collops in, and keep turning them over till you see the butter is turned to a thick white gravy; put your collops and gravy in a pot, and set them upon the hearth to keep warm; put cold butter again into your pan every time you fill it, and fry them as above, and so continue till you have finished; when you have firied them, pour your gravy from them into your pan, with a tea-spoonful of lemon pickle, mushroom catsup, caper liquor, beaten mace, cayenne pepper, and salt; thicken with flour and butter; when it has boiled five minutes, put in the yolks of two eggs well beat and mixed, with a tea-spoonful of rich cream; keep shaking your pan over the fire till your gravy looks of a fine thickness, then put in your collops and shake them; when they are quite hot, put them on your dish, with forcemeat balls; strew over them pickled mushrooms. Garnish with barberries and kidney-beans.

To dress Scotch CoUops broum.

Cut your collops the same way as the white ones, but browB « your butter before you lay in your collops; firy them over a

9* DOMESTIC CPOKERT.

quick fire; shake and turn, them, and i»ep on them a fine froth; when thejjr are ft^ight,brown« pat them into » pQt and fry them as the white ones; when you have fried them all brown, pour all the gravy from them into a dean tossing-pan^ with half a pint of the gravy made of the bones and bits yax^ cut the coUops off, two tea-spoonful of jeinon pickle, a large one of catsup, the same of browning, half ai) ounce of morels* Ealf a lemon, a little anchovy, cayenne and salt te ypur taste; thicken it with flour and butter; let it boil five or six minutes; then put in your collops, and shake them over the fire; if they boQ, it will make them hard: when they have simmered a little, take them out with an egg-spoon; and lay them on yotft dlbh; strain your gravy, and pour it hot on them, lay ovei^ them forcemeat balls, and little slices of bacon curled round a sjcewer and boiled; throw a few mushrooms over. Garnish with lemon and barberries, and serve them up.

«

To drett Scotch Coilops tie Frenjch.wa^.

Take a leg of veal, and cut your coilops pretty thick, five or six indies long, and three inches' broad; rub them over with the yolk of an egg; put pepper and salt; and grate a little nutmeg on them, and a little shred parsley; lay them on an earthen dish, and set them before the fire; baste them wiUi butter, and let them be a fine brown; then turn them on Che pther side, and rub them As above; baste and brown it thi6 same way; when they are thoroughly enough, make a good brown gravy with truffles and morels; dish up your coilops, lay ' truffles and morels, and the yolks of hard boiled eggs over ' them. Garnish with cri^ parsley and lemon.

To boil Calfs Head.

' Clean it very nicely and soak it in water, that it may look very white; take out the tongue to sal(, and the brains to make a little dish. Boil the head extremely tender; then strew it over with crumbs and ehopped parsley, and brown them; qr, if liked better, leave one side plain. Bacon and greens are to be served to eat with it. '

The brains must be boiled; and then mixed with melted butter, scalded sage chopped, pepper, and salt.

K any of the head is left, it may be bashed neat xlagr* and a StfW slioas nf bacan just wanned and pot rouad.

ColAcd^s fc«w^««« veil if g iM»

A CJ^t Head, otu htif boiled, ami the otker kiAei.

Qeuse the. bead, parboil one balf, rub it o?er tbe bead with a feather dipt ia the beaten yolk of an egg. Strew over it a aeaiooiqg of pepper aalt, tl^me, paraley chopped small, sbred lenM jMel» gAted bread« and a little nutmeg; stick bits of bottdr ovfr it, and send it to tbe pven. Boil the other half in a white cloth* and serve them both in one dish* Boil the bninaiA a. piece of ctean c^oth» with a very Uttle parsley, andf a leaf or two of sage.* When tb^y are boiled^ chop them small^ tnd warm them up in a sauce-pan, with a bit of butter, and 9t, little pepper and salt. Lay the tongue, boiled and peeled, in tbe middle of a smaftdiah^.ipA tiM btHilks round it; have in ^^miiftf diabi.lHicoih apd pjckled pork;i m^ in a third* gjptens iMicanrato •' . • i . . „.,; .. .

When hftlf boiledj cut off the meat in slices, half put inch lUck, and two or three inches loqg: brown some butter, dour* ud sliced oni^n, and throw in the slices with some good gravy* tniBcs, and* morels; tve it one boil, skim it well, and set it in a Boderate beat to simmef till very tender. .

Season witK pepper, salt» and cayenne at first; and, ten temates 'beforet serving, throw in. some shred parsley, and a Vtfy small bit of tarragon and knotted marjoram cut as fine as KABibk( just befor#iFoUaew^^ add ilNI'squeexe of a lemon. FefeGcfMWtbalUi^ ^ ItiijU oC bacqa rolled fojond*

OiV bojl;the:b€9Ml.al Qo^t«aoiigbf and ^ko tbe meat of thi^ ^ aide aewMy off the bone with;a sharp knife; lay this into a ^paaB dii^» vaah it over with th6* yolks of two egga, and cover it with crtiohs* a. ffiw herbs nicely shred, a little pepper and. mlji^ited a grate of nutm^, all miiLcd together fiisL Set the . disk before the fire, #id keep tuning it now and then that aU^ puts of tho bead may be eqpally brown* In the mean tipnoii dice the remainder of the head and the toagfjie, but firsipji^e the toagooj; .put a pint of gopd gravy into a pao^ fi(it^ an tNuon, a small bunch of lierbs, (consisting of parsley, basil, savory, tarragon, knotted mirjoimdi, and a little thyme,) a Kttfe sOtiaid ciiftnvMv aJriiiytetiiagl^MOfJlfevry, lMid,a.little «!ili9r'liqmr. Bail tkii foe a tfei^ ttirfUlM tad jt^trM^fi 11901^

aa DOMESTIC COOKBRT.

the meat, which should be dreAged Witi fllMM iloiir. Add some fiANahroonit either frenh or pi^kled^ a few triilBet wmI morels, and two spoonsful of catsup; then beat up half IIm brains, and put this to the rest, with a bit of butter and flow* Simmer the whole.

Beat the other part of the brains with shrad lemon ped» a fiitle nutmeg anc mace, some parsley shred, and an e^, Tlieft fry it In littl^ cakes of a beAutiful yellow brown. Di^ some Qysters into the yoke of an egg, and do the same; and also some relishing forcem^t bidls, made as for ikkick turtle* Garnish with these, and small bits of baoon jost made Iiot before the fire.

V : Calf^9 Htai fricMititi. .;

' Clean and half-boil half a head; tnt the riieat into snudi Sili^; and put it into a tosser, with a little gravy made of die l eiien» some of the water it was boiled ifi, a bunch of sweet herbs^ a i onion,, and a blade of mace. If you have any young cockrels in the house, use the cockscombs, but first boil them' tender, and blanch them; or a ime^tbread will do as well. Season die gravy mth a little pepper, ntitmeg, and salt; rub dowir some flour and butter, and giVe all a boil togethei*; 'then tale out the herba and obion, an^ add % little cup of cream, but do not boil' it in.

Serve with smaO bits of bacon rolled round, and btllk*

*

7b eoHwr Cutfw Feaib

Scald the skin off a fine head, dean it nicely, and take' out ihe brains. Boil it tender enough to remove thelMmes: then have ready a good quantity of chopped parsley, mliee, nntm^, salt, uid white pepper, mixed well: season It high' with these r lay the parsley in a thick layer, then a quantity of thick altoesi *oY fine ham, of beautiful*coloured tongue skinned, and the» the yolks of six nice yellow eggs stuck here and there abetit. Roll the head quite close, and tie tt up as tight aa yon ean% Boil- it, and them'lay a weight on it. '

A cloth must be put under the tape, as for oAer collars^

M0€k Tmrtk. Bcmpeak a oalfs head with the dun on, eat it ia half, and flean il wdl: than haU-baa H, take all ttie meat off in s iiafe

VBA&.' * 89

9refnUv, and then. p«t in the, head; miH^'mW PlM^ai int wine, and snmiiBr it till the meat is quite tender.

as two and

rnKmnils of niunirooRf'tittsup^ andoite or soy. Sq -imui^toai. vJfhh !iij£fti ^. tJMi: .ni I JK-I ^.u^r .. i •, ^ me jiHoe of a lemon jnto tire.tareen. and poDf^ uie soup Upo*

Mock TwiHi ptfur uiaw^.

ilf a heap^ withqu^the skjn at above: when

8 a sauoB^ la Benson* w wim fried onions, n^bs," inace, "and 'pepper.*^ \fkye*V^^j tVOOT.rareepx-palates boiled so tender as toblancn/ drid Ait

.smdl pieces 1, to, which a cow-heei, ' UKewisis^ eat into

*' r.^^ F*'*^*'* "riJjw ^y . .. .' 'iv* ^'^ '' • • ii'^L'^ ^ 'i usees, IS a, irreat improvement. Bro'wn some Duttef; Hour, 't*i)b iTyi; Ti^r, » «u, *, r •, : ••¦ ».•; j*"- -, w« iv * • ^ *«

and onion, nod pour the sravy to 'if; then add the metatis i aooiQe, and ateW. Half a nint of sherry » afi anchovy, spoonfuls of walnut catsup, tne sam^ of mushroom catsup, soiQfi cboppeil herbs^as before., ''*

(^, put into a pan a knuckle of veal, (wo fihc cow neeiB, two onions, a few\ «]^e9 ' fC ii{ip^\lfrnes of allspice, nsace,

.;ffMiJ.»^^iflff .^f.^ JfiQ{ }Hn^Ir;, 9W,;fee iP^t.-ntf f^et into

some; and serve witft ^«r^,^m!iii9r¥^}H^\fi:f\Hfmf^

This is a very easy way, and the disn is excellent. Or, Slew a pound aAl «IaI!f^oll^cra [^ of mutton, with Arom %e« rii t#iif*iWtv*ta ifuiu^l tbm^ant t^ie.iifroid^.'Witha

4 N

90* DOMESTIC COOKERY.

liier till you can get off tfie mekt from the bones in prbpef bit*/ Set it on again with the broth, a quarter of a pint of Madeira wine or sherry, a large onion, half a tea-spoonful of Cayenne pepper, a bit of lemon peel, two anchovies, some sweet herbs^ eighteen oysters cut into' pieces and then chopped fine, a tea-* spoonful of salt, a little nutmeg, and the liquor of the oysters; cover it tight, and simmer three quarters of an hour. Serve with forcemeat balls, and hard eggs in the tureen.

An excellent and very cheap mock turtle may be made of two or three cow heels baked, with two pounds and a half of gravy beef, herbs, &c. as above, with cow heels and veal.

Lister's mock mock ^Turtle. Line the bottom of a stew-pan that will hold'five pints, with an ounce of nice bacon, or ham, a pound and a half of lean gravy beef, a cow heel, the inner rind of a quarter of a carrot, a sprig of lemon-thyme, winter savory, three times the qaan« tity of parsley, a few green leaves of sweet basil, and two ahalots: make a bundle of these, and tie up in it a couple of blades of mace; put in a large onion, with four cloves stuck in it, twelve corns of allspice, the same of black pepper; pour on these a quarter of a pint of cold water, cover your stewpan, and set it on a slow fire to boil gently for a quarter oi an hour; then, for fear your meat should catch, take off the cover, and watch it; and when it has got a good brown colour, fill up your stew-pan with boiling water, and let it simmer very gently for two hours; if you wish to have the full benefit of your meat,, only stew it till it is just tender, and cut it mto mouthfuls, and put it into your soup. Put a table^spoonful of thickening into a two quart stew-pan, pour to it a ladleful of your gravy, and stir it quick till it is well mixed, pour it back into the stew-pan where your gravy is, and let it simmer gently for half an hour longer, then strain it through a tammis into a gallon stew-pan: cut the cow heel into pieces about an inch square, squeeze through a sieve the juice of a lemon, a tablespoonful of plain browning, the same of mushroom catsup, ft tea-spaonful of salt, half a tea-spoonful of ground black pepper^ as ihuch grated nutmeg as will lie on a sixpence, and a glass of Madeira or sherry wine; let it all simmer together for about half ta hour.

VEAL. &l

To dress a Midcalf*

Take a calf's heart, stuff it with g6od forcemeat, and send It to the oven in an earthen dish, with a little water under it; lay batter over it, and dredge it with flour; boil half the liver and all the lights together half an hour, then chop them small, and pat them in a tossing-pan, with a pint of gravy, one spooofal of lemon pickle, and one of catsup; squeeze in half a lemon, pepper, and salt; thicken with a gopd piece of butter rolled in flour; when you dish it up, pour the minced meit in the bottom, and have ready fried a fine brown, the other half of the liver cut in thin slices, and little bits of bacon; set the heart in the middle, and lay the liver and bacon over the minced meat, and serve it up.

Calfs Liter*

Slice it, season with pepper and salt, and broil nicely; rub a bit of cold butter on it, and serve hot

To roast Calf's Liver.

Wash, and wipe it; then cut a long hole in it, and stuff it with crumbs of bread, chopped anchovy, herbs, a good deal of fat bacon, onion, salt, pepper, a bit of butter, and an egg; sew the liver up; then lard it, or wrap it in a veal caul, and roast it.

Serve with good brown gravy, and currant jelly.

To fry Calfs Liver and Bacon,

Cut the liver into moderately thin slices, and fry it of a . nice brown. Then fry some thin slices of bacon, lay them upon the liver, and %erve up the dish with a little gravy added to it, and crisped parsley laid round or scattered over it.

To dress the Ldver and Lights.

Half-boil an equal quantity of each, then cut them m a middling sized mince, put to it a spoonful or two of the water that boiled it, a bit of butter, flour, salt, and pepper: simmer ten minutes, and serve hot

To roast a Calfs Heart. Having made a forcemeat of grated bread, a quarter of a pound of beef suet chopped small, a little parsley, sweet

M DOMESTIC CPOKERY.

maijoram, and lemon pec^l^ mixed up with a little white pepper^ salt, nutmeg, . and the yolk of an egg, fill the heart i^'iih it, and lay a veal caul over the stuflSng, or a sheet of writing paper, to keep it in its place, and keep turning it till it ii thoroughly roasted. Serve with good gravy under it. N.B. A bullock's heart is done in the same manner.

To fry Calf 8 Brains.

Cut the brains into four pieces, and soak them in broth and white wine, with two slices of lemon put into it, a little pepper and salt, thyme, laurel, cloves, parsley, and shalots. When they have remained in this about half an hour, take them out and soak them in batter made of white wine, a little oil, and a little salt, and fry them of a fine colour. You may likewise strew over them crui ib9 of bread mixed with the yolks of egg^. Serve them up with plain melted butt^, and garnish with parsley.

To fricassee Calps Feet.

Boil your feet; take out the bones, and cut the meat in thin slices, put it into a tossing-pan, with half a pint of good gravy; boil them a little, and then put in a few morels, a teaspoonful of lemon pickle, a little mushroom powder, or pickled mushrooms, the yolks of four eggs boiled hard, and a little salt; thicken with a little butter rolled in flour; mix the yolk of an egg with a tea-cupful of good cream, and half a nutmeg grated; put it in, and shak^ it over the fire, but do not let it boil, it will curdle the milk. Garnish with lemon and curled parsley.

Stoeeihreads. *

Half-boil them, and stew them in a white gravy; add creamy flour, butter, nutmeg, salt, and white pepper.

Or do them in .brown sauce seasoned.

Or parboil them, and then cover them with crumbs, herbs, and seasoning, and brown them in a Dutch oven. Serve with butter, and mushroom catsup, or gravy.

To roast Sweetbreads. Parboil two large ones; when cold, lard them with b^con, and roast them in a Dutch oven. For ^auce, plain butter and mushroom catsup.

VSMISOK. (Btt

Su^^bre^d Ragout* CuttliiDl Aaat the sise of a w«liiut« wash wd try then^ tbenlry dievi pf « fip« brpw^; ipQurtoArsm. a gdaflgf«rjr» aeafloned with salt, pepper, allspice, and either mushroaaaa, or mushroom catsup: strain, and thicken with butter and a little flour. Yo« may add truttes^ moiBls, and ¦Mislirodmd,

Kitlneyg.

Chop veal kidney, and some of the fiit j likewue a littik leek or onion, pepper, and salt; roll it np wUb aa egg into halls;, and fry them*

VENISON.

To keep Venison.

Venison is reckoned the choicest meat. in use, and is sftener spoUed than any other. The eooks generally get the blane, but the fault lies mostly witih tlie pavk- keeper, for want of preeaation in killing them. This ought to be done as soosi SB it is day -light, when it could be effected immediately; fisv the backs always herding together, and when first they ani loused, standing to look about them, the keeper being ready on the spot, would be enabled to take a sore aim. It is tmpos« aible for meat to keep that is hunted for three, four, and very often five hours, which is too often the case.

The haunch is the finest joint. The keeper should bring it in as early in the morning after killing as pos^ble. There is a kernel in the fat the same as a leg of mutton, that should be taken ottt, and the part wiped very dry, and a little ground pepper and ginger rubbed on' the inside, which will keep tht ffies from it; it is the best keeping meat of any, particularly if what is mentioned be strictly attended to.

The neok is the next best joint, which requires nothing bot wiping it well with a clean dry doth.

The shoulder and breast are generally used in two or Are* i«y« Smp a pas^.

04 DOMESTIC COOKERY.

The keeper in general draws the shoulder^ which is sure to spoil the neck. The shoulder should not be taken off until quite cold, you may then raise it the same as a shoulder of mutton*

I

To roast a HmiKch, Neck, or Shoulder of Venison. .

A haunch of buck will take three hours and a half, or three quarters, roasting: doe, only three hours and a quarter. Venison should be rather under than over done.

Spread a sheet of white paper with butter, and put it over the fat, first sprinkling it with a little salt; then lay a coarse paste on -strong paper, and cover the venison; tie it with fine packthread, and set it a distance from the fire, which must be a good one. Baste it often; ten minutes before serving take off the paste, draw the meat nearer the fire, and baste it. with butter and a good deal of fiour, to make it froth up well.

Grav\ for it should be put into a boat, and not into the dish, (unless there is none in the venison,) and made thus: Cut off the fat from two or three pounds of a loin of old mutton, and set in steaks on a gridiron for a few minutes just to brown one side; put them into a sauce-pan with a quart of water, cover quite close for an hour, and simmer it gently; then uncover it, and stew till the gravy is reduced to a pint. Season with salt only. Currant jelly sauce must be served in a boat, which make thus: beat some currant jelly and a spoonful or two of port wine, and set it over the fire till melted. Where jelly runs short, put more wine, and a few lumps of sugar to the jelly, and melt as above. Serve with French beans.

To boil a Haunch or Neck of Venison.

Having let it lie in salt for a week, boil it in a doth well floured; and allow a quarter of an hour*s boiling for every pound it weighs. For sauce, you may boil some cauliflowers, pulled into little sprigs, in milk and water, with some fine white cabbage, and some turnips cut in dice; add some beet* root cut into narrow pieces, about an inch and a half long, and half an inch thick. Lay a sprig of cauliflower, and some of the turnips mashed with some cream and a little butter. Let your cabbage be boiled, and then beat in a sauce-pan with a apiece of butter and salt. Lay that next the cauliflower, then

VEKISONr 95

the turnips^ then the cabbage, and so on till the dish be full. Place the beet-root here and there, according to your taste. Have a little melted butter. This is a very fine dish, and looks very pretty.

The haunch or neck, thus dressed, eats well the next day hashed with gravy and sweet sauce.

To stew a Shoulder of Venison.

Let the meat hang till you judge proper to dress it; then take out the bone, beat the meat with a roUin^-pin, lay some slices of mutton fat that have lain a few hours in a little port wine fmong it, sprinkle a little pepper and allspice over it in fine powder, roll it up tight, and tie it. Set it in a stew-pan that will only just hold it, with some mutton or beef gravy not strong, half a pint of port wine^ and some pepper and allr spice. Simmer it close covered, and as slow as you can, for three or four hours. When quite tender, take off the tape, set the meat on a dish, and strain the gravy over it. Serve with currant jelly sauce.

This is the best way to dress this joint, unless it is very fat, and then it should be roasted. The bone should be stewed with it.

To fry Venison.

Bone your venison, if it be either the neck or breast; but if it be the shoulder, the meat must be cut off the bone in slices. Make some gravy with the bones; then take the meat and fry it of a light brown; take it up, keep it hot before the fire. Put some flour to the butter in the pan, and keep stirring it till it be quite thick and brown. Take care it does not bum. Stir in half a pound of fine sugar beat to powder, put in the gravy that came from the bones, and some red wine. Make it the thickness of a fine cream; squeeze in the juice of a lemon» warm the venison in it, put it in a dish, and pour the sauce over it.

Venison Steaks, plain broiled.

Cut the chops from the fat end of the neck; triui them the same as mutton chops, except cutting away the fat, as that is reckoned the most fiivourite part; do not put them on the grid*

M DOMBSTlC COOKERY.

iron unttf ottier paits of (tie dinner is dished np; season th^m ^ith wliite pepper and salt; have the dish very hot; keej^ some back to send up a second time; pttt no gravy im the dish.

To hi^k button.

Slice it and warm it with its own grayy, or sonie witJiout seasoning. It should only be warmed through, not boiled. If there is no fat leJf^, cut some slices o^ mutton fat, set it on the fire with a little port wine and sugar, simmer till dry; then put to the hash, and it will eat as well as the fat of the venison*

To pot Venison.

Rub the venison with vinegar, if stale, and let it lie an hour; dry it with a cloth, and rub it all over with red wine; season with pepper, salt, and beaten mace, and put it on an earthen dish: pour over it half a pint of red wine, and a pound of butter, and set in the oven. If a shoulder, put a coarse paste over it, and bake it all night in a brown bread oven. When it comes out, pick it clean from the bones, and beat it in a marble mortar, with the fat from the gravy. If not sufficiently seasoned, add more seasoning and clarified butter, and keep beating it till it is a fine paste. Then press it hard down into the pots, and pour clarified butter over it.

To dress a Faum.

A fawn, like a sucking pig, should be dressed almost as soon as killed. When very yoUng. it is trussed, stuffed, and spitted the same way as a hare. But they are better eating when of the size of a house lamb; and are then roasted in quarters; the hind quarter is most esteemed.

They must be put down to a very quick fire, and either basted all the time they are roasting, or be covered with sheets of fat bacon: when done, baste it with butter, and dredge it with a little salt and flour, till you make a nice froth on it.

TURTLE. n

TURTLE.

^f the Turtle.

1 HIS fine araphibioas animal, the Testudo Midas of Litinaeusy ftod called in England the common or giant turtle, wliich is a native of the West Indies and South America, is said sometimes to attain the enormous siae of three yards in length, and two in breadth, weighing from five to eight hundred pounds. The female digs holes in the sand, where she annually deposits more than a thousand eggs; on which she broods during the night, though the young are chiefly hatched by the sun. Many of these eggs, however, become a prey to ravenous birds, ^c^ Turtles are Commonly t^en, while on land, by turning them on their backs; or, wheii in the water, pursuing them in boats, and killing them with a sort of spear similar to what is employed for harpooning whales. They are thus hunted, in both their elements, chiefly for the sake of their highly-esteem^ flesh, which certainly constitutes one of the richest and most delicious foods in nature.

Genvifu West-India Method of Dressing a Turtle.

Take the turtle out o£ the water the night before it is meant to be dressed, and leave it on its back; next mornings cat off* its head, and hang it up by the hind (ins for all the blood to drain out. This being accomplished, cut out the cal« lipee, or belly, quite round, with as much of the meat to it te possible, and raise it up; it must then be thrown into spring ^ster and salt. The bowels and lungs being now cut away,* ^d the latter washed very clean fi-om the blood; the former, ^ith the maw, being slit open,* and likewise completely cleansed, are to be boiled till tender in a large pot of water.^ Then take off the inside skin, cut it in pieces of two or three inches long. In the mean while, having prepared a good veal broth, or stock, by stewing a very large knuckle of veal in ^vee gallcms of water, with turnips, onions, carrots, celery, dnd two or three bundles of sweet herbs, till half the liquid is tasted, carefully scumming all the time, and straining it ofl'^ F t the fins in^ a 8t0w*pan, and cover them witb some of thi*

4 o

M DOMESTIC COOKERY.

veal stock: adding an onion, and sweet herbs of all sorts, tbe whole chopped fine; with half a quarter of an ounce each of beaten mace and cloves, and half a pounded or grated nutm^. When these iiave gently stewed till tender, they are to be taken out; and, a pint of Madeira wine being poured into the liquid, it is to continue sirtimering for a quarter of an hour. The whites of six eggs beihg now beaten up with the juice of two lemons, the h'quor is to be added; and the whole boiled up, run through a flannel bag, and again fnade hot: when tbe fins, having been washed very clean, are to be once more put in. A bit of butter being melted at the bottom of a stew-pan, the white meat, or callipee, is to be gently dressed till nearly ten* der. The lungs aiid heart are to be covered with veal stock; additional onion, herbs, and spice; these, as well as the fins, are to be stewed till tender. Take out the lungs, strain the liquor ofi^, thicken it, and put in a bottle of Madeira, with a high seasoning of salt and Cayenne pepper. Put in the lungs and white meat, and stew them up gently for a quarter of an hour. Make some forcemeat balls of the white meat of the turtle, instead of veal, as for Scotch coUops. If the tiirtle have any eggs^ scald them: if not, take twelve large yblks of eggs, made into egg balls. Have the callipash, or deep sh^U, done round the edges with paste; season it,' on the inside, wiA Cayenne {Pepper, salt, and a little Madeira wine; bake it half an hour; and then put in the lungs, with the white mekt, forcemeat, and eggs, and bake it another half hour. Take the bones, and tluree quarts of the veal broth, with an oniDil», a bundle of sweet herbs, and two blades of beaten maoe; stew it half an hour, strain it through a sieve, thicken it with fiour and butter, add half a pint of Madeira, stew it half an hoar, and season it to palate with salt and Cayenne pepper: this is the true turtle soup. Put a knife between the meat and shell af the callipee, and fill it full of forcemeat; season it all over with salt and Cayenne peeper, sweet herbs, a shalot chopped fine, and add a little Madeira; put a paste round the edge, and bake it an hour and a half. Take the entrails and piaw,' put them in a stew-pan with a little veal broth or stock, a bundle of sweet herbs, and two blades of finely-beaten mace; ^hicken with a little butter rolled in flour; stew them gently, for half an hour; season with Cayenne pepper and salt^ beat

ijBpa.leason ^illi tlie yo^ks of two eggs, and half a. pint of ^•cream; put it in» and keep stirring it one way till it boils up. The turtle, being thus coi)[} letely dressed, is to be sent to table in the following, manner- ^t( the top, the callipee or belly; in the mid()le, the soup; eoi the two, sides of the soup, .'the fricassee jtnd the fii s; and, at the bottom, callipasb, . -or the delicate green faU The fins, if put by, ii\ the liquor, are esteemed excellent eating when cold. Though this process may appear somewhat t^ious and even conplicated, ^t is to be (Considered, tliat it includes the entire preparation of all the ^various parls of a large animal; pf one, too,, on which, froqi its superior nature, f^&tra)Drdinary attentions are thought to be not unworthily^ bestowed. .The aboye is the general method of ^dressing JLurtl^ in the West Indies; where, certainly, iliej^fi Js themost experiefice*

Capital Engtisk M^hoi of dressing a Turtle.

Though turtles are« in England, almost confined to grai)d;public dinners, and coasequently seldom wanted to be dress^ .in private families, instances are kn^wn to have sometime tKxurred, where persons, receiving turtles as presents from friends abroad, have been constrained to. sell . them to tavernkeepers, for whatever trifle they might thipk proper to give, 1 rather than inc{ir the extravagant charge required by profes.^ional cooks, and being uninformed how to dre^s a turtle themselves. Indeed, there are no vast.nun)iber, even of professional cooks who will not derive additional knowledge from fi .j)eru8al of the following instructions for, dressing and serving up, in a most capitjri style, this grand oiyect of culinary art; called, spmetiipes, .by co.oks,» though npt very classically, the t^lng of fish! The. flesh of this amphibious animal, for we ^an scarc^y venture to denominate it a fish, is very deservedly esteemed*; particularly the belly, or. under part, which js of a . delicate white cplofir resembling veal^ and called thet^allipee; except, indeedf.by the. genuine amateur of epicurisni; to whom the' delicious green fat, or callipash, is.;5till dearer than even ' the callipee. To dress, in the best manner, a turtle t)f from sixty to seventy pounds weight, the size in which they arc iQost generally sent as presents to England, these familiar iustructious will .be found to suffice,- Either haDg-upt ie tur

tpO DOMESTIC CnoKERY.

tie by tTie hintl fios over night, aqd.cut off its \\twi) as direcMI b^ tlie West India JDethoU^.and whicb is probably the hertr^ or, put a wQigbt on tb^baokof the ^nlmaj 8tiffieie«t to make .it extend itself, and ioimediatety cut off the head and fins, Jtt the former case\ the aniToal having bled freely, abd being ttoW quite dead^ and deprived only of its headi cut the belly stMll clean off, sever Jlie fins at the joints, take away the ivhole cf the white meat, and put it into spring water. Draw, oleaos^* and wash all the entrails; scald the fins, the hea4» and the belly shell; and saw the shell all rocuid aboat^two inches dee /» scald it, and clit it in pieces: put the shell, with tbeiibs and head, into apot, covering them with veal broth or sljoek^ abd add* iug shatots, thyme^ savory, marjoram, parsle^^asmiall.quaiitBtjr of basil, a quarter of an ounce e&chof cloves and mac^j andfailii^ meg; the herbs all chopped or minced, and tlie. spieea ^ountfcd, verf finf. .After stewing them till tendec* ^ak^ = 4 ut tbe meat) and strain the liquor through a sieve* Ctit the fins,ii two or three pieces; take alt the brawn, as this ment i^ cabled, fromthe bones and cut it in pieces about two inches equar#; and, if there be a real green fat, cut that also in pieeea. iMelt jsonie butter at the bottom of a stew pan, put it film Uriule meat, and siran^er it gently over & slow Are tilt tbre^ purUt done: take it out of tlie liquor, and cot it in pie4^s «^Qntl} » f)igness of a goose*s egg. In the mean time, cover the bowela^ fungs, heart, &c. with veal stock or broth, adding herbn 'and spices as before, and stew them till tender. The iif\'er f^u^t-Be 'boiled' atways. by itself; being often bitter, potwithstandia^ every precaution^ and uot tending to improve the ooromrof Ite other entrailq, which should be kept a^ white as possible.! • TM entrails being all don^e, taken up, and cut m pieces^, fitmia^itf the liquor through a sieve. Melt a pound of butter in a large stew-pan, big enough to ' hold the ftieati gradual!^ birring in half a ^ound of flopr, till* they aYe tfmeothly nnitecH; tbe^ put in the liquor, and keep stirring the whole till thoroughly incorporated. Shonld it prove at aUlitmpy,dt miret be parsed through a sieve. . In the different sor ^of meats' are to be introduced a great number of forcemeat balk, av well as egf bcill%, and even the turtle's eggs, fifhonld there be any. 1V the whofe must be added three pints of Madeira wine^ a high seasoning of long and Cayenne peppers, with salt, and the jnitiftrof i^

ttrRTLK. * 1«1

ttmfieat lemons. The !c^p shell shodld be baled, whether

fined or not, at the same ime^, but if not, the meat must be

flther bMwned iri the bten or ^*th a hbt ironl T^e'sheTl or

iHellr being tbns fiHed, the rest is tobe tfer^ed upmtureen^I

In tiUuigU(^ the shells and tur^ns, a littfe f^t'sboufd always 1^

pkioed at tbfe bottom, the li^an in the cfenfre, and egg and

forcemeat-baits with part 6f the entrails on th^ fop. ' Wfeere,

fwm the Tftst quantity of green fkt, or fbr any other reason, a

gtftnd calKpttsh'is required to be separately served up, the

kpgt sbeU shonM havfe an omamented rtifsed crost covefino-,

pasted roiiAdi lAe sides as well as on the top, glazed with eo-g,

iiiiAklked ri» wMdi It' should be plaiced with the soup, eg^

Wb,Mft(^lf like the meat itathe tureeiis. ' A cattipee, too, may

besepanitl!ty9ehred npin a siihilar grand style, by first scaldl ilig'afew'pMnds of th^ under part, tben takfng out the shout ft^, ttiid Wen sttffBn^the cavity with its own highly seasoned

hrcHaedi; sfcwiirgf'it 5n good gravy or stock, With a' pint of

Madeira, 'fhe'jniee of a letnon, some sweet herbs, shatots^ a

ck f eof gaifte-, soriie spices, Cayenni^ peppei*, and salt When

Hesriy dofie pot the! meat into dnoflhcr steW-p'an, with some olf

tbe^boikd cntmUs'and egg bdlls,-' adding a little thickening

•f'flour'akid butter to the liquor, boil it up a'littTe, strain it in^

dd^ «W?w the' %hote till the meat is tender, and the liquor

B^Hy Vended \o a jelly. It may then be served iip either iii

MmUmAP lihell, ot a deep disK, ortiaftien tally pasted round^

eoif^f^ and bak^d, exactly in the S^ame manner as'the callipash '

lAde«il,'Smne 'bf the ablest qooks prefer a dish to (he shell

Mr botii' callipash and callipee. CustonV however, leads the

f kure-t^ lexpect part of his principal treat in its own shell •

MKMigll/certainljr, 4t is often badly baked.

J

.; Though the foii3 ^o«af^ instruettons contain the ia6it grand «id:fii«faiosabietBt^le of dressing aM serving a turtle, the foilowini^ olddreeeipti fitoiti a' vahiable manuscript collection, fenaesly beloDglngttor theCoutftess Dowager of -Shaftesbury, ¦myt serve to assist tbl»e who wootd wish to dress it well withdBftaoy'Vimecessary parade, trouble, or expence- Put a weight of any sort on the bach of tb^ turtle, just enough to make it oteiid itsclfi and unmcdiately out off the head and fina.

i02 DOMltStlC GOOKl^ltf .

»

')Vhefl it hasil led .freely, and is quite clead, scale it tiU ibe outside skin is all cotue off; and then, cutting the turtle opea .all round where the upper i^nd lower shells join^ reserve the f'deep part) which is the uppermost, for baking the rest of the turtle as soon as it is properly prepared. In ordler to do this» first make a very savoury forcemeat, with scraped veal, anchovies, long or white peppe^^ mace, nutmegs salt. smaS .x nions. l^a!rslc^, street maljorata). yoiks of eggS) and grated f lemon peel. These tespCK^tive ingredients are to be proportioa* •«d to thetasti^^ the party, and the wh^le quantity must be:^egulated bytfae'size of the turtle. Part of theliver^ lights »x rlung»i «»1 W^eils. of the turtle when properly cleansed .land scalded* '4Bre to: be moety minced and; incorporated amoBg ftbe above articles, in making Iheforcemeirt with as much goo{d itnountaiuv^^rinFeas will r«:ider it palataUe and lielp the gravy, ^hen stifft the fish that cleaves to tlie deep shell with some of Ahe forcemeat, and make the rest of h into long ^and rouQ4 . Bavoury balls, tsdtingxsare that they ateffar more higMy season»«d than forcemeat jui*gener9l. Make a paste cf( flout and water, and put it ovettbe-'shell. las well as toAhe hoUow part whic^ .the throat of the tinimal« occupied^ to keep in the gravy while it Is stewing in the oveq-; as it must do, for two hours or more. according totheisiase of the turtle. Before sending it to ha baked. A little clear veal botth nPMt be put in^ the better to i^raw the gravy out of Ure turtle. All this being done, cut the soft part of the turtle s shell, with th& flesh whiph belongs to it. into handsome pieces, and ptew them over a clear cbar- . coal fire, with some of the fins, liver, and bowels; and season them high, as before directed. When, they are stewed quite slender, and the other pariof the turtle is returned ^ from the oven, mil them all together into the deep shell; and. garnishX ingthe dvdb wdth the £ns. batd yoiks of. eggs, forcemeat balls.: and small patties made with some of the forcenteat. send it to 'table. If the liquor be not quite rich enough on coming fnna . the oven^ addaufficient Indian soy to suit the palate, j ust before serving It up. This receipt, with the best West Indian, and English methods^ will together enable any person, who possesses a tolerable skill in cookery, to dress a turtle of any mag^ . I^itude. either, in the plaineiit or wost c«ipital style.

PORK.

Preliminary Observations. ' " • .

• ' ' • ?   I

Hogs are kept to a larger size than/ porkenii and tote aibo differendy cut up. The chine cr .baqk-bdne n cnt down ooeach tide, the whole length, and is a primr pan either boiled or roasted.

The tides of the hog are made into haeon, and the inside' it cut out with very littte meat to die bone. On eadh side there i8alsi^'q»re«rib;'Which is MuaUy divided into lvo one tweel'bone and a blade*bone. The baoon it the whole oottide, and contains a fore-leg and a ham^ or the hind^eg; but if left with the bacon, it is odled a gaoMiion. There are a]s4» gvisN kintt Hog's lard is the inner fat of the baeon-faog. PiriJed pork is made of the flesh of the bogj at well as baeen. -^ (

Porkers are not to old as -hogs; their flesh is whiter- and leit rich, bel it is not so tender. It is divided intafbnr ^uluv teitw Tbe fore*qnarter has the spring or foie-leg, the teekxie or neck, ' the ^Mure-rib and griskin. The hind has tbe leg and'theloiii. Pigs' feet make various good dishes^ and should becut off before the legs are cured. Observe the same of the ears. The bacon*hog is sometimes scalded to take off the haif, and sometimes singed. The porker is always scalded.

Porki^ould be kept well wiped, and the parts that are intended for roasting should always be sprinkled with salt, before they ate pat - down. The difference that this makes in die tavottr is surprising.

N. B. In cooking povk, take particulav cdre it be done enough; ether useate underdone ave unpltesaAt,' but pork is sbtolately intea^aMr.

Tor^a^ajjeg^ Pork,

Choose a small legof fine young' perk:* cut a slit in tbe knuckle with a sharp knife; and fiU the space with a^e and onion chopped, and a little pepper and'tak. iWhea half-Jdenb, score the skin in slices, but do not cut deeper than the outer rind.

Apple^sauee and potatoes should be served to eat with it.

i04 DOMESTIC COOKERY.

Leg of Park roasted without the Skin, called Mock Goose*

Parboil it, take off the skin, and then put it down to roast; baste it with butter, and make a savoury powder of finely minced, or dried ^nd powdered aage, ground black pepper, salt, and some bread crumbs, rubbed together through a cul« lender: you may add to this a little very finely minced oni^n; sprittkle it with this when it is almost roasted; put half a pint of made gravy into the dish, and goose stuffing under the knuckle skin, or garnish the dish with balls of it fried ot boiled.

To bail a Leg of Pork.

Salt it eight or ten days: when it is to be dressed, let it lie half an hour in cold water to make it white: weigh it, and allow a quarter of an hour for every pound, and half an hour over, from the time it boils up: skim it as soon as it boils, and frequently after. Allow water enough. Save some of it to make peas soup. Some boil it in a very nice doth, floured; which gives tlie pork a very delicate look. It should be small and of a fine grain.

Serve peas-pudding and turnips with it.

To boil a Leg of Pork another way.

When you cook a leg, wash and scrape it as dean as po8« sible; take care it does not boil fast; if it does, the knuckle will brefJc to pieces before the thick part of the meat is warm through: a leg of seven pounds takes nearly three hours very slow simmering. Skim your pot very carefully, and when you take the meat out of the boiler, scrape it dean.

Some cooks, when pork is boiled, score it in diamonds, and take out every other square, and thus present a retainer to the eye to plead for them to the palate; a leg of nice pork, nicely salted, and nicely boiled, is as favourite a cold relish as cold ham, especially if, instead of cutting into the middle when hot, and so letting out its juices, you cut it at th^ knuckle.

Observe. - If it is not done enough, nothing is more dis« agreeable; if too much, it not only loses its colour fmd flavour^ but its substances become sofl, like a jelly.

YOtLK. 106

Linn and Neck if Park.

Roast these joints. Cut the skin of the loin across, at distances of half an inch, with a sharp penknife.

To roa$t a collared Neck of Pork.

Let the meat be boned, then strew the inside pretty wdl with bread crumbs^ chopped sage^ a very little beaten allspice, some pepper and salt, all mixed together. Roll it np very clo8e,%ind it tight, and roast it gently. An hour and a half, or a little more, according to the thickness, will roast it enough.

A loin of pork with the fat and kidney taken out and boned, and a spring of pork boned, are very nice dressed in the lame way. .

Shoulders and Breatii of Pork.

Pat them into pickle, or salt the shoulder as a leg: when re7 nice, they may be roasted.

Spring or Forehand of Pork.

Cat out the bone; sprinkle salt, pepper, and dried eage, over the inside; bat first warm a little butter to baste it, and then flour it; roll the pork tight, and tie it; then z^oaat by a hanging ja^. About two hours will do it.

A Chine of Pork.

If this piece be parted down the back-bone, so asto have hot one side, a good fire will roast it in two hours; if not parted, three hours.

N. B. Chines are usually salted and boiled.

Spare-Rib.

There is generally so little meat on a 8pare»rib» that if yoa have a large fierce fire, it will be burnt before it is warm thnragh; joint it nicely, and crack the ribs across as yba do ribs of lamb.

When you put it down to roast, lay the tbidL end nearest to the fire; doat on some flour, and baste it with a little butter; dry a doMn sage leaves, and rub them through a hair neve, and put them into the top of a pepper-box, and about a

4 »

quarter of an hour b^CMre the nMlkdotie; baste it with batter^ and dust in the polverised aage.

Make it a general .rule never to pour gravy over any thinnf that IS roasted; by so doings the dredging^ &c. is washed off, and it eats inai{^id*

Some people carve « qMire«rib by cutting out in slices the thick part at the bottom of the bones: when this meat is cut away, the bones may be easily separated^ and are esteemed very sweet picking. S^

Park GrUkin.

This is usually very hard; the best way to prevent which, 14 to put it into as ipuch cold water as will cover it, and let it boil up; then instantly take it off, and put it into a Dutch oven; a very few minutes will do it. Remember to rub butted over it, and flout i^ before you put it to the fire.

Blade^bone qf Park*

' This piece is taken from the bacon-hog; the less meat left

on it, in moderation, the belter. It is to be broiled; and when

just done, piffiered and salted. Put to it a piece of batter,

and a tea#«poQirfiil of mustard; attd serve it covered, qoidi^.

This is a Somersetshire dish.

• • •

To dr€89 Park as Lamb.

For this purpose take a yisnng pig of four or five months old; cut up the forb-^uarlef for reasti^g as you do lasnb, and trass the shank close. The other parts will make delicaie pidcled pork; or steaks, pies, &c.

To broil Park Steaks.

Cut your steaks off the neek or loin, about half an inch tfuek« When your gridiron is heC; rub it with fireA suev Isy on your steaks, and keep tturning them as quieh as possible: if 3^ do not take great save, the fat that drops from them iaie the fire will smoke and spoil them; but this may be in S g^eat ssessuse .prsvented, fay placing your geidiras on aslsiil* When thiey sre enough, pat a ittfe good giwry to them; sad m si«ter ia five then an sgreesUe flsspoar, «lMw o««r a link 99ga ibtsd *«ery fi^Sb Xhe only ssoce is mnstanL

» piekk P9rk. Hflt^ and pound fine, €imt ounors «f «a)tpetie, « pound cf Mttve sugary «n oanceof «al-pninel» and a IHde conmdn «iit s flprMk the poi4c with «dt, and drain it tw«nty^in^ houn: then nilMnth Aeabove; fiack tbe ptecea tight In attniA deep tab, filling up the spaces with common salt PUce large pebbles on the porky to prevent St from swimming in the pickle wbiefa tfaesdt i«^ produce. If kept from air, ft w31 centtntte WjW^jbr trwo years*

To flMir Smu^€0*

duip 4ft «nd lean pofktofeCher; aeaaon.it widi sage, pep*per, and salt, and you may add two or.tibee beniea «f «tt«^ce: half fill hog's guts that have been soaked and made extremely dean; or theineatisniybe kept in a very small pan ckielif wavered; and so loHed and dusted with « very little iearheftm 4t m Med. They mnat be pricked wilh a feiii bdbie«key «re 4n6sedy *at tikej will bmnt.

6tfpre en^ifowedTed cabbage; or toash potatoes put m « faai, troiaqi whk asdaoiandery and ganiidh wilih ithedbove.

Ih mmke Sammgm mioAer nmiff.

3Wae Ate gmertHy tbade from tlie trimmings t^ the haaae ud different parts of the pig; the Alt and kan aliould be £ ail equal quantity; it should be first cut fine with* a knife, and ill the sinews carefully i^en out, liien finish chopping with a dnpping iBRilb; wim .verjr fine, aeaaon it with pepper and Mk, tt lillle (fine apsoe^ and a«me'Choppediage: the sage aboald be dtopped fMWtiDulaiiy fine: wben adl are weM miiied, put the Mat in akins «hr pcM: if in pels ft should be pvessed down very tight, and a little pepper and salt sprinkled overtiietop; the pole are the handiest for family use, as it will keep longer; when wanted, roll them up and fry 'them in clarified butter.

A% tmuUmt Sm»mge4o^aa wU.

Beaaon ikt ^«nd kan pevk wi h aome salt, aaltpettfe, 'blaek fKpper,'asd»allBpfoe, all in fine powd«r, «nd v«b into the meat; the sixth day fiat it«nall; and nm with it some ^led shalot ^t gatific, wAnewi possible. ilaiy« 'ready ^n oX'-gut that ^bas l een scoured, salted, and soaked well, and fill it with th^

108 DOMESTIC COOKBRT.

above stuffing; tie up the ends, and hang it to smoke as yon would hams^ but first wrap it in a fold or two of old an^slin. It must be high-dried Some eat it without boiling, but others like it boiled first The skin should be tied in difierent places, so as to make each link about eight or nine inches long.'

To fry Sausages,

Cut them in single links, and fry them in ftesh butter; then take a slice of bread, and fry it a good brown in the butter you fried the sausages in, and lay it in the bottom of your dish; put the sausages on the toast, in four parte, and lay poached eggs betwixt them; pour a little good melted butter round them^ and serve them up.

Bologna Sausages.

Take a pound of beef suet, a pound of pork, a pound of bacon, fat and lean together, and the same quantity of beef and veal. Cut them small, and chop them fine. Take a small handful of sage, pick off the leaves, and chop them fine with a few sweet herbs. Season pretty high with pepper and salt Take a large gut well cleaned, and fill it Set on a saucepan of water, and when it boils, pu) it in, having first pricked the gut to prevent ite bursting. Boil it gently an hour, and then lay it on clean straw to dry.

Oxfin^d Sausages.

Chop a pound and a half of pork, and the same of veal, cleared of skin and sinews; add three quarters of a pound of beef-suet; mince and mix them; steep the^crumbs of a penny loaf in water, and mix it with the meat, with also a litde dried sage, pepper, and salt.

SavalMfs.

Take three pounds of young pork, free from bone and skin; salt it with one ounce of saltpetre, and a pound of common salt, for two days: chop it fine, put in three tea-spoonfuls of pepper, a dozen sage leaves chopped fine, and a pound of grated bread; mix it well, fill the guts^^lnd bake them half an hour in a slack oven: they are good eidier hot er cold.

PORIt. 109

To itMa Sucking Pig.

The moment the pig is killed^ put it into cold water for a few minotes; then rub it over with a little resin beaten extremely amaU, and pot it into a pail of scalding water half a minute; take it out» lay it on a table^ and pull off the hair aa quickly as poaaible; if any part does not come off, put it in again. When quite clean, waah it wdl with warm water, and then in two or three cold waters, that no flavour of the redn may remain. Takeoff all the feet at the first joint; make a dit down the belly, and take out the entrails: put the liver, heart, and lights, to the feet Wash the pig well in cold water, dry it thoroughly, and fold it in a wet cloth to keep it firom the air.

To rooit a Sucking Pig.

If you can get it wlken just killed, this is of great advantage. Let it be scalded, which the dealers usually do; then put some sage, crumbs of bread, salt, and pepper into the belly, and sew it up. Observe to skewer the legs back, or the under part will not crisp.

Lay it to a brisk fire till thoroughly dry; then have ready some butter in a dry cloth, and rub the pig with it in every part. Dredge as much flour over it as will possibly lie, and do not touch it again till ready to serve; then scrape off the floor very carefully with a blunt knife, rub it well with the buttered doth, and take off the head while at the fire; also take out the brains, and mix them with the gravy that comes from the pig. Then take it up; and without withdrawing the spit, cot it down the back and belly, lay it into the dish, and diop die sage and bread quickly as fine as you can, and mix them with a large quantity of fine melted butter that has very litde flour. Put the sauce into the dish after the pig has been split down the back, and garnished with the ears and the two jaws; take off the upper part of the head down to the SDout.

In Devonsiure it is served whole, if very small; the head only being cut off to garnish as above.

Curious method of roasting a Pig.

The pig is not to be scalded; but, being drawn and washed, must be spitted with the hair on, and put to the fire, yet not so

^

\

tV9 DOMBSXICriEOOKBRY.

as to scorch. When itts dMifc H fiiMir r^asted^ and the skin appears blistered from tke flMh« Ihe teir And afcio is to be pulled dean awajr with the kaiid leaving aU, the fiit and flash perf(^ybare. Than, withaknif^, lbs fleik is ta be secMehad or scored down to the bonsai said aacsedittgly wvll basted witfs fiiesh butter and cream yar r noderately wailli» and dnedgedl plentifttily with fine bread cmmbs, awtaaiai sugar, and aalt» asixed h ^ together. Thus baaUugan 4i«dgpng, and dredging an bastings must be ix Bstantly iqipUed* in timis, till the en* tire ^esK.ia oovei^ a fuM inch ditept wheii^ Ihe meat being fa\\y romted^ the pig is «a be wnrved ^ mhdd. With the nsnel sauce for a fig roasted ia the coalman way. In a ?iarf aM manuscript collection, this is stated to be a peculiarly ddaoiaoflB as well as curious dish.

Tb bdit u SmMi^

Lay yaair pig tnid adnii w«ll butuered, fhyar it aft ^m&t, rub aofloe b«tter 0R the fsg, ssid aand it to tbe oiMm. Whan yakilhinkitiaibmtigh, tsiseityAlt^ nib«t« 7ter wj«b abMtewid doth, and put it into the oven again till it is dry { tlien take ft asrti, lay it in a dish, and cot it tap. Sknn «iF tlus Ikt fitim the dish tt ms baked in, and some good gr«ry wiH vemaHi at Mi« bottom. Pat this ta aKtlle ynml Ifrsvy, w4th a piaoe ^ baffiber railed in 'Boor, ami bmllt np ivieh dib bmias,* Aim poulr 4t kita a dish, mid mik it weR with the ^age that eames -oift ^ tfate focfiy of tke pig« ^9ervie It wp kdt Ho trfiAfe wMi a^le-saowe andtxmstnd,

To^lhtr a Smthhtg Pig.

Bone ymm pig, smd than ir^ ft M aver with -pitippffe mid mlt baamn fine, ai^isage Invfns^ atid c(i»rM: teitis ehapped smiil. aaU it np Kght, -and AjmA it with afille^ FUl fv» bailer withveft water, pttt in a bonck of 9weet tierba, a few pepper-catio, a4)kMie'or two of mabe, eight mr tan :loves, a fcandfol of Shit, and a pint ff vinegar. When it'boitB, ^ in your pig, and let it boil J^Mi is tender. Then trfie it uf», and when it is almost cold, bind it over again, put it into an earthen pot, and pour the liquor your pig was boiled in upon it. Be ctutf ul^ eovmr it cleee down sA^r you cut mrf tbr use.

/

L0 the M b^il t9l the j i r« pnM jr tender; biA t«ke up the hiait, livery ml M^l^, whev tMp l^ve boiM tm tmvm,

and ihi94 tfimi r«&ber aoidl, Talo out ib# ft#t^ M q Ut tb«i j tbidKen your gr«vy ivitb Aour iMid buttfr f^ piM; il» ypfv iMDO^meKlt • little macf* • fVoe of lem»n« « Uttl« ifi) » and give it. i gratle Ml L%y nppeta roii(i4 the 4Mb ^ pour in your mincemeat, and in the centre the pettitoes.

. To 4f^e9$ PfttUw m^h$r t^^* Utmg foalded twp or three seta oi fast, and the pliidu, life tibem iip» and put tbem inta a atew-pen, with hidf a pint of mm&r, twa eschalbta, a little pardey and aage^ nU ^^A fine; eeaaaa with a falack of naoe, a little grated nutmeg, lAile pepper, aad salt; when Aey ave neatly dene and the liquor oenanmed, minee the pluek, and edd to il; the feet whh a wUte eoolit^ two tea-epoopfkla dt leaion piekie, a taUqifwenfiil ef white wine, and seaaon with cayeme and «ilt: die whole tiii lender end serve with sippets round theu.

Jo mh0 ex^ftkut MffM ^ 0k lh^$ H$^, fi^ Ae head, take out the hrahw, and ent off. Ae cara; than speieUe il wi h eoflUHm salt foreday, anddseKnit: aak it well with oemnsoo salt and sakpistvv three days, then lay the silt aiid liead into a Msall qeantity of water if/t two days. W^ft, oMd bed it till «U the fooneewfll eoae ont; remove Ihim, afid ehop the head as quick as possible; hot first sidn the tongue, and take the skin carefully off the head, to put under and over. Season with pepper, salt, and ft little mace or allspice berries. Put the skin into a small pan, press the cut head in, and put the other skin over; press it down. When osU, it win tern out, end make a kfnd of brawn. If too fat, JMM may put a few bits of lean pork to be prepared the same way. Add ealt and vinegar, and boil these with some of the hiiaaff Ibr a pidde *to keep it in.

Zh rHui P9^b§r'9 JKed.

Choose a fine young head, clean it well, and put bread and sage as for a pig; sew it up tight, and on i string or hanging Jack roast it as a pig, and serve with (he ^me oauce.

113 BOMBSTIC COOKBRT.

To frepare Pig'k Chedc /or

Cut off the skiout, aod clean the head; divide it, and take out the eyes and Inrains; sprinkle the head with salt, and let it drain twenty-four hours. Salt it with common salt and salt'petre: let it lie eight or ten days if to be dressed without stewing with peas^ but less if to be dressed with peas; and it must be washed first, and then simmered till it is tender.

To cottar Pigs Head.

Scour the head and ears nicely: take off tlie hair and snout, and take out the eyes and the brain; lay it into water one night; then drain, salt it extremely well with common salt and saltpetre, and let it lie five days.: Boil it enough to take out the bones; then lay it on a dresser, turning the thick end of one side of the head towards-Ae thin end of the other, to make the roll of equal size; sprinkle it well with salt and white pepper, and roll it with the ears; and if youmpprove, put the pig's feet round the outside when boned, or the thin parts of two cow-heels. Put it into a cloth, bind with a broad tape, and boil it till quite tender; then put a good weight upon it, and do not take off the covering tUl cold. If you choose it to be more like brawn, salt it longer, and let the proportion of saltpetre be greater, and put in also some pieces of lean pork; and then cover it with cow-heel to look like the horn.

This may be kept either in or out of pickle, of salt and water boiled, with vinegar; and is a very convenient thing to have in the house. If likely to spoil, slice and fry it either with or without batter. "

To dry Hog'^ Cheek.

Cut out the snout, remove the brains, and split the head, taking off the upper bone, to make the chawl a good shape: rub it well with salt; next day take away the brine, and salt it again the following day; cover the head with half an ounce of saltpetre, two ounces of bay salt, a little of common salt, and four ounces of coarse sugar. Let the head be often turned; after ten days, smoke it for a week like bacon.

To force Hog's Ears. Parboil two pair of ears, or take some that have been soused: make a forcemeat of an anchovy, some sage, parsley.

PORK. 113

& qnarler of a pouiid of suet chopped, bread crumbs, pepper, and osly a little salt. Mix all these with the yolks of two eggs; raise the skin of the upper side of the ears, and stuff them with the above. Fry the ears in fresh butter, of a fine colour; then pour away the fat, and drain them: make ready half a pint of rich gravy, with a glass of fine sherry, three teaspoonfiils of made mustard, a little bit of flour and butter, a small onion whole, and a little pepper or cayenne. Put this with the ears into a stew-pan, and cover it close; stew it gently for half an hour, shaking the pan often. When done enough, take oat the onion, place the ears carefully in a dish, and poor the sauce over them. If a larger dish is wanted, the meat from two teet may be added to the above.

To dress Pig's Feet and Ears,,

Clean and scald the feet and ears, divide the feet down the niddle, tie them together, put them into a sauce-pan with water enough to cover them well; when- they boil, skim them dean, add some pepper, mace, allspice, salt, two or three onions, and a little thyme. Stew them till tender, and set them by. The next day clear them from fat, and shake the feet (untying them first) a little over the fire, with a little of the liquor they were boiled in, some chopped parsley and shalots, and a little lemon juice. Then rub the feet over with yolk of egg and bread crumbs, and brown them with a salamander. Slice the ears into. long narrow slips, stew them a few minutes in some good gravy, and serve them up with the feet upon them.

To dress Pig's Feet and Ears another waif.

Clean the feet and ears carefully, and soak them some hours, and boil them tender; then take them out; boil some vinegar and a little salt with some of the water, and when cold put it over them. When they are to be dressed, dry them, cut the feet in two, and slice the ears; fry, and serve with butter, nnstard, and vinegar. They may be either done in batter, or only floured.

Pig's Feet and Ears fricasseed.

Put no vinegar into the; pickle, if to be dressed with crcaui. Tut the feet and ears into neat bits, and boil them in a little

4 Q

J

114 DOMESTIC CDOKKRY.

milk; th^n pour that from them, and siinmer m a Htlle Teal bfDth, with a bit x f onioD^ nmce, and lemon peel. Before you serve, add a little cveam, flour, butter, and lalt.

Jelly of Pig's Feet and Ears.

r

Clean and prepare aa in the last article, then boil, them in a very small quantity, of water j.ill every bone can be taken out; throw in half a handful of chopped sage, the same of pairsley, and a seasoning of pepper, salt» and mace in fine powder; simmer till the herbs are scalded, then pour the whole into a melon form.

Pig'i HarsUt.

Wash and dry some liver, sweetbreads, and fat and lean biits of pork, beating the latter with a rolling-pin to make it tiender: season with pepper, salt, sage, and a little onion shred ftne; when mixed, put all into a caul, and fasten it up tight ^tih a needle and thread. Roast it on a hanging jack, or by a string. '

Serve with a sauce of port wine and water, and mustard, just boiled up, aftd put into a dish.

Mock Brawn.

Take the belly^piece of a fine young porker, rub it well with saltpetre, let it remain thus two or three days, wash it clean, and boil it till nearly enough; then take three aeats^ feet, boil them tender, take out all the bones, and roll the feet and belly-pieoe together as closely as possible. Bind the whole vecy tight with a stiong doth and coarse- tape;. in which let it hotl till quite 'tender, and then hang it up without removing tfai^ string or cloth. It is afterward to be kept in a aoasing pickle, nuide as directed in the ne^it article. Some pecsons, in making mock brawn, use a pig*s head, which they seaddn and \m\ with the belly-piece; tiien, cutting the meat from the bones, introduce it blended with the pieces of neats* feet: bat this method, however ingenious, requires much more trouble in pressing and keeping the brawn together; and has,' afler all, little or no advantage in taste, wjien the former is properly managed.

pork: 114

S^we foi' Brawn, PigfT fteads. Feet, Sfc.

Boil a quart of oatmeal^ a quarter ^f a peck of bran^ a sprig or two of rosemary, a sprig of bay, and half a pound of salt^ in two gallons and a half of water, for about h^f an hour; then strain the liquor through a sieve; add f^ little vinegar; and, when colcl, it is. fit for immediate use. Should this sousing liquor be required for brawn, &c. which is wished to be kept good all the year, by putting into it a pint of spirits of wine Mr gpod brandy, for every six quarts of the liquor, it will admirably p^swei the purpose, without imparting to the brawn any brandy taste, T^is is a valuable secret for pre^ serving all sorts of souses and pickling liquors, though much too dear for common use. At sea, and where spirits are cheap, this secret is^ well worth knowing.

« *

Black, or Hog's Puddings.

*

Though hog's puddings are generally so ill manufactured for sale in London, as to form a food by no means very inviting, they are excellent eating whto properly made. We often meet with them at the houses of farmers and country gentlemen in diSmat parts of the united kingdom. They are, as may be supposed of so, general an article,, made in a great variety of ways; from which, however, we shall select only such as we consider to be the best^ commencing with what is the most conuDOD^ yet prpb^^bly nqt the worst. Boil a quantity of what are catted grits, or grots, in sufficient WAter for about half an hour, and.piit them into a tub or pan: on. killing the hc^^ save two tpiafts of the blood, which must be continually stirred til) it beqmfjs;quHe cold; then mix and stir well together the blood and g^ts, . apd sef^sofi them with a taUe-spoonful of salt, some ponpded allspice, a good quantity of pennyroyal, a little thyne^ winlc^r savory, and sweet marjoram, all finely shred. The skins, or gpts, having been in the mean time properly deioped, ai^(:ed» and soaked^ some of the leaf or flair of the hog b next litay to be ^t into very small dice, and plentifully mi^with. the other ingredients, at proper distances, as the whok are $lled iB. Tie them in links when only three parts fnU, and put them in boiling wat^; pricking them as they swell, to prevent their bursting. Boil them gently for alKMrt tt hour, and then put them on straw, or olean doths, to drata

116 DOMESTIC COOKERY.

and dry; after which they may be hung up for use, and will keep good a considerable time.

Soine, who are desirous of producing them in a superior style/ make them as follows:- They soak all the preceding night, before killing the hog, ' about a quart of grits, in as much boiling hot milk; putting in a tolerable quantity of pennyroyal, with some savory, thyme, pepper, mace, nutmeg, and a few cloves, finely powdered. These being mixed with a quart of the blood which has been stirred well with salt till quite cold, are filled into the skins with some of the diced fat, and boiled in the same' manner as already directed. These methods are occasionally diversified^ by adding crumbs of bread soaked in milk or water, a small quantity of finely shred leeks, beef suet, beaten eggs, ^c. according to peculiar fancy, local partialities, or immediate convenience. Before using black puddings, whether broiled or dressed in a Dutch oven, they should be scalded for a few minutes, and afterwards wiped drv.

French Hog's Puddings.

In France, where hog's puddings are in far higher estimation than with us, they are usually made in the following simple manner: Boil a few onions, cut small, in a little water, with some of the fat or flair; when the water has entirely boiled away, cut some fresh flair into small dice, and put it in the stew-pan to the onions, with the blood of the hog, and a fourth part as much cream, seasoned with salt and spices to palate. Stir the whole well together, and fill the skins with them, by means of a shallow funnel, the tube of which is adapted to the size of the gut, which is first cut into the proposed length of the puddings; for, in France, they are not made up in links, being actually sold by measure. The ends being properly tied, with due care, not to endanger their bursting by being over-filled, th^y are put into hot water; and, having boiled for a quarter of an hour, one of them is taken up with a skimmer, and pricked with a pin; when, if blood does not come out, but the fat only, it is a satisfactory proof that they are enough done. They must then be set to cool; and, l)efore they are served up, they must be broiled ott a gridiron.

PORK. 117

White Hog's Puddings.

Wben the akins have been soaked and cleaned as before I, rinse and soak them all night in rose-water, and put into them the following filling: mix half a pound of blanched almonds cut into seven or eight bits, with a pound of grated bread, two pounds of marrow or suet, a pound, of currants, some beaten cinnamon, cloves, mace, and nutmeg, a quart of cream, the yolks of six and whites of two eggs, a little orangeflower water, a little fine. Lisbon sugar, and some lemon peel and citron sliced, and half fill the skins. To know whether sweet enough, warm a little in a panikin. In boiling, much care must be taken to prevent the puddings from bursting. Prick them with a small fork as they rise, and boil them in milk and water. Lay them in a table-cloth till cold.

Hog's Puddings, with Cuirants,

Four pounds of beef suet shred fine, three pounds of grated bread, and two pounds of currants picked and washed . cloves, mace, and cinnamon, of each a quarter of an ounce finely beaten; salt, a pound and a half of sugar, a pint of wme, a quart of cream, a little rose-water, and twenty eggs well beaten, with half the whites. Mix all together, fill clean guts half full, boil them a little, and prick them as they boil. Take them up on dean cloths, and then lay them on a dish.

Hog^s Puddings, with Almonds,

Chop one pound of beef marrow, and half a pound of sweet almonds blanched; beat them fine with a little orange flower, or rose-water, half a pound of grated bread, half a pound of currants, washed and picked, a quarter of a pound of fine sugar, a quarter of an ounce of each of mace, nutmeg, and cinnamon; and half a pint of wine. Mix all together with half a pint of cream, and the yolks of four eggs: iiil the guts half full, tie them up, and boil them a quarter of an hour.



Hog's Lard.

This useful article should be carefully melted in ajar put into a kettle of water and boiled: run it into bladders that haVe been extremely well cleaned. The smaller they are the better

IIB DOMESTIC COOKERY.

the lard keeps; as, after the air ttaches it, it becomes rank. Put in a sprig of roiseinary when. melting.

This l^ing a most. useful article for frying fishy it should be prepared with care. Mixed with butter, it makesi fine cmai.

To cure Hams.

Hang them a day or two; then. sivrinUe tbem wjjbb ^ UMm

salt, and drain them another day; pound an ounce and.a.helf

pf saltpetre^, the same quantity ot bayr^U, half anou^ec^of

sal-prunel, apd a pound of jthe Qoarsest sugar. Mix tbeae

well; and rub them into each ham, every day fotfouf (b^ys^

and turn it. If a small one, turn it every day for..threP:wefifca;

if a large one, a week longer; bi t do n^t Jrub afiei^ four dayii.

Before you dry it, drain and cover with bran. Smoke it^jten

days.

? To cure Hamn other tpayf^ . .

Cho ^se the l^ of a hog that is bX and we^-;f ^;ihMK it dA alcove; if large, put;ta it a pound of bfiynsalt, fmsm ounces of saltp^tt^ .a pound of the ooarpest 9ugar«. and n handful of .cominoii salt, all in fine powder^ and rub it, lh0;f it ughly. . Lay the rind downwards, and cover: the fleshy parta with the sal^ Ba^te it .as often as yon can liriA.ihe pickle; the more the better. Keep it four week9» ttoiing it evejry itay^ Drain it, and throw bran oyer it; then hang it in a chimney where wood is btimt^ and ium it some times for ten days.

Qr: h^g the h^im, and sprinkle it wilh salt a» above; then rub it. every day v^ith the 6 Uowi^, in fine powder: haW a pQUfid of common salt^ the. same quitntity of bay-^t, two puaces of saltpetre, and two ounces of black.. pepper » mixed with a pound .and a half:of treacle. . Turn it,vtwtce a day is the pvckle, for .thnee weeks. Lay it into a pail of water for one night, wipe it quite dry, and smoke it two ot three weeks*

Another way, that gives the Ham a highftawmr.

When the weather vnll permit, hang the ham three days; mix an ounce of saltpetre with a quarter of a pound of bay-salt, the •ame quantity of conunon salt, and also of coarsfe M^r j aiid a quaiit fii stioBg beer; boil them together, aadpour thekn iiiunedfri alely upon:the ham; turn it twice .a day in the piekle Ibr threii

I

PORK. 119

w^Am, An ounce of Uack pepper, and the sane quftntily ef aUspiee, in fine powder^ udded to the above, will give ^tiUT aMMtf flavonr. Cover itvlrith briin.when wiped; and smoke it (rtln thiee to fonr weeks, as you approve: the latter wiU miake it harder, and five it oMNre of the flai^r of Westphalia. ' Sew hams in hessinga (that is, coarse wrappers,) if to be .teokhd wheie there 40 a strong fire.

4

A method of giving the Bam a $tUl higher fiMtour.

Sprinkle the ham with salt, after it has hung two or three days; kt it drain; make a pickk of a quart of strong bcor, half a pound of treade, an ounce of coriander-seeds, - two oenees of Juniper-bdrries, an ounce of pepper, the same qadntity of allapi6e, an ounce of saltpetre, half 'an ounce of Si^imnel, a haiidfnl id common salt, and a head of shalot, all fjdunded or cut fine. Boil these all together a few minutes, and pour them over the ham: this quandty is for one of   ten pmrnda. ituband ttim it every day for a ibrtnight;' thevi sewdt up in a thin linen bag, and smoke it three iveeks. Take coe to- drain it from the pickle, Bnd rub it in bran, befib&re (hying.

BmckmghmMhin method of kUUng and curii^,Q..B§t fn ffog.

in: Bnckinghamshirev Where the fiesh of the hog affoids shaost the only animal food of that numerous class of people idu are employed in agricultural affairs, it is weD they have' in geaeral such excellent bacon. The time of killing Iheahanal hog, which the smallest village fiunilies, above actual* iadigenoe, contrive to fatten for bacon, is soon after BiichaelmmtL Men, called iiog butdiers, undertake this business, which they p er for m by cutting,' with a large kiiife, the throat of the' anmail; when the blood is caught, anid stirred with 'salt, for Uadc puddings. Some straw being then spread on the ground, by way of bed, the hog, when quite dead, is there stretched at full length, and completdy covered over with a quantity of fiesh sthlw. This is kindled into a blaze, and when snficient stiaw has beeu consumed to sweal, or rather singe, as it is there called, the upper side of the hog, that is completely to bom the! hair or bristles, the butcher scrapes off all the burnt' psMvwilii his knifev wipes the browned dtin quite clean with;

I

120 DOMESTIC COOKSSY.

fltraw, and tens tlie ho^ on tiie other ade. IWm, iMsptaf orer note utraw, that side also is mged attd seraffted a the same Banner. Afierthis, the hoj^ bham^iip, and'theei and internal parts are all taken out; and, ai every part of nseful ereatore is eataUe, die boweb or e liltte i l in gs nie eaiehBy cleansed, and the small ones knotted np, like a sort of thong, for boiling. The carcase being thns deaied and oold, and the hocks severed, the hog is placed on the chopping stool, with its back upward; and, in this state, the head is first taken off, and achiae cot oat the fidl lengthrof the back. Tbit hams are next separated; after diem, ' the spaie^ribs and grinkins; and, lastly, the blade bones from die two iitdies or sides, with as much lean meat as can foe fairly taken sway. This may be denominated the complete catdng np and disposal of a bacon hog. The various internal parts, with tiie spare-ribs, and other lean meat in general, as well as the blaidc* puddings, are in part consumed by the owner's family; and the rest, being usually much the largest part, is sold to different neighbours. The dimes, head, tongue, and hocks, are wdl salted; all the other parts of what is termed the hog meat are eaten fresh, being merely sprinkled with salt on hanging them up for immediate use. The grand article, that of the bacon, one or both flitches of which are generally kept by the family, now occupies their chief attention. The hams, too, are sometimes kept and cured, bbt they are oftener disposed of green by small or humble families. When kept, however, they are; with the bacon, thus cured:.- Having finely powdered about half a pound of saltpetre, rub well over both hams with eqnal quantities of half the saltpetre, laying each on a dish, .with the rinds or back of the ham downward; and, over the two flitches, rub an equal division of the remaining quarter of a' pound of saltpetre, paying particular attention to the parts where the hocks are cut oflT, and leave them on the salting form. Next morning, heat first three or four pounds of salt, with about a pound of moist sugar, in a frying-pan; and, when quite hot, rub it equally over both hams, and put them, with their rind side downward, in the salting-pan or tub, without any other brine; as they will of themselves make a suflicient quantity, especially if two pounds of salt be used *for each ham. Then, for the two flitches, heat six or sevcii pounds of salt.

FORK. Itl

with ft pomd of ¦agar, to tkt maaner ai for the haoM, aad TJife then abo oqaally idl over^ while Ike mixed* laUiaBd *agar 19 as hot aa it oaa potMbly be borne bj thehaad* Thsa bciag thMoggfaly tfone^ place o«e of the iitchea. over the otber» aad set a paa to catch the briae as it nuis« Both die haau aad baeoft should reaiaia at least a oioath iartie salt, aad be nih^ bed ofcr with the briae, aad taraed oaceor ofteaer every weel[; the under flitdi of the liacoa beiagy each time, plaeed at the top. As Buckiaghamshire Is, in generals a woedy eoutry, aad the chimney places are extmiely wide, both the bacon and hams, when eaoagh salted, can convenient^ be hiiag, by strings t%htly tied roaad the hocks, sufficiently near a eoastaat wood fire to be well, though gradaally dried, witboat being what may be denominated poisoned wkh smoke. Ta thin cirenmstaace, and the solid feed of the anfanab, cooHttody fcttened with peas, as well as often bred in habits of obtaining^ in Ae woods and on the commons, beech mast, acorns, Ao. may be ascribed much of the distinguished' sweetness and solidity of Buckinghamshire bacon; little of which, howevdr^ finds its way to the London market, bemg gladly consumed at home. Even where the chunney comers are not wide enough, the bacon rack alone, which is seen dependmg from the ceiling of every kitchen, will often saSce to dry a flitch or two of bacoB; particularly as they do not vrant it tamted by smoke„ but only dried by the salutary heat of their pleasant wood firfes*

To CMtif Bam the Tarktkhre Wi^

Beat them well; mix together half a peck of salt, tfuee ounces of saltpetre, half an ounce of salpmnella, and five pounds of coarse salt Rub vrell with this; pat them into a krge pan or pickling-tab, and lay what remaias on the top. Let them lie three days, and thea hang diem up. Put as much water to it as wiH cover die hams, adding salt till it will bear an egg, then boU and strain it. The next morning put in the hams, and press them down sa that diey may be covered. When they hate lain a fortnight, mb them well with bran, aad dry them. Three middle*siaed hams may be done with - these tnglediaits, so that if you do only one; you must pioportion the quantity of each article. 5 R

Its DOMESTJ^ (;()OKBRY.

Cuve ttro Manui in Ike foUovmg Aiamler: battr 4w»-^««i:c^ Df ndpniiieUa %mtk, . rttb il «dl tor iaad let ftkenik 4veBl(y»£Mr I1M19. Take batf^a p6ini «f bfe^r aall» a.qiwrlcr ef af»9«Ml M YMMUDOA ialt^ ak oimoeoC aaltpetfley kealea fine» and half » -pomnl of 409M augar^ RaballlkeieweUia^aadWAtbenilke two or thrte days* .Then take conowtt «klt» and iiake# t tfiwl^ lbriae» wiftk two gaJHoaa of wiAeri and. half u fiaiiiid kA btovm fi^^. Boilitwett, wbea eoU skhnit^ pM^ki therkaiiia».aAd isra tkeqi every tWo ar ifafoe dajs, for Aree'^fedK^. Uai^ 'Aenl op tn adiiiiiiiey, aad amoke theai apaU.a daf df l^i«!P wilti lione littcf « Afiterwarda let tkara kaiig for a we^ oa t)»e aide -of Ike kitAen ckfani^j^ aad tbea laki^ dteai d MffB« . Keep tii^pi «dry -in a large boK» «daeifed witk brkn. Thty wiU Ita^p.-^o^ fti thiB ata^ for m yatefi thoagb they ttay be aaedia a monlb^r

Genuine Westphalia Hams.

Wba^ver may be aaid, tbrpugl^ weakneas or prejudice* it

^^taonoti with trutbi bedeniedi that the Westphalia bam8» made

. fr^m the vild boar have a richneas aod flavour which cannot

, be ow pletety imparled to the flerfi of the fioest aad fatteat

boga« Many of theae, however* ar^ certainly imported and

.aold:af if they were genuine; aad», though eaceUent* froni

. being ourfd in the aam# ivay« are no. better than, aiid aom^e . tiw^a pot nearly ao. good aair pur bee^ English hama mig^t

easily be, if managed in a similar way. The following, we

are assured, is the true mode of curing the Westphalian

hams, whethcAr made with the iviM bkav or a Sue common hog:

' w^Hatfaig' covered the ham with dry salt ^r.-aday «^d night,

take a qnarter of a pisck each of bUy a^d tba fiufst i:omnpn

' aalt^ a' poand each of Mltpetre and moist sugaf* a ^M^rter of a

'panad each of aal prutaella and pounded Juniper^berriea, and

. an oaaee of soohoiiecl up ta a rag. Boil all these iogredie^ta

' wall iagetklsr, and, when Ike liquor is.QoU». put it into tjie

ham, wq ed cleaa from the salt. 4md blood* and let it x^ipi in

. well eovered by tfan bribe^ for nearly a month, ^uipning it at

. least twice a waek during that tifte» Then* wiping it vrith

- dirytrfoths, mix together some potanded p^pperi aalt awl brap;

mbtlMinfrst mto the tevtties; aad then a)l over the hipii,

and hang it on the side oi aehitf^ney ^ere wood only is burnt.

^ Hm of fdnigaiioiF^ wdiyvf If 9WPlMt hT oMmnl^ from three 1^ tta DMUhl^ aoMdiag Icr tteHifeofthe meat, ^oaMly of «9ioke t^ wjbiob U 19 i^flEiected^

To hoitHam$.

If long. h«D ;, p«t the hain ipio water a pigM; and let it lie eithe^ina hole dqg in the eai^^ or on damp stones sprinkkd withtwMef, two or three days, to mellow; covering it witli,^l eav3rtiibr to kc^p vermin from it. Wash well, and pal it iota a.bqiler with plenty of water; )kX it simmer foun fiv«x OS SIX houns, aeco^tiing to the si«e. When donie enough^ if befcvre the time of serviogi coyer it with a clean cloth dovUfd^ and k^ep thp dish hot over boiling wat^rl Take off ijut ak^y ai^ strew raspings over the ham* Garnish with cvEol* Presence th^ skin as ifrhole as possible, to keep over he haqn when cold which. will present it^ drying.

To roast a Ham.

Tal^e off the skin, and lay your ham in lukewarm water f^r,twp op three hours. Then put it into a pan, pour upon it a bottle of white wine, and let it steep for ten or twelve minutes. When spitted, put sheets of paper over the fat side, pour th   wine in whicli it Wa* so^^d ii^to th(S drinpiag^pan, and b^ste it ^l the tiipe it is roasting. When roasted enough, pall off the ywf^p and dredge it well with cri inbled bread and parsley dired fine*- Make the fire brisk,, and brown it. If you serve it hoty gam^hit with raspings of bcpid; but if cold^ serve it widk parsley. ^

To pot Itams. '

Cut the prime of a Westphalia ham, (or any that you may ^vel]^ the larder fro n a late dinner) nearly as much fat as l^m;, .p0un4 it in the n^ortar until very fine, put a little fine' 9pice to it) and season it with Cayenne pepper; pound a tittle Qiore by way of mixing the seasoning and spice, then put it isto pots proper for the purpose: clarify a sufficient quantity ff butter* jpour it over the hanr, and put the pot into a slow ^ven,. let it soak for half an hour; then take it out, and when ijfpki, fin ti^e pots up with clarified butter, and send it up in the pots, except at particular tiroes, then turn it out, aod garfiish it with chopped aspick, &c.

194 DOMESTIC COOKBRT.

A Pkkkfm^ Him§, nngm$p mt Be^ ilM wafl^ kftp ftr yemnt if i&ikd mnd Mmmtd ime uiamMlfy *

To two gallons of ppring-water pat two poniids qf eoafscr ¦agar, two pounds of bay-salt, and two-poands and a half of coinnion salt» and half a pound of saltpetre, in a deep earthen, glased pan that will hold four gallons, and with a cover that will fit cl^se. Keep the beef or hams as long as they will bear, before yon put them into the pickle; and sprinkle them with coarse sugar in a pan, firom which they must drain. Rub the hams, &c. well with the pickle, and pack them in close; putting as much as the pan will hold, so that the pickle may^ coyer them. The pickle is not to be boiled at first. A small ham may lie fourteen days, a large one three weeks,* a tongue twelve days, and beef in proportion to its size. They witt eat well out of the pickle without drying. When they are to be dried, let each piece be drained over the pan; and when it will drop no longer, take a clean sponge and dry it thorough* ly. Six or eight hours will smoke them, and there should, be only a little saw-dust and wet straw burnt to do this; but If put into a baker's chimney, sew them in a coarse cloth, and hang them a week^

A Piekkfar the Pre»ervaiion of Park, TangtuM, tfc.

To four gallons of water put a pound of Muscavedo sugarsfour ounces of saltpetre, six pounds of bay or common salt. Put the whole into a pot, or kettle, and let it boil, taking care to remove the scum a6 it rises. Take the vessel from the fire when no more scum rises, and let the liquor stand ttU it become cold; then put the meat intended to be preserved, into the vessel appropriated for keeping it, and pour upon it ^e preserving liquor, covering the meat, in which condition it must be kept. Meat preserved in this manner has been taken put of the pickle after lying in it for the space of ten weeks, and been found as good as if it hitd not been salted above three days, and. at the same time as tender as could be desired. The pickle sifter the second boiling will keep good fortwelve months. *-This is an excellent pickle for curing hams, tongues, and beef intended for drying. Observe, when the meat is taken oiit of the pickle for drying, to wipe it clean and dry, and theft to put it into paper bags, to be hung up in a dry place*

PORK. 125

Excellent Baeen,

Divide the liog, tad take the chine ont; it b eommotr to the spare-ribs, but the bacon will be preserved be^t^ from being rusty if they are left in. Stdt the bacon six days*: then drain it from the first pickle r mix as much salt as you jud :e proper with eight ounces of bay-salt, three ounces of saltpetre, and a pound of coarse sugar, to each hog, 1 ut first cut off the hams. Rub the salts well in, and turn it every day for a month* Drain and smoke it a few days; or dry without^ . by banging in the kitchen, not near the fire.

Simeruishire Bacon.

This greatly esteemed bacon is cured in the following manner, daring dther of the last three months in the year.- On killng a hog, the sides or flitches are first placed in large wooden tfoughs, and sprinkled all over with bay-salt. Being left in this state, to drain alvay the blood and superfluous . juices, for twenty-'four hours, they are next taken out, and wiped very dry. Some fresh bay-salt is now well heated in a bigefrying^'pan; and, the troughs having in the mean time beesi well cleansed from the first drainings^ and the flitches replaced, thie hot bay-salt b rubbed over the meat, till it has ab. Borbed a suflicient quantity. During four successive days, this friction is every morning repeated; the sides being turned only twice, or every other day. If the flitches are large, as is generally the case, they should be kept three weeks in brine • beii^ turned ten times during that period, and afterwards thoxDugUy dried in the usual manner without smoke. Unless the bacon be managed strictly according to these directions, it will B€¥er possess a flavour equal to Somersetshire bacon properly cared, nor even continue long in a sweet state.

The m&nner of curing Wiltshire Bacon.

Sprinkle ^ach flitch with salt, and let the blood drain off for twenty-four hours; then mix a pound and a half of coarse aogar, the same quantity of bay-salt, not quite so much as half a pound of saltpetre, and a pound of common salt; and mb this well on the bacon, turning it every day for a month: then hang it to dry, and afterwards smoke it ten days« This quantity of salts is suflicient for the whole hog.

ISO DOMESTIC COOKERY.

Tin manner &f curing; W€$iphalia Bacon,

Having ebeseo a ftae side of pork, make the Ibllowing pickle: take a gaHoa of pmnp-waier, a quarter of a peek of baysalty tke same quantity of wirite salt, a'poand of petre salt, a quarter of a pound of saHpetre, a pound of coarse sngar, and an ounce of soclio tied up in a rag. Bo9 all these well together, and let it stand t9! cold. Then put is the pork, let ft Iie'iA this pickle for a fortnight, take it Out, and dry it over sair dust smoke. This pickle w31 answer rerj weH for tongues; but in that case, the tongues must first fie six or eight hours in pump-water, to take out the sliminess; and when they have lain a proper time in the pickle, dry them as pork.

To hoU Bacon.

The boiling of b&eon is a very simple subject to comment upon, but our main object is to teach common cooks the art of dresshig common food, in the best nmnner: Bacon is sometimes as salt as salt can make it; therefore, before it is boiled, it must be soaked in virarm water for an hour or two, changing the water once; then pare off the rusty and smoked port, trim it nicely on the underside, and scrape the rind as clean as possibfe.

To fry E^g9 and Baeon^

Lay some slices of fine streaked bacon (not more than a quarter of an inch thick) in a clean dish, and toast them before the fire in a cheese-toaster, turning them when the upper side is browned. First ask those who are to eat the bacon, if they wish it much or little done, that is, curled and c^risp, or mellow and soft; if the latter, parboil it first.

Dripping, or lard, is better than butter to fry eggs in.

Be sure the frying-pan is quite clean: when the fkt is hot, break two or three eggs into it; .do not turn them .,but, while they are frying, keep pouring some of the fat over them with a spoon: when the yolk just begins to look white, which it will in about a couple of minutes, they are enough. The white jnust not lose its transparency, but the yolk be seen' blushing through it: if they are done nicely, they will look as white and delicate as if they had been poached, take them up with a tin slice, drain the fat from them, trim them neatly, and send . them up with the bacon round them.

MUTT019. 127

MUTTON.

«

Obierwihni mi cuiiing mUt ire$Mig Mntt9n:

1. ARE away the pipe that runs along the bone of the inside of ft chine of mutton; and if to be kept a long time, rub the part close round the tail with salt, after first cutting out the kernel The kernel in the fat on the thick part of the !eg dioald be taken out by the butcher, for it taints first there. The chine and rib-bones should be wiped every day; and the bloody part of the neck be cut off, to preserve it. The brisket changes first ita the breast; and if it is to be kept, it is best to ruh it with a little salt, should the weather be hot For roasting, mutton should hang as long as it will keep, the hindqaorter especially, but not so long as to taint; for whatever iuhion may authorize, putrid juices ought not to be taken into the stomach. For boiling, it will not look of a good coiowr if it has hung long*

Great care should be taken to preserve by .paper the fiit of what is roasted.

To boil m Leg of Mutton.

Cut off the shank bone, and trim the knuckle; th^ put it into warm water for ten minntes, Wash ft clean, cover it with cold water, and let It simmer very gently, anfd skim it carefully. A leg of nine pounds will take two and a half or three hours, if you like it thoroughly done, especially in very cold weather. Serve with caper-sauce and vegetables.

Lig of Mutton wUh CmUJlMero amd SpinMck.

Cut a leg of mutton venison fashion, and boil it in a doth; hoil three or four cauliflowers in milkand water, pull them into "pngB, and stew them with butter, pepper, salt, and a little nSXk; stew some spinach in a sauoe-pan; put to i^e spinach a quaHer of «t ptnl of gravy, a piece of butter, and floar. When it iB^lioo b, put the nntton in the middle, tiK apinach »Hfliid it luid the cauliflower over all. The butter the cawli

](28 POMBSTIC COOKBRY.

flower was stewed in mast be poured over it, and it mast be melted like a smooth creanu

To raasi a Leg of Mutton.

A leg of eight pounds weight will take about two boors: let it be well basted, and frothed. Serve with onion or cur* rant jelly sauce.

To dreu a Leg of Mutton to eat like

Gret the largest and fattest leg of mutton you can, cat out like a haunch of venison, as soon as it is killed, whilst it is warm, it will eat the tenderer; take out the bloody vein; stick it in several places in the under-side with a sharp-pointed knife; pour over it a bottle of red wine; turn it in the wine four or five times a day for ^ye days, then dry it exceedingly well with a clean cloth; hang it up in the air with the thick end uppermost for five days; dry it night and momiog to keep it' from being damp, or growing musty; wh«n you roast it, cover it with paper and paste, as you do venison; serve it up with venison sauce. It will take four hours roasting.

To force a Leg of Mutton. *

Raise the skin, and take out the lean part of the mutton; chop it exceedingly fine, with one anchovy: shred a bundle of sweet herbs, grate a penny loaf, half a lemon, nutmeg, pepper, and salt to your taste; make them into a forcemeat with three eggs an,d a large glass of red wine; fill up the skin with the forcenieat, but leave the bone and shank in their place, and it will appear like a whole leg; lay it on an earthen dish, with a pint of red wine under it, and send it to the oven; it will take two hours and a half; when it comes out, take qS all the fat, strain the gravy over the mutton, lay round it hard yolks of eggs, and pickled mashrooms. Garnish with pickks, and serve it up.

To drees a Baunoh of Mutton.

Keep it as long as it can be preserved sweet by the different modes: let it be washed vrith warm milk and water, or vinegar, if necessary; but when to be dressed, observe to wash it well, lest the outside should have a bad flavour from

MVTTON. • %3fi

Put a paste of coane floar or ^;roog paper^ tod fold tke bavncb in; set it a great distance from the $re^ and nBow proportion* %Ue time for the paste; do not take it off till about thirfy-five or forty minutes before serving, and then baste it continually. Bring the haunch nearer to the fire before you take off the paste, and froth it up as you would renison.

A gravy must be made of a pound and a half of loin of old mutton, simmered in a pint of water to half/ and no seasoning but salt: brown it with a little burnt sugar, and send it up in the dish; but there should be a good deal of gravy in the meat; for though long at the fire^ the distance and covering will prevent its running out.

Serye with piirrant-jj^ly sfuice.

To aiho Mmtou.

Cut slices out of the middle part of a teg of mutton: season them with white pepper and salt, and put them into a ntew-pan; cover the steaks with water and a Ifttle gravy, and add some onions sliced. Let the stew-pan be covered close, and when one side of the b teaks is done enough, let them be turned; thet a little butter, rolled in flour, should be added. If stewed beyond twenty minutes, the meat will become hardw - This is a very good dish for a private family where a little economy is necessary. Beef may be dressed in the same simple way. Shalot, garlic, or catsup, maybe added, as the family may think proper.

Neck of MuHon^

This joint is particularly useful, as many dishes may be made of it; but it is not advantageous for the family. The bones should be cut short, which the butchers will not do unless particularly desired.

u The best end of the neck may be boiled, atad served with turnips; or roasted; or dressed in steaks, in pies, or harrico* The scrags may be stewed in broth; or with a small quantity of water, some small onions, a few pepper coma and a little rice, and served together.

When a neck is to be boiled to look particularly nice, saw down the chine bone, strip the ribs lialf-way down, and chop off the ends of the bones about four inches. The skin should

6 S

130 DOMESTIC COOKERY.

not be taken off till boiled, and then the fat will look the whiter. Wben thete is more fat to the neck or loin of mutton than it is agreeable to eat with the lean, it makes an uncon&monly good 0uet-pudding, or crust for a meat pie, if cut very fine.

Toroait a Shoulder of Mutton.

A shoulder of seven pounds weight will take an hour aod a half: put the spit in close to the shank bone, and run it along, the blade bone. Serve with onion sauce*

N. B. The blade bone is a favourite luncheon or supper relish, scored^ peppered and salted, and broiled, or done in a Dutch oven.

A Shoulder of Mutton called Hen and Chickeni.

Half roast a shoulder, then take it up, and cut off the blade at the first, joint, ^and both the flaps, to make the blade round; score the blade round in diamonds, throw a little pepper and salt over it, and set it in a tin oven to broil. Cut the flaps and meat off the shank in thin slices, and put the gravy that came out of the mutton into a $tew-pan, with a little good gravy, two spoonfuls of walnut catsup, one of browning, a Jittle Cayenne pepper, and one or two shalots. When your meat is tender, thicken it with flour aud butter, put it into the dish with the gravy, and lay the blade on the top. Garnish with green pickles.

Shoulder of Mutton en Epigram,

Roast a shoulder of mutton till it is nearly enough, then carefully take off the skin about the thickness of a crown piece, .and also the shapk bone at the end. Season both the skin and shank-bone with pepper, salt, a little lemon peel cut small, and a few sweet herbs and crumbs of bread: lay this on tibe gridiron till it is of a fine brown; and in the meantime, take the rest of the meat, and cut it like a hash, in pieces about the bigness of a shilling. Save the gravy and put to it, with a few spoonfuls of strong gravy, a little nutmeg, half an onion cut fine, a small bundle of herbs, a little pepper and salt, some gherkins cut very small, a few mushrooms, two or three truiBes cut small, two spoonfuls of wine, and a little flour dredged into it. Let all these stew together verv slowly

MUTTON. 181

for Bve or six minutes, but be careful it does not boil. Take out tbe sweet herbs, lay the hash in the dish, and the broiled opon it. Garnish with pickles.

To boU a SK&uider iff Mutton with OyBter:

Hang it some days, then salt it well for two days; bone it, and sprinkle it with pepper, and a bit of mace pounded: lay Bome. oysters over it, and roll the meat up tight, and tie it. Ste^ it in a small quantity of water, with an oni«n and a few pepper-corns, till quite tender.

Have ready a little good gravy, and some oysters stewed io it: thicken this with flour and butter, and pour over the mutton when the tape is taken oflF. Tbe stew-pan should be kept close covered.

To roast a Saddle of Mutto^,

Let it be well ke]lt first. Raise tbe skin, and then skewer it ott again; take it off a quarter of an hour before serving, sprinkle it with some salt, baste it, and dredge it well with flour. Tbe ramp should be split, and skewered back on each side. The joint may be large or small according to the com* paof: it is the most elegant if the latter. ' Being broad, it requires a high and strong fire.

FtUet of Mutton braised.

Take off the chump end of the loin, butter some paper, and put overit, and then paste it as for venison; roast it two hours. Do not let it be the least brown. Have ready some French beans boiled, and drained on a sieve; and while the nratton is being glazed, give them one heat up in gravy, and lay them on the dish with the meat over them.

Fillet of Mutton with Cucumbers.

Take the best end of a neck of mutton, cut off the under bone, leaving the long ones on; then trim it neatly, lard it, let it remain plain, roast it gently, and serve it up with cucumbers or sorrel sauce under it.

HanHco of Mutton,

Take off some of the fat, and cut the middle or best end of the neck into rather thin steaks; flour and fry them in thtir own

Ida DOMESTIC COOKERY.

fat of a fine light brown, but not enough for eating. Tiien put them into a dish while you fry the carrots, turnips, and onions; the carrots and turnips in dice, the onions sliced: but they must only be wanned, not browned, or you need not fry them. Then lay the steaks at the bottom of a stew-pan, the vegetables over them, and pour as much boiling water as will just cover them: give one boil, skim well, and then set the pan on the, side of the Cure to simmer gently till tender. In* three or fouv hours skim them: and add pepper,- salt, and a spoonful of catsup.

To ragout Mutton,

Cut some thin slices, the right way of the g^ain, off a fine leg of mutton, and pare off all the skin and fat. Then put a piece of butter into your stew-pan,^and shake some flour over it: add to these two or three slices of lemon, with half an onion: cut Vei^ small, a baaoh of sweet iierbs^ and a blade of mace» Puty^ur m^at with these, into the pan, stir them togetbctfy foe five or six minutes^ and then pnt in half a pint of gravy, r with itn Bschovy minoed smaU, and a fHeee of bittter rolled 10 flour. Stir the whole well t ^ether, and when it has ^ewi^d about ten minutes, dish it up, and serve it to taUe. Garnish with pickles and sliced lemon.

T4 ka^h Mutton.

Cut thin slices of . dressed mn tton, fat and lean; flour them; have ready: a littlie onion boiled in two or three spoonfuls «f water; add to it a little gravy and the meat seasoned, and nak^ it hot^ but notto boil. Serve in a covered dish. Instead af .opioui a clove, a spoonful of currant-jelly, and half a glass of port wine, will give an agreeable flavour of venison, if the meat be fine.

Pickled cucumber, or walnut, cut small, warm in it forchange.

Jb dresM Mutton the Turkish waif.

Having cut your meat into thin slices, wash it in vinegar,

and put it into a pot or sauce-pan that has a close cover to it.

Put in some rice, whole pepper, and three or four whole

onions. Let all these stew together, skimming it frequentlyt

MUTTOM. 133

Wlies eoongh, take out the onions, and season with salt to yo«r palate. Lay the matton in the dish, and ponr the rioe and liqaor over it.

To dresi « Br^ofl •/ Muticn.

Cat off the superfluous fiity and roast and serve the meat with stewed cucumbers; or to eat cold^ cover with choppe4 parsley. Or half- boil, and then grill before the fire; in which case cover it with crumbs and herbs, and serve with capes sauce. Or if boned, take off a good deal of the fiati and cover it with bread, herbs, and seaseniag; then roll and boil; and serve with chopped walnuts, or capers and butter.

To collar a brea$t 0/ Mutton, Bone your mutton, aud rub it over with the yolk of an egg; then grate over it a httle lemoa peel, and a nutmeg, with a little pepper and salt; then chop small oil€( tea-cupful of pa* pers, two anchovies; shred fine a handful of parsley, a few sweet herbs; mix them with the crumbs of a penny loaf, and strew it over your routtou, and roil it up tight; boil it two hours; then take it up, and put it into a pickle made as for calf's head.

To griU aBreoit of Mutton.

Score a breast of mutton in diamonds, and rub it over with the yolk of an egg; then strew on a few bread crumbs and shred parsley; put it in a Dutch oven to broil: baate it with fresh butter: pour in the dish good (saper sauce, and serve it up.

To roast a Loin 0/ Mutton.

It will take from an hour and a half to an hour and three quarters to roast a loin.

Spit it on a skewer or lark-spit, and tie that on the common spit, and do not spoil the meat by running the spit through the prime part of it.

Common cooks very seldom brown the ends of necks and loins; to have this done nicely, let the fire be a few inches longer at each end^ than the joint that is roasting, and occasion* ally place the spit slanting, so that each end may get sufficient

134 DOMESTIC COOKERY.

fire; otherwise, after the meat is done, you must take it up, and put the ends before the fire. The most elegant way of carving this, is to cut it lengthwise as you do a saddle.

To rotta Loin of Mutton,

Hang the mutton till tender; bone it, and lay a seasoning of pepper, allspice, mace, nntmeg, and a few cloves, all in fine powder, over it. Next day prepare a stuffing as for hare; beat the meat, and cover it with the stuffing; roll it up tight, and tie it. Half-bake it in a slow oven; let it grow cold; take off the fat, and put the gravy into a stew-pan; flour the meat, and put it in likewise; stew it till almost ready; and add a glass of port wine, some catsup, an anchovy, and a little lemon pickle, half an hoiir before serving: serve it in the gravy, and with jelly sauce. A few fresh mushrooms are a great improvement; but if to eat like bare, do not use these, nor the lemon pickle.

To roaU a collared Loin of Mutton.

Take off the fat from the upper side, and the meat from the under side of a loin of mutton; bone it; season it with pepper and salt, and some shalot or sweet herbs, chopped very small. Let it be rolled up very tight, well tied round, and roasted gently. About an hour and three quarters will do it. While this is roasting, half*boil the meat taken from the under side, then mince it small, put it into half a pint of gravy, and against the mutton is ready, heat this, and pour it into the tlish when it is served up.

To »tew a Loin of Mutton, Bone a loin of aged mutton, taking off the skin, and the inside fat. Then stew it in gravy till it becomes a good brown. Put into the stew-pan, with the mutton, two anchovies, and half a clove of garlic. Stew moderately till the meat becomes tender. Half an hour before taking up, add a few spoonfuls of port wine, and some catsup. Skim off the fat, and thicken the sauce with butter and flour. - if well dressed, this is a good looking dish, and in general is approved of. It eats very well with venison sauce.

MUTTON. 136

Muiion Ham.

Take a. hind-quarter of muttoD, cut it like a ham, and rub it well with an ounce of saltpetre, a pound of coarse sugar, and a pound of common salt, mixed well together. Lay it in adeepiah tray with the skin downward, and baste it with the pickle every day for a fortnight. Then roll it in saw -dust, and hang it in a wood-smoke for a fortnight Then boil it, and hang it up in a dry place. You may dress it whole, or cut slices off, and broil them, which will eat well, and have an excellent flavour.

Mutton CoUaps.

Take a loin of mutton that has been well hung; and cut from the part next the leg some collops very thin« Take out the sinews. Season the collops with salt, pepper, and mace; and strew over them shred parsley, thyme, and two or three shalots: fry them in butter till half done; add half a pint of gravy, a little juice of lemon, and a piece of butter rubbed in flour; and simmer the whole very gently five minutes. They should be served immediately, or they will be hard.

Mutton Cutlets plain broiled.

Cut the cutlets either from a neck or loin, trim them neat, broil them over the stove of a nice brOwn on both sides, and season them with white pepper and salt: the dish should be quite hot before the cutlets are put on it, put them round the dish, and some sauce in the middle.

#Mutton Chops dressed in the Portuguese Fashion.

The chops are to be first about half fried with sUci^ onion or shalots, a bay leaf or two, some chopped parsley, salt, and pepper; forcemeat then being' placed or spread on a piece of writing paper for each chop, it is put in, covered with more forcemeat, and twisted closely up; a hole being lei t for the end of the bone to pass through. In this state, it is broiled on a gentle fire, and served up either with sauce Robert or a little good gravy.

To broil Mutton Steaks.

Cst your steaks about half an inch thick; and if it be the loin, take off the skin with a part of the fat. When your grid

1S6 D0ME$TIC COOKERY.

iron is hot, rub it with 'fredi iu«t» lay on your steaks, and keep teroing them as quick as ipoesible: if you dp sot take great care, the fat that drops trom them into the fire will smokie and spo3 them; but this may be in a^eat meaaore preigented, by pkcing your gndiron on a slant. When enough, put them into s hot dish, rub them well with butter, slice a shalot very flrin into a spoonful of water, and pour it on them, with a apoouful of catsup. Serve them up hot, witli scraped horseradish and pickles.

¦

To fry Mutton Steaks,

Mix a little chopped parsley, thyme, and lemon peel, with a spoonful or two of fine bread crumbs, a little grated nutmeg, some pepper and salt. Take ' some steaks from a neck or loin of mutton, cut ofF'mostof thelat, beat them well, rub them with yolk of egg, and strew thevb. pretty tliick with the bread and herbs. Fry diem of a nice brown, and serve them up with crisped parsley in the dish.

Veal is Ycry nice done in the same manner.

To atew Mutton Steaks,

Take some steaks off the best end of a loin of mutton, or some slices out of the middle part of a leg. Season them with pepper and sidt, lay them into a stew-^pan with some sliced onion, and cover them with water and a little gravy. 'When done on one side, turn the steaks on the other, andthicken the gravy at the same time with some flouc and butter. A little shalot, or catsup, or both may be added at pleasure. Twenty or twenty-five minutes will stew them enough. Long stewing makes meat hard.

• Steaks of MtUton, or Lamb, andCuoumbers*

Quarter cucumbers, aad lay them into a deep dish, sprinkle them with salt, and pour vinegar over them. Fry the chops of a fine brown, and put them into a stew-pan; drain the cucumbers, and put over the steaks; add some sliced onionsi pepper,- and salt; pour hot water or weak broth on them; stew and skim well.

r!k

HVTTON* lai

MuUtn Si€0k$ Maintmon.

WM'frj, «tew them while hot, wHh herbs, crumbs, sod Masoning; put them m paper immadiiitely, and Anish m tb« gridiron. Be careful the paper does oot catch: rub a bit of butter on it first to prevent that.

To main Rtuck Si0aki ef m Vi^ tf MtUtam. Let your matton be vcfry good and large, and cot off most part of the fet of the neck, and tflen e«t the steaks two inches thick I make a large hole through the middle of the fleshy part of every steak with a penknife, and stuff it wilh fierce-' meat made of bread crumbs, beef suet, a little nutmeg, pepper and salt, mixed up with tiie yoke of an egg; whea they are staffed, wrap them in writing paper, and pat them in a Dutch oven; set them . before the fire to broil; (h^ wiH take near an hour; put a little brown gravy in your dish, and lenre them up ip the papers*

Rnb the chops over with pepper, salt, nutmeg, and a litUe pusley. Ron each in hsif a sheet of white paper, well buttered within-Me, and dose the two ends. Boil some hog^s lard, or beef dripping, in a stew pan, and pot the steaks in it. Frf diem of a fine brown, then take them out, and let the fat thoron^ly drain from them. Lay them in your dish, and lerve them op with good gravy in a sance-boat. Garnish with horse-radish and fried parsley.

Mutton Rump$ a-la-Braisi.

Boil six mutton rumps for fifteep minutes in prater, then take thein out, and cut them into two, and put them into a stew-pan, with half a pint of good gravy, a giH of white wine» an osion stock with cloves, and a little salt and Cayenne pepper. Cover them close, and stew them till they are tender. Take them and the onion out, and thicken the gravy with a little butter rolled in flour, a spoonful of brownings and the juice of half a lemon. Boil it -np till it is smooth, but qot too thick. Then put in your rumps, give them a shake or two, and dish them up hot. Garnish with horse-radish and beet root. For variety, you otay leave the rumps whole, and lard six kidoeya

138 DOMESTIC COOKERY.

on one side, and do them the sanie fts the rumps^ only not boil theni^ and pot the rumps in the middle of the dish, and kidneys round them, with the sauce OTer all.

Mutton Sausages.

Take a pound of the rawest part of a leg of mutton that has been either roasted or boiled; chop it extremely small, and season it with pepperi salt, mace and nutmeg; add to it six ounces of beef suet, some sweet herbs, two anchovies, and a pint of oysters, all chopped very small; a quarter of a pound of grated biread, some of the anchovy liquor, and the yolks and whites of two eggs well beaten. Put it all, when well mixed, into a little pot, and use it by rolling it into balls or sausage-shape and frying. If approved, a little shalot may be added, or garlic, which is a great improvement.

To drea Mutton Rumps and Kidneys,

Bone four rumps, (or more properly called tails) fill them with forced meat, and put them in a stew-pan with about half a pint of best stock: split six kidneys, and put them in a stewpan, cover them over with bacon; put them on a slow stove to simmer gently for about two hours. When done take the rumps up and glaze them; put the kidneys into uiother stewpan; strain the liquor they were done in, skim the fat from it, and reduce it to a glaze; then add some coulis, make it hot, squeeze a lemon in it, and put a little Cayenne pepper; put it to the kidneys: put the kidneys round the dish, the sauce over them, and the rumps in the middle. Garnish with paste or croutons.

To drtss Mutton Rumps and Kidneys, with Rice.

Stew six rumps in some good mutton gravy half an hour; then take them up, and let them stand to cool. Clear the gravy from the fat; and put into it four ounces of boiled rice, an onion stuck with cloves, and a blade of mape; boil them till the rice is thick. Wash the rumps with yolks of eggs well beaten, and strew over them crumbs of bread, a little pepper and salt, chopped parsley and thyme, and grated lemon peel. Fry in butter of a fine brown. While the rumps are stewing; lard the kidneys, and put them to roast in a Dutch oven* When

MUTTON. laO

the romps are fried, the grease must be drained before they we pat oa the dish; and the pan being cleared likewise from the &ty warm the rice in it. Lay the latter on the dish; the rumps put round on the rice, the narrow ends towards the middle^ and the kidneys between. Garnish with hard eggs cat in half, the white being left on; or with different coloured pickjea.

Mutton kebobbfd.

Take all the fat out of a loin of mutton, and that on the ontside also if too fat/and remove the skin. Joint it at every bone: mix a small nutmeg grated with a little salt and pepper, crumbs and herbs; dip the steaks into the yolks of three eggs, aod sprinkle the above mixture all over them. Then place the steaks together as they were before they were cut asunder, tie them, and fietsten them on a small spit. Roast them at a quick fire; set a dish under^ and baste them with a good piece of hotter and the liquor that comes from the meat; but throw some more of the above seasoning over. When done enough, take it up, and lay it in a dish; have half a pint of good gravy ready besides that in the dish; and put into it two spoonfuls of catsup, and rub dowi»a tea epooaful of floiijr with it; give this a boil, and poor it over the mutton, . but first skim off the fat well* Mind to keep the meat hot till the gravy is quite ready.

An excellent Hotch-potch.

Stew peas, lettuce, and onions, in a very little water with a beef or ham-bone. . While these are doing, fry «ome mutton or lamb steaks seasoned, of a nice brown 3 three quarters of an hour before dinner, put the steaks into a stew-pan, and the vegetables over them; stew them, and serve all together in a tureen.

Or: knuckle of veal, and scrag of mutton, stewed with vegetables as above; to both add a bit of butter rolled in flour.

China Chilo.

Mince a pint bason of undressed neck of mutton, or leg, and some of the fat; put two onions^ a lettuce, a pint of green p^asy a tea- spoonful of salt, a tea-spoonful of pepper, four

140 DOMESTIC COOKERY.

^poonftils of water» and two or ihree^ociiices of ctafifi^ butter, into a stew-pati closely covered; simmer two hours, and serve In th6 middle of a dish of boiled dry rice. If cayenne ifl approved, add a little.

To dre$8 ShetpU Trotien.

' Boil them in water, and then put them into a steW'-pat with a glass of white wine* half a pint of broth, as much coulis, a bunch of sweet herbs, with salt, whole pepper^ and mace. Stew them by a slow fire till the sauce is reduced, then take out the hetbs, and serve them upon a grattan. - Bheep'^ trotters may be served with a ragout of cucumbers.

LAMB.

Legaf Lamb h^kd^ und Loin fritd*

Out your leg from the loin, and boil it three quarters of an hour. Cut the loin in handsome steaks, beat them with a cleavfr, and fry *tb^m a good brown. Than sftw them a little in strong gravy* fut your leg on the dish, and lay your steaks .round it* J^our on your gravy, lay round lumps of staved spinach and crisped parsley on every steak. Send it to table with gooseberry sauce in a boat, and garnish with lemon.

To roast a Leg of Lamb.

This joipt must be roasted with a quick clear fire. Baste it as soon as you lay it down, sprinkle on a little salt, and when near done dredge it with flour It will take an hour and forty minutes to roast it well.

ft

Leg of Lamb and Cucumbers. . Put the leg on a spit, butter and salt it, then paper it and tie it on. When done take it up and glaze it: put the sauce on the dish, and then the lamb.

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LAJllft. ' 141

To^rMMl a F&n-puartir of Lamb.

koMt it either whole, or in sepata«e purte. If left fe be eoU, topped parsley should be sprinkled over it. The aeclc and breast together are called a scoven.

^^ • »

A Fare-ipun-ier of Houu LtmA.

A small fore-quarter of house lamb will take an hour and

alialf roasting; a leg three quarters of an hour. When it is

doDe^ and put into the dish, cut off the shoulder, and pepper

and salt the ribs. Serve it up with salad, brocoli, potatoes,

or mint sauce. *

»

#A Quarter of Lamb forced.

Take a large leg of lamb, cut a long slit ou the baok side^

and take out the meat; but be careful you do pot deface th^

other side. Then chop the meiU small with marrow, half a

pound of beef suet, some oysters^ an anchovy washed^ an

onion, some sweet herbs, a little lemon peel, and some beaten

mace and nuteeg* Beat 4U these together in a mortar, stuff

1f» the kg ia tk« shape it was before, sew it i^ and nib it

all over with iJhe y^lka oi HP^- beataii; spit i^ flour it

aU over, lay it to the fire, and baste it with batter* An

hoar will loast it. In the v^SMntim^t tut the loin iato steaks^

season them with pepper, salt, and nutmegs lemoa peel

cat fine, and a few herbs. Fry them in fresh butter of a

fine brown, then pour out all the butted, put ia a quarter of a

pmt of white wine, shake it abeaC, aad then add hdtf a pkft of

siroag gvftvy, whereia good spice has been boiled, a quarter of

a pint of oysters^ muA the liqaoor, some maahroomat mi b

spoonlbl of the pidde, a piece of batter sailed in flour, and

Iha yoik-of an egg beat fine; stir all these togethar tiU thick,

then lay your leg of lamb in the dish, and the loin ronnd

it. Pour the sauce over them, and garnbh with lemon.

Bireagiaf.LamhamdCucmmiera*

Cut off the chine bone from the breast, and aet it on to stew with a pint of gravy. 'When the bones would draw out, put it on the gridiron to griU; and then lay it ia a dish on cncam-bers nicely stewed;

14Jk DOMBSriC COOKBRY.

To foa§i a ShauUkr of lamb.

A ahonUer of lamb will take about three quarters of an hour to roast; finish it, and put good gravy in the dish, and then the lamb; send mint sauce in a boat.

Shoulder of Lambforcedt foUh Sorrel Sauce.

Bone a shoulder of lamb, and fill it up with iforcemeat; braise it two hours over a slow stove. Take it up, glaze it; or it may be glazed only, and not braised. Serve with sorrel sauce under the Iamb.

Shoulder of Lamb grilled.

Having roasted the shoulder till three parts done, take it up, and with, a sharp knife score it in small diamonds, seasoning with pepper and salt, or if intended to be highly seasoned, with cayenne; broil of a nice brown, and serve with a good coulis under it, to which add two spoonfuls of catsup, a little lemon juice and butter, and place over thin slices of lemon.

Shoulder of Ldtmb, and Sorrel Same.

Take the blade bone out, and fill up the place with forced meat; sew it up and put it into -a braise, and pat it on the stove to simmer quite slow: when done glaze it, put the sorrel sauce on the dish, and the lamb on it: garnish with either paste or croutons.

To fry a Loin or Neck of Lamb.

Having cut your lamb into chops, rub both sides of them

with the yolk of an egg, and sprinkle some grated bread over

them, mixed with a little parsley, thyme, marjoram, winter

savory; and a little . lemon peel, all chopped very fine. Fry

in butter till of a nice light brown, and garnish with fried

parsley;

• . .

To roast Rib$ of Lamb.

Saw the chine bone off, and cut Che chine bone from the breast, skin it, cut the scrag off, crack the ribs across the middle, put skewers cross-ways, and put the spit under the skewers; it will take half an hour to roast; baste it with butter several times; just before you take it up, baste, flour, and

LAMB. 14d

tall it; put gravy fai the dish: garnish with water-cressea: sead mint sauce in a boat.

To Ml Grass Lamb.

Whatever the number of pounds is that the joint weighs, 80 many quarters of an hour must it boil. When done, serve it up with spinach, carrots, cabbage, or broeoli.

Lamib Steaks*

Fry them of a beautiful brown; when served, throw over tfaem a good quantity of crumbs of bread fried, and crimped parsley.

Mutton or lamb steaks, seasoned and broiled in buttered papers, either with crumbs and herbs, or without, are a genteel dish, and eat well.

Sauce for them, called sauce Robertj will be found in the list of Sau$es.

Lamb Chsps.

Cut a neck of lamb neatly into chops, and rub them over with egg yolk; then strew over them some bread crumbs, mixed with a little clove, mace, white pepper, and salt. Fry to a nice brown, and place the chops regularly round a dish, leaving an opening in the middle, to be filled with stewed spinach, cucumber, or sorrel.

Hause-lamb Sieaks, whiie*

Stew them in milk and water till very tender, with a bit of lemon peel, a little salt, some pepper, and mace. Have ready some veal gravy, and put the steaks into it; mix some mushroom powder, a cup of cream^ and the least bit of flour; shake the steaks in this liquor, stir it, and let it get quite hot* Jost before you take it up, put in a few white mushrooms* This is a good substitute when poultry is very dear.

Hatue-lamh Steaks, troum*

Season them with pepper, salt, nutmeg, grated lemon p^el, and chopped parsley; but' dip them first into egg: fry them quick. Thicken some good gravy with a bit of flour and butter; and add to it a spoonful of port wine, and some

•V

144 DOMESTIC GOaKERY.

9y 9tera; boil it iipi, ajid then pat in the steaks wann; let theai heat up, and serve. You may add palatesi ballflj or eggsb if you like.

Lamb Cutletg with Spinach*

t

Cut the steaks from the loios and fry them; the spinaeh us to be stewed and put into the dish first, and then the euUetA round it.

Lamb Cutlets, toith Cucumber Sauce.

Cut the chine off a neck of lamb cut it into cutlets, and trim them neatly: into a stew-pan put three ounces of butter^ pepper, saltj chopped eschalots^ thyme, parsley^ and lemon iuice: melt the butter, and put in the cutlets till three parts done: take them up, and when nearly cool« brush them over ^rith yolk of egg, . sprinkle with grated bread, and fry in boiling lard: drain off the fat, and serve with cucumber sauce in the middle of the dish.

Veal and mutton cutlets may be dressed in the same manner.

Lamb Cutkts, with mashed Potatoes*

Proceed exactly as already directed for encumbers^ instead pf which place mashed potatoes in the middle of the dish.

LamVs Fry,

Serve it fried of a beautiful colour, and with It good deal of dried or fried parsley over it

Lamb*s Head.

Wash the head very clean, take the black part from the eyes, and the gall from the liver. Lay the head in warm water i boil the lights, heart, and part of the liver. Chop and flour them and toss them up in a sauce-pan with some gravy, catsup, and a little pepper, salt, lemon jnioe, and a spoonful of cream. Boil the head very white, lay it in the middle of the dish, and the minoe»meat connd it* Place the other parts of 0t liver fried, with some very small bits of bacoa on the ninoe*meat and the brains fried in little cakes, and laid on the rim of the dish, with some crisped parsley put between. Pour a little melted butter over the head, and garnish with leoK n.

V

LAMB. 144

Lam¥$ Head, another wof BoQ the head and plttck tender, but do not let the liver \m loo much done. Hack the head cross and cross, grate some notmeg over it, and lay it in a dish before a good fire. Grate 8ome crumbs of bread, some sweet herbs nibbed, a little lemon peel chopped fine, a ver^ little pepper and salt, and baste it with a little butter; throw a little floor over it, baste and dredge it. Take half the liver, the heart, li^ts and tongue, chop them small, with about a gill of gravj or water. 8hake some iiour over the meat, stir it together, put in the gravy or water, a good piece of butter rolled in a little fiour, a little pepper and salt, and what runs from the head in the dish. Simmer all together a few minutes, and add half a spoonful of vinegar; poor it into the dish, lay the head in the middle of the mince-» neat, have ready the other half of the liver cut thin with some slices of bacon broiled, and lay romid the head. Garnish with kmon.

Lamb's Head and Hinge, .

Boil the head by itself till it is teAder. Boil the liver and lights till they are nearly done enough, then mince them. Take about half a pint of the liquor they were boiled in; thicken it with a little butter and flour, add a little catsup, a little vinegar, salt and pepper. Put in the brains and . the minoe, and let it stew a short time. While this is doing, rub the head, which should be parted in two, with yolk of egg, strew it with bread crumbs and chopped parsley; and brown it with a salamander, or in a Dutch oven. Then serve it up with the mince poured round it. The heart may be seasoned and broiled if preferred, instead of mincing it.

Lamb'i Head minced. Chop the head in halves, and blanch it with the liver^ heart, and lights: clean the brains in warm water, dip them in yolk of ^g, grated bread, and chopped parsley, seasoned with white pepper and salt; and whilst the head is blanching, fry them in boiling lard, and drain. Chop the heart, &c. and add a little parsley and lemon*peel, chopped very fine, seasoned with white pepper and salt; stew in some coulis till tender. Wash the head over with yolk of egg, strew over grated breads 6 u

14i DOMESTIC COOKERY.

seasoned with white pep^r and stdt, and btke gently till very lender. Serve up^ having browned the head with a salamander, put the mince uqder it^ and the brains round it, with rashers, of bvoiled bacon.

To stew Lamb's Head.

In order to stew a lamb's head, wash and pick it very clean. ]Lay it in water for an hour^ take out the brains, and with a ^harp knifii carefully extract the bones and the tongue; but be careful to avoid breaking the meat. Then take out the eyes. Take two pounds of veal and two pounds of beef suet, a very little thyme, a good piece of lemon peel minced, part of a nutmeg grated, and two anchovies. Having chopped all these well together, grate two stale rc^ls, and mix all with the yolks of four eg^. Save enough of this meat to make about twenty balls^ Take half a pint of fresh mushrooms, clean peeled and washed, the yolks of six eggs chop^ ped, half a pint of oysters clean washed, or pickled cockles. Mix all together; btxt first stew your oystets, and put to them two quai^ts if grSfvy,. with a blade or two of mabe. Tie the head with packthread, cover it close, and let it stew two hours. While thii is doing, beat up the brains with some lemon ped eut fine, a Httle chopped parsley, a little grated nutmeg, and tbe yolk of an egg. Fry the brains in little cakes, in boiling dripping, and fry the balls, and keep them both hot^ Take half atn onnce of truffles and morels, and strain the gravy the bead was stewed in. Put to it the truffles and morels, and a few mushrooms, and boil all together; then put in the rest of the brains that are not fried, and stew them together for a minute or two. Pour this over the head, lay the fried brains and balls round it, and garnish with lemon.

Lamb's Sweetbreads.

Blanch them, and pnt them a little while into ocHA wtLter. Then pot ttiem into a stew-pan, with a ladlefal of broth, some pepper and salt, a small bunch of stoaU onions, and a blade of tnstce; stir in a bit of butter and fioui-, and stew half an boor. Have ready two or three eggs well beaten in cream, with a little minced parsley, and a few grates of nutmeg. Put in some boiled asparagus tops to the other things. Do not let it

t^ter Ihc^ crettm is ia; but niake k h^ and Mir k well nil the while. Take great care it does not cardie. Ycfting Frenoh beans or peas may be added^ first boiled of a beautiful colour.

Haahed Lamb and broiled Bladetlfanei

Cat the blade4 one from (he shoulder of lamb, leaving a little meat upon k; score, pepper, and salt it * put it on a tavt* dish; poor over it a little oiled butter, end put it into the oven to warm through: cut the other part of the meat into neat otAlofM; put a little . coulis saUce into a stew-pan; make k hot, and add a little mushroom catsup, and half a spoonful of eschalot vinegar: put in the collops, set them by the side of a stove to get hot, but do not let them boil: take the blade-bone   ot of the oven; put it on a gridiron to brown, and put the hoidi on the dish, and the bUide^bone on the middle of the dish.

Fricasseed Lambstones,

Skin and wash, then dry and flour them; fry of a beautiful brown, in hog's lard. Lay them on a sieve before the fir^ till you have made the following sauce: Thicken almost half k pint of veal-gravy, with a bit of flour and butter, and then add to it a slice of leiltion, a large spoonful of mushroom catsap, a tea-spoonful 6f lemon-pickle, a grate of nutmeg, and the yolk of an egg btoten well. in two large spoonfuls of thick cream. Put this over the fire,' and stir it well till it is hot, and looks white: but do not let it boil, or it will curdle. Then put in the fry, and shake it about nciar the fire for a minute bt two. Serve in a very hot dish and cover.

FricasBee of LaiiibHones and Sweetbreads. Have ready some lambstones blanched, parboiled, and sliced. Flour two or three sweetbreads: if very thick, cut them in two. Fry all together, with a few large oysters, of a fine yellow brown. Pour the butter off; and add a pint of good gravy, some asparagus tops about an inch long, a little nutmeg, pepper and salt, two shalots shred fine, and a gJass of white wine. Simmer ten minutes; then put a little of the gravy to the yolks of three eggs well beaaten, and by degrees

148 DOMESTIC COOKERY.

mix the whole. Turn the gravy back into the pan« and stir it till of a fine thickness without boiling. Garnish with lemon.

Lambs' Rumps and Ear$, brown.

Scald an equal number of each very clean'; take a pint of veal stock, in which braise them till half done: take up the rumps^ and having brushed them over with yolk of egg, etrew with grated bread, and broil gently: stew the ears till the liquor is nearly reduced, and having now added coulis, stew till tender, and serve with the rumps round the ears and sauce.

Lambs' Rumps and Ears, white.

Proceed as above directed; and when they are tender, end the liquor is nearly reduced, add a leason of eggs, and serve.

Lamb's Bits.

Skin the stones, and split them; then lay them on a dry

doth with the sweetbreads and the liver, and dredge them well

with flour. Fry them in lard or butter till they are of a light

brown, and then lay them in a sieve to drain. Fry a good

quantity of parsley, lay your bits on the dish, the parsley

in lumps over them, and pour round them melted butter.

. •

Lambs" Feet, with Asparagus Peas.

It will take twelve lambs' feet to make a dish; they are scalded by the butcher; take the worm from between the hoof first, then loosen the skin and gristle from the shank bone, then put them on in cold water, let them boil until the shank bone 'will draw out without breaking the skin, then put them into a stew-pan, peel two lemons, cut them in. slices, and put them over die lambs feet to keep them white, add about half a pint of good stock, cover the feet over with slices of bacon, and paper over that; set the stew-pan on the stove to simmer very gently for half an hour, or until they are quite tender; when done put them aside till wanted: put the asparagus peas into a stew-pan with a little stock, put it on the stove to boil till reduced nearly to a glaze, add a little beshemell, and a* little cream if not white enough; take the lambs' feet up, and lay them

^ m^J^t

FISH. 149

OD A dean doth, then put them ronnd the diah^ put a little besbemell over the feet» and the asparagus peas in the middle: garnish either with paste or croutons*

j§ very nice Di$h.

Take the best end of a neck of lamb, cut it into steaks, nd chop each bone so short as to make the steaks almost round. £ggf And strew with crumbs, herbs, and seasoning; fry them of the finest brown; mash some potatoes with a little butter sad cream, and put them into the middle of the dish raised high. Then place the edge of one steak on 'another with the naall bone upward, all round the potatoes.

N. B. Directions for making pies of the different meats are given under the general head of iavaury pies.

FISH.

Obiervati&ni an dretting Fi$h.

There is no branch of cookery that requires greater ninety than the dressing of fish, and at the same time none for which so little instruction can be given. In the boiling of fish a minute or two only makes a material difference. Done to a moment, it will come to table in its best state; if this point be at ail exceeded it will be breaking to pieces, the pure flavour ahnoflt gone, and the fish, consequently, rendered indifferent food, if not absolutely spoiled as such. While, on the other hand, if it be underdone, it is uneatable.

A quick observation and constant practice are the only means of instruction to be relied on, to dress fish thoroughlywell. Whatever is said here, therefore, upon this subject, must be considered as mere outline, not at all as meant for defined rules. Such, to be of real use, must be too tediously minute, either for a writer to undertake, or a reader to look over. The variations of size and kinds of fish are so nume*

150 BOMESTiC COOKERY.

toad, axid msike so essentiftl a difference, where the time must be computed to a -moment, that positive directions mast be endless, or they could not be appUcable.

The best way of dressing fish, and the wholesomest manner of eating it, is to broil it; the next best, to boil it; 9nd 'ftying it, the worst.

:If the fishmonger does not dean the fish, it is seldom vec^ nicely done; but those in great towns wash it beyond what la necessary for cleaning, and by perpetual watering diminiah the liavoiir. Those who know how to purchase fish msy, by taking more at a time than ihey want for one 'day, often get it cheap: and such kinds as will pot or pickle, or keep by being sprinkled with salt and hung up, or by being fried will serve for stewing the next day, may then be bought with advantage.

Fresh- water fish has oflen a muddy, smell and taste, to take off which, soak it in strong salt and water after it is nicely cleaned; or if of a size to bear it, scald it in the same; then dry and dress it.

When fish is to be fried or broiled, it must be wrapped in a nice sofl cloth after it is w.ell .cleaned and washed. - When perfectly dry, wet with an egg, if for frying, and sprinkle the finest crumbs of bread over it; if done a second time with the egg and bread,, the fish will look much better: then having a thick-bottomed frying-pan on the fire, with a large quantity df lard or dripping boiling hot, plunge the fish into it, and let ^t'fry middlingly quick, till the colour is of a fine brown yellow, and it is judged ready. If it is done enough before it ^las (Vbtained- a proper degree of colour, the cook should draw 'the pan to the side of the fire; carefully take it up, and either place it on a large sieve turned upwards, and ' to be kept for 4hat purpose only, or on the under side of a dish to drain; and 'if Wanted very nice, a sheet of cap paper must be put to receive the fish, which -should look a beantifur colour, and all the crumbs appear distinct; the fish being free from all grease. The same dripping, with a little fresh, will serve a second time. •Butter gives a bad colour; oil fries of the finest colour for those who will allow of the expense.

•If fish is to be broiled, it must be seasoned, fioured, and put on a gridiron that is very clean; which, when hot, should be Tubbed with a bit of suet, to prevent the fish from sticking.

It mast be l^oiled on a very dear fire^ that it may not taste ODoky; and not too near, that it amy not be scorched.

Garnish with a friage of curled raw parsley, or parsley firied^ which must be thus done: When washed and picked,, throw It again into clean water; when the lard or dripping boils, throw the parsley into it inmediately Crovr the water^ and ilKtaatly ill will be green and crisp, and must be taken up with a slice; this may be dooe after the fish is fried.

When fish is to be boiled, though all epiaiona agree about putting it into a fish-kettle, there are greet dissensions as to thst state the water should be in when the fish is put into it. Cold, warm, and boiling, have «U their several advocates. The natafe of fish, w4iich is phlegmatic and watery, makes it reqaire eondoisiiig rather than dilating, and thus the lying sa maeh longer in water, as if must do when put into cold watcr^ IS anfavourable to it. Neither for large fish does it seem advisable to put it into boiling water, as this will have too Middcsn an effect upon the outside before the inside can be at all affected. For these reasons therefore, the warm water seems favourable, but for small fish, which will be heated through immediately, the boilfaig water will be preferable. All this is suggested, partly from practice, and portly iheoreti« c^ly aoBongst the contending ofHnions upon the subject^ andt must abide the decision of those who are not so bigoted to their own notions as to refuse the trying any fair experiment, Th» writer will readily enter into recognisance to adopt the cokl water system when it shall be sufficiently proved to have the advantage of the others. A good deal of salt, and occasionally a little vinegar put into the water, assists to give firmness to fish; but cod, whiting, and haddock, are far better if a little salted, and kept a day; and if not very hot weather they will be good two days.

Fish should be taken out of the water the moment it is done enough. It may be kept hot by setting it upon the ^te o£ the fish-kettle, over the water, covered with a cloth* Thia will be a disadvantage to it, as it will be every moment getting vapid, but not so great a one as lying in the water. Keeping it back in the doing, as is sometimes practised, when the dinner is not likely to be punctually served up, is a process that will always injure fish.

152 DOMESTIC COOKEKT.

A cook must make herself well acquainted with die time her fish-kettle will require to boil at a proper distance over a steady fire, and she may then soon be an adept at dressing her fish against a given time; nor must she be blamed if this time is not attended to^ and the fish suffers for it first, and then the stomachs of the eaters of it.

When well done, and with very good sauce, fish is more attended to than almost any other dish. The liver and roe should be placed on the dish, so that the lady may see them, and help a part to every one.

To keep TurhoL

This excellent fish is in season the greatest part of the I summer: when good, it is at once firm and tender, and abounds with rich gelatinous nutriment. Being drawn, and washed clean, if it be quite fresh, by rubbing it lightly with salt, and keeping it in a cold place, you may in moderate weather pre* serve it for a couple of days, and it will be in as high perfec* tbn as at first.

ToboilTurhoL

An hour or two before it is wanted to be dressed, soak it in spring water with more or less salt; and if, at any time, it should not be perfectly sweet, shift the water five or six times, and put a larger quantity of salt than usual in the mouth and belly. The turbot kettle being of a proper size, put the fish on the plate, cover it well with cold water, set it over a gentle fire, add a handful of salt and half a gill of vinegar, carefully take off the scum as it rises, and preserve in every way the delicacy of its colour from injury. When it boils up, put in a little cold water, and take out some of die hot: then, almost immediately, add more cold water; and, on its again boiling, if it be not very large, take it off the fire: for it is a general rule, that . fish should never be suffered to boil strongly up. Boiled turbot is occasionally served up with many different sauces; but, in general, lobster is preferred to all others. This, therefore, in one tureen, with anchovy butter, and plain butter, in two ediers, is now the usual style. A very good lobster sauce, for this purpose, is readily made, by melting plenty of fresh but* ter, bruising into it the spawn of one or two lobsters, with the

Ottt cot ttn^, atid a spoonful or t#D of anchovy liquor, and jast boiling it up. Th6 pttyper garnish fur a turbot ie sprigs of curled parsley, sliced lemon, and scraped horseradish, altera natel) placed round the dish. Sometimes, however, it is dished up, surrounded only with nicely-Med smelts.

To bake Turbot.

Ic is but seldom that turbot is now baked, being femid so very e&cellent when boiled in the foregoing simple manner; fVom which the old System of sweet herbs, ^ine, &t. is entirely dis6ird^, as interfering with the natural flavour. The following is the best method of baking it. But ter the inside of the dish which is to contain it, and sprinkle it all over with a miztui^ of beaten pepper, grated nutmeg, finely chopped parsley, and a litde'salt; then, pouring in A pint of mountain wine, and having cut off the head and tail of the turbot, lay it in the dish, give it a good sprinkling of the tnaie sort of nlixture as the bottom and sides of the dish before Tcceirecl, and pour over it another pint of wine. Stick small bits of butter all over the fish; dredge a very little flour, and strew plentifdlly crumbs of bread. When baked of a fin6 brswn, lay it on the dish ih which it is to be served up; stir the sanoe in the bakihg dish all together; pour it into a saucepan, and shAkfe in a little flour; add a piece of buttfer, and tw6 spoonfuls of soy ot tetsup, when it boils; ahd, on its agaifi boilitig, pour it into a tureen, and serve it up. Thfe dish may be garnished with scraped radish and slices of lemon.

To fry Turbot.

Having properly cleansed your Bsh (which in this mode of dressing roust be small) and thoroughly dried it, strew on some floor, and ptit it into youir pan, with a sufficient quantity of hot lard to cover it. When it is firifed nice and brown, take it earefully our, and thoroughly drain the fat from it. Ih the meantime dean the pan, put into it as much claret and whitb win^ as will neaHy cov^tthe fish, with an anchovy, salt, nutmeg, and k little ginger. Put in the turbot, and let it remaiii in the liquiir till it is half Wasted; then take it out, and put in a piece of butter rolled in flour, and a minced lemon. l,et them suoitner legtAet tifl of a proper thickness, theti rub a hot

6 X

164 DOMESTIC COOKBRT.

dish with a piece of shalot, lay the iarbot in the dish, pour over the sauoe^ and serve it up. You may likewise add plaon melted butter in a bason.

To boil Salmon. Put on a fish-kettle^ with 'spring water enough to well cover the salmon }ou are going to dress^ or the salmon will neither look nor taste well: (boil the liver in a separate saucepan.) When the Winter boils, put in a handful of salt, take off tlie scum as soon as it rises^ have the fish well washed^ put it in, and if it is thick, let it boil very gently about a quarter of an hour to a pound of fish; but practice only can perfect the cook in dressing salmon; a quarter of a split salmon will take almost as long boiling as half a one. Serve witl^ lobster^ shrimp, or anchovy sauce.

To dress a wh^le Salmon for a large Company.

When the salmon is scalded and gutted, take off the head and tail^ cut the body through into slices an inch and a half thick, and throw them into alarge pan of pump water. When they are all put in, sprinkle a handful of bay-salt upon the water^ stir it 'about, and then take out the fish. Set on a huge deep stew-pan, boil the head and tail, but do not split thehead^ and put in some salt. When they have boiled ten minutes^ skim the water very clean, and put in the slices. When they are boiled enough, take them out, lay the head and tail in a dish, and the slices round. Serve it up with plain melted butter aMd anchovy-sauce. Garnish with horseradish, mixed with the slices.

To broil fresh Salmon.

Cut some slices from a fresh salmon, and wipe them dean and dry; then melt some butter smooth and fine, with a little flour and basket salt Put the pieces of salmon into it, and roll them aboiit, that they may be covered all over with butter. Then lay them on a nice clean gridiron, and broil them over a clear but slow fire. While the salmon is broiling, make your sauce thus: take two anchovies, wash, bone, and cut them into small pieces, and cut a leek into three or four long pieces. Set on a sauce-pan with some butter and a little

FISH. 16^

tour, pat in the anchovies and leek, with some capers cut flnall^ some pepper and salt, and a little nutmeg; add to them ' tome warm water, and two spoonfuls of vinegar^ shaking the suice-pan t)ll it boils; and then keep it on the simmer till joa tre ready foir it. When the salmon ia done on one side, turn it OD the other till it is quite enough; then take the leek out of the sauce, poor it into adish, and lay the broiled salmon upon it Garnish with lemons cut in quarters.

f TV hroil drMt SBiuuntm

Lay your dried salmon in soak for two or three hours, then ky it on the gridiron, and shake over it a little pepper. It will tike but a short tiiHe, and when done serve it up with, melted butter.

An exeeOent Dish of dried Sdlmem*

Poll some into flakes; have ready some eggs boiled hard, and diopped large; put both into half a pint of thin cream, and two or three oanoes of butter rubbed with ateS'-spoonful of flour; skim it, and stir it till boiling hot;' make a wall of mashed potatoes round the inner edge of a dish, and pour the shove iuto it

To hake Salmon.

Take a piece of salmon, of five or six pounds weight, (or larger aoccwding to your company) and cut it into slices about an inch thick, after which, make a forcemeat-thus: Take some' of the flesh of the salmon, and the same quantity of the meat of an eel, with a few mushrooms. Season it with pepper, salt, nutmeg, and cloves, and beat all together till it is very ime. Boil the crumb of a roll in milk, and beat it up with' four eggs till it is thick; then let it cool, add four more raw ^gs to it, and mix the whole well -together. Take the skin irom the salmon, and lay the slites ixi a 'dish; Cover every slioe with the forcem^t, pour .some mielied hiitter over them, with a few o'umbs of bread,' and pltfc^ ousters round the dish. Pat it into the oven, and when it is 'of a fine browh, pbur over a little melted butter, with some, redwine boiled in it; and the juice of a lemon, and serve it up hot to table.

/^

Iiii6. DOMESTIC COOKERY.

Take a larg9 pieee, toale and wipe, but don't if ash it: salt iMry well, let it lie till the salt is melted and drained from it, t^i^ season with beaten maoe, dor eg, and whole pepper: lay in a ibw bay leavee, put it close into a pan, cover it over with butter, and bake it;' when well done, drain It from the gravy, put U into the pota to keep, and when cold cover it with clarified butter. In this manner you may do any firm fiah*

ft

f TaM^ a »de of salmon^ cut off the tail, then waah the ifsh^ part well, and dry it with a eloth^ Bub it over with the yolH^ of.egg^ und make some forcemeat with what you cut off at the tail end. Take off the skin and put to it some par*. boiled oysters, a tail or two of lobsters, the yolks of three or four eggs boiled hard, siK anchovies, a handful of sweet herbs c)^opp^ smaH, a little salt, doves, mace, nutmeg, pepper, tfiA grated bread. Work all these well together, with yolks of qgg4 lay it over the fleshy part, and strew on it a little pepper 4nd ^U. Then rpll it up into a collar, and bind it with broad ^tP*. Bo^ittipi^ati^i',, salt, v^nd vinegar; b^it let th^ liquor boil before you put it in, and throw in a bunch of ^weet-sherhs,* with some sliced ginger and nqtmeg. Let it boil geritly near two hours, and then take it up. Put it into a pan, and when t))e pickle is cold put it to yout salmon, and let it lay id it' till wan^. If ypu c^ver it with clarified butter, it will keep «[ eoniE^derahle ti;ne.

To dry Sahnon.

Cut the fish 4own, take out the inside and roe. Uttb.tbe yhqle with coKiqion 9alt after scsling it .; let it hang twentyfyixr hours to draii^ Pound three or four ounces of saltpetre iiccording to the si^ of the fish, two ounces of bay salt, and two oun^^ of goar^ ipugar; rub the^» when mixed well, into the si^lipon, and lay it on % large dish or tray two days, then rub it wfll with common salt, and in twenty -four ho^ra more if will be fit to dry; wipe it well after draining. Hang it either in a wopd (shimney, or in a dry place; keeping it open with two small sticks^

Dried aalmon 10 eatm broi1f4 in p^per, and oidy jn*! w«rin« ^ trough; tgg aftqce mid oiiub^d poUtpes mib it; or it tmy Ipe boiMU ^liKciaUy the bii next th^ bend*

To pickle Salman,

After scaling and cleaning, split the 'salmon, and divide it

into mich pieces as you choose^ lay it in the kettle to fill the

bottom^ and as much water as will cover it; to three quarts

puf a pint of vinegar, a handful of salt, twelve bay leaves,

six blades of mace, and a quarter of an ounce of black pepper.

When the salmon is boiled enough, drain it and put it on a

dean cloth, then put more salmon into the kettle, and pour

the liquor npon it, and so on till all is done. After this, if

&e pickle be not smartly flavoured with the vinegar and salt,

luid more, and boil it quick three quarters of an hour. When

all is cold, pack the fish \p sopnething deep, and let ^there be

enough of pickle to plentifully cover. Preserve it from the

air. The liquor must be drained iVom the fish, and occasion aUy boiled and skimmed.

Aierdien Method of piokKng Sahnon.

Boil salmon, as if intended immediately ibr the table, in water mixed "with a good quantity of cbmmon salt, then lay it to drain, till cold, in the open air. Afterwards put it in a close cask or pot, with a gal)pn of vitiegar to thirty pounds of salmon, and half the fUaiitity of water in which the fish was boiled. Great care must be used m taking off the scum as it rises, during the whole time the salmon is 'boiling, whidi should on no account be overdone.

^ ToboilCo*,

Wash and clean the fish, and rub a little salt ih the inside of it; (if the weather is very cold, a larg^ cod is the better for being kept a day:) put plenty of water in your fish-kettle, so ftatthe fish may be well covered; put in a large handful of salt: and when' -it is dissolved, put in your fish; a very small fish will require from fifteen to twenty o^inutes, af^er the water boils; large ones about half an hour. Drain it on the fish plate; mh it with a gailiish of the roe, liver^ chiiterlings, &c.

158 DOMESTIC COOKERr«

The sounds, the jelly parts about die jowl^ the palate, and the tongue, are highly esteemed by piscivorous epicures. The carver's reputation depends much on his equitable distribution of them.

To boU Slices of Cod.

Half an hour before you dress them, put them into cold spring water with some salt in it. Lfay them at the boltom of a fish-kettle, with as much* cold spring water as will cover them, and some salt; set it on a quick fire, and when it boils skim it, and set it on one side of the fire to boil very gently, for ab()ut ten minute^ according to its size and thickness. Garnish with scraped horseradish, slices of lemon, and a slice oi the liver on one side, and chitterlings on the other. Serve with oyster sauce and plain butter. •

To broil Cod.

Cut the cod into slices about two inches thick, and dry and flour them well. Make a good clear fire, rub the gridiron with a piece of chalk, and set it high finpm the fire. Then put in your slices of Ash, turn them often, and let them brown till they are of a fine brown colour. Great care must be taken in turning them that they dp not break. When done serve them up with lobster and shrimp sauce.

To stew Cod. ^

Cut some slices of cod, as for boiling, and season them with* grated nutmeg, pepper, salt, and sweet herbs. Put them into a stew-pan with half a pint of white wine, and a quarter of a pint of water. Cover them close, and let them simmer for five or six minutes. Then squeeae in the juice of a lemon, and add a few oysters with their liquor strained, a piece of butter rolled in flour, and a Uade or two of mace. Let them stew very gently, and frequently shake the pan to prevent its burning. When the fish is done, take out the onion and sweet-herbs^ lay the cod in a warm dish, and strain the sauce over it.

ToboUCod^sHead.

Take out the gills and the blood, wash the whole * very dean, rub over it a little salt, and a glass of alegar, and

FISH. itt

kj on your fish-plate. When the water boQs, thi^w in a good

handful of salt, with a glaaa of alegar. Then pat in the

fish, and let it boil gendy half an hour (if it is a large one threa

4]aarters.) Take it up very carefully, and strip the skin dean

off, aet it before a brisk fire» dredge it all over with ilottr. and

biste it well with butter. When the fioth begins to rise, throw

o?er itsome fine bread crumbs, and continue basting it, to make

it fiDth well. When it is of a fine light brown, dish it up, and

garnish it with lemon cut in slices, scraped horseradish, baiw

berries, a few small fish fried and laid round it, or fried oysters.

Cut the roe and liver in sUceSy and lay it over a little of the

lumpy part of the lobster out of the sauce, which you must

make as follows: Take a good lobster, and stick a skewer in

the vent of the tail, to keep out the water. Throw into the

water a handful of salt, and when it boils put in the lobster,

which will be done in half an hour. If it has spawn, pick

them off, and pound them very fine in the mortar. Put them

into half a pound of good melted butter; then take the meat

out of your lobster, break it in bits, and put that in likewise*

with a large spoonful of lemon pickle, the same of walnut cat*

sop, a slice of lemon, one or two slices of horseradish, and a

small quantity of beaten mace; season it to your taste with sail

and Cayenne pepper. Boil them one minute, then take out

the horseradish and lemon, pour it into your sauce*boat, and

serve it up with your fish. If lobsters cannot be procured, you

may make use of oysters.or shrimps the same way; and if you

eannot get any kind of shell fish, you may then add to the buU

ter two anchovies cut small, a spoonful of walnut liquor, and

an onion stuck with cloves.

To hake Cod's Head.

When it is thoroughly cleansed and washed, lay it in the dish, which you must first rub round with butter. Put in a bunch of sweet herbs, an onion stuck with cloves, three or four blades of mace, some black and white pepper, a notm^ bruised, a little lemon peel, a piece of hcnrseradish, and a quart of water. Dust the head with flour, grate a little nutmeg over it, stick bits of butter on various parts, and sprinkle raspings all over it, and send it to the oven. When done, take the head out of the dish, and put it into that it is to be served

IM DOMESTIC COOKBRT.

ip in. iet Ae disb ^vei^ tioillAg water, ftttd cor&t it do6# t   pivvent ks g«€tiilg cdld. In tbe ttieali titnii, as tixpedttiously tt'ydu oin pour all the liqilor out of the dish in iivhich it if^a» bdced ii)to a s&uce-pati, aiid let it bdil thVee or fbur minutes; Aon tftraih i% txid put to it a gill Of red WiAe^ two spoohfultf of eal8itp a pitit of shfifnpA, bblf a pint of oysters, a spooti-^ fbl of mushroom pickle, aild a quartern of butte)^ rolled iii Aour. Stir dl well together, and let it boil till it is thick; tfien straiti it, and pou)^ it into the dish. Have readj some ' tOUsted ht«ad cut Ihiree comer ways, and fried trisp. Sti^k some pieces of toast about the h^ad And mouth, add lay tjiii teikidinder round the head. Oartiish your dish with crisped parsley, lemon notched, and scrkped horseradish. This ttldhod is equally good folr roastinif.

To dr€$i a Cod's Jhil.

The tail Of a cod cut in fillets, or slices, and fried, miikes A gpood dish, and generally to be bought at a very reasonable rate: if boiled, it is soft and watery. The skull and tail of k cod i^ a fkvourite and excellent Scotch dish, stewed and served «ip with anchovy or oyster sauce, with the liquor it is bofled in, in a tureen.

Crimp Cod.

T$ke n g^lon of sprihg water, put it into ft sauce-paft ever the fire, and thi^w ih a handful of salt. Boil it uf» sevefal times, and keep it dean scummed. When it is well dear^ from the scum, take a niiddling sised cod, as fresh as possible, and put it into some fresh pump water. Let it li^ a few minutes, and then cut it into slices about two inches thick. Throw these into the boiling brine, and let them bdil briskly a tew miuutes. Then take the slices out With great aste that they may not break, and put them on a sieve to drain. When they are weU dried, flour them, and lay them at a disiftnce upon a very good fire to broil. Wheft enough^ serve them up With lobster, shrimp, or oyster sauce.

To boil Cod Somtub. Soak them in warm water half an hour, then scrape and elean; and if to be dressed winie, boil them in iMBk and

¦; when tender, serve them in a napkin, with egg sauce. The mlA nrasft not be itiiieh; soaked oiit» luileflft fbr &ica«M 749 biril Cod-wtuuU to look like Chickens.

Bott ytmr eoandii WeU but be careful thejr ave not done too Wick Tidtelh^m up, and )et Iheib stand tiU th^ am «iita cold. Then nud^e a forcemeat of chopped oy8(c»8» crumbs of bread, a lump of butter, the yolks of two eggs, nutmeg, pepper, and salt, and till ybtir sounds with Jt. Skewer them in Aeibspeof a9bicke%' and lardtbemdolirq eaoh side, aa you weald ehidnHis« Aist.tham; .well with floi^r, ^d put thetn brfm the live i i a iSQ . avie0 ^'roast* . Bsste them well with' belter^, ahd when eoeiifK*:potir ?q them oyster sauee» and far«f lish with bwrberries. rTbift is A i i^tty side dish for a. hii^ tihle; onvery.fMropeirin tfae^itne of Lent.

To fricauee 'Cod'W%nds

Having properly cleaned them, cut them into smaU pieces, boil them in milk alkd Waiter, and set them to drain. Tbsn put Ifaen kilo aiciieah^iieeffKin, and seasoft them with Wucn. mace,' grated nutmeg, and a little pef^r and saU» Add to th^kn a cupfAli of 'cream, with a gik 4 piece of butter rolled in flour, and keep shaking the' wbel^.uU it is thoroughly ^ snd of a gded tiiickaess. Th^n {iQur all. into your dish, nd MTvfe itfip, with^itslieed kmon for giirnish.

• To. broil Cod-sounda. .

Scald in hot water, rub w^ll with salt, pull off the dirty Am, Slid put them to-liinmer till tendts: take them out, flour, and hfoil While this is b^ng done, season a little brown gnvy with pejiper, sah; a te»«sp ieDfi l of soy, and a little kuiiterd:-^ve it a boil with a hit of floHr and butter, ao4 pour it over the sounds.

Cod-'oound* lUgbui.

Prepene as ahev^:, tlieil stfe^ them in white gravy seasened, eresm, butter, and a little bit ef iBeur tfdded before, you serve, gently boiiing up. A bk of len^en peel, nutiiieg, liod the kasl potmdbd maoei ahtfuld^ve the flavoitr.

Idt DOMESTIC C0OK1&RY.

Currie of Cad*

This sboald be made cyf sliced ood that has eithdr been crimped or sprinkled a dtky, to make it firm. Fry it of a fine brown with onions; and stew it with a good white gravy, a little currie powder, a bit of butter and floar, three or four dpotonfhls of rich cream^ salt, and cayenne^ if the powder be not hot enough.

. ^ To dress Salt Cod.

Souk and clean the piece you mean to dress, then lay it all night in water, with a glass of vioegalr. Boil it enough, then break it into flakes on the dish; pour over it parsnips boiled, beaten in a mortar, and then boil up with cream and a iarge piece of butter rubbed with a bit of flour. It may be served as above, with egg sauce instead of the parsnip, and the root sent up whole: or the fish may be boiled and sent up without flaking, and sauces* as above.

.To boil Sturg6»H» .

Hiiving deaned a sturgeon w«ll, boil it ini as uudi liquor as will just cover it; add two or three bits of lemon peel, some whole pepper, a stick of horseradish, and a pint of vinegar to every half gallon of water.

When, done, garnish the dish with fried oysters, sliced lemon, and horseradish, and serve it up with .melted butter, with cavear dissolved in it; or with anchovy sauce; and with the body of a crab in the butter, and a little lemon juice*

'To roast Sturgeon.

Put it on a lark*spit, then tie it on a large spit; baste it constantly with butter, and serve with a good gravy, an anchovy, a squeeze of Seville orange or lem H], and a glass of sherry.

To roast Sturgeon^ another Uiay. Put a piece of butter, rolled in flour, into a stew-pan with fbur cloves, a bunch of sweet herbs, two onions, some pe^ptf and salt, half a pint of w ater, and a glass of vinegar. Stir it over the fire till hot; then let it become lukewarm, and steep the fish in it an hour or two. Butter a paper well, tiait round,

iciiovy

FISH. 163

letting the spit rtm throiigh/ Senre with

To hroil Siwrgeonp

Cat it a0 CQtieli; rob the bars of the gridiron with a bit of rfaine of bacon, then wipe the bars with a clean cloth, and rub th( bars again with a bit of fiit bacon; then put on the sturgeon; pefqaer and salt it; when the underside is brown torn it, and season it on the other side; when done dish it immd tlie dish; pat a little chopped shalot into a stew-pan^ a little chopped mushroom, and a few spoonfuls of good stock; let it over the atove to simmer gentlj, pot about half an ounce of batter in and a little floor; it should not be near so thick as ooolis; do not pour the sauce over it, but put it ia the middle of the dish.

* To bake Sturgeon.

Pat the stuigeon in a marinade made as follows: about balf a pint of vinegar, half a pint of sherry wine, three or four onions cut in thin slices, a few eweet herbs, such as oruge and lemon thyme, a little basil, sweet marjoram, pardey, half a di^sen of whole shalots, two heads of celery after bdng trimmed, cut in small pieces; cut the skin off the sturgeon, and put the sturgeon in an earthen dish, and pour the marinade over it; then put the skin. that you have just taken off over tlie sturgeon; this should be done the day before wanted, if you can have the sturgeon, as its lying all night in the marinade ia a very great improvement to the flavour of the fi&h; before it is put in the oven, put about a pint of good stock in the dish, and cover the sturgeon over with fat bacon, and place the skin ofthe sturgeon over the bacon; put it in a slow oven to do gently; the time it will take depends on the size; when done pour off the liquor, and put the sturgeon in the screen to keep hot until wanted; skim the fat off the liquor it was done in; . put about an^ ounce an^ a half of butter into a stew-pan; set it' on the fire; when melted, put flour sufficient to dry it up; then put in some of the liquor the sturgeon was done in; ke^.st^mg it while on the fire; when that is well mixed ifith the butter and flour put in the remainder,andiet it boll for a quarter of an hour; then strain it through

Ii4 DOMESTIC CeOKBRY.

ft tstamy. Return it into the stew^^tn; set it on the fiie to make hot; season it with Cayenne pefqierand a litlte anoboYjr essence; squeeze half a lemon iu^ and put a little sugar in; when you can procure a Seville oranfpe use it instead of lemon; pnk the sturgeon on the diah^ and -the aance e^^ it^

To pickk Sturgtom,

Cut your sturgeon into what size or pieces you 'please; wash it well, and tie it with mats; to every three quarts of water put a quart of old strong beer, a handfhl of bay salt, and double the quantity of common salt, one ounce of ginger, two ounces of black pepper, one ounce of ^yes, and one of Jamaica pepper; boil it tiH it will leave the bone, then take it up; the Aext day put in a. quart of strong alegar^' and a little salt;, tie it down with strong paper, and keep it for use. I^o not pat your sturgeon in till the water boils.

An excellent imitation of piiklei Sturgeon.

4

Take a fine large turkey, but not old; pick it very nicely, singe, and make it extremely dean: bone and wash it, and tie it across and across with a bit of mat string washed dean. Put into a nice tin sauce-pan a quart of water, a quart of vinegar, a quart of white (but not sweet) wine, and a very large handfiil of salt; boil and skim it well, then boil the turkey. When done enough^ tighten tFib strings, and lay upon it a dish widi a weight of two pounds over it.

Boil the liquor half an houV; and when botii ore cold, pot the turkey into it. This will keep some .months, and eats more delicately than sturgeon: vinegar, oil, and sugar, are usually eaten with it. If more vinegar or salt should be wanted, add when cold. Send fennel over it to table.

I

Thornbach and Skate.

These should be hung one day at least before they are dressed; and may.be served eith^ boiled^ or fried 'in crumbs, being first dipped iA egg.

•:; '

Crimp Skah. * ''

Boil afid ffend tli^se up in a napkin; or fry as above*.

nfiK.' MA

These should likemse be bung up one day at least. They ¦Miy be broiled br fried; &t,i£ a, tolerable size, the middle ¦lay be boiled, and the fins fVied. They ahoald be dipped in ^g, and' covered with crumbs.

To hail Carp.

When you kill your carp, teve all the UiMid, and have ready aome nice gravy, made of beef and muttoti, seasoned with pep* per, salt, mace, and bnion. -Before yon put in your fish, strain it off, and boll your carp before you put it into the gravy. SetHoiladew fire about a quarter of an hour, and thicken the sauce with a large piece of butter rolled in flour; or you may make your sauce thus: take the liver of the carp dean from the giltt^ three ancfiovies, a little parsley, tfaymei and an onion. Chop thes^ small together, and take half a pint of Rhetiish wine, four spdofrfuls -of -nnegar, and the blood of the carp. When all thelM^'are stewed gently together, put 4t te the carp whsdi. TtmUt first 'Me boil«d in water with a little salt and a pmt df Wine; but' takef'edte not to do it. too much after the carp it pM into the sauce.'

To fry Carp.

1 1 Atar hftviqg deaaaed your fish,, lay them in a dotb to dry,. iimi flonr them, put ihem into the pan and firy theteiof a light* btown. Take 'aone ctosts of bread,' cut then thnBe^^Dcner: ways,, and fty them- with iihe rdt» of the fish* . When your -fish are nicely fried, lay them on a coarse d^th to drain, and prepare anchovy sauce with the juice of a lemon. Lay your carp in the dish, with the roes en each side, arid gandsh with the fried crust, and slices of lemoa.

. ! I ^Am Cmp wUh UHk Dr&uUt or Egpendf.

Tdcoia bniiee.of middling sised carps, and bleed them into arlittfe dasel.or redporf^ stirriog the wine all tbe/^ime to pre* vsoUvMdliag, Whsu ttua. fi#h . are cleansed and scalded^ (but QOtdiakbM). ptit(them inlo ii isiew-pan, with as oauch water a% WiUL QDpev lhim«: Tbrolv in si bandful of salt» some whole pep^ pHEV/a binidirof ii^vfeet berbl; a Isi^e onion, a little horseradish and JemioQi fied^. witb seme wMler wiae ir«A«gar« avvl stefw tb^ea

106 DOMSSTIC COOKBBT.

dowly till enough. TheD^ taking them up, and setdng a ocnrer over them, to some of the liquor in which they were stewed, add two anchovies, a little whole pepper, powdered mmce, borseradiah, lemon peel, and a small onion, for sauce. Boil these till the anchovies are dissolved, and then put in the blood and red wine, with two spoonfuls of* good gravy. Let them boil up, then strain the liquid, and, thickening it with a bit of flour and butter, * pour the sauce over the carp. Gamisb the dish with slices of lemon, fried sippets of bread, and a few barberries. A little ale or beer, with a small quanti^ of grated gingerbread, and any thing to colour, if required, may be substituted for the red wine. This is often done in Germany.

To bake Carp.

Clean a brace of carp well, then take an earthen pan, but* ter it a little, and lay your carp in, season them with dovee, Qutmeg, mace; black and white pepper, a bundle of sweet herbs,' an onion, an anchovy, and pour in a bottle of white wine; bake them an hour in a hot oven. When flone, take them carefully up, and lay them in a dish: set it over hot water to keep them warm, and cover them close. Then pour the liquor in which they were baked into a sauce-pan, boil it a few minutes, then strain it, and add half a pound of butter rdled In flour: let it boil, and keep it stirring. Squeeie in the juice of half a lemon, and put in what salt you requite; pour the sauce over the fish, lay the roes round, and garnish with lemon; but be careful to skim all the fiit off the liquor.

7b pet Carp.

Cut off the head and tail, take out the bones, and cleanse it well, and then do it exactly the same as salmon.

German Method of making three Dishee of a Singk Carp.

The economical Germans frequently make three excellent dishes, a soap, a stew, and a fry, with a single carp of about three pounds weight. This is effected then in tbe Mlowing way: Take a live carp, either hard k soft roed, and Ueed'it into a stew pan: then scale it well, and carefully take out and preserve the entrails,! without breaking the gall; -^ioh, with the bitter parts adjoining, must be separated imniedvitely from

VI8B« 167

the rest. Eroy futher pirt'of tbe carp, like the intedtiiied of

a pig; which it more mem blM in form thm «aj other fredi

water fiah, ia convertible to excellent food. Having opened the

maw, and thoroughly waahed it, cat the roe in piecea, and put

it with aU the rest of the entraUa for the aoop or first dish,

Thia soup ia either made widi.the^ addkion.of gravj or stroiig

meat.bitikh, aooampanied- by heiiis. and apices, well Reasoned,'

and thickened with floiir; or, when itttended aa « mwigre dish,

with that of a strong broth of any other fish passed through

the sieve, a bundle of sweet • herbs, and a aeasoning of fine

apioes, ice. For the second diah-^ or ^ ewV havmg slit up the carp

on one nde'ofithe.lMok bone, thimigh the head, and quite

dpwn to the tail, cot off tbe head with a good ahooldery take

the krgeat hdf of the body, cositaining the back bone, and

divide it intoUurqepieoaa; whieh, with its portion of the heady

are to be put to the blood in the stew-pan, where they are

dressed in any of the nomeroua modes of stewing this favou lite fiah:'freqiientiy, by potting in a ^88.or two of good

wine, or twice the quantifty of ale . wiA a little .grated ginger^

bread,' and sometimea only a small quantity of vinegar, adding

sweet herbs, spices, and seasoning to palate. When serving

up this dish, it is not unusual to add a little lemon or lime

juice* For the fry, or third dish, the remaining half of the

head and body, divided aa for the stew, is well dredged with

floor, and fried brown and crisp in oil or clarified batter.

Thus, particularly if a few savoury forcemeat balls, composed

in the Usual manner, .with tiie fish which makes the broth or

gravy; be boiled in the aoup, there ia a first dish imitating, in

miniature, . the richest turtle soup; a second dish, in the stew,

may easily be made equally palatable, on a small scale; and,

lastly, a. most delicate third dish, in the fine firy. which com*

pletes this curious German cookery of a single carp.

Detteuie White Sauce for Cnrp.

r

Take half a' pint of cream, an onion^ or a few shalots, a Utde lemon peel, and three anchovies. After boiling them up together, put in three ounces of butter, with the yolks of three eggs, and a little elder or white wine vin^ar, according to palate, stirring it continually while over the fire, to prevent

Ms DOMBSTI0 COOKERY.

, f

turdliilf. ^ ThU. iatite is prefiferM; by laitiy peabns^'to that auuk with redport, or evto withi klaMfe^

, 1 ¦ . •, I • •

Put them into coU wiHer^ bdk tfatoiaaMAiUg^y and senas with mcltrd, ^u(ter and soy: Beroh -itrea mMt delioate HA. Tbey OM^ibeeitheriii^ or stewedy but in jtswiiig tfaty do not prederve 8o gaod al flavoiufi '

:;•. • - ' o v^- '. ' .¦ '^ ¦

' Pot your fish into: the ^afteV'W&eh.il''lMnU, wfthaokie olf, an onibti cut in fllicelB^ onoepai^teyj dad aa much milk as will tulm the. water. Whan the fish is'daough pat 'it: into a io«p« dish, . andi poor a titde of the waferrwidrllte'^iiskr^ tead viiioiis ohrer it« Serivo'it «p withi meUodlnitjter-andpaiiday in a fkialL

!.»::• f

Split the £sh along the- badur, apd' d- aia^ tlia dekh fimkn tbe bone: then out the .sftfo^ aohisS^atthehoad aftid' tail; stripiit clean off,, and take oat tfae^fabnst Having tKiffi prelMred'theni for frying, take one of them, and miilce: the flesh Tttry soiatt^ with raushroomSy chives, and pardeyijcfaopped 6nex a little sah, p^lftper^ beaten mads, .liutmleg, and afew iavoilkty hevbs. Mix these well toeethar^ then pound tftem in a mortar,, and crumbs of breiid soaked hi cream, the:yoiksof thoe^orfmirjQggs^ and a piece f if butter;. atid .w kh tkisi compdaitioD stuiT yovtr fishk Put clarifihl buttfer inlis ydar pan, set it .over the Srei and wfaeniitlia hot strew some ffour on yoor fifths and put them in- one bj ohe.i When they have fried; tiil they are. ofui'nitie tarown colour, take theQi* up, and kythem in a coacse doth befoce ihe:fire/'to kedphoL Thonpour all tb^&t out pf die pan, put in a qoarter of. a pound of bnitsr, and shake inisom^ flour. Keep it stirring with a spoon liU the butter is a little brown, and then pui in half a pitit a£ white Ivine. Stir them together, and put in half a pint of boiling water, an onion shred with cloves, a bunch of sweet herbs» and two blades of mace. Cover these close, and let them stew as gently asyou can for a quarter of an hour, then strain off the liquor, and put them into the pan again, adding two spoonfuls of catsup, an ounce of truffles or morels boiled tender in half a pint of

FISH. ie9

water, a few mitthraoins, «nd half a pint of oysters, waahed deui in their own tiqaor When your sauce is properly heated, and haa a good flavour, put in your tench, and let them lay in it till they are thoroughly hot; then take them out, lay them in your diahy and pour the sauce over them. Garnish with sliced lemon.

To boil Trout.

BoQ them in vinegar, water, and salt, with a piece of boneradish: and serve them up with anchovy sauce and plain

batter.

To fry Trout.

Scale, gut, and well wash; then dry them, and lay them Kparately on a board before the fire, after dusting some flour over them. Fry them of a fine colour with firesh dripping; serve with crimp parsley, and plain butter.

Perch and tench may be done the same way.

' To hroil Trout.

When yon have properly cleansed jrour fish, and made it thoroughly dry with a cloth, tie it round with packthread from head to tail, in order to preserve its shape entire. Then melt some butter, with a good deal of basket salt, and pour it all over the trout till it is perfectly covered: after lying in it a minule or two, take it out, and put it on the gridiron over a dear fire, that it may do gradually. For sauce, wash and bone an anchovy, and cut it very small; chop a large spoonful of capers; melt some butter, with a little flour, pepper, salt, and nutmeg, and put it into the anchovy and capers^ with half a spoonful of vinegar. When the trout is done, lay it in a warn] dish, pour your sauce boiling Kot over it, and send it to table.

• To stew TVout.

Select a large trout, clean it well, and place it in a pan with gravy and white wine; then take two eggs buttered, some nutm^ salt, and pepper, lemon peel, a little thyme, and some grated bread, miz,them together, and put in the belly of the trout, then suffer it to stew a quarter of an hour; then put in

7 z

ITO DOMESTIC COOKERY.

a» piece of bpttet in the iaace; seevm ir ho^ and gimiah widv lemon alioed.

Trcmt a^ia^ Getuwnse. Clean the fish very well; pot it into your stew-pan, adding* half Champaigne and half Moselle, or Rhenish, or sherry wine. Season it with pepper, salt, an onion, a few cloves stuck in it, and a small bunch of parsley and thyme: put in it a'Crust tf French bread; set it on a quick fire. When the fi^h is done, take the bread out, bruise it, and then thicken the sauce; add fiour and a little butter, and let * it boil up. Seethat your sauce is of a proper thickness. Lay your fish on the dish, and pour the sauce over it. Serve it with sliced lemon and fried bread;

To pot Tnmt, Perck, or Tmch.

Scale and dean the fi^h, cut off the head, tail, and fins, take out the bones, season the same, and bake and pot it aa directed for salmon.

To boil Mackerel

This fish loses its life, as soon as it leaves the sea, and the fresher it is the better.

Wash and clean them thoroughly, put them into cold water with a handful of salt in it; let them rather simmer, than ; oiI; a small mackerel will be enough in about a quarter of an hour: when the eye starts and the tail splits, they are done; do not let them stand' in the water a moment afler; they are so delicate that the heat of the water will break them.

This fish in London is rarely fresh enough to appear at table in perfection; and either the mackerel is boiled too much, or the roe too little. The best way is to open a slit opposite the middle of the roe, you can then clean it properly; this will allow the water access, and the roe will then be done as soon as the fish, which it.seldom is otherwise. Garnish, them witb pats of minced fennel.

The common notion is, that mackerel are in the best oondition when fullest of roe; however, the fish at that time is only valuable for its roe, the meat of it has scarcely any flavour.

FISS. 171

Tkt roe of 4ie iMle 6sh is soft Mte the brma of a cel^ tbat of the fenale k foil of nudl eggs, and called hard roe.

To brM MsckfTtL

Cksn a fine larfe mackerpl. ^ipe it oo a dry oloCh, »)d cat a long slit down the h«ck; la\ it on a clesn gridiron, over a rery dear ^low fire; when it is done on one side torn it; be carefiil thit it does not burn; send it up with fennel, saooe { mix well toother a little finely minced fennel and parsley, seasoned with a little pepper and salt, a bit of fresh butter, and when the mackevel are ready for' the table, pat eeme of this imo each fish.

To kake Maekenl.

Cat off their heads, open them, and take out the roes, and dean them thoroughly; rub them on the inside with a littte pepper and salt, put the roes in a^^n; season them (with a mixture of powdered allspice, black pepper and salt .well rub* bed together,} and lay them close in a baking pan, cover them with equal quantities of cold vinegar and water, tie them down with strong white piper doubled and bake them for an hour ina abw oven. 1 hey will keep for a fortnight.

To pipkk MackareL

Procure them as fresh as possible, split them open, take off

the beads, and trim off all the thin part of the belly, pat then

into salt and wster ibr oi^e hour, drain and wipe your fish^.aod

put them into jars or ciisks. with the following preparatioM,

which (is enough for Ihtee di aen roackareL Take eah and bay

aalt, one pounid each, saltpetre and lump sugar, two ounces

each; gctndaod pound )the salt, &a well together, put the fiek

into jars or casks, wiith a layer of the preparation at the bot«

torn, then a layer of mackerel with the skin side downwards,

8o continue alternately till the cask or jar is full; press it down,

and cover it dose. In about three months they will be fit

•Ibri

Piekkd Mfackerel, ^olhd Coveaph. Clean laind divKle them; then cut each. aide iiito tfaree, or, leaving them iindiMided,.iCutie«di eHkiinib fine or six pieoes.

172 DOMESTIC COOKERY.

To six large mackerely take near an ounce of pepper, two nut^ megs, a little mace, four cloves, aiid a handful of salt, all in the fine&t powder; mix, and making holes in each bit of fish, thrust the seasoning into them, rub each piece with some of it; then fry them brown in oil; let them stand till cold, then put them into a stone jar, and cover with vinegar; if to keep long, pour oil on the top. Thus done, they may be preserved for months.

Red Mullet.

Clean them, but leave the inside; enclose them in oiled paper, and having placed them in a small dish, bake them gently; an excellent sauce may be made of the liquor that comes from the fish, by adding a little essence of anchovy, a glass of sherry, and a piece of butter rolled in flour; give it a boil, and serve it in a butter tureen. The fish must be served in the paper xBases.

N. B. Mullets are boiled and broiled the same as salmon.

To boil Pike.

When you have taken out the gills and guts, and thoroughly washed it, make a good forcemeat of chopped oysters, the crumbs of half a penny loaf, a little lemon peel shred fine» a lump of butter, the yolks of two eggs, a few sweet herbs, and season them to your taste with salt, pepper, and nutm^. Mix all these well together, and put them into the belly of the fish, which must be sewed up, and skewered round. Boil it in hard water with a little salt, and a tea-cup full of vinegar put into the pan. As soon as the water boils put in the fish, (but not before) and if it is of a middling size^ it will be done in half an hour. Serve it up with oyster-sau e in a boat» having first poured a little on the fish. Garnish with pickled barberries.

To bake Pike.

Clean and scale them well; open as near the throat as canvenient, and use the following stuffing: grated bread, anchovies, herbs, salt, suet, oysters, mace, pepper, four yolks of eggs, and, if it can be procured, half a pint of cream; mix it over the fire tiU it ia sufficiently thick, then put it into the fiab.

FI8H. 173

and sew it careftilly up; then put some small bita ef butter •fer the fish, and bake it; serve it up with gravy, butter, and anchovy.

To stew Pike.

Make a browning with butter and fiour, and put it into your stew-pan with a pint of red wine, a faggot, four cloves, a doaen of small onions half boiled, with some pepper and salt. Cut your pike into pieces, put it in, and let it stew very gently. When done, take it out, and add to the sauce two anchovies and a spoonful of capers chopped fine. Boil it for a minute or two,, and then pour it over the fish. Garnish with bread nicely fried, and cut three-corner ways.

To pot Pike.

When you have well scaled your fish, cut off the head, ^lit it down the back, and take out the bone.- Then strew over the inside some bay-salt and pepper, roll it up, and lay it in your pot Cover it close, and let it bake an hour. Then take it out, and lay it on a coarse cloth to drain. When it is cold, put it into ^our pot, and cover it with clarified butter.

To boil Haddock.

Wash it well, and put it on to boil; a haddock of three pounds will take about ten minutes afler*the water boils.

Haddocks salted a day or two, and eaten with egg sauce, are a very good article. Haddocks cut iu fillets, fried, eat very fine. Or if small, very well broiled, or baked, with a pud^ ding in their belly, and some good gravy.

Findham Haddocks.

Let the fish be well cleaned and laid in salt for two hours; let the water drain from them. They may be split or not; they are then to be hung in a dry situation for a day or two, or a week or two, if you please: when broiled, they have all the flavour of the Findhom haddock, and will keep sweet for a long time.

Scotch fooy of dressing Haddocks. A haddock is quite like a different fish in London and Edinbo^h, which arises chiefly from the manner ia which they

tn DOMESTIC COOKERY.

ate trealtd; n haddock afaould never appeiir at ^ttkHe wilii its heed and Akin on. For '.boilkig, they an ail:tbe belter fat lying a night in salt; of course they do not take so .'long to boil without the akin, and r^uire to be well skimmed to preserve the colour. After lying in salt for a night, if you hang them up fbr a day or two, they are very good broiled and eerved with cold ibutterl For frying, they should be split and boned very icarefuUy, and divided into convenient pieces if too large to halve merely; egg and crnrab them, and fry in a good deal of lard. They resemble soles when dressed in this manner. There is another very delicate mode of dres«iing them; you split the fish, nib it well with butter, and do it before the fire in the Dutch* oven.

To dry Haddocks.

Choose them of two or three pounds weight: take out the gills, eyes, and entrails, and remove the blood from .the backbone. Wipe them dry, and put some salt into the bodies and eyes. Lay them on a board for a night; then hang them up in a dry place, and after three or four days they will be fit to eat; skin and rub them with egg^ and strew crumbs over them. Lay them before the fire, and baste ^ith butter until brown enough. Serve with egg sauce.

Whitings

Are skinned and turned round; eigg and bread crumbed, and fried. Whitings, if large, are excellent ^ried as haddocks, and it will prove an accommodation in the country where there is no regular supply of fish.

To broil Whitings.

They ahould be well dried in a cloth, and then rolled wcfl in flour; and before they 4ire put on the gridiron, (he bars ahould be made vei^ deaq, and rubbed with a bit.of fat'baoop to prevent the whitings sticking to the barp.

Stuffing for Pike, Haddock, and small Cod.

Take an equal quantx^ of fat bacon, beef suet, and fresh batter, aome savory, tl»ynie, and parsley, a few leaves of aveet jMirjoraeou two aiieboties» iMkitoaie salt» nnP^* '^

9ISB. VfS^

natmeg; to thk^ add cfainbs^ Bkd ak egg taliind. Oysters added t6 the Above- wiU bea eoaaideraUeimpVovcmtat.

To. dress Pipers, Bml OP bake them witb a- pudding well aeacoiled. If baktKl, put a large cup of rich brotii into the diah; and when done, take thiit« soive es^eoce of afichovy, and a squeeze of lemoQ^ and boil them up tjog^ther fyr sauce.

To boil Soles,

A fine fresh tftfck sole is aknoat a^ good eating as a turbot.

Wafth attd clean it ntctly; put it into a fifth-kettle with a haudfol of salt) and as much cold water as will corev it; set it on the side^ of the fire^ take off the aeum aa it rises, and let it boil gently; about ive minutes^ (s.oeording to its sisse) will b^ loi^ enough, unless it be^vevt lal^e. Sikild'it up on a fisb ^' drainer^ gamisked wiilh sUoes^cf lemon and sprigs of cutied" parsley, OP nicely 'ft^ed stti^u, or oyetersi

Slices of lemon «ire' a uttiveMally aooeptable gmtiish, wiili' either (Med or broil^f Ash; a fifew- spHgs of cribp parsley niay be added, i^yoo wish to make it l6^ very smart'; and parsley^ dr ftnnel^md butter j' are eKo^ledt^saucesi

llofrySsks. TaMeoiFtheskini fu( the fish over with the yolk^of aneggv and strew on some crumbs of bread. Fry them in hog*s lard over a brisk fire; till they are of a* fine light brown. Then take tbenff tip, drain them, purtheffi into your dish, and perve thetn up with plain melted^ biittier in-a bosft* Garniih- witht green pickles*

To fry Soles antthtt m^' Take two or threes soles^ divide tliem fVolii the buelo-bene, and take off the head, fins,- and tail. Sprinklei:he inside with' salt, roll them tip tight f^om-the tiaiiUend upwiardsj and'fiisten' with small skewers. If- large dr middling, put half a ii^ in each roll; small do not answer. Dip them into yolks of eggs^ and cover them with crimibs: Do the egg over them again, and then put taidre crumbs; and iVy them a*beautifbleeloar ill krd» ce to fhst-day -in olarified bottfen

170 DOMESTIC COOKERY.

To 8tew Soles, Fhunders, Plaice.

These three different species of fish must be stewed in one and the same manner. Half fry them in butter till of a fine brown; then take them up, put to your butter a quart off water^ three anohovies, and an onion sliced. Put your fish in again; and stew it gently half an hour. Take out the fish, squeeze in a lemon, and thicken the sauce with butter and flour; having given it a boil, strain it through a sieve over the fish, and serve up with oyster or shrimp sauce.

Soles in the Portuguese wenf^.

Take one large, or two small: if large, cnt the fish in two: if small, they need only be split. The bones being taken out, put the fish into a pan with a bit of butter and some lemon* juice, give it a fry, then lay the fish on a dish, and spread a forcemeat over each piece and roll it round, fastening the roll with a few small skewers. Lay the rolls into a small earthen pan, beat an egg and wet them, theu strew crumbs over; and put the remainder of the egg, with a little meat gnvy, a spoopfVil of caper liquor, an anchovy chopped fine, and some parsley chopped, into the bottom of the pan; cover it doee, and bake till the fish are done enough in a slow oven. Thai place the rolls in the dish for serving, and cover it to keep them hot till the. gravy baked is skimmed; if not enough, a little

fresh, flavoul'ed as above, must be prepared and added to it



Portuguese Stuffing for Soles baked.

•Pound cold beef, muttcm, or veal, a little; then add some fat bacon that has been lightly fried, cut small, and some onions, a little garlic or shalot, some parsley, anchovy, pepper, salt, and nutmeg; pound all fine with a few crumbs, and bind it with two or three yolks of eggs.

The heluls of the fish are to be left on one side of the split part, and kept on the outer, side of the roll; and when served, the heads are to be turned towards each other in the dish«

Garnish with fried or dried parsley.

To boil Flounders, Plaice, and Dabs.

As the simiUrity of these fish is so great, the method of. dressing either must be the same. First cat off the fins, nick

FlIH. 177

the bipwb sidle tfnder the head/ and take oat the guti Thea drj them with a clotfa^ and boil them in salt and water. Sertp them ap with shrimp, cockle, or musde sauoe, and garnish with red cabbage.

To dress a largt Plaice*

Keep it a day s »rinkled with salt, after which wash and. wipe it dry, wet it orer with egg^ and cover wkh crumbs of Vread. When yoar lard, to which must be added two tabk spodBfUs of vinegar, isrboiling hot, lay the fish in it, and ftjr itof afinecoknur; when enough, drain it from the fat, and senre with fried parsley and anchovy sance.

To fry Smelts.

They should not be washed more than is necessary to cleanthem. Dry theqft in a cloth; tlien b'ghtly flour them, but shake it oiT. Dip them into plenty of egg, then into bread crumbs, grsted fine, and plunge them uito a good pan of boiling lard; let them continue gently boiling, and a few minutes will mske them a bright yellow broWn. Tidce care not to tak^ oiT the light roughness of the crumbs, or their beauty will be lost.'

To pickle Smelts.

At that time of the year when imelts are seasonably shandant, take a quarter of a peck, of them, and wash, clesn, and gut them. Take half an ounce of pepper, thesame quantity of nutmegs, a quarter of an ounce of mace, half an ounce of saltpetre,' and a quarter of a pound of •ommon salt. Beat all Very fine, and lay yotnr snielts in t6ws in a jar. Between every layer of smelts strew the seasoning,* with four or five bay lelives. Then boil some red wine, andpoarover them a soffident quantity to cover them. Cover them ^th a plate, and when cold, stop them down dose, and put them by for use. A few makara very pretty supper.

To boil John Dorey.

This is reckoned one of tfie choicest fish, for which it should be paid particulsj* care iii dressing; it should be put on in cold spring water, with a little salt and vinegar in the water; whea it b^ns to boil put in some cold water, and when it begins to

7 Sa

17B DOMfiSTXC COOKERY.

l^il again put a little more opld spring water to it, and put it by the side of the stove to simmer for a few minutes.

Ready Method of roasting Eeb.

Having skinned and washed some of the finest large eels, Cut them in three, four, or five pieces, according to their respective sizes. Make a seasoning of grated nuttneg beaten white, or long pepper, and salt; with a little thyme, sage, and lemofli peel, ail well beaten or shred, and mixed plentifully with crumbs of bread. Strew this well on the eels, stick them across on skewers to the spit, baste them continually, and let them roast till they begm to crack and appear white at the bone. When taken up, send them to table with melted butter and lemon juice; which will make the best sauce thej can have, as the sauce gives them an iitoomparable relish. Eels may be also fried or broiledj thus seasoned, with a rery good effect.

To boil Eth.

After skinning, gutting, and properly washing them, cot off their heads, dry them, and twist them round on your fish plate. Boil them in salt and water, and serve them up with melted butter and parsley. If you only boil them in such a quantity of water as will just cover them, the liqtuHr will be exceeding good, and very beneficial to weak or consumptive constitutions.

To fry Eih.

Skia and gut them, and wash them weD in cold water; cut them in pieces four inches long, season them with pepper atad salt, beat an egg well on a plate, dip them in the egg, and then in fine bread cruntbs; fry them in fresh clean lard, drain them well from the fat: Garnish with crisp parsley; for aadoe, plain and melted butter, sharpened with lemoa juice, or par* sley and butter.

Spitehcocked Eeb. This the French cooks call the English way of dressing eels. Take two middling-siaed silver eels, leave the sldn on, scour them with salt, and wash them, cut off the heads, slit them

Fisd. JTO

•• the baD^ nde, and take oat the bone and' ^ta,' and wash and wipe tbein rucdy, then cut them into piece* abovt three indies long, and wipe them quite dry, pnt two onnoea of bM ter into a tte«-p«n, wiA b little minced panley, tbjnne, cage, pefiper, and aalt, apd a verj Utde diopped ahalot; aet the aUw* pan over the fin; when the butter ii melted,' atir the ingredi CBta tagetb», and take it off the fire, mix th« ytUcM of twp cgga with them, and dip the eel in, a piece at a time, and then Toll them in bread crumbs, making aa much stick to them os fsacan; thenmba giidirao witbabitof met, set it high over a very dear firr, and broil your eels of * fine criq brown: dish thwD with crisp parsley, and send np plain batter in a boat, and anduv; and batter.

Sdme Uke-them better with the akin offj it is Tery apt to afeid delicate stmiachs.

T« bake £eh. Cot off tfa«r heads, gut them, and take oat the blood from the bone aa dean as pouible. Moke a forcemeat of .^rimpa or oysters chopped amaU, half a penny loa* crumbled, « little lemmi ped shred fine, the ydks of two eggs, and a little salt* pepper, and nutmeg. Put this into the bellies of the fi^, sew them up, and turn them round on. the diah. Put flour and b«tt ler over them, pour a little water into the* diah, v d bake them in a moderate oven. Whe^ done, .take the gravy from under them, and skim off the At, strain it throtigh a hair tieve, and add one tea-speoiifiil of lemon pickle, two of browning^ a large ipoonfal of walnitt catsup, * glasi of white wine, an aSchovy; and a slice of lemon. Let it boil ten miaetei, and thicken it with butter and floor. Garaiih with lemon and crisped Jiaraley.

. To pot Eeh. Take a \argt eel, and when yon have skinned, washed dean, and thoroughly dried it with a doth, cat it iqto pieces about four inches long. Seaam them with a little beaten macs and nutmeg, p^per, aalt, and a little lal prundla beat fine. Lay theln in a pan, and )}our a« mudh darified bntter over them aa will covet" tlum. Bake them half an hour in a quidt oven; but the liae of your eels must be the general rule to determine what' time they will take baking. Take tbem out

..^ S.

180 BOMESXIC teoOKERt.

'With a fork, and lay theih oo ataaane' cbdi.to dr^itk^ Wihna they ana ^uite cold, season. them again with the like 3e«kminf^ •and lay them dose in the pot. Then take off the .butler thc^ .were baked in. clear froin the gravy of the fish, and set it in •a dish before:the fire. When it is melted, pour the batter over them, and put them by for use. You may bone y6us eela, if yon choose; but in that case you most pot m-no fitl pruDeUa.

• ' .. » Excellent collared Eeb.

The largest and ^lest eels should be selected for ^Ilaring^ each making a separate piece or collar; and; b^ng weQ deans.* (id, and either skinned qr not, aeoording to the preference of the party, each being carefully boned, and kid as .fiat, as po»» a2ble,with. the inside upward. Ai miatam of pavsley, shalot, thyme, marjoram, and savory, all chopped .Tery.small, with.« very little finely beaten pepper, mace, doves, nutmeg, allspice, mushroom powder, lemon peel, and salt, is to be plentifully rubbed in and strewed over, the inside of !the 'eol;u&Ber. which it is to be tightly rolledup, arid bound fast vith^tape. In the mean time, having ooiled the head, bones, &b. of the eds in sidt and water, with a bit of lemon peel, a few bay leases, audi aaffident pepper, put the collars in the strained liquor; with the addition of some vinegar,: and let them aimtiier in a stew« pan over the fire* till they tar^ sufficiently done. Jake the oolrf krs out skim die fiit off Ae li^or,'and boil it down to « toeng jelly,' ahd ddier pour it on.them wh«ithey are odd; after taking off the iape and trimming their ends, or wipe tliem'dry, and serve them up with the chopped jdly roand thenu Some sprigs of parsley, lemob peel, or- bnmdias of b^berries, inay be put on their top$, and slkes of lemon placed round the dish, if they are served up whole; but, when sent to table only in slices, a garnish of parsley will be quite sufficient. In cdlaring eels for common fiMDoily use^ which are not only •acdlent, but highly nourishing food, little more is necotsar^r Aan plenty of parsley, a few sweet herbs, some pounded all« spice, and commoTi salt and' pepper. * On the:o4ier hand, some even put wine mto die jelly; which they also jdear widi whitea of eggs, and pass thi:x ugh a bag or tamis dMh. CoBared cda, done dther way, will keep for a considerable length of time, ind are therefore very Convenient as well aa ddldous.

F19II. 191

When yon cat them open to dean them, be careful to tare the bloody and wash them thoroughly dean in warm water. Fiy Aem m dean dripping, and when nearly enough, ' put ont tilie fiU, put a little white wine, and give the pan a ihake iroond. Tlirow a little pepper, with some sweet herbs, a few capers, a piece of batter rolled in flour, and the blood you saved firom the fish. Cover the pan close, and shake it citea. When they are enough, take them out, strain the sauce, put it into the pan again, and give it a quick boil. Squeeze in the juice of a lemon, stir all together, and when it is just upon^ the boil, poor it over the fish, and serve it up. Gamiib wiA sliced Jcmon.

Having skinned, gutted, and thoroughly washed your fish, season them with salt„* pepper, a little lemon ped shred fine. Bade, doves, and nutm^. Put «odie 'thitf a^ees ^f buttaf Into jmm atew-pan, and having rolled yodi* fish 'imind, pat IlieHi in,' wiA half a piqt of good gravy, a gffl «f whHe wine, a'4bttnch' af 'asaijMVBi^' winter savory, thym^, and an tmito dlioeQ. €iet Aem slew over a gentle fire, aad.l8eep turning tiMem till ' Aisy are tender. liien take l^m out, attd pot mmA^^ bM^ saoee. ffaickeB it wMi the yolk of an ^egg'teat t«ry fine, «t a piece of batter rolled in flour. Wtien it - boils, pc^ir it oVier . the fish, and serve them to table.

ToMew TUmfnyi as ai

After deaning the fish carefully, reiaove the tarlHage* which nina down iitie book, and season widi a small quantity of doves, maee, nutmeg,' pepper, and allspice; pat it Into a small 8tew*pot, with very stnmg beef gravy, port, tmd an equal quantity of Madeira or sherry. It must be covered dose; * stew till tender, then take oat Ae lamprey andkeepKot, whil ^ you boil up the liquor with two or three anchcme^ diopped, and some flour and butter; strain the gravy through a sieve, and add lemon juice and some made mustard. Serve with sippets of bread, and horseradish.

£els, done the same way, are a good deal like the lamprey^ When there is spawn, it most be ftUd and put round.

18t DOMESTIC COOEEST.

Obterre. Cider will do in conunoo jnstetd oC while wine.

FlotaiJert, Let them be robbed with salt inside uid out, and )ie two houn to give them some firmness. Dip them into egg, cover with cnimba, and £17 them.

Wala- Soucky. Stciw two or three flounders, some parsley le&ves and rootl^ thirty peppercorns, and a quart of water, till the fish are bmled to pieces: pulp them through a sieve. Set over the fire the pulped fish, fhe liquor that boiled them, some perch, tench, or floanders, and tome fmfa leaves and roots of parsley; simmer all till done enough, then serve in a deep dish. Slicesor l read and butter arc to be sent to table, to eat with the souchy.

To boil Herringt. Scale, gut, and wash them, then dry diem thoroughly in a cloth, aqd rub them over with a little salt and vinegar^ Skewer their tails in thar mouths, and lay them on your D^^late. When tiie wattf boils, put them ¦ in, md about tea or twdve minutes will do them. After you have Ukta them up, let them drain properly, and then turn their beads into the middle of the dish. Serve them up with melted batter and parley, hkI ganush with scraped hvrsersdish.

To broil Haringt. Scsle, gat,' and cut off their heads; wash (hem dean, and dry tbem in a cloth; then dust them well with flour, and brml them. Take the heads, mash them, and bml them in small beer or ale, with a tittle whole pepper and onion. When it ia bailed a quarter o( an hour strain it off, thicken it with butter and flour, and a good de4l of mustard. Lay ihe herringi, when done, in a pUte or dish, pour the sauce into a i oat, and serve them up.

To fry Haringi. First scrape off all the scales, then wash tbem, dry them veil in a cloth, and dredge them with flour. Fry them in butter over a brisk fire, and when done, set their tails up ont

FISH. 188

9guDst another in the middle of the dish* Fry a Uvge band-* ful of parsley crisp, take it oat before it loses its ooloor; lay it lound the fish^ and serve them up with melted butter^ parsley^ and mustard.

To hake Herrings*

Scale, wash, and dry them well in a cloth, then lay them OD a board, and take a little black pepper, a few cloves, and plenty of salt; mix them together, and rub the fish all over with iL Lay tbem straight in a pot, cover thtm over with vinegar, pat in a few bay leaves, tie a strong paper over the top, and bake them in a moderate oven. They may be eat ddier hot or cold; and if you use the best vinegar^ they will keep good for two or three months.

Sprats may be done in the same manner, and either of them will furnish an occasional and pleasing relish.

To pot Herrings,

' Cat off the heads of vour herrings, and put them into an earthen pot Lay them, close, and between every layer of herrings strew some salt, but not too much. Put in doves, mace, whole pepper, and a nutmeg out in pieces. Fill up the pot with vinegar, water, and A quarter of a pint of white wine. Cover it with brown paper, tie it down dose, and bake them in an oven with brown bread. As soon as they are cold, put them into your pots, tie them dose with paper, and set them by for use.

To smoke Herrings.

Clean, and lay them in salt and a little saltpetre one night; then hang them on a stick, through the eyes, in a row. Have an old cask, in which put some sawdust, and in the it a heater red hot; fix the stick over the smoke, and let then remain twenty-four hours.

To dress Red Herrings*

Choose those that are larg^ and moist, cut them open, and pour some boiling small beer over them to soak half an hour; dniiii ihem dty, and make them just hot through before the fire, then rub some cold batter over them and s^ve. Egg

IIA DOMESTIC COOKEBY.

eggs, aikd mubid pDtilbea,' sbMd be sent

Sprats.

These, when cleaned, should be fastened in rows by a skewer run through the heads, and then broiled, and served hot.

To boil Lobsters.

Buy dieae alsire: the lobster merchants sometimes keep themr lilL they are starved, before they boil them; Ihey »re tbenr wetoy, and have not half their flavour. Choose those that infr.-Ml ^f motion, whidt ia .the index i ( their, freshness. Those of the. middle sise are the beat. Never take them when the:il)dl ia inerusted, which ia a sign they are old. The male lobster is preferred to eat, and the female (on account of the ^SS^) ^ nudce sauce of. The hen lobster is distinguished by having a broader tail than the male, and less daws.

Set on a pot, with water salted in the proportidki of a tablespoonful cf. salt to a qnart of water: when the water boils, pot it in, and ktep it boiling briskly from half an hour to an hour, acoordingto ita siae; wipe all the scum off it, and rub the didl. with a very little butter or aweet oil; break off the great daws, crack them carefully in each Joint, so that they may noirbe shattered, and yet come to pieces easily; cut die tail down the middle,, and sendup the body whole.

These fish come in about April, and continue plentiful till the oyster season returns; after that time they begin to spawn, and seldom open solid*.

To roast Lobsters.

When you have half-boiled your lobster take it out of the water, rub it well with butter, and lay it before the fire; con* tinue basting it with butter till it has a fine froth, and the ahdla look of a dark brown. Then put it into your dish, and serve it up with plain mdted butter in a sauce-boat.

To pot Lobsters.

Half boil theiki, pick out tfie meat, cut it into tmaU bits, season with mace, white pepper, nutmegr and salt, pfeaa dose

L. .

nsm r 186

into a pot, andcover with butter; bake half an hour; put the spawn in. When cold, take the lobster out, and put it intQ the pots with a little of the butter. Beat the other butter in a mortar with some of the spawn; then mix that coloured butter with as ranch as will be sufficient to cover the pata» and strain it Cayenne may be added^ if approved.

An^tktr Wmf to pot Lobsterif 4». at Wopd's Hotel.

. Take out the meat as whole as you can: split the tail, and remove the gut; if the inside be hot watery, add that. Season with maccr nutmeg, white pepper, salt» and a dove or two, ia the finest powder. Lay a little fine butter at the bottom of the pan, and the lobster smooth over it, with bay-leaves between; cover it with butter, and bake gently.   When done, pour the whqle on the bottom of a aieve, and with a fork lay the pieces into potting-pots, some of each sort, with the seasoning aboift it When cold, pour clarified butter over, but not hot It will be good next day; or highly seasoned, and thick-covered with butter, will. keep some time.

Potted lobster may be used cold, or as a fricassee, with a creun-sance: it then looks very nicely, and eats excellehtly, etpectalljT' if there is spawn.

To stew Lobsters.

Pick the lobster, put the berries into a dish that has a lamp, and rub them down with a bit of butter, two spoonfuls of any sort of gravy, one of soy, or walnut catsup, a little salt and cayenne, and a spoonful of 'port; stew the lobster cut into bits with the gravy as above.

Buttered Lobsters.

Pick the meat out, cut it, and warm with a little weak brown, gravy, nutmeg, salt, pepper, and butter, with a little flour. If done white, a little white gravy and cream.

Currie of Lobsters or Prawns.

Take them from the shells, and lay into a pan, with a small piece of mace, three or four spoonfuls of veal gravy, and four of cream: rob smooth one or two tea-spoonfuls of currie-pow« 7 2b

186 DOMESTIC COOKERY.

derj, a tea-spoonful of flour^ and an ounce of butter; simmer

kn hour: squeeze half a lemon in, and add salt

» • ¦ •

*

To dress Crab, hot. Pick a crab; put all into a stew-pan with about an ounce of butter, and a little anchovy essence, a tea-spoonful of mustard, two table-spoonfuls of oil, the same of vinegar, one of elder vinegar, one of Chilly vinegar, and a handful of bread crumbs; mix all together well with a spoon, put it all into the shell, put bread crumbs orer it, drop some darified butter over it, and put it in the oven; if the oven does not brown it suffident, brown it with the salamander.

To dress Crab, cold.

Pick the crab, and put what fish is in the inside on a plate by itself, and what comes from the daws on another plate; add to what came from the inside of the crab a few bread .'crumbs, Cayenne pepper, a little essence of anchovy, two table-spoonfuls of vinegar, a little clarified butter, and a ^spoonful of elder vinegar; mix all wdl together; dean the I shell well out; put the drest part of the crab in one end of the ahell, and what is picked from th^ daws in the other; the spawn of the crab should be pounded in a mortar, rubbed through a sieve, and put over the crab in diamonds: if there be no -spawn in the crab, the spawn of lobster will do: put parsley neatly picked round the fish, and make a ring of the

small claws to go round the dish, and parsley between the ring

. and the shell. «

To hitter Praums or Shrimps. Take them out of the shells; and warm them with a little good gravy, a bit of butter and flour, a scrape of nu^^, salt, and pepper, * simmer a minute or two, and serve with sip* pets; or with a cream sauce, instead of brown.

Prawns and Cray-Jish in Jelly, a beautiful Dish. Make a savoury fish jelly, and put some into the bottom of a deep small dish; when cold, lay the cray-fish with their back downwards, and pour more jelly over them. Turn out when cold.

yi&H. • 18?

To.$i€W Prmtms, Shrimpt, or Cray-fah.

Take about two quarts of either of these fish, and pick out thetaik. Put the bodies into your stew-pan, with about a pint of white wine (or water with a spoonful of vinegar) and a bkde of mace. - Stew these for a quarter of an hour,- thea stir them together, and strain them. . Having done this, wash; out your pan, and put into it the strained liquor and tails*. Gnte into it a small nutmeg, put in a little salt, a quarter of a^ pound of butter rolled in flour, and shake it all together. Cut a thin slice of bread round a quartern loaf, toast it brown on^ both sides, cut it into six pieces, lay it close together in the bottom of your dish, pour your fish and sauce hot over .it, and send it hot to table. If cray-fish, garnish the dish with som^ of their biggest claws laid thick round.

To pot Prawns, Shrimps, or Cray-fish.

Bofl them in water with plenty of salt in it. When you, have picked them, powder them with a little beaten mace, or grated nutmeg, or allspice, and pepper, and salt; add a little cold butter, and pound all well together in a marble mortar till of the consistence of paste. Put it into pots covered with clarified butter, and cover them over with wetted bladder^ To feed Oysters.

Some piscivorous gowrmands think that, oysters are not best* when quite fresh from their beds, and that their flavour is too brackish and harsh, and is much ameliorated by giving them a feed. To de which, cover them with dean water, with a pint of salt to about two gallons; (nothing else, no oatmeal, flour, nor any other trumpery;) this will cleanse them from the mud and sand, &c. of the bed; after they have lain in it twelve hours, change it for fresh salt and water, and in twelve hours more they will be in prime order for the mouth, and remain so. two or three days. At the time of high water, you may see them open their shells, in expectation of receiving their usual food. This process of feeding oysters, is only employed when a great many come up together.

The real Colchester, or Pyfleet barrelled oysters, that are packed at the beds, are better without being pui iu water; they are carefully and tightly packed, and must not be dis*

1B8 DOMESTIC CdOKERT.

turbed till wanted for table: these, ih' irioderate weather, will keep good for a week or ten days. If an oyster' open^ his mouth in the barrel, he dies immediately. In order, therefore, to preserve the lives of barrelled oysters, put a heavy %ei^t On the wooden top of the barrel, which is to be placed on the tfurfaoe of the oysters. This is to be effected by removing the first hoop, the staves will then spread and stand erect; making tL wide opening for the head of the barrel to fall down closely on the remaining fish, keeping them close together. The oysters which are commonly sold as barrelled oysters, are merely the smallest natives, selected from the stock, and put into the tub when ordered; and instead of being of superior quali^, ire often very inferior.

Common people are indiffiBrent about the manner of opening oysters, and the time of eating them after they are opened; nothing, however, is more important, in the enlightened eyes of the experienced oyster eater. Those who wish to enjoy ihis delicious restorative in its utmost perfection, must eat it the mometit it is opened, with its own gravy in the under shell: if not eateh while absolutely alive, its flavour and spirit are Ibst The true lover of an oyster, will have soitie regard for the feelings of his little favourite, and will never abandon it to the mercy of a bungling operator, but will open it himself and contrive to detach the fish from the shell so dexterously, that the oyster is hardly conscious he has been ejected from his lodging, till he feels the teeth of the piscivorous g&umutnd tickling him to death.

To fry OyMteri,

The largest oysters you can get should be chosen for frying. When you have pronerly cleaned and rinsed them, strew over them a little grated nutmeg, a blade of mace pounded, a spoonful of flour, and a little salt. Dip your oysters singly into this, and fry them in hog's lard till they are of a nice brown colour. Then take them out of the pan^ pour them into your dish, and pour over them a little melted butter, with crumbs of bread mixed.

FISH^ 180

To fiicaaee (haters*

Pdt a little batter into your stew-pan, with a slice of hsm, a ^BLfCgat of parslej and sweet herbs^ and an onion stuck with two cloves. Let them stew over a slow fire a few minutes, and then add a little flour, some good broth, and a piece of lemon peel; then put in your oysters, and let theok simmer till they are ^oiroaie^y hot. Thicken with the yolks of two eggs, a little cream ^ and a bit of good butter, take out the ham, faggot, oinion^ and lemon peel, and add the squeeze of a lemon. Give the whole a shake in the pan, and when it simmers put it into your dish, and serve it up.

To ragout OyUert.

When the oysters are opened, save as much of the liquor

as you can, and strain it through a sieve; wash your oysters

clean in warm water, and then make a batter as follows: Beat

up the yolks. of two eggs with half a nutmeg grated, cut a

little lemon peel small, a good deal of parsley, and add a

spoonful of the juice of spinach, two spoonfuls of cream

or milk, and beat the whole up with flour till it is a thick

batter. Having prepared this, put a piece of fresh butter

into a stew-pan, and when it is thoroughly iot, dip

your oysters one by one into the batter, then roll them in

crumbs of bread grated fine, and fry them quick and brown;

which done, take them out of the pan, and set them before the

fire. Have ready a quart of chesnuts, shelled and skinned,

snd firy them in the batter. When enough, take them up,

pour the fat out of the pan, shake a little flour all over the

psn, and rub a piece of butter all round with a spoon. Then

put in the oyster liquor, three or four blades of mace, the

chesnuts, and half a pint of white wine. Let them boil, and

have ready the yolks of two eggs beat up, with four spoonfuls

of cream. Stir all well together, and when it is thick and fine,

lay the oysters in the dish, and pour the ragout over them.

Garnish with chesnuts and lemon.

To scollop Oysters,

Stew the oysters slowly in their own liquor for two or three minutes; take them out with a spoon, and beard them, and slum the liquor; pat a bit of butter into a stew-pan, and when

100 DOMESTIC COOKBRY.

it is melted^ add as much fine bread crambs as will dry it up, then put to it the oyster liquor^ and give it a boil up; put the oysters into scollop shells that you have buttered^ and strewed with bread crumbs, then a layer of oysters, then of bread crumbs, and then some more oysters; moisten it with the ojster liquor, cover them with bread crumbs^ put about half a dozen little bits of butter on the top of each, ai&d brown them ' in a Dutch oven. Essence of anchovy, catsup, cayenne, grated lemon peel, maoe, and other spices, &c. are added by those who prefer piquance to the genuine flavour of the oyster. Cold fish may be re-dressed the same way.

Small scollop shells, or saucers that hold about half a dozen oysters, are the most convenient.

To stew Oysters.

Lai'g^ oysters will do for stewing, and by some are prea fierred; iMit we love the plump, juicy natives. Stew a eouple d£ dozens of these in their own liquor; when they are coming to a boil, skim well, take them up and beard them; strain the liquor through a tamis sieve, and lay the oysters on a dish. Put an ounce of butter into a stew-pan; when it is melted, put to it as much flour as will dry it up, the liquor of the oystiers, and three table-spoonfuls of milk or cream, and a little white pepper and salt; to this some cooks add a little catsup, or finely chopped parsley, grated lemon peel, and juice; let it boil up for a couple of minutes, till it is smooth, then take it off the fire, put in the oysters, and let them get warm; (they must not themselves be boiled, or they will become hard;) line the bottom and sides of a hash-dish with bread sippets, and pour your oysters and sauce into it.

Oyster Loaves.

Make a hole in the top of some little round loaves, and take out all the crumb. Put some oysters into a stew-pan, with the oyster liquor, and the crumbs that were taken out of the loaves, and a large piece of butter; stew them together five or six minutes, then put in a spoonful of good cream, then fill your loaves. Lay a bit of crust carefully on the top of each, and put them in the oven to crisp.

b

\

nsH. 191

Stewed Ogetere in Frtndi Rolls.

Take any quantity of oysters^ and wash them in thar own liqaor. Then, straining it, put it in again with them^ and add a litde salt, ground pepper, beaten maoe, and grated nutm^. Let them stew a little together, and thidcen them np with a great deal of bntter. In the mean time, cut the tops off a few French rolls, and take out suffident crumb to admit some of the oysters, which must be filled in boiling hot, and set over a stove;, or cfaaffing-dish of coals, till they are quite hot through; iilling them up with more liquor, or some hot gravy, as the ftrmer sosJls in. When they are sufficiently moistened, serve Ibeok Qp m the manner of puddings.

To pickle OjfMtere.

There are many ways of pickling oysters, some of them

very troablesome and expensive. The following is, perhaps,

the beat method ever yet published, and certainly as siai^ and «

cheap as any of them. Put the oysters into a 8tew*pa% dust

over die beards a little fine Lisbon sugar, pour in their own

liquor well strained or filtered, and put them on a gentle fire

for five minntes without suffering them to boil. Then pour off

the liquor into another stew-pan; and, adding to it double the

. quantity of good vinegar, with some catsup, Cayenne pepper*

lemon peel, and salt^ boil the whole well together, for a quarter

ot an hour. In the mean time, having given the beards of

the oysters another dusting of sugar, finely pounded with an

equal quantity of salt, and placed them one by one carefully

in a jar; when both are quite cold, pour the strained pickling

liquor oyer them, and keep them closely from the air with blad*

der and leather. Some, on account of the general toughness

of the beards, cut them off before they are deposited in the

jv; but, when well managed as above directed, they will not

have that in quality. Pickled oysters should be served up

placed in rows, on a dish garnished vrith thin slices of lemon.

To pickle Oysters another Way Open the number you intend to pickle, put them into Sl

ssuce-pan with their own liquor for ten minutes, simmer them

^ery gently; then put them into a jar, one by one, that none

of the grit may stick to them, and cover them when cold with

Jlii^

IM BOMBSTtC COOKERY.

the pickle thus made: Boil the liquor with a bit of mace, lemon peel, and black peppers^ and to every hundred put two apoon« fttls of the best undistilled viqegar.

They sho^ild be kept in small jars, and tied dose with bladder, £pr the air will spoil them*

To stew flfmcles^

Wash them very cleaa in several waters^ then pnt them into a stew*pan, and cover them dose. Let them stew till the ahells open^ and dien pick out the fish clean^ one by one. Look und&t the ton^e to see if there be a crab, and if you find one, throw that muscle away. You will likewise find a little tough article under the tongue, which you must pick off. Having thus properly deansed them, put them into a sauce* pan, and to a quart of muscles, put half a pint of die liquor strained through a sieved add a few blades of mace, a Hsall • -.piece of butter rolled in fiour, and let them stew gently. Lay flome toasted bread in the dish, and when the muscles are done, pour them on it, and serve them up.

To ragout Muscles.

' Put your muscles into a sauce-pan, and let tliem stew till they are open. Then take them out of the shells, and save the liquor. Put into your stew-pan a bit of butter, a few mushrooms chopped^ a little parsley and grated lemon peel. Stir these together, and then put in some gravy, with pepper and salt; thicken it with a little flour, boil it up, put in the muscles with their liquor, and let them be hot; then pour them into your dish, and serve them up. There are some musdes of a pernidous quality, to know which, when you stew them, put a half-crown into the sauce-pan, and if it is discoloured, the muscles are not wholesome.

N. B. Directions for making fish pies will be given under the head Saoouty Pies.

POULTRY AND GAMS. IW

POULTRY AND GAME.

Directions far dressing Poultry and Game,

All poultry should be very carefully picked, every plug re« moved, and the hair nicely singed with white paper. In dressing wild fowl, be careful to keep a clear brisk fire. Let ^m be done of a fine yellow brown, but leave the gravy in: the fine flavour is lost if done too much. Tame fowls require more roasting, and are longer in heating through than others. AH sorts should be continually basted; that they may be served with a froth, and appear of a fine colour.

A large fowl will take three quarters of an hour; a middling one half an hour; and a very small one, or a chicken^ twenty minutes. A capon will take from half an hour to thirty-five minutes; a goose, an hour; wild ducks, a quarter of an hour; pheasants, twenty minutes; a small turkey stuffed, an hour and a quarter; turkey-poults, twenty minutes; grouse, a quarter of an hour; quails, ten minutes; and partridges, from twenty to twenty-five minutes. A hare will take near an hour, and the hind part requires most heat: but in all cases you must be guided in time by the manner your family approve of them, as some persons eat game scarcely warmed, and others as well done as tame fowls.

Ducks and geese require a brisk fire, and quick turning. Hares and rabbits must be well attended to; and the extremities brought to the quick part of the fire, to be done equally with the backs; and in order to prevent their appearing bloody at the neck when ^ey are cut up, cut the neck skin, when they are half roasted, and let out the blood.

POULTRY.

To boil Turkey.

Turkeys (especially large ones) should not be dressed till they have been killed three or four days at least; in cold weather, six or eight; or they will neither be white, nor tender. 7 2c

W^t dOMSSTIC COOKUtYtf

Before they are dressed, turkeys, and large fowls, should have the strings or sinews of the thighs drawn out

Make a stuffing of bread, herbs, salt, pepper, nutmeg, lemon-peel, a few oysters or an anchovy, a bit of butter, some suet and an egg: put this into the crop, and fasten up the skin. Make a good and clear fire; set on a clean pot, widi pure and clean water, enough to well cover the turkey; the slower it boiIs the whiter and plumper it will be. When there rises any scum, remove it; the common method (of some who are more nice than wise) is to wrap them up in a cloth, to prevent the scum attaching to them; which, if it does, by your neglecting to skim the pot, there is no getting it off afterwards, and the poulterer is blamed for the fault of the cook. If there be water enough, and it is attentively scummed, the turkey will both look and eat much better this way, than when it has been covered up in the cleanest cloth; and the colour and flavour will be preserved in the most delicnte perfection. A small turkey will take an hour and a half, a large one two '^ hours or more. Have ready a fine oyster-sauce made rich with butter, a little cream, and a spoonful of soy, if approved, and pour it over the bird; or liver and lemon-saUce. Hen-birds are best for boiling, and should be young.

To roast Turkey.

Let them be carefully picked, &c. and break the breastbone (to make them look plump) twist up a sheet of clean writing paper, light it, and thoroughly singe the turkey all over, turning it about over the flame. Turkeys have a much better appeanince, if, instead of trussing them with the legs close together, and the feet cut ofl^ the legs are extended on each side of the bird, and the toes only cut off, with a skewer through each foot, to keep them at a proper distance. Be careful, when you draw it, to preserve the liver, and not to break the gall bag, as no washing will take off the bitter taste it gives, where it once touches.

For stuffing, mince a quarter of a pound of beef suet, (beef marrow is better,) the same weight of bread crumbs, two drams of parsley leaves, a dram and a half of sweet marjoram (or lemon thyme,) and the s«ne of grated lemon peel, an onion or eschalot, chopped as fine as possible^ a little

f

POVXTRY AND 6AMB« 186

gnted lintnieg, pepper/ aad silk: pound these fliaroiiffaly'to« getfaer witb the yolk and white of two eggs, and stuff it under the breast, where the eraw was taken out^ and make some inta bsHs, and boil or fry them, and lay them round the dish; they sre handy to help, and you can then reserve some of the inside ' stuffing to fat with the cold turkey.

Score the giJEsard, dip it into the yolk of an egg or melted batter, and sprinkle it with salt and a few grains of cayenne; put it under one pinion,' and the liver under the other; cover the liver with buttered piqper, to prevent it from getting har« dened or burnt.

Prepare A nice dear brii^L fire, and when you first put a turii key down lo roast, dre^e it with flour, then put about an ounce ^sf .butter into a basting ladle, and as it melts baste the bird therewith. Keep it at a distance from the fire for the first half hour, that it may warm gradually, then put it nearer, and when it 18 plumped up, and the steam draws in towards the fire, it is nearly enough; then dredge it lightly with flour, and put a bit ef butter into your basting ladle, and as it melts, baste the turkey with it;- this will raise a finer froth than can be produced by using the fat out of the pan. A very lar^^e turkey will require about three hours, to roast it thoroughly; a middling sized one, of eight or ten pounds (which is far nicer eating than the very large one,) about two hours; a small one may be done in an hour and a half. Turkey podlts are of varioua sizes, and will take about an hour and a half: they should be trussed with their legs twisted under like a duck, ^nd the head under the wing like a pheasant.

Fried pork sausages are a very savoury and favourite accompaniment to either roasted, or boiled poultry. A turkey^ thus garnished, is called, an Alderman in chains. Sausage meat is sometimes used as stufiing, instead of ike ordinary fopeemeat.

Pulied Turkey. Skin a cold turkey; take off the fillets from the tfri^ast^ and put them into a stew-pan with the rest c(£ the white meat and wings, side bones, and merry-thought, with k pidt of broth, a large blade of mace pounded, '« shabt minoed fine, the juice of half a lemon, and a roll of, the peel» aqme sali^

/

109 DOmSTIC COOKERY.

9iid a few grains of cayenne; thicken it witii floor and butter; and let it simmer for two or three minutes, till the meat is warm. In the meantime score the legs and rump, powder them with pepper and salt^ broil them nicely brown, and lay them on, or round your pulled turkey. Three table-8pooa « fuls of good cream, or the yolks of as many eggs, will be a great improvement to it.

To stew Turkey. Take a fine turkey, bone it, and put into the carcase a ragout composed of large livers, mushrooms, and streaked bacon, all cut in small dice, and mingled with salt, fine spices, and shred parsley and onions. Sew the turkey up, but take care to shape it nicely; then put a thin slice of bacon upon the breast, and wrap it in a doth. Stew it in a pot, but not too large a one^ with good broth, a glass of white wine, and a bunch of sweet herbs; when it is done, strain the liquor the turkey was done in into a stew-pan, after having taken off the fat; reduce it to a sauce, adding a spoonful of coulis; then unwrap your turkey, take off the bacon, dry away the grease^ and serve it up with the sauce.

To hash Turkey.

Cut the flesh into pieces, and take off all the skin, otfaeir« wise it will give the gravy a greasy disagreeable taste. Pot it into a stew-pan with a pint of gravy, a tea-spoonful of lemon pickle, a slice of the end of a lemao, and a little beaten mace. Let it boil about six or seven minutes, and then put it into your dish. Thicken your gravy with flour and butter, mix the yolks of two eggs with a spoonful of thick cream, put it into your gravy, and shake it over the fire till it is quite hot, but do nok let it boil; then strain it, and pour it over your turkey. . Lay sippets round, serve it up, and garnish with lemon and parsley. •

To dres8 dres$ed Turkey, Goose, Fowl, Duck, Pigeon, or

Rabbit.

Cut them in quarters, beat up an egg or two (according to the quantity you dress) with a little grated nutm^, and pepper and salt, some paifslgr minced fine, and a few crumbs of bread;

POULTRY AND OAMB. 197

niz these well together^ and cover the fowl, &c. with this better; broil them, or put them into a Dutch oven, or have ready some dripping hot in a pan, in which fry them a light brown colour; thicken a little gravy with some flour, put a large spoonful of catsup to it, lay the fry in a dish, and pour the sauce round it. You may garnish with slices of lemon and toasted bread.

Ragouts of Poultfy, Game, Pigeons, Rabbits, Sfc,

Half roast it, then stew it whole, or divide it into joints and pieces proper to help at table, and put it into a stew-pan, with a pint and a half of broth, or as much water, with any trimmings or parings of meat you have, one large onion with cloves stock in it, twelve berries of allspice, the same of black pepper, and a roll of lemon peel; when it boils, scum it very clean, let it simmer very gently for about au hour and, a quarter, if a duck or fowl,- longer if a larger bhrd; then strain off the liquor, and leave the ducks by the fire to keep liot; scum the fiit off. Put into a clean stew-pan two onnces of but* ter, when it is hot, stir in as much flour as will make k of a stiff paste, add the liquor by degrees, let it boil up, put in a glass of port wine and a little lemon juice, and simmer it ten minutes; put the ducks, &c. into the dish, and strain the sauce through a fine sieve over them. Garnish with sippets of toasted, or fneA bread.

M the poultry is only half roasted, and stewed only till just nicely tender, this will be an acceptable bonne bouche to those who are fond of made dishes. The flavour may be varied by adding catsup, curry powder, or any of the flavoured vinegars.

This is an easy prepared side dish, especially when you have a large dinner to dress; and coming to table rea^ carved, saves a deal of time and trouble; it is, therefore, an excellent way of serving poultry, &c. for a large par^.

7b boil Fowls.

For boiling, choose those that are not black legged. After having drawn your fowls, which you must be particularly careful in doing, cut off the head, neck, and legs* Skewer them with the ends of their legs in their bodies, and tie them

198 DOMBSTIC COOKBRT*

roand with a string. Singe and dust them wdl with tour, put them into cold water, cover the kettle dose, aild set it ocl the fire; but take it off as soon as the scum begins to rise. Cover them close again, and let them boil gently twenty minutes; then take them off, and the heat of the water will do them sufficiently* Melted butter with parsley shred fine is the usual sauce; but you may serve them up with ojrster^ lemon, liver, or celery sauce. If for dinner, ham, tongue, or bacon, is usually served to eat with them; as likewise greens.

To boil Fowl* with Rice*

Stew the fowl very slowly in some dear mutton -broth wdl skimmed; and seasoned with onion, mace, p^pe^, and salt. About half an hour before it is ready, put in a quarter of a pint of rice well washed and soaked. Simmer till tender; then strain it fVom the broth, and put the rice on a sieve before the fire. Keep the fowl hot, lay it on the middle of the dish, and the rice round it without the broth. The broth will be ?ery nice to eat as such; but the less liquor the fowl is done with the better. Gravy, or parsley and butter, for sauce.

«

To roast Fowls or Capon*.

They must be killed a couple of days in moderate, and more in cold weather, before they are dressed, or they will eat tough: a good criterion of the ripeness of poultry for the spit is the ease with which you can then pull out the feathers]; and when a fowl is plucked, leave a few to help you to ascertain this. Manage them exactly in the same manner, and send them up with the same sauces as a turkey, only they require proportionably less time at the fire: viz. a full-grown five-toed fowl, abDut an hour and a quarter; a moderate sized one, an hour; and a chicken from thirty to forty minutes.

Here also, pork sausages fried are in general a favourite accompaniment, or turkey stuffing; put in plenty of it, so as to plump out the fowl, which must be tied closely (both at the neck and rump,) to keep in the stuffing.

Some cooks put the liver of the fowl into this forcemeat, and others rub it up with flour and butter, to thicken, and give flavour to the gravy.

POVLTRT AKD GAMS. 190

When the bird la sliiied 'and truued, score the giszard vhdy, dip it into tpelted battef^ let it dndn, and then season it with Cayenne and salt^ put it imder otie pinion, and the liver vnder the other: V prevent it getting hardened or scorched, cover it with double papet buttered.

Take care that your roasted poultry b well browned; it is as itidispensabloj that roasted poultry should have a rich brown complexion, as boiled poultry should have a delicate white one.

To broil Fowls.

We can only recommend this method of dressing, when the fire is not good enough for roasting.

Pick and truss your fowl the sftttie as for boiling, cut it open

down the back, wipe the ibside dean with a cloth, season it

with a little pepper and salt, have a clear fire, and set the grid iicm at a good distance over it, lay the chicken on with the

inside towards the fire; (you may egglt, and strew some grated

bread oyer it) and broil it. till it is a fine brown: take care the

flsihy side is not butnt. Lay it on a hot dish, pickled mush-*

I rooms, or mushroom sauce, thrown over it, or parsley and

f butter, or melted butter flavoured with mushroom catsup.

Garnish it with slices of lemon, and the liver and gizzard, slit

and notched^ and seasoned with pepper and salt, and broiled

f nicely brown, and some jslices of lemon.

To broil Fowh another waif.

Cut a large fowl ints^ four quarters^ put them on a birdspit, and tie that on another spit, and half-roast; oir half-roast the whole fowl, and finish eiiher on the gridiron, which wiU make it less dry than if wholly broiled. The fowl that is not cut before roasted, must be split down the back after.

To hash Fowls,

Cut up your fowl as for eating, then put it into a stew* pan with half a pint of gravy, a tea^spoonful of lemon pickle, a little catsup, and a slice of lemon. Thicken it with flour and hotter; and just before you dish it up, put in a spoonful of good cream. Lay sippets in the dish, and pour the hash over them.

900 DOMESTIC COOCBRT.

l}avenp&rt Fcwh*

Hang young fowls anight; take the liven, hearts, and tenderest parts of the gisaards, shred Very small, with half a handful of young dary, an anchovy to each fowl, an onioo^ and the yolks of four eggs boiled hard, with pepper, salt, and mace, to your taste, ^tuff the fowls with this, and sew up the vents and necks quite dose, that the water may not get in. Boil them in salt and water till almost done: then drain themi^ and put them into a stew-pan with butter enough to brown them. Serve them with fine melted butter, and a spoonful of catsup, of either sort, in the dish,

A nice way to dress a Fowl far a small Dish.

Bone, singe, and wash a young fowl: make a forcemeat of four ounces of veal, two ounces of scraped lean of ham, two ounces of fat bacon, two hard yolks of eggs, a few sweet herbs chopped, two ounces of beef-suet, a tea^spoonful of lemon peel minced quite fine, an anchovy, salt, pepper, and a very little cayenne. Beat all in a mortar, with a tea-cupful of crumbs, and the yolks and whites of three eggs. Stuff the inside of the fowl, and draw the legs and wings inwards; tie the neck and rump dose. Stew the fowl in a white gravy; when it is done through and tender, add a large cupful of cream, and a bit of butter and flour; give it one boil, and serve; the last thing, add the squeeze of a lemon.

To force Fowls,

Take a large fewl, pick it clean, draw it, cot it down the back, and take the skin off the whole; cut the flesh from the bones, and chop it with half a pint of oysters, one ounce of beef marrow, and a little pepper and salt. Mix it up with cream; then lay the meat on the bones, draw the skin over it, and sew up the back. Cut large thin slices of bacon, lay them on the breast of your fowl, and tie them on with packthread in diamonds. It will take an hour roasting by a moderate fire. Make a good brown gravy sauce, pour it into your dish, take the bacon off. Jay in your fowl, and serve it up. Garnish with pickles, mushrooms, or oysters. It is proper for a side-dish at dinner^ or top-dish for supper.

POULTRY AND GAME. iOl

To braise Fowls/ Trass your fowl as for boilings with the legs in the body; then lay over it a layer of fat bacon cut in thin slices, wrap it round in beet leaves, then in a caul of veal, and put it into a large sauce-pan with three pints of w.ater, a glass of Madeira wine, a bunch of sweet herbs, two dr three blades of niace»and half a lemon; stew it till it is quite tender, then take it up and skim off the &t; make your gravy. pretty thick with flour and butter, strain it through a hair sieve, and put to it a pint of oysters and a tea- cupful of thick cream; keep shaking your pan over the fire, and when it has simmered a short time, serve up your fowl with the bacon, beet leaves, and caul on, and pour your sauce hot upon it. Garnish with barberries and red beet root.

To boil Chickens.

After you have drawn them, lay them in skimmed milk for two hours, and truss them. When you have properly singed, and dusted them with flour, cover them close in cold water, and set them over a slow fire. Having taken off the scum, and boiled them slowly five or six minutes, take themoff the fire, and keep them close covered for half an hour in the water, which will do them sufliciently, and make them plump and white. Before you dish them, det them on the fire to heat; then drain them, and pour over them white sauce, which you must have made ready in the following manner:

Take the heads and necks of the chickens,- with a small bit of scrag of veal, or any scraps of mutton you' may have by you, and put them into a sauce-pan, with a blade or two of mace, and a few black pepper-corns, an anchovy, a head of celery, a slice of the end of a lemon, ahd a bunch of sweet herbs. Put to these a quart of water, cover it close, and let it boil till it is reduced to half a pint. Then strain it, and thicken it with a quarter of a pound of butter mixed with flour, and boil it five or six minutes. Then put in two spoonfuls o£ mushrooms, and mix the yolks of two eggs with a tea-cupfut * of cream, and a little nutmeg grated. Put in your sauce, and keep shaking it over the fire till it is near boiling; then pour it into your boats, and serve it up with your chickens. 8 2d

Terooit Chkkms.

P^t them down to n goo^L fire, and ainn^a daa^ «nd baste Ihem with butter. Wh^n they are enough^ froth tbeni» and Uy them in ypur.dish. Serve then^ up with parsley and batter poured ov^r tfaem» and griivy and mushroom sauce in boats. A large chicken will take h«lf an hour, a small ene twenty mnqtes.

7b broil Chickens.

Split your chickens down the back, season them with pepper and salt, and lay them on the gridiron over a clear fire^ and at a great distance. Let the insides continue next the fire ^ they are nearly half done; then turn them, taking care that the fleshy sides do not burn, and let them broil till they are of a fine brown. Have ready good gravy sauce, with some mushrooms, and garnish them with lemon and the livers broiled; the giezards out, sUshod, and broiled, with pepper and salt.

To fry Chickens,

Cut your chickens into quarters, and rub ihem with the yolk of an egg; then strew on some crumbs of bread, with pepper, salt, grated nutmeg, and lemon-peel, and chopped parsley. Fry them in butter, and when done, put them into your dish before the fire. For sauce, thicken some gravy with a little flour, and put into it a small quantity of Cayenne pepper, some mushroom powder or catsup, and a little lemoi^ ^uice. When it is properly heated, pour it over the chickens, and serve it up.

To stew. Chickens.

Half-boil them in as much water as will just cover them, then take them out, cut them up, and take out the breast bones. Put them into your stew-pan with the liquor, and add a blade of miice, ancl a little salt Cover the pan dose, and set it over a slow fire. Let it stew till the chickens are enough, then put the whole into your dish, and serve it to table.

To kiuk CUekens. Cut a cold chicken into pieces, and if you have no gravy; make a little with the long bones, onion, spioe, Ac Hour the chicken, and put into the gnvy, with white pepper, aslt.

nutmegs, and grated lemon. When k boik^ atir in an egg, and mis: it with a little cream* As soon as it is thoroughly hot, •queesse in a little lemoti jnioe, thm pttt the whole, into a dish stxe^H^ over it some crumbs of bread, broWn them With a sAla» xnandcr, and then serve it up hot to table.

To fiicas9U Chickens*

Boil ratber more AaA half, in a small quantity of water:

let them cool; then cut up; and pint to simitier in a little

f^vy made of the liquor they are boiled in, and a bit df

veal or mutton, onion, mace, ai^d lemon peel, some white

pepper, and'a.imnoh pf sweet ^cHm^ When quite tender^

keep them hot while you thicken the sauce in the following

manner: strain it off, and put it back into the sauce-pan with a

little salt, a scrapie of nutmegs end a bit of flour and butter;

f(lve it one boil; and when yon are going to serve, beat up the

yolk of an egg, add half a pint of oream, aad stir them over

tbe ire, but do not let it boil. It will be quite as good wkh Ottttheegg.

The gravy may be made (without any other meat) of the

necks, feet» small wing-bones, giasards* and liven; which are

ealled the trimmings of the fbwb.

To puU Ckickem.

Takeoff the skin, and puJl the Assh off tibe bone of a cold fowl, in as large pieces as you can: dredge it with flour, and fry it of a nice brown in butter. Drain the butter from it; and then simmer the iesh in a good gravy, well seasoned, ana thiekeocd with a littie fioosr and butter. Add the Juice of half aleilion.

741^ j^M Chickens another way.

Cutoff the legs ahd the whole back of a dressed chicken; if VHider^one the better. Pull all the white part into little flakes free from skin; toss it Up with a little cream thickened with a piece of bntter miaLed with flour, half a blade of maoe in powder, white pepper, salt, and a squeese of lemon. Cat off the neck-end cf Uie chicken; sod Inwil the hadt and sidesmen in otie piece» end the two legs seasoned* Put the hash in thie middle, with the back on it, and the two legs at the end.

904 BOMESTIC COOKSRY.

Chicken Currie,

Cut up the chickens raw, slice onions^ and fry both in butter with great care, of a fine light brown; or if you use chickens that have been dressed^ fry only the onions. Lay the

4

joints, cut into two or three pieces each/ into a stew-pan, with a veal or mutton gravy, and a clove or two of garlic. Simmer till the chicken is quite tender. Half an hour before you serve it, rub smooth a spoonful or two of currie powder, a spoonful of flour, and an ounce of butter; and add this, with four large spoonfuls of cream, to the stew; Salt to your taste^ When serving, squeeze in a little lemon.

S^ces of underdone veal^ or rabbit, turkey, &c make excellent currie.

Another, mare easily made.

Cut up a chicken or young rabbit; if chicken, take off the skin. Roll each piece in a mixture of a large spoonful of flour, • and half an ounce of currie powder. Slice two or three onions; and fry them in butter, of a light brown; then add the meat, ¦and fry all together till the meat begins to brown. Put it all into a stew-pan, and pour boiling water enough just to cover it Simmer very gently two or three hours. If too thicks put more water half an hour before serving.

If the meat has been dressed before, a little broth will be better than water: but the currie is richer when made of fresh meat

To braise Chickens*

Bone them, and filLthem with forcemeat Lay the bones^ and any other poultry trimmings, into a stew-pan, . and the chickens on them. Put to them a few onions, a faggot of herbs, three blades of mace, a pint of stock, and a glass or two of sherry. Cover the diickens with slices of baoon, and then white paper; cover the whole close, and put them on a alow stove for two hours. Then take them up, strain the braise, and skim off the fat carefully; set it on to boil very quick to a glaze, and do the chickens over with it with a brush.

Serve with a brown fricassee of mushrooms. Before glazing, put the chicken into an oven for a few minutes, to give a little colour.

tOVVTKr AND GAMS. 205

To Ml Ducki.

When 7 m have scalded and drawn your ducks, let them remain a few minutes in warm water, then take them out, put diem into an earthen pan, and pour a pint of boiling milk over them. Let them lie in it two or three hours, and when you take them out, dredge them well with flour; put them hito cold water, and cover them up. Having boiled slowly about twenty minutes, take them out, and smother them with onion tauc&

To rooit Duck.

Mind your duck is well cleaned, and wiped out with a clean doth. For the stuffing take an ounce of onion, and half an «once of green sage, chop them very fine, and mix them with two ounces, i. e. about a breakfafrt-cupful of bread crumbs, a very little black pepper and salt, and the yolk of an egg to bind it; mix these thoroughly together, and put into the duck. Another stuffing, may . be made by chopping very fine about two ounces of onion, of green sage leaves about an ounce, (both unboiled,) four ounces of bread crumbs, the yolk and white of an egg, and a little pepper and salt; some add to this a minced apple. From half to three quarters of an hour will be enough to roast it, according to the size: contrive to have the feet delicately crisp, as some people are very fond of them: to do this nicely, you must have a sharp fire. Serve with a fine gravy, or sage and onion sauce.

To stew Ducks,

Half-roast a duck: put it into a stew-pan with a pint of beef gravy^ a few leaves of sage and mint cut small, pepper and salt, and a small bit of onion shred as fine as possible. Simmer a quarter of an hour, and skim clean; then add near a quart of green peas. Cover close, and simmer near half an hour l Niger Put in a piece of butter and a little flour, and give it one boil; then serve in one dish.

To stew Duck with green Peas.

Put into your stew-pan a piece of fresh butter, and set it OQ the fire; then put in you duck, and turn it in the pan two •r three minutes: takeout the fat^ but let the duck remain.

J

2M I^OMLKSTtC COOKERS.

Put to it a 'pint of good gftivy» a pint of peas^ two lettuces cut small, a bunch of sweet herbs and a little pepper and salt. Covet them dose^ and let them stew for half an hour^ now and then shaking the paik. When they are jost done, grate in a little nutmegs with a smaQ quantity of beaten mace, and thicken it either with a piece of butter rolled in flour, at the yolk of ah egg beat up with two or three spoonfula of cream. Shake it aU together for two or three minutes, then take out the sweet herbs, lay the duck in the dish, and poor the sauce over it Garnish with boiled mint chopped very fine.

To ha9h Dtkks.

Cut a coid duck into joints; and warm it, without boilings, in gmry, and a glass of port wine.

Dressed Ducks, or Geese, hashed.

Cut an onion Into small dice; put it into a stew-patt wilft a bit of butter; fry it, bat do not let it get any colour: put as much boiling water into the stew-pan as will make aa«Mse for the hash; thicken it with a little flour, cut op the duck, and put it into the sauce to warm; do not let it boil; season it with pepper, salt, and catsup.

The legs of geese, &c. broiled, and laid on a bed of $pfit sauce^ are sent up for luncheon or supper.

To boil a Goose.

Singe a goose, and pour over it a quart of boiling milk* l,et It continue in the milk all night, then take it out, and dry it well with a cloth. Cut an onion very small with some sage, Qut them into the goose, sew it up at the neck and vent, and hang it up by the legs till the next day; then pat it into a pot of cold water, cover it close, and let it boil gently tor an hour. Serve it up with onion sauce.

To roast a Goose.

When a goose is well picked, singed, and cleaned, make the stuffing with about two ounces of onion, and half as much green sage, chopped very fine. If you think the flavour of raw onions too strong, cut them in slices, and lay thetn in

^iri.T&T AHD GAMBt tOT



ooM wator fir n eonf^e of hour^, or add as mudi a »pk or polaUie as yoo have of dnion. To thia add four ounces, t . e, about a kfge breakfiut-oupfiil of «tale bread crumbs, aul a very little pepper and aalt^ 'aome cooks add half the liver, parboiling it fint,) and the yolk of an egg oc two, and incorporating the vhole well together, stuff the goose; do not quite fill it, but kive a little room for the stuffing to swell. Spit it, tie it on the 9pit at both ends, to prevent its swinging round, and to keep the stuffing from oomitig out. From an hour and a half to two hoars will roast a fine full-grown goose. Send up gravy, and ^le sauce with it.

The goose at Michaelmaa, is as famous, in the anouths of the million, as the minced pie at Christaias; but, for those who est with delicacy, it is by that time too full grown. The true period, when the goose is in its highest perfection, is when it has jast acquired its full growth, and not begun to harden. If the Midsummer goose is insipid, the Michaelmas goose ia lank; the fine time, is between both; firom the first week in A July, to the second in September.

To roast a green Gocu,

Geese are called gveen, till they are about lour montha old The oply difference between roasting these, and a full grown goose, consists in seasoning it with pepper and salt, instead of ssge and onion, and roasting it far forty or fifty minntea only. Serve with gooseberry sauce.

This is one of the least desirable of those insipid pre* mature productions, which are esteemed

To ragoui a Goose. Skin your goose, dip it into boiling water, and break the breast^bone, so that it may lay quite fiat. Season it with peppec and salt, anda little mace beaten to powder; lard it, aiad then flour it all over. Having done this, take about a pound of beef 8aet and put into your stew-pan; and when melted, boiling hot, put in the goose. As soon as you find the goose brown all over, put in a quart of beef gravy boiling hot, a bundi of sweet herlis, and a blade of mace, a few cloves, some whole pepper, two or three small onions, and a bay leaf. Cover the Ifsn quite doaiew and let it stew gently over a slow fixe. Jf the

^08 DOMBSTIC COOKBRY.

goo9e 18 small, it will be done in an boar; but if large, an hour and a half. Make a ragout for it in the following manner: Cut some tu:iip8 and carrots into small pieces, with three or four onions sliced; boil all enough; put them, with half a pint of rich beef gravy, into a sauce* pan, with some pepper, salt, and a pieoe of butter rolled in flour. Let them stew about a quarter of an hour. When the goose is done, take it out of* the stew-pan, drain the liquor it was stewed in well from it, put it into a diA, and pour the ragout over it. t

«

To stew Gihkti.

Af^er having thoroughly cleaned your giblets in scalding "water, put them into a sauce-pan, just cover them with cold water, and set them on the fire; when they boil, take off tlie scum, and put in an onion, three cloves, or two blades of maoe, a few berries of black pepper, the same of allspice, and half a teo^spoonful of salt; cover the stew-pan close, and let it sim. mer till the giblets are quite tender; this will take from one hour and a half, to two and a half, according to the age of the giblets: the pinions will be done first, and must then be taken out, and put in again to warm when the gizzards are done: watch them that they da not get too much done. Take them out, and thicken the sauce with flour and butter; let it boil half an hour, or till there is just enough to eat with the giblets; and then strain it through a tamis into a clean stew-pan; cut the giblets into mouthfuls, put them into the sauce, with the juice of half a lemon, a table-qpobnful of mushroom catsup; pour the whole into a soup dish, with sippets of bread at the bottom*

Pigeana.

Pigeons may be dressed in so many ways, that they are very useful. The good flavour of them depends very much on i their being cropped and drawn as soon as killed. No other   bird requires so much washing.

Pigeons left from dinner the day before may be stewed, or made into a pie; in either case, care must be taken not to overdo them, which will make them stringy. Tbey need only be heated up in gravy made ready; and forcemeat balls may be fried and added, instead of putting a stufling into them. If for a pie, let beef-steaks be stewed in a little water, and pnft

B09LTET AKO GAME* 800

«Qld vater aadfer theoi^ and cover cacb pigeoD wiA « piim of &t hsooQ^ to keep them mout.

ToboU

When yoa draw jour pigeoiw, be caiefiil t9 take eat the craw as dean as possible. Wash them in several waters^ and having cut off the pmions, torn their legs under their wiiiga. Let them boil very dowly a quarter of an hour, and they will be snQciently done. Dish them up, and pour over them good melted hotter; lay round the dish a little .fafoooU snd serve them up with melted butter and paraley in boata. Jbugy shottkl be boUed by themsdvea, and may be ^aten with baeon, greens^ q^inach» or aqMuragus*

To romt Pigt^n^.

When the pigeons are ready for imsfingy if youaie desired tp stuff tbenv ^^^ wome green parsley very fine» the liver^ and « bit of butter together, with a little p€ ^»er aqd salt» and fill th9 belly of each bifd with it. They will be enough in about twenty or thirty minutes: send up parsley and butter in die dish under them, and «ome in a boat, and garnish with crisp paraley, or ftied faiead crumba. A little melted hatter nay be pnt into the dish with them, and the gravy that runa 6am them will mix with it into fine sauce.

Pigeons iare in the greatest perffection fVom Midenmrner to Michaelmas; Aeie is then the most plentiful and best fbod fcv thetp; and Aeir finest growth, is just when they are fuU finthered. When they are in the pen^ftathers, thegr aie flabby when they are fuQ grown, and have flown soma time, they are loagh. Game and poultry are best when Ihey have just done gfowing, t. e. as soon as Nature has perftcted her work.

When pigeons are fire^h, they have their foU relish; hut it goes entirely off with a very little keeping; nor ia it any way so well preserved, as by roasting them: when they are put into a pie, they 'are generally baked to rags, and taste more of pep«

per and sak than any thing ^'*^ •

To IfffoU Pig^aws,

To be worth the teouUe of picking, they must be tvell gniwn and well ttd.

8 2 c

2L0 ' BOM'ESTIC COOKERY.

Clean them well, and pepper and salt them; broQ them ovei^ a clear slow fire; turn them often^ and put a little butter on them: when they are done, pour over them, either stewed or pickled mushrooms, or catsup and melted butter. Garnish with fried bread crumbs, or sippets.

To hroU Pigeons another way. ^

When the pigeons are trussed as for boiling, flat themt with a cleaver, taking care not to break the skin of the backs, or breasts; season them with pepper and salt, a little bit of butter, and a tea-spoonful of water, and tie them close at botb



ends; so when they are brought to table, they bring their sauce with them. Egg and dredge them well with grated bread (mixed with spice and sweet herbs, if you please,) then lay them on the gridiron, and turn them frequently: if your fire is not very dear, lay them on a sheet of paper well buttered, to keep them from getting smoked. They are much better broiled whole.

Serve with the same sauce as in the preceding receipt.

To stew Pigeons. Take care that they are quite fresh, and carefully cropped, drawn, and washed; then soak them half an hour. In the mean time, cut a hard white cabbage in slices (as if for pick* ling,) into water: drain it, and then boil it in milk and water; drain it again, and lay some of it at the bottom of a stew-pan. Put the pigeons upon it, but first season them well with pep« per and salt; and cover them with the remainder of the cabbage. Add a little broth, and stew gently till the pigeons are tender; then put among them two or three spoonfuls of cream^ and a piece of butter and fiour, for thickening. After a boil or two, serve the birds in the middle, and the cabbage placed round them.

Pigeons in a Hole.

Pick, draw, and wash four young pigeons, stick their legs in their bellies as you do boiled pigeons^ and season them with pepper, salt, and beaten mace. Put into the belly of each pigeon a lump of butter the size of a walnut. Lay your pigeons in a pie dish^ pour over them a batter made of three

POULTRY AND GAME. 211

9gg^ two qpoonfals of flour, and half a pint of good milk* Bake tbem in a moderate oven, and serve them to table in the sunediah.

To jug Pigeons^ Pluck and draw six pigeons, wash them clean, and dry them with a doth; season them with beaten mace, white pepper, and salt. Pat them into a jug with half a pound of butter upon them.. Stop up the jug close. with a doth, that no steam Can get out; then set on a kettle of boiling water, and let it boil ah hour and a half. Then take out your pigeons, put the gravy that is come from .them into a pan, and add to it a spoonful of wine, one of catsup, a slice of lemon, half an anchovy chopped, and a bundle of sweet herbs. Boil it a little, and then thicken it with a piece of biitter rolled in flour: lay yoar pigeons in the dish, and strain your gravy over them. Garnish with parsley and red cabbage. - This makes a very pretty side or comer dish.

To pot Pigeons,

Let them be quite fresh; clean them carefully, and season diem with salt and pepper: lay them dose in a small deep pan; fi r the smaller the surface, and the closer they are packed, the less butter will be wanted. Cover them with butter, then with very thick paper tied down, and bake them. When cold, put them dry into pots that will hold. two or three in each; and pour butter over them, using that which was baked as part. Observe that the butter should be pretty thick over them, if they are to be kept. If pigeops were boned, and then put in an oval form into the pot, they would lie closer, and require less butter. They may be stuffed with a fine forcemeat made with veal, bacon, &c. and then they will eat excellently. If a high flavour is approved of, add. mace, allspice, and a little cayenne, before baking.

To pickle Pigeons,

Bone them; turn the inside out, and lard it. Season with a little allspice and salt, in fine powder; then turn them again, and tie the neck and rump with thread. Put them into boiling water: let them boil a minute or two to plump: take them

9& BOMteStiG tOOVHSHt.

out, iind dty Ih^m well; then put ihem boiling hot Mto ibe pfckle wbich must be made of eqtud quanUtiee of whke l^iae and white Wine vinegar^ with white pepper and allspice^ sliisedginger, and nutmeg, and two or three bay-leaves. When it boils up, put the pigeons in. If they are small, a quarter of on hour will do Uiem; but they will take twenty minutes if larg^. Then take them out, wipe them, axid let them. toclL When the pickle is cold, take the Iktoff fkom it, and put them m again. Keep them in a stone jar, tied down with a Madder ie kedp out the air.

Instead of litfding, put into some a stuffing made of htofd jpolks of eggs and marrow, in equd quantities, witb sweet herbs, pepper, salt, andtea'ce.

Pigetms in Jelfy.

Save some of the fiquor in whidi a knuckle of yeal has been bojM: or boil a ealPs or a neat's foot; put the brdth into a pan with a blade of mace, a bunch of sweet herbs, some white pepper, lemon peel, a slice of lean bacon, and the pigeons. Bake them, and let thtai stand to be cold. Season them as you like, t elbre baking. When donie, take diem out of the liquor, cover them dose to preserve the oolour, and deartihe jellyliy boiling with the whites of two eggs; flien strain it through a ^ck cloth dipped in boiling water, and put into a sieve. The ikt must be perfectly removed, before it be cleared. Put the jelly over and round them rough.

Tkemme, e hemUifid Di$h.

Pick two veiy nice pigeons; and make them look as well as possible by singeiiig, washing, and cleaning the heads well. Leave the heads and the feet on, but the nails must be clipped diose to the claws. Roast them of a very nice brown; and when done, pat a little sprig of myrtle into the bill of each* Have ready a savoury jelly, as before, and with it hal&fill a bowl of such a size as shall be proper to turn down on the dish you mean it to be served in. When the jelly and the birds are cold, see that no gravy hang^ to the birds, and tiien lay them upside down in die jelly. Befiire the rest df it begins to eet, potnr it over the birds, so as to be three inches above the feet lUs dioidd begone fidl twu t y fa g hems before iMving.

TMhtKir Aim oAii . 213

TfciB diili luto a v^iy handaoine sppesnoioe in Ae micldle M&ge ^ « MRSoad QDurse; ^r^ ulien safred with the jdlj roughed Ua^e^ ttnakesft side'^r comer tlnng^ ils sbe being then less. The head ^eald he kept up « if alive, by tying the neck wiXb. some duead, and the legs bent as if the pigeon lit npon them.

These delicate Htde birds are in high season in November. When they are picked^ gutted, and cleaned, truss them; bnuh titem with the yolk of an togg, and then roll them in bread crtinibs; spit them ^n a lark spit, and tie that on to a larger spit, ten or tifteen minutes at a quick fire will be enough; haste them with iVesh butter while tiiey are roasting, and sprinkle them with br^ad crumbs till they are well covered widi

Far ihe sance, fry some grated bread in clarified butter, and set it to drain before the fire, thaft it may harden: serve the cramba under the larks when you dish &em, and garnish them with alices of lemon.

Wheat-ears are dressed in the same way as larks,

eAME.

Directions far hoping Game^

If birds are over«kept, their legs will be dry« their eyes madh sunk, and the vent will become s ^ and somewhat discoloiued. The first place to ascertain if thc^ are beginning to be Ugh, is the inside of their bills, where it is notaniss to put some hether strnw, or spicc^ if you want to keep them for any length of time. Birds that have fidleii into the water, or have not had time to get cold, should not be packed like others, but sent openly, and dressed as soon as possible.

Sportsmen are often heartily abused by their acquaintance, for sending ibem tough and good-for-nothing game, while probably the blame should, in many instances, rest with themselves, or their pudding-headed cook, who, may be, dresses an old, pheasant or hare the very day after it was killed ! or perhaps, while engrossed in a story or argument, leaves it to roast away, tiU there remains neither juice nor flavour.

214 POMESTIC COOKBRY*

All game should be kept till properly tender, and oug^ht not to be thrown away even when it has been kept a very lon^ time; for when it seems to be spoiled, it may often be made fit for eating, by nicely cleaning it, and washing with vinegar and water. If there is danger of birds not keeping, draw, crop, and pick them; then wash in two or three waters, and rub them with salt. Have ready a large sauce-pan of boiling water, and plunge them into it one by one; drawing them up and down by the legs, that the water may pass through them. Let them stay five or six minutes in; then hang them up in a cold place. When drained, pepper and salt the insides well. Before roasting, wash them well. The most delicate birds, even grouse, may be preserved thus. Those that live by suction cannot be done this way, as they are never drawn; and perhaps the heat might make them worse, as the water could not pass through them; but they bear being high. Lumps of charcoal put about birds and meat will preserve them fbom taint, and restore what is spoiling.

Old pheasants may be distinguished by the length and sharpness of their spurs, which in the yoonger ones are short and blunt.

Old partridges are known during the early part of the season, by their legs being of a pale blue, instead of a yellowish brown: so that when a Londoner receives his brace of bluelegged birds in September, he should immediately snap their legs and draw out the sinews, by meant of pulling off the feet, instead of leaving them to torment him, like so many strings, when he would be wishing to enjoy his repast. This remedy to make tlie legs tender, removes the objection to old birds, provided the weather will admit of their being sufficiently kept; and indeed they are then often preferable, from having a higher flavour.

To boil Pheasants. These must be boiled in plenty of water. If it be a soaall one, half an hour will be sufficient; but if a large one, three quarters. For sauce, stew some heads of celery cut very fine, thickened with cream, and a small piece of butter rolled in flour^ and season with salt to your palate. When your bird

POULTRY AND GAMB. 2l5

k done, pour the sauce over it, and garnish the dish with thin slices of lemon.

To roast Pheasants*

This bird requires a smart fire, but not a fierce one. Thirty minntes will roast a young bird; and forty or fifty a full grown {feasant. Pick and draw it, cut a slit in the back of the neck, and take out the craw, but don't cut the head off; wipe the inside of the bird with a dean cloth, twist the legs close to the body, leave the feet on, but cut the toes off; don't turn the head under the wing, but truss it like a fowl: it is much easier to carve: baste it, butter and froth it, and prepare sauce for it, made as follows.

Put a small teapcupful of bread-crumbs into a stew-pan, poor on it as much milk as it will soak up, and a little more; cv, instead of the milk, take the giblets, head, neck, and legs, &c. of the poultry, &c. and stew them, and moisten the bread with this liquor; put it on the fire with a middling sized onion, and a dozen berries of pepper or allspice, or a little mace; let it boil, then sdr it well, and let it simmer till it is quite stiff, and then put to it about two table-spoonfuls of cream or melted butter, or a little good broth; take out the onion and pepper, and it is ready.

We believe that the rarity of this bird is its best recommendation; and the character given it by an ingenious French author, is just as good as it deserves. "Its flesh is naturally tough, and owes all its tenderness and succulence to the long time it is kept, before it is cooked." Therefore suspend it by one of the long tail-feathers, and the pheasant's falling from it, is the criterion of its ripeness and readiness for the spit.

«

Mock Pheasant,

If you have only one pheasant, and wish for a companion for it, get a fine young fowl, of as Dear as may be the same size as the bird to be matched, and make game of it by trussing it like the pheasant, and dressing it according to the above directions* Few persons will discover the pheasant from the fowl, especi' allj if the latter has been kept four or five days.

The peculiar flavour of the pheasant (like that of other game) is principally acquired by long keeping.

A

216 IKXMBSTIC COOKERY^

To st€w Pkeuumtg,

Put into yoar stew-pan^ with the pheasant, aa maoh veal broth as will covef it, and let it stew till there is just liquor enough left for sauce. Then «c«m it, and put in artichoke bottofu parboiled, a little beaten mace, a glass of wine, and some pepper and salt. If it is not sufficiently siihstanrial, thicken it with a piece of butter rolled in flour, and sqaeese ia a little lemon juice. Then take up the phaasant pourthe sance over it, and put force-meat balls into the dish«

To boil PmrMdget.

Boil them quick in a good deal of water^ and fifteen mimitca *will be sufficient. For sauce, take a quarter of a pint of crcaam, andahitof fresh butter about the size of a walnut. Stir it one way till it is melted, and then poor it over the birds.

To roa$t Partridges*

Partridges are cleaned and trussed in the same manner as a pheasant, (but the ridiculous custom of tucking the 1^^ into each other, makes them very troublesome to carve;) the breast is so plump, it will require almost as much roasting: serve them up with the same sauce as directed for pheasants.

If you wish to preserve them longer than you think they will keep good undressed, half roast them, they will keep two (ff three days longer, or make a pie of them*

To stew Partridges,

Truss your partridges in the same manner as &r roast* ing, stuff the craws, .and lard them down each side of the breast; then roU a lump of butter in pepper, salt, and beaten mace, and put into the bellies. Sew up the vents, and then put them into a stew«pan, with a quart of good gravy, s spoonful of Madeira wine, the same of catsup, a tea-^Kxmful of lemon pickle, half the quantity of mushroom powder, one anchovy, half a lemon, and a sprig of sweet marjoram. Cover the pan close, and stew them half an hour; then take them out, and thicken the gravy. Boil it a little, and pour it over the partridges^ and lay round them artichoke bottoms boiled and cut in quarters, and the yolks of four hard eggs. Woodcocks may be stewed in the same manner.

(

VACrLTKT AUD GAMXi Si9

To pat

Clefln tliem nicely; and season with mace, allspice, white pepper, and salt, in fine powder. Rab every part well; then hjr die breast downwards in a pan, and pack the birds as close as yea poasibfy^ can. But a good deal of batter on them; then cover the pan wit6 a coarse floor-paste, and a paper over, tie it close, and bake. When cold, put the birds into pots, and cover them with batter

A tetf ehettp icfttgf of potting Anmb

IVepare them as directed in the last receipt; and when baked and grown cold, cut them into proper pieces fbr helping, pack them dose into a large potting pan, and (if possible) leave no spaces to receive the butter. Cover them with butter, and one-third part less will be wanted than when the Inrds are done whole. The butter that has covered potted things will serve for bastitig, or for paste for meat pies.

To clarify butter for potted things, put it into a sauce-boat, and set that over the fire in a stew-pan that has a little wi^er in. When melted, take care not to pour the milky parts over the potted things: they will sink to the bottom.

To roaot Black Cock, Moor Gnme, mid Grome*

These are all to be roasted like partridges: the .black cock inU take as much time as a pheasant, and moor game nnd grouse as the partridge. Send op with them currant jelly,^ and fried bread crumbs.

.. To pot Moot dame.

Pick, singe, and wash the birds nicely: then dry them; and season, inside and out, pretty high, with pepper, mace, nutmeg, allspice, and salt. Pack them in as small a pot as win hold them, cover dietdi with butter, and bake in a very alow oven. When cold, take off the butter, dry them from the gravy, and put one bird into each pot, which should just fit Add as much more butter as will cover them, but take care that it does not oil. The best way to melt it is, by warming it in a basin set in a bowl of hot water. 6 2 F

tlS BOMB8TIC COOKKRT.

To roast Wild Fowl

The. flavour is ))e8t preserved without rtuflSng. Put pepper^ salt, and a piece of butter^ into each. Wild fowl require much less dressing than tame: they should be served of a fine colour, and well frothed up* A rich brown gravy should be sent in the dish: and when the breast is cut into



slices, before taking off the bone, a squeeze of lemon, with pepper and salt, is a great improvement to the flavour. To take off the fishy taste which wild fowl sometimes have, pot an onion, salt, and hot water, into the dripping-pan, and baate them for the first ten minutes with this; then take away the pan, and baste constantly with butter.

To roast Wild Du6k$.

For roasting a wild duck, you must have a dear brisk fire^ and a hot spit; it must be browned upon the outside, without being sodden within. To have it well firothed, and full of gravy, is the nicety. Prepare the fire, by stirring and raking it just before the bird is laid down, and fifteen or twenty minutes will do it in the fashionable way; but if you like it a little more done, allow it a few minutes longer: if it is too much, it will lose its flavour. Put a good gravy upon them, and serve with shalot sauce.

To roast Widgeons, Teal, and Dun-birds.

They are dressed exactly as the wild duck; only that less time is requisite for a widgeon, and still less for a teal.

To boil Woodcocks or Snipes.

Snipes, or woodcocks must be boiled in good strong broth, or beef gravy, which you must make as follows: Cut a pound of lean beef into small pieces, and put it into four quarts of water, with an onion, a bundle of sweet herbs, a blade or two of mace, six doves, and some whole pepper. Cover it dose, let it boil till it is half wasted, then strain it off, and put the gravy into a sauce-pan, with salt enough to season it. Draw the birds clean, but take particular care of the guts. Put the birds into the gravy, cover them close, and ten minutes will boil them. In the meantime cut the guts and liver small, then take a littie of the gravy the birds are boiling in, and stew the

F01JLTRT AND OAM]if. 2ltf

gnts in it with a Uade of mace. Take about as much of the cmmb of bread as the inside of a roU^ and rub or grate it very mudl, into a dean cloth; then put into a pan with some butter» and fiy it till crisp, and of a fine light brown colour* When your birds are ready, take about half a pint of the. liquor they were boiled in, and add to the guts two spoonfuls of red wine, and a piece of butter about the size of a walnut, rolled in flour. Set them on the fire, and shake your saucepsn often, (but by no means stir it with a spoon) till the but-i ter is melted: then put in the fried crumbs, give the sauce-pan another shake, take up your birds, lay them in the dish, and pour your sauce over them. Garnish with sliced lemon.

To roast Woodcocks.

Woodcocks should not be drawn. Truss their legs dose to the body, and run an iron skewer through each thigh, close to the body, and tie them on a small bird-spit; put them to roast St a dear fire; cut as many slices of bread as you have bivds, toast or fry them a delicate brown, and lay them in the dripping-pan under the birds, to catch the trail; baste them with batter, and firoth them with fiour; lay the toast on a hot dish, and the birds on the toast; pour some good beef gravy into the dish, and send some iip in a boat: twenty or thirty minutes will roast them. Garnish with slices of lemon.

Some epicures like this bird very much underdone, and direct, that a woodcock should be just introduced to the cook^ for her to show it the fire, and then send it up to table.

To roast Stkipes.

These diflhr little from woodcocks, unless in size; they are to be dressed in the same way, but require about &ve minutes less time to roast them.

To roast Quails.

These birds keep good several days. Roast them without drawing, and serve on toast. Butter only should be eaten with them, as gravy takes off firom the fine flavour. The thigh and back are esteemed the most.

)aa 90MBST1C CQOKUIT.

7b roast Ri^wtd lUant. These are puticukrly foftnd in linodlnsfail^ md the i^ oF Ely, and are very delicate birds. They must be trtused like the woodcbek, bat ncA dressed wkh Ihe guts. When done, serVe liiem Up widi gravy fltnd bread sauce, and gamiali the didh urith erisp cnudbs   f bread.

T« tfreat Phfotts.

Itoaft the green ones in the same way as directed for quails^ ivithout drawing; and serve on a toast. Grey plovers may be either roasted, or stewed with gravy, herbs, and spice.

Pidvers' eggs are a nice and fashionable dish. Boil them ten minutes, and serve either hot or cold on a napkin*

Oftolana.

These delicate birds, though much smaller than Ae lark, form one of the richest and most favourite repasts of luxurious epicures. It might easily be shut up in the tgg of a common fowl, and dt*e8sed either with water or amid the ashes; but it ia generally referred to the spit, as a roast of die highest estnna« tion in every part of Europe. Hiey are roasted at Paris, as well as Italy, in the same manner as quails; being spitted side by side, each wrapped in a vine leaf, with a thin slice of (he £it of bacon on the breast, and basted with a litde melted bacon. They are served up widi a garnish of fried crumbs of breads and the juice of a Seville orange. Ortolans thus oon« stitute an extremely delicibus viand, so highly relished by many persons as to be thought the most exquisite of all species of game. Certainly, wheti ihe birds are young, and skilfully dressed, the flesh is wonderfully light and lander; it is adtnit(ed, however, to have morn of delicacy than of flavour, but thai it is yet too luscious for much to be eaten* Tew penDns;, what these birds are full fed, wish to eat more than two of them. They are seldom to be had in LondMi at a lower price than half a guinea each.

end Pea FwdL Theseeat much like pheasants^ and are dmssed in the same way.

POULTRY ANI OAlCS« tSi

mie fiAt points of coMid^fatioh «te, fl6^ #14 ii Ae luif 6 F aiMi 'hinr l«ng hai it ben kiB«d1 Wli«d ifcKHig, it to^Mf of dttgc Mtiun, and mrjr iK «risbiMg; wken old, Uae c«titMi3r te fl^nary napeot Taaacfelftiinliie i^/^kantinie the first JAm the fore-ifeot; yom ^U indn^aiAl kiMih, tfik ia a leV€t«t» wiuflh disapfeara as it gnyirs Mtrr: Aefi 'exaniitie tte Mrs; if they tear easily, it will eat tender; if they -are tough, so irfll be the bare, which we advise you to make into soup, or stew; o T jug it.

if ^Moperly talieii oare c^, batfas will keep a giNeat tine; and

efen wfaeo the odok jfatKiiea them past 'eating, may he in the

Ittgliett fieefection; MMch if eaten "M^heii ftesh-kilM they «m

HOC As cfoej^ met aauiAy piiniched hi the ield, %he coMc c«i«

not prevent this; but the hare keeps longer, and eats inudi

bettflT, if not ripened Sbt four or five days, or aooording to the

If pameliad, as se Hi as the hare eomes In, it shocdd lie wiped quite dry, the he«t and liver taken out, and the fiver scalded to keep for the stuffing. Rep^t this wiping every day; mix pepper and ginger, vndTub on the inside, and put a large ftiece of ohatooid into it. If Ihe spioe is applied eai4y, it will prevBiit ifcat ^musty tatfte^ wMdi long keepk^ in the damp ocoasiam, and mbkh dm affscu the ^tufBng.

An 4M have ahouM be k-ept as long as possible, if to be raiaiML Jtinattalao he well soaked.

7% roMt Bare.

Aftar It is tinned, let it be extremely well waslied, and Ihen soaked an hour or two in' water; and if old, lard it; which will make it tender, as also will letting it lie in vinegar. If, however, it is put into vinegar, it should l)e exceedingly well Washed in water afterwards. For stuffing use the liver, an aoehovy, eome fat bacon, a litde suet, herb^, pepper, salt, nutmeg, a'lfttle onion, crumbs of bread, and an egg to bind it sfi. Pm ^is stuffing into the belly, and then sew it up. iSome erder k to be well basted with milk till half done, and afterWards witii butter; others recommend small beer for basdng; bvt we beSeve dripping is better than any ttui^.

Ih22 DOMESTIC COOKERY.

If the blood has settled m the neck, soaking the part in wann wifter, atid potting it to the fire ii^mi, will remote it; especially if you also nick the skin here and there with a small knife to let it out The hare should be kept at a distance from the fire at first. Serve with a fine fix)th, rich gravy* mdted butter, and currant jelly sauce; the gravy in the dish.

The ears must be nicely cleaned and singed. They are reckoned a dainty.

Mock Sore,

Cut out the fillety that is, the inside lean of a sirloin of beef; leaving the fat, to roast with the jmnt. Prepare some nice stuffing, as directed for a hare. Put this on the beef, and roQ it up with the tape, put a skewer through it, and tie that on a spit.

If the beef is of a prime quality, has .been kept tiU thoroughly tender, and yon serve with it the, accompaniments that usually attend roast hare, the most fastidious palate will have no reason to regret that the game season is over.

7b juf^ Hare.

Let the hare hang a few days; and, when skinned, do not wash it, but wipe where necessary with a dean cloth. Cut it into pieces, season it high, and put it in a stone jar, or a jug, with half a pound of ham, or fine bacon, &t and lean together, aiz shalots, two onions, and some thyme^ parsley, savory, marjoram, lemon peel, mace» cloves^ and nutmeg. Let the whole of the meat be stewed with these well-mixed ingredients, pour over it half a pint of red wine, squeeae in the juice of a Seville orange, stop the vessel close down with a bladder or leather, and brown paper, and carefully place it in a pot of boil« ing water, deep enough to dress the meat, but not so high as for any of the water to boil into it. In this situation the jar or jug is to remain three or four hours, the water being kept m the boil all that time, and more added as it boils away. Then, taking out the hare, strain the liquor, skim off the €bX, a^ thicken it up for sauce with a little butter and flour. If, in the mean time, the hare should at all cool, put it again into the jug, with the thickened gravy, and set it in the pot of boilii^ water tDl quite hot, but by no means suffer it to boil. Serve it

I

I

I

i

rOCLTET AND OAJtB. 288

vp «8 hot as poaiibie, gamnhed with alioes of lemon and cm^ lant jellj. The krger pieces of hire are aometiince larded with booon. It ia obTioua that the name of jogged hare ia doiFod from its being dioa dressed in a jug or pitcher.

To jug Hare miotker wmf.

A madi easier^ quicker^ and more certain way of pro^ ceeding; than the foregoing, ia the following: Prepare tlie hare the aame aa for jugging, put it into a stew-pan, with a few sweet hevfos, half a dosen cloves, the same of allspice and Unck pepper, two large omonay and a roll of lemon peel: cover it with water; when it boUs, scum it dean, and let it simmer gently till tender, (about two hours,) then take it up with a aMoe, set it by the fire to keep hot whfle you thicken the gravy; take three ounces of butter, and some flour, rub together, put in the gravy, stir it well, and let it boil about ten minutes, strain it through a sieve, over the hare, and it ia ready.

Hodge-Podged Hare. This name, which generally signifies, in culinary language, a sort of jumble or confusion of ingredients, is a corruption of the old compound word hotch-potch. A hodge-podged hare is dressed in a jar or jug exactly after the manner of jugging: only that it is cut into small pieces, less spiced, and has neither ham, baoon, nor wine; but, instead of these articles, a lettuce, cucumbers, turnips, and celery. It is chiefly calculated for dressing a very old hare; which is usually suffered to remain five hours'surrounded bjr the boiling water.

To hash Hare.

Cut up the hare into pieces, fit to help at table, and divide the joints of the legs and shoulders, and set them by ready. Put the trimmings and gravy you have left, with half a pint of water, (there should be a pint of liquor,) and a table-apoonf ful of currant jelly, into a dean stew-pan, and let it boil gently for a quarter of an hour, then strain it through a sieve into a basin, and pour it back into the stew-pan; now flour the hare, put it into the gravy, and let it simmer very gently mi the hare is warm, (about twenty minutes,) cut the stuffing

into Men, bsiA pot it iift» tlie bash to get warn, aB mt timi ttilmites before you sei^e it; cttvide the bead, and laj oo* hatf on ea^ aida die diA.

To (rot/ Hare,

The jiavour of broiled bare is particalarly fine; tbe lego must be seasoned first, and broiled in the usual manner. Rub with cold butter, and serve very hot The other parts^ wanned #ith gravy, and a little stuffing, itiay be served separately.

To pot Hare. For this purpose an old one does well. After seasoning it, bake it with butter. When cold, take the mea,! firom the boHOii, and beat it in a mortar. If not high enough, add salt, mace^ )epper, and a piece of the finest fresh butter melted in a spoonful or two of the gravy that came from the hare. ^ When well mixed, put it into small pots, and cover with butter. The leg« and back should be baked at the bottom of the jar, to keep them moist, and the bones be put over them.

To roast a Leveret,

In general^ a leveret, or young hate, iaa(y be dressed Uko « hare that is full grown. Having stuffied it iu the usual manner, with the liver chopped up, spit it, and put it down o Iho fire; and while it is roastii^, alternately dredge it with fiour, and baste it well with warm milk, till it be three parts done, and there is a good crust formed: then finidi it with two or three ounces of fresh butter put into the dripping-pan; and serve it up, with gravy and melted butter over, and melted currant jelly in a sauce Hureen.

To roati Ratbit.

If youf fire is dear and sharp, thirty minutes wiH roast 4 yo«mf» and forty a fiill grown rabbit When you lay it down, tiasfte it with butter, and dredge it lightly and oarafuliy witih flow, Aat yon may have it frothy, and of a fine light brown. While tbe rabbit is toasting, boil its liver witb sqbm parsley; wlwn tander, diop them together, and put half the mixture into aome melted butter, reserving the other half fiw gaznial^

I

POVhVKY AHI OAMt. 225

ttvided into Httle Mllockt. Cut oflP^ the hc^l and lay half on ocfa side of the diah« Serve with the aame sauce aa for bare.

A large, well grown, (bat yoong) warren rabbit, kept some' lone after it hn been lulled^* and rohsted with a stuffing in ita belly, eata very like a hare, to thenature of which it approadiea.

It 18 nice nonrishing food when young, but hard and unwhole tome when old.

» * •

TohiU Rkbhit.

Truss your rabbits short, lay them in a basin of warm water for ten minutes; then put them into plenty of water, and boil them about half an hour; if large ones,\hree quarters; it very otd, an hour: smother them with plenty of white onion sauce; mince the liver, arid lay it round the dish, or make liver sauce, and send it up in a boat.

Itjwill save much trouble to the carver, if the rabbits be cut up in the kitchen, into pieces fit to help at table, and the head divided^ and one half laid at each end. Lay slices of lemon, and the liVer chopped very finely, on the sides of the dish.

To fry Rabbit.

Cut the rabbit up, and flour it well; put a little clean drippTng into the frying-pan; when hot, put in the rabbit, and fry it of a nice brown; put about an ounce of butter on a dish, a little chopped sbalot, and a little catsup; then the rabbit.

To fricassee Rabbits, white.

' To fricassee rabbits white, you must cut them up as for eating, and then put them into a stew-pan, with a pint of veal gravy, a little beaten mace, a slice of lemon, an anchovy, a tea-spoonful of lemon pickle, a little Cayenne pepper, and salt. Let them stew over a gentle fire till they *are enough; then take them out» and lay them in your dish. Thicken the gravy with butter and flour; then strain it, and add the yolka of two eggs, mixed with a gill of thick cream^ and a little grated nutmeg. Stir these well together, and when it begina to simmer, poor it quite hot over your rabbita, and serve them to table.

8 2 G

²6 DOMRSTIC COOKBRY.

To fricassee RaibbiUp brown.

. Cut them into pieces as before directed, and fry them io batter of a light brown. Then put them into a stew-pan, with a pint of water, a slice of lemon, an anchovy, a large spoonful of browning, the same of catsup, a tea-spoonful of leoMHi pickle, and a little Cayenne pepper and salt. Stew them over a slow fire till they are enough; then thicken your gravy with butter and flour, and strain it. Dish up your rabbits, and pour the gravy over them. Garnish with sliced lemon.

To pot Rabbits.

Cut up two or three young, but full grown ones, and take the leg-bones off at the thigh; pack them as closely as possible in a small pan, after seasoning them with pepper, maoe, cayenne, salt, and allspice, all in very fine powder. Make the top as smooth as you can. Keep out the heads and the carcases, but take off the meat about the neck. Pat a good deal of butter, and bake the whole gently. Keep it two days in the pan; then shift it into small pots, adding batter. The livers also should be added, as they eat well.

To blanch Rabbit, Fowls, Sfc.

. This is to set it on the fire in a small quantity of cold water, and let it boil: as soon as it boils, it b to be taken out, and put into cold water for a few minutes.

BROTHS, SOUPS, GRAVIES, AND SAUCES.

General Observations and Directions*

ri/HE cook must pay continual attention to the condition of her stew-pans and soup-kettles, &c. which should be   T^^¦t^^t^ed every time they are used. Their covers also must be kept perfectly clean, and well tinned; and the stew-pans not only on the inside, but about a couple of inches on the outside: many mischiefs arise firom their getting out of repair; and if not kept

BROTHS, SOUPS, ORAYIB8, AND SAUCES. 227

nieely tinned, all your good work will be in vain; the broths azul soups will look green and dirty, taste bitter and poisonous, and will be spoiled both for the eye and palate.

Xak.e care to be properly provided with sieves and tammts clodiSy spoons, and ladles: make it a rule, without an except tion^ never to use them till they are well cleaned and thoroughly dried, nor any stew-pans, &c. without first washing them oat with boiling water, and rubbing them well with a dry doth and a little bran, to dean them from grease, sand, &c* or any bad smell they may have got since they were last used. Never put by any soup, gravy, &c. in a metal utensil; in which » never keep any thing longer than is absolutely necessary for the purposes of cookery; the acid, vegetables, and (at, Arc employed in making them, are capable of dissolving them; therefore stone or earthen vessels should be used for this parpose.

Stew-pans and sauce-pans should be always bright on the npper rim, where the fire does not bum them: but to scour thetn all over, is not only giving the cook needless trouble, but wearing out the vessels.

Lean juicy beef, mutton, or veal, form the basis of broth: procure those pieces which afford the most and the richest succulence, and as fresh killed as possible.

In general, it has been considered the best economy to use the cheapest and most inferior meats for soup, &c. and to boil it down till it is entirely destroyed, and hardly worth putting into the hog-tub. This is a false frugality. Buy good pieces of meat, and only stew them till they are done enough to be eaten. Stale meat will make your broth grouty and bad tasted, and fat meat is only wasted. This only applies to those broths which are required to be perfectly clear. Immediately follow*ing these observations, will be given Dr. Kitchiner'a receipt to make a cheap and highly nutritious barley broth, by which it wil\ appear that fat and clarified drippings may be so combined with vegetable mucilage, as to afford, at the small cost of one penny per quart, a nourishing and palatable soup, fully adequate to satisfy appetite, and support strength: this will open a new source to thos^ benevolent housekeepers, who are disposed to relieve 'IHe poor, ^nd ' will show the industrious classes htow much tnejr have it 'in their power to assist them*



f2B . DOMESTIC CQOKERY.

^IveSy and rescue .tfiem from b^n^ objepts of charity € epeiulent on the precarious boupty of others, by teaching them how they may obtain a cheap, abundant, salubrious, and agreeable aliment for themselves and families.

This soup has the advantage of being very easily and very soon roade^ with no more fuel than is necessary to warm a room: those who have not tasted it, cannot imagine what a salubrious, savoury, and satisfying meal is produced by the Judicious combination of cheap homely ingrec^ients.

The art of composing a ridi spup is so to proportion th^ /several ingredients one ta another, that no particular taste be stronger than thi^ rest; but to produce such a fine harmonious relish, that the whole is delightful, this requires that judicious combination of the materials which constitutes the chef-d'auvr^ 4 f ci^linafy science.

In the first place, take care that the roots and herbs be perfectly well cleaned; proportion the water to the quantity of meat, and othe^ ingredients, generally a pound of meat tp H quai't of water, for soups; and double that quantity for gravies. If they stew gently, little more water need be put in' at first, than is expected at the end; for when the pot is covered quite close, and the fire gentle, very little is wasted.

Gentle stewing is incomparably the best, - the meat is mor^ tender, and the soup better flavoured.

It is of the first importance, that the cover of a soup kettle should fit very close, or the broth will evaporate before you are aware of it The most essential parts are soon evaporated J[ y quick, boiling, without any benefit, except to fiitten the for* tunate cook who inhales them.

It is not only the fibres of the meat which nourish us, but jtbc juices they contain; and these are not only extracted, but exhaled, if it be boiled fast in an open vessel: a succulent soup can never be made but in a well closed vessel, which preserves )he nutritive parts by preventing their dissipation. This is a &ct of which every intelligent person will soon perceive th0 impprtance.

Place your soup-pot over a moderate fire, which will make the water hot, without causing it to boil, for at least half an hoiir; if the water boils immediately, it will not penetrate the meat, and cleanse it from the clotted blood, and other matters

BBOTH8« SPIFFS, G lAyiES AN D SAUCES.

rludi ought togooff i^^cum; ^hetioeail will be liaidtfned aU pver by violent heat, will ^hrii^k up as if it was acotdbtd, and give hardly any gravy; on the contrary^ by keeping the waler a certain time heating without boiling, the meat swells^ becomes tender, its fibres are dilated, end it yields a quantity of scum, which .mui^t be taken off as soon as it appears.

It is not till after a good half hoiir's hot infbsion, that we nay mend the fire, and make the pot boU: still continue to re* move the scum, and when no more appears, put in the vegetables^ &c. and a little salt. These viU cause more scum to rise, which must be taken off immediivtely; then cover the pot very closely, and place it at a proper distance ^m th^ fire« where it wiU boil very gently fmd equally, and by tio xi\$ans fast

By quick and strong bpiling, the volatile and .finest patta of the ingredients are eyapairated, and fly off with the steam, aad the coarser parts are rend^ed soluble; so you lose the good, and get the bad.

Soups will generally take from three to six houts. Prepare your b rotbs and soups the evening before you want them. This will give you more time to attend to the rest of your dinner the next day; ^ud when the soup is cold, the fat may be much more easily and completely removed from the surface of it. When you decant it, take cai'e not to disturb the settlings at the bottom of the vessel, which .are so fine, that they will escape through a sieve, or even through a tammis, which is the best strainer - the soups appear smoother and finer- and it is much easier cleaned than any sieve.. If you strain it while it is i^t, pass it through a dean tammis or napkin previa* ously soaked in cold water; the coldness of this will coagu « late the fat, and only suffer the pure broth to pass through.

Clear soups must be perfectly transparent, thickened soups about the consistence of rich cream; and remember that thick^i ened soups require nearly doable the quantity of seasoning* The piquance of spice, &c. is blunted by the flour and butter; so they are less salubrious, without being more savoury, from the additional quantity of spice, &c. that is smuggled into the stomach.

To thicken and give body to soups and sauces, there are various miiterials used. Clarified butter is best fin* this puv*

230 DOMESTIC COOKERY.

pose; but if you have none ready, put some firesh butter into a stew-pan over a slow dear 6re; when it is melted, add fine flour sufficient to make it the thickness of paste; stir it well together with a wooden spoon for fifteen or twenty minutes, till it is quite smooth, and the colour of a guinea: this must be done very gradually and patiently; if you put it over too fierce a fire to hurry it, it will become bitter and empyreumatic; pour it into an earthen pan, and keep it for use. - It will keep good a fortnight in summer, and longer in winter. A large spoonful will generally be enough to thicken a quart of gravy. Be particularly attentive in making of it; if it gets any burnt smell or taste, it will spoil every thing it is put into. When cold, it should be thick enough to cut out with a knife, like a solid paste. It is a very essential article in the kitchen, and is the basis of consistency in roost made dishes, soups, sauces, and ragouts: if the gravies, &c. are too thin, add this thickening, more or less, according to the consistence you would wish them to have. It must be gradually mixed with the soup, till thoroughly incorporated with it; and it should have, at least, half an hour's gentle simmering after: if it is at all himpy, pass it through a tammis or a fine sievew

To their very rich gravies, &c. the French add the white meat of partridges, pigeons, or fowls, pounded to a pulp, and rubbed through a sieve. A piece of beef, which has been boiled to make broth, pounded in the like manner, with a bit of butter and flour, and gradually incorporated with the gravy or soup, will be found a satisfactory substitute for these more expensive articles.

If soup is too thin or too weak, take off the cover of your soup-pot, and let it boil till some of the watery part of it has evaporated; or else, add some of the thickening we have before mentioned; and have at hand some plain browning. This simple preparation is much better than any of the compounds bearing that name, as it colours sauce or. soup, without much interfering with its flavour, and is a much better way of colouring them than burning the surface of the meat.

When soups and gravies are kept from day to day, in hot weather, they should be warmed up every day, and put into fresh scalded tureens, or pans, and placed in a cool cellar; in temperate weather, every other day nay be enough.

BROTHS, 9017F9, ORAVIBB, AMD SAUCES. 231

Let your sauces each display a decided character; send up jour plain sauces (oyster, lobster, &c) as pure as possible; they should only taste of the materiak firom which they take their name.

The imagination of most cooks is so incessantly on the hunt for a relish, that they seem to think they cannot make sauce sufficiently savoury, without putting into it every thing that ever was eaten; and supposing every addition must be an improvement, they frequently overpower the natural flavour of their plain sauces, by overloading them with salt and spices, &c. But, remember, these will be deteriorated by any addition, save only just salt enough to awaken the palate.

On the contrary, of compound sauces, the ingredients should be so nicely proportioned, that no one be predominant; so that, firom the equal union of the combined flavours, such a fine mellow mixture is produced, whose very novelty cannot fiul of being acceptable to the persevering gauntumd, if it has not pretensions to a permanent place at his table.

Why have we dove and allspice, or mace and nutmeg, in the same sauce 1 or marjoram, thyme, and savory 1 or onions, leeks, eshalots and garlic ? One will very well supply the place of the other, and the frugal cook may save something considerable by attending to this, to the advantage of her employers, and her own time and trouble.

Send your sauces to table as hot as possible. Nothing need be more unsightly, than the surface of a sauce in a frosen state, or garnished with grease on the top; the best way to get rid of this, is to pass it through a tammis or napkin previ« ously soaked in cold water, the coldness of the napkin will coagulate the fat^ and only suffer the pure gravy to pass through: if any particles of fat remain, take them off by applying filtering paper, as blotting paper is applied to ink.

Let your sauces boil up after you put in wine, anchovy, or thickening, that their flavours may be well blended witii the other ingredients; and keep in mind, that the ckef -Venture of cookery, is to entertain the mouth without offending the stomach. The cook*s judgment must direct her to lessen or increase either of the ingredients, according to the taste of those she works for, and will always be on the akrt to ascertain what ass she.fitvourite accompaniments desired with eadi dish.

232- DOMBSTtC COiOltSltTk

A clesr jdijr of eow-heete if very usefal to keep in the bpfue^ being a ^peaCinft(nr6v«tiien't to iroaps and gravies. TniC ^. flei itnd morel^ thicken Maps dttd ftauees/ and give them a fine flavour. Wash half an ounce of each carefully, tb^tt sininier' them ' » few miniites'ln lifter; Paid addfthdii with the liquor, Uf boil inthe' bokcb, &e tilt ttoder. *

W« hope Mft hare notir put tfae^dHAMott cook into pbsse^on ' of the whole attansoi sOup making; &c. without muchtrou*blertd hers^lf^ orexpen^ t6^ her eiiftployers; and that it wiH not* be eaid, in ftfture, thkt an' EtigltrtimiAn oidy knbwft how-to make soup in' his stomach, by shilling down a large quantity of'ale, or porter, to quench the thirst occlisioned by the meat he eats: J6h% BuU may now make hts soup "see^nikm artem, and 'save his principal viscera a gi%at' 9eal of trouble;

I conclude these remai^cs With obkrving^ that some per ^ sons imagine that sotip tends to relax the stomach: so far from being pnejadicial, we consider the moderate use of such liquid nourishment to- be highly sahitary. Does not our food and drink^' even though c6td, become in a few 'minutes a kind oF w«in soup in the stomach? and, therefore, soup, if not eaten t^O hot,' or' in t6o great a quantity, and of proper quality, is attended'withgrdftt advantages/ espieci^ly to those who drink* but Utde.

Warm fluids, in the form of soup, unite with oui' juices much sooner^ imd- better, thttn those thaf are c6ld and raw; on this account ' re^tdratTve sdup is the best food for those who are ' enfeebled by disease br dissipation, and for old people, whose teeth and 'digestive organs are impaired.

After catching cold, in nervous headachs^ colics^ indigestions, and'different kinds of cramps and spksms in the stomach, warm broth is of excellent service. '

VROTHS AKD SCHT'PS.

Dr» Kitchinefs Receipt to make Barley Bf^th,

. Put four ounces of Scotch barley, (previously wash.ed in Qpld water) and- four ounces of sliced onions, into five quarto of water; boil gently for one hour, and pour it into a pan; then put into the sauce-pan from one to two ounces of dean beef or mutton drippings, clarified or melted suet; or two or

BROTHS, SOUPS, aRAYIJBS, AND SAUCB8. 939

I

tjate mametM £ Ux hwum tnuMMd; when melltd, iAt in 4 it fiiBroiiDoesof oatpiMMlj r«b these together CiU yMmekea paste^ (if this be properly uMiieged, the wh^le^of the. fat «riUtM)inbiiMi with the .barley broth, and not a particle iqppaar 60 the Inr^ 6oe to ofoid the iqest delicate stmach,) now add the btfrley broth, at first a spoonful at a time, then the rest by d^grees^ stirring it well together tf U it faoilk .To season it, ¦ put a dram of finely pounded celery, or enesascedi (er half « dram of eaeh,) and a quarter of a Aram ef finely pounded cayenne, or a dnna and a half of groand black pepper, or allspice, into a tea*cupy and mix it op with a little of the soup, and then pour it into the vest, stir it thoroughly together, let it simmer gently a quarter of an hour longer, season it with salt, and it is ready;

The flavour may be vari^ by doubling the portion of onions, or adding a djove ol gariic or eschalot, and leaving oat the celery seed.

It will be much improved, if, instosd of water,, it be mad* with the liquor ineat has been boiled in: at tripe, eow«heel,an4 cook shops, this may be had for little or nothing.

If the generally received opinion be true, that, animal and v q;etable foods afford nourtahment in ptoportion to the quantity of oi\, jelly, and mucilage, that can be extracted finNntheoi, this soup has strong daims to the attention of rational eoono* mists.

Btrf Bvtk.

YTash a leg or a shin of beef very dean, cnek the bone, in two or three places, (this yon should desire the butoher to do for you,) add thereto any trimmings .yo«i have of meat, game, or poultry, (l«f, heads, necks, gisaards, feet, drc.) and doveir them with cold water; watch and stir it up will firom the bottom, and the moment it b^ns to simmer, skim it care«^ fnlly; your beoth must be perfectly dear and limpid; then add some cold water, to make the remaining scum riie, and' skim it again; when the scum has done rising, and the snrfiice of the broth is quite dmr, put in one moderate* [ aiaed carrot, a head of celery, two turnips, and two onions.

It should not have-any taste of sweet herbs, spice, or garlic, &c Either of these flavours can easily be added immediately after, if desired.' -^Cover it dose, set it by the side of the tpte^

f. 9 «H

2S4 DOMESTIC COOKBAT.

and kt it simmer very gently (so as not to waste the brodi) for four or five hours, or more, according to the weight of the neat: straift it dmmgh a sieve into a dean and dry stone pan^ «id set it in the cx ldest place you have.

This is the foundation for all sorts of soups and sauces, brown or white.

Stew no longer than the meat is thoroughly done to eat, and you will obtain excellent brodi/ without depriving the meat of its nutritious succnlenpe: to boil it to ri^s, as is the common practice, will not enrich your broths, but make them thick and grouty.

The meat, when gently stewed for only four or five hours till it is just tender, remains abundantly sapid and nourishing, and will afford a relishing and wholesome meal for half a dozen people; or when yon have strained off the broth, cover the meat again with water, and let it go on boiling for four hours longer, and make what smne cooks call second iiock: it will produce some very good glaze, or portaUe soup*

*

Veal Broth.

Stew a knuckle of veal in about a gallon of water, put in two ounces of rice or vermicelli, a little salt, and a blade of mace* When the meat is thoroughly boiled, and the liqufH* fieduced to about one half, it will be very good, and fit for use.

Mutton Broth*

Take two pounds of scrag of mutton; to take the blood out, ' put it into a stew-pan, and cover it with cold water; when the water becomes milk warm, pour it off, skim it well, then put it in again, with four or five pints of water, a te^-spoonflil oi salt, a taUe-spoonful of best grits, and an onion; set it on % slow fire, and whep you have taken all the scum off, put in two ix three turnips, let it simmer very slowly for two hours, and strain it through a clean sieve.

You may thicken it, by boiling widi it a little oatmeal, Dce, Scotch,, or pearl barley.

Scotch Mutton Broth*f

Soak a nedc of mutton in water Ibr an hour; out dff die f^ng, and put it into a steWf pot with two quarts of water.

BROTHS, SOUPS, ORAVIBS, AND SAUCES. 386

As soon as it boils, skim it well, and then simmer it an hour tnd a half; then take the best end of the mutton, cut it into pieoes, (two bones in each,) take some of the fat oil, and pot as many as you think proper: skim the moment the fresh meat boils up, and every quarter 6£ an hour afterwards. Have ready four or five carrots, the same number of turnips, and duee onions, all cut, but not small; and put them in soon enoQf h to get quite tender: add four large spoonfuls of Scotch barley, first wetted with cold water. The meat should stew three hours. Salt to taste, and serve all together. Twenty minutes before serving, put in some chopped parsley. It is an excdlent winter dish.

Scotch Barley Broth*

Wash three quarters of a pound of Scotch barley in a little eold water, put it in a soup pot, with a shin or leg of beef, or a knuckle of veal of about ten pounds weight, sawed into four pieces, (tell the butcher to do this for you,) cover it well with cold water, set it on the fire; when it boils, skim it veiy clean and put in two onions of about three ounces weight each, set it by the side of the fire to simuier very gently about two hours; then skim all the fat clean ofi^, and put in two heads of celery, and a large turnip cut into small squares; season it with salt, and let it boil an hour and a half longer, and it is ready: takeout the meat (carefully with a slice, and cover it up, and set it by the fire to keep warm:) and scum the broth well before you put it in the tureen.

If it is- made the evening before the soup is wanted, and suffered tp stand till it is cold, much fat may be removed from the surface of the soup, which is, when clarified, used for all the purposes that drippings are applied to.

Chicken Broth. ^

Skin a large old fowl, cut off the fiit, break the fowl to pieces, and put it into two quarts of water, with a good crust of. bread, and a blade of mace. Let it boil gently five or six hours: then pour off all the liquor, put a quart more boiling water to it, and cover it close; let it boil softly till it is good, then strain it off, and season it with a little salt. In the meantime boil a chieken, and save the liquor; and when the flesh is

286 DOMESTIC COOKBRT.

eat, take the bones, break them, and put them in the liquor in which you boiled the chicken, with a blade of mace, and a cruH of bread. When the juice of the bones is extracted^, strain it off, mix it with the other liquoc, and send it ta tahlej

Spring Br0th,

Take a crust of breads and about a quarter of a pound a^ &esh butter; put them into a soup-pot, or stew*pan, with » good quantity ef herbs, a& beat, sorrel, dienri!, lettuce, leeks, and piirslain, all washed dean, and coarsely dbopped. Put ta them a quart of waterr-aud let them stew till it is reduced to one half, when it will be fit for use. This is an excellent puri* fier of the blood.

Knuckle cf Fm/, or Shin or Leg of Buf, Soup.

A knuckle of veal, of six pounds weight, will make a Isige tureen of excellent soup, and is thus easily prepared:• Cut half a pound of bacon into slices about half an inch thick,, lay it at the bottom of a soup kettle, or de^ stew-pan, and on this place the knuckle of veal, having first chopped the bone in two or three places; furnish it with two carrots,, two turnips, a^ head of celery, two large onions, with two or three doves stuck in one of them, adoxen eoms of black, and the same of Jamaica pepper, and a good bundle of lemon thyme, winter savory, and parsley. Just cover the meat with cold water, and set it over a quick fire till it boils; having skimmed it weU, remove your soup kettle to the side of the fire, let it stew very 0mtly till it is quite tender, t. f. about four houn; then take out the bacon ahd veal, strain the soup, and set it by in a ^ cool place till you want it, when you must take off the fiit from the surface of your liquor, and decant it (keeping backthe settlings at the lMBp°^) into a dean pan.

If you like a thiclened soup, put tiiree table-spoonfuls of the &t you have taken off the soup into a small stew-pan, and mix it with 'four table-spoonfuls Qf flour, pour a ladlefid of soup to it, and mix it with the rest by degvees, and boii it* up till it is smooth. Cut the meat and gristle of the knucUe and bacon into mouthfuls, and put them into the soup^ and let them get warm.

You may make this more savoury by adding catsup.

BROTHS* 80UP9 ORAYIBS^ AND SAUCES. d8T

Ckar GrM^ Skmg.

Cat hdf « pound of ham into slices, and lay them at the bottom of a large stew-pan, or stock-pot, with two or three^ poonds of lean beef, and as mudi veal; break the bones, and laj them on the meat, take off the outer skin of two harge niioB8, and two turnips; wash, dean, and cut into pieces a doupleof large carrots, and two heads of celery; and put in three dores and a large bladie of mace: cover the stew-pan dose, and set it over a smart fire; when the meat begins to itdA to the bottom of the stew-pan, turn it; and when there ii a nioe lMY wn glase at the bottom of the stew-pan, cover the neat with hot water: watch it,iiind when it is coming to a boil, put in half a pint of cold water, take off the scum, then put in half a pint more cold water, and skim it again, and continue to do so till no more scum rises. Now set it on one side of die fire, to boil gently for about four hours; strain it through a clean tammis, or napkin, (do not squeese it, or the soup will be thick,) into a clean stone pan, let it remain till it is cold, and then remove all the fat; when you decant it, be care fid not to disturb the settlings at the bottom of the pan.

The broth should be of a fine amber colour, and as dearas radc water; if it is not so bright 9B you wish it, put it into a stew-puB; break two whites and shells of eggs into a basin, beat them wdl togedier, put them into the soup, set it on a quick fire, and stir it widi a whisk tilt it boils; then set it on one side of the fire, to settle for ten minutes, run it through a fine napkin into a basin, and it is ready. However, if your broth be carefblly skimmed, &c. according to the directions above given, it will be clear enough without clarifying, which process impairs the fiavpur of it, in a higher proportion than it improves its appearance.

ft

Scotch Soup, or Winter Hoteh Patch.

Take the best end of a neck or loin of muttonj^ cut it into neat chops, cut four carrots and as many turnips into slices, put on four quarts of water with half the carrots and turnips, and a whole one of each, with a pound of dried green peas, which must be put to soak the night before, let it boil two. hours, then take out the whole carrot and turnip, bruise and return them; put in the meat, and the rest of die carrot and'

³8 DOMESTIC COOKBRY.

turnip, 9ome pepper and salt, and boil slowly three qaarters of an hour; a short time before serving add an onion cut smiall, and a head of celery.

An exctUent Soup.

Take a 8crag or knuckle of veal, slices of undressed gam-* mon of bacon, onions, mace, and a small quantity of water; simmer till very strong; and lower it with a good beef-faroth made the day before, and stewed till the meat is done to rags* Add cream, vermicelli, and almonds, as will be directed in th« next receipt, ^ndaroll.

4

An excellent white Soup.

Take a scrag of mutton, a knuckle of veal, after cutting off as much meat as will make collops, two or three shank-bones of mutton nicely cleaned, and a quarter of a pound of very fine undrest lean gammon of bacon, with a bundi of sweet herbs, a piece of fresh lemon peel, two or three onions, three blades of mace, and a dessert-spoonful of white pepper; boil all in. three quarts of water, till the meat fidls quite to pieces. Next day take off the fat, clear the jdly from the sediment, and put it into a sauce-pan of the nicest tin. If macaroni is used, it should be added soon enough to get perfectly tender, after soaking in cold water. Vermicelli may be added after' the thickening, as it requires less time to do., Have ready the thickening, which is to be made as follows:

Blanch a quarter of a pound of sweet almonds, and beat them to a paste in a marble mortar, with a spoonful of water to prevent their oiling; mince a large slice of drest veal or diicken, and beat it with a piece of stale white bread; add all this to a pint of thick cream, a bit of thick lemon peel, and a blade of mace, in the finest powder. Boil it a few minutes; add to it a pint of soup, and strain and pulp it through a coarse sieve: this thickening is then fit for putting to the rest^ which should boil for half an hour afterwards.

A plainer white Soup.

Two or three pints of soup may be made of a small knuckle of veal, with seasoning as directed in the last article; and both served together, with the addition of a quarter of a pint

BROTHS, BOVn, GRAVISS, AND SAUCS8. 2d9

e£ good milk. Two tpoonftils of creain^ and a littie groand tiee, will give it a proper thickness.

¦

Samp Maiffre AugUii, mr Broth wHkout Mrtfl.

Boil a small quantttj of catsup in a very thin gruel, with a few strewed leaves of parslej, and a little salt. By this method alone, it is said, an ingenioas cook long deceived a whole family, who were all fond of weak mutton broth. The &ct is, that the mushroom, more than any other vegetable aabstance, perhaps, approaches the nature and flavour of whole* some animal flesh. Walnut liquor, which is frequently sub* stiiuted iix catsiip, will by no means answer this purpose.

«

Flemish Soup.

Fed and slice twelve potatoes, and about half a dozeii oQiona; and cut dx or eight heads of celery into small pieces'. Pat diem into a stew-pan with a quarter of a pound of butter, and somewhat less than a pint of water, and let it boil very alowly, for an hour, ovef a stove. Fill the stew-pan up with ?cal stock, or good broth or gravy; and having boiled it till the potatoes are dissolved, rub it through a sieve, add a pint of cream, and keep it hot in a small soup pot till served up. In* deed all white soups should be warmed by putting the soup pot into boiling water. This is a good maigre soup, only by 8ub« stitnting more water for the stock or gravy.

Carrot Saup»

Scrape and wash half a dozen large carrots, peel off the red outside (which is the only part that should be used for this soup;) put It into a gallon stew-pan, with one head of celery", and an onion, cut into thin pieces; take two quarts of beef, veal, or mutton broth, or if you have an^ cold roast beef bones, (or liquor, in which mutton or beef has been boiled,) yoo may make very good broth for this soup: when you have put the broth to the roots, coVer the stew*pan close, and set it on a slow stove for two hours and a half, when the carrots will be soft enough, (some cooks put in a tea-cupfnrof breadcrumbs,) boil for two or three minutes, rub it through a tarnflois, or hair sieve, with a wooden spoon, and add as much broth as will make it a proper thickness, i • e. almost as thick a*

MO 1»OM SSTIG -COOKBRY*

peaasoup: pat it into a de«n steir^pan, make it liot, aeaioii it with a little salt, and send it up with aome toaated bread,. ntl into pieces, half an inch square. Some pat it into the soap; bat the best waj is to send it up on a i3ate, as a side-didi.

TtiTJit^ Soup.

Take off a knuckle of veal all the meat that can be made into cutlets. Sec, and set the remainder on to stew with m» onion, a bunch, of herbs, a blade of mace, and five pints of water; cover it close; and let it do on a slow fire, fear or fiye hours at least. Strain it, and set it bj till nei^t day; then take the fiit and sediment from it, and simmer it with tumipa cut into small dice till tender, seasoning it with salt and pepper. Before serving, rub down lialf a i ioonlul of fiour with half a pint of good cream, and the sise of a walnut of bntter. Let a small roll simmer in the aoup till wet through, and serve this with it. It should be as thick as middling creanu Ceiery Soup,

Split half a doaen heads of celery into slips about two indies long, wash them well, lay them on a hair sieve to drain, and put them into three quarts of a clear gravy soap, in a galloQ soup pot; set it by the side of the fire, to stew very gently tiU the celery is, tender; (this will take abont an hoar») If any scum rises, take it off, season with a little salt.

When celery cannot be procured, half a dram of the seed« pounded fine, which may be considered as the essence of celery* (costs only one-third of a farthing, and can be had at any season,} put in a quarter of an hour before the soup ia done, will give as much flavour to half a gallon of aoup, as two heads of celery, weighing seven ounces, and costing fUL

Maigre, or Vegetable Gravy Soup* Put in a gallon stew-pan three ounces of butter, set it over a slow fire: while it is melting, slice four ounces of onion; cut in small pieces, one turnip, one carrot, and one head of cdery, ptfl them in the stew-pan, cover it close, let it fry till they are browned; this irill take about twenty-five minatea: have ready in a sauce-pan a pint of peas, with four quarts of water; when the roots in the stew-pan are quite biown, and

BROTHS, SOtJM, ORATllt, AND SAUCES. Ml

Ae-peas oone to a boil, pat the peas and water to' them, pat it cm the fire, when it boils, scum it clean, and put in a crust of bread about aa big as the top of a two-penny loaf, twenty-four berries of aUspice, the same of blade pepper, and two blades of maee; cover it cloae; let*itamnier gently for one hour and h hd£i then set it from the fire for ten minutes, . then pour it eff very gently (so as not to disturb the sediment at the bot« torn of the sfeew-pan) into a large basin, let it stttid (about two Immts) till'it k quite dear.: while this is doing, shred one largo turnip, the red part of a laige carrot, three ounces of onion minced, and one large head of celery cut into small bits; put the turnips and carrots on the fire in cold water, let them boil five minutes, then dram them on a sieve; then pour off the wrap dear into a stew-pan, put in the roots, put the soup on Ae fire, let it simmer gently till- tbe herbs are tender, from thirty to forty minutes, seas^Mi it with ealt and a little cayeBoe, fl&ditisready«

Yon may add a table^poonful of mushroom eatsop*

Vigttakk Saup9 motftcr jtwy.

Fed' and sMce six large onions,- six potatoes,' sije carrots^ and fbor turnips; fry them in half a pound of butter, and pour o» them four quarts of boiling water. Toast a crust ^ bread as brown and hard as possible, but do not bum it; put that, some eelery, sweet herbs, white pepper, and sak» to the above; slew it all gently four hours, then strain it throo^ a coarse doth: have ready sliced carrot, celery^ and a little turnips and add to your liking: and stew them tender in the soup. If ap*

proved, you may add an anchovy, and a spoonful of -catsup.



SpinackSomp*

Shred two handfuls of spinach^ a turnip^ two onions, a head of odery, two carrots, and a little thyme and parsley. Put all Itato a stew-pot, with a bit of butter the size of a walnut, anda pint of broth, or the water in which meat has been boiled; stew till the vegetables are quite tender; work them through a coarse cloth or sieve with a spoon; then to the pulp of the vegetables, and liquor, put a quart of fresh water, pepper, and •alt, and boil all together. Have ready some suet dumplings; Ae site of a wdnut; and before yon put the soup into the luieen, 9 Si

t

249 DOMBSTIO COOKBRT*

put them into it. The suet must not be dired too fine: aad take care thltt it i$ quite fresh.

Scotch Jjcek Soup.

Put the water that haa.boiled a leg of mutton into a stewpot, with a quantity of chopped leeks, aod pef^per 4nd salt; shntoer them an hour; then mix some oatmeal with a little cold water quite tanooth^ pour it into the soup, set it on a slow part of the fire, and let it simmer gently; but take care that ttdoe« not burn to the bottom.

,. Peas Soup.

' The. common. way. of maUog pebs soup^is, to a quart of split peas pat three quarts of: Cold soft water, not more, with half a. pound of bacon, (not very £it,) or roast beef bones, or four anchovies: or instead of the water, three quarts of the liquor in which beef» mutton, pork, or poultry, has been boiled, .tasting it first, to make sure it is not too salt. .

If the liquor is very salt, the peas will never boil tender. Therefore, when yon miake peas soup with the liquor in which ialted pork or beef has been boiled, tie np the peas in a doth, and IxhI them first for an hour in soft water.

Wash two hei^ of celery, cut it, and put it in, with two onions peeled, and a sprig of savory, or sweet maijoram, or lemon thyfipe; set it on the trivet, and let it simmer very gently over a slow fire, sirring it every quarter of an hour (to keep the peas from sticking to and burning at the bottom of the souprpot,) till the peas are tender^ which will be in about three hours. Some cooks now slice a head of celery, and half an ounce of onions, and fry them in a little butter, and put them into the soup, till they are lightly browned, then work the whole * through a coarse hair sieve, or (what is better) through a tammis, with the back of a wooden spoon: put it into f clean stew-pan^ with half a tea*spoonful of ground black pepper, let it boil again for ten minutes, and if aoy fat arises, skim it off.

Send up on a plate, toasted bread cut into little pieces a quarter of an inch square, or cut a slice of bread (that has been baked two days) into dice not more than half an inch square: put half a pound of clean drippings or lard into

^

BROTHS, hOVtS, 0BAVIE8, AND SAUCES. lM

aoi iron (Vying-pftii; when it it Jiot^ fry the bread; talie car«

mUL turn it about witb a fljioe, or by shaking lf the pan. sa it

ia firying, that it inay-be oi) each side of a ddicate li^t' brown j

take it up witb a-fiab^tlice, gad ky it «» a iheelf of ^per, Ui

4Wmi tbe&t: becareAf} that thSs is done nicely: send ttieaa

«p ifli one side disb^and;driediandpo«dtwd minior s^ror^f o^

reet ouDJbniBl, Ac;'in anMhen ., •;: . .

The mbtt' eaoiloniieal 'nietliod' of making peoi soup, is.tii

the bones'of « joint of roast beef/ and pot tbeui into ther

Hqaor in whidi motion/ bee^ pork, or poultry, has been boU cd^ and proceed as above. A hock, or shank bone' of. ham, m

bam bone, the root of a tongue, or a red or pickled herring,

are favourite additions -with some cooks; others send up rice,

nr yemiicelli, with peas ioup.

Green Peas Soup.

There are many methods of making soup with green peas;' but most of them are combinations ^ so many articles, and have so little of the pea flavour, that they seem scarcely entitled to this distinguishing name. Those who approve the ri«di4r and more eoaftplex modes, may stew peas in their favour** ite soup of any kind, and thus readily obtain dieir wish. The blowing, however, will be found an ezoelient, plain, and unezpensive family method: Having shelled half a peck of fine green peas, boil the well^washed shells, till very sof^ in three quarts of water, with an oiiion, some pepper and aiU spice, a bunch of mint and other herbs, and another of part sley, and strain off the liquor: t^en boil the peas in a quart at water, with a little sugar; and, beating the strained liquor, add that also. In the mean time, haviihg chopped all the par* dey and green herbs small, and fried them with a quarter of a pound of butter, and a little flour and salt, add them to the soup, with another quarter of a pound of butter rolled in flour; let them boil three quarters of an hour, season to palate^ and serve it up in a tureen, with thin slices or sippets of bread, dried before the fire, but not toasted or browned, placed on a plate. French roll is still better than bread. If a fine colour b^ desired, add half a pint of spinach juice just before.taking be soup; but it must not be afterward suffered to boil.

M4 ] OMBBTIC eOOSJUlT.

' .Greiu Peas Satgf,' miktmi Afccl.

T«ke aqteiBt of graen pe&a^' 0^^ ^^^ ^f^ a.pint of Ibe yoongttt* boil theni '^epkoMy, rtnd put ibem.jn the soup wkem it ia fiois^ed^) pdt tbcn oh in' tioHing ir«ter .boB tlwiiiitoiider,' aodthm pour bff^the^inter and ieetit'bjtonakdth^ put th0 peaa tnio. a «ioi?Ur, aadikmiid Ithom feo a ttaaslL . Tbcii put them in two quarts of the waler foar BoiM- the peat in, atir all well -togetii^, let'l* bbil:np fair about ifiveffrinutefl, and then rub it tluough a hidr fame or tnoiiiiia. ^ Jf the' paaa mte good, it will be as dnck' and fine a. vegetable aoq a» need bci aent to table.

White Peas Soup.

Take four or five pounds of lean beef, abd 'pvit it into -six quarts of water, with a little salt When it boils, skim it clean, and put in tw4 carfott,' three whole onions, a little thyme, and tWo heads of otkry. Wben . joa have dene Chia^ put in three quarts 4if peasi, and bofl them with the meat till the latter is quite tend^: tshen* atKatii the soup thtfeiigh a hair aiere, at the same tisAe tubbii^ the pulp of tha fleas ao as to extraet all theiK virtue* Split the ooss^ettoeea intoftwr. ^jpn* ters each, and cut them about fimr inches iorlef^gth, with« litde mint shred small: then put half a piDund of butler in a afcew-» pan that w31 kfold youJr soup, md tput the lettuce and mint inin the butter, with a leek dioM very thin. St^ them a-quarter of ail iurar, shaking them ibout nAtn;*aad'albr adding a liitb of thi! sonp, stew them a q^uuterof aniianrlon^c then put In your soup, and as muoh thick craam as ivill^make it white: keep stirring it till it boila, £ry a French roll inbiltter a little crisp, put it in the bottom of the tttreen poor the soup over, ind serve it up» «

Peas Soup and Pickled Park.

A oonpleof pounds of the belly part of pidilad pask wjU make very good brotli for peas soup, if the pork bend tao^t; if it has been in salt more than two days, it limtft be laid in water the night before it is used.

Put on the ingredients as diincfced finTipeas soiqp^ in three quarts of water; boil gently for two hours, then- put in the porki and boil very gently till it is enough tn eat; this will

BROTHS, 90VF8^ 0AAVW9) AMI^ SAUCBd. Ml:

to it0 thickooifl'j ^^ idwe^^ath llMipodk dMD^ia boliratHr, it iqi-ia « 4i9hj oveut itrJAlt a»«ittiful^ BBd Nit it.inte fioiip in the tureen.

PUdm Pau Soup.

Taaquart^ipUt«pfMw«Pd (Pdl^nde.of .odtff^ «idfip Mt cpoks would -put a hrfg^ ^iM m» . pui thoeeiiuvtB of iMwch, or soft water; letthem $iBuu«cq it]^9il.a.tiJar^t^«mflead^ lor three houra» (stirring up every quarter of an hour to prevent the peaa burning at die bottom of f)ie soup kettle: if the water boils away^ and the soiip gets too thick, addw^mie boilixig water to it;) when they are -well softepedy.work thent. through a coarse sieve, and then throogb a fin^ «ieve«or a tammia; wash out your stew-pan, and tb^ return the soup into it, and give it a boil up; take off any scum that couM ap». andit is ready. Prepare fried bread and dried joipt,, and., send; tfaem up with it on two side dishes.

This is an excellent faniily 80up Hroduced with very Htde trouble or expense.

Asparagus Soup.

This is made with the points of asparagus, in the same manner as the green peas soup is with peas; let half the asparagna be rubbed through a sieve, and the other cut in pieces a^bout an inch long, and boiled till dpne enough, and sent up in the soup; to make two quarts, there must be a pint of heads to thicken it, and half a pint cut in: take care to pre*, serve these green and a. little crisp. This soup is sometimes made by adding the asparagus heads to common peas soup. Some cooks fry half an ounce of onion in a little butter, and rub it through a sieve, and add it with the other ingredients; the kaut gout of the onion will entirely overcome the delicate flavour of the asparagus, and we protest against all such com« binations.

Onion Soup.

Take eight or ten large Spanish onions, and boil them in milk and water till they become quite soft, changing your milk and water three times while the onions are boiling. When

Ml ' '1 01iBBTIC COOKERY.

thejr are quite soft nh them* fl^oagh a hair neri. Gtit an old cock into pieces, and boil it iar gravy, with one blade of maoe. Then strain it, and having poared the gravy on the pulp of the onions, boil it gently, with the crumb of a stale penny loaf grated into half a pint of cream, and season it to your taste with salt and Cayenne pepper. When you serve it iqp gnte a crust of brown bread round the edge of IKe dish. It will contribute ufaeh to the delicacy of the flavour, if you' add a little stewed sphuusfa, or a few heads of asparagus.

• » - • » • WhHe Ottton SSrap.

' Boil, or rather stew, over a gentle fire, in two quarts of strong broth, four or five large onions, peeled and chopped small. Then slice a French roll, and putting about half of it in the broth, and the rest at the bottom of the soup' dish, beat up the yolks of four eggs with half a pint of cream, and stir llhem wdl in to prevent the soup fVom curdling. "When the eggs are well incorporated, and sufficiently done, pour the whole over the slices of French roll in the soup dish, and serve it up garnished with small boiled onions.' This is a very agreeable and salutary soup; particularly excellent for all valetudinarians afflicted with the stone or gravel, gout, rheumatism, or asthma.

MilkSeup.

Boil a pint of milk with a little salt, and if you please sugar; arrange some sliced bread in a dish, pour over part of your milk to soak it, and keep it hot upon your stove, taking care that it does not burn. When you are ready to serve your soup, beat up the yolks of five or six eggs, and add them to the rest of the milk. Stir it over the fire till it thickens, and then take it off for fear it should curdle.

Milk Soup, with Onions,

Take a dozen of onions, and set them over a stove till they are done, without being coloured. Then boil some milk, add to it the onions, and season it with salt alone. Put some button onions to scald, then pass them in l^uttf r, and when ten* der add it to the soup, and serve it up.

BROTHS, SOUPS, GRAVIES, AND SAUCBS. M7

' Rke Soup,

Put a poand of rice and a little cinnamon into two quaite €if water. Cover it close^ and let it simmer very gently tilk die riee is quite tender. Take out the cinnamon, then sweeten it to your palate; grate into it half a nutmeg, and let it sUHid fill it is cold. Th^n beat up the yolks of three ^gs^ with half a pint of white wine; mix them well tog^her, and stir them into the rice. Set the whole over a slow fire, and fceep stirring it all the time, lest it should curdle^ When it is of a good thickness, and boils, take it up, and keep stirring it till you pour it into your dish.

VafnkilK Souf^

Take a knuckle of veal and a scrag of mutton, from each c^ which cut the flesh into small pieces about the sise of wal* nuts, and mix them together, with five or six thin slices of lean ham. Put into the bottom of your pan about four ounces of butter, and then your meat; to ndiich add three or fout blades of mace, two or three carrots, two parsnips, two largo onions; with a clove stuck on both sides of each, cut in four or five heads of celery- washed clean, a bunch of sweet herbs^ ei^t or ten morels, and an anchovy. When your articles are thus prepared and mixed together in the pan, cover it very doee, and set it over a slow fire, without any water, till the gravy is drawn out of the meat. When this is done, pour it out iiito a pot or large basin; then let the meat brown, (taking care that it does not bum,) and put into the sauce-pan four quarts of water. LiCt the whole boil gently till it is wasted to three pints, then strain it, and mix with it the first gravy drawn from the meat. Set it on the fire, and add two ounces of vermicelli, a nice head of celery cut small, Cayenne pepper and salt to your taste^ and let the whole boil about six minutes. Lay a small French roll in the soup dish, pour the soup upon itr strew some of the vermicelli on the sui^ce, and then 'serve it to table.



Goose or Duck Gihht Spup.

Scald and pick very clean a couple, sets of goose, or four of duck giblets, (the fresher the better,) wash them well iH warm water, in two or three waters; cut olT the noses and

ft49 DOUBSTIC COOKBRT.

split the heads, divide the gissards and liecka into moathfols. If the gtseardi are ncpt cut iiito pieoe^ before they arto done enough, the rest of tlie meat, &c. will be done^ too much; and knives and foriu ka»t no business ia m soup phte. 'Cisadt; the bones of. the Ic^, pat them into a 8liew-^[taiiy oofver them^ withcdid wMer: when they boil, take off .thescum aait riaesr then put in a bundle of herbs, sudi as kman: thyme^ winter saifory, or marjoraoii about three sprigs of «ieh, and doubfe the quantity of parsley, twenty berrisa of albpioej the s$m# of bhM^ pepper,-- tie, then all «p in a muslin bag, and set them to stew very gently, till the gizzards are tender; this will take " firom an hour and a half, to two hours, according to the size and age of the giblets: take them up with a skimmer, or a spoon fun of holes, put them into the tureen, and cdiver down dose, to keep wavm till the soup is ready*

To thicken the soup, melt an ounce and a half of batter in a dean stew-pm, stir in as mudi floor bb will make it into • paste s then pour to it by d^rees a ladL^fulof the giblet liquory add theik remainder by degrees, let it boil about ten minatesy stirring it all the while, for fear it should boni,-*-skim i^ anci strain it through a fine sieve into abasm; wash o«t the stew** pan, then return the soup into it, and seamm it with a i^ass oC wine, a tabk-spoenful of mushroom catsups and a little ealt; let it have one boil up^ and then put the giblets in to get hot/ andthe'80ttp isteady. •

Fowls or turkeys- heads msike,good and* cheap soup, in the same manner.

;e Smip*

Take two old ^partridges; ritin them; and cut them into pieces, witb'thfte or Ibur slices of ham, a stick of celery, and three lai^ onions cut into slices* Fry them all in butter till brown^ but take care not to burn them« Then put them into a stew*pan with five pints of boiling water, a few peppercorns, a shank or two of mutton, and a litde salt. Stew it gendy two hours; then strain it through a sieve, and put it again into a stew-pan, with some stewed cel^y and fried bread; when it is near boilings skim it, pour it into a toreen, and serve il up hot

BROTHSy SOUPS, GRAVIES, AND SAUCB9. 249

Hare or Rabbit Soup,

Cat a large hare or rabbit into pieces, and put it into an earthen mug, with three blades of mace, two large onions, a little salt, a red herring, half a dozen large morels, a pint of red wine, and three quarts of water. Bake it three hours in a quick oven» and then strain the liquor into a stew-pan. Have ready boiled four ounces of French barley, and put in; just scald the liver, and rub it through a sieve with a wooden spoon; put it into the soup, set it over the fire, but do not let it boiL Keep it stirring till it is on the brink of boiling, and then take it oC Put some crisped bread into your tureen, and pour the soup into it. This is a most delicious rich soup, and calculated for large entertainments. If any other kind of soup is provided^ this should be placed at the bottom of the table.

Gume Saup»

In the game season, it is easy for a cook to give her master a very good soup at a very little expense, by taking .all tbe meat off the breasts of any cold birds which have be«i left the preceding day, and pounding it in a mortar, and beating to pieces the legs and bones, and boiling them in some broth for an hoUir. Boil six turnips, mash them, and strain them through a tammis doth with the meat that haa been pounded in a mortar; strain your broth, and put a little of it at a time into the tammis, to help you to strain all of it through. Put your soupkettle near the fire, but do not let it boil: when ready to dish your, dinner, have six yolks of eggs mixed with half a pint of cream, strain through a sieve, put your soup on the fire, and as it is coming to a boil, put in the eggs, and stir well with a wooden spoon; do not let it boil, or it will curdle.

Macaroni Soup.

Boil a pound of the best macaroni in a quart of good stock til] quite tender; then take out half, and put it into another stew-pot. To the remainder add some more stock, and boil it till you can pulp all the macaroni through a fine sieve*:;3S i6^add together that, the two liquors, a pint or mfireiof Jmm trailing, h^^ themaoironi that was first taken #ttt, and hflf,,a pound of grated Parflieaail cheese; make it

ifid DOMESTIC COOKERY.

hot, but do not let it boil* Serve it with the crust of a French roll cut into the size of a shilling.

Soup and BouillL

The beat parts for this purpose, are the leg or shin, or the piece of the middle of a brisket of beef, of about seven or eight pounds weight; la j it on a fish drainer, or when you take it up, put a slice under it, which will enable you to place it on the di«h entire; piH it into a soup-pot or deep stew-pan, with cold water enough to cover it, and a quart over, set it on a quick fire to get the scum up, which remove as it rises; the^i put in two carrots, two turnips, two leeks, or two large oniops, two heads ot criery, two or. three cloves, and a faggot of parsley ancl sweet herbs; set the pot by the side of the fire to simmer very gently, till the meat is just tender enough to eat; this will require about four or five hpurs.

Put a large carrot, a turnip, a large onion, and a head or two of celery, into the soup whole, - take them out as soon as they are done enough, lay them on a dish till they are cold, then cut them into small squares: when the beef is done, take it out carefully, strain the soup through a hair sieve into a dean stew-pan, take off the fat, and put the vegetables that are cut into the soup, the flavour of which you may heighten, by adding a table-spoonful of mushroom catsup.

If a thickened soup is preferred, take four large tablespoonfuls of the clear &t from the top of the pot, and four spoonfuls of flour: mix it smooth together, then by degrees stir it well into the soup, which simmer for ten minutes lobger at least; skim it well, and pass it through a tammis, or fine sieve, and add the vegetables and seasoning the same as directed in the clear soup.

Og HeadSoup^

This should be pre Hired the day before it is to be eaten, as you cannot cut the meat off the head into neat mouthfuls unless it is cold: therefore the day before you want this soup, put half an ox cheek into a tub of cold water to soak for a coii^le of hours, then break the bones that have not been broken at the butcher's, and. wash it very w^L in warm water; put it into a pot, and cover it with cold water; when it boils, skim it very

BROTHS, mvn, «BAVR9» AND SAUCBS. SSI

dam^ luAl Aea pat in bhe head iof oderjr/ a coaple of carrbts, m tdntiip, two large onimi^ two dozen beiges of black peppery tiK'same iof alkptce, and a bundle of sweet herbs, such as ittaijornn, leinon ttt^me, SBTory, and a hai^dfal of parslty; ccifet the wadf^hfoi tlose, and set it on a slow fire i take off the ^imn, yMdtk will riie wlien it is coming to a botl, arid set it Ity^e fir^siife to stew Very gently for about three hours t take out the head^ lay it oii A dish, poor the soup through a fine sieve into a stone-ware pan, tod set it and the head by in a cool place till the next day; then cut the meat into neat mouthfttls, skim, and strain off ^e broth; put two quarts of it and die meHt into a dean stew-pan, let it simmer very gently for half an hoar Ibnger, and it is ready. If you wish it thicken* ed, (which we do not recoihmend,) put two ounces of butter into a stew-pan; when it is melted, throw ir as much flour as will dry it up; when they are well miied together, and browned by degrees, poar to diis your Boop, and stir it well t ^^her, let it sifnmer for half an hour longer, strain it dnough a hair Aeve into a clean stew-pan, and put io it the meSt of the-Head; let it stew half an hour longer, and season It with Cayenne pe[iper, salt, and a glass ol* good wine, or iC td^e-spoonfitl of bnmdy.

OxTailStngf.

Two tai}% crating about seveiupence ^cfa, will mslke a tureen of soup; (desire the butcher to divide them at the joints,) lay tlientf to soak in Warm water, whil^ you get ready the vegetables.

Put intd a gallon stew-^n, eight cloves, two or three Anions, half a dram of allspice, and the same of black pepper^ and the tails; cover tliem with cold water; skim it carefully; when and Ss long as you see any scum rise; then cover the pot as close as posatbte, and set it on the side of the fire to keep gently alttimtttng tiil the meat becomes tender, and will leave die btfhes Easily, blecaase it is to be eaten.with a spoon; this will reitjnire aboat two hours; mind it is not done too milch: When perfectly tender, take out the meat, (which s6nie cobks cut off the bones, in neat mouthfuls, which is the best way of tarfhig It,') skim the broth, and strain it through a sieve. If yba ilndSir a tlkickciied soup; pikt floor and bcUter, as diredBd

352 DOMESTIC COOKBRY.

in the preceding receipt^ or pat two table-spoonfuls of the ht you have taicen off the broth into a dean stew-pan^ with aa innch flour as will make it into a paste; set this over the fire^ and stir them well together, then pour in the broth by degteea, stirring it and mixing it with the thickening; let it simmer for another half hour, and when you have well skimmed it, and it is quite smooth, then strain it throiugh a tammia into a dean stew-pan, put in the meat, with a table-spoonful of mush« voom catsup, a glass of wine, and season it with salt.

Ox Heel Soup.

This must be made the day before it is eaten. Procure an ox heel undressed, or only scalded, (not one that has been already boiled, as they are at the tripe shops, till almost all the gelatinous parts are extracted, and two that have been boiled as they usually are at the tripe shops.

Cut the meat off the boiled heels into neat mouthfuls, and set it by on a plate; put the trimmings and bones into a stewpan,, with three quarts of water, and the unboiled heel cut into quarters; furnish a stew-pan with two onions and two turnips pared and sliced, pare off the red part of a couple of large carrots, add a couple of eschalots cut in half, a bunch of savory, or lemon thyme, and double the quantity of parsley; set this over or by the side of a slow steady fire, and keep it dosely covered and simmering very gently (or the soup liquor wiU evaporate,) for at least seven hours; during which, take care to remove the fat and scum that will rise to the sur&ce of the soup, which must be kept as clean as possible.

Now strain the liquor through a sieve, and put two ounces of butter into a clean stew-pan; when it is mdted, stir into it as much flour as will make it a stiff paste, add to it by degrees the soup liquor, give it a boil up, strain it through a sieve, and put in the peel of a lemon pared as thin as possible, and a couple of bay-leaves, and the meat of the boiled beds; let it go on simmering for half an hour longer, t. e. till the meat is tmder. Put in the juice of a lemon, a glass of wine, and a table-spoonful of mushroom catsup, and the soup ia ready for the tureen.

Those who are disposed to make this a more substantial £sh, may iqtftduce a ooupte of sets of goose or duck gibletsji pr ox tails, or a pound of ved cutlets^ cut into mouthfuls.

kiROTHS, 80UP8, 6RAVIB8, AND SAUCES. 263

Calf$ Hegd Soup. Warii the head as dean as possible, which yoo will the more easily do by strewing a little salt on it to take out the dime. After it is thoroughly cleansed, put it into your stew* pan, with a proper quantity of water, and throw in a bunch of sweet herbs, an onion stuck with cloves, Ave or six blades € f nuce, a^d some pearl barley. When it has stewed till it is tender, put in some stewed celery. Season it with pepper, poor the soup into your dish, place the head in the middle, and serre it to table.

Hessian Soup and Ragoui.

Clean the root of a neat's tongue very nicely, and half an oz*s head, with salt and water, and soak them afterwards in water only. Then stew them in five or six quarts of water, till tolerably tender. Let the soup stand to be cold; take off the fat, which will make good paste for hot meat pies, or will do to baste. Put to the soup a pint of split peas, or a quart of whole ones, twelve carrots, six turnips, six potatoes, six large onions, a bunch of sweet herbs, and two heads of celery. Simmer them without the meat, till the vegetables are done enough to pulp with the peas through a sieve; and the soup will dien be about the thickness of cream. Season it with pepper, salt, mace, allspice, a clove or two. and a little cayenne, all in fine powder. If the peas are bad, the soup may not be thick enough; then boil in it a slice of roll, and put it through the colander; or add a little rice fiour, mixing it by degrees.

For the ragout, cut the nicest part of the head, the ker« nels, and part of the fat of the root of the tongue, into small thick pieces. Rub these with some of the above seasoning, as* you put them into a quart of the liquor, kept out for that purpose before the vegetables were added; flour well, and simmer them till nicely tender. Then put a little mushroom and wal« nut catsup, a little soy, a glass of port wine, and a tea-spoonful of made mustard; and boil all up together before served. If for company, small eggs and forcemeat baUs.

This way furnishes an excellent soup and a ragout at a small expense, and they are not common. The other part will warm for the family.

IM BOUfBSTIC COOKCRT.

PortMe Souff or Ghze,

Dtekt the biitdier to break the bones of a 1 ^ om shih of beef^ of ten pounds weight, (the fi'esher kilkd the better^)^ pat it into a Miip pot that will well hold it; just cover it with oohl water, vnd set it on liie fire to heat gradually till it nearly boils, (tins Aould be at least sin hour;) skim ft attentiydy while any scom rises, poyr in a litdeoold water^ to throw dp die scum that aiay remain, let it come to a boil again, and agaiii ddm it corefofiy: when no more scorn rises And the broth appears clear, (put in neither roots, nor herbs, ik6r salt,) let it boil for eight or ten hours, and then strain it through a hair sieve into a brown stone pan; set die broth where it will cool quickly; put the meat into a sieve, and let it drain. Next day vemove every particle o£ f^ from the top of it, and pour it through a tammis, or fine sieve, as quietly as possible, into a Vtew-pan, taking ctfe not to let any of the settlings at the bot« tom of the stone pan go into the stew-pan, wh^ch should be of thick copper, perfectly well tinned; add a uarter of an ounce of whole black pepper to it, let it boil briskly, with the stew-pan uncovered, on a quick fire: if any scum rises, take it off with a skimmer; when it begins to thicken, and is re« duced to about a quart, put it into a smaller stew-pan; set it over a gentle fire, till it is reduced to the thickness of a very thick syrup; take care that it does not bum; a moment's inatr tention now will lose you all your labour, and the soup will be Spoiled. Take a little of it out in a spoon, and let it cool; if it sets into strong jelly, it is done enough; if it does not, boil it a litUe longer, till it does: have ready some little pots, such as ere used for potted meats, about an inch and a half deep, taking eare that they are quite dry; we recommend it to be kept in these pots, if it is for home consumption,- (the less it is reduced, the better is the flavour of the soup) - if it be suffidently concentrated to ke^ for six months. If yo« wish to preserve it longer, put it into such bladders as are used for German sausages; or if you prefer it in the form of cakes, poor it into a dish about a quarter of an inch deep; when it is ook^ turn it out and l^eigh the cake, and divide it with a paste-cutter into piecesof half anounce or an ounce each: place them in a warm room, and turn them frequently till they are thoroughly dried; this will take a week or ten days; turn them twice a day .

BBOTH8, 80I7P8» GJUYIM, AND 0AUCBS. SS&

wbcB w«IL tAi€UQe4t 8114 ^Rt in a ^17 place, thqr may be preaeiyed: for. aewpc^ yean ia ai^y cUmate,

If, aftfr 9^y€9!)d days' drying, it does not become so hard aa yo« wi4t .pat: it iotp a 8tewrpai « or a milkrboilarf till it ia evajp« fat^: to thf}.cscNW8t^i¥s^ you wjsb; or^ aejt the ppts in a cool ov^u. or in a che^fae toaat^, at. a ooiiaidevabla diftanoa &^ the fire; this i^ the only, s^ffe way of redueing.it very madly without the. risk, oi^ its biviuqg» acid aqqoirifig an ej;^ tKfmply,disagreeabl 5 acrid, flavojui^ ^c« This pprtaUe. soup ia a aiQ^, convenient art^cl^ in cookery,, espeoiajily in small iam^ lies^ wbf^ it will s^ve a gre^ deal of . tivnft aiid ttoiiUe. It ia a)sa ecano^ciica^ fiirno mprpwiU; be.n^dted tbflu^ is wanted: sp..thera is no waste. j *

Colouring for 5 mps or Gtavki.

Pot four ounceis of luinp sngp^ a gill of watsr and half an oupce of the finest butter, iQtQ a small tosser, aod set i% over a gentle fire. Stir it with a wooden spoon, till ofa bright brown. Then add half a jynt of water; boil, skim, and when cold, bottle and cork it close. Add to soup or gravy aa nmcb ef this as will give a.prpp^r cploor,

A clear hrown Stock far Qraicy-Souf or Gravy.

Put a knuckle of veal, a pound of lean beef^ and a ponnd of the lean of a gammon of bacpn, all sliced, into a stew-pan with two or three scraped carrots, two onions, two turnips, two beads of celery sliced, and two quarts of water. Stew the meat quite tender, but do not let it brown* When thus prepared, it will serve either for soup, or brown or white gravy; if -for brown g^vy, put in some of the above colouring, and boil a few minutes.

T0 cbu^fyyBroth or Qram^

Pot oa the- broth ip a dean ttew«pan, break the white and diettof aa ^g, beat them^ together, put them into the broth, stir It wi4fc a whia c; when- it has boiled a few miniites sInM it through a tammis or anapkin^

Eel ^09^.,

To make a tureenful, take a couple of middling-siaed •nioiiiy cut them in half, and cross your knife over them two

S5d BOMBSTIC COOKBRY.

or three times; put two ounces of butter into a stew-pnn j' when it is melted, put in the onions^ stir them about till they: are lightly browned, - cut into pieces three pounds of unskinned eels, put them into your stew-pan, and shake them over the fire for five minutes; then add three quarts of boiling water, and when they come to a boil, take the scum off very dean, then put in a quarter of an ounce of the green leaves (not dried) of winter savory, the same of lemon thyme, and twice the quantity of parsley, two drams of allspice, the same of black pepper,- cover it dose, and let it boil gently for two hours, then strain it off, and skim it very clean. To thicken it, put three ounces of butter into a dean stew-pan; when it is melted, stir in as nikuch flour as will make it of a stiff paste^ then add the liquor by degrees, let it simmer for ten muiuteSy and pass it through a sieve, then put your soup on in a deaa stew-pan, and have ready some little square pieces of fish firied of a nice light brown, - either eds, soles, plaice, or skate will do; the fried fish should be added about ten minutes before the soup is served up. Forcemeat balls are 8ome« times added.

Excellent fish soups may be made with a cod's skull, or skate, or flounders, &c. boiled in no more water than will just cover them, aod the liquor thickened with oatmeal, &c.

Cray Fish Soup.

This soup is sometimes made with beeC or veal bratli, or with fish, in the following manner.

Take flounders, eds, gudgeons, &c. and set them on la boil in cold water; when it is pretty nigh boiling, scum it well, and to three quarts put in a couple of onions^ and as many car« rots cut to pieces, some parsley, a dosen berries of black and Jamaica pepper, and about half a hundred cray fish; take off the smdl daws, and shells of the tails, pound them fine, and boil them with the broth about an hour; strain off, and bteak in some crusts of bread to thicken it, and if you can get it, the spawn of a lobster, pound it, and put to the soup^ letit aini* mer very gently for a couple of minutes, put in your cray fisk to get hot, and the soup is ready.

BllOTHS, SOUPS, 6RAVIES9 AND SAUCBS. 267

Lobiter S&up.

Yoa must haye three fine lively young h«n lobsters, and boil tbem; when cold, split the tails^ take out the fish, crack the claws, and cut the meat into monthfula: take out the coral, and soft part of the body, bruise part of the coral in a mortar, pick out the fish from thechiues, beat part of it with the coral, and with this make forcemeat balls, finely flavoured with mace or nutm^, a little grated lemon-peel, anchovy and cqrenne; pound these with the yolk of an egg.

Have three quarts of veal broth: bruise the small legs and the chine, and put them into it, to boil fbr twenty minutes, then strain it; and then to thicken it, take the live spawn and, braise it in a mortar with a Kttle butter and flour, rub it through a sieve, and add it to the soup with the meat of the lobsters, and the remaining coral; let it simmer very gently for ten minutes; do not let it boil, or its fine red colour will immediately fade; turn it into a tureen, add the juice of a good lemon, and. a little essence of anchovy.

Oyster Soup,

Take a pound of skate, four or five flounders, and two eels; cut ihem into pieces, just cover them with water, atid season with mace, an onion stuck with cloves, a head of celery, two parsley roots sliced, some pepper and salt, and a bunch of sweet herbs. Cover them doMm close, and after they have simmered about an hour and a half, strain the liquor clear fiff, and pot it into a dean sauce-pan. In the mean time take a quart of oysters bearded, and beat them in a mortar with the yolks of six eggs boiled hard. Season it with pepper, salt, and grated nutmeg; and when the liquor boils put all into it. Let the whole boil till it becomes of the thickness of cream, then take it off, poor it into your tureen, and serve it to table.

Oyster Mouth Soup,

Make a rich mutton broth, with two large onions, three blades of maoe, and black pepper. When strained, pour it on a hundred and fifty oysters, without the beards, and a bit of butter rolled in flour. Simmer gently a quarter of an hour,

¦

and serve.

10 «L

268 DOMESTIC COOKERY.

ORAYIES AND SAUCES.

' Excelltnt keeping Grany.

• Bum an oance of butter in a frying-pan; always takinif care to do it at such a proper distance from the fire, that while the flour is strewing into the butter^ it may become brown, but not black. Puf to it two pounds of coarse lean beef, a quart of water, half a pint of either red or white wine, three anchovies, two shalots^ a little white pepper, a few clovea, and a bit of mace, with three or four mushrooms or pickled walnuts. After letting the whole stew gently about an hour, at may be strained for use; it will keep several days and is pvoper for any savoury dish.

«

Beef Grmnf.

Cover the bottom of a stew-pan, that is well tinned and quite clean, wish a slice of good ham, or lean bacoD^ four or five pounds of gravy beef cut into half pound pieces, a carrot, an onion with two cloves stuck in it, and a head of celery; put a pint of broth or water to it, cover it close^ and set it over a moderate fire till the water is reduced to as little as will just save the ingredients from burning; then turn it all about, and let it brown slightly and equally all over; then put in three quarts of boiling water when it boils up, skim it carefully, and wipe off with a dean cloth what sticks round the edge and inside of the stew-pan, that your gravy may be delicatety clean and^lear. A great deal of care is to be taken to watch the time of putting in the water; if it is poured in too soon, the gravy will not have its true flavour and colour; and if it be let alone till the meat sticks to the pan, it will get a burnt taste. Set the gravy by the side of a fire, where it will stew gently (to keep it clear, and that it may not be reduced too much) fijr about four hoars: if it has not boiled too fast, there should be two quarts of good gravy; strain through a silk or tammis sieve; take very particular care to skim it -well, and set it in a cold place.

Strong Savaunf Qrmnf.

Take a stew«pan that will hold four quarts, lay a slice or two of ham or bacon (about a quarter of an inch thick) at the

•BROTHS, SOUPS, GRAVIES, AND SA17CB8. 259

bottom, (undressed is the best,) and two pounds of beef, or ?eal, a carrot, a large onion, with four cloves stuck in it, one head of celery, a bundle of parsley, lemon thyme, and savory, about as big round as your little 6nger when tied close, a few' leaves of sweet basil, (one bay leaf, and a shalot, if you like it,) a piece of lemon peel, and a dozen corns of allspice; pour on this half a pint of water, cover it close, and let it simmer gently on a slow 6re for half an hour, in which time it will be almost dry; watch it very carefully, and let it catch a nice brown colour; turn the meat,]&c. let it brown on all sides; add three pints of boiling water, and boil for a couple of hours. It ia now rich gravy.

CuOis, or thickened Gravy.

To a quart of gravy, put a table-spoonful of thickening, or from one to two table-spoonfuls of flour, according to the thickness you wish the gravy to be, into a basin, with a ladlefttl of the gravy; stir it quick; add the rest by degrees, till it is all well mixed; then pour it back into a stew-pan, and leave it by the side of the fire to simmer for half an hour longer, that the thickening may thoroughly incorporate with the gravy„ the stew-pan being only half covered, stirring it every now and then. A sort of scum will gather on the top, which it is best not to take off till you are ready to strain it through a tammis; the best way of using which is for two people to twist it contrary ways: this is a much better way of straining than through a sieve, and refines it much more completely.

Take care it is neither too pale nor too dark a colour: if it is not thick enough, let it stew longer, till it is reduced to the desired thickness; or add a bit of glaze or portable soup to it: if it is too thick, you may easily thin it with a spoonful or twa of warm broth, or water. When your sauce is done, stir it in the basin you put it into once or twice, while it is cooling.

Gravy far Roast Meat,

Most joints will afford sufficient trimmii^, &c. to make half a pint of plain gravy, which you may colour with a few drops of browning; for those that do not, about half an hour before you think the meat will be done, mix a salt- spoonful of salt» with a full quarter pint of boiling water; drop this by degrees

20Q ©0.MB8TIC qqoK^liT.

on the brown parts of the joint; set a dish under to catch it^ (the meat will soon brown again j) set it by; as it cools, the fat will settle on the surface; when the meat is ready, remove this, and warm i^ the gravy, and pour it into the dish.

The common method is, . when the meat is in the dish yoa intend to send it up in, to inix half a tea-spoonful of salt in a quarter pint of boiling water, and to drop some of this over the corners and underside of the meat, and to pour the rest thrqu ^ the hole the spit came out of, - and some pierce the inferior parts of the joint with a sharp skew^.

Gravy for bailed Meat.

You may make this with parings and trimmings, or pour from a quarter to half a pint of -the liquor in w^ich the meat was boiled, into the. dish with it, and pierce the inferior past of the joint with a sharp skewer.

Feal Gravy.

About three pounds of the nut of the leg of veal, cut into half pound slices, with a quarter of a pound of ham in small dice; proceed as directed for the beef gravy, but watch the, time of putting in the water; if this is poured in too soon, the ffravy will not have its true flavour; if it be let alone till the meat sticks too much to the pan^ it will catch too brown a colour.

A Gravy without Meat*

Put k glass of small beer, a glass of water, some pe^^r, salt, lemon peel grated, a bruised clove or two, and a spoonful of walnut pickle^ or mushroom catsup, into a basin. Slice an onion, flour and fry it in a piece of butter till it is brown. Then turn all the above into a small tosser with the onion, and simmer it covered twenty minutes. Strain it off for use^ and. when cold take off the &t.

A rich Gravy ^

Cut beef into thin slices, according to the quantity want-, ed; slice onions thin, and flour both; fry them of a light pale brown, but don't on any account suffer them to get black: put them into a stew-pan^ pour boiling water on the browning in

BROTHS, SOUP8» ORAVIBS, ANP SAUCBS. dflTL

tbe fiyiDg«p«i» boil it up, aod pour on the meat; Pot to it b boBch of panley, tbyme^ fOid flavory, a smaJI bit of knotted naijoram, the same of taragon, aonie mace, bcrrtetof allapioe^ whole black peppers, a clove or two, and a bit^if ham/or gua^' mon of bacon. Simmer till you have extracted all the juices of the meat; and be sure to akioft t ^ Biowent it boils, and often after. If for a hare, or stewed &h, anchovy shoold' be added.

Mutton Gravy, for Vfnison or Hare.

The best gravy for venison is that made with, the trinb* mings of the joiot: if this is aU used, and ywi have no un-* dressed venison, cut a scxag 0f mutton in pieoes, broil it a little brown, then put it into a dean stew-pan, with a quart of boiling water, cover it close^ and let it. simmer gendy for an bonr: now uncover the stew-pan^ and let it reduce to three   quarters of a pint, pour it through a hair sieve, take the fiit off, and send it up in a boat It is only to he seasoned with a. little salt, that it may not overpower the natural flavour of the meat. You may colour it with a very little of btbwning.

Graioy far a Fowl when there is no Meat to make it of*

Wash the feet nicely, and cut them and the neck small; . simmer them with a little bread browned, a slice of onion, a bit of parsley and thyme, some pepper and salt, and the liver a^- gizzard, in a quarter ^f a pint of water, till half wasted. Take out the liver, bruise it, and strain the liquor to it Then thicken it with flour and butter, and add a tea-spoonful of mushroom catsup, and it will be very good.

Gravy to make Mutton eat like Veni$on,

Pick a very stale woodcock or snipe, cut it to pieces (but   first take out the bag fttim the entraila ) and simmer with as". much unseasoned meatpgravy as you wilLwaot. Stnun it and'i' serve in the dish.

Strang Phh Graay.

Skin two or three eels, or some flounders; gut and: wash them very clean; cut them into small pieces, and put them intn a.sance^pan. Cover them with water^ and add a little crust of

2W2' DOMESTIC COOKERY.

bread toasted brown/ two blades of mace, some whole pepper^ sweet herbs, a piece of lemon peel, an anchovj or two, and a tea^poonfdl of horse-radish. Cover close, and 'simmer; add a bit of batter and flour, and boil with the above.

Savamy Jel^y to put over cold Pies, .

Make it of a small bare knuckle of leg of shoulder of veal, ' or a piece of scrag of that or mutton; or, if the pie be of fowl or rabbit, the carcases, necks, and heads, added to any piece of meat, will be sufficient, observing to give consistence by cow-heel or shanks of mutton. Put the meat, a slice of lean ham or bacon, a fj^got of different herbs, two Uades of mace, an onion or two, a small bit of lemon peel, and a tea-spoonful of Jamaica pepper bruised, and the same of whole pepper, and three pints of water, in a stew-pot that shuts very close. As soon as *\ boils, skim it wdl^ and let it simmer very slowly till quite strong; strain itj and when cold take off the fat with a spoon first, and then, to remove every particle of grease, lay a dean piece of cap or blotting paper on it. When cold, if not dear, boil it a few minutes with the whites of two eggs, (but don't add the sediment,) and pour it through a nice sieve, with a napkin in it, which has been dipped in boiling water, to prevent waste.

Jelly to cover cold Fish.

Clean a maid» and put it into three quarts of water, with a calf's foot, or cow-heel, a stick of horse-radish, an onion, three blades of mace, some white pepper, a piece of lemon peel, and a good slice of lean gammon. Stew until it will jelly; strain it off: when cold remove every bit of fat; take it up from the sediment, and boil it with a glass of sherry, the whites of four or five eggs, and a piece of lemon. Boil without stirring; and after a few minutes, set it by to stand half an hour, and strain it through a bag, or sieve, with a cloth in it. Cover the fish with it when cold.

Melted Butter.

Melted butter is so simple and easy to prepare, it is a matter of general surprise, that what is done so often, in every English kitchen, is so seldom done right Foreigners may

BROTHS, SOUPS^ GRAVIB8, AND 8AVCES. 90S

veil say, that although we have only oneiani^ for TegetaUes* tish, fowl, flesh, &c. we hardly ever make that good. It is spoiled Dine times out of ten, more from idleness, than from Ignorance, - and rather because the cook won't than because she can't do it, which can only be the case whan housdieepers will not allow butter to do it with.

Good melted butter cannot be made with mere flqur and water; there must be a full and proper proportion of butter. As it must be. always on the table, .and is the foundation of almost all our English sauces, we have written a receipt, which if the cook will carefully observe, she will constantly* succeed in giving satisfaction.

Keep a pint 8tew*pan for this purpose only.

Cut two ounces of butter, into little bits,. Aat it may melt i

more easOy, and mix more readily; put it into the stew*pan with a large tea-spoonful of flour^. and two table-spoonfttls of milk. When thoroughly mi^ed, add six table-spoonfula of water; hold it over the &re, and sliake it round every minute, (all the • while the same way,) till it just begins to; simmer, then let it stand quietly and boil up. It should be of the thickness of good cream.

This is the best ^way of preparing melted batter: milk mixes with the butter much more easily and more intimately than water alone can be made to do. This is of a proper thick* ness to be mixed at table with flavouring essences, anchovy, mushroom, or cavice, &c. If made merely to pour over vege-» tables, add a little more milk to it. If the butter oils, put a ' spoonful of cold water to it, and stir it with a spoon; if it is very much oiled, it miist be poured backwards and forwards from the stew-pan to the -sauce-boat till it is right again.

Melted butter made to be mixed with flavouring . essences, . catsups, &c. should be of the thickness of light batter, that • it may adhere to the fish, &a

Clarified Byfter, . .

Put the butter in a nice dean stew-pan, over a very clear slow fire, watch it, and when it is melted carefully skim off the buttermilk, &c. which will swim on the top; let it stand a ¦\inttte or two, for the impurities to sink to the bottom; then

i64 ' - DOMESTIC COOKBKY.

pour the clear batt^ tlnough a sieve, into a dean baBin^ kavid^ the sedimenf at the bottom Of the stew-pan.

Butter thus purified, will be as sweet as marrow; a veryuseful covering for potted meats, &c. and fbr frying fish, equal to the finest Florence oil, fer which purpose it is commonly used by Catholics, and those whose religious tenets will not allow them to eat viands fried in animal oil.

German Method of cUwifying and prtiernng Fresh Butter.

.. A valuable article, the original communication of an ingeni* o«8 tcavdler, who resided many years in Germany. 'The peculiar advantage of clarified butter,* says this gentleman, 'though but little known in England, is unequalled for moat culinary purposes, fiir frying, and for general use in long seavoyages, where no fresh butter is to be had. Indeed this purified butter is equal to the best virgih oik of Florence, Aix, or Lucca, for trying in perfection. At Viennia, and in many other paru of Germany, it i* sold in all the shops. The best is purified at the dairies, during the cheapest season, mnd sent tb market in barrels and tubs; it U then clarified. Set a large clean tinned copper vessel on a trivet, over a charcoal fire; and put in the new butter, before it has taken any ill taste, but not in large portions at a time. With the quantity of about fifty pounds, add a large onion, peded^aud cut crossway. The whole must be chmdy watched, and kept skimming the moment it begins to boil; and the fire then slackened, that it may only simmer for five minutes; after which, if it cannot be suddenly removed, the fire t6 be immediately extinguished. The omon then taken out, the butter to be left standing till every impurity sinks to die bottom; as all that has not risen to the skimmer never fritk doing. Large tin canisters, stone jars, or wooden veeseb niade air-tight, holding about fifty pounds each, should receive the liquid butter, and be kept closely oovered up for use. This butter should be constantly taken out as it is waiAed, with a wooden spoon; neither the hand, nor any metal, ever auftred to tooeh it»*

Burnt Butter,

Put two ounces of ftiesh butler into a small l^ing^pan; when it becomes a dark brown colour, add to it a table-spoon

BROTHS, &OVPS» 6RATIB8, iIND SAUCES. WS

fill 9Ad A half of gobd Tinegar, and a fittle pepp^ and aalt.-f- This is used as sauce for boiled fish, or poached e ^..

Oiled Butter.

Put two ounces of fresh butter into a sauce-pan, set it at a dGstance from the fire, so that it may melt gradually, till it comes to an oil, and pour it off quietly from the dregs.

This will supply the place of olive oil, and by some is pre« itierred to it, either for salads, or frying.

Parsley and Butter^

Wash some parsley very clean, and pick it carefully leaf by leaf; put a tea-spoonful of salt into half a pint of boiling water boil the parsley about ten minutes, drain it on a sieve, mince i^ quite fine, and then bruise it to a pulp.

The delicacy and excellence of this elegant and innocent relish, depends upon the parsley being minced very fine; put it into a sauce-boat, and mix with it by degrees about half a pint of good melted butter, only do not put so much flour to it, as the parsley will add to its thickness: never pour parsley and butter over boiled Aings, biit ^nd it up in a b6at.

Qodwherty Saute.

Top and tail them close, with a p^Eu^ of st^issars, and scald Half a pfnt of gfeeh gooseberries, drain them on a hair sieve, and ^ut Aetn hito half a pint of melted butter.

SomVad^ grated ginger and lemoti peel; and the Frehcfi, lAinced fennel; others send up ihe goosebeirrieis whole, 6t maslied, wi(£out an^ butter, &c.

* • - •

Apple Sauce.

Pare and core thre^ ^ood sized baking apples, put them hiU^ti HfellAifmeA pkn^s^^i^pBXi, wi^h tw6 t^le-spoonfuls of cM #ak^; covei th l saiM£- Mm cb^; and set if e^ a triv^ dv^ a sWv^ fire^i e «]^l« df h^s before dinner,- sbttl^ a^i^tes will take a long time stewing, otfteril #ill be resfcly in a? ^iu ter of an hour: when the apples are done enough, pour off the water, let them stand a fbw mittu^es to get dry; then beat thbtii lip ^i^H a' fef^k, ^h a bit? ^ butter aboiit as % aai a nutMd'4l tiSH^Ipoi^^ of pdwd^i^ mgKh 10 Sm

t

266 DOMESTIC COOKERY.

Some add lemon peel^ grated, or minced fine.; others boil s^ bit with the-apples.

Fennel and Butter for Mackerel, S^c.

This is prepared in the same manner as parsley and batter, described before.

For mackerel sauce, or boiled soles^ &c. some people take equal parts of fennel and parsley; others add a sprig of mint^ or a couple of young onions minced very fine.

Mackerel Roe Sauce.

Boil the roes of mackerel, (soft roes are best,) bruise them with a spoon with the yolk of an egg, beat up with a very little pepper and salt, and some fennel and parsley boiled and chopped very fine, mixed with almost half a pint of thin melted butter.

Mushroom catsup, walnut pickle, or soy, may be added.

Egg Sauce.

This agreeable accompaniment to roasted poultry, or salted fish, is made by putting three eggs into boiling water, and boiling them for about twelve minutes, when they will be hard: put them into cold water till you want them. This will make the yolks firmer, and prevent their surface turning black, and you can cut them much neater: use only two of the whites; cut the whites into small dice, the yolks into bits about a quar.* ter of an inch square, put them into a sauce-boat, pour to them half a pint of melted burter, and stir them together. The melted batter for egg sauce should be made rather thin.

Plum Pudding Sauce.

A glass of sherry, half a glass of brandy, and two teaspoonfuls of pounded lump sugar, (a very little grated lemon peel is sometimes added,) in a quarter of a pint of thick melted batter: grate nutmeg on the top.

Anchovy Sauce. Pound three anchovies in a mortar with a little bit of butter, rub it through fL double hair sieve with the back of a wood*

BBOTHS, SOUPS, GRAVIES, AND SAUCES. SM7

cn spoon, and stir it into almost half a pint of melted butter.' To this many cooks add lemon juice and cayenne.

Keep your anchovies well covered. First tie down your jar "with bladder moistened with vinegar, and then wiped dry, - tie leather ^er that: when you open a jar, moisten the bladder, and it will oorae off easily: as soon as you have taken out the fish, replace the coverings,- 'the air soon rusts and spoils anchovies.

Garlic Sauce,

Pound two cloves of garlic with a piece of fresh butter about as big as a nutmeg: rub it through a double hair sieve, and stir it into half a pint of melted butter, or beef gravy.

Lemon Sauce,

Pare a lemon, and cut it into slices twice as thick as a halfcrown piece; divide these into dice, and put them into a quarter of a pint of melted butter.

Some cooks mince a bit of the lemou peel (pared very thin) very fine, and add it to the above.

Caper Sauce,

To make a quarter pint, take a table-spoonful of capers, and two tea-spoonfuls of - vinegar.

The present fashion of cutting capers, is to mince onethird of them very fine, and divide the others in half; put them into a quarter of a pint of melted butter, or good thickened gravy; stir them the same way as you did the melted butter, or

it will oil.

Some boil, and mince fine a few leaves of parsley, or chervil, and add these to the sauce; others tlie juice of half a Seville orange, or lemon.

* Keep the caper bottle very closely corked, and do not. use any of the caper liquor; if the capers are not well covered with it, they will immediately spoil. It is an excellent ingredient in hashes, 8tc, The Dutch use it as a fish sauce, mixing it with melted butter.

Mock Caper Sauce.

Cut some pickled green peas, French beans, gherkins, or nasturtiums, into bits the size of capers; put them into half a

Mtt DOMESTIC COOKBBT.

piQtof meltf d butter, with two tea-spooiifuk of lemaa aioe^ or nice yinegar.

Oyiter Sftifce^

. Choose plump and juicy natives for tibi$ purpose; dibn't take them out of their shell till jou put -them into the stew*pan.

To ipake good 03r8ter aauce for half a dozen hearty Mieaters, you cannot have less than three or four dozen oysteTSu Save their liquor, strain it, and put it and them into a stew* pan; as soon as they boil, and the fish plump, take them oflT Ae fi*e, and pour the contents of the stew-pari ittta a sieve over a dear basin, wash the stew-pan* out with hot water, and put into it the strained liquor, with abo^t an equal qtiantity oT mUk, and about two ounces and a half of butter, with whidi you have well rubbed a large table-spoonful of flour; give it a boil up, and pour it tlirough a sieve into a basin, (that the sauce may be quite smooth,) and then back again into tfce sauce ^ pan; now shave the oysters, and put in only the soft paft of them, .(if they are very large cut them !n half,) and set them by the side of the fire to keep hot: if they boil after, they will become hard.

If you have not liquor enough, add a little melted butter, or cream, or milk beat up with the yolk of an egg, (this must not be put in till the sauce is done.) Some barbarous cooks add pepper, or mace, the juice or peel of a lemon, horseradish, essence of anchovy, cayenne, &c.

It will very much heighten the flavour of this sauce, to pound the soft part of half a dozen (unboiled) oysters, rub it through a hair sieve, and then atir it into the sauce. . This essence of oyster (and for some palates a few grains of cayenne) is the only addition we recommend.

Preserved Oysters, or Oyster Powder,

Open the oysters carefully, so as not to cut them except in dividing the gristle which attaches the shells; put diem into a mortar, and when you have got as many as you can conveniently pound at once, add about two drams of salt to a dozen oysters; pound them, and rub them thfough the back of a hair sieve, and put them into a mortar again, with as much flour (which has been previously thoroughly dried) as will make them into a

BROTHS, SeVVI, aBAVXlS,'AND SAUCES. 29d

foB it vmt severiil tines, and ljfidy» Sonr it and voll it out the thickness of a half trawt^, afd divide i pieces about an inch square, lay them In si Dutch ^yfim Aey will dry so.geittly aa not Co get bwrptf; tutn tbfl« evoy half hour, and when the^r begin Uk dry, cnaroble ihtrac iSbtey will take $hoiat foar hours to dFy,-r-fthe^ poUnd thens fine^ silt them and put into bottles, and seal them aT«%

To make ludf a pint of sauoe, put one ooi ce flf btttt«r in^ a atew-pan, with three drams of oyster powder, and si^ ilablfK spoonfuls of milk; set it on a slow fire, stir it till it boil«, ap4 season it with salt*

This powder, if made widi plump juicy natiyQS i^iH abound with the Aivour of the fish; and if doariy oarfced, and kept in a dry place, will remain ^ood for ^aiae time. • ^

This extract is a welcome sucqedaneua whili^ oyat^r^ ^^^ cut of season; and in such inland parts as seldosa l^va APy^ is a Taluable addition to the list of fish sauces: it is eq[uaBy gAO^ with boiled fi wl, or rump steaky- «and sprinkled on baead 0A butter mdLes a veiy good sandwich, and is eapeoiaUy w«Kt iy ihe notice of ceuntry housekeepers, and as a store sauce for the ariny and navy.

Shrimp SaufiCs Shell a pint of shrimps, pidc them clean, w^.tbem, and put them into half a pint of good melted butter.

' Same stew the heads an^ shells of the shrimps, (with or without a Made of bruised n^ace,) for a quarter of an hour, and strain off the liquor to mekthe butter with, and add a IM^ lemon juice, cayenne, and essence of anchovy, or soy, cavioe» &c. but the flavour of the shrimp is so delicate, it will be overcome by any of those additions.

JLobgter Sauce.

You must have a hen lobster, on account of the live spawn; some fishmongers have a cruel custpm of tearing this firom the fish, before they are boiled; lift up the tail of the lobster, and see that it has not been robbed of its ^gs; the goodness of yomr sauce depends upon its having a full share of the spawn in it, to which it owes not merely its brilliant red colour, but tfae.finest part of its flay our.

276 DOMESTIC COOKERY.

To be 8ure the lobster is fresh^ get a live one if yoa eav^ and boil it: pick out the spawn anii the red coral into a mor« tar, add to it half an ounce of butter, pound it quite smooth, and rub it through a hair sieve with the back of a wooden spoon; cut the meat of the lobster into small squares, or pull it to pieces with a fork, put the pounded spawn into as much melted butter as you think will do, and stir it together till it is thoroughly mixed; now put to it the meat of the lobster, and warm it on the tire; take care it does not boil, which will spoil its complexion, and its brilliant red colour will immediately fade.

The above is a very easy and excellent manner of making this sauce.

Some use strong beef or veal gravy instead of melted butter, adding anchovy, cayenne, catsup, cavice, Iraion juice or pickle, or wine, &c.

Save a little of the inside red coral spawn, and rub it through a sieve (without butter:) it is a very ornamental garnish to sprinkle over fish; and if the skin is broken, (which will sometimes happen to the most careful cook, when there is a large dinner to dress, and many other things to attend to,) you will find it a convenient and elegant veil, to conceal yoor misfortune from the prying eyes of piscivorous gourmaiuU.

Various methods have been tried to preserve lobsters, and lobster spawn, for a store sauce. The live spawn may be kept some time in strong salt and water, or in an ice-house. The following process might, perhaps, preserve it longer:- Put it into a sauce-pan of boiling water, with a large spoonful of salt in it, and let it boil quick for five minutes; then drain it on a hair sieve, spread it out thin on a plate, and set it in a Dutdi oven till it is thoroughly dried, grind it in a clean mill, and packit closely in well-stopped bottles.

Sauce, for Lobtt^f tfc.

Bruise the yolks of two hard boiled c^gs with the back of a wooden spoon, or rather pound them in a mortar, with a teaspoonful of water, and the soft inside and the spawn of the lobster, rub them quite smooth, with a tea^spoonful of made mustard, two table-spoonfuls of salad oil, and five of vinegar; season it with a very little Cayenne pepper and some salt.

To this, elder or tarragon vinegar, or anchovy essence, is occasionally added.

BR0THS/80UPS, GRAVIES, AND SAUCES. 271

Liver and Parsley Sauce,

Wash the liver (it must be perfectly fresh) of a fowl or rabbit, and boil it five minutes in five table -spoonfuls of water; chop it fine; or pound or bruise it in a small quantity of the fiquor it was boiled in, and rub it through a sieve: wash about one-third the bulk of parsley leaves, put them on to boil in a little boilin^^ water, with a tea spoonful of salt in it; lay it on a hair sieve to drain, and mince it very fine; mix it with the liver, and put it into a quarter pint of melted butter, and warm it up; do not let it boil.

Lemon and Liver Sauce.

Pare off the rind o£ a lemon, or of a Seville orange, as thin as possible, so as not to cut off any of the white with it; now cat off all the white, and cut the lemon into slices, about as thick as a couple of half-crowns; pick out the pips, and divide the slices into small squares; add these, and a little of the peel minced very fine, to the liver, prepared as directed above, and put them into the melted butter, and warm them together, but do not let them boil.

Some cooks, instead of pounding, mince the liver very fine (with half as much bacon,) and leave out the parsley; others add the juice of half a lemon, and some of the peel grated, or a tea-spoonful of tarragon or Chili vinegar^ a table-spoonful of white wine, or a little beaten mace or nutmeg, or allspice: if you wish it a little more lively on the palate, pound a shalot, or a few leaves of tarragon or basil, with anchovy or catsup, or cayenne.

Fish Sauce.

Two wine glasses of port, and two of walnut pickle; four of mushroom catsup; half a dozen anchovies pounded, the like number of eschalots sliced and pounded; a table-spoonful of soy, and half a dram of Cayenne pepper: let them simmer gently for ten minutes, strain it, and when cold, put it into bottles, well corked and sealed over: it will keep for a considerable time.

This is commonly, called QtftV« Sauce.

972 DOMBSTIC GOOKEEY.

Lher Sauce for Fish. Boil the liver of the fish, and pound it in a mortar with « little flour; 8tir it into some broth^ or some of the liquor the fish was boiled in, or melted butter, parsley, and a few grains of cayenne,-- a little essence of anchovy, or soy, or catsup; give it a boil up, and rub it through a sieve: you may add a little lemon juice, or l^non cut in dice.

Celery Sauce, white.

Pick and wash two heads of nice white cel^, cut it into pieces about an inch long; stew it in a pint of water, and a teaspoonful of salt, till the celery is tender. So much depends upon the age of the celery, we cannot give any precise time for this. Ypung fresh-gathered celery will be enough in three quartei^s of an hour; old wilt sometimes take twice as lon^. Roll an ounce o^ butter with a table-rspoonful of flour; add this to half a pint of cream, and give it a boil up.

Celery Sauce, Pitr^e, fdr hailed Turkey, Veal, Fowls, S^c.

Cut small half a dozen heads of nice white celery, that is quite clean, and two onions sliced; put in a two quart stewpan, with a smalt lump of butter; sweat them over a slow fire till quite tender, then put in two spoonfuls of flour, half a ttnt of water (or beef or veal btoth,) salt and pepper, and a little cream or milk; boil it a quarter of an hour, and pass it through a fine bair sieve with the back of a spoon.

If you wish for celery sauce, when celery is not in season, a qu^ter of a dram of celery seed, or a little essence of celery, will impregnate half a pint of sauce with a sufficient portion of the flavour of the vegetable.

Green, 0r Sorrel Sauce*

Wash and clean a large ponrifet of 'sorrel, put it into a stewpan thai wHl just hold it, with a bit of butter the size of an egg, tovet it close, set it ovek* a sldw fIVe $o/it a quarter of an h6ur, pass the sorrel witli the back of a "v^ckiden ^poon tihrougfa a hair sieve, seadon T^ith pepper, salt, and a small pinch of powdered sugar, make it hot, and serve up under lamb, ^i^,sweetbreads, &c. &c. Cayexine, nutmeg,And lekiion jutcei- are sometimes added.

BROTHS, SOXTPS, ORAVISS, AND 8AI7CB8, 27S^

Tamatat or Love-appk Sduce.

Have twelve or fifteen tomatas, ripe and red; take off the stalk; cat them in half; squeeze them enough to ''get all the water and seeds out: put them into a 8tew-pan» with a cap« aicum, and two or three table-spoonfuls of beef gravy; set them on a slow stove for an hour^ or till properly melted; then rub them through a tammis into a dean stew-pan, with a little white pepper and salt, and let them simmer together, a few ininntes.

To the above the French cooks add an onion or eschalot^ a clove or two, or a little tarragon vinegar,

Moek Tamata Sauce,

The only difference between this and genuine We-apple sauce, is the substitu^ng the pulp of apple for that ot tomata, colouring it with turmeric, and communicating an acid flavour to it by vinegar.

• ¦

Shalot Sauce.

Take four shalots, and make it in the same manner as garlic sauce.

Or, you may make this sauce more extemporaneously, by patting two table-spoonfuls of shalot wine, and a sprinkling of pqpper and salt, into (almost) half a pint of thick melted butter.

This is an excellent sauce for chops, or steaks. Many ire very fond of it with roasted or boiled meat, poultry, &G.

Shalot Sauce, far haikd Mutton.

This is a very frequent and satisfactory substitute for caper sauce.

Mince four shalots very fine, and put them into a small sauce-pan, with almost half a pint of the liquor the mutton was boiled in; let them boil up for five minutes; then put in a table-spoonful of vinegtf » a qaarter tea-spoonful of pepper, a little salt, and a bit of butter (as big as a walnut) rolled in floor; shake together, till it boils. ^

Some cooks add a little fipely diopped parsley.

Young Onion Sauce.

Peel a pint of button onions, and put them in water till you want to put them on to boil; put them in a stew-pan^ with a 10 2n

274 DOMESTIC COOKRRT.

quart of cold water; let them boil till tender; they will take (according to their size and age) from half an hour to an hour. You may put them into half a pint of melted batter.

Onion Sauce,

Those who like the full flavour of onions, only cut off the Mrings and tops (without peeling off an^ of the skins,) put them into salt and water, and let them lie an hour; then wash them, put them into a kettle with plenty of wiater, and boil them, till they are tender: now skin them, pass them through k colander, and mix a little melted butter with them.

Some mix the pulp of apples, or turnips, with the onions;

others add mustard to tfaetti^

, • • » 1

White Onion Sauce,

The following is a more mild and delicate preparation: - Take half a dozen of the largest and whitest onions, (the Spanish are the mildest, but these can only be had from August to December.) peel thetn, arid cut them in half, and lay them in a pan of spring water for a quftrCer of an hour, and then boil th^.-m tender, which will sometimes take an hour; drain^ them well on a hair sieve, lay theOi on the chopping* board and qhop and bruise them^ put them into a clean sauce* pan, with some butter and flour, half a tea-spoonfdl of 8alt« and some cr^wli, or good milk; stir it till it boils; then rub the whole through a taminis or sieve, adding cream or milk^ to make it the consistence you wish.

This is the usual sauce for boiled rabbits, mutton, or tripe. There must be plenty of it; the usual expresmn signifies as much, for we say, smother them with it.

Brown Onion Sauce, or Onion Qravg.

Peel and slice the otuons (some put in aa equal quantity of cucumber or ctlery ) into a quart stew-pan, with an ounce of butter; set it on a sl w fire, and turn the onion about till it is very lightly browned; now gradually stir in half an ounce of flour; add a little broth, and a little pepper and salt; boil it up for a few minutes, add a table-spoonful of claret, or Port wine, s.\u\ t.)e same of mushroom catsup, ^you mav sharpen it with a little lemon juice or vinegar) and mb it through a tammis, or fine sieve.

BROTHS, ireVPSy C^AVlBft, Af^D SAUOSiS. 196

If this sauce is £ot steaks, JBhr«d an ounce of onions, fry dirm a niar brown, and put them I9 the sauce jqvi have rubbed dsroagh a tamioais; or spme v^ryamaU round young silver button oniops, peeled. and boiled tcndeir, and put in whole when your sauee is doae^ wilLbe ah acceptable addition.

Spanish or Pofti^g^l Onion ^^n^f • Thcae exo^ent large and mild onions make admitable 9HU(ie; as well as being fi n^o^t delicions food when roasted^ an4 eateo only with pepper, salt, and butter. The foUowing is -one of the best methods of preparing them for sanoe. After -xnaating tbem till they are somewhat more than half ^cmm^ "pee) them, and Add some good thicken^ gravy or ooulis; iaeasoit them with salt and Cayenne pepper; and, adding a gb^s ^ aed Poit, a small quantity of powdered loaf sugar, aod 4he juice of half a lempn for four large onions, boil them till

tender, mash them up with a little butter, and send them to ^ble as sauce for whatever dish may be thought f^vopeir. These

onions are not only very delicious, but they are psirticularly

salubrious and nourishing.



Sage and Onion, or Goote-v^f^ng Same* Chop very fine an ounce of onion, and half an ounce of green sage leaves, put them into a stew-pan with four spoonibis of water, simmer gently for tkn minutes, then put in a tea^ •poonfbl of pepper and salt, and one oiinea of (ine breadcrumbs; mix well together; then pour to it li quarter of a ptnit of (broth, oir gravy, or) melted butter, stir well together, and jimmar it a fbw minutes longer.

This is a very relishing sauce for roast pdrk, gees^ or

ducks; or green peas on maigre Hays.

«

Green Mint Smt6€* . ..

Wash half a handful of nice young ^^di-gathpred gresn mint, (to this some add one-third the quantity of parsley,) pick the leaves from the stalks, mince them very fine, and put them into a sauce-boat; with a tea^spoonful of moist sugar, and four table-spoonfuls of vinegar/

This is the usual accoi^panim^t to hot lamb; and an equally agreeable relish with cold lamb.

Sr9 DOMESTIC OOOKBKT.

Muiktoam Sauee.

Piok and peel half a pint of mashrooms (tfae.«naller th^ better,) wash them very clean, and put them into a sauce-pan with half a pint of veal gravy or milk, a little pepper and salt, and an. ounce of butter rubbed with a taUe'apoonfnl of flour, stir them together, and set them over a gentle fire, to stew slowly till tender; skim and strain it

It will be a great improvement to this, to add to them the jttice of half a dozen mushrooms, prepared the day before, by aprinkling them with salt, the same as when you make catsup.

Much as we love the flavour of mushrooms, we must enter ioor protest against their being eaten in substance, when the morbid effects they produce too often prove them worthy of the appellations Seneca gave them, '' Voluptuous poison, - lethal luxury," &c. And we caution those who cannot refrain fiona indulging their palate with the seducing relish of this deceitful .fungus, to masticate it diligently.

We do not believe that mushrooms are nutritive; every one

knows they are often dangerously indigestible; therefore the

rational epicure will be content with exti'acting the flavour from

them, which is obtained in the utmost perfection by the pro«

cess of making catsup.

• . ¦

Poor Mam's Smiee*

¦ ¦   .

Pick a handful of parsley leaves from the. stalks, mince them very fine, strew over a little salt; dured fine half a dozen young green onions, add these to the parsley, and put them into a sauoe-boat, with three table-spoonfuls of oil, and five of vinegar; add some ground black pepper and salt; stir together, and send it up. Pickled French beans or gherkins, cut fine, may be added, or a little grated horseradish.

This sauce is in much esteem in France, where people of taste, weary of rich dishes, to obtain the charm of variety, occasionally order the fiue of the peasant.

The Spaniard's Garlic Gravy.

Slice a pounded a half of veal, or beef, pepper and salt it, lay it in a stew-pan with a couple of carrots split, and four cloves of garlic sliced, a quarter pound of sliced ham, and a large spoonful of water; set the sfe^w-pan over a gentle fire.

BBOTHS» 80irPS» OEATIBS, ?IfD 8AUCE8. STT

and "watdi when the mett begins to stick to the pan; when it does, tnm it, and let it be very well browned, (bat take cM'e it ia not at all burnt;) then dredge it with fiour^ and pour in a quart '9i£ l roth» a bunch of sweet herbs, a couple of cloves bruised, and. alioe in a lemon; set it on again, and let it simmer gently for an hour and a half longer; then take off the fat, and strain the gravy from the ingredients, by pouring it through a nxp* kin, straining, and pressing it very hard.

Those lAio love garlic, will find it an extremely rich relish.

Sauce far haHed-TVipe, Calfs^ad, or Caw-heel.

Garlic vinegar, a table-spoonful; of mustard, brown sugar^ and black pepper, a tea-spoonful each; stirred into half a pint of oiled melted ] y tter.

Sauee Piquante.

^ Pound a table-spoonfiii of capers, and one of minced part' aley, as fine as possible; then add the yolks of three hard eggs, rub them well together with a table-spoonful of mustard; bone six anchovies, and pound them, rub them through a hair sieve^ and mix with two table-spoonfuls of oil, one of vinegar, one of shalot ditto, and a few grains of Cayenne pepper; rub all these well together in a mortar, till thoroughly incorporated^ then stir them into half a pint of gravy, or melted butter, and pat the whole through a sieve.

Qerman HaneradUh Sauee.

This fiunous sauce, so relishing to eat with roast or boiled beef. See. hot as well as cold, is thus made:- Take a large stick of horseradish, quite fresh out of the ground; and,' after washing and scraping it clean, and cutting away the ends with aU impurities, grate it fine and smooth, on a trencher, by means of a large and sharp round grater: then, putting it into a sauce-boat or tureen with a cover, add two lumps of sugar, three table-spoonfuls of boiling broth, or even water, two spoon^ fuls of the best vinegar, and a little salt. Mix them well toge« ther, till the sugar be entirely dissolved and completely incor* porated. This sauce, though immediately fit to eat, will remain good two or three weeks, provided it be kept closely covered.

ttB BOMUTTC COOKERY*

Sauce a-Ia Ravigote.

Put a gill of good broth or soup int;o a stew-pan« witb half a spoonful of yiuegar, a little salt and whole pepper^ and a bit of butter about the si^e of a walnut ipixed with flour; ^l^en^ having scalded some tarra^n, chervil^ pimpernel, and gardeii cresses^ £6r a minute^ in boiling w^ter^ squeeze them well^ mince them very small, put them into thq sauce, thic ien it oyer the fire, and serve it up with any dish that m^ be thought proper. Ravigote, in French, signifies to enliven or revive; 8o that it8 inteptipn may be psu^lly judged by the pame it bears.

Sauce a-la Poivrade.

Put into a stew-pan a piece of butter ab(mt the size of an egg, with two or three. fAk^i OQioiM) carrots, and parsnips, a clove ' of garU^:,^ twQ ^balots, j(wq cloves, a laurel leaf, and some thyme and basil: 4«t tjie wholfi be placed over t(^e fire ti^ it begins to brown» iind then put i^ a gooil piuply of flou^ i ^j;;(j^ed with agla3S pf re ^ wine^ about a^ much water^ «Dd « ^pqonful of yinegAT, Wheip it l^^s bpil/9d half fn hf ^T, sUm if^ 9o4 pass it through a siev^^ jpeAsun well ^frith diyfeune hc long pepper, and s^lt; ffi4 feryp It up ipith whatever it may fee)9i to Auit, Poivritde, li «r^}y« is f, sauce qppiposed of pepr per and vinegar; but it more pa rtici(liMrly iojiplies faeiog well peppered or highly seasoned.

/SoMce a-l* UaliennePut twQ }arge 9pe»nfu)s of swec^ oil into t^ jstrw-pm^ 9om$ muflhrooins cut sno^ll, a.bonch of parsley, tome aaaUiQ08 half f la^0l leafy a clov« of garlio, and two i^love^. Put th# ^hole 4KI the fire, Md «dd a pinch of flour ooiogled with ivfaite IFii^e, a lU^le broth . 9r cotilia, suit, And whole pepper; let them boil half im hpur, skim off the fat, take out the herbs, (fO, wA qerve it up. If too thin, pot in a little flour, and a spoopful or two of juice of onions. This is a French aance after the ttaUm Planner, aa the name expresses. The lulians, in^ 4ei^, /are qitUe 9$ famous fi r numeroi^s sauces as the French themselves.

BROTHS, S91TF9, ORAVIB9, AND SAUCES. 179

Cheffeuii Smiee.

This sauce, like its name, is probably of French origin, beiA^ tided fbt the ehevr^uil, 6r roebuck. It is thus made:- Put a small piece of btrtt^r into a sfew-pan, with some chop« ped parsley, sha)ots, thyme, mushrooms, and a few spoonfuls df gravy or brown stock; aftef slowly simmering them for almbst a quarter of an hour, add a sufficient quantity of flour to imbibe all the butter, and continue stirring it a few minutes longer over the fire. Then put to it a pint of stock; stir it well, till it has boiled a little together; and, taking it off the fire, squeeze in some lemon juice, and add a tea-spoonful of sifted loaf sugar and a small quantity of pepper and salt, to give it a tskcdre piquant flavoiir.

FHed Parslaf,

Let it be nicely picked and washed, then put into a doth, and swung backwards and forwards till it is perfectly dry; put it into a pan of hot fat, fry it quick, and have a slice ready to take it out the moment it is crisp, (in another moment it will be spoilt;) put it on a sieve, or coarse ck)th, before the fire to drain.

Crisp Parsley.

Pick and wash young parsley, shake it in a dry cloth to drain the water from it; spread it on a sheet of dean paper, in a Dutch oven before the fire, and turn it frequently until it is quite crisp. This is a much more easy way of preparing it than frying it, which is not seldom/ ill done.

It \& a very pretty garnish for lamb chops, fiah^ &c.

FrUd Bread Sippets. Cut a slice of bread about a quarter of an inch thick, divide it with a sharp knife into pieces two inches square; shape these into triangles or crosses: put some very dean fat into an iron frying-pan; when it is hot, put in the sippets, and fry them a delicate light brown; take them up with a fish slice, . •od drain them well from fat, turning them occasionally; this will take a quarter of an hour. Keep the pan at such a distance . femi the fire, that the fSa may be hot enough to brown with*

280 DOMESTIC COOXSRT.

oat burning; this is a requisite precaution in trying delicate thin things.

These are a pretty garnish^ and very welcome accompani* ment and improvement to the finest made dishes: they majr also be sent up with peas and other soups; but when intended for soups, the bread must be cut into bitSy about half an inch ^uare. If they are not done very delicately clean and dry, they are uneatable.

Fried Bread Crumbs.

Rub brea4 (which has been baked two days) through a wire aieve^ or colander; or you may rub them in a doth till they are as fine as if they had been grated, and sifted; put them ioto a stew-pan with a couple of ounces of butter, place it over a moderate fire and stir them about with a wooden spoon till they are the colour of a guinea; spread them on a sieve, and let them stand ten minutes to drain, turning them frequently.

Fried crumbs are sent up with roasted sweetbreads, or larks, pheasants, partridges, woodcocks, and grouse, or moor game, especially if they have been kept long enough.

Rice Sauce,

Speep a quarter pound of rice in a pint of milk, with onion, pepper, &c. When the rice is quite tender (take out the spice,) rub it through a sieve into a dean stew-pan; if too thick, put a little milk or cream to it.

This is a very delicate white sauce; and at elegant tables, is firequently served instead of bread sauce.

Brouming.

This article is very convenient to colour those soups or sauces, of which it is supposed their deep brown complexion denotes the strength and savouriness of the composition. • Put half a pound of pounded lump sugar, and a table* spoonful of water, into a clean iron sauce-pan; set it over a slow fire, and keep stirring it with a wooden spoon till it becomes a bright brown colour, and begins to smoke; then add to it an ounce of salt, and dilate it by degrees with water, till it is the thickness of soy; let it boil, take oflf the scum, and ' strain the liquor into bottles, which must be well stopped: if *

BROTHS, 80I7VS, GRAVIES, AND SAUCES. 281

709 have not any of this by you, and you wish to darken the colour of your sauces, pound a tea-spoonful of lump sugar, and put into an iron spoon, with as much water as will dissolve it; hold it over a quick fire till it becomes of a very dark brown colour; mix it with the soup, &c. while it is hot.

Most of the preparations under this title are a medley of burnt butter, spices, catsup, wine, &c. . We recommend the rational epicure to be content with the natural colour of soups and sauces, which, to a well educated palate, are much more agreeable, without any of these emp3rreumatic additions: however they may please the eye, they plague the Aomach most grievously.

Some cooks calcine bones, till they are as black as a coal, and throw them hissing hot into the stew- pan, to give a brown Colour to their broths. These ingredients, under the appear* ance of a nourishing gravy, envelope our food with stimulating acid and corrosive poison.

Rous or thickening, if not made very carefully, produces exactly the same effect; and th ^ juices of beef, or veal, burnt over a hot fire, to give a rich colour to soup or sauces, grievously offend the stomach, and create the most distressing indiges^ tions.

The judicious cook will refuse the help of these incendiary articles; which ignorance or quackery only employ, not only at the expense of the credit of the cook, but the health of her employers.

Wow Wow Sauce for Stewed or BouiUi Beef.

Chop some parsley leaves very finely, quarter two or three pickled cucumbers, or walnuts, and divide them into small squares, and set them by ready; put into a sauce-pan a bit of butter as big as an egg; when it is melted, stir to it a tablespoonful of fine flour, and about half a pint of the broth in which the beef was boiled; add a table-spoonful of vinegar, the like quantity of mushroom catsup, or Port wine, or both, and a tea- spoonful of made mustard; let it simmer together till it is as' thick as you wish it, put in the parsley and pickles to get warm, and pour it over the beef,- or rather send it up in a sauce tureen.

10 2o

^8i DOMESTIC COOKSHT*

Bttf Gravjf Samite, or Brawn Sauce for Ragouts, (Simie,

Poultry, Mth, fye.

Furnish a thick and well-tinned stew-pan with i^ thin slice of fat ham or bacon^ or an ounce of butter, and a middling jBized onion; on this lay a pound of nice juicy gravy beef^ (as the object in making gravy is to extract the nutritious sue* culence of the meat, it must be beaten to comminute the con* taining vessels, and scored to augment the surface to the action of the water,) cover the stew-pan, and set it on a slow fire; when the meat begins to brown, turn it about, and let it get slightly browned, (but take care it is not at all burnt:) then pour in a pint and a half of boiling water; set the pan on the fire; when it boils, carefully catch the scum, and then put in a crust of bread toasted brown, (don*t bum it) a sprig of win* ter savory, or lemon thjnne and parsley, a roll of thin cut lemon peel, a dozen berries of allspice, and a dozen ef bkck pepper; cover the stew**pan dose, and let it stew very gently for about two hours, then strain it through a sieve into a basio* Now, if you wish to thicken it, set a clean stew-pan over a slow fire, with about an ounce of butter in it; when it is melted, dredge to it (by degrees) as much flour as will dry it up» stirring them well together; when thoroughly mixed, poor in a little of the gravy, stir it well together, and add the remain* der by degrees: set it over the fire; let it simmer gently for fiSfleen or twenty minutes longer, and skim off the fat, &c. as it rises; when it is about as thick as cream, squeeze it through a tammis, or fine sieve, and you will have a fine rich brown saoee, at a very moderate expense, and without much trouble.

If you wish to make it still more relishing,-* if it is for poultry, yon may pound the liVer with a bit of butter, rub it through a sieve, and stir it into the sauee when yon put in the thickening. For a ragout, or game, add at the same time a tlible-spoonful of mushroom catsup, the juice of half a lemon» gtid h roll 6f the rind par^ thin, a table- ^K onful of port, or cfther wine, (claret is t est,) add a few grains of Cayenne pepper; or use double the quantity of meat, or add a bit of glaae, or portable Soup.

BROTHS^ SOVVSf GRAVIBS, AUTD SAUCES. ^^d

Orange Grmvy Sauce, for Wild Ducks, Widgeon, Teal, S^c.

S^t on a sauce-pan with half a pint of veal gravy, add tP it half a dozen leaves of basils a small paion^ and a roll of orange or lemon peel, and let it boil up for a few minutes, and strain it off. Put to the deur gravy the juice of a Seville orange^ or lemon^ half atea-tpoonfWl of salt, the same of pepper, and. a glass of red wine; send it up hot Eschalot and Cayenne may be added* This is an excellent sauce for all kin4B of wild water fowl.

The common way of gashing the breast, and squeezing in an orange, cools and hardens the flesh, and compels every one to eat duck that way; some people like wild fowl very little done, and without any sauce.

Gravies should always be sent up in a boat; they keep hot longer; and it leaves it to the choice of the company to pai;take it or not.

Bonne Bouche, for Goose, Duck, or Roast Pork. .

Mix a tea-spoonful of made mustard, a salt-spoonful qf salty and a few grains of cayenne, in a large wine-glassful qf claret, or Port wine; pour it into the goose by a slit in the apron, just before serving up; or, as all the company may not like it, stir it into a quarter ^ a pint of thick melted butter, at thickened g^vj, and send it up in a boat.

JRfihert Sauce for Steaks, Roast Pork, or Geese, Sfc,

Put nn ounce of butter into a pint stew-pan; when it is melted, add to it half an ounce of onion minced very fiae: turn it with a wooden spoon, till it takes a l^bt brown colour, then stir in a table-spoonful of flour, a tabl^spoonful c^ mushroom catsup, (with or wiUniut the She ^aotity of Port wine,) half a pint of broth, or water, and a quarter oi m teaspoonful of pepper, the same of salt; give theoj-a boil, then add a tea-spoonful of mustard, and the juice of half a lemon, or one or two tea-spoon^ls of vinegar,' or basil.

The French call thia&ittce Robert, (firom the name of the cook who invented it,) and are very, fond of it with many things.

284 DOMESTIC COOKERY.

BefUon Sauce,

Grate some. horseradish, or scrape it very fine. Add to it a little made mustard, some pounded white sugar, and four large spoonfuls of vinegar. Serve it up in a saucer: this i» good with hot or. cold roast beef.

Turtle Sauce.

Put into your stew-pan a pint of beef gravy thickened, a wine-glass of Madeira, the juice and peel of half a lemon, a few leaves of basil, an eschalot quartered, a few grains of Cayenne pepper, or curry powder, and a little essence of anchovy; let them simmer together for five minutes, and strain through a tammis; you may introduce a dozen turtle forcemeat balls. &c. .

This is the sauce for boiled or hashed cairahead^ stewed veal, or any dish you dress turtle fashion.

Wine Sauce, for Veniwn or Hare,

A quarter of a pint of claret or Port wine, the same quantity of plain unflavoured mutton gravy, and a table-spooilful of currant jelly; let it just boil up, and send it to table in a sauce-boat.

Sharp Sauce for Venigou.

Put into a silver, or very clean and well-tinned sauoe-pan, half a pint of the best white wine vinegar, and a quarter of a pound of loaf-sugar pouuded; set it over the fire, and let it simmer gently: skim it carefully, pour it through a tammis ot fine sieved and send it up in a basin.

Some people like this better than the sweet wine sauces;

Swui Sauce far Venison or Hare.

Pat some currant jelly into a stew-pan; when it is melted, pour it into a sauce-boat. Many send it to table withoat melting.

This is a more salubrious relish than either spice or salt, and when the palate protests against animal food unless its flavour be masked: currant jelly is a good accompaniment tft roasted or hashed meats.

r

BROTHS^ 4M t7P8, GRAVIES, AND SAUCBS. 286

Old Sauce for Venison.

An old favourite sauce for venison ia still occasionally made in the following manner: Simmer^ in a pint of red wine, half a pound of powdered sugar, and a stick of cinnamon, till the liquor becomes tolerably thick, but without boiling; then cut some bread into dice, soften it in water, put it into the sauce, take out the cinnamon, and boil the rest up together. Sometimes, the bread is at first boiled with the wine and the spice till quite smooth, and the sugar only introduced on taking out the cinnamon; when it is boiled up, and beaten into what is called the old pap sauce for venison.

Cheap Ham Stock for Grame$ and Sauces.

Take a ham bone, when nearly done with; pick oat all the bits of meat which are not rusty, whether fat or lean; smash the bone to pieces^ beat the meat with a rolling-pin, and put the whole into a sauce- pan, over a slow fire, with about a quar« ter of a pint of broth or gravy. Stir it well continually, to prevent it sticking to the bottom; and, when it has been on some time, add a small quantity of sweet herbs, a little pepper, and half a pint of beef gravy: then cover it up, and let it continue gently to stew till the herbs give it a good flavour. It is then to be strained off, and carefully kept to improve rich gravy, or sauces of almost every description; being, in fact, a sort of essence of ham, though thus easily and cheaply obtained.

Grill Sauce.

To half a pint of beef gravy^ add an ounce of fresh butter, and a table-spoonful of flour, previously well rubbed together, the same of mushroom, or walnut catsup, two tea-spoonfuls of lemon juice, one of made mustard, one of minced capers, half a one of black pepper, a quarter of the rind of a lemon, grated very thin, a tea-spoonful of essence of anchovies, and a little shalot wine, or a very small piece of minced shalot, and a little Chili vinegar, or a few grains of cayenne; simmer together &r a few minutes, and pour a little of it over the grill, and send up the rest in a sauce tureen.

88$ DOMESTIC COOKBftY.

Sauce a^Ia Tartars

Potwd in a mortar three hard yolks of egg%, put them into abasin^ and add half a table- spoonful of made mustard^ and a little pepper and salt; pour to it by degrees, stirring it fast all the while, about two wine-glassfuls of salad oil; stir it to* gether till it comes to a good thickness.

A little tarragon or chervil minced very finely, and a little vinegar, may be added.

Sauce for Steaks, or Chops, Cutlets, Sfc.

Take your chops out of the frying-pan; for a pound of meat, keep a table-spoonful of the fat in the pan, or put in about an ounce of butter; put to it as much flour as will make it a paste, rub it well together over the fire till they are a little brown, then add as much boiling water as wiH reduce it to the thickness of good cream, and a table-spoonful of mushroom, or walnut catsup, or browning: let it boil together a few minutes, and pour it through a sieve to the steaks, &c.

Sauci for Hashes of Mutton, or Beef

Chop the bones and fragments of the joint, &c and put them into a stew-pan, and cover them with boiling water, six berries of black pepper, the same of allspice, a small bundle of parsley, half a head of celery cut in pieces, and a small sprig of savory, or lemon thyme, or sweet marjoram; cover up, and let it simmer gently for half an hour.

Slice half an ounce of onion, and put it into a stew-pan with an ounce of butter, fry it over a sharp fire for about a couple of minutes, till it takes a little colour; then stir in as much flour as will make it a stiff paste, and by degrees mix with it the gravy you have made from the bones, &c. Let it^ boil very gently for about a quarter of an hour, till it is the consistence of thick cream; strain it through a tammis or sieve into a basin; put it back into the stew-pan. To season it, cut in a few pickled onions, or walnuts, or a couple of gherkins, and a table-spoonful of mushroom catsup, or walnut, or other pickle liquor, or some capers and caper liquor, or a tablespoonful of ale, or a little shalot, or tarragon vinegar; cover the bottom of the dish with sippets of bread, (that they may

BEOTHS, SOtJ»S, 6AAV1B9, AW SAVCB8. tfft

beeoiBie Mvoury retervom tif grasvy,) ipliich Mitt^ toait «fid cat into triangles. You may garnish it with 6ntd bi^ad iUfq^lelts. T6 ha^ nest in pafe^dm^, it should be hoi. kk «hM firavy (mly jufit long enough %9 get propetty #am tltt^ough. If mtty of tbe gravy that was sent up with, or ran froitt the jo^ when it was roasted, be left» it wdl be a great iin(irovement to the hash.

Sauce f&r Hashed or Minced Veal.

Take tihe bonea of cold rasM; or boiled veal, dredge diem well with floar, and put them into a stew-pan, witha paiiit aad a half of broth or water, a small onion, a little grated or finely ninced lenieii peel, or Ae pad 6t a quarter o# a sbm^ l^noti, pared as thin ss ^^ossbk, half A teo'^poonfui a£ salt, and a bkde ^of pouaded mace; te thidun it, rdb a table-spoon-* f«d of flour into half «n otacc of butter; stir it into tiie broths and sM it essx the fce^ abdkt it bofl very gently finr idiout half an hoi»r« strimi thtough a taannn nr siev«, and it is vaidy to piittotbe¥ea)«to wiffm up^ whiehis4obedoDeby pUoingtha slsw-piinl^t4e side of the fire. Sqiieese in half alemoD,aiid oover the bottom of «be dish with toasted bread sippets cut into triangles, atidganush the disk wkh dices of turn or bacon.

Bechamel, commonly oaUed Whke Semce.

Cut in aquace pieces, half an inch thick) two poonds of lean veal, half a pound of lean ham; melt in a atow-pan two ovncea of butter; when melted, let the whole simmer until it is ready to catch at the bottom, (it requires great attention, as if it happen to ctleh at the bottom of the stetr-pHH, it will spoH the look of yo«r sauce,) then add to it three tslUe-spobnfuls of fi^ur; when well ouxed, add to it three piMs of broth or water,-^pour a Uttlaata time, that the tlMfiei^g be smooth, sltir h until it boil, put the stew-pan onljhe corner sf the Move t5 boil gently for two hours, season it with four cloves, one onion, twelve peppercams, a blade df mai^e, a few mw(brooms, and a ftgot made of par^y, a sprig of ^yme, and a bay leaf. Let the sanbe reduce toa qnsB% skfknthie ftt off, and strain it through a tammis doth.

To make a beehataHel sauce, add to aqn^t of the above a piat of good CFeaBi,«'-«lir it Mtil it is reduced to a good thiek

28S DORBSTIC COOKBBT.

ness; afew muahrooms give a-good flavour to that saiioe; straiil it tbrough a tamnris cloth.

Bechamel implies a thick white sauce/ approaching to a batter, and takes its name from a wealthy French marqui^ famous for his patronage of les Ojficiera dt Bouche, who have immortalised him, by calling by his name this delicate com* position.

Most of the French sauces take their name from the person whose palate they first pleased, as a-ld Maintenon; or from some famous cook who invented them, as Sauce Robert,- a^la Motttizeur, &c.

A more Economical Method of making a Pint of White Sauce*

Put equal parts of broth and milk into a stew-pan with an enioB and a blade of mace, - set on the fire to boil ten minutes, have ready and rub tqgether on a plate an ounce of flour and butter, put it into the stew-pan, stir it well till it boils op, then stand it near the fire or stove, stirring it every now and then tin it becomes quite smooth, then strain it through a sieve into a basin, put it back into the stew-pan, season it with salt and the juice c£ a small lemon, beat up the yolks of two eggs well with about three table-spoonfuls of milk, strain it through a sieve into your sauce, stir it well, and keep it near the fire; but be sure and do not let it boil, fior it will curdle.

This is a convenient veil for boiled fowls, Slc, whose complexions are not inviting!

* i

Muiturd.

Mix (by degrees, by rubbing together in a mortar) the best Durham flour of mustard with cold water, in which scraped horseradish has been boiled; rub it well together till it is perfectly smooth; it will keep in a stone jar dosely stopped, for a fortnight; only put as much into the mustard pot as will be used in a day or two.

The ready made mustard, prepared at the oil shops, is mixed with about one-fourth part salt: this is done to preserve it,* if it is to be kept long; otherwise, by all means omit it The best way of eating salt is in substance.

We believe mustard is the best of all the stimulants that are employed to give energy to the digestive organs. Some opii«*

BROTHS^ 80UP8» ORAVIBS^ AND SAUCES. 280

lent epJcuEes mix it witk therry or Madeira wine^ or distilled orflavoiured vinegar, instead of horseradish water.

Mmtard'in a Minute,

Mix very gradually, and rub together in a mortar, an ounce of flour of mustard, with three table-spoonfuls of milk, (cream is better,) half a tea-spoonful of salt, and the same of sugar; mb them well together till quite smooth. Mustard made in this manner is not at all bitter, and is therefore instantly ready for Uie table.

It has been said that flour of mustard is sometimes adulterated with common flour, &c.

Keeping Mugtard.

Dissolve three ounces of salt in a quart of boiling water, and pour it hot upon two ounces of scraped horseradish; closely cover down the jar, and let it stand twenty-four hours: strain, and mix it by degrees with the best Durham flour of mastaid, beat well together till quite smooth and of the proper thickness; put into a wide-mouthed bottle, and stop it elosely.

Cayenne Pepper.

Foreign Cayenne pepper is an indiscriminate mixture of the powder of the dried pods of many species of capsicums, especially of the bird pepper, which is the hottest of all. As it comes to ns from the West Indies, it changes the infusion of tumioleto a beautiful green, probably owing to the salt which is always added to it, and the red oxide of lead, with whidi it is said to be adulterated.

The Indian cayenne is prepared in a very careless manner^ and often looks as if the pods had lain till they were decayed^ before they were dried; this accounts for the dirty brown ap* pearance it commonly has. If properly dried as soon as gather* ed, it will be of a clear red colour. To give it the complexion of that made with good fresh-gathered capsicums or chilies, some amatto, or other vegetable red colouring matter, is pomided with it, adulterated with red lead.

When cayenne is pounded, it is mixed with a considerable portion of salt» to prevent iU flying up and hurting the eyes: II Sp

290 DOMESTIC COOKERY.

this might be avoided by grinding it in a mill. Which may easily be made close enough^ especially if it be passed through a second time^ and then sifted through a fine drum-headed sieve, to produce as fine a powder as can be obtained by pounding. However, our English chilies may be pounded in a deep mortar without any danger.

Capsicums and chilies are rtpe and red, and in finest condition, during September and October; they may be purchased at herb shops, the former for about five, the bitter for two shOlings per hundred.

The flavour of the chilies is very superior to that of the capsicums, and will be good in proportion as they are dried as soon as possible, taking care they are not burnt.

Take away the stalks, and put the pods into a colander; set it before the fire; they will take full twelve hours to dry; then put them into a mortar, with one-fourth .their weight of salt, and pound them and rub them till they are as fine as possible, and put them into a well-stopped bottle.

We advise those who are fond of cayenne, not to think it too much trouble to make it of English chilies; there is no other way of being sure it is genuine, and they will obtain a pepper

of much finer flavour, without half the heat of the foreign. A

«

hundred large chilies, costing only two shillings, will produce you about two ounces of cayenne, - so it is as cheap as the CQm « monest cayenne.

Eiseneeof Cayenne.

Put half an ounce of Cavenne pepper into half a pint of wine or brandy; let it steep a fortnight, and then pour off the dear liquor. This article is very convenient for the extempow seasoning and finishing of soups and sauces, its flavour being instantly and equally diffused.

SaU.

Common salt sl^ould be prepared for the table by drying it in a Dutch oven before the fire: then put it on a dean paper, and roU it with a rolling-pin. If you pound it in a mortar till it is quite fine, it will look as well as basket salt, ^alden salt i^ 8ti}l more piq^nU.

BROTHS, S0t7t»S, GRAVIES, AND SAUCES. 291

Basket Sidt.

This fine and delicftte article is chiefly made from the salt springs in Cheshire, and difTers from the common brine salt, (asually called sea salt,) not only in its whiteness and purity, bat in the fineness of its grain. Some families entertain prejudices against basket salt, notwithstanding its superior delicacy, from an idea, which does not appear warranted, that pernicious articles are used in its preparation: it may therefore be proper to mention, that by dissolving common salt, again evaporating into dryness, and then reducing it to powder in a mortar, a salt nearly equal to basket salt may be obtained, fine and of a good colour, and well adapted to the use of the table.

Forcemeat Stuffings.

Forcemeat is now considered an indispensable accompaniment to most made dishes, and when composed with good taste, gives additional spirit and relish to even that Sovereign of SavcwrinesSj turtle soup. It is also sent up in patties, and for stuffing pf veal, ganie, poultry, &c.

The ingredients should be so proportioned, that no one flavour predominates. Instead of giving the same stuffing for veal,, hare, &c. with a little contrivance you may make as great a variety as you have dishes.

I have given receipts fbr some of the most favourite compositions, and a table of materials, a glance at which will enable the ingenious cook to make an infinite variety of combinations: the first column containing the spirit, the second the substance of them.

The poignancy of forcemeat should be proportioned to the savouriness of the viands, to which it is intended to give an additional sest. Some dishes require a very delicately flavoured forcemeat; for others it must be full and high seasoned. What would be piqnante in a turkey, would be insipid with turtle.

Tastes are so different, and the praise the cook receives will depend so much on her pleasing the palate of those she works for, that all her sagacity must be on the alert, to produce the flavours to which her employers are partial.

Most people have an acquired and peculiar taste in stuffings, && imd what exactly pleases one, seldom is precisely what another considers the most agreeable. Custom is all in all, in

292

DOMESTIC COOKEET.

matters of taste; it ia not that one person is naturally fond of this or that, and another naturally averse to it, but that one ia used to it^ and anotheir is not.

The consistency of forcemeats is rather a difficult thng to manage; they are almost always either too light or too heavjr.

Take care to pound it till perfbctly smooth, and that all the ingredients are thoroughly incoiporated.

Forcemeat balls must not be larger than a small nutmeg: if they are for brown sauce, flour them and fry tiiem;' if £at white, put them into boiling water, and boil them for three minutes: the latter are by far the most delieate.

Forcemeat, if not of snfficimit stiffness, -fiiUs to pieces, •and makes soup, &c. grouty and very unsightly.

Sweetbreads and tongues are the &vottrite materials for forcemeat.

Materials used far Forcemeat.

SPIRIT.

Thyme

Sweet Marjoram

Summer and Winter

Savory Sage Tarragon BasU Bay-leaf

Truffles and Mords Onions Leeks Garlic Oysters Anchovy Dressed Tongue Black, or White Pepper Allspice Cayenne

I

9

SUBSTANCES.

Flour

Crumbs of Bread

Parsley

Spinach

Boiled Onion

Mashed Potatoes

Yolks of hard Eggs

Mutton

Beef

Veal Suet, or Marrow

Calf's Udder, or Brains

Parboiled Sweetbread

Veal minced and poundei

Potted Meats.

BROTHS, SOUPS, GBAVtES, AND SAUCB9. ^M

Simfimg far Veal, Roast Turkey, Fowl, Sfc.

Mince a quarter of a pound of beef suet, (beef marrow is better,) the same weight of bread crumbs, two drams of parsley leaves, a dram and a half of sweet marjoram, (or lemon thyme,) and the same of grated lemon peel, and onion or eschalot chopped as fine as possible, a little grated nutmeg, pepper, and salt: pound thoroughly together with the yolk and white of two eggs, and secure it in the veal with a skewer, or sew it in with a bit of thread.

Make some of It into balls or sausages, flour them, and boil or fVy them; and send them up as a garnish^ or in a side dish, with roast poultry, veal, or cutlets, &c.

This is about the quantity for a turkey poult; a very large turkey will take nearly twice as much. To the above may be added an ounce of dressed ham,^6r use equal parts of the above stuffing, and pork sausage meat, pounded well together.

Feat Forcemeat,

Of undressed lean veal (after yon have scraped it quite fine, and free from skin and sinews,) two ounces, the same quantity of (beef or veal) suet, and the same of bread crumbs; chop fine two drams of parsley, one of lemon peel, one of sweet herbs, one of onion, and half a dram of mace, or allspice, (beaten to fine powder;) pound all together in a mortar, break into it the yolk and white of an ^g: rub it all up well together, and season it with a little pepper and salt.

This may be made more savoury by the addition of cold boiled pickled tongue, andiovy, eschalot, cayenne, or carry powder, &c.

€ho$e or Duck Shjfing.

Chop very fine about two ounces of onion, of green asge leaves about an ounce, (both unboiled,) four ounces of bread crumbs, the yolk and white of an egg, and a little pepper and salt; some add to this a mmoMl apple*

Stuffing for Hare.

Two euDces of beef suet chopped fine, three ounces of fine breadcrumbs; parsley, a dram; shalot, half a dram; a dram of marjoram, lemon tbyme or winter savory; a dnm of

ftD4 DOMESTIC COOKSRY.

grated lemon peel, half a dram of nutmeg, and the same of pepper and salt: mix these with the white and yolk of an egg; do not make it thin; it most be of a cohesive consistence; if your stuffing is not stiff enough, it will be good for nothing; put it in the hare, and sew it up.

If the liver is quite sound, you may parboil it, and minoe it very fine, and add it to the above*

Forcemeat Balls for Turtle, Mock Turtle, or Made Dishes.

Pound some veal in a marble mortar, rub it through a 'sieve with as much of the udder as you have veal, or about a third the quantity of butter;- pot some bread crumbs into a stew-pan, moisten them with milk, add a little chopped parsley and shalot, rub them well together in a mortar till they form a smooth paste; put it through a sieve, and when cold, pound, and mix all together, with the yolks of three ^ggs boiled hard; season it with salt, pepper, and curry powder, or cayenne; add to it the yolks of two raw eggs, rub it well .together, and make small balls; ten minutes before your soap is tesAj, put them in.

Egg Balls.

Boil four eggs for ten minutes, and put them into cold water; when they are quite cold, put the yolks into a mortar with the yolk of a raw egg, a tea^spoonful of flour, same of chopped parsley, as much salt as will lie on a shilling, and a little black pepper, or cayenne, rub them well together, roll them into small balls, (as they swell in boiling,}- boil them a couple of minutes.

Curry Balls, for Moek Turtle, Veal, Poultry, tf M^de Dishes.

These are made with bread crumbs, the yolk of ao egg boiled hard, and a bit of fresh butter about half as big, beaten together in a mortar, and seasoned with curry powder. Make and prepare small balls, as directed for ^g balls.

Fish Forcemeat. Take two ounces of either turbot, sole, lobster, shrimps, or oysters, ftee fiom skin; put it in a mortar, with two ounces of ftesh butter, one ounce of bread crumbs^ the yolk of two

BROTHS, SOUPS, GRAVIES, AND SAUCBS. 295

eggs boiled hard, and a little eschalot, grated lemon peel, and IHffsley, minced very fine; then pound it well till it is thoroughly mixed and quite smooth; season it with salt and cayenne to your taste, break in the yolk and white of one egg^ rub it well together, and it is ready for use. Oysters parboiled and minced fine, and an anchovy, may be added.

Orange or Letnon Peel, to mup with Stuffing.

Peel a Seville orange, or lemon, very thin, taking off only the fine yellow rind, (without any of the white,) pound it in 9 mortar with a bit of lump sugar, rub it well with the peel, by degrees add a little of the forcemeat it is to be mixed with; when it is well ground and blended with this, mix it with the whole: there is no other way of incorporating it so well.

Forcemeats, &c. are frequently spoiled by the insufficient mixing of the ingredients.

Clouted or Clotted Cream,

The milk which is put into the pans one morning stands till the next; then put the pan on a hot hearth, (or in a copper tray, half full of water,- put this over a stove;) in from ten to twenty minutes, according to the quantity of the milk and the ^ize of the pan, it will be enough,- the sign of which is, that bladders rise on its surface; this denotes that it is neai^ boiling, which it must by no means do; and it must be instantly removed from the fire, and placed in the dairy till the next morning, when the fine cream is thrown up, and is ready for the table, or for butter, into which it is soon converted by stirring it with the hand.

Roipherry Vinegar.

The best way to make this is to pour three pints of the best white wine vinegar on a pint and a half of fresh gathered red raspberries in a stone jar, or china bowl, (neither glazed earthenware, nor any metallic vessel, must be used;) the next day strain the liquor over a like quantity of fresh ra^berries; and the day following do the same. Then drain off the liquor without pressing, and pass it through a jelly bag, (previously wetted with plain vinegar) into a stone jar, with a pound of poiinded lump sugar to each pint. Wh^ the sugar is dissolved.

296 BOMBSTIC COOKERY.

stir it upj cover down the jar^ and set it in m sauoe-pan of water, and keep it boiling for an hour, taking off the acum; add to each pint a glass of brandy, and bottle it: mixed in about eight parts of water, it is a very refreshing and delightful summer drink. An excellent cooling beverage to ^asoage thirst in ardent fevers, colds, and inflammatory complaints^ &C. and is agreeable to most palates.

Sjfrup of Ltwum$,

The best season for lemons is from November to March. Put a pint of fresh lemon juice to a pound and three quarters of lump sugar; dissolve it by a gentle heat, scum it till the surface is quite clear,-- add an ounce of thin cut lemon peel; let them simmer (very gently) together for a few minutes, and run it through a flannel. When cold, bottle ancl cork it dose* ly, and keep it in a cool place.

Orange Sj^mp^ for Pwnehcr Pudding*.

Squeeze the oranges, and strain the juice from the pulp into a large pot: boil it up with a pound and a half of fine sugar to each pint of juice; skim it well, let it stand till cold, and then bottle it, and cork it well.

This makes a fine, soft, mellow- flavoured punch; and, added to melted butter, u a good relish to puddings.

Sifmp of Orange^ or Lemon Peel.

Of fresh onter raid of Seville or lemon peel, three ounces, apothecaries' weight; boiling water, a pint and a half; infuse them for a night in a close vessel; then strain the liquor; let it stand to settle; and having poured it off clear from the sedi« ment, dissolve in it two pounds of double refined loaf sugar, . and make it into a syrup with a gentle heat

In making this syrup, if .the sugar be dissolved in the in.fusion with as gentle a heat as possible, to prevent the exhalation of the volatile parts of the peel, this syrup will poesesa a l^reat share of the fine flavour of the orange, or lemon-ped.

Tarragon Vinegar, This is a very agreeable addition to soups, and to mix rous,tanL Fill a wide-mouthed bottle with fresh-gathered tarn;

BROTHS, SOtJPS, GRAVIBS, AND SAUCES. 297

g m leavesi t. f. between midsummer and Michaelmas, (wliich should be (fathered on a dry day, just before it flowers,) and pickle leaves off the stalks, and dry them a little before the fire; cover them with the best vinegar, let them steep fourteen dayt, then slmin through a flannel jelly bag till it is €ne, then pour it into half-pint bottles; cork thefn careftiUy, and •keep them in a dry place.

You may prepare elder flowers and herbs in the same manner; elder and tarragon are those in most general use in this country.

Our neighbours, the French, prepare vinegars flavoured with celery, cucumbers, capsicums^ garlic, eschalot^ onion, capers, chervil^ cress seed, bumet, trufiles, Seville orange peel, ginger, &c. in short, they impregnate them with almost evej^ herb, fruit, flower, and spice separately^ and in innumerable combinations.

Basil Vinegar, or Wine,

Sweet basO is in full perfection about the middle of August. Pill a wide-mouthed botUe with the fresh green leaves of baail^ (these give much finer and more flavour than the dried,) and cover them with vinegar, or wine, and let them steep for ten days; if you wish a very strong essence, strain the liquor, put it on some fresh leaves, and let them steep fourteen days more. This is 8 very agreeable addition to. sauces and soups.

It is a secret the makers of mock turtle may thank us for telling; a table-spoonful, put in when the soup is finished, will impr^rnate a tureen of soup with the basil and acid flavours, at a very small cost, when fre^ basil and lemons are extravagantly dear.

The flavour of the other sweet and savoury herbs, celery, icd, may be procured, and preserved in the same manner, by infbsing them in wine or vinegar.

Cresi Vinegar.

Dry and pound half an ounce of cress seed, (such as is sown in the garden with mustard,) pour upon it a quart of thabest vinegar, let it steep ten days, shaking it up every day.

This is very strongly flavoured with cress and for salads; and cold meats, &c. it is a great favourite with many. The 11 2q

298 DOMESTIC COOKBRY.

quart of sauce costs only a half-penny more than the vinegar. Celery vinegar is made in the same manner.

Green Mint Vinegar

Is made precisely in the same manner, and with the same proportions, as the foregoing.

In the early season of housed-lamb, grtsen mint is 8om»times not to be got; the above is then a welcome substitate*

Burnet or Cucumber Vinegar.

This is made in precisely the same manner as cress vinegar. The flavour of bumet resembles cucumber so exactly, that when infused in vmegar, the nicest palate would pronounce it to be cucumber.

This is a very favourite relish with cold meat, salads, &c. Burnet is in best season from midsummer to Michaebnas.

Horseradish Vinegar,

Horseradish is in the highest perfection about November.

Pour 1^ quart of best vinegar on three ounces of scraped horseradish, an ounce of minced eschalot, and one dram of cayenne; let it stand a week, and you will have an excellent relish for cold beef, salads, &c. costing scarcely any thing.

A portion of black pepper and mustard, celery or cress* seed, may be added to the above.

Garlic Vinegar.

Garlic is ready for this purpose from midsummer, to Michaelmas.

Peel and chop two ounces of garlic, pour on them a quart of white-wine vinegar, stop the jar close, and let it steep ten days, shaking it well every day; then pour off the clear liquoc iuto small bottles.

The cook must be carelul not to use too much of this: a few drops of it will give a pint of gravy a sufficient smack of the garlic: the flavour of which, when slight, and well blended, is one of the finest we have; when used in excess, it is the most offensive.

r

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BROTHS, SOUPd, ORAYIBS, AND SAUCES. 209

• The best way to use garlic is to send up some of this vinegar in a cruet, and let the company flavour their own sauce as tfiey like.

Etehalot Vinegar,

Eschalot vinegar is made in the same manner as the above^ and the cook should never be without one of these useful auxi «

liaries; they cost scarcely any thing but the little trouble of makings and will save a great deal of trouble in flavouring soups and sauces with a taste of onion.

Eschalots are in high perfection during July, August, and September.

Eschalot Wine.

Peel, mince^ and pound in a mortar, three ounces of eschalots, and infuse them in a pint of sherry for ten days; then pour off the clear liquor on three ounces more shalots, and let the wine stand on them ten days longer.

This is rather the most expensive, but infinitely the most elegant preparation of eschalot, and imparts the onion flavour to soups and sauces, for chops, steaks, or boiled meats, hashes, &c. more agreeably than any: it does not leave any unpleasant taste in the mouth, or to the breath, - nor repeat, as almost all the other preparations of garlic, onion, &c. do.

An ounce of scraped horseradish may be added to the above, and a little thin cut lemon peel.

Camp Finegar. Slice a large head of garlic, and put it into a wide-mouthed bottle, with half an ounce of cayenne, two tea-spoonfuls of soy, two of walnut catsup, four anchovies chopped, a pint of vinegar, and enough cochineal to give it the colour of lavender drops. Let it stand six week; then strain it off quite clear, and keep it in small bottles sealed up.

Chili or Cayenne Wine. •

Pound ^nd steep fitly fresh red chilies» or a quarter of an ounce of Cayenne pepper, in half a pint of brandy, white wine, or claret, for fourteen days.

300 DOMBSTIC COOKERY.

This is a hmne houche for the lovers of cayenne, of whidi it takes up a larger proportion of its flavour than of its fire.: which being instantly diffused, it is a very useful auxiliary t^ v

warm and finish soups and sauces, &c.:

Essence of Lemon Peel.

Wash and brush dean the lemons; let them get perfectly dry: take a lump of loaf sugar, and rub them till all the ydlow rind is taken up by Ihe sugar; scrape off the surface of tb^ ^

sugar into a preserving pot, and press it hard down; cover it very dose, and it will keep for some . time. In the same way you may get the essence of Seville orange peel.

This method of procuring and preserving the flavour of lemon peel, by making tjfn Oko^sactharum, is far superior to the common practice of paring off the rind, or grating it, and pounding, or mixing that with sugar: by this process, yon obtain the whole of the fine, fragrant, essential oil, in which is contained the flavour.

Essence of AUsptee.

Take a dram of the oil of pimento, and mix it by degrees with two ounces of strong spirit of wine. A few drops will give the flavour of allspice to a pint of gravy, or mulled wine.

Tincture of Lemon Peel.

A very easy and economical way of obtaining and pr^ serving the flavour of lemon peel, is to fill a wide-moudied pint bottle half full of brandy, rum, or proof spirit; and when you use a lemon, pare the rind off very thin, and put it into the brandy, &c.- in a fortnight, it will impregnate the spirit with the flavour very strongly.

Essence of Anchovy.

Put into a marble morUr ten or twelve fine mellow anchovies, that have been well pickled, and pound them to a pulp. Put this into a clean well tinned sauce-pan, then put a tablespoonful of cold water into the mortar, shake it round, and pour it to the pounded anchovies. Set them by the side of a slow fire, frequently stirring them together till they are melted, which they will be in the course of five minutes. Now stir in

BROTHS, SOVFS, ORAVIBS, ANI^ SAUCES. 001

m quarter of a lrain of good cayenne, and let it remain by the fire a few minutes longer. Rub it through a hair sievsi:with the- jiia^k of a wooden^ spoon, and keep it stopped very closdy: if the air gets to it, it b spoiled directly, fiaaence of anchovy is made sometimes with sherry, or madeira, instead of water, or with the addition of mushroom catsup.

Anchovy Paste.

Pound them in a mortar, rub the pulp through a fine sieve, pot it, cover it with. clarified butter, and keep it in a cool place.' The paste may also be made by rubbing the essence with as much flour as will make a paste; but this is only intended for inunediate use, #nd will not keep. This is aometimes made atlfler and hotter, by the addition of a little flour of mustard^ a pickled walnut, spice, or cayenne.

Anchovy Powder,

Pound the fish in a mortar, rub them through a sieve, mak^ them into a paste with dried flour, roll it into thin cakes, and dry them in a Dutch oven before a slow* fire. To this may be added a small portion of cayenne, grated lemon peel, and citric acid. Pounded to a fine powder, and put into a well^stopped bottle, it will keep for years. It is a very savoury relish^ sprinkled on bread and butter for a sandwich.

Essence of Celery,

Steep in a quarter of a pint of brandy, or proof spirit, half an ounce of celery seed bruised, and let it sund a fortnight. A few drops will immediately flavour a pint of broth, and are an excellent addition to peas, and other soups.

Essence of Ginger.

Grate three ounces of ginger, and an ounce of thin lemon peel, into a quart of brandy, or proof spirit, and let it stand for ten days, shaking it up each day. If ginger is taken to produce an immediate effect, to warm the stomach, or dispel flatulence, this will be found the best preparation.

Essence of Oysters,

Take fine fresh Milton oysters, wash them in their own liquor, skim it, and pound them in a marble mortar. To a

¦*¦*- - WP^x- - w^^^^^^^^i^^Mi^^-i^^- ^^^^^^"^^^

902 ^ lK li^E8tlC COOKBRT.

pint of oysters add a pint of sherry^ boil them up^ and add ah oance of salt^ two drams of pounded mace, and one of cayenne. Let it just boil up again, sJEim it, a^ rub it through a sieve. When cold, bottle and cork it wel* and seal it down; This composition very agreeably heightens the flavour of white sauces, and white made dishes. If a glass of brandy be added to the essence, it will keep a considerable time longer than oysters are out of season.

ReUihfor Chaps^ Spe.

Pound fine an ounce of black p^per, and half an ounce of allspice, with an ounce of salt, and half an ounce of scraped horseradish, and the same of eschalot peeled and quartered; put these ingredients into a pint of mushroom catsup, or wal-i nut pickle, and let them steep for a fbrtnight, and then strain it.

A tea-spoonful or two of this is generally an acceptable addition, mixed with the gravy usually sent up for (hops and steaks; or added to thick melted butter.

Walnut Catsup.

Take six half sieves of green walnut shells, put them into a tub, mix them up well with common salt, from two to three pounds, let them stand for six days, frequently beating and mashing them; by this time the shells become soft and palpy then by banking it up on one side of th^ tub, and at the same time by raising the tub on that side, the liquor w31 drain clear off to the other; then take that liquor out: the mashing and banking up may be repeated as often as liquor is found. The quantity will be about six quarts. When done, let it be simmered in an iron bailer as long as any scum arises; then bruise a quarter of a pound of .ginger, a quarter of a pound of allspice, two ounces of long pepper, two ounces of cloves, with the above ingredients, let it slowly boil for half an hour: when bottled, let an equal quantity of the spice go into each bqi^e; when corked, let the bottles be filled quite up: cork ijiem tight, seal them over, and put into a cool and dry place for one year before it is used.

Mushroom Catsup.

If you love good catsup, make it yourself, after the following directions, and you will have a delicious relish for made dishes, ragouts, soups, sauces or hashes.

BROTHS, SOUPS, GRAVIES^ AND SAUCBS. 909

MaBhroom gravy approaches the nature and flavour of meat l^ravy more than any vegetable juice; and is the most super* lative substitute for it, in mqagre soups and extempore gravies, the chemistry of tf*e kitchen has yet contrived to agreeably awaken the palate, and encourage the appetite.

A couple of quarts of double catsup, made accordii^ to the following receipt, will save you some score pounds of meat, besides a vast deal of time and trouble, as it will furnish, in a few minutes, as good sauce as can bo made for either fish flesh, or fowl.

We believe the following, is the best way of extracting and preparing the essence of musliropms, so as to procure and preserve their flavour for a considerable length of time.

Look out for mushrooms from the beginning of September.

Take care they are the right sort, and fresh gathered.* Full ) I grown flaps are to b^ preferred. Put a layer of these at the

{bottom of a deep earthen pan, and sprinkle them with salt,

\ \ then another layer of mushrooms, and some more salt on them,

and 80 on alternately salt and mushrooms; let them remain two

1 or three hours, by which time the salt will have penetrated the

mushrooms, and rendered them easy to break; then pound

them in a mortar, or mash them well with your hands, and let

them remain for a couple of days, not longer, stirring them

up, and mashing them well each day; then pour them into a

stone jar, and to each %Hart add an ounce of whole black pep*

per; stop the jar very close, and set it in a stew-pan of boiling

water, and keep it boiling for two hours at least. Take out

the jar, and pour the juice clear from the settlings through a

hair sieve (without squeezing the mushrooms) into a. clean

stew-pan; let it boil very gently for half an hour. Those who

are for superlative catsup, will continue the' boiling till the

mushroom juioe is reduced to half the quantity: it may then

be called double cat-sup or dog-aup.

There are several advantages attending this concentration; it will keep much better, and only half the quantity he required; so you can flavour sauce, &c. without thinning it. Neither is this an extravagant way of making it, for merely the aqueous part is evaporated. Skim it well, and pour it into a clean dry jar, or jug; cover it close, and let it stand in a cool place till, next day, then pour it off as gently as possible, (so as

I

804 OOME&TIC COOKERY.

not to disturb the settlings at the bottom of the jug,) through aUmmis, or thick flannel bag, till it is perfectly clear; add a table-spoonful of good brandy to each pint of catsup, and let it stand as before; a fresh sediment will be deposited, from which the catsup is to be quietly poured off, and bottled in pints or half pints, which have been washed with brandy or ^irie. It is best to keep it in such quantities as are soon used.

Take especial care that it is closely corked, and sealed down, or dipped in bottle cement.

If kept in a cool, dry place, it may be preserved for a long time; but if it foe badly corked, and kept in a damp place, it will soon spoil. Examine it from time to time, by placing a strong light behind the neck of the bottle, and if any peilide appears about it, boil it up again with a few peppercorns.

A table-spoonful of double catsup wiU impregnate half a pint of sauce with ^e full flavour of^ mushroom, in much greater perfection than either piddled or powder of mushrooms. ^

QuinUssence of Mushrooms.

This delicate relish is made by sprinkling a Httle salt over either 'flap or button mushrooms; three hours after, mash them; next day strain off the liquor that will flow from them, put it into a stew-pan, and boil it till it is reduced to half.

It will not keep long, but is preferable to any of the catsups, which in order to preserve them, must have spices, &e. which overpowers the flavour of the mushrooms.

An artificial mushroom bed will supply this all the year round.

To dry MuAroouu.

Wipe them dean; and of the large take out the brown^ and peel off the skin. Lay them on a paper to dry in a cool oven, and keep them in paper bags, in a dry place. When used simmer them in the gravy, and they will swell to near their former axe; to simmer them In their own liquor till it dry up into them, shaking the pan, then drying on tin plates, is a good way, with spice or not, before made into powder.

Tie down with bladder; and keep in a dry place, or ia paper.

f

BROTHS, aOVPty G1tAVI»B AVD SAUCES. 806

Muihroam P&wdtr.

# • Wksh half a peck of large mushrooms while quite fresh;^

and free them from grit and dirt wilih flannel; scrape out the black part clean, and do not use any that are worm-eaten; put them into a stew-pan over the fire without water, with two large onions, some cloves^ a quarter of an ounce of mace, and two spoonfhls of white pepper, aD in powder; simmer and shake them till all the liquor he dried up, but be careful the^ don't bum. Lay them on tins or sieves in a slow oven till they are dry enough to beat to powder, dien put the powder in small bottles, corked, and tied closely, and keep in a dry place.

A tea 'Spoonful will give a very fine flavour to any soup oi gravy, or any sauce; and ii is to be added just before servings snd prie boil gfVen to it after it h put in.

^

MkeeOemi Cat»Up which will keep go^d mare than Twenty M Years,

Take two gallbns of stale strong beer, or ale, Ihe stfonge^r and staler the bettef; a pound of anchovies, washed and cleansed from the guts; half an ounce eadi of mace and elopes; a quarter of an o«nee of pepper; six Isfrge races of ginger; a ^Mrand of 4)doti; and two quarts, or more, of iap mushreomSy well rubbed and picked. Boil all these over a slow fire biw hotnr; then strsin the liquor through a fknnel bag, and \H it stand till quite cold, when it must be bottled and stopped i^ery el ise, witb cork and bkddet, or leather.

One spoonful of tins fine catsup to a pint of melted bofv ter, gives soeh admirable taste and colour, as a fish-sauce, that is by many pei'sons preferred even to the best Indiafk aoy. ¦ ¦• • V--"

Oyster Catsup.

Take fine fresh Milton oyster?; wash them in their own liqaeir, skim it, pound them in a miaiblemortsir; to a pint of ejrste^ add a pint ef sherry, boil them tip, and add an onnoa of salt, two drams of pounded mace^ and otae of cayenne; let it jost boil up agahi, skhn it, and rob thrdugh a sieve; and wHea cold, bottle it, itmi cotk it well and seal it down, h is the belt itmy to i(»mtA the silt and spioes, 8tc^ with the oystsvs^ 11 2k

i

\

d06 DOMESTIC COOKERY.

This compogidon. very agreeably heightens the flavour of white sauces, and white made dishes; and if you add a glass of brandy to it, it will keep good for a considerable time longer than oysters are out of season in England.

4

Cockle and Muscle Catsup*

These catsups may be made by treating them in the same way as the oysters in the preceding receipt.

Potato Starch.

Peel and wash a pound of full grown potatoes, grate them on a bread grater into a deep dish, containing a quart of clear water; stir it well up, and then pour it through a hair sieve, and leave it ten minutes to settle, till the water is quite dear: then pour off the water, and put a quart of fresh water to it, stir it up, let it settle, and repeat this till the water is ^nite dear; you will at last find a fine' white powder at the bottom of the vessel. (The criterion of this process being completed, is •the purity of the water that comes from it after stirring it up.) Lay this on a sheet of paper in a hair sieve to dry, either in the sun, or before the fire, and it is ready for use, and in a well stopped bottle will keep good for many months.

If this be well made, half an ounce (t. e. a table-spomiful) of it mixed with two table-spoonfuls of cold water, and atiiTed into a soup or sauce, just before you take it up, will thicken a pint, of it to the consistence of cream.

This preparation much resembles, the Indian arrow root» and is a good substitute for it; it gives a fulness on the palate;to gravies and sauces at hardly any expense, and by some is:used to thicken. melted butter instead of flour.

As it is perfectly tasteless, it will not alter the flavour of the most delicate broth, &c.

Savoury .Ragout Powder.

Take of salt, an ounce; mustard, half an ounce; allspice, b. quarter of an ounce; black pepper ground, and lemon peel grat« ed, (or of pounded and sifled fine,) half an ounce eadi; ginger, and nutmeg grated, a quarter of an ounce each; cayenne pepper, two drams. Pound them patiently, and pass them through a fine hair sieve; bottle them for use. The above articles will

SAYOtlftT PtfiS AND PATtlES. tlCff

pound etsier, and finer, if they are dried first in a Dutdi ^rea before a very gentle fire, at a good distance from it: if you give them much heat, the fine flavour of them will be presently evaporated, and they will soon get a strong empy« veumatic taste. Infused in a quart of vinegar or wine,' they shake a savoury relish for soups, sauces; &c.

The spices in a ragout are indispensable to give it a flavour;but not a predominant one; their presence should be rather supposed than perceived; they are the invisible spirit of good cookery: indeed, a cook without spice would be as much at a loss as a confectioner without sugar: a happy mixture of them, and proportion to each other, and the other ingredients, is the ckef-d'ceuvre of a first-rate cook.

Pea Powder.

Pound together in a marble mortar half an ounce each of dried mint and sage, a dram of celery seed, and a quarter dram, of Cayenne pepper; rub them through a fine sieve. This gives a very savoury relish to peas soup, and to water gruel, which, by its help, if the eater of it has not the most lively imagination, he may fancy he is sipping good peas soup.

A dram of allspice, or black pepper, may be pounded with the above, as an addition, or instead of the cayenne.

SAVOURY PIES AND PATTIES.

Observations on Savoury Pies and Patties.

There are few articles of cookery more generally liked than relishing pies and patties, if properly made; and they may be made so of a vast variety of things.

There are several things necessary to be particularly observe ed by the cook, in order that her labours and ingenuity under this head mav be brouffht to their proper degree of perfection.

Qm very mat^ruil jconsiderAtion vitut be^ that the heft pC 4ikm Qvea i# iytlj proportionec) to thj^ nature of the arti de. to be 1^^, Lig^t past^ irequircus a moderate OYen; if it is to9 quicl^^ the crust cannot ris^j and will thereibre be bum^; twd if too slow, it will be^ spddened, and want that delicate light brown it ought to have. Raised pies must have a quick ovepj and be well closed up^ or they will sink in their sides, and lose their proper shape. . .

Particular care is also requisite in respect to seasoning, which niu^ be always done without any fixed rules, agreeable to tb^ ^te of the maker. When pies are intended to be eat^n oc^d, the use of su^t must be avoided. Forcemeat is a wondairfiil improvement to all meat pies.

As respects the managing of savoury patties little need be said, except that they nfill require a quick oven. Twenty minutes will in general be found sufficient to bake thenu If you pour in gravy after the patties are taken out of the oven, ^e careful not to put in too much, lest it should run out at the sides, and spoil their appearance.

SAVOURY PIES.

Paste for Meat or Savoury Pies,

Sift two pounds of fine flour to one and a half of good salt butter, break it into small pieces, and wash it well in cold water; rub gently together the butter and flour, and mix it up with the yolks of three eggs, beat together with a spoon, and nearly a pint of spring water; roll it out, and double it in folds three time?, and it is ready.

Raised Pies,

Put two pounds and a half of flour on the paste-board, and put on the fire in a sauce-pan three quarters of a pint of water, and half a pouna of good lard; when the water boils, make a hole in the middle of the flour, pour in the water by degreea, gently mixing the flour with it with a spopn; and when it is well mixed, then knead it with your hands till it becomes stiff; dredge a little floar to prevent it sticking to the board, or yoa cannot make it look smooth: do not roll it with the rollings pin, but roll it with your hands about the thickne^ of a quart

SAVOjDR¥ FtB8 AN d PATTIES. tOS

fglti €n i i«tq«)( ptoMt, laaving a little for ftbe o^ittB; put aoe b«od in ihe mvUle, and keep Uie other doae on the oat* m4» tyi you bave worked it eitWr in an oval or a round shape f have your meat rea )y wt, and aiaicwed with pepper and aalt: if pork, cut it la small slices; the griskin is the best for pasties. If you use mutton^ cvft it in very neat cutlets^ and put ^bem in the pies as you make thfm: roll ontithe cov^acs wit^ the xolling-pin jgst the size of the pie, wef it r9and- the ^A§^, pi^ ^ on the pie» and pre^s it together with yfigr thumb fu^ fin^^ and then cut ^t all round with a pair of fpi^si^rs qoi(e ^vcn» tmi pincti th^m inside apd out, and bak^ then^ aiji })^ t^^ a }i4ff

Rump Steak PU.

Cot three pounds of r^opp steaks (ftiaX hi^y^ b^a kept UU tender,) into pieces lialf as big as your hand, trim off idl the skin, sinews, and every p^rt w^cb {14s not indisputable pretensions to be eaten, and beat them with a chopper. Chop veiy fine half a dozen eschalots, and mix them with half an ounce of pepper and salt mixed, strew some of the mixture at the bottom of the dish, then a layer of steak, then some more of the mixture, and so on till the dish is full; add half a gill of mushroom catsup, and the same quantity of gravy, or red wine, cover it with paste, made as directed for meat pies, and bake it two hours.

Large oysters, parboiled, bearded, and laid alternately with the steaks, their liquor reduced and substituted instead of the catsup and wine, will be a variety.

Btef Steak Pie the tuual waif.

Take some rump steaks, and beat them with a rolling-pin, then season them with pepper and salt to your palate. Mdce a good crust, lay in your steaks, and then pour in as much water as will fill the dish. Put on the crust, send it to the oven, and let it be well baked.

Mutton Pie,

Cut steaks ftom a neck or loin of mutton that has hung; beat them, and remove some of the 'fat Season with salty pepper, and a little onion; put a little water at the bottom oT the dish, and a little paste on the edge; then cover with a

310 DOMESTIC COO&fiftY.

modeiatdy thick paste. Or raise smail ptes, and eadi bone in two to shorten it^ season, and cover it over» pinching the edge. When they come out, pour into each a spoonful of gravy made of a bit of mutton.

VealPU.

Take some of the middle, or scrag of a small neck; season it; and either put to it, or not, a few slices of lean bacon or ham. If it is wanted of a high relish, add mace, cayenne, and nutmeg, to the salt and pepper; and also forcemeat and eggs; and if you choose, add truffles, morels, mushrooms, sweets breads cut into small bits, and cocks*-combs blanched, if liked. Have a rich gravy ready, to pour in after baking. It will be very good without any of the latter additions.

j§ rich Veal Pie.

Cut steaks from a neck or breast of veal; season them with pepper, salt, nutmeg, and a very little clove in powder. Slice jtwo sweetbreads, and season them in the same manner* Lay a puff paste on the ledge of the dish; then put the meat, yolks of hard eggs, the sweetbreads, and some oysters, up to the top of the dish. Lay over the whole some very thin slices of ham, and fill up the dish with water; cover; and when it is taken out of the oven, pour in at the top, through a funnel, a few spoonfuls of good veal gravy, and some cream to fill up; but first boil it up with a tea-spoonful of flour. Truffles, &c. if approved.

Veal and Parsley Pie,

Cut some slices firom the leg or neck of veal; if the leg, from about the knuckle. Season them, with salt; scald some parsley that is picked from the stems, and squeeze it dry; cut it a little, and lay it at the bottom of the dish; then put the meat, and so on, in kyers. Fill the dish with new milk, but not so high as to touch the crust. Cover it; and when baked, pour out a little of the milk, and put in half a pint of good scalded cream.

Chicken may be cut up, skinned^ and made in tbe same way.

8AVOUET PIBS AND PATTIBS. 811

FadandHtrnPie.

Take two pounds of veal cuttet, cut them in middling^Bized pieces, and season with pepper and a very little salt; likewise one of raw or dressed ham cut in slices: lay it alternately in tibe dishy and put some forced or sausage meat at the top, with some stewed button mushrooms, and the jctts, of three eggs boiled hard, and a gill of water, and proceed as with rump steak pie.

The best end of a neck is a fine part for a pie, cut into chops, and the chine bone taken away.

Feal Olive Pie.

Cut some thin slices from a fillet of veal, rub them over with the yolks of eggs, and strew on them a few crumbs of bread; shred a little lemon peel very fine, and put it on them^ with a little grated nutmeg, pepper, and salt; roll them up very tight, and lay them in a pewter dish; pour over them half a pint of good gravy, put half a pound of butter over it, xnake a light paste, and lay it round the dish. Roll the lid hiilf . an inch thick, and lay it on.

Lamh Pie.

Make it of the loin, neck, or breast; the breast of houselamb is one of the most delicate things that can be eaten. It should be very lightly seasoned with pepper and salt; the bone taken out, but not the gristles; and a small quantity of jellygravy be put in hot; but the pie should not be cut till cold. Put two spoonfuls of water before baking.

Grass-lamb makes an excellent pie, and may either be boned or net, - but not to bone it is perhaps the best. Season with only pepper and salt; put two spoonfuls of water before bakii^, and as much gravy when it comes from the oven.

Meat pies being fat, it is best to let out the gravy on one side, and put it in again by a funnel, at the centre, and a little may be added.

Raised Lamh Pies, Bone a loin of lamb, cut into cutlets, trim them very nicely, and lay them in the bottom of a stew or frying-pan, with a^ ounce of butter, a tea-spoonful of lemon juice, and some pepper

813 imMEsnc eoosERT.

and salt; put them over i fire aihl tiim ihem^ and put them to eool; then raise four or five small pi^s' with pastey abc^jit the size of a tea-eu ij put some veal forcemeat at the bottom, and the cutlets upon it; roll out the top an eighth of an ineh thick, dose and pinch the edges, bake them half an houtj and when d Mie, take off tibe U^^ and pour in some good birown sauce.

Excellent raised Pork Pies.

Raise cbmman bdled criist ioto either around or oval fi rmy as you choose; have readj the triodtaitag lind small bhs of pork cut off when a hog is killed; and if these are not enough, take the meat off a sweet borie. Beat it well with a rolling-pin; season with pepper and salt, and keep the fat and lean sdpak'ate. Put it in layers, quite elose up to the top; ky on the lid; cut the edge smooth rodnd, and pinch it; bake it in a slo# •oaking oven, as the meat is very solid. Directions for raising the crust have been given before. The pork mxy bd piit into a common dish, with a very plain crust; and be quite as good* Observe to put no bone oi water into pork pie; the otrtside of the pieces will be hard, unless they are cut small and firesaed dose.

Raised Ham Pie.

Soak four or five hours a small ham, wash and scrape H Well, cut off the knuckle, and boil it for half an hour, then take it up and trim it very neatly: take off the rind, and put it into an oval stelv-pan, with a pint of tnadeira or sherty, and enough veal stock to cover it. Let it stew for two hours, olr till tktte parts done; take it out, And set it ifx a cold piAce; then raise a crust, as in the following receipt, large enough to ireceive it; put in the ham, and round it the veal forcemeat: cover and otnament; it will take about one hour and a half* to bake it) a slow oven: when done, take off the cover, glaze the top, lind poisr rodnd the following sauce, viz. Take the liqaoir the ham was stewed in, skim it free from fat, thicken with a little flour and butter mixed together, a few drops of browning, and some Cayenne pepper.

The aboVe is A good way of dressing a small ham, and has a good efi^ odd for a siipp^r.

SAVOURY PIB8 AMD PATTIB8. . 313

RMi$ed French Pie*

Mike about two pounds of flour into a paste, as directed fat raised pies; knead it well, and into the 'shape of a ball; press your thumb into the centre, and work it by degrees into Any shape (oval or round is the most general,) till about Rve inches high; put it on a sheet of paper, and fill it with coarse flour or bran; roll out a covering for it about the same thick* ness as the sides; cement its sides with the yolk of egg; cut the edges quite evto, and pinch it round with the finger and thumb; yolk of egg it^over with a paste brush, and ornament it in any way as fimcy may direct, with the same kind of paste. Bake it of a fine brown colour, in a slowoven; and when done, .cut out the top, remove the flour or bran, brush it quite dean, and fill it up with a firicassee of chicken, rabbit, or any other aUrfe most convenient. Send it to table with a napkin under.

• • •

Calf'i Heoji Pie.

Stew a knudLle €i veal till fit for eating, with two onions, a few isinglass shavings, a bunch of herbs, a blade of mace, and a few pepper-corns, in three pints of wiater.- Keep the brodi for the pie. Take off a bit of the meat for the balb, and let the other be eaten; but simmerthe bones in the broth till it is very good. Half-boil the head, and cut it into square bits; put a layer of ham at the bottom; then some head- -first fat, then lean - with balls and hard eggs cut in half, and so on till the dish be fall: but be particularly careful not to place the pieces dose, or the pie will.be too solid, and there will be.no space for the jelly. The meat must be first pretty well seasoned with pepper and salt, and a scrape or two 'of nutmeg. Put a little water and a little gravy into the dish, and cover it with a tolenbly thick crust; bake it in a slow oven, and when done, pour intoJt as much gravy as it can possibly hold, 4md do not cut it till perfectly cold; in doing which, observe to use a very sharp knife, and first cut out a large bit, going down to the bottom of the dish; and when done thus, thinner sliceg can be cut: the different colours and the dear jdly have a beautiful marbled appearance.

A small pie may be made to eat hot, which, with high seasoning, oysters, mushrooms, truffles, morels, &c. has a very good appearance. ^

II Ss ^

dI4 BOHBITIC CDOKBRIC.

The cold pie will keepnuunjrdhjfBB* Slices make a pret^ $ide diah.

bwtfad of isinglassy use acalf '9.foD(t or a eow-h0el» if Ui» jeUj ia net likeij to be atiff enough.

The pickled tongues of formof caWea' beada may ba eiiiiii^ to vaiy the colour^ iastead o(, or besidea^baoii



Bake an ox ohcek, uritfa seasoniDg^ &o. inr the usual way^ Init it must not be too- much done. It fpuy stand all night m the oven and will then, be ready for next day. Make a fine pntf paste, with; the aides and top very thick; and line widi'it a deep dish, capable of containing a great quantity of gravy. Take off all the flesh,, kernels, and fiit of the head, with the palate, and ciU them into pieces as if for a- hash; lay th«a into the dish, and throw over the meat an ounce of truffles and morels, the yolks of six hard eggs, a gill of fresh or pickled muahroems, and plenty of forcemeat balls. Seaaon to palate, with pepper and salt; and fill thepie with the gravy in which the cheek was baked. Indeed, if it were properly seasoned en putting it into the oven- very little more will be required; Close it up with a cr«6t; set the pie in the oven, and, when the top is well baked, the whole will be suffloently done^ A fow artichoke bottoms, or tops of asparagus, are sometimeepetin with the mushrooms, &c. and thought to improve the flavour; but it is vny good, and sufficiency ridi, without them, and tiiey are not always at hand or in season.

Caifi Feet Pie.

Boil your calf 's feet in three quarts of water, with three or four blades of mace, and let them boil gently till it is reduced to about a pint and a half. Then take out the feet, strain the liquor, and make a good crust Cover your dish, then take the fl^sh from the bones, and pat half into it. Strew over it half a pound of currants clean washed and picked, and half a pound of ndsins stoned. Then lay on tiie rest of your meats, akim the liquor they were boiled in, sweeten it to your taste, and put in half a pint of white wine. Then pour all into the dish, put on^ your Ud, and bake it an hour and a half.

8AVQVRT PIB8 AN0 PATTIES. 316

StffeMnad Pie.

Lay a puff pft0te half an inch thick at the bottom of a deep didi, and put a ibrceoieat romid the sides. Cut some sweetiMpeadb ki pieces, three or four, according to the size llhe pie ift intended to be made; lay tnem in first, -then some aitrchoke bottoms, cut hito four pieces each,- then some cock*s comba^ a few truffles and morels, some aspara^s tops, and fresK nuskroeim, yoMcs of eg§^ boiled hard, and forcemeat balls; season with pepper and salt. Almost fill the pie with water, eover it, and ^a%e H. two hours. When it comes from the «veQ, poar in teme ridfi veal gravy, thidsened with a very Htde cream and flour.

Take a neck, shouVder, or breast of venison, that has not iMing too long, bone them, and trim off all the skin, and cut it into pieces two vncfaes square, and put them into a stew-x an Wtdi three giU« of Port wine, two onions, or a Yew eschalots slioed, tome pepper, salt, three blades of mace, about a dozen afi^ioe, and enough veal broth to cover it; put it over a slow fitte, and let it stew tiM lihree parts dene: put iiie trimmings JMto iMMirtier sauee-pan, cover it with water, and set it on a fire. Tflfee out the pieces you Intend for die pasty, and put fbem into a deep dish with a little of their Kquor, and set it by to cool; then add the remainder of the liquor to the bones and tHmmings, and boil it till the pasty is ready; then cover the pasty with a good paste, made as directed for raised pies. Ornament the top, and bake it for two hours in a slow oven; and before it is sent to table poor in a sauce made with the gravy the venison was stewed in, strained and skimmed free from fat; some pepper, salt, half a gill of port, the juice of half a lemon, and a little flour and butter to thicken it.

To make a P^ty of Bnf inr MutUn to eat as tvett as Vmison*

Bone k small rump or a piece of sirloin of beef, or a fat loin of mutton, after ^nging several days. Beat it very well with a rolling pin; then rub ten pounds of meat with four ounces of sugar, and pour over it a glass of port, and the same of vinegtfr. Ltft it lie Ave days and nights, wash and wipe the aeat very ilry ttid aeusoii It very high with pepper, Jamaica

I

316 DOMESTIC COOKERY*

pepper, nutmeg, and salt. Lay it in your didb, and to ten pounds put one pound or near of butter, spreading it over the meat. Put a crust round the edges, and cover with a thiek one, or it will be overdone before the meat- be soaked; it must be done in a slow oven.

Set the bones ih a pan in the oven, with no more water than will cover them, aiid one glass of port, a little pepper and salt, that you may have a little rich gravy to add to the pasty when drawn.

Sugar gives a greater shortness and better flavour to meats than salt, too great a quantity of which hardens; and it is quite as great a preservative.

Dartmouth Pie.

This curious pie, formerly of great fame, is thus made:- Chop or mince small on a chopping board, two pounds of the lean part of a 1lb, of mutton, with one pound of beef suet; keeping them constantly stirred up from the board, to prevent the minute particles from sticking. . Add^ a pound of wellcleansed currants, sifl over three ounces of powdered loaf sugar, grate some nutmeg, and season with a little salt. The whole, being well mixed, is to be put into a paste composed of two parts purified beef suet, and one part fresh butter; both melted, mixed in the water which is to make the crust or paste, then boiled up together, poured into the excavated centre of the sided flour, kneaded up, and rolled out in the usual way for lining and covering the dish.

Squab Pie.

Cover your dish with a good crust, and put at the bottom of it;a layer of sliced pippins, and then a layer oi mutton steaks, cut from the loin, well seasoned with pepper and salt. Then put another layer of pippins, peel some onions, slice them thin, and put a layer of them over the pippins: then- put a layer of mutton, and then pippins and onions. Pour in a pint of water, dose up the pie, and send it to the oven.

Eel Pie. Take eels about half a pound each; skin, wash, and trim Off the fin with a pair of scissarsii cat them into pieces thiee

SATOtTRY PIBft ANP PATTIES. 817

inches long, season them ivith pepper and salt, aftd fill jour dish, leaving out the heads and tails. Add a gill of water or Teal broth, cover it with paste, rub it over with a paste brush dipped in yolk of egg^ ornament it with some of the same paste, bake it an hour, and when done, make a hole in the' :entre and pour in the following sauce through a funnel: «- The trimmings boiled in half a pint of veal stock, seasoned "with pepper and salt, a table-spoonful of lemon juice, and thickened with flour and water, strained through a fine sieve: add it boiling hot «

Cod Pie.

Take a piece of the middle of a small cod, and salt it well one night; next day wash it; season with pepper, salt, and a very little nutmeg, mixed; place in a dish, and put some butter on it, and^a little good broth of any kind into the dish.

Cover it with a crust; and when done, add a sauce of a spoonful of broth, a quarter of a pint of cream, a little flour and butter, a grate of lemon and nutmeg, and give it one boiL Oysters may be added.

Parsley picked and put in, may be used instead of oysters.

Salmon Pie.

When you have made a good crust, take a piece of fresh salmon, well cleansed, and season it with salt, mace, and nut« m^. Put a piece of butter at the bottom of your dish, and then lay in the salmon. Melt butter in proportion to the size of your pie, and then take a lobster, boil it, pick out all the flesh, chop it small, bruise the body, and mix it well v^ith the butter. Pour it over your salmon, put on the lid, and let it be well baked.

Turhot Pie.

First parboil your turbot, and then season it with a b*ttle pepper, salt, cloves^ nutmeg, and sweet herbs cut fine. When you have made your paste, lay the turbot in your dish, with some yolks of eggs, and a whole onion, which must be takea out when the pie is baked. Lay a great deal of fresh butter at the top^ put on the lid, and send it to the oven.

918 M MEATX€ €OOK«ity«

Sok Pie.

Split some «6le8 l^om the bone, and cut tlie fins close; season with a liiixture of salt, pepper, a little nutmeg and pounded mace, and put them in layers, with oysters. They eat excellently. A pair of middling-sized ones will do, and half a hundred of oysters. Put in the dish the oyster liquor, two or thnee spoonfuls of broth, and some butter. When the pie comes home^ pour in a cupful of thick cream*

Flounder Pie.

Gut your flounders, wash them dean, and then dry them well in a cloth. Give them a gentle boil, and then cut the flesh clean from die bones, lay a good crust over the dish, put a little fresh butter at the bottom, and on that the fish. Season with pepper and salt to your taste. Boil the bones in the water the fish was boiled in, with a small piece of horseradish, a little parsley, a \nt of lemon peel, and a crust of bread. Boil it till there is just enough liquor for the pie, then strain it, and pour it over the fish. Put on Ae lid, and send it to a moderate heated oven.

Carp Pie.

Scrape off the scales, and then gut and wash a large carp cilean. Take an eel, atid boil it till it is almost tender; pick off all the meat, and mince it fine, with an equal quantity of crumbs of bread, a few sweet herbs, lemon peel cut fine, a little pepper and salt, and grated nutmeg; an anchovy, half a pint Of oysters parboiled wnd chopped fine, and the yolks o{ diree hard eg^s cut small. Roll it up with a quarter of a pound of butter, and fill the belly of the carp. Make a good crust, cover the dish, and lay in your fish. Save the liquor you boiled your eel in, put into it the eel bones, and boil them with a little mace, whole pepper, an onion^ some sweet herbs, and an anchovy. Boil it till reduced to about half a pint, then Strain it, and add to it about a quarter of a pint of white wine, and a piece of butter about the size of a hen's egg mixed in a Very little flour. Boil it up, and poor it into your pie. Put on the lid^ and bake it an hour in a quick oven.

BAVOUSr Vras: AVD FA9TIBS. Ki^

Tench, Piti

' JPat »la3Ftr of batter at the bottom 9f your dish,, and grate in sovie nutmeg; with pepper, salt, and mace: tben hf in jBour tench, cover them with some batterer and pour in some red wine with a little water. Tben put on the hd, and when it Qomes from the oven, pour in melted butter mixed with some good rich gravj.

ti'out Pie,

Take a brace of trout, and lard them with eels; raise the crust, and put a layer of fresh butter at the bottom. Then make a forcemeat of trout, mushrooms, truffles, morels, chives, and fresh batter. Season them with salt, pepper, and spice; mix these ap with the yolks of two eggs; stufi* the trout with it, lay them in the dish, cover them with butter, put on the lid, and send it to the oven. Have some good fish gravy ready, and when the pie is done, raise the crust, and pour it in.

Herring Pie,

Hmvng scaled; gutted, and washed your herrings clean; cut off their heads, fins, and tails. Make, a- good crust, cover your dish, and season your herrings with beaten mace, pepper, and salt. Put a little butter in the ftottom of your dish, and Ibed the; herringsii OVer thear put some apples and onions alioed vary thin. Put aotns butter on the top,, then pour in a littl* wUer, Uiy onthrlid, send it to the tnren, and let it be celibated.

Lobster Pie.

Boil, two lobsters* or thr^e small, take out the tails, cat thamintwo, take out the gut, cut each in four pieoea lusd lay in a small dish, then put in the meat of the claws, and that you have picked out of the body; pick off the funy^ parts from the^ latter, and take^out the lady; the spawp, beat in a mortar; likewise all the shells: set them on to stew with soaia water, two or three spoonfuls of vinegar, pepper, salt, and 8ome,pounded mace; » large piece, of butter, rolled in fiouiv must be added when the goodness of the shells is obtained: give a boil or two, and pour into the dish strained; strew some crumbs, and put a paste over all; bake slowly, but only till the paste be done.

920 DOMESTIC COOKBRT.

A remarkably fine Fish Pie.

Boil two pounds of small eels; having cut the fins ffuite dose, pick the flesh off, and throw the bones into the liquor with a little mace, pepper, salt, and a slice of onion; boil till quite rich, and strain it. Make forcemeat of the fleshy an anchovy, parsley, lemon peel, salt, pepper, and crumbs, and four ounces of butter warmed, and lay it at the bottom of the dish. Take the flesh of soles, small cod, or dressed turbot, and lay them on the forcemeat, having rubbed it with salt and pepper: pour the gravy over and bake.

Observe to take off the skin and fins^ if cod or soles.

Pilchard and Leek Pie.

Clean and skin the white part of some large leeks; scald in milk and water, and put them in layers into a dish,- and between the layers, two or three salted pilchards which have been soaked for some hours the day before. Cover the whole with a good plaia. crust. When the pie is taken out of the oven^ lift up the side crust with a knife, and empty out all the liquor; then pour in half a pint of scalded cream.

Chicken Pie.

Cat up two young fowls, season with white pepper, salt, a little mace, and nutmeg, all in the finest pow.der; likewise « little cayenne. Put the chicken, slices of ham, or fresh gammon of bacon, foroemeat-baUs, and hard eggs, by turns, in layers. If it is to be baked in a dishj put in a little water; but none if in a raised crust By the time it returns from the oven, have ready a gravy of knuckle of veal, or a bit of the scrag, with some shank bones of mutton, seasoned with herbs^ onion, mace, and white pepper. If it is to be eaten hot, you may add truffles, morels^ miushrooms, &c. but not if to be eaten cold. If it is made in a dish, put^ much gravy as will fill it; but in a raised crust, the gravy must be nicely strained, and then put in cold as jelly. To make the jelly dear, you may give it a boil with the whites of two eggs, after taking away the meat, and then run it through a fine lawn sieve.

SATOVRY 9ltM ANB VATtlUB. ttt

AfMtOmiPU.

Quattei^ ybur gbdse, sifeasBn ft well witb pe)pper tu^d salt^ and Uy ik in a failed crosk. (Cut half a {bond bf bbtter inld ]iiecci9« ^ttd put it in Cerent plaices oik the top; tfi^ lay oti 'the lid^ lind MkA ft tb an oven moderatet^ heati^.

Ahbtfiet udbhod bt AkkBg a goose ^ie. with Vnateriid im^ proYbnehts/is thttsi l*ale k goose and k Wl» bbne theih, imd seatoh ttieth nf^ll; put a JPoroemeait into fiib fbwl^ and theii (mt the foirl intb the gUose. Lay these iti a rased crusty and fill the di^et^ With a littte forbettieat JPut half a pbahd 6t DUtter oh ttie top cut into pieces^ cover it, send it to the. oven, and let it be well baked. This pie may be batien either h % or cold, and makes a pretty siderdish for supper.

Green Qoose Pie.

Bone tiKTO youn^ irf Isen gebse, of a good siiee; but first take away every j[ ltig, ana siiige them nicely. Wash theb dean; and season tUeiii faig-h with salt, pepper, mace, and allspice, rut one ihside the btner; and press them as close aS you can, drawing ihe legs inwards. Pui a good deal of batter over them, and hiisA them either With or without crust; if the latter, a cover to the dish must fit close to keej[i iti dife steam* tt wilt keep Ibng.

DwkPie.

Sddtt two ducks, ahd mkke thto tery deaii: then but off the feet, the pinions, necks, and heads; take oht the gifeiUird^ livers, and hearts, pick all clean, and scald them. Pick out the fat of the inside, lay a good pilfF-paste cfust alt over the dish, seftMn the ddcks, both iiiside and oiit, with pepper and salt, and lay thetn ifi dib disfi with the giblets at each end properly se^oired. Pdt in its tnuch v^ater as will tiearly fill the pie, lay km Ihe Ctiist, liUd 1^ it be Well baked.

Qibkt Pie.

Clefttl Wen, and hcUf stew t^o or three set^of godse giblets; cut th^ leg 'tti tWo) tiie wiiig &fid tieck into three, and the gizfaikl into ibflr pluses; ^se^ve the liquor, tod set the gibleta trf till cold; 6«hfet#}se tifle heat of the giblets will spoil the pisb yott cot er ^ pie wkh: then season the whole with blacle

12 2t

382 DOllBSTIC COOKERY.

pepper and salt, and put them into a deep dish; cover it with paste, rub it over with the yolk of egg, ornament and bake it an hour and a half in a moderate oven: in the meantime take the liquor the giblets were stewed in, skim it free from fat, put it over a fire in a dean stew-pan, thicken it a little with flour and butter, or flour and water, season it with pepper and salt, and the juice of half a lemon, add a few drops of browning, strain it through a fine sieve, and when you t^e the pie from the oven, pour some of this into it through a funnel. Some lay in the bottom c£ the dish a moderately thick rump steak: if you have any cold game or poultry, cut it in pieces, and add it to the above.,

Pigeon or Lark Pie*

Truss half a dozen fine large pigeons as for stewing, season them with pepper and salt, and fill them with veal stuffing, or some parsley chopped very fine, and a little pepper, salt, and three ounces of butter mixed together: lay at the bottom of the dish a rump steak of about a pound weight, cut into pieces and trimmed neatly, seasoned and beat out with a chopper; on it lay the pigeons, the yolks of three eggs boiled hard, and a gill of broth or water; wet the edge of the dish, and cover it over

ft

with puff-paste, wash it over with yolk of egg, and ornament it with leaves of paste, and the feet of the pigeons; bake it an hour and ahalf in a moderate heated oven: before it is sent to table make an aperture in the top, and pour in aome good gravy quite hot.

Partridge Pie.

Take two brace of partridges, and dress them in the same manner as you do a fowl for boiling. Put some shalots into a marble mortar, with some parsley cut small, the liver of the partridges, and twice the quantity of bacon. Beat these well together, and season them with pepper, salt, and a blade or two of mace. Whte these are all pounded to a paste, add to them some fresh mushrooms. . Raise the crust for the pie, and cover the bottom of it with the seasoning; then lay in the partridges,* but no stuffing in them; put the remainder of the seasoning about the sides, and between the partridges. Mia: together some pepper and )alt, a little maee« some shalota

SAVOURY PIES AND PATTIES.

sliiecl fine, fresh mnshrooins, and a little bacon b^t fine in a mortar. Strew this over the partridges^ and lay on some thin slices of bacon. Then put on the lid» and send it to the oven» and two hours will bake it. When it is done, remove the lid, take out the slices of bac6n^ ' and scum off the fat. Put in a pint of rich veal gravy^ squeese in the juice of an orange and send ithot to table.

Hare Pie.

• Cut your hare into pieces, and seasoii it well with pepper^ fMdty nutmeg, and mace; then put it into a jug with hdf a pound of butter, dose it up, set it in a oopper of boiling Water, and make a rich forcemeat with a quarter of a pound of scraped bacon, two onions, a glass of red wine, the crumbs of a two-penny loaf, a little winter savory, the liver cut small, and a little nutmeg. Season it high with pepper an4 salt, mix it well up with the yolks of three eggs, raisie the pie, and lay the forcemeat in the bottom of the dish. Then put in the hare, with the gravy that came out of it; lay on the M, and send it to the oven. An hour and a half will bake it.

Rabbit Pie. Cut a couple of young rabbits into quarters; then take a garter of a pound of bacon, and bruise it to pieces in a marble mortar, with the livers, some pepper, salt, a little mace, some parsley cut snudl, some chives, and a few leaves of sweet^basil. When these are all beaten fine, make the paste, and cover the bottom of the pie with the seasoning. Then put in the rabbits, pound some more bacon in a mortar, and with it some fresh butter. Cover the rabbits with this, and lay over it some thin ilices of bacon; put on the Ud, and send it to the oven. It will take two hours baking. When it is done, remove the lid, take out the bacon, and skim off t!ie fiit. If there is not gravy enough in the pie, pour in some rich mutton or veal gravy boiling hot.

V^etabh Pie.

Scald and blanch some broad beans; cut young carrots,

turnips, artichoke bottoms, mushrooms, peas, onions, lettuce,

parsley, celery, or any of them you have; make the whole

into a nice stew, with soaie good veal gravy. Bake a croat

824 DOMESTIC COOXEST.

•ver a dUh, with a little lining roand the edge^ anda cttp ioni^ «d op to kerp it from sinking. When baked, oimbbl the lid^ snd pour in the stew.

Pardey Pie*

. \ag ^ &?!» or H few bones of ^e B cng.of veal, seasoned^ into a dish; scald a colander-fuU of picked pendey in milk.; season it; and add to the fc':7l or meat, with a tea^cupfol of any sort of good broth, oi^ week gravy. When it is baked, poor iqto it a quarter of apmtof cream scalded, with the size of a. walnut of butter, and a bit of Hour, Shake it loiuid, te mix with the gi'avy alseady in.

Lett^oes, white mustard leaTSs, or qpiaach^ may be added So the pardey, and scalded be&re put id.

T^mtjp Pit.

Season mutton chopa with sa^ i^d pqipfT* reierving the ends of tbp neck bones, to lay over tl^ turnips, which n^ust bo icot iiM;o small dice, mfA put on t )^ sMftks.

Put two or th]*ee g«pd qpaonA4s of milk ip, Yoif migradd sliced onion. Cover with a crust.

P9ia/to Pif.

Skia some potatoes, and cut M^^PO va^o slices; s^ai9i .thm: andalso some mutton, bee& pork, ei v vraL Put ligr^psof theaofi and rf the meat.

An Herb Pie.

Pick two hand&ils of parsley from the stems, half the quantity of q[ inach, two lettuces, some mustard and cress, a few leaves of bprage, and white beet ^aves; wash and boil them a Ihtle; then drain, and press out the water: cut them small: mix, and lay them in a dish^ sprinkle with soo^e salt; mix a ba^er of flour, two e ;g8 w,ell beaten, a pint qf cream, and half a pint of milk, and pour it on the herbs; coy^r.with a good crust, and bake.

SAVOURY PATTISS.

Puff Paste for Patties.

To a pound and.aqtiiirti^^ of taft^ flour ruU gsi^l^ in witji the hand hslf apovnct ajT. ^n^ b^ij^, vm ujr with t^ a pint

SAvovmr vixs ani^ i^attibs. 986

of spring water; knead k weB, and aet it by for a quarter of ^n Wkt I then TfiO, «t Dut ^io; lay i« it, iq amall pieces, three ^mvtecs of n pound mm oC baiter, thnotr on it . a iittle flour» doable it up in folds, aod roll it oat thin three tiQiesy and set it by for about an hour in a cold place.

Fried Patties.

Mince a bit of cold veal^ and six oysters; mix with a ftw ipruipbs of bread/ salt, pepper^ nutmeg, and a very small bit of lemoia-peel; add the liquor of the oysters; warm all in a tosser, but do not boil; let it go cold; have ready a good putf paste^ roll thin^ and cut it in round or square bits; put some of the above be(w,cf n tw.9 of thfn% twi^ the edges to keep in fhe gwvy ^nd frj^. th^ijOf pf * fine brown.

This is a v^y ;Qpd tjtiiqg; and baked, is a fashionable dish.

Waffi al} pa^^ief^oif^ w'lik ^gg befpre baking.

Beef Patties.

Shred under-done dressed beef with a little fiit; season with { epper, salt, and a little sbalot or onion. Make a plain paste, tfA it this^ and cut in shapfe Mka an apple puff; ^ it with mince, pinch tiie edges^ atid fej them of a nice brown. The jMste should be made with a amall quratity of lmtter e^^ a&d milk.

Veal and 'Bam Fattks. Chop about Al oukices of ready dressed lean Ted and three ounces of ham, very small; put it into a steW-paH with an ounce of butter rolled in flour, half a gill of cream, half a giU of real stock, a litde grated nutmeg and lemon peel, some Cayenne pepper and salt, a spoonful dt essence of ham and lemon juice, and stir it over the fire some tiniie, taking care it does not bum.

Cftidten atUl Ham Paitits.

Use the white meat from the breast of chickens or fbwlr^ and proceed as in the last receipts

326 DOMESTIC COOKBRT.

Turkey Paities.

Mince some of the white part, and with grated lemon^ notmegy salt, a very little white pepper, cream^ and a verylittle bit of batter warmed^ fill the patties.

Sweet Pattiee,

Chop the meat of a boiled calf's foot, of which you use the liquor for jelly^ two apples, one ounce of orange and lemon peel candied, and some fresh peel and juice; mix with them half a nutmeg grated, the yolk of an egg, a spoonful of ¦brandy, and four ounces of currants washed and dried.

Bake in small pattepans.

Pattiee resembling Mince Pies,

Chop the kidney and fat of cold veal, apple, orange, and lemon peel candied, and fresh currants, a little wine, two or three cloves, a little brandy, and a bit of sugar. Bake as before.

Oyster Patties.

Roll out puff past^ a quarter of an inch, thick, cut it into aquares with a kni&, sheet, eight or ten pattepans, put upon each a bit of bread the siaeof half a itralnut; roll out another byer of paste of the same thickness, cut it as above, wet the edge of the bottom paste, and put on the top, pare them round to the pan, and notch them abouta dosen times with the back of the knife, rub them lightly with yolk of egg, bake them in a hot oven about a quarter of an hour: when done, take a thin slice off the top, then with a small knife or spoon take out the bread and the inside paste, leaving the outside quite entire; then parboU two dosen of lai^ oysters, strain them from their liquor, wash, beard, and cut them into four, put them into a stew-pan:with an ouQce of butter rolled in flour, half a gill of good cream, a little grated lemon peel, the oyster liquor, free from eediment, reduced by boiling to one half, some Cayenne pepper, salt, and a tea-spoonful of lemon juice; stir it over a fire five minutes, and fill the patties.

f

Lobster Patties. Prepare the patties as in the last receipt. Take a hen lobster already boiled; pick the meat from the tail and claws, and

PUDDINGS. 827

cbop it fine;* put it into a stew-pan, with a little of the inside qpawn pounded in a mortar till quite smooth, with an ounce of fi«Bh hatter, half a gill of cream, and half a gill of veal con« aomm^, Cayenne pepper, and aak, a tea-spoonful of essence of anchpvy, the same of lemon juice, and a taUe-spoonful of flour and water, and stew it five minutes. .

PUDDINGS.

Ob$ervatian$ en Puddings.

JLHE quality of the various articles employed in the com* position of puddings varies so much, that two puddings, made exactly according to the same receipt, will he so different, one would hardly suppose they were made by the same person, and certainly not with precisely the same quan« tides of the (apparently) same ingredients. Flour fresh grounds-pure new milk- fresh laid eggs afresh butter - fresh suet, &c. will make a very different composition, than when kept till each article is half spoiled.

Plum puddingSy when boiled, if hung up in a cool place in the doth they are boiled in, will keep good some^ months: when wanted, take them out of the doth, and put them into a dean cloth, and as soon as warmed through, they are ready.

In oomposiT^ these receipts, the quantities of eggs, butter, &c. are considerably less than is ordered in other cookery books; but quite sufficient for the^urpose of making the puddings light and wholesome, we have diminished the expense, without impoverishing the preparations, and the rational epicure will be as well pleased with them - as the rational economist.

MUkf in its genuine state, varies considerably in the quantity of cream it will throw up,- depending probably on the material with which the cow is fed. The cow that gives the most milk does not dways produce the most cream. London cream, we are told, is sometimes adulterated with milk, thick« ened with potatoe starch, apd tinged with turmeric.

%m DOMESTIC COOKBRT.

J^gi vftry dditiiidenMy m mm hi the ftiUi^iqa^ n^pu^ ti« ineaii the fiill«.Med hm%egg; if ^uinire only piillfac'* eggs; mub two for en^. Biuik 4^gB « De by oiHe into A bafliii, tt\d tlot idl iMo tte i]b#l tofcdier, beeail^ then, if ywt «ae«t with ft iMd tee, iM will 8^ all tbe rM: dMiii thient dutoisgb a tf^Te to ta^e out the treddles.

Eggs may be preserved for twelve months in a sweet and palatable state by boiling them for one minute, and when wanted for use let them be boiled in the usual manner. The white may be a little tougher than a new laid egg^ but the yolk will show no difference. Snow and small beer have been recommended by spme economists KS tdktiftlible substitutes for eggs: they will no more answer this purpose than as substitutes for

sugar or brandy.

Butter varies AviSi in qtidllty. Salt but^ may be washed

from the salt, and then it will make very good pastry.

Lard varies extremely from the time it is kept &c. When you purchase it, have the bladder Gnt and ascertain that t be sweet and good.

Beef'Suet is the best, then mutton and veal: when this is used in very hot weather, while you chop it, dredge it lightly with a little flour.

BeeJ-marraw is excellent for most of the purposes for which suet is employed.

Currants, previous to putting them into the pudding, should be plumped; this is done by pouring some boiling water upon tiiem: wash them well, and then lay them on a sieve or doth before the fire,- -pick them clean from the stones; this not only makes them look better, but deanses them free ^rom all dirt

. Raisins, figs, dried cherries, candied orange and lemoa ped, dtron, and preserves of all kinds, -fresh fruits, goose^ berries,;currants, plums, damsons, &c. are added to batter and suet puddings, or enclosed in the cru«t ordered for apple dumplingSt and make all the various puddings called by those names.

Batter Pudding must be quite smooth and free from lumps; to insure this, first mix the flour with a little milk, add the remainder by degrees, and then the other ingredients. If it is a plain pndcUoi^, put it through a hair sieve; this will take out all lumps effectually. Batter puddings should be tied op tight;

PUDDINGS. 329

"Sf boiled in a mould, batter it first- if baked» also butter the {»an.

Be sure the water boils before you put in the pudding. Set your stew-pan on a trivet over the fire, and keep it steadily boiling all the time: if set upon the fire, the pudding often bums.

Be scrupulously careful that your pudding cloth is perfectly sweet and clean: wash it without any soap, unless very greasy, then rinse it thoroughly in dean water after. Immediately before you use it dip it in boiling water, squeese it -dry, and dredge it with flour.

If your fire is very fierce, mind and stir the puddings every now and then to keep them from sticking to the bottom of the aauoe-pan; if in a mould this care is not so much required, but keep plenty of water in the sauce-pan.

When puddings are boiled in a cloth, it should be just dipped in a basin of cold wKter, before you untie the pudding doth, as that will prevent it from sticking; but when boiled in a mould, if it is well buttered, they will turn out without. Custard or bread puddings require to stand Are minutes before they are turned out. They should always be boiled in a mould or cups.

Keep your paste-board, rolling-pins, cutters, and tins, very dean: the least dust on the tins and cutters, or the least hard paste on the rolling-pin, will spoil the whole of your labour.

Paste far BdUd Puddin/^s.

PidE and chop very fine half a pound of beef suet, add tp it one pound and a quarter of flour and a little salt; mix it with half a pint of milk or water, and beat it wdl with the rollingpin to incorporate the suet with the flour.

Beef Steak Pudding.

' Get rump steaks, not too thick, beat them with a chopper, cut them into pieces about half the siae of your hand, and trim off all the skin, sinews, &e, have ready an onion peeled and chopped fine, likewise some potatoes peded and cut into slices, a quarter of an inch thick; rub the inside of a basin or an oval plain mould with butter, sheet it with paste as directed in the foregoing receipt; season the steaks with pepper, salt, and a 12 2u

930 BOMBSTIC COOKERY.

IHtle grated tfiutitieg; put in a layer of steak, then another of potatoes, and so on till it is fvl\, occasionally throwing in part of the chopped onions; add to it half a gill of mushroom catsup, a table-spoonful of lemon pickle, and half a gill of water 9r veal broth; roll out a top» and dose it well to prev^t the water getting in; rinse a clean cloth in hot water, sprinkle a little flour over it, and tie up the j[ udding; have ready a large pot of water boiling, put it in, and boil it two hours and m half; take it up, remove the ckAh, turn it downwards in a deep dish, and wh^n wanted take away the basin or mould*

Baked Beef Steak

Make a batter of milk, two eggs, and flour; or, whidi ia much better, potatoes boiled and mashed through a colander; lay a little of it at the bottom of the dish; then put in the steaks prepared as above, and very well seasoned; pour the remainder of the batter over them * and bake it.

Steak or Kidney Pudding,

^ If kidney, spUt and soak it, and season that or the meat. Make a paste of suet, flour, and milk; toU it, and line a baaia with some; put the kidney or steaks in, cover with paste, and pinch round the edge. Cover With a doth, and boil a considerable time.

• *

Mutton Pudding.

Season with salt; pef^per, and a bit of onion; lay one layer qf steaks at the bottom of the disk; and pour a batter of potatoes boiled and pressed through a colander, and mixed with, milk and an egg, over them; then putting the rest of the steaks and batter, bak^ it.

Batter with flour, instead of potatoes, eats well, but requires more egg, and is not so good.

Or: cut slices off a 1^ thitt has been under-done, and put them into a basin lined with a fine abet crust. Season with pepper, salt, and findy shred onioii or shalot.

Baked Beef or Mutton Potato Pudding.

. This econonical article is thus made-^Boil a sufficient quantity of well-pared mealy potatoes tifl they are so thoroughly

clone as to be ready to cmirable iti pieces; drain them well in a colander or sieve; dck out ever j speck, impnriiyi or hardness; and mash them as fine and smooth $» possible. Make them up into a tbickish batter, with an egg or two and milk s and, placing a layer of the steaks or chops, well seasoned with fiialt and pepper, at the bottom of a baking dish, cover them w ith e layer of batter; and so, alternately, till the dish be filled, taking care to have batter at the top. The dish should be first well buttered, to prevent sticking or burning; and. in that case, the bottoqi as well as the top may consist of potato batter. The pudding, when properly baked, will be of a fine brown colour.

«

Calf 8 Foot Pudding.

Mince .very fine a- pound -of calves* feet, first taking out the £it and brown. Then take a pound and a half of su^ pick off all the skin, and shred it small. Take six eggs, ^11 the yolks, and but half the whites, and beat them well. Then take the crumb of a half-penny roll grated, a pound of currants clean picked.^nd washed, and rubbed in a cloth, as much milk as will moisten it with the eggs, a handful of flour, and a little salt, nutmeg, and sugar, to season it to your taste. Boil it four hours; then take it up, lay it in your dish, and pour melted butter over it. If you put white wine and sugar into the butter it will be a pleasing addition.

Yorkshire Pudding under Roast Meat^ the Gipsies' way.

This pudding is an especially excellent accompaniment to a sirloin of beef, loin of veal, or any fat and juicy joint

Six table-spoonfuls of flour, three eggs, a tea-spoonful of salt, and a pint c^ milk; so as to make a middling stiff batter^ a little stiffer than you would for pancakes; beat it up well, and take care it is not lumpy. Put a dish under the meat, and let the drippings drop into it till it is quite hot and well greased; then pour in the batter. When the upper surface is brown and set, turn it, that both sides may be brown alike; if yovL wish it to cut firm, and the pudding an inch thick, it wil^ take two hours at a good fire.

The true Yorkshire pudding is about half an inch thick when done; but it is the fi»faion in Lond m to make them full twice that thickness.

832 DOMESTIC COOlCESY.

MyPniding.

Beat up the yolks and whites of three eggs, strain them through a sieve, (to keep out the treddles,) and gradnally add to them about a quarter of a pint of milk; stir these well together. Rub together in a mortar two ounces of moist sugar, and as much grated nutmeg as will lie on a sixpence; stir these into the eggs and milk; then put in four ounces of flour, and beat it into a smooth batter; by degrees stir into it seven ounces of suet, (minced as fine as possible^) and three ounces of bread crumbs; mix all thoroughly together at least half an hour before you put the pudding into the pot; put it into an earthenware pudding mould, that you have well buttered, tie a pudding cloth over it very tight^ put it into boUing water^ and boil it three hours.

Put one good plum into it, and an arch cook says, you may then tell the economist that you have made a good plum pudding - without plums: this would be what school-boys call a Mile Stone Pudding, u e. a mile between one plum and another.

Half a pound of Muscatel raisins cut in half, and added to the above, will make a most admirable plum* pudding: a little grated lemon peel may be added. A table-spoonful of cream will also give it a rich brown colour.

If the wat^r ceases to boil, the pudding will become bfevy, and be spoiled; if properly managed, this and the following will be as fine puddings of the kind as art can produce. Puddings are best when mixed an hour or two before they are boiled; the various ingredients by that means amalgamate, and the whole becomes richer and fuller of flavour, especially if the various ingredients be thoroughly well stirred together.

This pudding may be baked in an oven, or under meat, the same as Yorkshire pudding. If you make it the same, add half a pint of milk more: it should be above an inch and a quarter in thickness, and will take full two hours. It requires careful watching, for if the top gets burned, an empyreumadc flavour will pervade the whole of the pudding. - Or butter some saucers, and fill them with puddings and set them in a Dutch oven: they will take about an hour.

A Fat Pudding. Break five eggs in a basiu, beat them up with a tea-spoonful of sugar and a table-spoonful of flour, beat it quite smooth.

PUDDINOf. 839

then pat to it a pound of raisins, and a pbund of suet, - ^it must not be chopped very fine. Butter a mould well, put in the pudding, tie a cloth over it tight, and boil it five hours.

N. B. This is very rich, and is commonly called a marrow padding.

Suet Pudding or Dumplings*

Chop six ounces of suet very fine, put it in a basin with six ounces of flour, two ounces of bread crumbs, and a tea-spoonful of salt- stir it all well together; beat two eggs on a plate, add to them six table-spoonfuls of milk, put it by degrees into the basin, and stir it all well together; divide it into six dumplings, and tie them separate, previously dressing the cloth lightly with flour. Boil them one hour.

This is very good the next day fried. The above will make a good pudding, boiled two hours in an earthenware mould, with the addition of one more egg, a little more milk, and two ounces of suet'.

The most economical way of making suet dumplings, is to boil them without a cloth in a pot with beef, or mutton; no eggs are theil wanted, and the dumplings are quite as hght without. Roll them in flour before you put them into the pot; add six ounces of currants, washed and picked, and you have currant pudding, - or divided into six parts, currant dumpling. A little sugar will improve them.

Veal Suet Pudding.

Cut the crumbs of a three-penny loaf into slices; bcnl and sweeten two quarts of new milk, and pour over it. When soaked, pour out a little of the milk; and mix with six eggs well beaten, and half a nutmeg. Lay the slices of bread into a dish; with layers of currants, and veal suet shred, a pound of each. Butter the dish well, and hake; or you may boil it in a basin, if you prefer it. Batter Pudding with Meat.

Make a batter with flour, milk, and eggs; pour a little into Ihe bottom of a pudflbg-dish; then put seasoned meat of any kind into it, and a little shred onion; pour the remainder of the batter over^ and bake ia a «low ovep.

334 DOMESTIC COOKERY.

Some like a loin of mutton baked in b»tteri beiag cleared of mo«t of the fat

Potato Pudding with Meat.

Boil the potatoes till fit to mash; rub through a poUnder^ and make into a thick batter with milk and two egg%. Laysome seasoned steaks in a dish, then 8o6ie batter; and over the laBt layer pour the remainder of the baiter. Bake a fine brOwn.

"i

. Ptase Pudding,

Put a quart of split peas ii lo a dean doth; do not tie them ap too olose^ but leave a little roorti for them ta swdl; put them to boil m oold water do wly, till they are tender: if theyv are good peas, they will be boiled, enough in about two hours and a half. Aiib thetn through a sieve into a deep dish* adding to them an egg or two, on ounce of butter, and son^ P^PP^v and salt; beat them wdl together for. about ten minutes, when these ingredients are well incorporated together; then floor the doth well, put the puddil^^ in, and tie it up as tight as possible, and boil it an hovr longer.

To increaae ibe bulk, and diminish the expense of this pud*? ding, the ecooonpicd housekeeper who ha^ a large family t^ feed, may now add two pounds of potatoes that have been boiled aiid.weU .mashed.. To. many, this mixture is more agreeable than pease pudding done. ...

This pudding is as good with boiled beef, as it is with boil« ed pork; and why not with roasted pork ? It is also a very good accompatidment to cold pork, or cold beef.

• New College Puddings.

Grate the crumbs of a stde two-penny loaf, and put to il about the same weight of finely shred beef suet, a grated nnt« meg, a littte salt, and two ounces of nicely picked currants i then beat a few eggs in a little mountain wine and sugar: mix. all together; knead it into a stiff paste; and, afler letting it stan l a quarter of an hour, make it up into the form and size of turkey's eggs, but somewhat flatter. Over a clear fire, in a chafiing*dish or stovo, put a pound of fresh butter in a dish; isub it about the dish till melted, then put in the puddings, and cover them up. They must^ however, be frequently turned^

PUBDIKGS. 935

%31 all appew bnywn dike; and, when quite enough, are to be ¦efved up hot, for a side dish, with grated sugar over them. TEese puddings, which first obtained their name, as well as their ce&abrity, at the university of Oxford, are very generally admired.

DeHdouM Orange Pudding,

Gtale the rinds of two Seville. oranges; and bett them in a marbie mortar, with half a pound of fine fresh butter, the same quantity of loaf sugar, and the yolks Of sixteen eggs, till the whole mass becomes of an even colour: then pour it into a baking dish lined with puff paste.

Orange Pudding another way.

Bather more than two table-spoonfuls of the orange pastes nixed with six eggs, four ounces of • togar, and four ounces of butter, melted, will make a good sized pudding, with a paste at the bottom of the dish. Bake twenty minutes.

An excellent Lemon Pudding.

Beat the yolks of four egg9; add Ibur ounces of white flogar, the rind of a lemon being rubbed with some lamps of it to take the essence; then pe^, and beat it in a mortar with the juice of a large lemon, and mix all with four or five ounces of butter warmed. Put a crust into a fallow dish, nick the edges, and mt the above into it. When served, turn the pudding out of tfas dish.

Dutch Baked Pudding.

Take two pounds of fiour, one pound of butter melted in half a pint of milk, and a pound of picked currants, eight aggs, and a little grated loaf sugar. Mix the whole together, with two spoonfuls of yeast, and let It stand an hour to rise. An hour will bake it in a hot oven.

Dutch Rid Pudding.

Soak four ounces of rioe in warm water half an hour; drain the latter fVom it, and throw it into a stew-pan, with half a pint of milk, half a stick of cinnamon, and eimmer till tender. When cold, add fovr whole eggs well beaten, two ounces

9M DOMBSTIC COOKERY*

of batter melted in a tea-cupful of creain; and put thfM ounces of sugar, a quarter of a nutmeg, and a good piece of lemoD peel.

Put a light puff paste in a mould or dish, or grated tops and bottoms, and bake in a quick oven.

Rice Puddings baked or hoikd.

Wash in cold water, and pick very dean six ounces of rice, put it in a quart stew-pan three parts filled with cold water, set it on the fire, let it boil five minutes; pour away the water, and put in one quart of milk, a roll of lemon peel, and a bit of cinnamon. Let it boil gently till the rice is quite tender, it will take at least one hour and a quarter: be careful to stir it every five minutes, take it off the fire, and stir in an ounce and a half of fresh butter; and beat up three leggs on a plate, a salt-spoonful of nutmeg, two ounces of sugar, ptit it into the pudding, and stir it till it is quite smooth. Line a pie-dish big enough to hold it with puff paste, notch it round the edge, put in your pudding, and bake it three quarters of an hour: this will be a nice firm pudding.

If you like it to eat more like custard, add one more egg, and half a pint more milk; it will be better a little thinner when boiled; one hour will boil it. If you like it in little pud* dings, batter small tea-cups, and either bake or boil them: half an hour will do either. You may vary the pudding by putting in candied lemon or orange peel, minced very fine, - or dried cherries,- or three ounces of currants, - or raisins,- or apples minced fine.

If the puddings are baked or boiled, serve them with white wine sauce, or butter and sugar.

Grimnd Rice Pudding.

Put four ounces of ground rice into a stew-pan, and by degrees stir in a pint and a half of milk; set it on the fire, widi . a roll of lemon, and a bit of cinnamon; keep stirring it till it boils; beat it to a smooth batter, then set it on the trivet, where it will simmer gently for a quarter of an hour; then beat three eggs on a plate, stir them into the pudding with two ounces of sugar, and twp drams of nutmeg; take out the lemon peel and cinnamon, stir it aU well together, line a

PUDDINGS. 887

)iie dish with diin puff paste big enough to hold iti or butter the dish well, and bake it half an hour. If boiled, it will take one hour in a mould well buttered- three ounces of currants may be added.

Plain Rice Pudding.

Wash and pick some rice; throw among it some pimento findj pounded, but not much; tie the rice in a doth, and leare plentj of room for it to swell. Boil it in a quantity of water for an hour or two. When done, eat it with butter and sugar, or milk. Put lemon peel if you please.

It is very good without spice, and eaten with salt and butter.

J Ge&rge Pudding.

Boil very tender a handful of whole rice in a small quantity of milk, with' a large piece of lemon peel. Let it drain; then mix with it a dozen of good sized apples, boiled to pulp as dry as possible; add a glass of white wine, the yolks of five eggs^ two ounces of orange and citron cut thin; m^dce it pretty sweet. 'Line a mould or basin with a very good paste: beat the 6ve whites of the eggs to a very strong froth, and mix with the other ingredients; fill the mould, and bake it of a fine brown (Xilour. Serve it with the bottom upward, with the following sauce: - two glasses of Wine, a spoonful of sugar, the yolks of two eggs, and a bit of butter as large as a walnut; simmer without boiling, and pour to and from the sauce*pan, till of a proper thickness; and put in the dish. '

Duke of Buckingham's Pudding.

Take a pound of finely shred suet, a quarter of a pound of raisins stoned and chopped, two eggs, with a little nutmeg and giuger, and sugar to the palate: tie it dose; boil it four hours; and serve it up with melted butter, mountain wine, and sugar.

Pancake Pudding.

Take a quart of milk, four eggs ' and two large spoonfuls of flour, with a little salt and grated ginger. Beat them up into a good smooth batter; and put it into a buttered baking dish. When it comes out of the oven, pour over it some melt* ed butter. This is a very cheap and acceptable puddings beii^ 1% ix

aaS DOMESTIC COOKBRT.

• • •

le8» offenaire to the- stomach than even the beai fried pa«« cakes.

Fine Carrot Pudding.

Grate half a pound of the sweetest and most delicate raw carroty and doable th^ quHfltity of white bread; mix eight beaten yolks and four whites of egg^ with half a pint of new milk; and melt half a pound of fresh butter^ with half a pint t f white wine, three spoonfuls of orange-flower water, a grated nutmegi and sugar to palate. Stir the whole well together; and, if too thick, add more milk, till it be of a moderate consistency* Lay a puff paste all over the dish, and bake it an hour. Serve it up with sugar grated over. This fine pudding is easily made stiO more delicious by using Naples biscuit and cream instead of bread and new milk, and putting in a glass of ratafia with the orange-flower water. On account of its beautiful colour, this pudding is often sent to table, turned out of the crust bottom upward, . having a little fine sugar grated over it. S6me, too, boil the carroty and scald the cream, but neither is necessary; and, by boiling, much of the aaocharine quality of the carrot is always unavoidably lost.

Delicious Macaroon Custard Pudding.

Fill the bottom of the baking dish with macaroons, and toak them well in white wine: then pour over the top of them a rich custard, made with twenty eggs, a pint and a half of cream, and a pint of new milk; adding as omaments.whatever sweetmeats best please the fancy. Great care most be taken ^ with the bakiiig, as it requires very little doing. The dish it J sometimes Hned with puff paste. This is a truly deUcioutf. * podding.

Good Custard Pudding for boiling.

Take a pint of cream, mix two or three spoonfuls of it with a spoonful of fine Bov^r^ and boil the remainder; when it has boiled, take it off the fire, and stir well into it the cold ci!«am which had been mixed with the flour. While the whole ia cooling, beat up five yolks of eggs, with two whites, stirring in a little salt, some grated nutmeg, a small glass of while winci and sugar to palate. Butter a wooden bowl; pour the

PUDDINGS.

tmstard into it; and, tyin^ a doth over, let it boil half an hour. Vfhm done, mitift the doth, torn the podding into a ditl » and poor over it meked batter; eitber (riain, or mixed witba littltf «ango-flowcv water, sugar, and a tpoonful of white wb«» M iaoet oonvcnient or agreeable.

Curious Noddy Puddingi.

Beat blanched almonds very fine, adding a spoonful or two of damask rose-water or cream; strain the whole through a aieve, boil it, and let it stand to cool. Then thicken it with beaten eggs, sw^ten with fine loaf sugar dissolved in rose* water, and tie it up in 9everal little bags. Boil them half an hour in a skillet of water; and melt butter with rose-water and sugar for the sauce. When made of several different colours, as was formerly the fashion, they are said to have a very pretty appearance. This is easily effected, by means of spinadi juice, aaffron, beet, &c.

MUUt Pudding.

This agreeable padding is easily made, and scarcely any thing can be cheaper, - Wash half a pound of millet seed, and put it in a dish spread over with a quarter of a pound of batter: add some sugar and shred lemon peel, with a little beaten all« spice, cinnamon, grated nutmeg, or even ginger; and, pouring over the whole three pints of milk, bake it in a moderate oven. In this plain way, it is very good; it may, however, be made richer, with eggs, spices, &c. in the same manner aa i rice, and has a peculiarly pleasing flavour.

JB^kHsd QooHherrjf Pudding.

Stew gooseberries over a slow fire till they are as tender aa possible, and then pulp them through a hair sieve. Beat up five or six eggs, strain them to about a quart of the gooseberry pulp when cold, and mix up both with crumbs of bread or Naples biscuits, plenty of sugar, and a little grated orange or lemon ped and nutmeg, with some rose or orange-flower water. Line the dish with paste, pour in the firoit, Ac. place a rim of paste round, and let it be moderately baked.

840 DOMEflTIC COOKEAY.

Delkate Mugiu Pudding*

Boily in a pint of milk^ a bit of lemon peeU and a leaf of laurel or a little cinnamon, with sugar also to fMdate« about eight or ten minutes. Having put three of the best niuffins ii a large basin, strain over them the hot milk; and^ when quite cold, mash them well with a wooden spoon. Then pounding about an ounce of blanched almonds, mix them well in .with about a quarter of a .pound of any dry preserved fruit, such as apricots, cherries, or plums,- a little grated nut« meg, three beaten eggs, and a couple of table-spoonfuls each of brandy and orange-flower, and bake it with puff paste round the dish, or boil it tied up in a basin. In either way it will prove delicious . It may be made plainer, and very good, by obvious omissions, and substituiing nicely picked currants for dry sweetmeats. Muffins, indeed, make a very agreeable and delicate pudding, without the insertion of any fruit at all.

Cotti^ Potato Phun Pudding.

Boil, peel, and mash, two pounds of potatoes; and beat them up well into a smooth batter, with a pint of milk, and a couple or three beaten eggs; adding two ounces each of moist sugar, and Denia or Malaga raisins. Bake it three quarters of an Kour in a moderately heated oven. By merely leaving out the plums, it makes a good plain cottage pudding.

An excellent plain Potato Pudding,

Take eight ounces of boiled potatoes, two ounces of butter, the yolks and whites of two eggs, a quarter of a pint of cream, one spoonful of white wine, a morsel of salt, the juice and rind of a l^mon; beat all to froth; sugar to taste. A crust or not, as you like. Bake it. If wanted richer, put three ounces more butter, sweetmeats and almonds, and anoth^ egg.

Save-all Pudding.

Put any scraps of bread into a clean sauce*pan; to about a pound, put a pint of milk. Set it on the trivet till it boils; beat it up quite smooth; then break in three eggs, three ounces of sugar, with a little nutm^, ginger, or allspice, and stir it all well together Butter a dish big enough to hold it, put in the pudding, and have ready two ounces of suet chopped very fine i

:puddin6s. 341

tttrew it over the top of the pudding, and bake it three quarters of an hoar. Four ounces of currants will make it much better.

Batter Pudding, baked or boiled.

Break three eggs in a basin with as much salt as will lie on a sixpence, beat them well togethcf, and then add four ounces of flour- beat it into a smooth batter, and by degrees add half a pint of milk: have your sauce-pan ready boiling, and butter an earthen mould well, put the pudding in, and tie it tight over with a pudding cbth, and boil it one hour and a quarter* Or, put it in a dish that you have well buttered, and bake it three quarters of an hour.

Currants washed and picked 'clean, or raisins stoned, are good in this pudding, and it is then called a black cap: or, add loaf sugar, and a little nutmeg and ginger without the firuit; it is very good that way.-*Serve it with wine sauce.

Rich Plum Pudding.

Even the roast beef of old England is scarcely more fiunous than its plum padding; but this, being more of a knanufacture, is prepared in so many different ways, as some* Umes to be a very delicious and sometimes a very indifferent dish« Perhaps, the very best way of making a r»ch pknu'^dding is this which we are about to give -Having carefuUj stoned a pound of the best jar raisins, well washed and picked, the same quantity of fine and newest currants, chopped or minced small, a pound of the freshest beef suet, and blanched and pounded two ounces of almonds; mix them in a pound each of sifted flour and grated bread crumbs: adding two ounces each of candied citron, orange and lemon peel, half a iprated nutmeg, a blade or two of beaten mace,, a quarter of a pound of powdered loaf sugar, and a very little salt. Then moisten the whole with ten beaten eggs, a\ out half a pint of cream, a glass or two of mountain wine, and half a gill of brandy, to make it of a good consistency; but it must by no means be thin, as the fruit would then settle at the bottom. Being thus made, it may either be put into a dish or mouldy and well baked; or, as is more generally the case, carefully tied up in a cloth, boiled at least four hours, and served up with melted butter in mountain wine, and scraped sugar over it This is a most delicious pudding*

842 DOMESTIC COOKBRY.

Good Fwmhf Plum Pudding.

Mix Iialf a pound each of Malaga raisins and currants; a pound each of 0oiir» grated bread, and chopped suet; and a little pounded allspice, a quarter of i pouiid of moist sugar, and some salt. Moisten it with ^ beaten egg and milk, with or without aglass of white wine or brandy, and a little grated nutmeg^; and boil or babe it in the same manner as the richest pluno. pudding. This will generally prove a very acceptable pudding.

Apple Pudding boiled.

Chop four ounces of beef suet very fine, or two ounces of butter, lard, or dripping, but the suet makes the best and lightest crust; put it on the paste board, with eight ounces of flour, and a salt-spoonful of salt; mix it well together with your hands, and then put it all of a heap, and make a hole in the middle; break one egg in it, stir it well together with your finger, and by degrees infuse as much water as will make it of a stiff paste: roll it out two or thrpe times with the roUing-piD^ and then roll it large enough to receive thirteen ounces of apples. It will look neater if boiled in a basin, well buttered^ than when boiled in a pudding doth well floured: boil it an hoar and three quarters,- but the surest way is to stew the apples first in u stew-pan, with a wine-glassful of water, and then one hour will boil it. Some people like it flavoured with cloves and lemon peel, and sweeten it with two ounces of sugar* Gooseberries, currants, and raspberries, cherries, damsons, and various plums and fruits, are made into puddings with the same crust directed for apple puddings.

Boston Apple Pudding.

Peel one dof en and a half of good apples, take out the cores, cut them small, put into a stew-pan Uiat will just hold them, with a little water, a little cinnamon, two cloves, and the peel of a lemon; stew over a slow fire till quite soft, then sweeten with moist sugar, and pass it through a hair sieve; add to it the yolks of four ^gs and o^ne white, a quarter of a pound of good butter, half a nutmeg, the peel of a lemon grated, and the juice of one lemon; beat all well together; line the inside of a pie-dish with good puff paste, put in the pudding, and bake half an hour.

PUDBINGS. 348

. AfpU Dumplings. Make paste tbe tome. M for apfile pudding; divide ii into as many pie »0 as yea want dumplingSy .pe^l .the apples and core iheta, then roll out your paste large eOOliglb and put in the apples; dose i% all round, and tjio them in pudding clotfas very tight -K ne hoar Will boil them^-^and wh#li yjom take them -up, jnst dip thein in cold vafter^ a)nd put them in a cup tbe •ice of the dumpling While you untie Ihem^ and they will turn tout without breaking.

Nottingham Puddings

Feel six good apples^ takeout the core with the point of a small knife, or aU apple corer, if yoU hatoone; but be sura to leave Ae apples whole ! fill up where you took the core Upoia with angary plate them in a pie-dish^ and pour over them a niee light batter,-^and bake an hour in a moderate oven»

«

Bread Pudding.

Take the crumbs of a penny loaf^ cut it into very thin slices^ put it into a quart of mUk^ and set it over a chaffing* dish of coab tili the blread has soaked' up all the milk. Then pat in a piece of butter^ Itir it round, and let it stadd till it is cold; or you may boil your milk, and pour it over the bread and coyer it up dose, which will equally answer the same puri pose. Then take the yolks of six eggs, the whites of three, and beat them up with a little rose-water and nutmeg, and a little salt and sugar. Mix all well together, and put it into your cloth • tie it loose to give it room to swell, and boil it an honr« When done, put it into your dish, pour melted butter over, and serve it to table.

A mare expensive Bread Pudding*

Cut thin all tbe crumbs of a stale penny loaf, and pni it inta a quart of cream, set it over a slow fire till it is scalding hoi, and then let it stand till it is cold. Beat up the bread and cream well together, and grate in some nutmeg. Xake twelve bitter almonds, boil them in two spoonfuls of water, pour the water to the creamy stir it in with a b'ttJe salt, «nd sweeten it to your taste. Blanch the almonds in a mortar^ with two spoonfuls of xose or nrakige-flower water, till they axa

344 DOMIfiSTIC COOKERY.

a fine paste; then mix them by degrees with the cream. Tak« the yolks o^ eight ^gs, and the whites of four, beat them up well, put them into the cream likewifiie, and mix the whole well together. Dip your cloth into warm water, and floar I^ well, before yon put in the pudding; tie it loose, and let it boil an hour. Take care the water boils when you put it in, and that it keeps so all the time. When it is enough, tqm it into your dish Melt some butter, and put in it two or three spoonfuls of white wine or sack; give it a boil, and pour it over your pudding. Then strew a good deal of fine sugar over your pudding and dish, and send it hot to table. Instead of a cloth, you may boil it in a bowl or basin, which is indeed the better way of the two. ' In l^is case, when it is enough, take it up in the basin, and let it stand a minute or two to cool; ihen untie the string, wrap the cloth round the basin, lay your dish over it, and turn the pudding out; then take off the basin and cloth with great care, otherwise a light pudding will be subject to break in turning out

Brawn Bread Pudding.

Half a pound of stale brown bread grated, ditto of cnr« rants, ditto of shred suet, sugar and nutmeg; mix with four eggs, a spoonful of brandy, and two spoonfuls of cream; boil in ^ cloth or baain that exactly holds it, three or four hours.

Little Bread PuddingB.

Steep the crumbs of a penny loaf, grated, in about a pint «f warm milk; when soaked, beat six eggs, whites and yolksi and mix with the bread, and two ounces of butter warm* ed, sugar, orange-flower water, a spoonful of brandy^ a little nutmeg, and a tea-cupful of cream. Beat all well, and bake in tea-cups buttered. If currants are chosen, a quarter of a pound is sufficient; if not, they are good without: or you may put orange or lemon candy. Serve with pudding sauce.

Puddings in haste.

Shred suet, and put with grated bread, a few currants, the yolks of four eggs and the whites of two, some grated lemon peel and ginger. Mix; and make into little balls about the sLee and shape of an egg, with a little flour.

^UBDIMOS* ''- MS

•Hftve ready n akiUet of boiling watcr^ attd dnwir tfieiii faL Twenty minutes will l oil them; but tliey will riit tolfaetxip when done.-- Serve with pudding sauce.

Ahmmd Pmdding.

Beat half a pound of sweet and a few bitter almonds with M spoonful of w^r; then mix four ounces of butter,' four eggs^ two spoonf^ of cream, warm with the butter, one of brandy^ a Gttle nutmeg, and iugar to taste. Butter some cupb, half-filly* and bake the puddiogs. Serve wiith liutter^ Inne, and sugar.

Baked Ahnond PwUing.

Beat fine four ounces of almonds,, four or five bitter ditto, with a. little wine, yolks of six eggs, peel of two lemons gmted, six ounces of butter^ near a quart of cream, and juice of one lemon. When well .mixed, bake it half an hour, with paste round the dish.

Small Almond Pudding.

Pound eight ounces of almonds, and a few bitter, with a qpoonftti of water; mix with four ounces of butter warmed, four yolks -and two whites of eggs, sugar to taste, two spoonfuls of cream, and one of brandy; mix well, and bake in little cups buttered. Serve with padding sauce.

•i Sago Pudding.

Soil a pint juid a half of new milk with four spoonfuls, of sago nicely washed and incke4 lempn p^el, cinnamon, ai di nutmeg; sweeten to taste; then mix four eggs, put a paste round the dish,, and bake slowly.

Bread and Butter Pudding.

Youmust have a dish that will hold a quart s-^wash .and pick two ounces of currants, strew a few at the bottom of the dish, cut about four layers of very thin bread and butter, and between each layer of bread and butter strew some Qirrants; then break four eggs in a basin, leaving out one white, beat them well, and add four ounces of sugar and a dram of nut* meg, stir it well together with a pint of new milk, pour UnMr 13 2y

946 BOMSSTI.C .COOKERY.

^ut. fen mittuCes b^ve you pat it in the bven. It will take thrae quartets ^ an, hour to b«ke.

A wry fine Amber Pudding.

Pat a pound of buttar into a sauce-pan^ with three quarters «f;a pound of loaf sugar finely powdered; melt the buttcsr, and mix well with it; then add the yolks of fifteen eggs well beaten, and as much fi'esh candied orange as will add colottr and flavour to it» being first beaten to a fine paste. Line the aish with paste for taming out; and when filled inth the aboTe, lay a crust over, as you would a pie, and bake it in aslow oven.- It is as good cold as hot.

Oatmeal Pudding.

Pour a quart of boiling milk over a pint of the best fine oat* meal: let it soak all night; next day beat two eggs, and mix a little salt; butter a basin that will just hold it; cover it tight with a floured doth, and boil it an hour and a half. Eat it with cold butter and salt.

When cold, slice and toast it, and eat it as oat»cake buttered.

Ldght or German Puddings or P^ffs. Melt three ounces of butter in a pint of cream; let it stand till nearly cold; then mix two ounces of fine flour, and ' two ounces of sugar, four yolks and two whites of. eggs, and a little rose or orange flower water. Bake in little cups buttered, half an hour. They should be serveci the moment they are done, and only when going to be eaten, or they will not be light. Turn out (^ the cups, and serve with white wine and sugar.

» • Nelson Pudding.

Put into a Dutch oven six small cakes called Nelson balls, or rice cakes made in small tea*cups. .When quite. hot, pour over them boiling melted butter, white wine, and sugar; and serve.

E^e's Pudding. Grate three quarters of a pound of bread; mix it with the same quantity of shred suet, ^the same of apples, and also of

PUDDINGfi.

'^

cuntnts; mix with these the whole of four tggB, and the rind * of half a lemon shred fine. Put it into a ahap^ boil three hours; and serve with pudding sauce, the juice of half a lein«i, and a little nutmeg.

Quaking Pmidmg^

Scald a quart of cream; when almost cold put to it four

eggs well beaten, a spoonful and a hal^ of flour, some nutmegs

' and su^; tie it dose in a butlered doth; boil it an hour;

aiid torn it out with care, lest it shoold crack. Melted'buttar,

m Utile wine, and sugar.: . .

TVansparent Pudding.

Beat eight eggs very well; put them into a stew-pan,, with half a pound of sugar pouiided fine, the same quantity of butter, and some nutmeg grated. Set it on the fire, and keep stirring it till it thickens. Then set it into a basin to cool; p^t a ridi pofl^ paste round the edge of the dish; pour in your p^d* ding, and bake it in a moderate oven. It will cut light and dear. You may add candied orange and dtron, if you like

Macaroni Pudding.

Simmer an ounce or two of the pipe sort, in a pint of mil£, and a bit of lemon and dnnamon, till tender; put it into a^isR, with milk, two or three eggs, but only pne white; sugar, nutmeg, a spoonful of peach water, and half a glass of raisin wine. Bake with a paste round the edges.

A layer of orange-marmalade, or raspberry jam, in a macaroni pudding, fordiange, is a great improvement; in which case oinit the almond water, or ratafia, which you would otiier wise flavour it with.

I - »

An exeeHeni Apricot Puddings*

Halve twelve large apricots, give them a scald till they are soft; mean time pour on the grated crumbs of a penny loaf, a pint of boiling cream; when half cold, four ounces of sugar, the yolks of four beaten eggs, and a glass of white wine. Pound the apricots in a mortar, with some or all of the.. kernels; mix then the firuit and other ingredients together; put a paste round a diafti, and bake the pudding half an hour.

94B DOMjUTIC COOKBRT.

. A Green-hcan Pvddi»g Boil food bitfiehold beaYi8;1 eat tb^A in a mortar, with ^v^eiy little'pet»pelrlttid talt, tome cream,' lud the yolk of an egg. A little spinach juice will give a finer cdour, but it H as good without. Boil it in a basin that will just hold it, an hour; and pour parsley and butter oVer. Serve bacon to eat with it.

Shelf ord Pudding.

Mix three qa^atan of a pontid »f cmraots or raisins, one pound of 'suet, qine poiitid of flour, six eggs, a Uttlegoed milk; tome lemon-peel, a little salt. Boil it in a melon-ehaiie. aiz hours.

0.

Brandy Pudding.

Line 4 moold with jar-raisins stoned, or dried cherries, then with thin 8llcei of French roll, n'ex^ to which put ratafias,

. or macaroqns; th^^ the fruit, rolls, and cakes, in succession, until the mould be full; sprinkling ia^ at times two glassea of

: brandy.; Beat four egg , yolks and wlfites; put to a pint of milji or oream^ %^y sweetened, half a nutmeg,- and tl be rind of half a lemon finely grated. Let the* liquid sink into the solid part: then flour a doth, tie it tight over, and boil one^hour; keep the mould the right side pp. Serve with pudsauce.

'0

Buttermilk Pudding*

Warm three quarts of new milk; tpm it with a quart of .battermilk; drain the curd through a sieve; when dry, pound it ma marliile mortar, with near half a pound of sugar, a lemon boiled tender, the crumbs of a roll grated, a nutmeg grated^ six bitter almonds, four ounces of warm butter, a tea-eupful of good cream, the yolks of five and whites of three eggs, a glass of sweet wine, and diliio of brandy. When well incorporated; bake in small oixg% or bowk well battered; if the bottom be not brown, use a salamander; but serve as quick aapossible, and' with pudding sauce.

Curd Puddingi, w Pvff$. Turn two quarts of milk, to curd, press the whey from Hi fji^tbrongh a sieve, and mix four onncea of butter, the

y PCP0INO8. . 849

crumba of a penny loaf^ tmo apoonfab ofctetan, «nd half a nutmegs a small quantity of sugar, and two spoonfuls of white "wine. Butter little cups^ or small pattepaus, and fill them three parts. Orange-flower water is an improvement. Bake them with cure. Serve with sweet sauce in a boat

Boiled Curd Puddmg.

Bab the curd of two galkos of nnUiweU dnined through

a sieve. Mix it with six eggsy a^Jittle CBesm, two ^oonfuls of

ennge-flawer wtter, half antttoi^^ floar4ind cruiabs of bread

. eadi three speonfols, carrsots and raisins half a poond'of each.

Boil an hour-in « thick wsU-flooredeloCh.

Pippin

mm MM

'' Coddle six pippins in vine leaves covert with water^ very 'gehtly^ that the inside b^ done without breaking the skinfl. When'softy skin, and with a tea-spoon take the pulp from the core. ' Press it through a colander; add two spoonfuls (df ^^nrange^flower water, three eggs beaten, a glass o€ raisin ^ne^ a pint of scalded cream, sugar and nutmeg to taste. ' Lay a thin puff paste at the bottom and sides of the dish; shred very thin lemon-peel as fine as possible, and put it into the dish; likewise lemon, orange, aiid citron^ in small slices, but not so-tMi as to dissolve in the baking.

^ . A quick-made Pudding,

. piaar and' suet half 4 pound eacbi four.ei^p^, a.qifarter of a pint of new milk, a little mace and nutmeg, a quarter of a pound pf raisins, ditto of currants; mix well, and boil three quarters of an hour with the cover -of th^pot on, or it will require longer.

A Welsh Pudding.

Itet half a pound of fine butter melt gently, beat with it the yolks of eight and whites of ibur eggs, mix in six ounces of loaf' sugar,, and the riad of a lemon grated. Put a paste intea dish foi! turning oiit,. and. pour the4dbove in,;. and. nicely bake it.: .

350 ' DOMESTIC COOKERT.

Yeoit or Stffolk Dumplings.

Make a very light dough with jrea8t as for breads but with milk instead of water, and put salt. Let it rise an hour before the fire.

Twenty minutes before you are to serve, have ready a Targe stew-pan of boiling water; make the dough into balls, the sixe of a middling apple; throw them in, and boil twenty minutes. If you doubt when done enough, stick a dean fork inia one, and if it come out dear, it is done.

The way to eat them is, to tear them apart on the top with .two forks, for they become heavy by their own steam. Eat immediately with meat, ot sugar and butter, or salt.

Spring Fruit Pudding.

Peel and well wash four dozen sticks of rhubarb, put into a stew-pan with the pudding, a lemon, a little cinnamon, and as much moist sugar as will make it quite sweet, .set it over a fire, and reduce it to a marmalade, pass through a hair sieves and proceed as directed for the Boston apple pudding, leaving out the lemon juice, as the rhubarb will be found suffidently add of itself.

Thnsey Pudding.

Put as much boiling cream to four Naples biscuits grated as will wet them, beat them with the yolks of four eggs. Have ready a few chopped tansey leaves, with as much spinach as will make it pretty green. Be careful not to put too much tansey in, beiUiuse it wUl make it bitter. Mix all together when the cream is cold, with a little sugar, and set it over a slow fire till it grows thick; then take it oiF^ and' when cold, put it in a doth, well buttered and floured; tie it up close, and let it boil three quarters of an hour; then take it up in a basin, and let it stand one quarter; then turn it carefully out, and put white wine sauce round it*

Herb Pudding.

Steep a quart of grits in warm water half an hour, and then ciit a pound of hog^s hurd into little biu. Take of spinadi, beets, parsley, and leeks, a handful of each: three large gnions chopped small^ and three sage leaves cut very fine. Put

PAlfCAKSft .AND FRITTSR8. 361;

in a litth.Mlt, i9 x all well togetb^^ an^ tie it dote. It will

¦

rei aiie to-be taken up while boiling, .in order to loosen the

A Charlotte.

Cat aa many very thih sliees of white bread as will cover bottom and line the sides of a bakingrdisb, but first rub it duck with butter. . Put apples in thin jUces into the dish, in Isjersy till foU^ strewing sugar between, and bits of butter. In the mean time, soak as many thin slices of bread as wiU. cover the whole, in warm milk, over which lay a plate, and a weight to keep the bread close on the apples. Bake slowly three hours. To a middfing^siaed dish use half a pound of bolter in the wholf .

V

PANCAKES AND FRITTERS.

an ^aneake$ and FfitUn,

JLHE principal. things to be observed, of a general nature, in dressing these artides is, th^t your pan be thoroughly clean, - that yon 6ry them in nice sweet laid, or fresh butter, of a light brown colour, - and th^t the g^rease is thoroughly drained firem them before you carry them to table.

Pancakes.

Beat six or eight ^^ well together, leaving out half the whites, and stir them into a quart of milk. Mix your flour first with a little of the milk, and then add the rest by degrees. Put in two spoonfuls of beaten ginger, and a little salt, and stir all well together. Put a piece of butter into your stewpan, and then pour in a ladleful of batter, which will make a psncake, moving the pan round, that the batter may spread all over it. Shake the pan, and when you think one side is enough, turn it; and when both sides are done, lay it in a dish betore

352' 0OMI^TIC OOOKBHir. ^

the fire; atid in Xke Wanner do the re^t/ B^fi)Jhe yratake d»iii*' out of tBe pan, raise it « little^ that tKey mqr dinu^ and be^' quite clear of grease. When you send them to table, strew si~ little sugar over them.

Rke- Pmneak^9^:

* •

: ^Boil half a pound ef rioe toia jelly,*tn a nuaU quantity off water; whencold^ n^itwith apisft ^f cream, eightcf^s^ a bk of salt, and nutmeg; stir in e^ht. ounces 4»f . buttei» -josb Inarmed, and add as mudi flour » will make iliie batter thick enough. Fry in as little lard or dripping as fKwaible.

' Irish Pmmomku* •

Beat eight yolks and four whites of ^^-s^ strain thsm h a pint of cream, put a grated nutmeg, and sugar to your taste; set three ounces of fresh butter on the fire, sdr it, and as it warms pour it to the cream, which should be warm when tbe eggs are put to it: then mix smooth almost half a pint of flour.. Fry the pancakes very thin; the first with a bit of butter, but not the others. Senre severaltin oneanothsr*

NeuhEngland Pancakes. Mix a pfait'oftcresm, five spooonfolr of fiiie flour, seven yolks and four whites of eggs, and a very little salt; firy tfa^m very thin in firesh biitt^r, and between eadi strew sugar and dqnamon. Send up six or eight at once.

Pink'Cohured Pancakes.

Pancakes of a beautiful pink colour are easily made by die following simple process.- Boil, till tender, a large beet root, and then bruise it in a marble mortar; put to it the yolks of four eggs^ two spoonfuls of flour, three of cream, half a grated nutmeg, sugar to pf^te, and a glass of brandy. Mix them well together,, fry them carefully, and serve th^m up with « garnish of green sweetmeats. Fritters may be made of diflteent colours in a similar way.

Fritters.

Make them of any of the batters directed for pancakes, by dropping a small quantity into the pan; or make the plainer

PANCAKBS ANB FRITTSR5. 868

•oTt, and put paxed apples, sliced andooredj, into the.batter« aii4 fry some of it with each slice. Currants, . or sliced lemon as thin as paper, make an agreeable change.- Fritters for company should be served on a folded napkin in the dish. Any sort o£ sweetmeat, or ripe firuit, may be- made into fritters.

Potato Fritters,

Boil two large potatoes, scrape them fine; . beat fovs yolks and three whites of eggs, and add to the above one large spoonful of cream, another of sweet wine, a squeeze of lemon, and a little nutmeg. Beat this batter half an hour at least It will be extremely light. Put a good quantity of fine lard in a stew-pan, and drop a spoonful of the batter at a time into it. Fry them; and serve as a sauce, a glass of white wine, the juice of a lemon, one dessert-spoonful of peach-leaf or almondwater, and some white sugar, warmed together: not. to be served in the dish.

Parsnip Fritters,

Boil, peel, and grate, or scrape to a pulp, two large parsnips; beat them up with four yolks and two whites of eggs, two spoonfuls each of cream and white wine, and a little grated nutmeg. Beat them together for nearly an hour, till the bat* ter becomes very light; then fry it in the usual manner of frit* ters, with a great quantity of lard; and serve them up either with lemon or orange juice and sugar, or with melted butter, sugar, and white wine.

Custard Fritters.

Beat up the yolks of eight eggs with one spoonful of fiour, half a nutmeg, a little salt, and a glass of brandy; add a pint of cream, sweeten it, and bake it in a small dish. When cold, cat it into quarters, and dip them in a batter made of half a pint of cream, a quarter of a pint of milk, four eggs, a little flour, and a little ginger grated. Fry them in a good lard or dripping, and when done strew over them some grated sugar.

Apple Fritters. Take some of the largest apples you can get; pare and core them, and then cut them into round slices. Take half a pint IS 2 z

854 OOMBSTIC COOKBRT.

of ale and twoeggs, and beat in as mttch flour at wiU make it rather thicker than a common pudding, with nutmeg and sugar to 3r6ur tast^. f^erit atand three or four minutes to rise. Dip ^ar sKces of apple into the batter, fry them crisp, and serve them up with sugar grated over' them, iand^wine sauce in a bcHit.

VTatar Fritieri.

Take five or ox spoonfuls of flour, a litfle salt, a quart of water, eight eggs well beat' up, a' glass 'df brandy, and mix them all well together^ The longer they are made befiwe dressed, the better. Just before you da them, melt half a pound (of butter, and beat Vi t^O in. Fry them in hc^'s lard.

'¦''•' Rke FriHeri. • • -'^s

Boil a'quak'ter of a pound' of ti6e in inilk till it is pretty ihick; then mix' it with a* pibt 6t ctesm, fohr eggs, some sugar, cinnamon, and nutmeg, six ounces of currants washed and picked, a little salt, and as. much flour as will make it a thick batter. Fry theiln in little cakes iti boiling lard, and when done, send them up with whit^ sdgar aiid butter.

Chicken Frittetw.

Put on a stew-pan with some new milk, and as much flour of rice as will be necessary to make it of a tolerable thickness. Beat three or four eggs, the yolks and whites together, and mix them well with the rice and milk. Add to them a pint of rich cream, set it over a stove, and stir'^t ivell. Put in some powdered sugar, some candied lemon peel cut small, and some fiesh grated lemon peel. Take all the white meat from a hMSted chicken, ^ull it into sidaH shredl, put it to the rest of the ingredients, and stir' it all together. Then take it ofl*, and It will be a very rich paste: Roll it out, cut it into small fiit* ters, and fry them in boiling lard; Strew the bottom of tiie dish with sugar fitiely powdcAred. Putin the fritters, and shake iome sugar over then. "^ ' ^ ^

Oraimge FritUn.

Take five or six swe^t iirii^ges, *pare off the outside as thin as possible, and cut them in quarters; take out die seeds and 6oil the oranges with a little sugar; make a paste with sone

wbilewiiie, floor, a qpooofiil txf jBrefh,))atte^ m^ltjMl, vul a[ little sah; mix it neitlier too thick nor too thin; it shoold rope In poaring from the spoon. Dip the quarters of your orange into Aw patte, and fry tb^pi in bpg. l^d till they are of a li ^t brown. Serve them.fflased with fine ^ngn and a salanuinder.

J . Strmtieny Hitters.

Make a batter with flour, a spoonfal of eweet oiU another of white wine, a little raaped lemon peel, and the whitei of two or three eggs; make it pretty soft, just fit to drop with^ar spoon. Mix some large strawberries with it, and drop them with a spoon into tha hot fritters. Whsn of a good colour' take them out, and drain them on a deye. When done, strew ¦one sugar over them, or glace' them and send them to table.

Aujpkrfy Fiitter$*

Grate the crumbs of a French roll, or two Naples biscuitfli, and put to it a pint of boiling cream. When cold, add to it the yolks of four eggs wdl beat up. Mix all well together with some raspberry juice; drop them into a pan of boiling lard in very small quantities. When done slick them with blanched almonda slioed.



Currant Fritters.

Take half a pint of ale that is noi^ bitter, and stir into it as much flour as will make it pretty thick with a few currauts. Beat it up quick, have the lard boiling, and put a large spoon* ful at a time into the pan.

Get^num Fritters.

Take some well tasted cri^p apples, pare, .quarter,, and^re them; take the pore quite out, and cut them into round nieoea; Put into a stew-pan a quarter of a pint of French bran()j(, «. table-apoonful of fine sugar pounded, and a little cinnaippn.^ Put the apples into this liquor, and set them over a gentle fire^^ stirring them often, but not to break them. Set on a fitew-pan with some lard. When it boils drain the apples, dip them in some fine flour, and put them into the pan. Strew soMie sugar over the dish, and set it on the fire; lay in the fritters, strew

366 ' DOMESTIC COOKERY.

little ragar over them, and glaze them over with a red hot salamander.

Almond fraze.

' Steep a pound of Jordan almonds blanched in a pint of cream» ten yolks of eggs, and four whites. Then take out the almonds, and pound them fine in a mortar; mix them again in the cream and eggs, and put in some sugar and grated white bread. Stir them all togetlier, put some fresh butter into the pan, and as soon as it is hot, pour in the batter, stirring it in the pan till it is of a good thickness. When enough, turn it into a dish, and throw some sugar over it.

Backings.

Mix three ounces of buck-wheat flour, with a tea-cupful of warm milk, and a spoonful of yeast; let it rise before the fire about an hour; then mix four eggs well beaten, and as much milk as will make the batter the usual thickness fat pancakes, and firjr them the same.

VEGETABLES.

dburvoHons on dressing FegctaUes.

? E6ETABLES are, generally speaking, a wholesome diet, but become very prejudicial if not properly dressed.

The principal object of the cook is, that they shodd look well, and it is certainly very desirable they should do wo, as nicety is not only pleasing to the eye, but essential with regard to preserving the best qualities of every thing. The true criterion of their beauty is their suitabili^ for the purpose intended. Let them be carefully adapted to this, by being neither under nor overdone, and they will not fail to please both a correct eye and taste, as well as to constitute a wholesome species of diet.

YEOBTABLBS* 867

A most pernicious practice in the dressing of vegetables ii often adopted by oooks^ of putting copper in with them, in the form of halfpence. They probably never reflect on these being copper^ but only use them as endowed, they know not bow^ with the quality of giving a green colour. This is a lasy way of sparing their own pains; for^ if put into boiling water with some salt in it, and boiled up directly, they will be as beautifully green as the most fastidious person can require. A little pearUash might be safely used on such an occasion, and with equal effect. And in the instance of all the cabbage species, with some further advantage from its alkaline properties, being a corrector of acidity.

In the English manner of dressing vegetables, the genuine jnices and flavour of them are very much lost in the qitantity of water necessary to this mode of cookery, and the length of time they must be kept in it to make them digestible. Whereas, in the general manner of dressing them, practised by the French, the juices and flavour are retained, by dressing ^em principally in their own juices, or with only such a quantity of water, or other liquid, as is to remain a part of the preparation. And as they always cook them thoroughly, they are so far fr^ losing the recommendation of being digestible, that they bate even the advantage of being more so.

Vegetables forced out of their proper season are never to be recommended, as they always fall short of the true flavour Und qualities of the same things in their proper season. To instance only in the case of asparagus, how infinitely inferior is forced asparagus to that cultivated in its due season, when nature gives it growth and vigour. The never acquiring their fiiU natural qualities makes vegetables liable to the same objections, as when they are destroyed by bad cookery. ¦ The vegetable kingdom aflbrds no food more wholesome, more easily procured, easily prepared, or less expensive, than die potato; yet although this most useful vegetable is dressed almost every day, in almost every family, - for one plate of potatoes that comes to table as it should, ten are spoiled.

From being little used at our tables, vegetables have been Kttle noticed in our cookery books, and thus one means has been lost of acquiring them more attention. The compiler of the present work has been therefore induced to treat this sub

368 DOMB8T € COOKEET.

ject more at large, with a view both to the introducing a greater variety into oar methods of using then), and a fmer use of them. at our tables, than the general customs of this country encou*rage. We might profit greatly by this, from the double advao* tage of lesaemng the expense of our tables, and promotion our enjoyment oC.hi^Ith,. ...

In the dressing of vegetables nothing more is requisite than a strict attention to the following observations.

Vegetables should be always ifs freshly gathered as possible.

Where they conpqt l^e obtained quite freshj it will revive them greatly to let^ them lie a good while in cold spring water.

They should neither be so young as not to have acquired their good qualities^ nor so old as tq be losing them.

Great nicety should always be observed in trimming pwajr all the offal parts, and in washing them well from insects and dirt. ^

Some salt put into the water they lie in to cleanse, will, assist very much in clearing t^iem from insects.

All the utensils used in the dressing of vegetables should be extremely clean and nice; and if any copper vessel is ever used for the purpose, the greatest attention must be paid to its being well tinned.

The scum which arises from vegetables as they boil should be carefully taken off, as deanliness is essential both to their looking and eating well.

The lid of the saucepan should always be taken off when they boil, to give access to the air, even if it is not otherwisethought necessary.

• «

To choose and keep Potatoee, . .

Be careful in your choice of potatoes; no vegetable varies . so much in colour, sise, tlhape, consistepoe,and flavour. The reddish coloured are better than the whiter but the yellowish looking ones are the best Choose those of a moderate aise^ free from blemishes, and fresh, and buy them, in the mould;. they must not be wetted till they are cleaned to be cooked. Protect them from the air and frost by laying them in heaps in a cellar, covering them with mats, or burying them in sand or earth. The action of fr^st is most destructive; if it be considerable, the life of die vegetable is destroyed, and the potato speedily rots.

TBGSTABLBS* 9M

T0 baii PotBioei.

Waili theniy bat do not pare or cut them unless they are very large,- fill a sauce-pan half full of potatoes of an equal sise^ or the smdl ones wUl be done to pieebs before the large ones are boiled enough. Put to them as much- cold water as will cover them about an inch: they ire sooner boiled^ and more savoury than when drowned in water. Most boiled things are spoiled by having too little water^' but potatoes are ofteh spoiled by too much: they must merdy be covered, and A littie allowed for waste in boiling, so that they may be just covered at the finish.

Sec them on a moderate fire till they boil, then take them

fifi; and set them by the side of the fire to simmer slowly till

tltey. are soft enough to admit a fork, (place no dependence on

the usosl test of their skin cracking, which, if they are boiled

last» will happen to some potatoes when they are not half done^

and the inside is quite hard,) - then pour the water ofi; (if you

let the potatoes remain in the water a moment after they are

done en Hsgh, they will beiSoifeie waxy and watery,} uncover the

^sau^pan, and set it at such a distance frctm tbe fire as will

secure it from burning; their superfluous moisture will evi^po rate, and the potatoes will be perfectly dry and mealy. You

may aflerwards place a napkin, folded up to the suse of the

sauce-pan''-s diameterj, over the potatoes, to keep them hot and

mealy till wanted.

This method of managing potatoes is in every respect equal to steaming them; and they are dressed in half the time.

To $team PotMioe$.

The potatoes must be well washed, but not pared, and put into the steamer when the water boils. Moderate sised potatoes Will require three-quarters of an hour to do them properly. They should be taken up as soon as they are done enough, or they will become watery. Peel them or not at pleasure.

Potatoes baihd and broiied.

Bml your potatoes as before directedi and put them on a gridiron over a very clear and brisk fife;•- turn them till they are brown all over, and send them up dry, with mehecl butter in a cup.

960 DOMESTIC COOKERY.

CeU Potatoes fried.

Put a bit of clean dripping into a frying-pan; when it is nelted, slice in your potatoes with a little pepper and salt, put them on the fire, keep stirring them; when they are quite hot» they are ready.

This is a very good way of re-dressing potatoes.

Potatoes fried in Slices or Shavings*

Peel large potatoes; slice them about a quarter of an inch thick, or cat them in shavings round and round as you would peel a lemon; dry them well in a clean cloth, and fry them in lard or dripping. Take care that your fat and frying-pan are quite clean; put it on a quick fire, watch it, and as soon as the lard boils, and is still, put in the slices of potato, and keep moving them till they are crisp; take them up and lay them to drain on a sieve; send them up with a very little salt sprinkled ovex' thetn.

Potatoes Jried whole.

When nearly boiled enough, put them into a stew-pan with a bit of butter, or some nice clean beef drippings; shake them about often (for fear of burning them,) till they are brown and crisp: drain them from the fat.

It will be an elegant improvement to this and the foregoing receipt, previous to frying the potatoes, to fiour them and dip them in the yolk of an egg, and then roll them in fine sifted bread crumbs; they will then deserve to be called potatoes full dressed.

Potatoes mashed.

When your potatoes are thoroughly boiled, drain dry, and pidK out every speck, &c. and while hot, rub them through a colander into a dean stew-pan: to a pound of potatoes put about half an ounce of butter, and a table-spoonful of milk: do not make them too moist; mix them well together.

After lady-day, when the potatoes are getting old and specky, and in frosty weather,, this is the best way of dressing them. Yott may. put them into shapes, egg them with the yolk •f ^ggf and brown them very slightly before a slow fire.

Ml

PotatoH moihei with Oniant.

"Prapire mm^ hmJu&A on&oAs, by potting them Hhrough a feieve, «ud mix tiiem wkh potatoes. In proportioning tM onion^tatliepolitoes, you wiH be guided by your widi to hare more or leas of their flavour.

PoMeet ttcMoped.

Mash potatoes ae before directed; then butter some nic^ dean scollop shells^ or pattepans, put in your potatoes, mak^ them 8mi oth at the top, cross a knife over them, strew a few fine bread crumbs on them, sprinkle them with a paste bruslSi with a few drops of melted butter, and theii set them iti' a Dutch oven; when they are browned on the top, take them carefully out of the shells, and brown the other side.

Colcannon.

Boil potatoes and greens, or spihage, separately. Mash the potatoes, squeeze the greens dry, chop them quite fine, and mix them with the potatoes with a little butter^ pepper, and salt. Put it into a mould, greasing it well first; let it stand in a hot oven for ten minutes.

To roast Potatoes.

W«sh and dry your potatoes (all of a siae,) and put them in a tin Dutch oven, or cheese toaster; take care not to put them too ns^ the fire, or they will get burnt on the outside before they are warmed through. Large potatoes will require twp hours to roast them. To save time and trouble, some cooks half boil them first.

This is one of the best opportunities the bidcer has to rival

the cook.

Potatoes roasted under Meat. Half boil large potatoes, drain the water from them, and t)nt them into an earthen dish, or small tin pan, under meat that is roasting, and baste them with some of the dripping; when they are browned on one side, torn them and brows the dther. Send them up round the meat, cw in a small dish. IS 8 A

%9li BOMBSTIC COOKBRT*

Potato Balls.

Mix mashed potatow with the yolk of an tf^, foU theni into ballsj flour them, or egg and bread cnunb thenij and fiy them in dean drippinga, or brown them in a Dutch oven.

Potato Snow. The potatoes must be free from spots, ancL the whitest yoa ^ em pick out; putthem.on in cold water; when they begin to crack, strain the water from them, and pat them into a detfi stew-pan by the side of. the fire till they are quite dry and £U1 to pieces; rub them through a wire sieve on the dish they are to be sent up in, and do not disturb them afterwards.

To dr€$$ New Potatoes.

The best way to clean new potatoes is to rub them with • coarse doth or a flannel, or scrubbiqg brush. Boil them as directed in the first receipt. New potatoes are poor, watery^ and insipid, till they are full two inches diameter. They are hardly worth the trouble of boiling before midsummer day.

Some cooks prepare sauces to pour over potatoes, nlade with butter, salt, and pepper, or gravy, or mdted butter and catsup, or stew the potatoes in ale, or water seasoned with pep* per and salt; or bake them with herrings, or sprats, mixed with layers of potatoes, seasoned with pepper, salt, sweet herbs, vinegar, and water; or cut mutton or beef into slices; and lay thtai in a stew-pan, and on them potatoes and spicev, then another layer of the meat alternately, pouring in a litde water, covering it up very dose, and stewing slowly.

Jerusalem Artkhakes. .

These are boiled and di^ssed in the various ways we have just before directed for potatoes. They should be covered widi thick melted butter, or a nice white or brown sauce.

CMhage.

Pick cabbages very dean, and wash them thorong^y, then look them over careAilly i^gain; quarter them if they are very ' large. Put them into a aaoee-pan with plenty of boiling water;

if any scum rises, take it off, put a large spoonful of salt into tlie sance-pan, and boil th^ till the atalksiEed tender. A

!

f

YXOBTABLlBfl. MS

yaoxkg cMngp will take about twenty ndnntes, or half an lioiir; wheii full grown, near an hour: see that ^btiBy are well covered with water all the timey and that no smoke or dirt ariaes from stirring the fire. With carefal managementi they ynil look as beautiful when dressed, as they did when growing* Seme cooks say, that it will much ameliorate the flavour of striHig old cabbages to boil them in two waters; t* e. when they are half done, to take them out, and put them directly into another sauee pan of boiling water, instead of continuing them in the water into which they were first pat«

These are boiled in the same manner as ciMMge; quarter them when yon send them to table.

V

Spraui9 and Young Oreen$.

The receipt we have written for cabbages will answer as wdl for sprouts, only they will be boiled enough in fifteen or twen^ minutes.

Spinage.

Spinage should be picked a leaf at a time, and washed in three or four waters; when perfectly dean, lay it on a sieve, or colander, to drain the water from it. ^

Put a sauce«pan on the fire, three parts filled with water, and large enough for the spinage to float in it; put a small handful of salt in it, let it boO, skim it/ and then put in the ^inage; make it boil as quick as possible, till quite tender, pressing the spinage down frequently, that it may be done equally; it will be enough in about ten minutes, if boiled in plenty of water; if the spinage is a little old, give it a tew minutes longer. When done, strain it on the back of a sievoj, aqueeze it dry with a plate, or between two trenchers, chop it fine and put it into a stew-pan with a bit of butter and a little salt; a Httle cream is a great improvement, or, instead of either, some rich gravy. Spread it in a dish, and score it into squares of proper size to help at table.

Grated nutmeg, or mace, and a little lemon juice, is a fiivourite addition with some cooks, and is added when yon stir

•i

8M DOMBSTtC .COOKERT.

t up in tiie fltervr-pan -wkk the butter garnislied. Spim^ h fivquentl^ acnred wiA poadied eggs with fried bread.

Aiparagus*

Set a sftew-pan with plenty of water in it on die fire; 8pnn« kle a handful of salt iu it^ let it boil, and skim it; then put in your asparagus^ prepared thas:- -Scrape all the stalks tiH diey are perfectly clean, throw them into a pan of cold water as ycm •crape them; when they are all done, tie them up in little bundles, of about a quarter hundred each, witfi bass, if ycm can get it, or tape; string cuts them to pieces: Cut off the stalks at the bottom, that they may be all of a leng^th, leaving only just enough to serve as a handle for the green part; when they are tender at the stalk, wfaidi wHl be from twentj to thirty minutes, they are done enough. Great care must be taken to watch the eiiict time of tbeir beooming tender; take ihem up jpst at that iuataoty and they will have their true flavour and colour; a minute or two more boiling destroys botb«

While the asparagus is boiling, toast a round of a quartern loaf, about half an inch thick, brown it delicately on both sides, dip it lightly in the liquor .the asparagus was boiled in, and lay it in the middle of a dish: melt some butter, then lay In the asparagus upon the toast, which must project beyond the asparagu^, that the company may see there is a toast.

Pour no butter over them, but send some up in a boat, or [serve with white sauce.

Asparagus Peas.

¦ The be9t. method of preparing what are called asparagus, peas is as follows. Scrape and cut some of the small or sprue ^ssparagus, as far as the green part extends from the heads, into bits the size of peas. Put a pint of these asparagus peas in a 'stew-pan to a little boiling water and salt; and, when nearly done, strain off the liquor, boil it down till reduced to less than half a pint, and add about two ounces of fresh butter, a small quantity of powdered loaf sugar, and flour and milk to lender it of a proper consistence. Make toasts of French bread well buttered, put them at the bottom of the dish, and pout in the aspajngus peas well mixed with the sauce.

TEOETABUS. AM

SiuKak.

The best 6ea kale is that whidi grows wild in the coaise sand on the sea coast; and which^ in some parts of tfaecountry, the labouring poor assist tQ blei^ch^ by hoeing up the sand round the plants, and cutting them, when thus improved, for sale. The ste kale is tied up in bundles like asparagus, and cxMnmonly dressed in the same manner; being served up placed on a Coast at the bottom of the di^, with a litde melted hotter or ridi gravy poured over. Sea kale being a fashionable vege« table, has become an object of inland horticulture, though it Beem* to require both sea air and sea soil.

Cauliflower.

Qhoose those that are close and .white, and of the middle me; tjcirn off the ou(sid^ leavep, cut the stalk o^* flat at thQ bottom^ let them lie in salt and water an hour befoije yo.u bpil Aero.

Pui them into boiling w^ter with a l^andful of aalt in i% akim id well, and let it boil slowly till done, which a small pne will .be ill fiftepn» a lai^e '^ne in about twenty minutes. Take it up the mp^ent it is epojagh; a minute or two longer boiljngwiUfpoilit.

Cold cauliflowers, and French beans^ c^rrpjts and ti^rnips, ^iled ao as tp. eat father crisp, are sometimes dressed as a salad.

Set a pan of .elean cold .wader on the table, and« sauce-pait en Mie fire with plenty of water, and a handfiil of salt la it.

Broooli is prepared by«tripping off ail ^ side shoots, leaving the top; peel off the skin of the stalk with a knife, cut it dose off at the bqttoiD, and put it into the pan /o( cM water. When- the wnter in the stew.pan boils, and the broooli is I'eady, put it in, let it boil briskly till the stalks feel tender, from ten to twenty minutes; take it up with a slice, that you may not break it;^let k drun, and serve vp.

If some 4f thie heads of brocoli are much bigjger than the otfaen, put thena on to boil first, so that the^ may ^et all 4ope tpgether.

966 DOMESTIC COOKBRT*

It makes a nice Bupper diah served upon a toaat^ like aqraragus. It is a very delicate vegetable, and you must take it up the moment it is done, and send it to table hot.

Advantages of baking instead of boiling Beet Roots*

The beet-root too forcibly intrudes itself on the improved sagacity of mankind to be entirely neglected, as a source oC cheap and salubrious food. In speaking of the beet-root genelally, the red beet-root is to be considered as alone designated; and we are about to offer a few hints for bringing ita modest and humble merits into a little more deserved esti« nation. Every observant person must have noticed, that slices of raw beet-root are commonly sold in London to accompany salad; which, of course, serve merely* as garnish, without being at all more eatable than a slice of undressed carrot: and though it is true enough there are few families who do not well know that beet-root should be dressed for salad, it is, by many, considered as too much trouble for the small quantity wanted, and by all who do dress it, it is universally boiled. The rich saccharine juice of the beet-root is thus, in a great degree, lost, and the root itself rendered, at once, less nutritious by the adventitious watery weakness which it is made to imbibe, aa well as by parting with the native gelatinous syrup, of which it is thus forcibly deprived. It is, therefore, most strongly recommended to adopt the mode of baking beet-roots, instead of boihng them, for general use; when they will, unquestion* ably, be found to afford a very delicious ftnd most wholesome jfood. This is not offered as an untried novelty: beet-roots are very universally baked all over the continent of Europe; and, in Italy particularly, they are carried about, warm from the oven, twice a day, like hot loaves, &c. in London. They are there purchased by all ranks of people, and afford to many thousands, with bread and a little salt only, a very satis&ctorjr meal.

To Boil Red Beet Roots. In boiling beet-roots, it is to be observed; they are dressed in the same wayas parsnips, only neither scraped nor cut till after they are boiled: they will take from an hour and a half to three hours in boiliDg» according to their size,- to be sent to

VBOSTAK.BS. 907

itltAt with ndt tA, boiled beef, &c. When youngs large, and jsiqr, it is a very good variety, an excellent garnish, and easily oonverted into a very cheap and pleasant pickle.

Parsnips are to be cooked jast in the same manner as eirrots; they require more or less time according to their sis^ therefiire match them in siae, and you must try them, by thrusting a fork into them as they are in the waters when that goeseasSy through, they are done enough; boil them from an hour to two hours, according to their siae and freshness.

Fumips are sometimes sent up mashed in the same way tm tamips, and some cooks quarter them before they boil them,

«

Carrots*

Let them be well washed and brushed, not scraped; av hour is enough for young spring csrrots; grown csrrots must be cot in half, and will take from an hour and a half to two hours and a half. When done, rub off the peels with a dean coarse doth, and slice them in two or four, according to their aise. The best way to try if they are done enough, is to pierce them with a fork.

Many people are food of cold carrot with cold beef.

T\irmp$.

Fed off half an in^ of ^ stringy outside; full-grown turnips will take about an hour and a half gentle boiling; if you slice them, which most people do, they will be done sooner; try them with a fork,- when tender take them up, and lay them on a sieve till the water is thoroughly drained from them: send them up whole; do not slice them.

To Teiy young turnips leave about two inches of the green Cop.

To mash 1\imip$.

When they are boiled quite tender, squeeze them as diy as possible between two trendiers, put them into a sauce- pan, mash them with a wooden spoon, and rub them through a colander; add a little bit of butter, keep stirring them tiU the

dOd DOMESTIC COOKERY.

butt^ is mdted and well mixed with theiii» and dbey aie read^ for table.

T^mtp Tops,

Turnip tops are the shoots which grow out (in the spring) 6F the old turnip roots. Pat them into odd water an tiour before they are dressed; the more water the^ are boiled in, the better they will look;- »if boiled in a small quantity of water, they will taste Utter; - when the water boils^ put in a smaH faandftil of salt^ and then your vegetables; if frefih and yonng they will be done in abont twenty minutes; drain them on th^ bade of a sieve.

To boil Beans.

It is best not to shell beans tiD just before they are wanted for dressing. They require boiling in a good deal of water, and must be put in when it boils, with some salt, and a bunch of parsley. Boil them up directly, and keep them boiling very quick. They must be done extremely well. To taste dne is the surest way of knowing when they are done enough. DrAih them off, garnish the dish with the parsley chopped, and serve them up with a tureen of melted butter.

French Beans.

Cut off the stalk end first, and then turn to the point and atrip off the strings. If not quite Greah, have a bowl of spring water, with a little salt dissolved in it, standing before you, and as the beans are cleaned and stringed, throw them in: - when all are done, put them on the fire, in boiling water, with some salt in it; when they have boiled fifteen or twenty minutes, take one out and taste it; as soon as they are tender, take them up, throw them in a colander or sifeve to drain« To send up the beans whole is much the best method when they are thus young, and their delicate flavour and colour are much better preserved. When a little more grown, they must be cut across in two, after stringing; and for common tables, they are split, and divided across; but those who are nice, never have them at such a growth as to require splitting. When they are iarg^, thf y look very pretty cut into lozenges.

VBOBTABLES. {169

«

4_ _ 4

Green Pea$.

* Young gveen peas, well drtpaed^ are one of tlM iaopt deH«ieu9 delicacies of the vegetable kingdom. Tb^ muit be y oang; it is equally indispensable that tl^ be fresh galherecl^ and ocN^ed as soon as they are shelled^ for they socm lose both their colour and sweetness.

If yoo wish to ftast upon peas in perfieedoti^ yod most have them gatiiered the same day they are dressed, and put 0a to boil widiih half an boor after they are shelled. Pass tfate diroogh a riddle^ t • f « a eoarse sieve, wtnA is made for the purpose ai sepfliratin^ them. This precaution is necessary, lor large akid smaU peas cannot be boiled togeflier, as the former will tske more time than the latter.

For a peck of peas, set* oh a sauce-pan with a gallon of #ater in it; when itlieils, put in your peas with a table-sptNmfkii of salt; skim it well, keep them boiUng quick fram twenty to thirty oiinntes, aeooordii^ to their age and siae. The best way to judge of ibmx being done enough, and indeed the only Way lo make sore of cooking them to, and not beyond tlie point of perfadon; or, as p^»»c^iters say, 'of boiling them to a bubble/ is 16 tAe them imt witfi a spoon, and taste them. When they aee^nongh, drain them on a hair sieve. If yon like them buttered, put them inlioa pie dirii, divide some butter into small bits, aaid lay dliem on the peas; put another dish over them, imd turh theth over and over; .this iHll melt dm butter duidugli diem. But as all.people do not like buttered pe&% you had better send them to table plain, as th^ eome oujt of the saucepim, widi melted butter, in a saiice tureen. It is usuid to boil some mint with the peas; but if you wish to garnish die peaa with mint, boil a fbw sprigs in asanee-pan by tliemeelvea.

A peck of young peas will not yield nNnre tlwn eneligh fbr a couple of hearty pea-eaters,^iwhen the pods are llaU, it may serve for threew

Never think of purchasing peas ready shelled, for the cogent reasons ass^ned in the first part of this rectipt.

To stew Green Peas.

To a quart of peas add a qaart of gravy, two or. three lumps of sugar, some pepper and salt. Stew them gendy fill 14 SB

370 DOMESTIC COOKKRT.

the peas are quite tender; and if the gravy is not sufficiently thick^ add a piece of butter rolled in flour. * If the peas are old, h^lf boil them first in hard Wateif before the j are stewed. Whether for young or old peas, tkie gravy must be strong.

i • *

To stew Green Pea$ a mild way. Put a pint of young peas into a stew-pan. ' with very little water, and two young lettuces^ cut small. Stew them gently till the peas are tender, dien add four spoonfuls of cream, « lump of sugar, and the yolks of two eggs. Stir the whole together oyer the fice for. a short. time, but do not allow it to boil. A little salt should be added before serving up the stew.

• Cuamber stewed.

Peel and cut cucumbers in quarters, take out the seeds, and lay them on a cloth to drain off the water: when they are 'dry, flour and fry them in fresh butter; let the butter be quite hot before you put in the cucumbers; fry them till they are brown, Aen take them out with an egg slice, imd lay them on a sieve to drain the fat from them: (some cooks fry sliced onions or some small button onions with them till th^ are a delicate light brown colour, drain them from the fat, and) then put them into a 8tew*pan, with as much gravy as will cover them; stew alowly till they are tender; take out the cucumbers with a slice, thicken the gravy with flour and butter, give it a boil up, season it with pepper and salt, and put in the cucudibers; as soon as diey are warm, they are ready.

The above rubbed through a tammis or fine sieve, will be entitled to be called a cuewnber sauce. This is a very favourite sauce with lamb or mutton cutlets, stewed rump steaks, &c. When made for the latter, a third part of sliced onion is sometimes fried with the cucumber.

. Artiekokes.

Soak them in cold water, wash them well, then put them into plenty of boiling water, with a handful of salt, and let them* boil gently till they are tender, which will take an hoartuid a half, or two hours; the surest way to know when they tre done enough, is to draw eut a l^f; trim them end drain them

VEGETABLES. 371

«ti a sieve; and send up melted butter with them, which aome put into small cups, so that each guest may have one.

Stewed Onions.

The large Portugal onions are the best; take off the top soats of half a dozen of these, » taking care not to cot off the tops or tails too near, or the onions will go to pieces;) and put them into a. stew-pan broad enough to hold them, without laying them atop ot one another, and just cover them with good broth.

Put them over a slow fire, and let them simmer about two hours: when you dish them, turn them upside down, and pour the sauce over.

To stew Sorrel for Frieandeau and roast Meat.

Wash the sorrel; and put it into a silver vessel, or stone jar, with no more water than hangs to the leaves. Simmer it as slow as you can; and when done enough, put a bit of butter, and beat it welL

Fryinf^ Herbs, as dressed in Staffordshire.

Clean and drain a good quantity of spinage leaves, two large handfols of parsley, and a handful of green onions. Chop the parsley and onions, and sprinkle them among the spinage. Set them all on to stew with some salt, and a bit of batter the size of a walnut: shake the pan when it begins to grow warm, and let it be closely covered over a slow stove till done enough. It is served with slices of broiled calves^ liver, tmall rashers of bacon, and ^gs fried; the latter on the herbs^ •the other in a separate dish.

To preserve several Vegetables to eat in the Winter.

For French beans, pick them yoang, and throw into a little wooden keg a layer of them three inches deep; then sprinkle them with salt, put another layer of beans, and do the same as high as yOQ think proper, alternately with salt, but not too much of this. Lay over thcfta a plate, or cover of wood, that will go into the keg, and put a. heavy stone on it. A pickle wilf rise from the beans and salt If they are too salt, the Making and

372 DOMESTIC CODKfiRT.

boiling wil no^ be sufficient to make them pleasant to the taft^ When they are to be eaten, cat, soak, and boil them as if freab.

Carrots, Parsnepa, and Beet-roots, should be kept in layers of dry sand for winter use; and neither they nor potatoes should be cleared from the earth. Potatoes should be carefully kept from frost.

Sfore-onions keep best hung up in a dry cold room.

Artichoke bottoms, slowly dried, should be kept in paper bags; and truffles, moreb, lemon-peel, &c. in a dry place^ ticketed.

Small close cabbages, laid on a stone floor before the frost sets in, will blanch and be very fine, after many weeks' keeping.

To dry Sweet and Savowy Herbs.

All Yegetables ar^ in the highest sU^te of perfection, and fullest of juice and flavour, just before they begin to flower: the first and last crop have neither the fine flavour nor the perfume of those which are gathered in the height of the season; that is, when the greater part of the crop of each species is ripe.

Take care they are gathered on a dry day, by which means they will have a better colour when dried. Cleanse your herbs well from dirt and dust, cut off the roots, separate the bunches into smaller ones, and dry them by the beat of a stove, or in a Dutch oven before a common fire, in such quantities at a time, %h it the process may be speedily finished, t.e. kill 'em quick, says a great botanist. By this means their flavour will be best preserved. There can be no doubt of the propriety of drying herbs, &c. hastily, by the aid of artificial heat rather than by the heat of the sun. In the application of artificial heat, the only caution requisite is to avoid burning; and of this, a sufficient test is afforded by the preservation of the colour. The common custom is, when they are perfectly dried, to put them into paper bags, and lay them on a dielf in the kitchen, exposed ta all the fumes, steam, and smoke, ttc thus they soon lose their flavour. The beat way to preserve the flavour of aromatic plants, is to pick off the. leaves as soon as they are dried, and to pound them and put them through a hair sieve, and keep them in well stopped bottles.

Basil is in the best state for drying firom the middle of Augusi, i n4 three wed(s after. '

SALADS. ^73

fnotted M^wgm, fifoni tbe l)e{inniQg of July, ^d 4armg the same.

• • • '

Winter and Summer S^v^ t^ ^ latter end of July, ^4 th?pfigbout ^uguat.

Tkjfme, Ltmon Thymt^ and Oning^ Thjfm, during Jupe and July.

3Jini, lat^ end pf June, and during July,

'^ V^j Augii8t and Septeaiber,

Tamtget^, juqe, July, and August.

Chervil^ Mny, June, ai dJu]y.

Burnett June, 4u y, ^nd Aufa^t.

Po^ffty, Fennel^ Elder Flowern» wd Orange floH^frs^ during Mi y, June, and July.

He^bs nicely drie^ i^e a very acceptable substitute whei^ ^resb one^ cannot be gpt,- but, however carefully dried^ the ^?ouiT and fragrance of the fresh herbs is incomparably finer^

SALADS.

Obiervation9 on Sata^,

Salads are proper to be eaten at all times and seasons of the year^ and ore particularly to be recommended from the beginning of February to the middle or end of June. They are in greater perfection^ aiid cpnseqvieptly more powerful, during thb period than at other se^ons, in cleansing, opening obstructions, and sweetening and purifying the blood, fox the fre« quent^ eating of herbs prevents that pernicious and almost general disease the scurvy, apd aU windy humours which offend the stomach.

Then again from the mid )le of September till December, and indeed all the winter, if the weather be mild ^nd open, all green l^erbs are welcome to the stom^, and very wbol^sopae. For though herbs ][i^ve not so much vigour, nor. are so opening and cleaiifW£k ^ ^^ winter as ia tl^^ spring, yet all sucl^ mAf!{ ^ 8F9^« ^^ contwue fresh and (fTecn» retaia also their

374 DOMESTIC COOKERY.

tnie natural virtues and qualities; and being eaten as salad?, and seasoned as they ouj^ht, have in a degree the same operations as at other seasons of the year.

It is a necessary consequence of cold weather, that the heat of the body is driven more inward than in warm weather^ as the cold of the atmosphere repels it from the surface. Hence arises a great iippttite for solid^ strong, fat, and succulent foods, and strong drinks, which, where discretion, order^ and temperance are wanting, lays the foundation for diseases that commonly show themselves in the summer following. The frequent eating of herbs and sahids in the winter will, in a great measure, prevent these ill effects; for notwithstanding a prejudice that is too common against eating herbs in the winter^ a salad ^ell ordered and seasoned, if the weather prove mild and open, is as exhilarating, (being eaten only with good well made bread) and will warm the stomach as much, as two or three glasses of wine, and is far more pleasant and natural. The one produces an effect in unison with all the operations of the human frame, which thus go on in their regular course; the other stimulates them for the moment to a hurried unnatural action, which is soon over, and succeeded by cold languor. There is a much greater excellency in all green herbs in the winter than most people imagine. They are particularly salu-i tary for old persons, and such as are subject to stoppages or shortness of breath, who, instead of an onion, may use a clove of garlic in their salads, which is one of the best wa^s of eating it, and it will open, cheer, and warm the stomach, which gives a general' animation to the whole system.

Onions both young and full grown, shalots, garlic, and chives, are all used as seasonings to salads; and red beet*root boiled, and cold, is often sliced into them.

Salad is a very compound dish with our neighbours th6 French, who always add to their salad mixtures, black pepper, and sometimes savoury spices. The Italians mince the white meat of chickens into this sauce The Dutch, cold boiled turbot, or lobster; or add to it a spoonful of grated Parmesan or old Cheshire.* cheese, or mince very fine a little tarragon, or chervil, bumet, or young onion, celery, or pickled gherkins, &c. Joan Cromwell's grand salad was composed of equal parts of almonds, raisins^ capers^ pickled cucumbers, shrimps, and boiled turnips.

SALADS. 375

- The wholesomest way of eating salads is with bread only, in preference to either bread and butter, bread and cheese, or bread and meat, though any of these may be eaten with it, 'wrhen the salad is seasoned only with salt and vinegar.

fialads of all kinds should be very fresh, or, if not to be procared thua, should be well refreshed in cold spring water.

They should be very carefully washed and picked, and drained quite dry in a clean cloth.

In dressing small herbs, or lettuce, it is best to arrange then^ properly picked and cut, in the salad dish; then to mix the aauce in something else, and pour it to the salad down the side of the dish, so as to let it run to the bottom, and not to stir it up till used at table. . This preserves the crispnesa of the salad.

With celery and endive the sauce should be poured upon them, and the whole well stirred together to mix it equally.

Lettuce, endive, and celery, may be eaten with salt only; and if well chewed, which all salads should be, often agree better than when mixed with seasonings.

If mustard in salad sauces occasions sickness, or otherwise disagrees, Cayenne pepper will often prove an excellent sub* stitute for it.

Salad Mixture.

If the herbs be young,- fresh gathered, - trimmed neatly, and drained dry, and the aauce maker ponders patiently over the following directions, he cannot fail obtaining the fame of being a very accomplished salad-dresser.

Boil a couple of eggs for twelve minutes, and put them in a basin of cold water for a few minutes; the yolks must be quite cold and hard, or they will not incorporate with the in* gredients. Rub them through a sieve with a wooden spoon^ and mix them with a table-spoonful of water, or fine double cream; then add two table-spoonfuls of oil or melted butter; when these are well mixed, add by degrees a tea-spoonful of jalt, or powdered lump sugar, and the same of made mustard; when these are smoothly united, add very gradually three table-spoonfuls of vinegar, rub it with the other ingredients till thoroughly incorporated with them; cut up the white of the egg, and garnish the top of the salad with it. Let the

I

37^ DOMESTIC COOKERY.

sauc^ remain at th^ bottbm of the b'owl^ sXki do hb't stir tip the stUtA till it Id tb hk eaten. We recomtnend the eaters to be i^indfiA df the duty of madtidttiofi^^ without the due performance of which^ all tttid^es6ed vegetables are troubleaomd tosd^ pany fbr the pfindpd visd^'ra, a^d some are ereh dafigefously indlg^tibk.

Bailid Salad.

This is best compounded of boiled or baked onions, (iT Portugal the bettdr^) some baked, beet-root, cauliflower or brocoil, and boiled celery and French beans, or any of these articles, with the common salad dressing; added to this» to give it an ^ticing appearance, and to give some of the orispness and freshness so pleasant in salad, a small quantity of raw endive, or lettuce and chervil, or bumet, strewed on the top: this is by far more wholesome than the raw salad, and is much ^aten when put on the table.

'the above sauce is equally good with cold meat, cold ^sh, or for cucumbers, celory, radishes, &c. and all the other vege« tables that are sent to table undressed. To the above, a little IQinced onion is generally an acceptable addition.

Jjobstar Sahdi.

Prepare a salad in the usual manner, then diop the red part of a lobster and mix with it^ the odour of whieh pief«ents a striking contrast to the vegetables.

Substitute for Oil in Salads.

Melt good butter thick, ssoA pour it upon the aabd, in he same proportion as oil. Or ttte somis swe^ tfatdL creiBtai in the same manner and proportion.

Nothing is better for ther purpose of seivtoniiig sakids IhaB oil; but as some persons do noc like it, and Hxviy dfaers cannot get it, especially at this Cini6, either of tlie above are a vi^y good substitute for it^ and botii eat and Idbk v^ell m aalaOs. The cream is the most to be reeommekided of the two.

FASTHT Alt D COITFSCTION ARY. «T7

PASTRY AND CONFECTIONARY.

ObsertationB on Pastry and ConfetHMiny*

In the first pl«ce it will be necessary toobsenre^ thjit things used for pastl'y or cakes should not be used for any other pur-i pose. Your flour for puff paste or cakes must be carefuUy db'ied before the fire previous to being used, for if damp, it wiU make the paste heavy. Receipts for making various sorts €i£ pastes and crusts are given at the end of these observations.

In using butter for puff paste, you should take the greatest care to previously work it well on the paste-bosrd or slab, to get OHt all the water and butter-milk, which very often remains in» When yon hav6 worked it well with a clean knife, dab it over with a soft doA, and it is then ready to lay on your paste: da not make your paste over stiff before you put in your butter.

For those who do not understand making puff paste, it is by ftx the best way to work the butter in at two separate times* Divide it in half-*-«nd break ihe half in little bits, and cover your paste all over; dredge it lightly with' flour - then fold it over each side and ends, roll it out quite thin, and then put in the rest of the butter'- ifold it, and roll it ilgain. Remember always to roll puff paste firoin you. The best made paste, if not properly baked, will not do the cook any cfedit. .

The wholesomest manner of making fruit pies is thus: make some good wheaten flour into a paiste, with a little leaven or yeiast^ in the manner of bread, and milk, or milk and water msde as warm^ as new mUk. Let the apples, or other £ruit, be fteU rip^, and mix no other ingredient with them, unless it is a fe# cataway seeds, Which are very good, and agreeable to moat stomachs. The yolk of an ef^g may be added in making the paste.

.The best manner of makidg up firults in paste is thst of

pasties, or, as dicy are sometimes called, turnovers. Which* ever way they are made they should not be baked in a close

oten, bat with the door open, or al le«9t qot so close but that

14 3c .

37d . DOMESTIC COOKEltTi

some air may pass^ to preserve them from the bad effects that always ensue when the air is quite exdaded in cookery.

We now shall speak of tarts and pmffs of the smaller kin l« If you make nse of tin patties to bake in, butter them, atid. put a little crust all over them, otherwise you cannot take them out: but if you bake them in glass or china, you then need use only ap u{q^ crust, as you will not then* want tOvtak#them out when you send them to table. Lay fine su/par at the bot-* torn, then your cherries, plants, or whatever sort you may want to put in ihem, and put sugar at the top. Then put on your lid, and bake them in a slack oven. Mince pies must be baked in tin patties, because of taking them out, and puff paste ia best for them. Apples and pears, intended to be put into tart^ must be pared, cUt into quarters, and cored. Cut the quarters across again, set them on a sauce^n with as much water as will barely cover them, and let them simmer on a slow fire just till the fruit be tender. Put a good piece of lemon peel into the water with the firuit, and then have your patties ready. Lay fine sugar at the bottom, then your fruit, and a little sugar at top. Pour over each tart a tea-spoonful of lemon juice, and three tea-spoonfuls of the liquor they were boiled in; then put on your lid, and bake them in a slack oveH. Apricot tarts may be made the sam^ excepting that you must not pat in any lemon juice. When j^ou make tarts of preserved fruits, lay in yoor ^uit, and put J a very thin crust at top. Let them be baked but a little while; and if you would have them very nice, have a large patty, the size of your intended tart. Make your sugar crust, roll it as thin as a halfpenny, then butter your patty and cover it. Shape your upper CTast on a hollow thing made on purpose, the shape of your patty, and mark it with a marking* iron £ot that purpose, in what shape you please, that it may be hollow and opeu to show the fruit through it. Then bake your crust in a very alack oven, that you may not discolour it, and have .it crisp* When the crust is cold, very carefully take it out, and fill it with what firuit you please. Then lay on the lid, and yoor business wilTbe done.

Tarts that are iced should be baked fai a slow oven, or the idng will become brown before the paste is properly baked.

Those who use irdtt ovens do not always succeed^ baking puff paste, Iruit pies, &c. Puff paste is often spoiled %f

PASTRY AND CONFECTIOHTART. 379

waking it after fruit pies, in an iron oven. Tins may be easily .avoided by putting two or three bricks that are quite even into the oven before it is first set to get hot. This will not only prevent the syrup from boiling out of the pies, but also prevent a very disagreeable smell in the kitchen and house, ' smd almost answer the same purpose as a brick oven.

Before you begin to make any cake, take care that all your ingredients are ready to your hand. Beat up your eggs wel^ said then do not leave them to go about any thing else tiD your cake is finished, as the eggs, by standing unmixed, will require beating again, which will contribute to make the cake heavy. If batter is put into the cake?, be sure to beat it to a •fine cream before sugar is added, otherwise it will require double the beating, and Met all will not answer the purpose -so well. Cakes made with rice, seeds; or plums, are besC baked in wooden garths; for when baked either in pots or tins, the outside of the cakes will be burned, and will besides be so much confined, that the heat cannot penetrate into the middle of the cake, which will prevent it Irom rising. All kinds of cakes must be baked in a good oven, heated according to the •eize of the cake.

The greatest eare must be taken in the making of euHard$ that your tossing-pan is well-tinned; mnd always remember to put a spoonful of water into your pan, to prevent your ingre'dients sticking to the bottom of it Ckeesecakes must not be made long before they are put into the oven, particularly almond or lemon cheesecakes, as standing long will make them grow oily, and give them a disagreeable appearance. They should always be baked in ovens of a moderate heat; for if the oven be too hot, it will bum them, and spoil their beauty^ and too slack an oven will make them look Mack and heavy« This is a matter, however, for which no precise rules can be given, and can be learned only by cautious prance and the nicest observations.

Preserves, if not too rich, moderately eaten with bread may be occasionally indulged in i but to bake them in tarts carriea the preparation of them beyond the proper extent. In making syrups for preserves, take care to pound ytmr sugar, and let -it dissolve in the syrup before you set it on the fire, as it will make the scum rise well, and your syrup wiQ

ffSO DOMESTIC CPPK^RX*

be of a better colour. It b « gre^ fault to boil any kind at pjrups or jellies too high^ as it loakep them dark and cloudy. "if^rpt keep green sweetpieats longer in the first syrup th«ix directfifl, as it will sppil tl^eir jcolour; and the same precauti m uriU be necessary in the preservipg oranges and lemons. When you preserve cherries^ damsons, or any\ other sort of stonefruits^ put over them mutton suet rendered^ to keep out the air; for if any ajr gets to them it will give them a sour taste^ and spoil the whole. Wpt s'^eetmeats n^ust be kept in a dry find c(x l place; for a damp place will mould fhem^ and a hat place will d^»riye thfm of dieir virtue. It is a good method;to dip writifig-paper into brfindy, apd lay it close to the meats. They should b^ tied w^ll down with white 4nd two folds of cap-paper, to keep/outthe air, as nothlo f cau be a greater fault tb^ leaving the pots open, or tying thorn dovrn carelessly.

Before you proceed to drsf and cmdy any kind of fruity let it be first preserved, and so dried in a stove or before the fire^ that all the syrup n^y be totally extracted. When you hav^ boiled y onr sugar to tl^e candy. bright, dip in the fruit, and lay them in dishes in your stove to dry; then put them into boxe^ ^nd keep them in a place where th^ cannot receive injury .eithet &om heat or damp.

Having thus gone through our prelioMnary hints on the various branches of pastry and confectionary, we shall now proceed to particulars. The whole of the receipts are written with great pare and oondsenessiy and classed under distinct heads.

PASTES AND CRUSTS.

Rich Pi^ Paste.

Weigh an equal quantity of butter with as much fine flour as you judge necessary; mix a little of the former with the latter, and wet it with as little water as will make it into a stiff paste. HoU it out, and put all the butter over it in slices, turn in the ends, and roll it thin: do this twice, and touch it no more than can be avoided. The butter may be added at twice;, and to those who are not accustomed to make paste, it loay be better to do so.

^

PASTJ^y AKO :OKFBCTIONARY. 981 j

A kis ri€h Pa»U.

Weigh t pound of flour, and a quarter of a pound of butter^ mb them together^ and mix them into a paste with a little water^ and an- egg well beaten---of the former as little as will suffice, «r the paste will be tough. Roll and fold it three or four timess

Rub extremely fine in one pound of dried flour, six ounces of butter, and a spoonful of white sugar; work up the whole into a stiflT paste with as little hot water as possible.

A gootf Paste far large Pies,

Take a peck of flour^ and put to it three eggs; then put in half a pound of suet, and a pound and a half of butter and tuet, and as much of the liquor as will make it a good light crust Work it up well, and roll it out.

Paste for Tarts. j

Put an ounce of loaf sugar beat and sifted to one pound of fine ^our. Make it into a stiff paste with a gill o£ boiling cream^ and three ounces of butter. Work it well, and roll it very thin.

Paste for stringing Tartlets, Sfc.

Ifiix with your hands a quarter of a pound of flpur, ^n \

ounce of fresh butter, and a little cold water: rub it well between the board and your band till it begins to string; cut it into small pieces, roll it out and draw it into fine strings, lay them across your tartlets in any device you please, and bake them immediately. J

!

Rice Paste for Tarts* j

Boil a quarter of a pound of ground rice in the smallest quantity of water: strain fVom it all the moisture as well as you can; beat it in a mortar with half an ounce of butter, and one. egg well beaten, and it will make an excellent paste for tarts, &c*

Short Crust.

Put six ounces of butter to eight of flour, and work them well together; then mix it up with as little water as possible, so as to have it a stiffish paste; then roll it out thin fpr use. Or. yon may make an eiicelleitl short crust thus:«

2B2 I^OlCBStlC COOKBRT.

Make two ounces of white sagar, pounded and Bifted, quite dry: thenr mix it with a pound of floor weLl dried; rub into it three ounces of buttei;^ so fine as not to be seen. Into some cream put the yolks oi two ^gs beaten, and mix the above into a smooth paste; roll it thin, and bake it in a moderate o?eii.

Paste far Custards*

To half a pound of flour, put six ounces of butter, the yolks of two ^gs, and three spoonfuls of cream. Mix theni together, and let them stand a quarter of an hour; then work it up and down, and roll it out very thin.

to he forticuUtrbf nice*

m

IDty a pound of the finest floor, mix it with three ounces of refined sugar; then work half a pound of butter with your •hand till it come to froth; put^the flour into it by degrees, and work into it, well beaten and strained, the yolks of thre^ and whites of two eggs. If too limber, put some flour and sugar» to make it fit to roll. Line your pattepans, and filL A little above fifteen minutes will bake them. Against they come out^ have ready some refined sugar beat up with the white of an egg» as thick as you can; ice them all over, set them in the ovten ti harden, and serve cold. Use fresh butter.

Salt butter will make a very fine flaky crust; but if for mince pies, or any sweet things, should be washed.

FRUIT PIES, TARTS, AND PUFFS.

Apple Pie.

Tak^ eight russetings, or lemon pippin apples; pare, core^ and cut not smaller than quarters; place them as close as possible together into a pie-dish, with four cloves; rub together in a mortar some lemon peel, with four ounces of good moist sugar, and, if agreeable, add some quince jam. Cover it with puff* paste- bake it an hour and a quarter. (Generally eaten warm.)

Apple Tart Creamed.

Use green codlings in preference to any other apple, and proceldas in the last receipt When the pie is done, col 006

PA8TBT AND CONVSCTIOK ART. 388

tlie whole of the centre, leaving the edgeu; when cold, poar «m the apple Bome rich boiled custard, and place round it Bome mnall leaves of puff paate of a light colour.

Ripe Frwit Tarts. Cooieberries^ damsons, Movello cherries, currants mixed with raspberries, plums, green gages, white plums, &c. should be quite iresh, picked and washed. Lay them io the dish with the centre highest, and about a quarter of a pound of moist or loaf sugar, pounded to a quart of fruit (but if quite ripe they wUl not require so much;) add a little water- rub the edges of the dish with the yoHc (^ egg- cover it with tart paste, about half an inch .thick, Fren your thumb round the rim, and close it well; --pare it round with a knife, make a hole in the sides below the rim»- bake it in a moderate heated oven; and ten minutes before it is done, take it out and ice it, and return it to the oven to diy.

Rich Gooseberry Pie or Tart.

Butter and flour the dish or tart pan, to prevent the crust «f the pie or tart from sticking when baked; then line it with a sheet of puff paste, and put in the gooseberries, well mixed and topped with sngar, but do not add any water. Cover it in with puff paste brushed over with the white of an egg, sift on it a little fine sugar, and let it be well but not too much baked. On coming from the oven, having ready a proper quantity of prepared cream, cut open the top of the pie or tart to introduce it, and serve up in the usual style. Indeed, goofseberries always bake greener with an open than a close top^^ and in a quick oven; if they are wanted to be red^ they should be baked slowly, and have a close covering.

Tartlets, such as are made at the Pastry Cooks.

Roll out puff paste of a quarter of an inch thick^ cut it into pieces, and sheet pans about the size of a crown piece, pare them round with a knife, and put a smaU quantity of apricot, damson, raspberry, strawberry, apple, marmalade^ or any other kind of jam in the centre: take paste, and string them jprossways; bake them from six to ten minutes in a quidc oven^ they should he of a very light brown colour.

^ i

r

to4 BOMB8TIC COOKBKT.

Fnneh Tori of fre$erv€d FrmU.

Cover a flat dish or totirte pan with tArt pttte, abditi.an eighth of an inch thick; roll out pufT pastfe, half an indi thidc, cut it out in strips an inch wide, wet the tart paste^ and lay it neatly roond the pan by Way of a tim; fill the centre with jam or marmalade of any kind, ornament it with -small le^tt^ of puff paste, bake it half an hour, and sAid it to table oM.

^The above may be filled before tht puff paste is laid Oil, neatly strung with paste, and tbe rim pot over after.

The most gfeneral Way of sendii^ totLttta to table is with « croquante of paste, or a caramel of sp6n sug^/ put ohrer aftet it is baked.

Crmhrry Tsrt.

Take Swedish, American, or Russian cranberries, pick and wash them in several waters, put them into a dish, with the juice of half a lemon, a quarter of a pound of liibist or pounded loaf sugar to a quart of cranberries. Cover it with puff pr tart paste, and bake it three quarters 6f an hour. If tart paste is used, draw it from the 6^€tt Bre tninutes before it ia done, and ice it; then return it to the oven, and send it to tabte cold.

ARnee Pfe#.

Sheet wilih tart paste half a dozen of ttlk pans of any size you please;., fill them with mince meat, and cover with puff paste, a quarter of an inch thiak; trim tound the edges with A knife, make an aperture at the top with a fork, bake them in a moderate heated oven, and send them to table hot, fhrse removiug the tin.

Some throw a little sifted loaf sugar over.

The best mince meat is made as follows:- Two pounds of beef suet, picked and chopped fine; two pounds of apple, pared, Cored, and ditto; three poUiidil of cummts, washed and picked; one pound of raisins, stoned and chopped fine; one pound of good moist sugar; half a pound of eit tm» cut into thin slices; one pound of candied lemon ilnd orange peel, cut as ditto; two pounds of ready dressed roast beef, f^ horn skin and gristle, and chopped fine; two nutmegs, grated; one ounce of salt, one of ground* ginger; half an ounce of

PA8T I,Y ANA GO)«FEGTIOKX1Ct»^

coriander seeds; half an ounce of allspice; half an ounce of - - - J

cloves; tjl- grpund fine: the juice of six lemon3, and their xinds grated; half a pint of brandy, and a pint of sweet wine.. Bfix the suet^ apple^ currants, nieat^ plums^ and sweetaieatfl 'well together in a large pan^ and strew in the spice hy degrees; mix the sugar, lemon juice, wine, and brandy, and pour it toi, the other ingredients, and stir it well together. Set it by in. close covered pans in ^ eo}d place: when wanted*, stir it up from the bottom^ and add half a glass of brandy to the quantity you want

N. B. The same weight of tripe is frequently substituted for the meat, and sometimes the yolks of eggs boiled hard.

The lean side of a butto^rk, thoroughly roastedj^ is gene-^ rallv chosen for mince meat.

*

Another method of making Mince Pie9.

Shred three pounds of meat very fine, and chop it as small «8 possible; take two pounds of raisins stoned and chopped Tery fine, the same quantity of currants, nicely picked, wash* ed, rubbed, and dried at the fire. Pare half a hundred fina pippins, core them, and chop them small; take half a pound of fine sugar, and pound it fine; a quarter of an ounce of mace, a quarter of an ounce of cloves, and two large nutmegs, all beat fine; put them all into a large pan, and mhc them well together with half a pint of brandy, and half a pint of sack; pat it down close in a stone pot, and it will keep good three o» four months. When you make your pies, take a little dish, •

Bomewhat larger than a soup-^plate, lay a very Uitn crust all over it; lay a thin layer of meat, and then a layer of citron cut very thin, then a layer of mince meat, and a layer of orange peel cut thin; over that a little meat; squeeze half the juice of a fine Seville orange or lemon, lay oa your crust, and bake it nicely. These pies eat very fine cold. If you make them in little patties, mix your meats and sweettneats acccMrd* ingly. If you choose meat in your pies, parboil a neat's tongue, peel it, and chop the me&t as fine as possible, and mix with the rest: or two pounds of the inside of a sirloin of beef boiled* But when you use meat, the quantity of fruit must be doubled.

14 Sd

386 DOMESTIC COOkERY*

Lemon Mince Pies,

Squeeze a large lemon, boil the outside till tender enough to beat to a inash, add to it three large apples chopped, and four ounces of suet, half a pound of currants, four ounces or sugar; put the juice of the lemon, and candied fruit, as for other pies. Make a short crust, and fill the pattepans as usuaL

Egg Mince Pies*

Boil six eggB hard, shred them small; shred double the quan-» tity of suet: then put currants washed and picked, one pound^or more if the eggs were large; the peel of one lemon shred very fine, and the juice, six spoonfuls of sweet wine, mace nutmeg, sugar, a very little salt; orange, lemon^'and citron, candied. Make a light paste for them.

«

Orange and Lemon Tarts.

Take six large oranges or lemons, rub them well with salt, and put them into water, with a handful of salt in it, for two days. Then change them every day with fresh water, without salt, for a fortnight . Boil them till they are tender, and then cut them into half-quarters comer ways as thin as possible. Take six pippins pared^ cored, and quartered, and put them into a pint of water. Let them boil till they break, then piit the liquor to your oranges or lemons, half the pulp of the pip* pins well broken, and a pound of sugar. Boil these together a quarter of an hour,' then put it into a pot; and squeeze into it either the juice of an orange or lemon, according to which of the tarts you intend to make. Two spoonfuls will be sufficient to give a proper flavour to your tart Put fine puff paste, and very thin, into your pattepans, which must be small and shaUow. Before you put your tarts into the oven, take a feather or brush, and rub them over with melted butter, then sift some double refined sugar over them, which will form a pretty icing, and make them have a pleasing effect on the eye.

Artichoke Pie.

Boil twelve artichokes, break off the leaves and chokes, and take the bottoms clear from the stalks. Make a good puff paste crust, and lay a quarter of a pound of fresh batter all over the bottom of your pie. Then ky a row of artichokes, strew

iPASTfiT AND CONFECTIONARY. 387

ft little pepper, salt, and beaten mace over them; then another row; strew the rest of your spice over them, and put in a quarter of a pound more butter cut in little bits. Take half ¦n ounce of truffles and morels, and boil them in a quarter of a pint of water. Pour the water into the pie^ cut the truffles and morels very small, and throw them all over the pie. Pour in a gill of white wine, cover your pie,' and bake it. When the crust is done, the pie will be enough.

Fermicelli Pie.

Season four pigeons.with a little pepper and salt, stuff them with a piece of butter, a few crumbs of bread, and a little parsley cut small; butter a deep earthen dish well, and then cover the bottom of it with two ounces of vermicelli. . Make a puff paste, roll it pretty thick, and lay it on the dish; then lay in the pigeons, the breasts downwards, put a thick lid on the pie/ bake it in a moderate oven. When itis enough, take a dish proper for it to be sent to table in, and turn the pie on it The vermicelli will be then on the top, and have a pleasing effect.

Pippin Tarts.

• Pare thin two Seville or China oranges, boil the peel tender^ and shred it fine; pare and core twenty apples, put them in a stew-pan, and as little water as possible; when. half-done, add half a pound of sugar, the orange-peel and juice; boil till pretty thick. When cold, put it in a shallow dish, or patte* pans lined with paste, to tnm out, and be eaten cold.

. Piime Tart.

Give prunes a scald, take out the stones and break them; put the kernels into a little cranberry-juice, with the prunes and sugar; simmer; and when cold, make a tart of the sweetmeat.

Rhubarb Tart.

Cut the stalkrin lengths of four or five inches, and take off the thin skin. If you have a hot hearth, lay them in a dish, and put over a thin S3rrup of sug^ and water, cover with another dish, and let it simmer very slowly an hour, .or do them in a block-tin sauce-pan. When the rhubarb is cold, make it into a tart* When tender^ the baking the crust will be sufficient*

y

il8i^ DdMJeSTic cbektRV.

itfrertt Peas Thtf. Bdil CGfindf yontig gr&eh )f eas a very ^oH: tirite; Aen ^l M them a Ihtle salt, widi some grated loaf sugtlr, fresh butter^ Ahd saffrbn. Enclose them witii a fihe puff )ast6^ bake if l^ently^ and serve it up with sugar scraped t)ver.

r

Il^$pbttihf Tart Ufith Cream.

Roll out some thin* puff paste, and lay it iti a patte Mni ot what size you choose; put in raspberries; strew over them fine sugar; cover with a thiii licl, and then bake. Cut it open, and have ready the following mixture warm: half a (iint of cream, the yolks of two or three eggs well beaten, and a little sugar f tod when this is added to the tart, teturn it td the oveti for Are or six minutes.

Transparent Tarts.

Take a pound of 6ne weU dried and sifted floor; tjben bent in egg till it becomes quite thin, melt three-quarters of a pound of clarified fresh butter to mix with the egg as soon as it is sufficiently cool, pour the whole into the centre of the flour, and make up the paste. Roll it extremely thin; make np'the tarttf; and when setting them in the oven, wet them over widi a very little water, and grate a small quantity of fine Sugar on them. If they are baked lightly they will, it is said^ be very fine indeed.

Almond Tarts.

• ¦, ¦

Having blanched some almonds, beat them very fine in a mortar, with a little whit6 wine and some sugar, (a pound of sugar to a pound of almonds) some grated bread, a little nutmeg, some cream, imd the juice of spinage to colour the almonds green. Bake it in a gentle oven; and idien it is done, thicken it with candied orange or citron.

JChocotate Tarts.

Rasp a quarter of a pound of chocolate, a stidL of chmamon, add some fi'esh lemon peel grated, a little salt, and some sugar t take two spoonftals of fine flour, and the yolks of six eggs well beaten, and mixed with some milk. Fm aU these mto a stew-pati and let them be a little aret the

PASTRY AND CONFEOTIOHART. 980

ttfe: add a little lemdn peel cat small, and let it stand to hb o(Ad. Beat up the whites of eggs enough to cover it^ and pat it in puff paste. When it is baked, sift some sugar over it, and glaze it with a salamander.

Apple Pvff^s.

Pare the iruit, and either stew them in a stone jar on a hot hearth^ or bake them. When cold, mix the pulp of the apple with sugar and leknon peel shred fine, taking as little of the apple juice as you can; Bake them in thin paste, in a quick oven; a quarter of an hour will do them, if small. Orange or quince marmalade is 'a great improvement. Cinnamon pounded, or orange flower water, in change.

Lemon Puffs.

Beat and sift a pound and a quarter of double refined sugar; grate the rind of two large lemons, and mix it well with the sugar; then beat the whites of three new-laid eggs a great while, add them to the sugar and peel, and beat it for an hour; make it up in any shape you please, and bake it on paper put on tin-plates, in a moderate oven. Do not removo the paper till cold. Oiling the paper will make it come off with

Sugar Pufft.

Beat up the whites of ten eggs till they rise to a high frothy and then put them into a marble mortar, with as much double refined sugar as will make it thick. Then rub it well round the mortar, put in a few caraway seeds, and take a sheet of wafers, and lay it on as broad as a sixpence, and as high as you can. Put them into a moderately heated oven for about a quarter of an hour, and they will have a very white and delicate appearance.

I^all Puffs of Preserved Fruit.

. Roll oat a quarter of an inch thick, good puff paste, and cut it into pieces four inches square; lay a small quantity of any kind of jam on each- double them over, and cut them into square, triangle, or with a tin cutter, half moona- lay them

390 0OMS8T1C COOKBRY.

with paper on a baking plate- ice them, and bake them about twenty minutes^ taking care not to colour the icing.

Almond Pnffs.

Take two ounces of eweet almonds, blanch them, and beat them very fine with orange flower water. Beat up the whites of three eggs to a very high froth, and then strew in a litde sifted sugar. Mix your almonds with the sugar and eggs, and then add some sugar till it is as thick as paste. Lay it in cakea, and hake them in a slack oven on paper.

Chocolate Puffs,

Beat and sif\; half a pound of double-refined sugar, scrape into it an ounce of chocolate very fine, and mix them together. Beat up the white of an egg to a very high froth, and strew into it your sugar and chocolate. Keep beating it till it is as thick as paste, then sugar your paper, drop them on about the size of a sixpence, and bake them in a very slow oven.

Curd Puffs.

Put a little rennet into two quarts of milk, and when it is broken, put it into a coarse cloth to drain. Then rub the curd through a hair sieve, and put to it four ounces of butter^ ten ounces of bread, half a nutmeg, a lemon peel grated, and a spoonful of wine. Sweeten with sugar to your taste, rub your cups with butter, and put them into the oven for about half an hour.

Excellent Ught Puffs.

Mix two spoonfuls of flour, a little grated lemon peel, some nutmeg, half a spoonful of brandy, a little loaf sugar, and one egg; then fry it enough, but not brown; beat it in a mortar with five eggs, whites and yolks; put a quantity of lard in a frying-pan, and when quite hot, drop a dessert-spoonful of batter at a time: turn as they brown. Serve them immediately with sweet sauce.

Wafers, Take a spoonful of orange flower water, two spoonfuls of flour, two of sugar^ and the same of milk. Beat them well

PASTRY AND CONFECTIONARY. BQi

txqfether for half an hour; then make your wafer tongs hot, and pour a little of your batter in to cover your irons. Bake them on a stove fire^ and as they are baking, roll them round a stick like a spigot When they are cold^ they will be Very crisp^ and are proper to be ate either with jellies or tea.

Jcing far Fruit Tarts, Pt^s, or Pastry.

Beat up in a half pint mug the white of two eggs to a solid froth; lay some on the middle pf the pie with a paste brush, - sift over plenty of pounded sugar^ and press it down with the hand^- wash out the brushy and splash by degrees with' irater till the sugar is dissolved^ and put it in the oven for ten minutes, and serve it up cold.

Rich Cream for Fruit Pies or Tarts.

Boil a bit of lemon or Se?ille orange peel, a little cinnamon two laurel leaves, a dozen coriander seeds, two or three cloves, a blade of mace, and a pint of new milk; and, having ready In another stew-pan the yolks of three eggs, beaten up with a little good milk and half a spoonful of fine flour, strain and stir the hot milk in, set it over the fire, instantly begin whisking it to a thick cream consistence, and immediately take it off again. As it gets a little cool, stir in a table-spoonful of rose or orange flower water; or, if higher perfume be required, a little syrup of dove-gilliflowers, and a few drops of essence of ambergris. This rich cream is particularly agreeable with pies or tarts of green gooseberries, codlings, or currants. It may be made in a plain manner, very good, with lemon peel, cinnamon, and laurel leaves only, boiled in milk, and a single egg beat up with a spoonful of rice Hour. Fruit pies with cream should always be covered, like tarts, with puff paste; and^ when served up, have their tops cut round and taken off, for the purpose of depositing either of the above creams on the fruit: after which, the top may be replaced, either whole or in quarters, or small leaves of ornamental baked puff paste be laid all round. .

9M POMESTIC COOKIRY*

SUGARS AND COLOURS.

'ne pr€p4iratiau of Sugan and Odours*

To prepare sugars properly is a material .point in the basin«a« of confectionary; and as some rules are undoubtedly necessary^ in a work of this kind, we shall first explain the process of clarifying sugar, which must be done in the following manner:

Break the white of an egg into your preserving-pan, put to it four quarts of water, and beat it up to a froth with ^ ^hisk. Then put in twelve pounds of sugar, mix all together^ and set it over the fire. .When it boils put in a little col4 ivater, and in this manner proceed as many times as may be necessary, till the scum appears thick on the top. Jhen re« move it from the fire, and when it is settled take off the scum^ and pass it through a straining-bag. If the sugar should not appear very fine, give it another boil before you strain it. This IS the first operation, having done which you may proceed to ^arify your sugar to either of the following degrees.

1. Smooth or Candy Sugar,- After having gone through the first prdtess, as before directed, put what quantity you may have occasion for over the fire, and let it boil till it is smooth. This you may know by dipping your skimmer into ^he sugar, and then touching it between your fore-finger and thumb, and immediately on opening them, you will observe a small thread drawn between^ which will immediately break, ^d remain on a drop on your thumb, which will be a sign of its being in some degree of smoothness. Then give it another boiling, and it will draw into a larger string, when it will have acquired the first degree; from whence we proceed to,

2. Bloom Sugar ' - In this degree of refining sugar, you must boil it longer than in the former process, and then dip your skimmer in, shaking off what sugar you can into the pan: then blow with your mouth strongly through the holes, and if certain bladders, or bubbles, go through, it will be a proof that it has acquired the second degree.

3. Feathered Sugar. - To prove this degree, dip the skimmer into the sugar when it has boiled longer than in the former degrees. When you have so done, first shake it over the pan, then give it a sudden flirt behind you, and if it is enough, the augax will fly off like feathers.

PASTRY AND CONFBCTIOKART. MS

4. Craekhd S^gm*, ^^fMl your sugar longer thsn in the pre* ceding decree; then dip a stick into it, and iwimediately pAt it into a pan of cold water, which you must have by you foir that purpose. Dra:w dF the sugar that hangs to the stick hito the water, and if it becomes hard, ^nd snaps, it has ao^uired the proper degree; but if otherwise, you must boil it again till it answers that trial. Be p^bticularly careful that the wat^r you use for this purpose is perfectly cold, otherwise you will be greatly deceived.

5. Carmel Sugar. - To obtain the last degree, your sugar must boil longer than in either of the former operations. Yoii must prove it by dipping a stick, first into the sugar, and then Into Cold water; but this you must obsei^e, that when it comes to the carmel height, it will, the moment if touches the Water, snap like glass, which is the highest and l^et degree of refining so^r* When you boil this, take care that you¥ fite is not too fierce, lest it should, by flaming up the sides of the pan, cause the sagstf to bum, discolour it, and thereby destroy all your labour.

Having thus described the various degrees of refining sugar, we shall now point out the method of preparing those colours with which they may be tinged, according to the fancy, and the different purposes, for which they are to be used.

Red Colaur, -To make this colour, boil an ounce of cochineal in half a pint of water, for above five minutes; then add half an ounce of cream of tartar, and half an ounce of pounded alum, and boil the whole on a slow fire about as long again. In order to know if it is done, dip a pen into it, write on white paper, and if it shows the colour clear, it is sufficient. Then take it off the fire, add two ounces of sugar, and let it settle. Pour it clear off, and keep it in a bottle well stopped for use.

Blue Colour.- 'This colour is only for present use, and must be made thus: Put a little warrti water into a plate, and rub an indigo stone ih it till the colour is come to the tint you would have it. The more you rub it, the highei* the colour will be.

Yelhw Colour. -This is done by pouring a little water into A plate, and rubbing it with a bit of gamboge. It may also be Aime with yellow lily thus: Take the heart of the flower, infuse the colour with milk-warm water, and preserve it in a bottle well stopped.

14 5' E '

994 . QOVEStlC COOKERY*

€hrten Cohmr. - Trim the leaves of Bome apinage^ boil them about half a minote in a little water^ then strain it dear ofij and it will be fit for use.

Any alteration may be made in these coldurs, by mixing to what shade you think foroper; but on these occasions taste and fancy must be your guide.

Detices in Sngar.-rSteep gum-tragacanth in rose water, and with some double refined sugar make it into a paste. Colour it to your &icy^ and make up your device in such forms as you may think proper. You may have moulds made in various shapes for this purpose, and your devices will be pretty ornaments placed on the top of iced cakes.

Suf^ar of Rosea in various Ftgtfre«.- Chip off the while part of some rose buds, and dry them in the sun. Pound an ounce of them very fine; then take a pound of loaf sugar, wet it in some rose water, and boil it to a candy height; then put in your powder of roses, and the juice of a lemon. Ifix all well together, then put it on a pie plate, and cut it into lozenges, or make it into any kind of shapes or figures your fancy may draw. If you want to use them as omaments for a dessert, you may gild or colour them to your taste.

CAKK8, BISCUITS, AMD BUNS.

A common Cake. Ma three quarters of a pound of flour with half a pound of butter, four ounces of sugar, four eggs, half an ounce of caraways, and a gUss of raisin wine. Beat it well, and bake in a quidc oven. Fine Lisbon sugar will do.

A very good common Cake. Rub eight ounces of butter in two pounds of dried flour; mix it with three spoonfuls of yeast that is not bitter, to a paste. Let it rise an hour and a half; then mix in the yolks and whites of four eggs beaten apart, one pound of sugar^ some milk to make it a proper thickness (about a pint will be sufficient,) a gkss of sweet wine, the rind of a lemon, and a tea-apoonful of ginger. Add either a pound of currants, or some camways, and beat well.

FA8TRT AKI CONFECTIONARY. 806

A very fine Cake,

Wash two pounds and a half o( fresh batter in water first, an3, then in rose-water; beat the butter to a cream; beat twenty qgpgs, yolks and whites separately, half an hour each. Have ready two pounds and a half of the finest flour, well dried, and kept hot, likewise a pound and a half of su^ar pounded and sifted, one ounce of spice in finest powder, three pounds of currants nicely cleaned and dry, half a pound of almonds blanched, and three quarters of a pound of sweetmeats cut not too thin. Let all be kept by the fire, mix all the dry ingredients; pour the ^gg^ strained to the butter; mix half a pint of sweet wine with a large glass of brandy, pour it to the butter and eggs, mix well, then have all the dry things put in by degrees; beat them very thoroughly; you can hardly do it too much. Having half a poand of stoned jar*raisins chopped as fine as possible, mix them carefully, so that there shall be no lumps, and add a teaF capftil of orange-flower water. Beat the ingredients together a full hour at least. Have a hoop well buttered, or, if yaa, have none, a tin or copper cake-pan; take a white paper, doubled and buttered^ and put in the pan round the edge; if the eake battisr, fill it more than three parts, for space should be aUowed for rising. Bake in a quick oven. It will require three hours.

Flat Cakes, that will keep long in the Home good. Mix two pounds of flour, one pound of sugar, and otte ounce of caraways, with four or ^^e «ggs, and a few spoonfuls of wat^r, to make a stiflf paste; roll it thin, and cut it into any shape. Bake on tins lightly floured. While baking, boil a pound of sugar in a pint of water to a thin syrup; while both are hot, dip each cake into it, and put themr on tins into the oven to dry for a short time; and when the oven is cooler still, return them th^e again, and let them stay four or five hours.

LAttU white Cakee.

Dry half a pound qf flour, rub into it a very little pounded sugar, one ounce of butter, one egg, a few cartways, and as much milk and water as to make a paste; roll it thin, and cut it with the top of a canister or glass. Bake fifteen minutea en tin plates.

306 DOMESTIC €OPK£RT'

Little short Cakes,

Rub into a pound of dried flour four ounces of butter, four ounces of white powder sugar, one egg, and a spoonful or trwa of thin cream to make it into a paste. When mixed, put currants into one half, and caraways into the rest. Cut them as before, and bake on tins.

Derby or Short Cakes.

Rub in wit i the hand one pound of butter into two pounds of sifted ^our; put one pound of currants, one pound of good moist sugar^ apd onp eg^; miy all together with half a pint of pilk,-r-roll it out thin, and cut them into round cake$ with a cutter; lay theip ou a clean baling plate, and put them iptp a middling heated oyen, for about five minutes.

4 vfTM rich Twelfth C^ke.

Pat into seven pounds of fine Hour two pomids and a liaif of fresh butter, and seven pounds of nicely picked and daansed currants; with two krga natm^s, half an oahoe of maoe, and a quarter of an ^ennce of cloves, and a pound of loaf sugar, all finely beaten and grated; sixteen eggi, leaving out four whites; and a pint and a half of the best yeast. Waim as much cream as will wet this mass, and pour mountain wine to make it as thick as batter; beat, grossly, a pound of almonds mixed with mountain and orange-flower water, and put in a pound iqid a half of candied orange, lemon, and citron peeK Mix the whole well together; and put the cake into a hoop, with paste under it, to save the bottom while it is baking.

The fdlowing is a fine iceing for a twelfUi cake: - Take the whites of five eggs, whipped up to a froth, and put to them a pound of doable refined sugar powdered and sifted, and three spoonfuls of orange-fiower wat^. Beat it up all the time the cake is in the oven; and, the moment it comes out, ice over the top with the spoon. Some also put into the iceing a grain of ambergris, bat that perfume is too powerful for many tastes. A little lemon juice- is often used instead of the orange-flower water.

PASTBY AN 9 COVPBCTIONART. 387

Briin 9r Weddmg Cake.

Tbe only difference uaiudly made io this and the foregoing ceke 13, the additi Hi of one pound of rainns, stoned end mixed vith the other fruit.

ne Countess of RutUfnd's famous Banbwry Bride Cake.

This celebrated cake, the method d making which has been preserved nearly two centuries, as a bride- cahe of the very first order, was first made, under the countess's directions, on the marriage of her daughter. Lady Chaworth. The genuine receipt is as follows: --Take a peck of the finest fiour; half an ounce each -of beaten and sifted mace^ nutmg^, and cinnamon; two pounds of fresh butter; ten yolks and six whites of eggs; and somewhat more than a pint of good ale yeast Bei^ the eggs weU; strain them, with the yeast and a little warm water, into the flour; and add the butter cold, broken into small bits. The iivater ^ith w]ych th^ paste is kneaded must be scalding hot; and, on being thus well worked together, it is to be set to rise near the fire, covered by a warm cloth, for about a quarter of au hour. This being done^ ten pounda of picked and cleansed currents are to be prepared with a little musk and ambergris dissolved in rose water. The currants must be made very dry, otherwise they will render the cake heavy; and finely powdered loaf sugar is to be strewed among them, fully sufiicient for supplying all tlie natural sweetness of which they have been deprived by the water wherein they were washed. The paste being now all broken into small pieces, the currants are to be added in alternate layers, a layer of paste and a layer of currants, till the whole are well mingled, but without breaking the currants. A piece of paste, afrer it has risen io a warm doth before the fire, must be taken out, before putting in the »irrants, to cover the top of the cake, as well as for the bottom. Both the paste for the top and bottom must be rolled rather thin, and wetted with rose* water; but it may be closed either at the bottom, on the side, or in the middle, as it shall seem best. Prick the top and sides with a small long pin; and, when the cake is ready to go into the oven. Cut it with a knife, in the midst of tbe side, an inch deep all round; and, if it b^ of the size thus directed, it must stand two hours in a brisk oven.

9M DOMESTIC COOKKRT.

Plmn Pound Cake.

Beat one pound of batter to a cream, and work it well to« gether with one pound of sifted sugar, till quite smooth; beat up nine eggs, and put them by degrees to the batter, and beat them for twenty minutes; mix in lightly one pound of flour; put the whole into a hoop, cased with paper, on a baking plate, and bake it about one hour in a moderate oven.

An ounce of caraway sc^eds added to the above, will make what is termed a Rich Seed Cake.

Plwn Pound Cake.

Make a cake as in the foregoing receipt, and when yoa have beat it, mix in lightly half a pound of currants, two ounces of orange, and two ounces of candied lemon peel cot small, and half a nutmeg grated.

V^ g^ ^ common Phtm Cakes. Mix five ounces of butter in three pounds of dry flour, and &ve ounces of fine Lisbon sugar; add six ounces of.currants^ washed and dried, and some pimento, finely powdered. Pot three spoonfuls of yeast into a Winchester pint of new milk warmed, and mix into a light dough with the above. Make it into twelve cakes, and bake on a floured tin half an hour.

lAttk Plum Cakee to keep long.

Dry one pound of flour, and mix with six ounces of finely pounded sugar; beat six ounces of butter to a cream, and add to three eggs, well beaten, half a pound of currants washed^ and nicely dried, and the flour and sugar; beat all for some time, then dredge flour on tin phtes, and drop the batter on them the size of a walnut. If properly mixed, it will be IT stiff paste. Bake in a brisk oven.

Common Seed Cake. Sift two and a half pounds of flour, with half a poun^'V good Lisbon or loaf sugar, pounded into a pan or bowl, - make a cavity in the centre, and pour in half a pint of lakewanb milk, and a table-spoonful of thick yeast, - ^mix the milk and yeast with enough flour to make it as thick as cream (this is

I.'

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PA8TBT AMD CONFECTIONARY.

caUad aetting a sponge,) let it by in a warm place fiir one hour -in the mean time, melt to an oil half a pound of fireah bnttrry and add it to the other ingredients, with one ounce of caraway seeds, and enough of milk to make it of a middling stiffness; -line a hoop with paper, well rubbed over with butter- put in the mixture- set it some time to prove in a stove, or before the fire, and bake it on a plate about an hour, in rather a hot oven. "When done, rub the top over with a paste brush dipped in milk.

A cheap Seed Cake.

Mixaquarter of apeckof flour with half apoundof sugar^ a quarter of an ounce of allspice, and a little ginger; melt three quarters of a pound of butter, with half a pint of milk: when juat warm, put to it a quarter of a pint of yeast, and work up to a good dough. Let it stand bdTore the fire a few minntea befinreit goes to the oven; add seeds or cuirants, and bake an hour and a half.

dnmnmi Bread Cakee.

Take the quantity of a quartern loaf from the dough, when inaking white bread, and knead well into it two ounces of butter, two of Lisbon sugar, and eight of currants. Warm the butter in a tea-cupful of good milk.

By the addition of an ounce of butter or sugar, or an egg or two, you may make the cake the better. A tea-cupful of raw cream improves it much. It is best to bake it in a pan rather than as a loaf, the outside being less hard.

Queen Cfikee. Jl'ake a pound each of dried and sifted flour, beaten and aifted loaf sugar, and fine fresh butter washed in rose or orangeflower water. Four the water firom the butter; squeeae it well in the hand; and work it, by very small bits at a tune, with teir the flour and six yolks but only four whites of eggs, beaten wdl together, and mixed with the butter. Then work in the rest of the flour and the sugar; adding three spoonfUa of orange-flower water, a little beaten mace, and a pound of nicely picked and dried currants. The pans must be well

t

40Q DOMESTIC OOOKERT.

battered, tilled hatf fall, have a Kttk doaUe refined ngar sifts^ orer, and be set in ¦ qaick oVen.

Am! ^remhay Cuket. TAe s pound of flowr, tbree-quarten of « poond of butter, five ounces^ of fnwdered loaf sngW, a dram of beaten dnaamon, nvd two eggs. Mix it alt cold; breaking the butter in pieces with tiie hand, and working the whole into * light paste. Then roll it out thin enough for an ounce weiglit of theposte to make a cake as large as the top of a breakfast-cup or basin, with which it may be cot into shapes. The papers on which tbecakea are lakt mast be buttered aU over. At Shrewsbury, tke Cakes, wben Dwde, are marked at the top with a new Urgvloothed horn comb. Tfaey are then put into a quick bat net too hot oven, » they are veiy a^ to bum; and are baked almoita«&$taatliey ctmbeput in with a slice. AatfaeyriteiQ the oven, they maat be pricked with a bodkin. It is neeesdnry to be very quick, that they may neither bum nor look brown. If they are but just hard, it is quite sufficient. Particular caution must be used in drawii^ them out of the oven, as well as in taking them off the paper; they being extremely brittle, and soon broken to pieces. The above quantity of paste, made into large and very thin cakes, makes two dozen; but some cut them with wine glasses, and make them a little thicker. A blade or two of beaten mace, may be put in with the cinnamon, and also a little rose or orange-flower water.

Tunbridge Cakei. Rub six ounces of butter quite fine into a pound of flour, then mix six ounces of sugar, beat and strain two eggs, and make with the above into a paste. Holl it very thin, and cut with the top of a g'Vags; prick fltenf with a fork, and cover with l:Brawi^g, or wa^ with ttie White of axi flgg, and dust a little vAAXK sugur over.

Mix ten ounces of gronnd rice, three ounces of flour, eight

ounces of pounded sogar; then sift by dl^ees into right yolh

d m whites of e^s, and Hhe peel' of a lemon sbtetl so line that

is quite msshed; mix the wftole well in b tin sCew-paA' ovtfr

PASTRY AND OONFBCTIOyARY. 401

ft very slow fire with a wl^isk^ then put iiimmeduteiy iaio th» oven in the same^ and bake forty nunutea.

Genuine Bristol Cakis.

The following, we are assured^ is the true method of making tl^e celebrated Bristol cakes. - Mix half a pound of the finest sifled wheat flour with a quarter of a pound each of pounded and sifted loaf sugar and fresh butter^ and four yolks with two whites of eggs. l^Iaving well united the whole togpe* ther in a bowl or pan, - which is usually done, at Bristol, with the hand only --add half a pound of nicely picked currants^ and stir them well also in the mixture. Haying, in the mean time, rubbed over a large piate of tin with butter, drop on it the mixture for forming each cake, from a taUe-spoon, and set it in a brisk oven, taking great care that they do not remain long enough to bum.

Portugal Cakes.

Take a pound each of the finest dried and sifted flour, pondered and sifted loaf sugar, and the best fresh butter. Mix them up, with the hand, to a very fine batter; and, adding two table-spoonfuls each of rose-water and white wine, half a pound of washed and nicely picked Currants, and a little beaten mace, whisk up the yolks often eggs with the whites of six, incorporate the whole well together, butter the tin hoops or moulds, fill them little more than half full, sifl a little sugar over each eake, and bake them in a brisk oven. If the currants are omitted, as is often done, they will keep good half a year. A superior sort is sometimes made, by substituting a pound of blanched almonds beaten up with rose-water for the pound df flour.

Heart Cakes,

These are made exactly in the same way as the Portugal cikes, either with or without currants; the sole difference consisting in the size and shape of the moulds, which are only to be about half filled. The wine may be omitted in either.

Fiju Ginger Cakes /or Cold Weather. Btf^k three eggs in a basin; beat U)em well, and add half a pint of «ream, which must also be well beaten with them, 15 8 F

402 DOMESTIC (^OOKBRT.

and the whole put into a sance-pan over the fire, to be stirred till it gets warm. Then add a pound of butter, with halF a pound of loaf sugar, and two ounces and a half of ginger, both powdered; carefully stirring the different ingredients together, over a very moderate fire, just to melt all the butter. This being done, pour it in the central cavity of two pounda of fine flour, and make up a good paste. Roll it out, without any flour beneath, on the dresser, of whatever thickness maybe thought proper, and cut the cakes to shape with the top of a small basin or large breakfast cup. They are usually made about a quarter of an inch thick, laid on three papers, and baked in a hot oven. These cakes are not only very pleasant to the palate, particularly in the winter, but really serviceable to a cold stomach.

Ftne French Macaroons.

Beat finely, in a marble mortar, a quarter of a pound of blanched almonds^ with four spoonfuls of orange-flower water, and whisking to a froth the whites of four eggs, mix that and a pound of sifled loaf sugar to such a fine paste as will drop well from the ^)oon; then put a sheet or two of wafer paper on the tin, and drop on it at proper distances the little cakes, in the usual small oval forms. They must be baked in a brisk oven, very brown and crisp, but with the greatest possible care not to bum them.

Common Macaroons.

Pound, but not very finely, six ounces of blanched almonds, and mix them with half a giU of water and the whisked whites of two or three eggs. Then add six ounces of Lisbon sugar, make the whole up into a proper paste, drop them with a spoon on wafer paper laid over the baking wire, and sift a little sugar on them. As these macaroons are to be eaten moist, they .must only be baked till they are of a fine broivn colour. When dones, the wafer paper at the bottom and sides of each cake is to be left on, and the rest carefully cut away.

Raspberry Cakes. With the fruit which is used for making vinegar, excellent rupberry cakes are readily made up, by mixing the fruit left

PASTRY AN] COMFBCTIOITART. 409

with somewliAt more than its own weight of powdered loaf sugar, forming it into small round cake9, sifting a little powdered anipir on the top of eacfa and drying them sufficiently in an oven or stove*

An Aknpnd Cak€»

Take a pound and a quarter of flour, make a hole in the middle, put in a piece of butter half the size of a hen^s egg, four eggs well beaten, a quarter of a pound of sugar powdered, fine, six ounces of almonds blanched and .beat with orange--' flower water, and a little salt. Mix "the whole well together, gbue it over \vith the yolk of egg, and bake it on a tin well battered.

Currant Cakes.

Dry well before the fire a pound and a half of fine flour, take a pound of butter, half a pound of fine loaf sugar well beaten and sifted, four yolks of eggs, four spoonfuls of rosewater, the same of sack, a little mace, and a nutmeg grated* Beat the eggs well, and put them to the rose-water and sack. Then put to them the sugar and butter. Work them all together, strew in the currants and flour, having taken care to have them ready warmed for mixing. Make six or eight cakes of them; but mind to bake them of a fine brown, and pretty crisp.

Savoy Cak€, &r Sponge Cake in u Mould.

Take nine eggs, their weight of sugar, and six of. flour, some grated lemon, or a few drops of essence of lemon, and half a gill of orange-flower water,- work them as in the last receipt;- *pnt in the orange-flower water when you take it from the lire;- be very careful the mould is quite dry; rub it aU over the insid^with butter,- put soom pounded sugar round the mould upon the butter, and shake it well to get it out of the crevices:-- tie a slip of paper round the mould, fill, it three parts full with the mi^tore, and bake it one hour in a alack oven; - when dont, let it stand for a few minutes, and take il from the mould, which may be done by shaking it a little»

I

J

Katafia Cakes,

Take half a pound of sweet almonds/ the same Quantity of bitter; blanch and beat them fine in orange, tbde^'^vr clear water, to keep them from oiling; pound and sift a pound cyf fine sugar; mix it with your almonds; have ready, very well beat, the whites of four eggs; mix them lightly with the i^onds and sugar; put it in a preserving pai^, and set them in a moderate fire; keep stirring it quiok one way until it is pretty hot; when it is a little cool, roll it in small rolls and cut it in thin cakes; dip your hands in ilour and shake them on it; give them each a light tap with your finger; put them on sugar papers, and sift a little fine sugar over them just as jou are putting them into a slow oven.

Diet Bread Cake,

Boil, in half a pint of water, one pound and a half of lump fifugar,--have ready one pint of eggs, three parts yolks, in a pan; pour in the sugar, and whisk it quick till cold, or about a quarter of an hour; then stir in two pounds of sifted fiour, (lase the insides of square tins with white paper, fill them three parts full, sift a little sugar over, and bake it in a warm oven, and while hot remove them from the moulds. .

Crack-nuts.

Mix eight ounces of flour, and eight ounces of sugar; melt four ounces of butter in two spoonfuls of raisin wine: then, with four eggs beaten and strained, make into a paste; add caraways, roll out is' thin as paper, cat with the top of a glass, wash with the white of an egg, and dust sugar over.

bkof Wight Crqeknels. Thisrifieculiar Idnd of cakes is said to have originated in the Isle of Wight, whkh still preserves its reputation for them. They ase made, in sevetal difi)erent ways, of which the following^ is certainly one of the very best. - Sift a quart of the finest dry floUr; and beating up the yeUcs of four eggs, with a littk grated nutmeg, some powdered loaf suga^r^ and half a gill of orttige-flower o^fose-water, »eur it into the floor, staA make np a stiff paste. Then mix, and roll in, by slow degrtes, a pound of butter; and, when thoroughly united in a soft

PASTRY iAND CONFECTIONARY. 40**

flexible pMe, and r6tl^ ottt to a pfo^ thickness^ which k albbut the ti^ird pari of aii inch, cut it ^to roimd cracknel shapes, thFOW them into boiling water^ and let them oontinae to boil in it till they swim on the surface. They must then be taken out, and plunged in cold water to harden; afler which, tbey ait to be slowly dried, washed oyer with well beaten' whites fl€ eggs, and bsdced on fin plates, in an oven sufficiently brisk ' to make them crisp, bnt not by any means high-coloured.

Excellent faraway KUin^i W%ig$y Bmna, or Cakes.

Rub half a pound of new butter, fresh from- the chnm, in . two quarts of fine dried and sifted flour; then adding a quarter of a pound of caraway comfits, beat up two yolks of eggB, thiee tablep-spoonfuls of ale yeast, widi a little ealt, and put liiem also to the flour; adding a pint'or more of new milk, and Etii riiig the whole tdgedier a^if ivfteiid^ fora shigle large cake. The paste must be equally weH wbtkej, and beat till it learea the 'hand; when it should ' be set befbi^ the fire, to rise, 'for libout half an hour. In the mean time, having ready a quarter of a pound of finely powdered and sifted loaf sugar, roll pieces of the paste well among it, make theot up in the shape of either whigs or buns, place them on tins, dust « little ^gar over them, and set them in the oven. They may be teten hot or cold; apd are esteemed very good, when toasted, for tea. The whigs or buns are sometimes made with plain caraway seeds, instead of comfits: and, sometimes, the paste thus formed is made into a single seed cike, foi: which it is equally well adapted, whether with comfits or plain caraway seeds.

Barhadaet JumbMs.

Beat very light the yolks of four eggs and the whites of eight, with a spoonftrt of rose-water, and dust* in a pound of treble^refined sugar, then put in three quarters cf a pound of the best fine flour; stir it lightly in, grease your tin sheets, and drop them in the shape of a macaroon, and bake them nicely.

Biscuit Drops,

Beat well together in ia pan one pound of sifted sugar with cigltkt eggs for twenty minutes; then add a quarter of an ounce of caraway seed, and one) pound and a quarter of flour;- lay

406 JOOfifBSTIC COOKBRY.

wafer paper on a baking plate, - put the mixture into a biseuic funnel, and drop it out on the paper about the aise of half m, crown^ sift sugar over, and bake them in a hot oven.

j4 Biscuit Cake.

One pound of flour, five eggs, well beaten and atramed* eight ounces of sugar, a little rose or orange-flower water; beat the whole thoroughly, and bake one hour.

American Pot- Ash Cakes or Biscuits.

This curious article, though at present unknown in England, will probably become as common here, after a fair trial, as it has long been in America. Pot-ash cake or biscuit is, indeed, both easily a^d cheaply made, and agreeable, wholesome, and even nutritious, when it is made; the method of doing which is simply as follows. - Take a pound of flour, and mix with it a quarter of a pound of butter: then, having dissolved and well stirred a quarter of a pound of sugar in half a pint of milk; and made a solution of about half a tea-spoonful of salt of tartar, crystal of soda, or any other purified pot-ash, in half a tea-cupful of coki water; pour them, also, among the flour, work up the paste to a good consistence, roll it out, and form it into cakes or biscuits. The lightness of these cakes depending much on the expedition with which they are baked, they should be set in a brisk oven.

Ginger Cakes.

With four pounds of flour, mix four ounces of ginger, powdered very fine; heap them in a dish, and make a hole in the middle: then beat six eggs and put them into a sauce-pan, with a pint of cream, two pounds of butter, and a pound of powdered sugar. Stir them tctgether over a slow fire till the butter is entirely melted, and then pour it to the flour and ginger. Make it up into a paste, and roll it out till it is about a quarter of an inch thick, then cut it into cakes with the top of a cup or glass. They must be baked in a very hot oven.

Gingerbread.

Mix with two pounds of flour, half a pound of treacle, three quarters of an ounce of caraways, one ounce of ginger finely

PASTRY AND CONFECTIONARY. 407

lifted^ and eight oanoes of butter. Roll the paste into what form yoa please, and bake on tins, after having worked it very much, and kept it to rise.

Another sort. - To three quarters of a pound of treacle beat one egg strained; mix four ounces of brown sugar, half an ounce of ginger sifted; of cloves, mace, allspice, and nutmeg, a quarter of an ounce, beaten as fine as possible; coriander and caraway seeds, each a quarter of an ounce: melt one pound of butter, and mix with the above; and add as much flour as will knead into a pretty stiff paste; then roll it out, and cut into cakes. Bake on tin plates in a quick oven. A little time will bake them.- Of some, drops may be made.

A good plain sort of GingerbreadMix three pounds of flour with half a pound of butter, four ounces of brown ^ugar, half an ounce of pounded ginger; then make into a paste with one pound and a quarter of treacle warm.

-Gingerbread wiihoui Butter.

Mix two pounds of treacle; of orange, lemon, and citron and candied ginger, each four ounc^, all thinly sliced; one ounce of coriander seeds, one ounce of caraways, and one ounce of beaten ginger, in as much flour as will make a soft paste; lay it in cakes on tin plates, and bake it in a quick oven. Keep it dry in a covered earthen vessel, and it will be good for some months.

Best Dutch Gingerbread.

Take four pounds of flour, and mix with it two ounces and a half of beaten ginger. Then rub in a quarter of a pound of butter; and add two ounces of caraway seeds, two ounces of dried orange peel rubbed to powder, a few bruised coriander seeds, a little candied citron, and two eggs. Make the whole into a stiff paste with two pounds and a quarter of treacle; beat it very well with a rolling pin, and make it up into thirty cakes. Prick them with a fork; butter papers, three double, one white and two brown, to place them on; wash them over with the white of an egg; and put them into a very moderately heated oven for three quarters of an hour. In a country like Holland, where the success of a lover with his mistress is said.

{106 DOMBfiTIC COOKBRY.

by a late celebrated tourist, to depend on the quantity of gin-^ gerbread which he carries in his ppck^t^ thi^ may be supposec} to form no inconsiderable article of manufacture.

Orange Gingerbread.

Sift two pounds and a quarter of fine flour, and ^d. to it a pound and three quarters of treacle^ six ounces of candied orange peel cut small, three quarters of a pound of moist augar# one ounce of ground ginger^ and one ounce of .allspice: melt to an oil three quarters of a pound of butter,*- mix the whole well together, and lay it by for twelve hovrs^r-roll It out with as Uttle flour a9 possible about half an in/ch thick, cut it into pieces three inches long and two wide, - mark them in the form of chequers vridi the back of a knife, put them on a bakings plate about a quarter of an inch apart, - rub them over with a brush dipped into the yolk of an egg beat up with a tea^upful of milk, bake it in a cool oven about a quarter of ^xi hour; - when done, wash them slightly over again,- divide the pieces •with a knife, (as in baking they will run together.)

Gifigeyir^ad Nuts.

To two pounds of sifted i9our, put two pounds oi treacle, three quarters of a . pound of moist sugar^ half a pound of candied orange peel cut small, one ounce and a half of ground ginge^j one ounce of ground allspic^, earay^aySj and oorianders mixed, and three quarters of a pound of butter oiled; mix all well together, and set it by some time,- then roll it out in pieces about the siae ef a small walnut,- lay them in rows on H baking plat^, press them fiat with the hand, and bake them in a slow oven about ten minutes.

Rich Sweetmeat Gingerh'ead Nuts, Put a pound of good treacle in a basin, and pour over it a quarter of a pound of clarified butter, or fresh butter melted so as not to oil. Stir the whole well, while mixing; and then add an ounce each of candied orange peel, and candied ange^ lica, a quarter of an ouncje of preserved lemon peel, all cnjb into very minute pieces, but not bruised or pounded; with half an ounce of pounded coriander seeds, and half an oiince of whole caraway seeds. Having mixed them thoroughly together.

PASTET AND CONFECTIONARY. 409

break in an egg,, and work tke whole up with as mach flour as may be nec^aary to form a fine paste; which is to be made into nuts of any siae, put on the bare tin plate^ and set in rather abriakoyen.

Ratafia Drop Biscuits,

These macaroons^ or dr ^ biscuits^ may be made either like the French or common macaroons; by only substituting, for half the quantity of sweet blanched ahnonds, an equal quantity of bitter ones. Tt is likewise not uncommon, by way of distinction, to make them of a round, and more elevated form than the flat and oval shape of the macaroons properly so call* ed. Other drop biscuits may readily be piade, by similar and obvious substitutions of the requisite articles.

Best Naples Biscuits.

Put a pound of the best Lisbon sugar into half a pint of water, with a small wine-glassful of orange-flower water, and boil them till the sugar is entirely melted. Break eight eggs, whisk them well together, and pour the syrup boiling hot on the eggs; whiskiiy all the while of pouring it in, and till the mixture becomes quite cold. Then lightly mix with a pound of fine sifted floor, and put three sheets of paper on the baking plate; make the edges of one sheet stand up nearly two inches high, pour into it the batter, sift some powdered loaf sugar over the top, and set it in the oven, where it must be closely attended, or it will soon bum at the. top. Wheii carefully baked, let it stand till cold in the paper; afterwards wet the bottom of the paper, till it comes easily off. The biscuits may then be cut into whatever siae is most agreeable. Indeed, if it should be^ preferred, the batter may be at first filled into small tins, and so baked separately; but this is seldom done.

Excellent Biscuits far Cordials.

Take the weight of five eggs in sugar, and the same in floor: put the sugar into a pan, with the fresh peel of a lemon shred fine; some crisped orange-flowers, shred fine also; and the yolks of five eg^ Beat them together, till the sugar is well mingled with the eggs; then stir in the flour, and beat the whole together: beat the whites of the five eggs kept apart, 15 9 a

410 DOMESTIC COOKBRY.

till they rise in froth, and then mingle them with the BOgar and floar. Have ready some white paper made into the form o£ small trenches, each about the depth and length of a finger, rub them with hot butter, and then put two spoonfuls of biscuit into each trench; throw some powder sugar over, and set them in a mild oven. When they are done of a good colour^ take them out of the papers, and put them on a sieve, in a dry place, till there is occasion to use them.

Fine Light Bigeuits.

Put the yolks of Rve eggs into a pan, with a few crisped orange-flowers and the peel of a lemon, both shred very fine; add also, three quarters of a pound of fine loaf sugar, and beat them together till the sugar be dissolved and well mingled with the eggs. Then beat the whites of ten eggs; and, well frothed, mix it with the sugar. Stir in lightly, by degrees, dz ounces of flour, and put the biscuits, in an oblong form, on some white paper; sift a little fine sugar over, and bake them in an oven moderately heated. These biscuits, when properly made, and carefully baked, are not only very rich, but truly delicious. It is easy, by varying the kind of sweetmeats, or addii^g others, to suit every palate.

Chocolate Biscuits,

Break six eggs, and put the yolks of four info one pan, and the whites of the whole six into another; add to the yolks, an ounce and a half of diocolate, bruised very fine, with six ounces of fine sugar. Beat the whole well together; and then put in the whites of six eggs whipped to a firoth. When they are well mingled, stir in by little and little six ounces of flour, and put the biscuits on white paper, or in small paper moulds, buttered; throw over a little fine sugar; and bake them in an oven moderately heated.

Sweet and Bitter Aknond Biscuits, They are of two sorts. To make the former, take a quarter of a pound of sweet almonds, blanch and pound them fine in a mortar, sprinkling them from time to time with a little fine sugar; then beat them a quarter of an hour with an ounce of flour, the yolks of three ^gs, and four ounc^ of fine sugar.

PASTRY AND CONFECTIONARY. 411

adding afterwards the whites of four e^gs whipped to a froth. Have ready some paper moulds^ raade like boxes, about the length of two fingers square; butter them within, and put in the biscuits, throwing over them equal quantities of flour and powdered sugar: bake them in a cool oven; and, when done oC a good colour, take them out of the papers. Bitter almond biscuits are made in the same manner; with this difference onlj; that to every two ounces of bitter almonds must be added afi ounce of sweet almonds.

Best Savoy Biscuits.

Beat up twelve eggs, leaving out half the whites, with a small whisk; putting in two or three spoonfuls of rose or orange-flower water, with a pound of double^refined powdered and sifted sugar, while whisking, them. When the whole appears as thick and white as cream, take a pound and two ounces of the finest and driest sifted flour, and mix it in with a wooden spoon. Then make up the batter into long cakes, sift some sugar over them, and put them into a coolish oven, or they will be very apt to scorch. Common Savoy biscuits are made by putting in the whole of the eggs, and leaving out the rose or orange-flower water. The manner of forming them into shapes of about four inches long, and half an inch wide, is by pulling along, on wafer paper, a spoonful of batter with a teaspoon; pressing down the batter, at the same time, with a finger. They must be well watched, while baking; and, when enough, be carefully cut off while hot.

Delicate Sponge Biscuits*

Break the whites of six eggs in one pan, and the yolks of them in another. Beat up the yolks with six ounces of powder* ed loaf sugar, and a very little orange-flower water, with a wooden spoon, till the mass blows up in wind bladders. Whisk the whites excessively; and, with a large spoon, lightly put them to the yolks and sugar, stirring ihe latter as little as possible, consistently with the necessity of properly uniting them together. Then mix well with the whole &ve ounces of fine flour; and put the batter thus made into tin moulds thoroughly buttered, or they will stick too fast to be removed when baked. Before setting them in the oven^ sift over the tops a little pow^

4li DOMESTIC COOKBRT.

dered sug:ar^ to give them a delicate ice. They must be baked in a moderately heated oven; and, when done, taken from ihe tins while hot, or they will be leas readily gotten out.

Plain Bune.

To four pounds of sifted flour, put one pound of g^ood moist sugar,- -make a cavity in the centre, and stir in a gill of good yeast, a pint of lukewarm milk, with' enough of th6 flour to make it the thickness of cream,- cover it over, and let it lie two hours, ^ then melt to an oil (but not hot) one pound of butter,-- stir it into the other ingredients, with enough warm milk to make it a soft paste; - throw a little flour over, and let them lie ah hour,- have ready a baking platter rubbed over with butter, - mould with the hand the dough into buns about the size of a large egg, - ^lay them in rows full three inched apart, set them in a warm place for half an hour, or till they have risen to double their size,-^bake them in a hot oven of a good colour, and wash them over with a brush dipped into milk when drawn f^om the oven«

Richer Bmu.

Mix one pound and a half of dried flour with half a poutid of sugar; melt a pound and two ounces of butter in a little warm water; add six spoonfuls of rose-water; and knead the above into a light dough, with half a pmt of yeast; then miy five ounces of caraway comfits in, and put some on them.

Seed Buns.

Take two pounds of plain bun dough, as directed for plain butis and mix in one ounce of caraway seeds, - butter the insides of small tart-JMins, - mould the dough into buns, and put one in each pan, --set them to rise in a warm place, and when sufficiently proved, ioe them with the white of an egg beat to a froth, and laid on with a paste-bru A, some pounded sugar upon 'that, and dissolve it with water splashed fix m the brush: - bake them in a warm oven about ten minutes.

Excellent Bath Bun$. Take two pounds of fine flour, a pint of ale yeast, with a glass of mountain wine and a little orange-flower water, and

FASTKT ANd COMPBCTIONARY. 4l8

thre^ beaten eggs; knead the whole togetlier vrith some warm cream, a little nutmeg, and a very little salt. Lay it before the fire till it rises very light; and then knead in a pound of fi^esh butter, and a pound of large round caraway or Scotch coinnts. Make them up in the usual form of buns, or any other sha^e or size, and bake them on floured papers, in a quick oven. These buns are truly excellent; and, by leaving out the comfits, and substituting milk for the cream, and mountain wine, &c« a very good, cheap, and common bun may be easily made,

CHEESECAKES AND CUSTARDS.

Excellent Cheesecakes,

Put to half a gallon of new milk about the third part of a gill of rennet; and set it near the fire, to hasten its turning. Drain the curd thoroughly from the whey, put it on the badk of a sieve, mix into it at least a quarter of a pound of fresh, butter, and rub it through with the back of a spoon into a basin beneath. Add powdered loaf sugar to palate, with half an ounce of sweet and half a dozen bitter blanched and pounded almonds, a little candied citron and orange peel in small and thin slices, half a fresh lemon peel grated, a few washed and picked currants, and a small glass of brandy. Beat up three yolks of eggs; put them to the mixture; and^ having sheeted the pans with a paste composed of a quarter of a pound of sifted flour, and two ounces each of powdered loaf sugar and fresh butter, then lightly mixed with cold spring water, and rolled out of a proper thickness, fill in the preparation, set the cheesecakes in a brisk oven, and bake them about ten minutes.

^ plainer sort of Cheesecakes.

Turn three quarts of milk to curd, break it, and drain the whey: when dry, break it in a pan, with two ounces of butter, tiU perfectly smooth; put to it a pint and a half of thin cream, or good milk, and add sugar, cinnamon nutmeg, and three ounces of currants.

Lemon Cheesecakes.

Grate the rind of three, and take the juice of two lemons, and mix them with three sponge biscuits, six ounces of fresh

414 ' DOMESTIC COOKERY.

butter, four ounces of sifted sugar, a little grated nutmeg, and pounded cinnamon, half a gill of cream, and three eggs well beaten, work them with the hand, and (ill the pans, which must be sheeted as in the last receipt but one with puff paste, and lay two or three slices of candied leoKm peel, cut thin, upon the top.

Orange Cheesecakes.

To be made in the same waj, omitting the lemons, and lising oranges instead.

Bread Cheesecakes.

Slice a penny loaf as thin as possible, then pour on it a pint of boiling cream, and let it stand two hours. Then take eight eggs, half a pound of butter, and a nutmeg grated. Beat them well together, and mix them into the cream and bread, with half a pound of currants well washed and dried, and a spoonful of white wine or brandy. Bake them in pattepans, or raised crust.

Almond Cheesecakes.

Blanch si!^ ounces of sweet and half an ounce of bitter almonds; list them lie half an hour in a drying stove, or before the fire; pound them very fine in a mortar, with two tablespoonfuls of rose or orange fiower-water, to prevent them finom oiling; put into a stew-pan half a pound of fresh butter, put it in a warm place, and cream it very smooth with the hand, and add it to the almonds, with six ounces of sifted loaf sugar, a little grated lemon peel, some good cream, four eggs, - rub all well together with the pestle; cover a pattepan with puff paste, fill in the mixture, ornament it with slices of candied lemon

ft

ped and almonds split, and bake it half an hour in a brisk oven.

Good Potato Cheesecakes,

Beat three ounces of lemon peel, with six ounces of sugar, in a marble mortar; then add half a pound of nicely 1 oiled and mashed mealy potatoes, beating the whole up together with six ounces of butter melted in cream, and mixing two ounces of ' picked and dean currants. When cold, put crust in pattepana; fill them a litde more than half full; sift over them a little

PASTRY AND CONFECTIONARY. 415

double refined sugar; and bake them f Mr about half an hour in a quick oven.

DeUeate Rice Cheueeaket.

Bail a quarter of a pound of rice in about three pints of milk^ till it becomes quite tender; then put in four eggs well beaten, half a pound of butter, half a pint of cream^ six ounces of sugar, and a little rose-water, with some grated nutmeg, and a small quantity of powdered cinnamon. Beat the whole together, put it into proper raised crusts for cheesecakes, and bake them on tin. A few cleanly picked currants may be blended with the other ingredients, and some also put in a glass of brandy.

Plain Custards^

Put a quart of good cream over a slow fire, with a little cinnamon, and four ounces of sugar. When it has boiled, take it off the fire, beat the yolks of eight eggs, and pat to them a spoonful of orange-flower water, to prevent the cream from cracking. Stir them in by degrees as your cream cools, put the pan over a very slow fire, stir it carefully one way till it is almost boiling, and then pour it into cups.

Or you may make them in this manner:- Take a quart of new milk, sweeten to your taste, beat qp well the yolks of eight eggs and the whites of four. Stir them into the milk, and bake it in china basins. Or put them into a china dish, and pour boiling water round them, till the water is better than half way up their sides: but take care tlie water does not boil too fast, lest it should get into your cups, /and spoil your custards.

Rich Cuiiard.

Boil a pint of milk with lemon peel and cinnamon; mix a pint of cream, and the yolks of five eggs well beaten; when the mil]L tastes of the seasoning, sweeten it enough for the whole; pour it into the cream, stirring it well; then giye the custard a simmer till of a proper thickness. Do not let it boil; stir the whole time one way; season as above. If to be extremely rich, put no milk, but a quart of cream to the eggs.

416 DQU B8TIO CI^OKBBT.

CAeop and excettn^t Cuitards.

Boil in a quart of milk a little lemon peel, a nnall stick oT cinnamon, and a couple of laurel leaves, sweetened with a fewr lumps of sugar; and, rubbing down smoothly two table-spooiifuls of rice flour in a small basin of cold milk, mix it with the beaten yolk of a single egg. Then take a basin of the boiling' milk; and, well mixing it with the contents of the other basin, pour the whole into the remainder of the boiling milk, and keep stirring it all one way till it begins to thicken and is about to boil. It must then be instantly taken off, and put into a pan; stirred a little together; and may be served up, either together in a dish, or in custard cups, to be eaten hot or cold.

Baked Custard.

Boil in a pint of milk a few coriander seeds, a little cinnamon, and lemon peel; sweeten with four ounces of loaf 90g9t, and mix with a pint of cold milk; beat well eight eggs for ten minutes, and add the other ingredients, pour it from one ptai into anodier six or eight times, strain it through a sieve, let it stand some time, skim off the froth from the top, fill it in earthen cups, and bake them immediately in a hot oven to give them a good colour: about ten minutes will do them. '

Bailed Custard.

Boil in a pint of rnilk^ five minutes, lemon peel, corianders, and cinnamon, a spiall quantity of each, half a dozen of bitter almonds blanched and pounded, and four ounces of loaf siigar: mix it with a pint of cream, the yolks of ten egg9, and the whites of six well beaten; pass it through a hair sieve» stir it with a whisk over a slow fire till it begins to thicken, remove it from the fire, and continue to stir it till nearly cold: add two table- spoonfuls of brandy, fill the cups or glasses, and grate nutmeg over.

Almond Custard.

Blanch and beat four ounces of almonds fine, with a spoon-^ ful of water; beat a pint of cream with two spoonMs of rosewater, and put them to the yolks of four eggs, and as much sugar as will make it pretty sweet; then add the almonds;

PASTRY AND COKFECTIONABY. 41T

9tir it all over a slow fire till it is of a proper thickness^ but don't boil. Pour it into cups.

Lemon Cus€ard$*

Takie half a pound of double refined aogar; this jiiic^ of Xwo lemons, the rind of one pared very thin, the inner rind oF one boiled vecy tender, and rubbed through a neve, and a pini of white wine. Let them boil for some time, then take out the peeU and a little of the liquor^ and set it to cool. Pour the rest into the dish, you intend for it, beat four yolks and two iwhites of eg;gs, and mix them with your cool liquor. Strain them into your dish, stir them well together, and set them on a slow fire in boilipg water. When it is enough, grate the rind of a lemon on the top, and brown it over with a hot salamander. This may be eaten either hot or cold.

Orange Custards.

Boil very tender the rind of half a Seville orange, and then beat it in a mortar till it is very fine. Put to it a spoonful of the best brandy, the juice of a Seville orange, four ounces of Ipaf sugar, and the yolks of four eggs. Beat them all well together for ten minutes, and then pour in by degrees a pint of boiling cream. Keep beating them till they are cold, then put them in custard cups, and set them in a dish of hot water. Let them stand till they are set, then take them out, and stick preserved orange on the top. These, like the former^ may be served up either hot or cold.

Rice Custards.

Put a blade of mace and a quartered nutmeg into a quart of cream; boil it, then strain it, and add to it some whole rice boiled, and a little brandy. Sweeten it to your palate, stir it over the fire till it thickens, and serve it up in cups, or a dish. It may be used either hot or cold.

Beest Custards.

Set a pint of beest over the fire, with a little cinnamon, and

three bay leaves, and let it be boiling hot. Then take it off,

and have ready mixed a spoonful of flour, and the same of

thick cream. Pour the hot beest upon it by degrees, mix it

15 3h

418 DOMESTIC COOKBBT.

^ell tx^geiher, and sweeten it to yoar taste. Xou may bake it either in crust or cups.

Gootebernf Custard.

Boil' three pints ' of gooseberries till tender, rub diem through a hair aieve, and beat up with the pulp the yolks at five eggs and the whites of two; adding sugar to palate, and two table*spoonfuls of rose or orange-flower water. When thoroughly mixed, set it over the fire, stirring it continually one way till it be the proper consistency for a custard. It must on no aooount be suffered to boil.

CBBAM6, JAMS, AND ICES.

An txeelknt Cream.

To make an excellent cream, boil half a pint of cream and half a pint of milk with two bay leaves, a bit of lemon peel^ a few almonds beaten to paste, with a drop of water, a litde sugar, orange-flower water, and a tea-spoonful of flour rubbed down with a little cold milk. When the cream is cold, add a little lemon juice, and serve it up in cups or lemonade glasses. - For a superior article, whip up three quarters of a pint of very rich cream to a strong froth, with some finely-scraped lemonpeel, a squeeze of the juice, half a glass of sweet wine, and sugar to make it pleasant, but not too sweet. Lay it on a sieve or in a form, next day put it on a dish, and ornament it with very light puff paste, biscuits, made in tin shapes the length of a finger, and about two thick. Fine sugar may be sifted over, or it may be glazed with a little isinglass. ^ Maca* roons may be used to line the edges of the dish.

Burnt

' Boil e pint of cream with a stick of cinnamon, and some lemon-peel; take it off the fire, and pour it very slowly into the yolks of four eggs, stirring till half-cold; sweeten, and take out the spice, Sec; pour it into the dish; when cold, strew white pounded sugar over, and brown it with a salamander.

Or thus: - Make a rich custard without sugar, boiling lemon-peel in it. When cold sift a good deal of sugar over the whole, and brown the top with a salamander.

PASTRY AND COUFSCTIONARY. 419

Sack Cream.

Boil a pint of iraw cream, the yolk of an egg well beaten^ two or three spoonfuls of white wine, sugar, and lemon-peel; stir it over a gentle fire till it be as thick as rich cream, and afterwards till cold: then serve it in glasses, with long pieces of dry toast

Brandy Cream,

Boil two dozen of almonds blanched, and pounded bitter almonds,, in a little milk. When cold, add to it the yolks of five eggs beaten well in a little cream; sweeten, and put to it two glasses of the best brandy; and when well mixed, pour to it a quart of thin cream: set it over the fire, but don't let it boil; stir cme way till it thickens, then pour into cups, or low glasses.

When cold it will be ready. A ratafia-drop may be put in each if you choose it. - If you widi it to keep, scald the cream previously. •

Ratafia Cream,

^Boil three or four laurel, peach, or nectarine leaves, in a full pint of cream; strain it; aiid when cold, add the yolks of thoree eggs beaten and strained, sugar, and a large spoonful of brandy stirred quick into it Scald till thick, stirring it all the time.

* •   '

Or make it thus:- Mix half a quarter of a pint of ratafia^ the same quantity of mountain wine, the juice of two or three lemons, a pint of rich cream, and as much sugar as will make it pleasantly-flavoured* Beat it with a whisk, and put it into glasses. This cream will keep eight or ten days.

Lemon Cream.

Put a quart of cream, with the yellow rind of a lemon, in a saucepan, over a moderate fire, and keep it well stirred till it gels new. milk warm. Then, having well- sweetened the pulp and juice of .three lemons, so as to overpower their add and prevent its turning the creaaci, add half a gill of orange-flower water, and six whites with two yolks of beaten eggs: put them to the warm cream; and stir the whole as much as possible, till

420 0OUB8T1C COOKSRT.

it begins to thicken; when^ takiiig' it instantly off the fire« strain it into a dish or glasses, and let it stand to be served up cold.

YeUow Lemon Cream, wUh&iU Cream.

Pare four lemons very thin into twelve large spoonfuls of water, and squeeze the juice on seven ounces of finely-pounded sugar; beat the yolks of nine eggs well; add the peels and juice beaten together for some time; then strain it through a flannel into a silver or very nice block-tin saucepan; set it over a gentle fire, and stir it one way till pretty thidt, and scaldinghot; but not boiling, or it will curdle. Pour it into je&yglasses. A few lumps of sugar should be rubbed hard on the lemons before they are pared, or after, as the peel will be so thin as not to take all the essence, and the sugar will attract it, and give a better colour and flavour.

« •

White Lemon Cream.

This is made the same as the above; only pat the whites of the eggs in lieu of the yolks, whisking it extremely well to froth.

ExeeUent (hange Cream*

Boil the rind of a Seville orange very tender; beat it fine in a mortar; put to it a spoonful of the best brandy, the juice of a Seville orange, four ounces of loaf sugar, and the yolks of four eggs; beat all together for ten minutes; then by gentle degtecB, pour in a pint of boiling cream; beat till cold; put into custard cups set into a deep dish of boiling water, and let them stand till cold agun. Put at the top small strips of orange paring cut thin, or preserved chips.

Imperial Cteam. Boil a quart of cream with the diin rind of a lemon, then stir it till nearly ooM; have ready in a diah or bowl that yon are to serve in, the juice of three lemons strained with as modi sugar as will sweeten the cream; whidi pour into a dish from a large tearpot, lu^ding it high, and moving it about to mix with the juice. It should be made at least six hours before it be served, and will be still better if a day.

PASTRY AMO CONFECTIONARY. 421'

Cremn.

Beat fbor ounces of sweet almonds, and a few bitter, in a UKMrtar, with a tea-spoonful of water to prevent oiling, both having been blanched. Put the paste to a quart of cream, and add ihe juice of three lemons sweetened; beat it up with a wldak to a froth, which take off on the shallow part of a sieve; fill g^lasses with some of the liquor and the froUi.

Snow Cream.

Put to a quart of cream the whites of three eggs well beaten, lour spoonfuls of sweet wine, sugar to your taste, and a bit of lemon-peel; whip it to a fVoth, remove the peel, and serve in a dish.

ScMed pr CUmted

In the west of England, and partieularlj in Devonshire^ scalded cream, vulgarly cidled clouted. or clotted cr^m, is in very general use. It is, in fact, a most delicate and delicious article, for tea^ coffee, chocolate, fVult, fruit^pies, &;c. generally considered not cnily as superior to comtnon cream, but to battler, and in some cases preferred even before custard. The method of preparing it is excessively simple. The new milk is set in shallow pans, commonly of brass, small at the top. These pans, whidi stand on three legs, like a skillet, are placed next day over a very slow fire; and, when the cream is soffidenily scalded, a romid mark appears on the surface of the cream, the exact size of the bottom of the pen, which mark is in Devonshire calkd the ring. As soon as that is seen, the cream most be imrnadiately taken from the fire. In moderate^ ly cool weather, it will keep good seven! days; and, being of a solid substance, is sometimes sent even to London in tin boxes or earthen jars.

CqfeeCrmm.

Boil an ouiioe of coffee berries, twenty-five coriander seeds^ half a stick of cinnamon, a bit of Seville orange-peel, and a little loaf-sugar, In a pint of good cream, for nearly a quarter of an hour, in the mean time, having beat up the whites of four or ^ye eggs, strain to them the warm liquid, put all over the fire, keep whisking it till it thickens, and then pour it

422 DOMB8TIC COOKSRT.

¦

into a dish, or separate cape or glasses, and serve it up oclA, with any favourite biscuits. Some prepare an agreeable coffee cream, by making a gill of very strong and clear coffee^ and « pint of rich calfVfoot jelly; which they mix together while both are hot, adding a pint of good cream with loaf or Lisbon sugar to suit the palate. As this will be jelly, though it should not be stiff, it is as much entitled to be called coffee jelly as coffee cream.

Chocolate Cream*.

Boil an ounce of the best scraped chocolate in a pint of rich cream and a pint of good miUc, with a quarter of a pouxKl of loaf sugar. When milled quite smooth, take it off the fire; and, while it cools, whisk up the whites of six or eight egg% pour it into glasses, take up tl^e froth of the eggs with a spoon, lay it on sieves, than put it in the glasses, so as for aome of it to rise tbove the cream^ and thus serve it up.

CodUn Cream*

Pare and core twenty good codlins; beat them in a mortar, with a pint of cream; strain it into a dish; and put sugar, bread-crumbs, and a glass of wine to it. Stir it wdh

Ice (Vcoflis of StrmoberrUs and other Fruits.

Pick the Btalks from a pdtde of fteth strawberries; force them through a deve into a basin by means of a wooden spoon; add a quarter of apound of powdered leaf sugar and « pint of creim, and mix them well together. .Put the whole into a freezing pot; and, covering it over, set it in a pafl, and surround it entirely with iceii Strew, on the ioe^ jdenty of salt, aud keep turning round the pot for about ten minutes; then, opening it, scrape it from the sides, again cover it up, and continue turning it till the cream become like butter. Next put it in the moulds; and place them in a pail covered witfi ice and salt, for considerably uKtfe than half an hour, till die waiter mounts near the top of the pail: then dip the mould into \

water, turn out the ice cream on a plat^, and aend it to t4ble» Care must be taken to use a very sufficient quantity of ealt, without which it will not freeae. When the fresh .fruit is not to be had, two table spoonfais of strawberry jam, with a pint

J

FASTET AND CaNPBCTIOKART, 42S

of cfeam, the juice of s lemon, end a liUe eocfaiiieil to improve the coloqr, may beineied Uufoogh a neve, frosen, and ¦erved up, exactly in the same manner. Barberry, cherry, currant, and even barberry ice creams, may also be made precsiaely m the same way, with obvious proportiomngs of the acids and sugar to the respective fruits.

4

liaUam Cram.

Rub on a lump of sugar the rind a£ a lemon, and scrape it off with a knife into a deep dish, or china bowl, and add half a gill of brandy, two ounces and a half of sifted sugar, the jaioe'of a lemon, and a pint of double cream, and beat it up well with a clean wlmk^in the mean time boil an ounce of iainglass in a gill of water till quite dissolved, strain it to the other ingredients, beat it some time, and fill your mould, and when coM and set well, turn it out on a dish.

N.B. The abcye may be flavoured with any kind of liquor, raspberry, strawberry, or other fruiu, coloured with prepared cochineal, and named to correspond with the flavour given.

Spinaeh Cream.

Beat the yolks of eight eggs with a wooden spoon or a whisk; sweeten them a good deal; and put to them a stick of cinnamon, a pint of rich cream, three quarters of a pint of new milk; stir it well; then add a quarter of a pint of spinachjuice; set it over a gentle stove, and stir it one way constantly tiU it is as thick as a hasty pudding. Put into a custard-dish flome Naples biscuits, or preserved orange, in long slices, and pour the mixture over them. It is to be eaten cold; and is a dish either for supper, or for a second course.

PiHachio Cream.

Blanch four ounces of pistachio nuts; beat them fine irith a little rose water, and add the paste to a pint of cream; sweeten; let it just boil, and put it into glasses.

SpemUh Ciream*

Take three spoonfiils of flour of rice sifted very fine, the yolks of three eggs, three spoonfuls of water, and two of orange-flower water. Then put to them one pint of cream.

424 BOME8T1C COOUBBT.

and set it upon a good fire: ke^ starring it till it is of a proper thicknets, and then pour it info cups.

Steeple Cream*

Take five ounces of hartshorn and two ounoea of isinfliiao» and put them into a stone bottle; fill it up with fair water to the neck; put in a small quantity of gum-arabic and gumdragon; then tie up the ho^ very dose, and set it into a pot of water^ with hay;at the bottom. When it has stood six hours, take it out, and let it stand an hour before ycfu ^ en it; then strain it^ and it will be a strong jelly. Take a pound of blanched almonds, beat them very fine, mix it with a pint of thick cream, and let it stand a little; then strain it oni^ and mix it with a pound of jelly; set it over the fire till it ia scalding hot, and sweeten it to your taste if^ith double refined sugar. Then take it off, put in a little ambe^, and poar it into small high gallipots. When it is cold, turn them, and lay cold cream about them in heaps. Be careful it does not hoSl when you put in the cream.

Barley Cream.

Take a small quantity of pearl barley, boil it in milk and water till it is tender, and then strain off the liquor. Put your barley into a quart of cream, and let it boil a little. Take the whites of five eggs, and the yolk of one, and beat them up with a spoonful' of fine flour, and two spoonfuls of orangeflower water. Then take the cream off the fire, mix in the eggs by degrees, and set it over the fire again to thicken. Sweeten it to your taste^ and pour it into basins for use.

A Froth to set on Cream, Custard, or Trifle, which looks and

eats well.

Sweeten half a pound of the pulp of damsons, or any other sort of scalded fruit, put to it the whites of four eggs beaten, and beat the pulp with them until it will stand as high aa you choose; and being put on the cream, &c. with a spoon, it will take any form; it should be rough, to imitate a rock.

Raspberry Jam.

After properly picking any quantity of ripe raspberries, maflh them fine with a long wooden spaddLe or spatula; and.

PASTRY AND CONFECTIONARY. 425

with three quarters of a pound of powdered loaf sugar dissolved in half a pint of water for every pound of raspberries, boil them about half an hour, stirring; the whole well together, so as to mix them thoroughly, and prevent any burning at the bottom. When the jam is sufficiently done, put it up in a pan or pots; siflting a little powdered loaf sugar over the jam, before it be closely covered up.

fklidous Apricot Jam.

Pare^ and cut in halves, ripe but not over-ripe apricots; then, taking out and cracking the stones, blanch and well bruise the kernels. Boil together the parings, crushed stones, and skins, in double the small proportion of water which may be required for boiling the quantity of fruit, as it will be necessary to reduce it about one half in boiling. This being done, to a pound of apricots put a gill of the strained liquor thus obtained, with a pound of sifted loaf sugar, and the pounded kernels. Set it over a brisk iire, and stir the mixture well together till the fruit be thoroughly mashed, and the whole of a good consistence, but by no means very stiiF. After pouring it off, and letting it stand covered till quite cold, put it up in the pot or pan^ sift a little sugar over, and place a piece of writing paper dipped in brandy on the top,   then cloee it up, and keep it for use. This is a most delicious article, and full as salntary and nourishing as it is agreeable. In- exactly the same manner may be made peach jam, neclftrine jam, green-gage jam, &c. all of them admirably delicate, wholesome, and corrective.

Chtrry Jam.

To twelve pounds of Kentish or duke cherries, when ripe, weigh one pound of sugar; break the stones of part, and blanch them; then put them to the fruit and sugar, and boil all gently till the jam comes clear from the pan. Pour it into China plates to come up dry to table. Keep in boxes with white paper between.

Currant Jam, black, red, or white,

   

Let the fruit be very ripe, pick it clean from the stalks, bruise it, and to every pound pot three quarters of a pound of loaf sugar; stir it well, and boil half an hour.

16 " 3i

4*20^ DOMESTIC COOKERY.

Godsehefry Jam.

Cut and pick out the seeds of fine large green gooseberries^ gathered when they are full grown^ but not ripe. Put them into a pan of water, green them, and put them into a sieve to draih. Then beat them in a marble mortar, with their weight in sugar. Take a quart of gooseberries, boil them to a mash in a quart of water, squeeze them, and to ever^ pint ot liquor put a pound of fine loaf sugKr. Then boil and skim it^ put in your green gooseberries, and having boiled them till they are very thick, clear, and oi a pretty green, pat them into g^lasses.

Gooseberry Jam for Tarts »

Put twelve pouncb of the red hairy gooseberries, when ripe and gathered in dry weather, into a preserving-pan, with a pint of;urrant-juioe, drawn a$ for jelly; let them boil pretty quick, and beat them yriih the spoon; when they begin to break/ put to them 9ix pounds of pure white Lisbon sugar, and simmier slowly to a jam» It requires long boiling, or will not ke^p; but is an exoeUent and l-easonable thing for tarts or puffi. Look at it in two or three days, and if the syrup and fruit separate, the whole must be boiled longer. Be carefal it does net bum to the bottoai.

To prepare lee for Iceingi*,

G^t a f6w f)oiincU of icfe, breilk it altnost to powder, throw a large handful and a half of salt among it* You must prepare it in a part of the house where as little of the warm air comes as you can possibly contrive. The ice and salt being in a bucket, put your cream into an ice-pot, and cover it; immense it in the ice, Hud draw that round the pot^ so as to touch 6very possible t srt. In a few minuted ptit a spatula or spoon Iti, aild stilr it well, removing the partd that ice ronnd the edges to the centre. If the ice-cream, or water, be in a form,, shut the bottom elose^ and move the whole in the Ice, as yoii cannot use a spoon to that without dangei* of Waste. • there should be holes in the bucket, to let off the ice 9fi it thaws.

N.B. When any fluid tends towards cold, the moving it quickly accelerates the cold; tind likewise, when any fluid is trading to heat^ stirring it will fiicilitatfe its boiling.

J

f PASTUX AND CONfWTIOiHART. 407

I

lee Watere.

Rab some fine sugar on lemon or orange^ to give the colour and flavour, then squeese the juice at either on its respective pod; add water and sugar to uttke .a five sh«srhet Aftd staraiti it bafeore itbe pul ipto the ice-pot If oraoge^ 4ibe greater propprtio9 should he of the China juioe, and .00I7 a.littfe si Seville^ iuid a eou^lbit of the peel grated b^ the sugar.

Stra»)ierry IVater lee*

Pick the 8t44l^» fivm a pottle 0f altravberrias^ and fnsess' them thrfl^^h « f iev^ iipito a basin* TJmb. add a funt and m half of waiter, with jaialf a pound of powdered loaf sugar; and, after well mixing them, pass the whojb Uurough a sieve, freeze it rich, put it in he moulds, end serve it up. If ioetf are not thick and smooth like butter, th^ oMist l^ve a little syrup added, and be again frozen, before tbey go into the moulda. When strewberries are not in seikson, p^ut two iable-spoonfnls of strawberry jam into the basin; and add the juice of a large kmpn, udth a piut and a half of water, and a little cochineal: ihen, straining it through js sieve whieh will suffer no aeeds to pass, freeze it, and serve it up, in the usual way. Red, white, ^nd black currants, us w4ll as raspberries, Ac. may be water iped after the sapie methods with the respective jams or firesh ftuits Bunch of Grapes Water Ice.

Pour a pint of beilic^ water over .two or three handfuls of clary or elder flowers, cover .them up dose, and let them stand to infuse till quite cold. Then, draining off all the liquor, pour it on about six ounces of powdered loaf sugar, and squeeze in the juice.of two or three lemops. Strain. through a sieve, freeze it, and fiU ^jth it the mouldy or shape, of a bunch of grapes. Cover the closed mould with paper; and let it^tand at least an hour in .the ice and salt before it .be turnfid out. Other shapes may be thus filled, with ices flavoured like the fruits represented.

Brown Bread Ice,

Orate .as £ne as possible stale brown bread, soak a small proportion in cream two or three hour§, sweeten and ice it*

428- DOMESTIC COOKBRY.

JBLLIKS, SYLLABUBS^ AND FLUMMERY.

Calws' Feet Jelfy.

. Take four calves' feet, (not those which are sold at tripe shops^ which have been boiled till almost all the gelatine is extracted, but buy them at the butcher's;) slit them in two, take away the fat from between the daws, wash them well in lukewarm water, then put them into a large stew-pan, and cover them with water; when the liquor boils, skim it well, and let it boil gently six or seven hours, that it may be reduced to about two quarts; then strain it through a sieve, and skim all the oily substance which is on the surface of the liquor.

If you are not in a hurry, it is better to boil the calves' feet the day before you make the jelly, as when the liquor is cold, the oily part being at the top, and the other being firm, with pieces of kitchen paper applied to it, you may remove every particle of the oily substance, without wasting any of the liquor.

Put the liquor in a stew-pan to melt, with a pound of lump sugar, the peel of two lemons, the juice of six, six whites of eggs and shells beat together, and a bottle of sherry or madeira; whisk the whole together till it is on the boil, then put it on the side of the stove, and let it simmer a quarter of an hour; strain it through a jelly-bag; what is strained first must be poured into the bag again, until it is as bright and BB clear as rock water; then put the jelly in moulds, to be cold and firm; if the weather is too warm, it requires some ice. When it is required to be very stiff, half an ounce of isinglass may be added when the wine is put in.

It may be flavoured by the juice of various fruits, &c. and spices, &c. and coloured with saffron, cochineal, red beet juice, spinach juice, claret, &c. and is sometimes made with cherry brandy.

Ten shank bones of mutton, which may be bought for twopence halfpenny, will give as much jelly as a calf's foot, which costs a shilling.

Hartshorn JtUy,

Boil a quarter of a pound of hartshorn shavings in three pints of water, over a moderate fire; till, on taking a little 6f

PASTRY AND CONFECTIONARY. 429

it out to cool, it hangs on the spoon as a jelly. Then take it

off*, strain it while hot into a saucepan^ with half a pint of old

liock^ and a quarter of a pound of powdered loaf sugar; and

beating up the whites of two or three eggs to a frothy put it

into the jelly; stir the whole well together, and pour it a little

from one vessel to another^ that it may the more perfectly

unite. Let it now boil two or three minutes, and then put in

the joioe of onti large lemon or two small ones; and, boiling

it up a minute or two longer, when it will be finely curdled

and of a pure white in colour, place a good swanskin jelly

bag over a pan or basin, and run it through three or four times,

till it looks as- clear as crystal. Put a clean China basin now

beneath the bag; -and, having clean jelly glasses ready, half

fill them from the basin as the jelly once more runs through:

then throw some thin rind of lemon and a little Seville orange

peel into the basin; and, when the jelly has all passed through,

fill up the rest of the glasses, and the jelly will look of a fine

amber colour. This is considered as the best method, when

required to be peculiarly clear and delicate: but it may be done

by merely boiling the rinds of a lemon and a China orange, at

first, with the hartshorn shavings and water; adding the juice

of both lemon and orange when the strained liquor is cold; then

boiling the whole up with a quarter of a pound of sugar, and

the frothed whites of eggs, without stirring; and straining it

through a jelly bag into a pan or basin, from which the glasses

are at once filled with a spoon.

Apple Jelly.

Pare, quarter, and core, any quantity of the finest baking or boiling apples; and, covering them well with water, let them boil till they completely mash. When the whole is of a good consistence, but not too thick, pour it into a sieve, and set it to drain over a pan. In the mean time, get ready, in another pan, a good syrup, made by boiling the rinds, sound cores, &c. in water; then straining it, and boiling up the usual quantity of sugar for making it sufficiently rich. Of this syrup, take as much in quantity as the apple juice which comes through the sieve; and, boiling it up to a considerable degree of height, but not nearly carimel, add the jelly, and let them boil together about eight or ten minutes. . This jelly

400 POMJOSTIC COOKRRT.

is frequently poured hot over richer fruiis, &c, to assist 19 pra« florvi«g them; hut wben there is sugtur sifted over, and toandy paper, it can scaicdy ever be necessary. Apple j^Uy^ which should itself^ like all otber fruit jellies, be kept xu veced. ii;i tibe same^uanner, .is a very usp&d and josost wbolesoioe article in all families.

(Sreem or Rfid Gooseberry JcUyp

Ttie preparation of gooseberry jelly is somewfaat similar to that of apples, it being thus made*^Boil a fuart of picked gooseberries, either red or green, b»t not oy^-ripe, in as much waterp tiU they mash into a tolerableoonsistence: then dra^i all the juioe from them,* through a sieve or flannel jelly bag; and, having boiled np as much conunou syrup as there is of goooeberry juke, to a height similar to that above directed for the apple jelly, boil them together ior about ten minutei^ akiinniing the mixture^U the time, when a fine jelly will be formed, which may be kept lor used at pleasure.

Red, White, md Black Cwrramt JeiUes.

These reepectiveliyfnoat useful famHy jellies are all n^ade precisely a&er the ^anie snanner; only that some put a somewhat larger, and •others a aomewbat less poitioB of ai^gar, to'the ved aa.d the white than to the bkok curraote. The distinction, however, is of no real oanseqiieQee. Each may be made in the following ipanner- Pick from their atalks any quantity of either red, white, or black currants, and put them into a preserving pan, or saucepan, over a good fire; and when they are mashed oompletely, widiout boiling, run theur liquor through a flannel bag. To a pint cff juice add nearly a pound of sifted loaf-sugar; and, letting it boil quick, skim it clean, and reduce it 40 a proper stifihess. This is always easily ascertained, by putting a small quantity in a China, cup or saucer, and setting it in cold water. When it Je thus perceived to be a fine jelly, pnt it up in pots or glasses; and having let it stand at least twenty-feur hours, to get entirely cold, sift over it a little pow   deved sugar, cover the top with a piece of writing paper cut to the exact siae and dipped in ibrandy, and afterwards close and fill it up in the usual way. Many persons, in mating i»dcuifant jelly, use a third partof white cuirants. Thfe:use«, as*

PASTRY AND CONFSCTIOITART. 491

Tpr^]] a thepieatantnett of currant yMies, of the different 8ort9 medidnallj and otherwise^ are sufficiently known.

Rice Jetfy.

This is one of the best and most nourishing preparations of rice, particularly fof valetudinarians. It is thus made*- Boil A quarter of a pdund of rice flour^ with half a pound of loafsugar in a quart of water^ till the whole becomes one umfotm gelatinous mass; then strain off the jelly^ and let it stand to cool. If^ of this lights nutritious^ and salubrious food, a little be frequently eaten^ it will be found very beneficial to all weakly and infirm constitutions.

Orange Jelly.

Grate the rind of two Seville and two China oranges, and two lemons; squeeze the juioa of three of each, and strain, and add the juice of a quarter of a pound of lump sugar, and a quarter of a pint of water, and boil till it almost candies. Have ready a quart of isinglass jelly made with two ounces; put to it the syrup, and boil it once up; strain off the jelly, and let it stand to settle before it is put into the mould.

Fruit in Jelly.

Put into a basin lialf a pint of dear calf's feet jelly, and when it is set and stiff, lay in three fine peaches, and a bunch of grapes with the stalk upwards. Put over them a few vine leaves, and then fill up your bowl with jelly. Let it stand till the next day, and then set your basin to the brim in hot water. When you perceive it gives way from the basin, lay your dish over it» torn your jelly carefully out, and serve it to table.

Smnmry Jelfy*

Take some thin slices of lean veal and ham, and put them into a stew-pan, with a carrot or turnip, and two or three onions. Cover it, and let it sweat on a slow fire till it is of a deep brown colour. Then put to it a quart of very clear broth, some whole pepper, maoe, a little isinglass, and salt to your palate. Boil it ten minnles, then strain it, skim off all th6 &t, and put to ft tke wUles of llnree eggs. Then rim it

482 BOMJ 6TIC COOKERY.

several times through a jelly-bag till it is perfectly dear, and pour it into your glasses.

Apple Jelly far preserving Sweetmeats.

This useful article^ for covering rich sweetmeatSj and other purposes, is very easily made: in summer, with codlina; in autumn, with rennets or winter pippins. - Pare, quarter, and core, apples of either description, or almost any other, and put them into a stew-pan with water barely sufficient to cover them. When the fruit is boiled to a pap, add a quart of water, boil it half an hour longer, run it hot through a flannel ba^, put it up in a jar, and keep it covered for use. A little lemon peel boiled with the apples, and a pound of powdered loafsugar added to each pint of the pulp, and boiled up, will make a very good apple jelly for the table, or to eat with cream.

Blanumge or Blanc-Mange.

Boil, till melted, a quarter of an ounce of finely shred isinglass in a pint of milk. Pound two ounces of blanched sweet almonds, and six or eight bitter ones, very fine; mixing in a little orange*flower water, and a small quantity of mace, cinnamon, nutmeg, and sugar. Strain the isinglass and milk into the almonds, &c. then let them boil up together, pass the whole through a sieve, and fill it into the moulds prepared to receive it, whence it is not to be removed till quite cold. Blamange may thus be made in any shape; and, from its nourishing quality, should never be absent from a genteel table, especially where any of the family or visitors have the smallest tendency to a decline. Indeed, though so great a delicacy, it may be considered as a most powerful medicine for consumptive habits; and if the almonds, &c. be reduced or emitted, it may be made with far less expense than most medical preparations can be procured. Even isinglass alone, boiled in milk, and sweetened with a little sugar, if freely eaten for a short time, is found extremely beneficial to weakly constitutions.

Jaun Mange.

Take three quarters of an ounce of isinglass and half a pint of water boiled together till the isinglass is just dissolved, then put

/^

PASTRY hSCb CONVBCTIONARY. 48t

inthedndaad jttioeof alein m, half a{unt-cif moiintidli wine, aad sugar to your palate; after it is all IxriW together, let it si:and till almost cold, dnen add four yolks of qrgs« Put it again on the fire, till it almost boils; then strain it .through a fine lawn sieve, and keep stirring it till cold .

Put a pint of cider and a bottle of strong beer into a large bowl, grate in a smalt nutmeg) and sweeten it to your taste. Then milk from the oow as muck milk as "will make a stnmg froth. Let it stsnd an hoUr, and then strew over it a few currants well washed, picked, and plumed before the fire; and it will be fit fbr use.

Royal London Syllahuib^

Put a bottle of red. port, a pint of Madei^m, sherry, or fine old mquutain, and half a pint oi brandy, into a large bo;wl, with grated nutmeg and plenty of loaf sugar; then mUk into it at lea^ two quarts, and grate over it some more nutmeg. Good wine syllabub is commonly made, in London, with either red or white wine alone; it is, hQwever, • sonpetimes half and half. Red wine is chiefly preferred, on account of its. agreeaable colour.

' ' Good and cheap Staffordshire SyUabui. This is a very pleasant, as well as a very qheap met}iod of making syllabub. Milk into a bowl, on a quart of ci4er; mixed with a glass or two of good brandy, and some sugar and nn^eg: or, if a cow be npt at hand, warm some Ipopd milk, and pour it, from a considerable height, thi^oug^ the spoilt of a tea-pot, into a bowl, the top of wh^oh . m^y thus be almost equally well frothed. In summer, . this is not a bad beverage, even without the brandy or spice; as it is ofl(en drank in many retired parts of the country, some of them within thirty miles of the metropolis.

Devonshire SyUabuh.

In Devonshire, and' the adjacent counties famous for clouted or scalded creign, their richest syllabubs are usjially made in the following manner- Put a pint of red port and a pint of any

16 3 k

4M DOMESTIC COOKBRT*

white ynne, in a Urge China bowl, with sagar to pakte, and milk it nearly full; in about a quarter of an hour^ cover it witli scalded cream, grate over it a nutmeg, scatter a little pounded mace and cinnamon^ and give it a rich sprinkling with those minute coloured comfits called nonpareib.

Fine whuked or whipped SyUdlmh.

Take a quart of cream, a pint of mountain wine, the jnice of a lai^e lemon, and one Seville or two China oranges, with m large glass or more of brandy, a gill of orange-flower water, and powdered loaf-sugar to palate. Whisk or whip it up well; and, as the froth rises, take it off with a spoon, and lay it on an inverted sieve to drain. If it should not rise well, add the whites of a couple of eggs. When sufficiently whipped, put a few spoonfhls of the liquid into the syllabub glasses, grate in a little nutmeg, and fill up high with the froth. It may be made of colour, either with a little cochineal, or by using red port wine instead of mountain; but this is seldom done. A common sort, however, is made in some parts of the country chiefly with new milk, cider, orange or lemon juice, and sugar and nutmeg, which they colour either green, red, or yellow, by means of spinach juice, cochineal, or saffron.

Eoerlasting whipped Sylldbuh.

Take a quart of cream, half a pint of old hock, half a pint of sack, three lemons, and a pound of double-refined sugar. Having beat and sifted the sugar, and put it to the cream, grate off the yelbw rind from the lemons, and the rind of a Seville orange, or some preserved essence, to improve the flavour: add them also, and squeeze the juice of the three lemons into the wine, with aJitUe orange-flower water. These being mixed with the cream, beat the whole together for half an hour with a whisk, and fill into the glasses with a spoon. It will keep good a fortnight, and is even better three or four days old than when fresh made. On these accounts, it is called the Everlasting Whipped Syllabub.

Spanish SyOabuh. *

In two quarts of new milk, put a quarter of a pound of blanehed and finely^beaten almonds, a gill of lemon juice, -half

PASTRY AND CONFECTIONARY. 436

a gill of rose w«ter, half a pint each of the jnioea of straw* berries and raspberries, a pint of Canary or fine old mountain wine^ and a pound of powdered loaf-sugar; mix the whole wett together, and whisk it up till it froths and becomes of a pleas« ing colour, when it will be found very delicious.

Lemon Syllabub**

Take a quarter of a pound of loaf-sugar, and rub upon the outer rinds of two lemoms, tiU you have got all the essence out of them. Then put the sugar into a pint of cream, and the same quantity of white wine. Squeese in the juioe 'of both lemons^ and let it stand for two hours. Then mill it with a chocolate mill to raise the froth, and take it off with a ^oon as it rises, or it will make it heavy. Lay it upon a hair sieve to drain, then fill your glasses with the remainder, and lay on the froth as high as you can. Let them stand all nighty and they will be fit for use.

Commim Fhtmmcfy.

Good common flummery is thus made - Put some of the finest and whitest oatmeal into a broad and deep pan, cover it with water, jtir it well, and let it stand twelve hours; then pour off the water clear, and put on fresh, to be stirred and remain the same time, and be in like manner poured off. Then stir in a little fresh, immediately strain the oatmeal through a coarse hair sieve, and boil it till very thick, keeping it well stirred . all the time. As soon as it comes of a proper consistency, pour it out; and, when cold, turn it into plates, and eat it with either wine, dder, beer, milk, or cream and sugar. Small whole oatmeal, as it is called, or rather grits once cut, does better than common oatmeal; and a little loaf-sugar, dis" solved in rose or orange-flower water, and mixed with^the warm flummery while straining, makes no unpleasant addition.

Dutch Flummery*

Boil an ounce of isinglass in half a.pint of water till it is dU dissolved, adding a lemon-peel while it is boiling. Then beat up three yolks of eggs, with half a pint of white wine, and put this mixture to the melted isinglass, with lemon juice and sugar to palate. Mix the whole well together, boil it up a

4M DOMESTIC COOKERY«

Iktlei strain it throogh a lawn sieve, stir it till near cold, ncid then put it into a melon shape. This ia sometimes called DiitcA blamabge.

French Fbrnniery. Beat half an ounce of isinglass as fine as possible; boil it gently for about a qualrter of an hour, in a pint of creani, carefttUj. stirring it all the . time; and then, taking it di the %sey sweeten it with some fine powdered loaf-sugar, add m Very little rose and orange-flower water, strain the whole through a sieve stir it till lialf eold, and put -it into a baain or mould. When quite cold, turn it into a dish, and gamiah with currant jelly.

Bice Fkmimery. £pil.with. a ^pint of new inilk, a bit of lemon peel, and cinnamon; mix with a little cold milk as much rice-flour as wfll make the whole of a good consistence, sweeten, and add a spoonful of peach-waCtr, Kx a bitter almond • beaten; boil it, observitig it;do n ^ bum.; pour it into a shape or prnt-bisin, taking out the spice. When cold, turn the fl u maa ae ry into a dish,. and serve with creain, milk, or custard round: or put a •tea-cupful, of cream into half a -pint of new milk,- a glass of .white wine, half a l^oon squeezed, and sugar.

Sokmon's Temgk in Fhamury.

Take a quart of stiff flummery, and divide it into three parts. Make one part a pretty Khick coldidi* with a Wt&it cochineal bruised fine, and steeped in Fren i!i brandy. Scrape an ' ounce of chocolate very fine, dissolve it in a little strong cofl)^, and mix it with 'ainother part of your flummery, td make it a iight stone colour. The last part must be ii^^hite. Then wM your temple-mould, and fit it in a pot to stand even. Fill the top of the temple with red flummery for t&e steps, and the four points with white. Then fill it op with chocolate flum« mei^i and let it stand till the next day. Then looien it round with a pin, and . shake it loose very gently; but do not dip your mould in warm water, as that will take off the gloss, and qpoil the colour. When you turn it out, stick a small sprig of flowers down ftom the tap of every point, winch will iidt cmly

r t

PASTflY AND CONFECTIO^TARY. 437

9tretigtfaen it, but give it a pretty appearance. Lay round it roek Candy aweetoieaU.

A Hedgehog.

Take two pounds of blanched almonda and beat, them well ii^ a mqrtar^ with a little canary and orange-flower water to keep them from oiling. Work them into a stiff paate^ and then beat in the yolks of twelve, and the whites of seven eggs* Pat to it a pint of cream, sweeten it to your taste, and set it on a clear fire. Keep it constantly stirring till it is thick enough to make into the form of a hedgehog. Then stick it fuU of blanched iilmonds^ slit and stuck up like the bristles of a hedgehog, and then pat it into a dish. Take a pint of cream^ and .the yolks of four eggs beat up, and sweeten it to your palate. Stir the whole together over a slow fire till it is quite hot, and then poor it into the dish round the hedgehog, and let it stand till it is cold, when its form wiH have a pleasing effect

VABIO0S SWEET DI8HB8 AND SWEETMEATS.

A grand TriJU.

The trifle being generally considered as an article to be pre* pared with the utmost delicacy of taste as well as of appearance, is judged worthy of particular attention.' The glass in which it is served up should be beautifully formed as well as cut, and sufiidently large and elevated to convey an idea of grandeur.- At the bottom of this elegant depository of light and airy delicacies, put a layer of fine sponge or Savoy biscuits; over them, another of ratafias; and a third, of maoHroons: strewing, between each two layers, and onthetopof'thcUst^^a mixture of blanched and pounded almonds; with candid citron, orange peel, and ptne*apple chips, cut small, afad a tittle finely-beaten mace and nutmeg. Four half a ptnt or more of sherry, Lisbon, or fine old mountain wine, over the cakes, according to the quantity which they may be fbund ciipable of imbibing; and, in the mean time, prepare a custard to oover them, in the following manner- Boil a quart of milk and cream, in equal quantities, with a iitde lemon peel, some cinnamon, three leavcb of laurel, and twa or three ounces of sugar, fctr about twenty minutes; and, while it cools, beat weB up die yolks of sik or eight eggs,, and twa qMionfuls of

436 BOMS8TIC COOKBRY.

rice floor. Then^ gradually miung the milk, a little at a time, veil stirring it all the while, and afterwards straining it into n. stew-pan through a hair sieve, place it over the fire, and continue stirring till it comes to a boil, when it must instantly be taken off, and be set to cool. On its getting about half cold, add half a gill of Frendi brandy; with the same qi antity of noyeau, ratafia, or other delicate liquor. The custard being thus made, and cold, is to be put on the cakes; and, over lliat, some apricot and raspberry jam, with a little currant jefly. Then, as a grand covering for the whole, whisk to perfect firoth a pint of cream, with the white of an egg, a couple of lumps of sugar rubbed on a lemon or Seville orange, and a glass or two of white wine; skimming off the firoth, from time to' time, with a pierced spoon, and depositing it at the top of an inverted sieve placed on a dish, to preserve the drainings, that they may be returned and whipped up. When the whole is thoroughly whipped, heap it as high as possible over the custard, &C. and, to crown the whole, sprinkle or garnish the top plentifully with those minute coloured comfits, called harlequin seeds or nonpareils. This, it is presumed, will not fail to be considered as a grand trifle. It is easy, by retiendiing, more or less, these articles, to form a very good trifle, on this plan, adapted to all tastes, circumstances, and occasions.

Gooaeberty or AfpU Trifle.

Scald such a quantity of either of these fruits, as, when pulped through a sieve, will make a thick layer at the bottom of your dish: if of apples, mix the rind of half a lemon grated fine; and to both as much sugar as will be pleasant*

Mix half a pint of milk, half a pint of cream, and the yolk of an egg; give it a scald over the fire, and stir it all the time; do not let it boil; add a little sugar only, and let it grow cold. Lay it over the apples with a spogn; and then put on it a whip made the day before, as for other trifle.

Devotuhire Junket.

This Devonshire dish, which is little else than curds and whey, enriched with the fiivourite scalded cream, is thus made «-*Pttt into a bowl any quantity of new milk warm as firom the

PASTRY AND CONFBCTIOKARY. 489

cefw, and tnni it with rennet; then add some scalded cream, with sugar and pounded cinnamon on the top/ and serve it up without breaking or disturbing the curd. It is, also, sometimes sprinkled over with small harlequin comfits.

Snow BaUi.

Pare as many apples as you wish to have snow -balls; and,

aoooping out the cores, put a little very finely-shred lemon

rind, about half a clove, or a morsel of cinnamon or mace,

snd a bit of sugar, in the place. Then, having washed with

water, and soaked in milk, rice sufficient to cover ihem, put into

as many thin cloths as there are apples, enough rice completely

to surround each, tie them all up separately, and set them over

the fire in a pot of cold water. They will require to be kept

boiling somewhat more than an hour; and must be gently

tamed into the dish, to prevent breaking the rice, when they

will appear literally as white as snow. They may be served up

with a good quantity of very sweet sauce, composed of sugar

and butter, a little grated nutmeg, beaten cinnamon, and a

glass of white wine; or with plenty of sugar and melted butter

only. These snow balls have a very pretty appearance at table,

and may be made extremely cheap.

Caraway Comfits.

In order to fiuslitate the making of comfits, a confectioner's copper preserving-pan should be provided, with two handles^ and proper* rings or pieces of iron at each side, for the admission of hooks fastened at the ends of a cord. This cord, or rope, being put round a pulley fixed to a beam, and the hooks thus connected with the pan, it swings at the slightest touch, and enables the operation to be more readily performed. With a little management, however, such shifts may be made, with other culinary vessels, as will nearly as well answer the purpose. The ''pan, then, being in readiness, and the caraway seeds cleansed or sifted, so as to be entirely free from dust, some common syrup must be boiled in a sauce-pan, for about a quarter of an hour; and then have the finest ifhite starch, just dissolved or softened in cold water, mixed with it. In the mean time, some gum arable, dissolved likewise in water, must be made slightly wann in another sauce-pan; and the pan.

440 DOMBSTtC COOKBKT« ^

slang as dttscsribed; or as' nealy similar as can be oaatavmi, is t^ have a charcoal (iee beneath it, placed at the' bottom c£ & large tub^ so as to receive but a gentle beat When all is ready, and the bottom. of the 8winging«pan' just warm^ the caraway seeds are to be put in, a ladleful of the gum water immediately added, and the seeds briskly stirred and rubbed with the haiids till they feel dry; a ladleful of the starch syrup is then to. be thrown in, and stirred in tbe same manner till dry. This process must be more or less re* peated according to the size or goodness of the comfits; and, indeed, the proportions of sugar and starch will be governed by these objects. In very common comfits, there is scarcely any sugar in the first coatings, and not much in the last; the best comfits, on the contrary, have but little starch even at first, and the syrup is boiled higher for the last coats. The gum only may be used for three or fo^ir coatings, and then the starch and sugar. After seven or ught coatings and dpryings, they are to be set in the stove; and, next day, nndergo alike process. This is to be daily pursued, till they are of the re* quisite size; which, for the largest and best sorts, is sometimea repeated fiye qv six paocessive days, but the common caraway comfits may easily be finished at once.

Scotch Comfits,

These, which mi^ be considered as among the largest and best sorts pf caraway comfits, must not only be gradually and well coated with rich syrup, but should have a quantity of rose or orange-flower water introduced both with the starch and gum solutions.

Cardamom Comfits, commonly called Sugar Plums,

. Pick out all the clean seeds firom the husk^, in which they are comn^only bought at tlfe d^'ug^ist's shops^ ajft^r brea^ung the skins by a slight heat in, the ^vien^ or over a^stove; then put them in the swinging pan^ as prepared fo^ caraway comfits, and proceed in the same way. These arq usually ^one wit i ^uch starch, and very little sugar- ThjD for^ pf thp seed makes these round, in the same manner as that of the eacavay rend^s the others obbng. ...

PASTUT AND CONFECTION ART. 441

Sarlejf Sugar*

Pat some common or clarified syrup into a saaoe-pan with a ifMrat, such as for melting butter^ if little is wanting to be made, and boil it till it comes to what ia called carimel, carefully taking off whaterer scum may arise; and, having prepared a marble stone^ either with hotter or 6il, jnst sufficiently to prevent sticking, pour the syrup gently along the marble, in long sticks of whatever thickness may be desired; twist it, while hot, at each end, and let it remain till cold, when it will be fit for immediate use. The rasped rind of lemon, boiled up in the syrup, gives a very agreeable flavour to barley-sugar; and, indeed^ the best is commonly so prepared.

Barley Sugar Drops.

These are to be made as the last receipt. Have ready, by the time the sugar is boiled sufficiently, a large sheet of paper, with a smooth layer of sifted loaf-sugar on it; - pot the boiled sugar into a ladle that has a fine lip: - ^pour it out, in drops not larger than a shilling, on to the sifled sugar; when cold, fold them up separately in white paper.

N.B. Some use an oiled marble slab instead of the sifted sugar.

Ginger Drops.

These drops may be made in the following easy manner: - Beat in a marble mortar an ounce of the best candied orangepeel, with a little loaf-sugar, and, when it becomes a smooth ' paste, add half a pound of loaf-sugar, and half an ounce of the best powdered ging^. Then, with a little water to dissolve the sugar, boil the whole to a candy, and drop it off from the point of a knife on writing paper, in small round drops about the size of a silver two-pence. When quite cold, they wfll come off the paper, and are to be kept in papered boxes. Among other *good qualities of ginger, it is said to be beneficial in dinfness of sight.

Peppermint Drops.

The best peppermint-drops are made by sifting finelypowdered loaf-sugar into lemon juice sufficient to make it of a 16 3l

442 ' OOMfidflC GOdKBRY.

proper consistence; then^ gently drying it over the fire for a few minutes, and stirring in about fifteen drops of oil of peppermint for each ounce of sugar, dropping them from the point of a knife, like the finger-drops in the precedin^^ article. Some» instead of using lemon-juice, or any heat, merely mix up the sugar and oil of peppermint with the whites of 6gg8; beating the whole well together, dropping it on white paper, and drying the drops gradually at a distance from the fire.

Lemon Drops,

Grate three large lemons, with a large piece of doublerefined sugar; then scrape the sugar into a plate, add half a tea-spoonful of flour, mix well, and beat it into a light paste with the white of an egg. Drop it upon a white paper and put them into a moderate oven on a tin plate.

Ratafia Drops.

Blanch and beat in a mortar four ounces of bitter, and two ounces of sweet almonds, with a little of a pound of sugar sifted, and add the remainder of the sugar, and the whites of two eggs, making a paste; of which put little balls, the size of a nutmeg, on wafer-paper, and bake gently on tin plates.

Excellent Gooseberry Fool.

Put a quart of green gooseberries into a stone jar, with a little Lisbon or powdered loaf-sugar, and a gill of water; place the jar on a warm stove, or in a sauce-pan of water over the fire. When the fruit is quite tender, press it through a colander or a hair sieve; and, adding sufficient sugar^ let it remain till it gets cold. In the mean time, put a pint of cream or new milk into a stew-pan, with a little rind of lemon, half a dozen cloves^ a stick of cinn&mon, a small pinch each of coriander and angelica seeds, and some sugar; and beat the yolks of four eggs with a little flour and water, strain to them the milk, whisk it well over a fire to prevent curdliog and before it begins to boil set the pan which contains it in cold water, stir the cream well for two or three minutes, and let it stand to cool. When this also is quite cold, mix the gootieherries and prepai'ed cream gradually together; and, adding « little grated nutmeg, trith more sugar if necessary, serve itop

PASTRY AND COMFBCTIONARV. 44^

A very good gooseberry fool may be made by simply preparing and pulping the gooseberries as before; and then beating jup the yolk, of an egg with a little sugar aod grated nutmeg, stirred gently into a quart of boiled milk, over a slow fire, till it begins to simmer, taking it off, adding the gooseberries by degrees, and serving it up when cold. A sort of gooseberry fool, made by merely scalding gooseberries in water mixed with treacle, and leaving them whole in the syrup, is commonly sold, daring the season, in the streets of London; which is much relished by children, and by no means either unwholesome or unpalatable, when neatly and fairly prepared.

Apple Fool.

Stew apples as directed for gooseberries, and then peel and pulp thctfa. Prepare the milk, &c. and mix as before.

Orange Fool.

Mix the juice of three Seville oranges, three eggs well beaten, and a pint of cream, a little nutmeg and cinnainoQ, and sweeten to your taste Set the whole over a slow fire, and stir it till it becomes as thick as good melted butter, but it must not be boiled; then 'pour it into a dish for eating cold.

Red and iVhite Burnt Almonds or Prawlongs.

What, in England, we call simply burnt almonds, though

covered with coatings of sugar, the French distinguish by the

s »pellation of amandes a-la-praline; from whence has arisen

the name of prawlings, or prawlongs, as most other articles of

this sort are denominated by our confectioners. Burnt almonds

or rather almond prawlongs, are thus prepared- Sift the dust

from some of the best Jordan almonds; and rub them well inn

doth, to clean them properly, though they are not to be scalded

or blanched; then put them into a preserving-pan, or stew-pan,

either with some syrup, or their weight in sugar, and a little

water. Keep them on the fire, continually stirring them till

they erackle and fly about, and the sugar begins to colour;

then, taking them off, stir them gently about to collect the

sugar, put. them on a sieve, separate from each other those

which stick together, and leave them about two hours to dry

in the stove, the sun, or any moderate heat After this, as

444 DOMESTIC COOKERY.

they should always have two coats of sugar, prepare amother pan of boiling syrup^ put them in again, and give a second coating in the same manner as the first. This mode' produces them white; but, in order to make red burnt almonds^ or red ahnond prawlongs, mix about a tea-cupful of water with sufficient cochineal to produce a good red; and putting in half of it with the first boiling syrup, and the other half, adding a little more cochineal, with that for the last coating, they will be of a beautiful and lively rosaceous or deep crimson colour.

Pistachio and. Filbert Prawhngg, Sfv. Red and White.

Pistachio prawlongs, both red and white, are made with pistachio nut kernels, exactly in the same manner as the red and white burnt almonds or prawlongs. Filbert prawlongs, though so called, are seldom made with any thing bat Barcelona nuts, the kernels of which are roasted on tin or copper sheets, &c. in an oven: after which, they are treated in all respects the same, for both colours, as the other prawlongs. Filberts, of course, or even our own hazel nuts, might easily be done in the like manner.

Orange and Lemon Prawlongs.

Cut away all the white from either lemons; or Seville or China oranges, the process being precisely the same for each, and cot them into regular pieces of about three quarters of an inch in- length, and the eighth part of an inch in width; and, having a proper quantity of syrup boiled nearly to carimel height, stir in the bits of peel, keeping them as much as possible separate, with a long wooden spoon, off the fire, till they become quite cold. Shake them in a iarge sieve, to drain through any sugar which may not adhere, and keep them dry in papered boxes. Orange -flowers, and many other articles, may be managed in a similar way.

White-SUgared Almonds. These almonds differ from the prawlongs, in being blanched before they are coated; they are put into the boiling syrup for a moment only before the sugar begins to change its colour, and stirred continually as long as it sticks to the pan. Should it cool too soon, it may be again put on the fire« and

PASTRY AJND CONFECTIONARY. 446

have the almonds rolled in it es before. Sugared slmoads are seldom coloured; but it is easily effected, in the same manner as prawlongs, comfiu, &c. Nuts, or filberts, may also be sugared after the above method, being first blanched.

Raspberry Postillay an elegant Confection made in Russia*

This sort of confection, called in Russia postilla, or postil« lar, is extremely delicate, and there most highly esteemed. Hitherto, like numerous other articles in this collection, it has been quite unknown in England. It is, however, made by a ?ery simple process, in the following manner- Put raspberries in an earthen baking-pan or pot, and let it stand all night in a moderately- heated oven. -Mash the fruit next day, prea it through a sieve, add about a quarter of the quantity of honey, and set it in the oven for another night.

Apple Postilla.

Bake codlins, or any other sour apples, but without burning them; pulp them through a sieve into a bowl or pan, and beat them with a wooden spaddle fbr four hours; then, adding as much honey as will sufficiently sweeten the quantity of fruit, beat it at least four hours longer: it is reckoned, the longer beaten the better. Pour on a cloth spread over a tray, a thin layer of the mixture; and bake it in a slow oveu, with bits of wood placed beneath the tray. Tf found, on taking it out, to be not enough baked on one side, set it again in the oven; and when quite done, turn it, place on it a fresh layer of the mixture, and proceed with it in the like manner till the whole be properly baked. Apple postilla is also made by peeling the apples and taking out the cor^ after they are baked, mixing sugar to palate, and beating it up with a wooden spoon or spaddle till all is of a froth; then putting it into trays, and baking it for two hours in an oven moderately hot. After which, another layer of the beaten apples is added, and powdered loaf-sugar spread over. It may be either in thick or thin pieces. Sometimes, a still finer sort is made, by beating yolks of eggs to a froth, and then mixing it with the a ple juice. The grand point, in these Russian preparations, is that ef long perseverance in whipping or beating up the fruits, &c.

446 OOMSSTIC COOK^BY.

Frosted Codiins und Cretm.

Boil gently some fine large oodlins in spring water, with m ?erj little roche d im; and when they becxnae wnnewbat more than haif done, peel off their outside skin, rub them over with oiled butter, and sift fine loaf-sugar plentifully over them. Place them on a tin plate; let it stand in a slow oven till the sugar on the codllns has a frost»like sparkling appearance; and serve them up when cold, surrounded with finely perfumed tart cream. If a dozen or more codlins thus prepared are put into a trifle glass, having a fiower or other pleasing ornament stuck on the top of each codlin, they form a very elegant as well as excellent dish for the most fashionable tables.

Curds and Cream,

Put three or four pints of milk into a pan a little warm, and then add rennet or gallino. When the curd is come, lade it with a saucer into an earthen shape, perforated, of any form you please. Fill it up as the whey drains off, without breaking or pressing the curd. If turned only two hours before wanted, it is very light; but those who like it harder, may have it so, by making it earlier, and squeezing it. Cream, milk, or a whip of cream, sugar, wine, and lemon, to be put in the dish, or into a glass bowl, to serve with the curd.

A Curd Star.

Set a quart of new milk upon the fire with two or three blades of mace; and when ready to boil, put to it the yolks and whites of nine eg^s well beaten, and as much salt as will He upon a small knife*s point. Let it boil till the whey is clear; then drain it in a thin cloth, or hair sieve; season it with sugar, and a little cinnamon, rose-water, orange-fiower water, or white wine, to your taste; and put into a star form, or any other. Let it stand some hours before you turn it into a dish; then put round it thick cream or custard.

Lent Potatoes.

Beat three or four ounces of almonds, and three or four bit* ter, when blanched, putting a little orange-fiower water to prevent oiling; add eight ounces of butter, four eggs well beaten and strained, half a glass of raisin wine, and sugar to

PA8TRV AHD COlTFBCTIOikARY. 44^

yeartMte. B^at tQ well till quite nnooth, and grate in three &mv€j faiBeliitS; Make balls of the above with a little fldnr, Hie else of a diestiut i threw theiii itito a atew^^pan of boiling lardy and boil them of a beaotifhl yellow brown. Drain them on a sieve.

Serve sweet sance in a boat, to eat with them.

To $uU Codlmg.

Wrap each ia a vin^leaf, and pack them close in a nice saoee^pan; and when falL poor as maeb water as will cover them. Set it over a gentle fire, and let them simmer slowly till done enough to take the thai Ain off when cold. Fkme them in a dish, with, or without milk, cream^ or costard; if the latter^ there should be no racaia. Dost fine sugar over thfe apples.

StewedHblAm Pippim.

Sodop out the core, pare them very thin; aild ai jwl do it, throw iMm in water, ^or every pound of ftmi^ ms^e* half a pound of single-reftned sug«r iolo sympr with apint of watery when skihnmi^, put the pippAris k\^ and stew tQl clears Chen grate lemon « ver, and serve iti the tyrup. Be careful asC to let them break.

They are an elegant and good dish for a comer or dessert

Blackcaps.

The best black caps are made in Che feUowing manafff-rTake the finest and largest bakii^ w boiling affiles; mid eath ting them in two, but without paring them, extract the cores: then pound together a few cloves, with loaf-sugar and grated lemon-peel, wid fill up the space which the core has occupied with this mixture: lay each half, thus closely stuffed, with the flat part downward, in a baking-dish; add some water, in which cinnamon and sugar have been for a long time boiled toother; set them in a mdderate oven, taking care not to bake too mudit and* when done, and cold, serve them up with their own liquor poured over them, and caravay oemfits in small saucers. They are sometimes dressed in a stew-pan closely covered up, over a slow fire, instead of in an oven; the tops being afterwards bhuiked with a salamander: they are.

448 DOMESTIC COOKBBY.

also,, o&jen served up with the comfits, which are confidered ma an oid-fashioned aoocmipaninient. We are of opinion, however, that. they have been too inconsiderately discarded, smd had better be i^n taken into favour.

Stewed Pears,

Pare and halve, or quarter, large pears, according' to their size; throw them into water, as the skin is taken off, before tiiey are divided, to prevent their turning bbck. Pack them round a block)*tin stew-pan, and sprinkle as much angar over as will make them pretty sweet, and add lemon-peel, a clove or two, and some allspice cracked; just cover them with water, and pat in some red liquor. Cover them close, and stew three or four hours; when tender, take them out, and poor the liquor from them.

Baked Peon.

These ne^ not be of a fine sort; but some taste better than others, and often those.that are least fit to eat raw. Wipe, but do not pare, and lay them on tin-plates, and bake them in a dow oven. When enough to. bear it, flatten th^m widi a silver spoon. When done through, put them on a dish« They should be baked three or four times, and very gen tly.

Wine Roll

Soak a penny French roll in raisin wine till it will hold no more; put it in the dish, and pour round it a custard, or cream, sugar, and lemon-juice. Just before it is served, sprinkle over it some nonpareil comfits; or stick a few blanched sUt almonds . into it.

Sponge biscuits may be used instead of the roll.

of Frmt.

To the pulp of any scalded fruit, put an equal weight of sugar sifted, beat it two hours, then put it into little white paper forms, dry in a cool oven, tiim the next day, and in two or three days box them.

PASTRY AND CONFBCTtONART* 449

PRBSBRTXS.

Presened Peaches, Apricot$, Nectarines, Plums, MareUa

Cherries, Spc, in Brandy,

Having procared the peaches, apricots, nectarines, or plams, intended to be preserved in brandy, which should be quite firee from spots, and not. too ripe, cover them over with paper, and^^put them in a vessel over a slow fire; when they have simmered till they are become soft, take them out, put them in cloths four or five times double, and cover them closely up. In the mean time, being prepared with a proper quantity of French brandy, which should be uncoloured, rf it can be so obtained, and having five ounces of powdered loaf-sugar dissolved in every pint, put the fruit into glasses, fill them up . with the brandy and sugar, and close them up with bladder and leather coverings. The smaller fruits, such as Morella cherries,, &C. are not to be boiled, but put in either fresh from the tree, or as preserved wet with sugar. As the fruits imbibe a considerable quantity of liquor, fresh brandy and sugar must be frequently added to keep the glasses filled up.

Curious and simple manner of keeping Apricots, Peaches, Nec^ tarines, Phans, S^c. and even Figs, fresh all the Tear.

Beat well up together equal quantities of honey and com-^ mon water, pour it into an earthen vessel, put in the fruits all fireshly gathered, and cover them up quite close. When any of the fruit is taken out, wash it in cold water, and it is fit for immediate use.

Wei Sugar-preserved Fhtits in Brandy.

Take preserved Mogul plums, green gages, grapes, or any ether fruits which have been preserved wet in sugar; and after draining the syrup from them, put them in the glasses, and fill them up with brandy in which sngar» irfter the rate of three ounces for every pint, has been previousljr dissolved: then keep thm closely covered up, in the same maimer as the other brandy

Manner of preserving the deUcums dried Pears of Rheims.

By this admirable method the richest and most perishable pears may be preserved for as long a time as those which ir 16 Sm

4M I OMBSTIC COOEBRY.

their natural state are called the best keepers, but which are commonly hard and austere. Though our pears, in genera), do not equal those of France, we have some which are truljr excellent; and if the best wei-e preserved in the following irimmer, they might fall very little short, perhaps, even of the fltanous dried peats of Rheims itself, and would keep any length of time. Peel thepeArs, cut the stalks short, throw them into cold water^ and boil them tHl they feel soft to the finger; then take them out with a skimmer, and put them again into cold water. When they have been taken out and drained, to half ahuiidred of pears put a pound of loaf-sugar dissolved in two quans of water, and let them soak a couple of hours. Then place them on wires, with their stalks inward; and keep them •di hight in an oven after the bread has been drawn, or a similar state of moderate heat Next day, again soak the pears in the sugar and water, and a second nfght keep them in the oven. This process must be repeated four times; taking care to let them remain in the oven, the last time, till they are perfectly dHed: when, being kept in a sufficiently dry place, they will remain good for several years.

Best method of bottling Gooseberries and other Fmita/or

keeping.

The gooseberries, when a little more than half grown, jnust be gathered on a fine dry day; and, being headed and tailed, without having their skins injured, or receiving any bruises, are to be put into the proper wide-mouthed glass bottles, shaking them gently d6wn till each bottle is completely full. Having gently corked the bottles with new and sound corks, set them in a moderate oven, let them renudn till they aite well heated through, beat the corks in tight, cut off the topa, luem them up close, and keep them in a dry and cool plaoe Damspns,. plums/ cherries, currants. &c. may be pres^ved in the same manner, without sugar; but neither of them muat be gathered in damp weather, or have their skins ftt all broken, as they would in such cases soon become mouldy. Spine bury the bottles in the earth; but in any cool and dry place, they A will keep good the whole year. "

PASTRY AND COKFBCTIOMARY. 461

Fine Wet and Dry Sweetmeat in the farm of Hope.

After catting or splitting in quarters some of the finest green gooseberries, but without entirely dividing them, and having carefully taken out all their seeds^ run a needleful of white thready knotted at the end, through the end of one of the split gooseberries: then string another gooseberry in the same manner, letting part of it enter the first; and so proceed with others, till there are enough to compose the form of fine groen 'hops, which usually takes about seven or eight gooB«*berne6, according to their size. A sufficient number beinft thus made, and the thread of each well fastened at the end, they are to be put into cold water, scalded, and left about three days tii their own liquor^ till they begin to ferment; when tiiey must be put into fresh water with a little dugar^ and again heated, but by no means boiled. Being thus greened^ droit! from them all the liquor, and place them regularly in an earthen pan; then, boiling up some thin syrup, or makirtg it with the last liquor and a proper quantity of loaf-sugar, pour it over the gooseberry hops. Boil up the syrup daily in this manner, and continue to pour it hot over them, for a week; and then, putting them up in an earthen pan covered, keep them for use. They may be eaten wet from the syrup; but have a more pleasing appearance when they are prepared dry as f ^owfl - I ain all the syrup from them, place them on the bettom of a wire sieve, dust some sifted su^ar over them through a bag or cloth, and put the sieve into a stove. Let them remain till they are quite dry, which will be in three or four days; turning them, in the mean time, and changing the sieve once eveiy day Then, lining a box neatly with paper, put them in; placing a bit of writing-paper over evpry layer ef'tbefniit.

Grean, or Red Gaateberriee preserved Wet.

Scald, 'but do not boil, the finest and largest picked goosebtnies,; then pat them into a pan, and let them remain three days in their own liquor. Having now drained the liquor from them, put them into aiaother pan with a little sugar, as describr ed in die fovegoing artiele, and proceed exactly in the same

manher..thrcmghout the remaining process for wet preserving g(HNd)eny hops. They may, also, be dried in a similar way;

462 DOMESTIC COOKSET.

but tlu8 U seldom or never done. Pat them up in pots fully covered^ and keep them firee from damp. If red goose* berries be used, the colour may require heightening with codii* neal; or, if amber, with saffron.

Red or White Cmranis presertfed whok, in Bumches, Wet

Dry.

Pick, with a pin, all the stones or seedsout of some of the finest and largest currants in bunches, with as little laceration of the skin as possible. Bind half a dosen of these bundtes^ with thread, to a bit of stick about two inches long, and lay them on an inverted sieve. In the mean time, having a good syrup over the fire, when it has boiled a quarter of an hoar put in a few bunches, not more than suflkient to cover the bottom of the preserving-pan, let diem have half a dosen boilt, and take off* the scum with stiff paper. Then put them into pots, which must previously be well dried; and, where quite convenient, pour over the fruit some apple, or other jeSly. If wanted to be afterwards dried, take out some of the bunchee, and place them in a stew-pan, or preserving-pan, over the fire to warm; then draining from them all the syrup, lay them oa a wire sieve, dust some sifted sugar over them through a cloth, and place the sieve in a stove. The sieve must be changed^ and the bunches turned, every day; and, when they have stood three or four days, and are become quite dry, they are to be put into papered boxes like other dried sweetmeats.

Preserved Strawberries.

Get the largest and finest strawberries, fresh gathered in very dry weather, and when there has been no rain for at least two preceding days; leave their stalks on, and lay them separately on an earthen or china dish. Having lufted twice their weight of double-refined sugar over them, bruise a few of the over-ripe berries, and put them in a basin, with their weight of sifted sugar. Cover the basin, and set it in a stew-pan of boiling water, till the juice comes out and thickens; then strain it through muslin into a preserving-pan, boil it up, skim it carefully, and let it stand to cooL Put the whole strawberries into the syrup, and set them over the stove tiU they get a little warm; then take them off to coolj and again beat thm a little

PASTRY AND CONVBCTIOKARY. 463

¦Mure. This must be repetted sevend times, till tfaey become quite clear: the hottest degree however must not amount to a boil. If at all likely to break, they must instantly be taken fipom the fire. When quite cold, put them into pots or glasses; and, if intended for long keeping, pour a little apple jelly oyer them. They eat deliciously, served with thin cream in glasses^ either iced or plain. Strawberries may likewise be excellently preserved, so as to retain tbrir full flavour, by putting them, when fresh gathered, into a gooseberry bottle, strewed with nfted loaf-sugar; and filled up with Madeira, sherry, or fine old mountain wine.

Green Gaget freserved in Symp.

Take the gages when nearly ripe, cut the stalks about half an inch from the fruit, ^put them into cold water with a lump of alum about the size of a walnut;- set them on a slow fire tin they come to a simmer. Take them from the fire, and put them into cold water; - drain, and pack them close into a preserving-pan, pour over them enough clarified sugar to cover them,- simmer them two or three minutes;- set them by in an earthen pan till next day, when drain the gages, and boil the syrup with more sugar till quite thick,- put in the gages and simmer them three minutes more, and repeat it for two days,-- when b^il clarified sugar to a blow, place the gages into glasses^ and pour the syrup over; and when cold, tie over a bladder, and upon that a leather: and should you want any for drying, drain and dry them on a wire sieve in a stove or slow oven.

Ajfrieo/U or egg plums may be done in the same way.

Preterved Dmntans.

Put your damsons into a skillet over the fire with as much water as will cover thetn. When they have boiled, and the liquor is pretty strong, strain it out, and add to every pound of damsons wiped clean, a pound of single refined sugar. Put one third of your sugar into the liquor, set it over the fire, and when it simmers put in the damsons. Let them have one good boil, then take them off, and cover them up dose for half an hour. Then set them on again, and let them simmer ever the fiie after turning them. Then take them out, put them

454 DOIiBSTIC GOOKKRY*

iBio a ba^in, stff w all the sugar that was l«ft on l)heiD» and poor the hot liqu nr o^rer them. Cover them up, kt diem stand tiU the next day, and then boil them up again till they are enough* Then take them up, and put them into pots; boil the liquor till it jellies, and iirhefi it is almost cold, pout it on them. Cover them with paper^ tie them close, and set them in a dry place.

Tq hup Oranges or Lemons for Puddings,

When you squeeze the fruit, throw the outside in water, without the pulp; let them remain in the same afortaiglit, adding no more; boil them tlierein till tender, strain it from them, and when they are tolerably dry, throw them into any jar of candy you may have remaining from old sweetmeats; or, if you have none, boil a small quantity of syrup of common loaf-'Sugar and water, and put over them; in a week or tea days boil them gently in it till they look clear, and that they may be covered with it in the jar. You may cut each half of the fruit in two, and they will oocupy smaU space.

To preserve Jgrgntn/el Pears most beautifuUym

Pare them very thin, and simmer in a thin syrup; let them lie a day or two. Make the syrup richer, and simmer again; and repeat this till they ate clear; then drain, and dry them in Ae sun or a cool oven a very little time. They may be kept in i^fTup, and dried as wanted, which makes them more moist and rich.

To keep Currants.

' The bottles being perfectly clean and dry, let the currants be cut from the large stalks with the smallest bit of stalk to each, that the fruit not being wounded, no moisture may be anioi^ them. It is necessary to gather them when the weather is quite dry; and if the servant can be depended upon, it is best to cut them under the trees, and let them drop gently into the bottles.

To keep Gooseberries.

Before they become too large, let tliem be gathered, and take care not to cut them in taking off the stalks and huds.

PASTRT AND CONFBCTIOIVART. 46^

Fill wide^nKKMbtd bottles j put the ciMrks loosely in, atid set tbe bottles up to the nedc in wmter in a boiler. When the fruit looks scalded, take them out; and when perfectly cold, cork oloBe, aad rosin the. top. Dig a trenich m a part of the garden lesut used^ sufficiently deep for all the bottles to stand, and let the earth be thrown over, to cover them a foot and a half. When a frost comes on, a little fresh litter from the stable will prevent the ground from hardening so that the fruit cannot be dug up. Or, scald as above; when cold fiU the bottles with oold water» cork them, and keep tbem in a damp or dry place; they will not be spoiled*

To keep Daauotu for Winter Pies.

Put them in small stone jars, or wide-mouthed bottles; set lliem up to their necks in a boiler of cold water, and lighting a fire under, scald them. Next day, when perfectly cold, fill

»

up with spring water; cover them.

DRYING AND CANDYING.

Dried Cherries.

Take large Kentish cherries, not too ripe, - pick off tha stalks, and take out the stones with a quill, cut nearly as for a pen; to three pounds of which, take three pounds or pints of clarified sugar, - boil it to the degree of bloum;-- put in the) cherries, give them a boil, and bet them by in an earthen psa. till next day, when strain the syrup,- *add more sugar, and boil it of a good consistence; put the cherries in, and boil them five minutes, and set thetn by another day:--^repeal the boiling two more days, and wheu wanted, drain tbem some time«i and lay them on wire sieves to dry in a stove, or nearly c6ld oven.

Dried Apricots*

Take as many apricots as will amount to about a pound weight, pare and stone them, and then put them into a preserving-pan. Pound and sift half a pound of dnoble re&ed sugar, strew a little among them, and lay the rest over them*. When they have been twenty^our hours in this state, turn them three or Sow tinea in the syrup, and then boil them pretty

4M DOMESTIC COOK£BT«

quick till they look defer. When they are cold, take them out, and lay them on glasses. Then put them into a stove;, and turn them the first day every half hourj the second day every hour, and so on till they are perfectly dry. Put them into boxes ooveredj and set them by lor use.

Dried Peaeh^i*

Pare and stone some of the finest peaches you can get • then put them ihto a sauce-pan of boiling water, let them boil till they are tender, and then lay them on a sieve to drain. Put them again into the same sauce-pan, and cover them with their own weight in sugar. Let them lie two or three hours, and then boil them till they are dear, and the syrup pretty thick. Cover them dose, and let them stand all night; scald them well, and then take them off to cool. When they are quite odd, set them on again till they are thoroughly hot, and cob« tinue this for three or four days. Then lay them oa plates, and turn them every day till they are quite dry.

Green Gt^e Pbim$ dried.

Make a thin syrup of half a pound of single-refined sugar, skim it wdl, slit a pound of plums down the seam, and put them into the syrup. Keep them scalding hot till they are ten* der, and take osre they are well covered with syrup, or they will lose their colour. Let them stand all night, and then make a rich syrup thus: To a pound of double-refined sugar put two spoonfuls of water, skim it wdl, and boil it dmost to a candy. When it is cold, drain your plums out of the first syrup, and put them into the thick sjrrup; but be careful to let the syrup cover them. Set them on the fire to scdd till they look dear, and then put them into a cbiiia bowl. When they liave stood a week, take them out, and lay them on china dishes. Then put them into a stove, and turn them once a day till they are dry.

Dried Damtons,

Gather yoer damsons when they are full ripe, spread them on a coarse doth, and set them in a very cod oven. Let them stand a day or two, and if they are not then properly dried, put them in for a day or two longer. Then take them out, lay

PASTRY AND CONFECTIONARY. 467

tlieiii in a dry place, and they will eat like fteth plums^ though evea in the midat of winter*

Dried Applei,

Put them in a cool oven six or seven times, and flatten them by degrees, and gently, when soft enough to bear it. If the oven be too hot they will waste; and at first it should be very oool.

The biflin, the minshul ctab, or any tart apples, are the sorts for drying.

To candy any sort of FruiL

When finished in the syrup, put a layer into a new sieve, and dip it suddenly into hot water, to take off the syrup that hangs about it; put it on a napkin before the fire to drain, and then do some more in the sieve. Have ready-sifted double relined sugar, which siit over the fruit on all sides till quite white. Set it on the shallow end of sieves in a lighdy-warm oven, and turn it two or three times. It must not be cold till dry. Watch it carefully, and it will be beautiful.

Lemon and Orange PeeU candied.

Cut your lemons or oranges long-ways, take out all the pulp, and put the rinds into a pretty strong salt and hard water for six days. Then boil them in a large quantity of spring water till they are tender. Take them out, and lay them on a hair sieve to drain. Then make a thin syrup of fine loaf* sugar, a pound to a quart of water. Put in your peels, and boil them half an hour, or till they look clear; and have ready a thick syrup, made of fine loaf-sugar, with as much water as will dissolve it Put in your peels, and boil themrover a slow fire till you see the syrup candy about the pan and peels. Then take them out, and grate fine sugar all over them. Lay. them on a hair sieve to drain, and set them in a stove, or before the fire to dry.

Orange and Lemon Chips.

Pare quite thin as many oranges or lemons as may be required, leaving very little white on the peel; and, as the rinds 17 Sn

458 BOICESTIC COOKBHY.

are paredoff, throw them into spring water. Boil ihem in tbfs water till they are tender; still pouring in fV^h water, as the former boils away. Then make a thin syrup, with part of the water they were boiled in; and, when made, add the rinds^ lettuig them just boil thereiD. They are then to be taken oSF, and suffered io remain in this 83rrap three or four days: after which, they must be again boiled in it, tili the syrup begins to draw in threads between the fingers; when they must immediately be ^ken off the fire/ and drained in a colander. A few only must be taken out at a time; because, if they cool too fast, it will be difficult to get the syrup from them: this, how* ever, is best done/ by passing every piece of peel through the fingers, and laying them all singly on a wire sieve, with the rind uppermost. The sieve may be set in a stove, or befi»re the fire, if the weather be not warm; but, in summer, the 8un is sufficiently hot to dry them. About three pounds of sugar will make syrup enough for the peels of twenty-five large Seville oranges.

Candied Ginger.

Take an ounce of race ginger grated fine, a pound of loafsugar beat fin^, tod put them into a preserving-pan with as much water as^ will dissolve the sugar. Stir them well together over a very slow fire till the sugar begins to boil. Then stir in another pound of sugar beat fine, and keep stirring it till i grows thick. Then take it off the fire, and drop it in cakes upon earthen dishes. Set them in a warm place to dry^ and they will be hard and brittle, and look white.

Candied Horehound,

I^et your horehound be boiled in water till the juice be quite extracted. Tal^e your sugar, and^ boil it up to a fisather; then add your juice to die sugar/ an4 let it boil till it ia again the same height. Stir it with a spoon against the sides of your sugar-pan, till it begins to grow thick; then poor it out into a paper case that is dusted with fine sugar, and cut it into squares. You may dry the horehound, and put it into the sugar finely powdered and sifted.

PASTRY AND CONFECTIONARY. AM

Candied. AhiMmd Cake f or Qattau Noga,

Take iOkne fine powder sugar, put it into joar stew-pan, stir it over the fire till the sugar is nearly dissolved; have veadj half a pound of almcrnds sliced and pardied. Pat them into the sugar you have over the fire, and keep stirring them -wa^l about till your afanonds are a nice brown; take a jelly* VKHild or stew-pan, oil it well, and put your almonds into it; keep tbem well up to the sides, and when cold, you may turn it oat to cover a burnt cream or boiled custard; or it may be served up just as it is. Sometimes they are ornamented Uko Savoy cakes, and look very handsome.

Candied Rhubarb Cakes.

Take an ounce of rhubarb in powder, an outice of fine powder ginger, eighteen ounces of sugar, three drops of oil of peppermint; boil ybur sugar up to a feather, then mix all tke ingredients, stirring them till it begins to grain. Have ready a square paper case sugared with fine powder sugar: when cold cut them in square pieces.

Apple Marmalade.

Scald apples till they will pulp from the core: then take an equal weight of sujfar in large lump;;, just dip them in water, and boiling it till it can be well skimmed, and is a thick syrup, put to it the pulp, and simmer it on a quick fire a quarter of an hour. Grate a little lemon peel before boiled, but if too much it will be bitter.

Orange Marmalade.

Rasp the oranges, cut out the pulp, then boil the rinds very tender, and beat fine in a marble mortar. Boil three pounds of loaf-sugar in a pint of water, skim it, and add a pound of the rind; boil fast till the syrup is very thick, but stir it carefully; then put a pint of the pulp and juice, the seeds having been removed, and a pint of apple-liquor; boil all gently until well jellied, which it will be in about half an hour. Put it into small pots.

Lemon marmalade do in the same way; they are very, good and elegant sweetmeats. %W

4M DOMESTIC COOtt^RY^

TYoHSpareut MarmalaA.

Cut the palest Seville oranges in quarters, take the pulp oat, and put it in a basin, pick out the seeds and skins. Let tlicf outsides soak in water with a little salt all nigh t» then boil them in a good quantity of spring watet* till tender; drain, and cut them in verj thin slices, and put them to the pulp; and to every poundy a pound and a half of double-refined sugar beaten fine; boil them together twenty minutes, but be careful not to break the slices. If not quite clear, simmer five or six ministes longer. It must bestirred all the time very gently. When cold, put it into glasses.

Damson Cheese, and refined Damson Cheeses or Biscuits.

Though it might be difficult to maintain the propriety of these names for such articles, they are both very agreeable delicacies, and are thus easily; and by no means expensively prepared:- Bake any quantity of fine picked and clean ripe damsons, in a deep earthen pan or jar, covered over with paper, till they are quite soft, in a slow oven; and, rubbing them, while hot, through a colander, put the juice and pulp into a stew-pan, with powdered loaf-sogar to palate, and boil them at least two hours and a half over a gentle fire, frequently stirring the mass till it becomes quite thick and stifi*. In the mean time, having cracked and blanched, or rather skinned the kernels of the damsons, stir them also in, about five minutea before taking it off, and put the whole into moulds or cups. After letting it stand twenty-four hours, dip in brandy pieces of writing paper cut of a proper si2e to cover the tops of the damson cheeses, place the paper over, and keep them in a dry place. Damson cheese thus made will continue -good some years; and, in the same way, cheese may also be prepared with pihims, bullaces, &c. If made up in very small moulds, and not intended for long keeping, there will be no necessity for the brandied paper to cover them. A superior or refined sort of damson cheeses, sometimes called fresh damson biscuits, so that these damsons have the names both of cheese and bread, without partaking of the nature of either, is made in the following manner:- The damsons, being baked thoroughly, are flnt Ipt be skinned and stoned; then forced through a sieve by txiistik of a spoon; and two pounds of sifted loaf-sugar, with

PASTRY AMD CONFECTIONARY. 461

Ae addition of two whisked whites of eggs for every pound of tliis damson jam, well mixed up with it. Then, folding up -writing paper into small boxes, called by the confectioners coffins, the mixture is to be deposited therein as smoothly and finely as possible. These dieeses or biscuits are then to be placed in a stove, or other moderately warm situation, for

about a week, or till sufficiently dry; when, the paper being torn from them, they are to be kept in proper boxes lined with

paper, like other dried sweetmeats f Nr use.

Apricots, peaches, and even barberries. See. are thus made

into what are called biscuits of the re^pecdve fresh fruits;

only, of course, adding more or less sugar, with other slight

but obvious deviations in preparing the different sorts.

Compote of Apples.

Take a dozen a£ golden pippins, pare them nicely, and take the core out with a small penknife; put them into some water, and let them be well scalded; then take a little c^ the water with some sugar, and a few apples which may be sliced into it, and let the whole boil till it comes to a syrup: then pour it over your pippins, and garnish them with dried cherries and lemonpeel cut fine. You must take care that your pippins are not split.

Compote of Pears.

Let what quantity of pears you wish be nicely scalded till sod, then take them out, pare them, and throw them into cold water to harden; take some sugar, cinnamon, red wine, and cloves, and put your pears* into it; let them gently boil till a syrap: you may add some cochineal to give them a fine colour.

Raspberry Paste.

Mash a quart of raspberries, strain one half, and put the juice to the other half. Boil them a quarter of an hour, put to them a pint of red currant juice, and let them boil all together till your raspberries are enough. Then put a pound and a half of double-refined sugar into a p4n/ with as much water as will dissolve it, and boil it to a sugar effm. Put in your raspberrtes and juice, give them a scald, anJl^ur it into glasses or platA^'

4M DOMESTIC GOOKBRT.

Then put them into a stove, and iamtlieiii at times till they thoroughlj dry.

Currtmt PaUe.

Carvant paste may be either red or white, acoordftig to the oalour of the currants you use. Strip your currants, put a Uttk juice to them to keep them from homing, boil them well, flnd mb them through a hair sieve. Then boil it a quarter of an hour, and to a pint of juice, put a pound and a half of donble^refiniMl ^gar, pounded and sifted. Shake in your Sttg^r, and when it is meked, pour it on plates. Dry it in the same manner as the raspberry paste, and turn it into any form you like best*

Gooseberry Paste, Takesoiiae full grown red gooseberries, just on the turn for rip^hig, cut them in halves, and pick out all the seeds. Have veady a pint of currant juice, and boil your gooseberries in it till they are tender. Put a pound and a half of double-refined sugar into your pan, with as much water as will dissolve it, anjl boil it to sugar again. Then put all together, and make it scalding hot, but do not let it boil. Pour it into your plates or glasses, and dry it as before directed.

ORNAMENTS IN CONFECTIONARY.

Ornamental decorations in confectionary have a very pleasing effect on the sight, and are calculated principally to embellish grand entertainments. As the variety of these articles is endless, and depends entirely on the ingenuity of the artist, we have given only a few receipts, by way of illustration.

An elegant Hen's Nest.

Pour over an ounce of finely-shred isinglass, boiling water barely enough to cover it; and, in ^ve minutes, pouring off the water, boil the isinglass in a gill each of cream and new milk, with a couple of spoonfuls of rose-water and as much sifted sugar. Strain it through a. sieve, and keep stirring it till it stiffens. When it gets nearly cold, take off the top, and leave ^ sediment, which will fill seven or eight egg shells. In the

PASTAT AND CONFECTIONARY. 4M

mean time, having \A mn out the onttents of so many eg^, by the sfnalkfit holes possible, and washed the shells perfectly dean, fill them up with this blamange, and set them first in salt to stiffen, and afterward in cold water, till they are hard enough to peel. Then lay them in a basin, with a qaantity of lemon-peel cut so as to resemble straw; pour next day some dear jelly almost cold over the blamange eggs; and, on the jdly's becoming quite stiff, tarn the whole out into a dish, and serve up the hen's nest complete.

Rich ChantUfy Basket.

In a dish shaped like a basket, stick around small ratafia cakes, or drops, with darified syrup boiled to a carimel height* Then put at the bottom pieces of sponge biscuit, blanched almonds, and small macaroons, with apricot jam, or other sweetmeat; and, over these, a good covering of tart cream or thin custard, and a whipped cream froth at top, with a light crinkling of rose leaves or coloured nonpareil comfits. By cutting ratafia cakes into squares, and dipping them in carimd to make them adhere, sometimes an elevation is raised several stories high.

A Dish of Snow,

Take twdve large apples^ and put them into a sauoe^pan with cdd water. Set them over a slow fire^ and when they are soft, pour them into a hair sieve; take off the skins, and pat the pulp into a basin. Then beat the whites of twelve eggs to a very strong froth; beat and sift half a pound of double-refined sugar, and strew it into the eggs. Work .up the pulp of your apples to a strong froth, then beat them all toge^ ther till they are like a stiff snow. Lay it upon a china dish» and heap it up as high as you can. Set round it green. knota of paste, in imitation of Chinese ndls^ and stick a sprig of myrtle in the middle of the dish.

Floating Island.

Take a soup-dish of sise proportioned to what you intend to make: but a deep glass set on a china dish wiU answer the purpose better. Take a quart of the thickest cream you can get, and make it pretty sweet with fine sugar. Pour in a gill of

464 DOMESTIC COOKERY.

sack^ grate in the yellow rind of a lemon, and mill the cream till it 18 of a thick froth; then carefully pour the thin from the froth into a dish. Cut a French roll, or as many as yoa want, as thin as you can, and put a layer of it as light as possible on the cream, then a layer o£ currant jeUy, then a very thin layer of roll, then hartshorn jelly, then French roll, and over that whip your froth which you saved off the cream, well nulled up, and lay it on the top as high as you can heap it. Ornament the rim of your dish with figures, fruits, or sweetmeats, ^s you please. This looks very pretty on the middle of a table, widi candles round it; and you may make it of as many different colours as you fancy, according to what jellies, jams, or sweetmeats you have.

Chinete Tempk or Obelisk* '

Take an ounce of fine sugar, half an ounce of butter, and four ounces of fine flour. Boil the sugar and butter in a little water, and when it is cold, beat up an egg, and put it to the water, sugar, and butter. Mix it with the flour, and make it into a very stiff paste: then roll it as thin as possible, haves set of tins in the form of a temple, and put the paste upon them. Cut it in what form you please upon the separate parts of your tins, keeping them separate till baked; but take care to have the paste exactly the size of the tins. When you. have cut all these parts, bake them in a slow oven, and when cold, take them out of the tins, and join the parts with strong isinglass and water with a camel's hair brush. Set them one upon the other, as the forms of the tin moulds will direct you. If you cut it nmiHy, and the paste is rolled very thin, it will be s beautiful comer for a large table. If you have obdisk moulds, you may make them the same way for an opposite comer. Be careful to make the pillars stronger than the top, that they BSay not be crushed by their weight.

PLEASANT AND BBU8HINO ] I8HB8. 4tt

PLEASANT AND RELISHING DISHES.

Omelettes, and various ways of dressing Eggs.

A HERE is no dish which in this country may be considered •s coming under the denomination of a made dish of the second order, which is so generally eaten, if good, as an omelette; and no one is so often badly dressed: it is a very faithfhl assistant in the construction of a dinner.

When you are taken by surprise, and wish to make an ap« pearanee beyond what is provided for the every day dinner, a Uttle portable soup melted down, and some zest, and a few Tegetables, will make a good broth- a pot of stewed veal wanned up, - an omelette,- and some apple or lemon frit* ten, can all be got ready at ten minutes notice, and with the original foundation of a leg of mutton, or a piece of beef, will make up a very good dinner when taken by surprise in the country.

The great merit of an omelette is, that it should not be greasy, burnt, nor too much done: if too much of the whites of the ^;gs are left in, no art can prevent its being hard, if it is done. To dress the omelette, the £re should not be too hot, as it is an object to have the whole substance heated, without much browning the outside.

One of the great errors in the cooking an omelette is that it

is too thin, consequently instead of feeling full and moist in

the mouth, the substance presented ia little better than a piece

of fried leather: to get the omelette thick is one of the great

objects. With respect to the flavours to be introduced, these

are infinite: that which is most common, however, is the beat,

via. finely chopped parsley, and chives ar qtubns, or eschalots

- however, me made.cf a mixture of taira^oQ, durvil, and

parsley, is a very delicate variety; omitting or adding the

onion or ddytB, Of the meat flavours, the veal kidney is the

most delicate, and is the most admired by our neighbours the

French: this should be cut in dice, and should be dressed

(boiled) before it is added* In the same manner bam and an 17 ' So

466 DOMBSItIC ClOOlLlSBT.

chovies, shred small, or tongue, will make a very delicately flavoured dish.

The objection to an omelette is that it is too rich, whid& makes it advisable to eat but a amall quantity. An addition of some finely mashed potatoes, about two table -spoonfuls to an omelette of siz eggs, will much lighten it.

Omelettes are often served with a rich gravy; but, as a gjenend principle, no substance which has been fried should be served in gravy, but accompanied by it: -or what ought to eat dry and crisp, becomes soddened imd flat. ^ In the compoundijig the gravy great care should be taken that the flavour does not overcome that .of the omelette, a thing t^o little attended to« A fine gravy, with a flavouring of sveet herbs and onions, we think the beat: some add a few drops a£ tiprfgon vinegar; but this is to be done only with gueat caOre. (gravies to omelettes are in general^thickened; tl^ia should never be done with flour: potato stanch, or arrow root» is .the beat.

Omelettes should be fried in a small frying-pan made for thut purpose, with a small quantity of butter. The omelett^'e great merit is to be thick, so a? net to taste of the outside; therefore use only half the number of whites that you do yolki qf eggs. Every care must be taken in frying, even at the risk of not having it quite set in. the middle. An omelette^ which has so much vogue abroad, here is in general a thin douUed up piece of leather, and harder than soft leather sometimes. The fiict is^ that as much care must be bestowed on the frying, as should be taken in poaching an e^;

The foUowizig are the best reoeipts for preparing this favourite dish.

CiMimoft Omeletie.

Beat up a batter with six eggs, a table-spoonful' of flour, and a little nilk; adding a good deal erf chc^ptfd parsley, A finely ahred ahalot, and a very little pofiiided long pepp^i grated nutmeg, and salt. Warm some fine dripf^g or clarified butter in a small frying-pan: pohr into it the batter; aiid, when, the iiiider side is of a fine yellow (Mrown, mm it, and do the other the same. It should be eaten quiie hot. Sbiiie pUC in a little ^naped lean of ham, or gfated idngiie; bikt iftis, ai it waaa dish contriTed purpbaely for frisi diKfir, tvdirtcdy eon*

PLEASANT A;ND RBLlS^lN^b. DISHES. ^Of

trary to the original intention. If the omelette should be difficult to torn^ it may be taken out when one side is thoroughly cbme, and have the other heated browned with a salamander or hot flat iron, and be served up with sprigs of curled parsley stuck in it.

Friari Omelette.

Boil b detslen fee large apples iii the same manner as for sauce, sti)r in a quarter of a pound of butter, and sugar it t6 palate; and^ ^hen it is cold, add fimr eggs well beaten up. Then take a deep baking dish, butter the bottom and sides well, thickly strew crumbs of bread so as to stick all ovelr the bottom^ put in the apple and egg mixture, and strew crumbi plentifully over the top. When baked, turn it oiit into another dish, Aud grate sugar over it.

To poach Eggs.

The cook who wishes to display her skill in poaching, must endeavour to procure eggs that have been laid a couple of days; those that are quite new laid are so milky, (hat take all the care you can, your cooking of them will seldom procure you the praise of being a prime poacher; - ^you must have fresh eggs, or it is equally impossible.

The beauty of a poached egg, is for the yolk to be seen blushing through the white, - which should only be just sufficiently hardened, to form a transparent veil for the egg.

Have some boiling water, in a tea-kettle, - pass as much of it through a clean doth as will half fill a stew-pan, break the egg into a cup, and when the water boils, remove the stewpan from the stove, and gently slip the tgg into it; it must stand till the white is set; then put it over a very moderate fire, and as soon as the water boils, the egg is ready; take it up with a slice, and neatly round off the ragged edges of the white,- send them up on a toast, wiih or without butter; or without a toast, garnished with streaked bacon, nicely firied, or slices of broiled beef or mutton.

The bread should be a little larger than the egg^ and about a quarter of an inch thick: only just give it a yellow colour: - if you toast it brown, it will get a bitter flavour: - or moisten it by pouring a little hot water on it; some sprinkle it with a few drops of vinegar - «r of essence of anchovy.

' J

40^ ] OMBBtlC COOKBRT.

To hoil JSggB to eat in the Shell, or for Salads.

The fresher laid the better. Pot .them into boiling water; if yoa like the white just set, about two minutes boiling is enough; a new laid egg will take a little more. If you wish the yolk to be aet» it will take three,- and to boil it hard for a salad, ten minutes.

1 Hie. lightest mode of preparing eggs fbr the table« is to boil them only as long as is necessary to coagulate slightly tihe greater part of the white, withoiit.depriving the yolk of its fluidity.

A new laid egg will require boiling longer than a stale one by half a minute.

Tin machines for boiling eggB on the breaklkst table are sold by the ironmongers, which perform the process very r^ularly: - in four minutes the white is just set.

We again remark what we before stated in our obsffvations on puddings, that eggs may be preserved for twelve months, in a sweet and palatable state for eating in the shell, or using for salads, by boiling them for one minute; and when wanted for use let them be boiled in the usual manner: the white may be a little tougher than a new laid egg, but the yolk will show no difference.

JEgg* poached with Sauce of minced Ham, Poach the eggs as before directed, and take two or three slices of boiled ham, mince it fine with a gherkin, a morsel of onion, a little parsley, pepper, and salt; stew all together a quarter of an hour; serve up your sauce about half boiling; put the eggs in a dish, squeeze over the juice of half a Seville orange, or lemon, and pour the sauce over them.

Fried Eggo and minced Ham or Bacon. Choose some very fine baoon, streaked with a good deal of lean, - cut this into very thin slices, and afterwards into small square pieces; throw them into a stew-pan, and set it over a gentle fire, that they may lose some of their &t. When u much as will freely come is thus melted from them, lay them on a warm dish. Put into a stew-pan a ladlefui of melted bacon or lard; set it on a stove; put in about a dosen of die small pieces of the bacon, then stoop the stew*pa& and break

TUBABAVr AH D RBLISRINO DI8HB9. 4W

in an egg. Manage this Carefully, and the egg will presently be done: it will be rery roimd, and the little dice of bacon will stick to it all over, so that it will make a very pretty appearance. Take care the yolks do not harden; when the ^gg is thus done, lay it carefully in a warm dish, and do the ethers.

Toast and Cheue, or Welsh RaUrit.

Cat a slice of bread about half an' inch thick, pare off the crusty and toast it very slightly on both sides, so as just to brown it, widiout making it hard, or burning it.

Cut a slice of cheese, (good fiit mellow Cheshire dieese» er double Gloster^ is better than poor, thin single Gloster,) a quarter of an inch thick, not so big as the bread by half an inch on each side;- pare off the rind, - cut out all the specks and rotten parts, and lay it on the toasted bread in a cheesetoaster; - carefully watch it, that it does not bum, and stir it with a spoon, to prevent a pellicle forming on the surface. Have ready good mustard, pepper, and salt.

If you observe the directions here given, the cheese wiU eat mellow, and will be uniformly done, and the bread crisp and soft, and will well deserve its ancient appellation of a " Rare Bit."

One would think not£iing can be easier, than to prepare a Wdsh Rabbit;^^yet, not only in private families, but at ta« vems^ it is very seldom sent to table in perfecUon.

Buttered Toast and Cheese.

Prepare a round of toast;- butter it: grate over it good Cheshire cheese about half the thickness of the toast^ and give it a brown.

Pousided Cheese.

Cut a pound of good mellow chedder, Cheshire, or North Wiltshire cheese into thin bits; add to it two, and if the cheese is dry, three ounces of Aresh butter; pound and rub them well together in a mortar till it is quite smooth.

When cheese is dry, and for those whose digestion is feeble, this is the best way of eating it; and spread on bread, it makes an excellent luncheon or supper.

\

490 BOM WW? ppoigs^y.

To mak^SenerteUhire fuxxDentir^ botl a quart of fine wbes^ and add by degree! two qiiaitS'of new milk% Pick and wash fear ounces of currants^ atir them in the j^y and boil then together till all is done. Beat the yalk's of three ^^s, and li little nutmeg, with two or three spoonfuls of milk^ and add ta the boiling. Sweeten the whole, and serve it in a deep disfa^ either warm or cold.



A pretty Stgfper Dish.

Boil a tea-capful of rice, .having first washed it in milk .till lender; '6tri in off the milk» Uy the rice in little heaps on a di^h, strew Oy^ the n some finely powdered su^ur and cinnamqp^ and put wantt wine and a little butter into the dish.

Savoury Rice.

Wash and pick aone rice, stew ii very gently in a small quantity of veal «r rich m«tton broth, with an onion, a blade of mace, pepper, and itAL When swelled, but not boiled to mash, dry it on the shallot end of a sieve before the fire, and either serve it dry, or .put it in the middle of a dish, and pour the gravy round, having healed it*

Buttered Rice.

Wash and pick some rice, drain, and put it with some new milk, enough just to swell it, over the fire; when tender, pour off the milk, and add a bit of butter, a little sugar and pounded cinnamon. Shake it, that it do not bum, and serve.

Macaroni.

The usual mode of dressing it in this country is by adding a white sauce, and Parmesan or Cheshire cheese, and burning it. But this makes a dish which ia proverbially unwholesome: but its bad qualities arise from the oiled and burnt cheese, and the half-dressed flour and butter put in the white sauce.

Maoaroni plain boiled^ and some rich stock or portable soup added to it quite hot, will be found a delidons dish, bb^ Yttj wholesome. Or boil macaroni as directed in the rrceipt for the pudding» and serve it quite hot, inja d^p tpnre^; and let each guest add grated Panneian and oolil biitt^r, or

PLEASANT AND ItBLISHiNO DISHES. 471

qSlM butter serred hot, and it is excellent; this is the most eonmon hsiian mode of dressing it Macaroni, with cream, sugar, and cinnamon, or a little varicelli added to the cream, makes a Very nice sweet dish.

EnglUk wmf 0/ dremng Maeainmi.

Pat a quarter of a pound of macaroni into a stew-pan with a pint of milk, er broth, or water; let it boil gently till it is tender, and then put in an ounce of grated cheese, a bit of butter about as big as a wafaiut, more or less, as yonr cheese is fat or poor, and a tea*spoonful of salt; mix it well together, and put it on a dish - and itrew over it two ounces of grated Parmesan or Cheshire cheese~-and give it a light brown in a Dutch oven.- Or put all the cheese into the macaroni, and put bread crumbs over the top.

Macaroni is very good put into a thick sauce, with some sbreds of dressed ham^ or in a curry sauce. Riband macaroni is best for these dishes, and should not be done so much.

Stewed Macanmi.

This favourite dish is thus prepared- Having a sufficient quantity of brown stock, or good beef gravy, with a relish of ham, boil in it half a peund of macaroni; and, when about three parts done, strain it off, and add a gill of new milk with another of cream, a quarter of a pound each of grated Parmesan cheese and fresh butter, and Cayenne pepper and salt to palate. Stir the whole together over . a good fire for a fbw minutes, slightly cover it with grated Parmesan, smooth the surface of the macaroni, brown the top with a red hot iron, and send it immediately to table.

Anchovy Toast.

Bone and skin six or eight anchovies; pound them to a mass with an ounce of fine butter till the colour is equal, and then spread it on toast or rusks.

SandwicluB^

Properly prepared, are an elegant and convenient luncheon or supper, - ^but have got out of fashion from the bad manner in which they are commonly made: to cut the bread neat

^

47S bOMKSTIG COOKBRY.

Ij with a sharp knife^ seems to be considered the only essentia]^ and the lining is composed of any offid odds and ends diat cannot be sent to table in any otl^ fonn.

Whatever is used must be carefully trimmed from every bit of skin, gristle, &c. - ^and nothing introduced but what you are absolutely certain will be acceptable to the mouth.

The materials for making sandwiches are various. The following are those chiefly used: Cold meat or poultry, potted lobster or shrimp, grated tongue, anchovy, German sautsge, cold pork sausage, and grated ham or beef.

Barley Water.

Take a couple of ounces of peari barley, wash it dean with cold water, put it into half a pint of boiling water, and let it boil for five minutes; pour off this water, and add to it two quarts of boiling water; boil it to two pints, and strain it. This is simple barley water. To a quart of the above is frequently added-^Two ounoea of figs sliced, the same c^ raisins stoned, half an ounce of liquorice sliced and bruised, and a pint of water. Boil till it is reduced to a quart, and strain.

These drinks are intended to assuage thirst in ardent fevers, and inflammatory disorders, for whidi plenty of mild diluting liquor is one of the prindpal remedies; -and if not suggested by the medical attendant, is frequently demanded by honest instinct, in terms too plain to be mbunderstood. Th^ atonuich sympathizes with every fibre of the human frame, and no part of it can be distressed, without in some degree ofiendiog the stomach: -therefore it is of the utmost importance to soothe this grand organ, by rendering every thing we offer to it ss elegant and agreeable as the nature of the case will admit cS' The barley drink prepared according to the second receipt^ will t e received widi pleasure by the most delicate palate.

Wh^y.

Make a pint of milk boil,- put to it a glass or two of white wine- put it on the fire till it jiist boils again- then set it on one side till the curd has settled-- pour off the dear whey^ 9^ sweeten it as you like. ^

Cider is often substituted for wine, or half the quantity o^ vinegar that we have ordered wine.

PLBASAHT AK0 ttBljlflHINO l ISttE8. 47^^

When there is no fire in a sick roem, this may be put hot iota a bottk, and p«t between the bed and mattress- it will keep warm several hours.

GrueL

A#k those, who ane to eat it, if thejr like it tfiick or thin;, if the Utt^* mix well together hy degrees, in a pint basin, one table-spoonful of oatmeal, with three of cold water;-~if the former, use tWo spoonfuls.

Have ready in a stew-pan a pint of boiling water or milk, - pour this by degrees to the oatmeal you have mixed, - return it inw the 4tew-paa,- set it on the lire,- and let k boil for five aoiaates, - stiffing it all the time to prevent th« oatmeal firom bumiBg at the hMom of the stew-paii -^fld&iai and strain it through a hair sieve.

Plain gruel, such as is directed above, is one of the best breakfasts and suppers that we can recommend to the rational epicure- is the most oemfoting sdother of ah irritable stomach that we know - and pattioularly acceptable to it after a bard day's work of intemperate feasting'^when the additi )n of half an ounce of butter, and a tea-spoonful of Epsom salt, will give it an aperient quality, which will assist the prinaipal viscera to get rid of their burden^

Dr. Franklin's favourite breakfast was a good basin of warm gme\, in which there was a small slice of butter wiUi toasted bread and nutmeg. The expense of this he reckoned at thret half-pence.

¦

SiffpetSy Uihen the Stomach will not receive Meat^

On an extremely hot plate put two or three sippets of bread, and pour over them some gravy from beef, mutton, or veal, if there is no butter in the dish. Sprinkle a little salt over.

Panada, made in five minutes.

Set a little water on the fire with a glass of white wine, somd sugar, and a sonspe cf nutmeg and lemon-peel; meanwbOe grate some crumbs, of br^ad. t^he moment the mixture boils up, keeping it still on the fire, put the crumbs in, and let it bcHl as fast as it can. When of a proper thickness just to drink, take it off.

17 S p

476 DOMESTIC COOKBRY.

fill it up with cold spring w«ter, mid pour it through a fine tieve.

This is a pleasant and ezcelleat beverage^ grateful to the stomach, and deserves a constant place by the bpdside.

To muU Wime.

Boil some spice in a little water tiU the flavour is gained, then add an e^ual quantity of port, some sugar and nutmcig; boil together, and serve with toast.

Or it may be made of good British wine*.

Flip.

Keep, grated ginger and nutmeg with a little fine dried lemon peel rubbed together in a mortar.

To make a quart of flip:- Put the ale on the firq to warm, and beat up three or four eggs with four ounces of moist Bugar, a tea-spoonfiil of grated nutmeg or ginger, and a quar« tern of good old rum or brandy. When the a)e is near to boil, put it into one pitcher, and the rum and egg% (&o* iotoanvther; turn it from one pitcher to another till it is as .smooth aa cveam.

Lemon Woter, a delightful Think.

Put two slices of lemon thinly pared into a tea-pot, a little bit of the peel^ and a bit of sugar* or a huge apoonflil of csu pillaire; pour in a pint of boiling water, and atop it dose two hours.

Orangeade, or Ltmonai^.

Squeeze th^ juice:, pour boiling water on a lidie of the peel, and coyer close. Boil water and sugar to a thin symp,, and skim it When all are cold, mix the juice, the infissioQ, and the syrup, with as much more water as will make a rich sherbet; strain through .a jeUyibag. Or squeeae the juice, and strain it, and add water and capillaire*

Otgeat.

This, agreeable and delicate beverage is, in strictness;, the

.purest barley water, but generally nothing more than common

, apring water, mixed with more or less orgeat i^rup, a^^wiihiy

PLBASAIgT AND ftEU»HlNO PISHES. 477

to palate. Indaedlj Orgeat fyrop is not nmch Ufied in England; hat, instead jof it, en extemporaneous emuUion of almonds, with a little orange-flower water, and a quantily of powdcu^ loaf-SMgar in cold ^ring water. Sometimes, tpo, 4aailk is/mgyp^ dboed, with cinnamon; and, not unfrequcntly, even J ^jj^ ^ but then, certainly, it is no longer tbe cooling «9d ,e suffered OTgeat, however it maj be piefemd for paiticu^j^^ j^ ^ y^y

efficiently aug« King WaUam'$ Aie Pwtfke, and adopting. Possets, tibongh long highly esteemejf water on the ooffee need; thai which is preeerined is saifiem till next day, to be fiivourite of the sovereign whose n^d cream, too, idstead of made:- Take a quart of cream, iifference in drinking coffee, rie; then well beat up feegether ^* pure, seems of less import* whites of fmr, and put theoiihe superiority of fine Lisbon some nutmeg in it, sweeten ^tol the use of pounded sugar* fim, and keep stirring it all before it boils, take it off, it up quite hot. Method of making Coffee.

r. Eton, m his Survey of the Turkish

o be good, must either be ground to

Thisi8 5ertainly aiP ^d«^ or pounded, as is done by the

William might here^rtar with a heavy pestle. They put the

macy. This posset.^**^ l^   ver a very slow fire, shaking it

end beat quite sm^™* ^^ b^ins to send forth a fragrant

patting in a little'* another coffee-pot, they pour on it boiling

fWxn oiling. T*^*^' »" ''^c^ the grounds of the last made

it well with do'^^^ and set to become clear; holding it a

at the same th ^^ ^®' till there is a white scum like froth

let them ako'^"* * y ^7 means suffering it to boil, but only

mix them tV ** " ^^^"^ poured, two or three times, from one

Pope^s posa^**'^' ^^ t^*" ^^^ becomes dear; they often,

tik it quite thick. Some, to make it clear sooner,

«i spoonful of cold water, or lay a cloih dipped in

BoilsorJ^^^P^^^^'^P^^take it off ^ _- . i- ^ ^ . «

pour it out,\ ^'*^^'^"*^ ^-^ ^^^^^ **• France. and serve it^^^^''^ ^ ^^^^ excellent coffee, in France, roast

it is used: they even say, that it should be t infused,, and drunk, in the space of two

^•7* DOMESTIC COOKBItr.

Variaut Ways of making Tol. ^ I. The Japanese reduce their tea to a fine powder by unding it,- they put certain portions of this into a tea-cup, itomaCboiling -w^ater upon it, and stir it up, and drink it as soon

nol eno^S^'

?be tea into a kettle with cold water, - cover it close. Boil 80ine e, ^^^^ -make it all but boil: when you see a sort {hen add an equ* n the surface, take it from the fire; when the boil together, and a-dy.

Or it may be maOA-e yoa wish to have tea ready for drinking

^old water as you wish to make tea-

y clear liquor, and when you wish to

Kcaep. grated ginger anc^

lemon peel rubbed together in ^uu^e by making a tincture of tea,

To make a quart of flip:- Pn it, and let it stand twenty

and beat up three or four eggb more than is necessary to fill

Bogar, a tea-spoonAil of grated nut^up up with hot water from

tern of good old rum or brandy, ^be always hot and equally

put it into one juteher, and the rum an^i will be found enough for

torn it fi'om one pitcher to another ^ to tlie present mode of

cream* Iten used.

\. D. 1664, told Mr. Lemon Water, a deUghtJul ^ pjnt of water, and

Put two slioes of lemon thinly pared in^gg, and beat them bit of the peel^ and a bit of sugar, or a lai^or the tea, and stir piUaire; pour in a pint of beiliog water, an(hat we let the hot hours. whiph makes it

the water must Orangeadct or Lemonadih the ' Mimtre

Squeeze th^jaiee;. pour boiling water on iritual part of peel, an4 cover close. Boil water and sugar to ^t be about a ^ and skim it When all are cold, mix die juice, .

and the syrup, with as much more water as will Hrp a more sherbet; s^am through a jeUy«ilM g. Or squeei and strain it, and add water and capUlair^.

Orgeat. ^ffee in Eng This, agreeable and delicate beverage is, in pint, with an

{purest \ 9jAey water, but generally nothing morfboiling water,

. spring water, mixed with more or lacs orgeat i^tt, and return^

PLEASAHT AND RBLI8HIMG DISHES. 479

mg, m little of the coffee, two or three times; then putting in two or three small shreds of isinglass, gentlj dissolved in a cup« fal of boiling water, boiling the whole five minutes longer, and lastly, keeping the coffee-pot dose by the fire ten minutes more to ctear. Some also put in, with the coffee, a small bit of ?jmilla, which gives a fine flavour; but it must not be suffered to predominate. Thus made, though it be too weak, it is very pleasant. The strength, perhaps, might be sufficiently aug mented by pounding the coffee, like the Turks, and adopting, with them, the method of pouring boiling water on the coffee grounds left, and letting it stand on them till next day, to be used instead of common water. Good cream, too, instead of very middling milk, makes a vast difference in drinking coffee, J^owever prepared. The sugar, if pure, seems of less import* aooe, though some insist on the superiority of fine Lisbon sugar, while others highly extol the use oi pounded sugarcandy.

Best JitrkUh Method of making Coffee.

It is observed by Blr. Eton, in his Survey of the Turiitsh Empire, that coffee, to be good, must either be ground to an almost impalpable powder, or pounded, as is done by the Turks, in an iron mortar with a heavy pestle. They put the coffee quite dry into the pot, over a very slow fire, shaking it often, till it gets warm, and b^ins to send forth a fragrant smell. Then, from another coffee-pot, they pour on it boiling water^ or rather, water in which the grounds of the last made ooflSse bad been boiled, and set to become clear; holding it a little longer over the fire, till there is a white scum like froth on its top^ without by any means suffering it to boil, but only gently to rise. It is then poured, two or three times, firom one pot into the other, and thus soon becomes dear; they of^en, however, drink it quite thick. Some, to make it clear sooner, either put in a spoonful of cold water, or lay a cloih dipped in cold water on the top of the pot.

Management of Coffee in France.

Those who wish to have excellent coffee, in France, roast it every day as it is used: they even say, that it should be roasted, ground, infused,, and drunk, in the space of two

I

I,

40^ DOMBStlC COOKBKY*

koars; and asfeit thait, if lh«s« ptoenaeB be longer icr void ceediof «aoh otliar^ the coffee loeei miioli of that volatile spirit whfich conetitutes all its agreeable flavour. The q^afttity cooi^ tamfy oted is an ounee to five ce] 8 of spring water, to pro* d«ce four of good and dear coffee. I a the mean thne, it ie usual la throw their colfee grMAds into a vessel, boil thein half an hoar, and leave tfaeoi to settle: this infision soweil serves fetf a. thsrd part of the coflbe in powder, that in a^coflee jpot of four-* teen cups of .pure spring water, which shoukl have three eunoos to be good, two ounces with this infbsion will be of e^wl airength and goodneis. The opeMaon of boiling the gvotmdfris perfonned • in large eolee houses, five dr sfai times Qver^ 4My» Tfiis is the common way of makilig ce