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Modern Domestic Cookery, 1819

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TITLE: Modern domestic cookery, and useful receipt book
AUTHOR: Elizabeth Hammond
PUBLISHER: Dean and Munday, Threadneedle Street, London
DATE: 1819
THIS VERSION: This transcript is based on the online version at archive.org, digitized by Google from an edition in the collections at Oxford University. This is an Optical Character Recognition scan, it has been partly edited, but still contains very significant errors.


DOMESTIC COOKERY,
AND
Useful 3Elecetpt 3Booli.
CONTAINING TOE MOST APPROVED DIRECTIONS FOR PURCHASING, PRESERVING,
AND COOKING
MEAT, FISH, POULTRY, GAME, &c.
IN ALL THEIR VARIETIES;
TRUSSING AND CARVING;
PREPARING SOUPS, GRAVIES, SAUCES, BfADE DISHES, POTTING, PICKLING, &c.

wUk all the BraaclMt of
PASTRY Sf CONFECTIONARY;
A COMPLETE
INSTRUCTIONS TO SERVANTS, rOR^ 1H£ BEST METHODS OF PERFORMING THEIR VARIOUS DUTIES

THE AST OF
MAKING BRITISH WINES,
BREWING, BAKING, &e.
THIRD EDITION. WITH ADDITIONS.

FRINTKll FOB
DEAN^ MUNDAY, THREADNEEDLE-STREET.
1819.

PREFACE.

As there is scarce an individual who is not aware of ths comfort resulting from a. regular and cleanly meal^ it may appear to many labour lost^ to write a prefkce to a work which is designed to teach the most ignorant how to prepare such a repast.

But in the daily progress of life^ we cannot but observe a lamentable degree of ignorance among the generality of females on this subject 5 for we may often discover an amiable and accomplished . woman^ who possesses a general knowledge^ with the exception of domestic cookery^ which^ I must be suffered to remark^ is a subject of infinitely greater importance to her than superficial acqmrements, whether we consider her as a daughter^ wife, or mother. Indeed, she can never be properly the mistress of a funily, unless she makes herself ac - ^ quainted with its interior economy.

Exclusive of the necessity of such knowledge, it is surprismg, how such a woman^ possessed of it, may save in the yearly expenditure of her family, which, God knows, in the present difficult times, is an object of material importance to all persons of moderate incomes, for whom this book is peculiarly adapted, combining economy and gentility in its receipts and directions.

That this book may be answerable to the aim of the author, by removing many of the difficulties generally experienced^ is her sincere wish.

EH.

GENERAL DIRECTIONS

FOR THE

Management of a Family

hiAj persons should endeavour to discharge the duties of the station they may fill, so as to claim the respect of their compeers: and afiford a beneficial example to the yoimger branches of society ^ to such as are desirous of respect^ this mode of conduct is a matter of necessity^ the neglect of which no excuse can extenuate.

The accomplishments proper for the female character^ are not so seriously attended to as formerly, when all persons, whatever might be their rank, 'were studious to render themselves useful. Yet domestic occupations shduld never for one moment be neglected, as such neglect must produce misery, and may, perhaps, ultimately terminate in ruin. At no very distant period, ladies knew but little beyond their own family concerns; now, alas ! there are few things of which they know so little as their family concenis. Viewed either way, this is running into extremes, which shoidd be carefully avoided, because elegant acquirements may, with some little care, be easily united with useful knowledge, and without which they become ridiculous. That this may be done, we have numerous ed^r, amples, even in the most elevated ranks of socvek?f^ in which the mistr^s of a &mily, possessed of every po^ible feminine accomplishment^ may b^ frequently seen superintending her family arrange^. ments, investigating her accounts^ instructing her servants^ and keeping within the bounds of her busBand's income -, by such means, reflecting credit on him, as well as herself.

If such minute attention to domestic concerns reflects honour upon females of elevated rank, at the same time that it is useful to them, how much more therefore must it be beneficial to such as possess contracted incomes, and who can only support an elegant, nay even a neat appearance, by exerting the most rigid economy, and attentively directing their efforts to the proper management of their domestic affairs.

Females should be early taught to prefer the society of their, homes, to engage themselves in domestic duties, and to avoid every species of idle vanity, to which thousands of them owe their ruin; and^ above all things, to consider their parents as their best friends, who are interested only in their welfare; then indeed we might hope to see all as it should be, and to have daily evidence of real comfort and happiness. Were females thus instructed, they would soon learn to discriminate between the solid enjoyments of domestic peace, and the fleeting F^ntoms of delusive pleasure.

It is natural to imagine, that when a female marries, she does so from a principle of love. It must surely, therefore, be admitted that her duties then become still more seriously important, because her ' station is more -responsible than it previously was. She will then have to superintend the affairs of the man with whose destiny she has united her own; the domestic part of which falls particularly within the sphere of her management, and the duties of which she ought actively to execute^ and at the same time to support as neat and elegant an appearance as is consistent with prudent economy -, without which even princely fortunes must fail; in which case her hushand will soon discover her merits^ and place a proper value on the treasure he possesses.

A person who desires to please, will seldom fail to do so 3 this conviction should of itself be sufficient to stimulate to the attempt^ as domestic knowledge in a female is of more real importance than y^n acquirements -, not that accomplishments, whoi properly directed, are incompatible with domestic duties 5 on the contrary, they become intimately combined with them, because they add to the rational enjoyments of that house which should ever be the centre of attraction to the husband, to her children, and others connected with it; and this is what an ignorant unsocial, and unaccomplished woman can never render it. It is the abuse of things from which alone mischief can originate, not from the temperate use of them.

The domestic arrangements of a fEunily belonging entirely to the female^ the table^ of course, becomes entitled to ho small share of her attention in respect to its expenditure^ appearance^ and general supplies.

Taste and judgment are highly requisite in this department, because the credit of keeping a good and respectable table depends not, (as of old,) on the vast qu^tity of articles with which it is covered, but the neatness, propriety, and cleanliness^ in which the whole is served up, which alone can confer real credit on her who directs the preparation.

Dinnerparties are very expensive, and certainly fall very heavy on persons whose incomes are moderate 3 such persons^ therefore, should not support a custom productive of impleasant consequences^ by lending it tlie SaYlctiOh of their example. But if it is found requisite occasionally to give dinners^ it should be done in a Uberal and genteel manner^ otherwise it is far better to decline it altogether.

Dinners are not so sumptuous now as they for^ merly were, which may be accounted for from the increased price of provisions; in consequence of which, persons who possess a moderate property are compelled to be as economical as possible, in order to support that genteel appearance necessary for the promotion of comfort.

Yet a certain degree of caution is requisite in providing even a family dinner, as a casual visitor may unexpectedly enter, whose company cannot be avoided, and every man feels his consequence hurt, should such a visitor chance to drop in to a dinner not sufficiently good or abundant; a table should therefore be furnished according to the income and rank of its master: thus 1 would not have a tradesman emulate the expenditure and appearance of a noble, nor a noble of royalty. A good plain dinner, of which there should be sufficient, with clean linen and decent attendance, will obviate every difficulty; and the entrance of an unexpected visitor will occasion no additional trouble, and all uneasy sensations on account of the appearance of the diimer, will be banished from the breasts of the master and mistress, by which hannony and enjoyment will of course ensue.

This mode of providing a table may be extended to every class of society, where each individual should have a table provided according to the fortune which, must pay for it, and such an arrangement will meet with the respect and approbation of all serious persons.

Carving also, though seldom attended to, merits attention ) for, without a due knowledge of it^ the honours of a table cannot be performed with propriety^ or without considerable pain. It also makes a great difference in^the daily consumption of a fomily. I therefore rc^mmend my readers to study this useful branch of domestic knowledge, which can be attained only by constant practice, as written instructions can merely point out the way whidi practice must render perfect, and without which no person can preside with honour at the head of a table.

Where there are young persons in a fomily^ it would greatly improve them, were they made to take the head of the table, under the seperintendance of their parents, by whose salutary directions they Would soon discharge the duty thus thrown upon them with equal ease and grace, and learn more in one month's practical employment, than they would in twelve months* observation. This would -also prepare them to discharge their duties in a proper manner, when they become mistresses themselves. For my own part, I can imagine nothing more disagreeable than to behold a })erson at the head of a well-furnished table, presiding only to haggle and spoil the finest articles of provision, by which great waste is occasioned, and, we may add, some disgust, because many delicate persons, when helped m a clumsy manner, absolutely loathe the provisions (however good), thus set before them.

Every lady who fiUs the situation of a mistress of a family, will, I am confident, upon mature reflection, be convinced, that much depends on the vigilance of her conduct, as far as respects good management and domestic economy; the most trifling events should claim her notice, for the keen eve of a superior can alone restrain servants and dependants within proper bounds, and prevent that waste which would otherwise ensue. This is a line of conduct which the present high price' of every article of life renders stiU more imperative. No female should ever harbour a moment's doubt respecting her power to conduct and manage a family^ even if previously unused to it^ as many of her senior friends will freely give her their advice, and a short practical experience will soon render her able to estimate the best mode of management, and also teach her how to keep her family expenditure agreeable to her income, and how to lay out her money to the greatest advantage. To execute this in a proper manner, a strict account of the yearly income, set apart for domestic expences, should be carefully taken 5 and that it may not be ignorantly exceeded, a minute account of the daily expenditure should be invariably made out, by which a regular habit of prudent economy will be obtained; and should the expences of 'one week then exceed their boimds, it must be made up by retrenching on those of the following weeks. For where persons depend for their support and comfort on the skill and active exertions of a father, much also depends on the mother, who, should she be a bad manager, will soon undo all that her husband has done 5 but should she understand her duties, prosperity will smile upon the family, and perhaps fortune may be ultimately secured.

To prevent useless trouble in the household accoimts, a Family Booktkeeper should be purchased, when the sums laid out will only require to be noted down, as the various ajrticles are printed, with a colmnn for every day in the year, by which means the exact expenditure is always ascertained for any period in a few minutes.

Persons who possess the means, should always pay for every article in ready money, the benefit of which they will very soon experience -, and tradesmen will be careful to supply such valuable customers with the best of their goods. They are also willing to sell their goods cheaper for money than on credit, consequently, by properly attending to this circumstance, a considerable saving may be made in the course c^ a year. I would also recommend my readers never to change their trades-people without some' serious cause of o£fence, as, after dealing some time with a tradesman, he considers you a valuable customer, obeys your orders with punctual attention, and invaiiably serves you with the best goods he can procure, with the view of securing your future support, and a recommendation of his shop to your friends.

On the contrary, those tradesmen who give long credit, are obliged to charge a propcntional interest^ without which they could not carry on their business j and it is this circumstance which contributes in no small degree to keep up the high price of every necessary of life. You will therefore easily perceive that, by having long credit, you will lose money, respect, and comfort.

A person of moderate income should make every purchase herself, and to do this well, she should make herself acquainted with the best articles, and the relative value of each, by which she will occasionally make her pound go as feu* as many less active and experienced persons would two. Although I do not intend by the above to advocate the cause of bargains, which generally in the end prove losses j on the contrary I recommend whatever may be purchased to be of the best quality, which, you may rely on it, will go farthest. Stated rules cannot be fully given, as rank, fortime, and habit, must determine many points 3 however, attentive inspection can be no disgrace even to the most elevated or wealthy One great advantage resulting from this close attention is^ that servants will soon discover that such a mistress miist not be tnfled with, and will consequently respect, fear, and serve her, better than they otherwise would do.

Waste of every description should be cautiously avoided; nothing can be more criminal, when we reflect that there are thousands of our fellow-creatures d)ring from want, while, by the bounty of Providence, we ha^e the full enjoyment of every good thing. Wastefulness, therefore, should never be tolerated i^ any of the necessaries of life. Every respectable family, by proper attention, may do much good to their poor neighbours, without injury to themselves, by properly preparing the offiad of their houses, and distributing it to such as are in want 5 this would be afifording much actual relief at the expence of little more than trouble.

Regularity should be punctually observed in all funilies, as by keeping good hours much time is gained. By break^ting at nine o*clock the servants have a fair day before them; and they shoidd, when convenient, be suffered to retire to rest at an early hour, by which means they will not be late on the following morning.

This method will also render less servants necessary. I am sensible that many of my fair readers may imagine this tq be of little consequence, but I can assiu'e them thai they^will ultimately find, that regular and early hours in a family is of serious importance to every branch of it, as far as relates to comfort, and it should .be remembered that servants have feelings equally with ourselves.

It is prudent and economical to have a sufficient quantity of household articles and culinary utensils. The stock should invariably be well kept up, ^d to do this effectually^ reqmres some consideration.

The best, and indeed only regular methud of doing this, is to keep a correct account of these, as well as different articles of household furniture, linen, plate, china, &c. &c. and the various articles should be occasionally examined, and every article replaced as soon as broken.

Much time will also be saved, if every artide is kept in its proper place, clean 3 and remember every thing should be mended the moment it is injured, and never applied to any . other, use than that fat which it was originally designed, by which mode of managexpent any thing will last much longer than it otherwise would do.

What an active person may perform in the course of one year by a punctual attendance to regular hours, and a persevering industry, would, if calculiOed, astonish a conunon observer by its extent and utility. In respect to servants, a mistress should be extremely careful whom she hires, and be partifolar in procuring a good character from the per^ sons witii whom they have previously resided. It is also the solemn duty of a mistress, to be just in giving a character to such servants as leave her, because a servant*s whole dependance rests entirely on the possession of a good character 5 destitute of which, inevitable ruin must follow. This is a duty, the breach of which nothing can extenuate 5 for by giving an undeserved bad character to a good servant, through caprice, eternal infeuny must be rejected on the person who does so. Faithful, honest servants should be treated with respect and kindness, and when an occasion offers, they should be duly rewarded, which will create emulation in others 3 but never more kept than sufficient.

Never pay even the smallest bill, without having a receipt for the sum, or you will frequently have to pay the same bill twice. You should weigh every article, such as meat, bread, groceries, &c. when sent home, before the person who brings thenx, that in case their weight should be short (which frequently happens) he may return the goods, and vouch for the truth of the circumstance.

Should you deal' on credit, a book should be kept, in which every article, with its weight, and pric;e, should be inserted the instant it is received, which will prevent imposition, and also serve as a reference.

In a well regulated £unily, every article should be kept in constant readiness, such as broken sugar, pounded spices, &c. by which much trouble will be prevented when such articles are wanted for immediate use. Servants should also be required to pay the same attention in waiting on the family, when alone, as they do when there is company: this will soon become a regular habit, and visitors will occasion but little cdditional trouble, while every thing will appear to go on smoothly.

DOMESTIC COOKERY.

DIRECTIONS FOR CARVING.

HB carving-knife should be lights yet of a sufficient size, and the edge very keen. In using it, no €^^^t personal strength is requisite, as. constant ^*Bctice will render it an easy task to carve the ^^lost difficult articles^ more depending on address Jfcan force; but, in order to prevent trouble, the ^^ts of mutton, veal, lamb, &c. should be divided ^7 the butcher, when they may be easily cut through, ^^ fine slices of meat taken off from between every ^^ bones.

The more fleshy joints are to be cut in thin smooth ^ces, neatly done; and in joints of beef and mutton, the knife should always be passed down t^c bone by those who wish to carve with propriety, Bnd great attention should be paid to help every person to a portion of the best parts. Fish should be careMly helped, because if the flakes are broken, the beauty of it is entirely lost, for which reason a proper fish slice shoidd be used, and observe to send a part of the roe, liver, &c. to each individual. The holds of cod, salmon, carp, the fins of turbot, and sounds of cod, are esteemed as delicacies, and, of course, some should be sent to each person in company, which denotes an attentive degree of politeness towards your guests. In carving ducks, geese, turkeys, or wild fowl, you should cut the slices down fix m pinion to pinion, without making wings.

16 DOMESTIC COOKERY^ AND

by which you will gain more prime pieces; but you need only do this when your party is large.

A cod's head^

Fish is easily carved. The dish now under consideration^ in its proper season, is esteemed a delicacy 5 when served up, it should be cut with a fishslice, and it should be remembered that the parts about the back-bone and the shoulders are generally accounted the best. Cut a piece quite off down to the bone in the direction of 1, 2, 3^ 4 putting in the slice at 1, 3, observing with each piece to h^ a part of the ^ound. There are several delicate parts about the head; the jelly part lies about the jaw bone; and is by some esteemed very fine^ and the firm parts will be found within the h^id.

Round of beef.

This valuable and excellent dish must be cut in thin slices, and very smooth, with a sharp knife, observing to help every person to a portion of the fat, also cut in thin smooth slices, as nothing has a worse appearance than fat when hacked. Observe^ also, th{;t a thick slice should be cut off the meat, before you begin to help your friends, as the boiling water renders the outside vapid, and of course unfit for your guests.

Edge-bone of beef.

Take off a slice three quarters of an inch thick, all the length from 1 to ^, and then help your guests; the soft marrow-like &t is situated at the back of the bone below 3, the solid fat will be duly portioned from its situation with each sUce you cut. The skewer with which the meat is held together while boiling, should be removed before

U8BPUL RECEIPT BOOK. 17

the meat is brought to table^ as nothing can be more mipleasant than to meet with a skewer when carving; but as some articles require one to be left in« a silver skewer should be invariably employed for that purpose.

Sirloin of beef.

You may begin carving a sirloin of beef either at the end^ or by cutting into the middle^ out your slices dose down to the bone^ and let them be thin^ observing to give some of the soft fat with each slice. Many persons prefer the outside; it is therefore a point of politeness to enquire which they will take.

Fillet of veal.

The bone of this piece being taken out^ renders the helping of it very easy. Many persons prefer the outside^ - ^ask this 5 and if so^ help them to it^ otherwise cut it off, and then continue to take off thin smooth slices 5 observing to take from the fiap^ into which you must cut deep^ a portion of stufiBng to every slice^ as likewise a small bit of (at. Iiemon slioul4 always be served with this joint.

Breast of veal

Is composed of two parts^ the ribs and brisket^ the latter is thickest^ and is composed of gristcls^ the division of which you may easily discern^ at which part you must enter your knife^ and cut through it^ which will separate the two parts^ then proceed to help your guests to whatever part they chance to prefer.

Calf 8 head.

Cut out slices from 1 to, 2^ observing to pasa your knife close into the bone 5 at the thick part

c 3

18 DOMRStlC COOKERY^ AND

¦ I ¦    ¦ I I ¦¦¦! IM - ^-   ^

of the neck-end, 3, is situated thfe -throat, sweetbread, which you should carve a slice off, from 3 to 4, with the other part, that your guests may have a portion of each. If the eye is preferred, which is frequently the case, take it out, cut it in two, and send one half to the person who prefers it, and on removing the jaw-bone, some lean wiU be found, if required. The palate, generally esteemed a peculiar delicacy, is situated under the head: this should be divided into small portions^ and a part helped to each person.

Shoulder of mutton.

Cut into the bone in the direction of 1,2; the prime part of the fat lies in the outer edge, and must be thinly and smoothly sliced in the direction 5; when your company is large, and it becomes necessary to have more meat than can be cut, as above directed, some very fine slices may be cut out on each side of the blade-bone in the direction 3, 4; but, observe, the blade-bone cannot be cut across.

Leg of mutton.

Wether mutton is esteemed the best, and may. be known by a lump of fet at the edge of the broadest part, as at 1; the finest slices are situated in the centre at 2; when you carve, put your knife in there, and cut thin smooth slices, in the direction of 3, and as the outside is rarely &t enough, cut some from the side of the broad end in neat slices from 5 to 6. Some persons prefer the knuckle, the question should, therefore, be always asked; on the back of the leg, there are several fine slices, for which purpose turn Jit up, and cut the meat out lengthways. The cramp-bone is generally esteemed a delicacy J to cut it out, take hold of the shank with

USEFUL RECEIPT BOOK. 19

your left hand^ and cut down to the thigh bone at 4, then pass the knife under the cramp-bone^ in ihc direction of 4, 7.

A fore-qimrtei' of lamb.

Divide the shoulder, from the breast and ribs, by passing the knife under in the direction of 1, 2, 3, 4, observing not to cut the meat too much off the bones. When the lamb is large, put the shoulder in another dish, an4 squeeze half a lemon over it, and the same over the breast and ribs, with a little pepper and salt, then divide the gristly part from the ribs in the line 5, 3, and help agreeably to the taste of your guests.

Haunch of venison.

Pass your knife down to the bone in the line 1, 2, 3, which will let out the gravy, then turn the broadest end of the joint towards you, and put in your knife at 2, cutting as deep as you can to the end of the haundi at 4 5 let your slices be thin and smooth, observing to send some of the fat, which is always esteemed, to each person; yo^ will find most fat on the left side of 3, 4, which, with the gravy, must be properly divided among your guests.

Haunch of mutton

Consists of the leg and a part of the loin, cut so as to resemble a haunch of venison, and must be carved in the same manner.

Saddle of mutton.

Take your slices from' the tail to the end, commencing close to the back bone,; let them be long, thin, and smooth; a portion of fat to each slice must be taken from the sides*

90 BOMBBTIC COOKKRT, AND • I ' l

Roast pig.

This is generally divided by the cook before it served up. You must first divide the shoulder fror^ the body on one side^ and then the leg^ in the d^ rection of the dotted line 1, 2, 3: the ribs are nei^^ to be separated in two or three parts^ and an ear o- jaw presented with them^ together with a sufficienc of proper sauce. The ribs are commonly though to be the finest part -, but as this must depend o: taste^ the question should be asked.

Ham,

The best method of helping ham is to begin the middle by cutting Jong slices from 1 to 2, through the thick fiit. When made use of for pies, the meat should be cut from the under side, after taking off a tliick slice.

Goose.

Separate the apron in the circular line, 1, 2, 3, and pour a glass of port wine into the body, and a little ready mixed mustard, then cut the whole breast in long slices, but remove them only as you help themf separate the leg from the body by putting the fork into the small end of the bone, pressing it to the body, and having passed the knife at 4, turn the leg back. To take oflFthe wing, put your folk into the small end of the pinion, and press it close to the body -, then put in the knife at 4, and divide the joint down in the direction of 4, 5. However, practice can alone render persons expert at this 3 when you have thus taken off the leg and wing on one side, do the same by the other, if it be necessary, which will not be the case unless your company is lai^e; by the wing there are two side bones, which may be taken off, as may the back and

tiBBFUL KECEtPT BOOK.

lower side bones^ but the breast and the thighs, divided from the drum-sticks, afford the finest and most delicate pieces.

Hare.

Pass the point of the knife under the shoulder at 1, and cut -all the way down to the rump on one side of the back-bone, in the line 1, 2, then repeat the same operation on the other side, which will div^ide the hare into three parts; then cut the back into four pieces, which, with the legs, is esteemed to be the most delicate part; the shoulder must be taken off in a circular line, as at 3, 4, 1; this done, help your guests, observing to send each person some gravy and stuffing; the head should be divided into two parts, many persons being partial to it. Rabbits are generally carved in the same manner, only observing to cut the back into two pieces instead of fbiu*.

Fowls.

The legs of a boiled fowl are bent inwards, and tucked into the belly; but the skewers must be removed before it is sent to table. To carve a fowl, take it on your plate, and as you separate the joints, place them on the dish; cut the wing off in the direction of 1 to 2; observing only to divide the joint with your knife 5 then lift the pinion with your fork, and draw the wings towards the legs, which will separate the fleshy part more effectually than cutting it; to separate the leg, slip the knife between the leg and the body, and cut to the bone; then, with the fork turn the leg back, and the joint will give way; when the wings and legs are in this manner removed, take off the merry-thought from 1, and the neck bones; the next thing is to divide th^ breast from the body, by cutting through the

^ DOMESTIC COOKERY^ AND

«

tender ribs, close to the breast, entirely down to the tail; then lay the back upwards, put your kqife into the bone half- ways from the neck to the rump, and on raising the lower end, it will readily separate. The breast and wings are the most delicate parts; however, the best way is to consult the taste of your guests by asking which part they prefer.

A pheasant,

llie skewers must be taken out before the bird is served, then fix your fork in the middle of the breast, divide it in the line 1, 2, then separate the leg from the body in the dotted line 2, 4 -, then cut oif the vwing on the same side, in the line 3,4; do the same by the other side, and then slice the breast which you had previously divided 5 take pfiF the merry-thought in the line of 6, 7, by passing the knife under it towards the neck. Divide the other parts as in a fowl; but observe, the breast, wings, and merry-thought, are commonly accounted to be the most delicate parts^ but the leg has the finest flavour*

*

Partridge.

The skewers must be taken out before it is sent to table, and it is then to be carved in the same mannet as a fowl. The wings, breast, and merry-thought are the primest parts.

Pigeons

Should be divided right in halves^ either lengthways or across, and half helped to each person.

In respect to carving, written directions must always fail, without constant practice, as, that can alone give the necessary facility.

USEFUL RKCBIPT BOOK.

23

Names of the various Jmits in Animals,

Hind quarter,

1 Sirloin

2 Rmnp

3 Edge-bone

4 Buttock

6 Mouse-buttpck

6 Veiny piece

7 Thick flank

8 Thin flank

9 Leg

10 Fore-rib, tive-ribs

BEEF.

Fore quarter.

1 1 Middle rib, four ribs ^

12 Chuck, three ribs ^ 13^Shoulder, or leg of

mutton piece

14 Brisket

15 Clod

16 Neck, or sticking piece

17 Shin

18 Cheek

VENISON.

1 Haunch

2 Neck

1 . Loin, best end .

2 Loin, chump end

3 FiUet

4 Hind knuckle

5 Fore knuckle

3 Shoulder

4 Breast

VEAL.

6 Neck, best end

7 Neck, scrag end

8 Blade-bone

9 Breast, best end 10 Breast, brisket end

PORK.

1 The spare-rib

2 Hand

3 Belly, or spring

4 Fore Ipin

5 Hind loin

6 Leg

MUTTON.

1 Leg ^

2 Loin, best end

3 Loin, chump end,

4 Neck, best end

5 Neck, scrag end

6 Neck

7 Breast

A chine is two necks A saddle is two loins

U DOMBSTIC COOKERY^ AND

ARTICLES

PROPER

FOR FAMILY DINNERS

IN EVERY MONTH.

^

First Course for January,

Ham and fowls^ or capons. Place the ham at the bottom of the table, and the fowls at the top. A leg of lamb and spinach, garnished with the loin, fried in steaks, with savoys or cabbages, and some good potatoes -, also some carrots sliced, with gravy and plain melted butter, and a hunting pudding.

Or - ^Turkey and chine. A brisket of beef stewed and served up in soup, Scotch collops, a brace of carp stewed, savoys, carrots, potatoes, and mince pies.

Or - A roasted hare, boiled cod*s head, stewed beef, carrots, turnips, and potatoes; bacon and chicken, roasted ribs of beef, bread pudding, and brawn.

Or - Roasted capons, garnished with sausages,* boiled rump o^ beef, a fore quarter of lamb and sallad, calf s head, bacon, greens and potatoes, gravy sauce, mince pies, a brown fricasee of lamb, oysters, and mushrooms.

Second course for January,

A fillet of veal stu£fed and roasted, stewed hare, partridges four in a dish, pig roasted, and applepie.

Or - Wild fowl, a piece of sturgeon; fricasee of lamb-stones, sweet-breads, &c.; marrow-puddinfr, squab pigeons, and asparagus i strong gravy.

*.,

USEFUL RECEIPT BOOK. 25

First course for February.

m

A fore quarter of lamb roasted^ sallad^ and stewed spinach, gravy soup, boiled turkey^ cod's head and oyster sauce, and spring pie.

Or - ^Boiled turbot, Scotch collops, ham, and^ chickens roasted, or a boiled turkey 3 neck, loin, W or breast of veal roasted, shrimp and oyster sauce, savoys, and plain melted butter.

Second course for February.

Roasted partridges and bread sauce, garnished with lemons^ fried soles, fric^iseed rabbits^ tarts, and lobsters.

Or - ^Roasted chickens and asparagus, a dried tongue, a piece of sturgeon, young rabbits roasted, and lobsters.

First course for March.

Soup, a haunch of doe venison, salt fish and ^gs, roasted chickens, neat*s tongue and udder, battidia pie, roasted sirloin of beef, greens, potatoes, and horse-radish.

Ot - Boiled knuckle of veal, stewe4 carp, rump of beef roasted, gravy soup, £ricasee of sweetbreads, and lamb-stones.

Second course for March.

Ducklings, and chickens roasted^ and asparagus, pike barbicued, skirret pie. .¦/;.."¦'¦ ¦

First course for April.

Soles garnished with fried sinelts, roasted chicken, with ham and brocoli, stewed beef, and fricasee of, young rabbits.

Or - Fresh salmon, and smelts, fncaseed chickens, kg of lamb and spinach, neck of veal roasted, ^nd e3st% head dressed like turtle.

J

26 DOMKSTIC COOKKRY, AND

Second course for April,

A green goose roasted, and gravy sauce, chickens and asparagus 3 fore-quarter of lamb roasted^ and roasted lobsters.

m. First course for May*

Fresh salmon boiled^ garnished with fried smelts^ . anchovy sauce, and shrimps, a calf s head dressed in the same manner, as turtle, chicken pie, and a chine of mutton roasted.

Or - Neck of veal boiled, mackarel and gooseberry sauce, roasted fowls, and neat's tongue, and a boiled pudding.

Or - ^Boiled beef, with greens, carrots, and potatoes, stewed tench, a breast of veal made into a ragout, roasted fowls, bacon, and greens, a boiled pudding with fruit.

Second course for May,

Haunch of venison and gravy sauce, and currant jelly 5 a green goose, with gravy sauce, coUared eels, lobsters, and tarts.

Or - ^Roasted leveret, and gravy sauce, turkey poults roasted and bread sauce, young ducks roasted, with gravy sauce 3 asparagus, tarts, and custards.

First course for June,

Ham, chicken, cabbage, cauliflowers, marrow pudding, boiled salmon, garnished with fried smelts, lobster sauce, and scrstped horse-radish, beans and bacon.

Or - Haunch of venison roasted, with gravy sauce and currant jelly 3 stewed soles, garnished with fried smelts. Beans and bacon^ fricasee of rabbits, and a marrow pudding.

Or - ^Mackarel, with green sauce and plain butter 3 boiled leg of lamb and cauliflower; breast of

USEFUL kECKIPT BOOK. 27

veal, stewed with gravy and green pease j young . ducks roasted, and asparagus.

Or - ^Boiled mullets, lamb-stones, and sweetbreads ragoued; venison pasty, roasted pig, and such vegetables as may be in season.

Second course for June,

Green geese, roasted, with gravy sauce, a leveret roasted, with venison sauce ^ collared eels, quails roasted, with grayy sauce 3 tarts, jellies, and syllabubs.

Or - Pheasant poults, with gravy and bread sauce, collared pig, buttered crabs^ peas, and ducks roasted.

First course for July.

Fresh salmon boiled, and garnished with sliced lemon, served up with shrimp, anchovy, and plain butter for sauce 5 ham and chickens, with cauliflowers, pigeon pie, and Scotch collops.

Or - Boiled mackarel, boiled fowls, v/ith pork and greens 3 roasted pigeons and asparagus, venison pasty^ hunting pudding, loin of veal roasted, and asparagus.

Or - Boiled turbot, garnished with fried smelts; a calfs head, dressed after the manner of turtle 5 pigeon pie, and a marrow pudding.

Second course for July Roasted hare, with gravy sauce and currant jelly; turkey poults roasted, with .gravy and bread sauce; roasted pigeons, and asparagus, green peas, potted venison, or collared eel.

Or - Young ducks roasted, a shoulder of venison roasted, with gravy and currant jelly sauce j pheasant poults roasted, with gravy and bread sauce; lobsters garnished with fennel j and potted beef in

28 DOMESTIC COOKERY^ AND

'¦- "- -^

slices, garnishefd with lemon; tarts^ custards^ jellies, &c.

Ftrst course for' August,

Haunch of venfson roasted, venison pasty, turbot, a fricasee of chickens, with beans and bacon.

Or - Roasted, pig, ham, and chickens boiled, or roasted, with vegetables in season; fresh salmon boiled^ with lobster and shrimp sauce., Or- Chine of mutton, pigeon pie, boiled rabbits, smothered in onions j a fricasee of chickens, and a batter ])udding.

Second course for August.

Roasted pheasants, with gravy and bread sauce j boiled pike, hot lobster, potted venison, green peas, tarts, custards, &c.

First course for September.

A Doiled rump of beef, with carrots, cauliflowers, &c. J a goose roasted, with gravy apd apple sauce; boiled rabbits, with onion sauce; scate, vdth anchovy and shrimp sauce, and a lamb pie.

Or - Haunch of venison, vnth proper sauce; pigeon pie; turbot, with shrimp, lobster, and anchovy sauce; knuckle of veal, with bacon and vegetables, and a marrow pudding.

Or - Boiled leg of pork, with pease pudding; calfs head dressed like turtle; chine of mutton, with stewed cucumbers, pigeon pie, and a fricasee of rabbits.

Second course for September.

Roasted ducks, with gravy ancl onion sauce; hot apple pie, roasted partridges, with gravy sauce, garnished with lemon; fried soles, with anchovy and shrimp sauce 3 lobsters, tarts, &c.

UKEFUL RBCEIPT BOOK. ²9

k I,

First course for October.

Fowls roasted or boiled, with ham^ greens, and gravy sauce 3 cod's head boiled^ with oyster, shrimp, and anchovy sauce 5 pigeon pie, Scotch coUops, and hunting pudding.

Or - ^Haunch of doe venison roasted, with gravy and sweet sailce -, stewed carp, garnished with spitcock eels; a buttock of beef boiled, and greens, carrots, &c; Scotch coUops^ and a bread pudding.

Or - ^Roasted turkey, and chine boiled or roairted, with gravy or onion sauce; ribs of beef roasted, boiled fowls, neat's tongue and greens.

Second course for October.

Roasted woodcocks^ with gravy sauce, artichokes, and mfslted butter 5 eels boiled, and anchovy sauce, garnished with sliced lemon; a leg of house lamb with spinach and plain melted butter 5 teals, with gravy and claret sauce; tarts, &c.

Or - Partridges^ or pheasants roasted, with gravy and bread sauce 5 a fore quarter of house lamb, with saUad -, artichoke pk, chine of salmon boiled, with anchovy and shrimp sauce^ marrow pudding, or minced pies.

First course for November,

Boiled fowls, bacon and greens, with melted butter, calfs head dressed like a turtle; a roasted goose, with' rich gravy sauce; ragoued veal, served with mushrooms in brown sauce^ garnished with lemon.

Or - Leg of pork boiled^ pease soup; scate boiled, with shrimp and anchovy sauce, garnished with fried smelts -, a fillet of veal roasted; a boiled henturkey, and oyster sauce.

Or - ^Boiled leg of mutton, mashed turnips, and caper sauce -, ham and roasted fowls, boiled turkey^ stewed bcef^ and vegetables in season.

D 3 .

30 DOMfeSTIO COOKEHY^ AND

Second course for November. ^ *

Fresh salmon boiled, with lobster sauce 5 woodcocks roasted; wild ducks, with gravy and claret sauce; roasted turkey, and a neat's tongue;" tarts, &c.

Or - Partridgfes or pheasants roasted, with gravy and bread sauce; snipes and larks, with gravy sauce; a fore quarter of house-lamb roasted, with saltad; hot apple and mince pies.

First course for December.

Ham, fowls, roasted or boiled, carrots, cabbage, and cauliflower; fresh salmon boiled, garnished with fried smelts, and served with lobster sauce; a sirloin of beef roasted, and a hunting pudding.

Or - ^Boiled buttock of beef, with carrots and savoys; a cod's head boiled, garnished with fried smelts, roasted rabits, and a hare roasted, with rich gravy-sauce and currant jelly; vegetables as in season.

Or - ^Boiled leg of lamb, garnished with the loin fned in steaks, and with spinach; roasted tongues and venison sauce; stewed tench, gravy soup, a chine of pork, and turkey; with greens, gravy sauce^ and mince pies.

Second course for December.

Roasted hare, and rich gravy sauce; capons roasted, garnished with sausages, and served with rich gravy-sauce) wild ducks roasted, bacon, and minced pie.

These Directions are given for every month in the yeaty and contain such articles as are then in season, from which every housekeeper may readily select such as may be thought agreeablcy and suited to the number of friends invited. IMth regard to vegetables, such kinds are to be dressed as may be must agreeable to taste, onty observing to vary them as they succeed each other in season.

•^

VSF,]fiKL RECSIPT BOOK. 31

INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE CHOICE OF

PROHJ^IONS.

How to choose beef. .

Tlie finest ox beef may be known from having an open grain^ an agreeable carnation colour, and white suet; and, if young, it will be tender, and of an oily smoothness. Cow-beef is not so open in its grain, nor is the red of so pleasant a colour, but the fat is much whiter. You may know whether or not it is young, by^ making an impression on the lean with your finger, which mark, if young, will soon disappear. ' '

Bull-beef should never be purchased, being clammy, rank, and more closely grained, than other beef. The colour is a dusky red, and the flesh tough ill pinching. The fat is rank, skinny, and "hard.

Mutton and lamb.

Pisch the flesh with your fingers ^ if it regains its former state in a short time, the mutton is young, but otherwise it is old, and the fat will be clammy and fibrous. If it be ram mutton, the grain will be close, the lean tough, and of a deep red colour. It will not rise when pinched, and the fat vnil be spungy. Carefully observe the vein in the neck of . mutton or lamb. If it looks ruddy or blueish, the -M meat is fresh j but if yellowish, is decaying, and if . V green, completely tainted. The hind-quarter may be judged of from the kidney and knuckle. If you ^d a faint smeU jmder .the kidney, or the knuckle

/•

32 DOMESTIC COOKEirir^ AND

is unusually limp, the meat is stale. That mutton and lamb will always prove the best, the legs and shoulders of which are short shanked.

Veal

Veal, when stale, generally becomes clammy and flabby. The flesh of the cow calf is not of so bright a red, nor so firmly grained as that of the bull calf, neither is the fat so much curdled. The shoulder may be known by the vein in it, wliich, if it be not of a bright red, is surely stale; and if any green spots appear about it, totally unfit for use. IShould the neck or breast appear yellowish at the upper end, or the sweetbread clammy, it is not good.

The loin may be known by smelling imder the kidney, which always taints first; and the leg, by the joint, which, if it be limp, and the flesh clammy, with green or yellow spots, is unfit for use.

The head, if new and sweet, must have the eyes plump and lively, but if they are sunk or wrinkled, it is not good. This rule applies also to the head of a sheep or lamb.

Pork.

When you purchase a leg, a hand, or a spring, take especial care that the flesh is cool and smooth -, for, if otherwise, it is certainly stale 3 but particularly put your finger under the bone that comes out, and if the flesh be tainted, you will immediately discover it by smelling to your finger.

Whea you purchase a sucking-pig, remember diat

'-¦ the barrow, or sow, is better than the boar 5 the

- flesh of which 4s neither so sweet nor so tender.

Smell carefully at the belly, and examine about the

tail, and if it has no disfagreeable smell, nor any

yellow and green spots in those parts^ the pig is^as

USEFUL RECEIPT ROOK. 33

good as you could desire j but you will in'^gbnerai tind that the short thick necks are the best.

Bacon and ham.

In marketing for bacon^ observe whether the fat feels oily, appears white, and does not crumble, and that the flesh bears a good colour, and adheres closely to the bone, in which case only the bacon is good. With respect to hams, you should select one with a short shank, and try it with d sharp-pointed knife, which thrust into the flesh as niear the pope's eye as possible. If it comes out only a little smeared, and smells well, you may be assured that the ham is good - but, if otherwise, it is good for nothing.

The turkey.

The legs of a cock-turkey should be black and smooth, its spurs short, the feet limber, and the eyes lively 5 but if the eyes are sunk, and the feet dry, the bird is stale. The hen is chosen in the same manner, only observe, that if she is with tgg, the vent will be soft and open, but if not, close and hard.

Pigeons,

Wlien they grow red legged, are old, and are stale when their vents are flabby and green. If fresh, they will be limber-footed, and feel fat in the vent.

By this rule you may judge of all kinds of doves, fieldfares, thrushes, blackbirds, plovers^ larks, &c.



The pheasant,

A young cock pheasant has dubbed spurs; but if old, the spurs will be sharp and small. If the rent be fast, the bird is fresh; but if it be open

34 liOMBSTIC COOKERY^ AND

and fli^bby, stale. If a hen^ and youngs the legs will be smooth^ and her flesh of a fine grainy but^ if old, her legs will be rough, and as it were hairy, when pulled.

Pheasant and heath poults are fresh when their feet are limber, and their vents are white and stiff - but are stale when they are dry-footed, have green vents, and will peel, if touched hard.

The bustard.

This dainty bird is chosen in the same manner as the turkey.

The heathcock and hen.

When, young, have smo fth legs and bills,, which become tough when old. You may judge of their freshness in the same manner as. you do with the pheasant.

The wheat^ear.

This delicate bird is fresh, if it has a limber foot and fat rump 3 otherwise it is stale.

The woodcock,

If stale, will be dry-footed -, and if bad, its nose will be snotty, 'and the throat moorish and muddy -, but if Tiew and fat, it will be limber-footed, thick, and hard.

A capon

Is known by a short and pale comb, a thick rump and belly, and a fat vein on the side of the breast: when young, the spurs will be short and blunt, and the legs smooth; and if fresh, the vent will be close and hard j but if stale, loose; which last remark may be applied to cocks and hens.

USEFUL BECEIPT BOOS. 35

A cock.

When youngs has short and dubbed spurs -, and if fresh^ his vent will be hard and close. But you should be particidar in observing the spurs^ as the market people frequently scrape them, to give them the appearance of young cocks.

A hen

Is old, if her legs and comb be rough, but young, if they are smooth. You may also judge of her freshness by the vent, in the same manner as the cock.

Geese. ',

The feet and bill of a ^ung one will be ydlow, and it will have but few hairs on the feet. When old, the feet will . be red and hairy. If fresh, the feet will be supple; but if stale, dry and stiff.

Ducks.

A tame or wild duck, when fat and young, is thick and hard on the belly, and is old when lean and thin. When fresh^ the foot is pliable, but dry, if stale. You should remember that the foot of a wild duck is reddish, and less than that of a tame duck.

A partridge.

Commonly taints first in the crop, therefore you should open its bill and smelly next examine the bill, legs, and vent; if the bill be white, a^d the legs have a blueish cast, the bird is old i but if the bill is black, and the legs yellow, it is young. If the vent be fast, it is new ^ but stale, if open and green.

36 DOMESTIC COOKERY^ AND

4 snipe

Is chosen in the same manner as the "woodcock; biit the snipe, when fresh, is fet in the side under the wing, and feels thick in the vent.

Teal and widgeon

Are supple-footed when fresh; but are dry-footei when stale. If fat, they are thick and hard on the belly, and lean, if thin and soft.

A hare and leveret

Are thus chosen: if the claws of a hare are blunt and rugged, the division in the lip spread much, aud the ears appear dry and tough, it is eld; but if the claws are sharp and smooth, the division in the Up not greatly spread, and the ears will easily tear, it is young. If fresh killed, the flesh of both will be white and stiff 5 but if stale, supple and blackish in many places. To discover a true leveret, feel near the foot on its fore leg, and if you find there a knob$ or small bone, it is a real leveret, but if destitute of this^ it must be a hare.

A rabbit

Has long rough claws, and grey hairs intermixea with its wool, if it be old 5 but when young, the wool and claws are smooth. If stale, it is supple, and the flesh blueish, with a kind of slime upon it; but if fresh, it will be stiffs and the flesh white and dry.

USEFUL RECKIPT BOOK. 37

\

FISH.

Fish should be always tried by the gills ', for when they are not sweety the fish is not eatable. - Salmon, carp, tench, barbie, pike, trout, whiting, &c. when the eyes are sunk, the fins hanging, and the gills grown pale, are not good.

Turbot.

Choose a turbot by its thickness and colour. To be good, it should be plump, and the belly of a fine cream colour. If of a blueish cast, or thin, they are bad.

Cod.

This fish is best when thick towards the head, and the flesh cuts white. The gills should be very red, and the eyes fresh f when flabby, they are not good.

The sturgeon,

When good, must have a fine blue in its veins and gristle -, the flesh must be perfectly white, and naust cut without crumbling.

I *

i A sole,

A sole should be chosen in the same manner as a ^rbot. They are in season nearly the whole year, W are best about Midsummer.

Plaice and flounders.

To be good, should be stifi^, and have a full eye; ^nd the plaice is best when the belly has a blueisli cast

51

38 DOIIBSTIC GOOKEBY^ AND

aga

Herrings and mackarel

Ajsc unfit for Ihe table when faded^ wrinkled, or pliable in the tail. Their gills should be of a fine red, and their eyes bright, and the whole fish should be sti^ and firm.

A lobster

Should be chosen by its weight, the stiffiaeas^of its tail, and the firmness of, the sides. Ifyoudi^sire a cock-lobster, select that which has a narrow back part of the tail, with the two uppermost fins within, the tail hard and stiff like a bone. The back of the hen being invariably broader, and her fins soft. Always carefully smell at a lobster, which, if stale, may be easily known by its muggy smelL Crabs, prawns, and shrimps, may be chosen in the same manner; but if kept more than one day, they will become bad.

Scate.

The best scate are white and thick; they should be kept one day before you dress them, otherwise, they will eat tough.

Oysters,

There are various species of oysters, but the Colt Chester, Pyfleet, and ChUford, are infinitely superior to all others, being white and flat, yet the others may be made to possess these qualities i^ some degree, by proper feeding. When alive and stroiie« ^e shdl doises on the knife, and they shouldbe eaten immediately they are opexied, or the flavour ^vlnbclost.

\

USEFUL BKCSIPT BOOK. 39

VENISON.

To choose good venison^ you must observe its fatness^ and the deft of the hooft. If the HU appears to be dear, bright, and thick, and the dens dose and smooth, it is young and delicate 5 but otherwise, it is old.

THE SEASONS OF THE YEAR FOR

BUTCHER'S MEAT.

Beef-^ls never out of season all the year round, though for salting and hanging, it is best from Midiadmas to Lady-day.

Mutton - Is in season from the middle of August till May; grass lamb comes in with May, and continues till September; house lamb is in high season at Christmas, but is very good from October to May.

Pork - Comes in season at Michaelmas, and continues so till Aprils but hams and bacon are never out of season, when carefully cured.

Vaal - ^Prom its speedy decay in hot or close weather, is generally allowed to be best frT m Christmas to June.

Bacon - Commences its season at the early part of November, and remains till Candlemas.

Venison - If buck, commences in May, and continues till November; and if doe, frx)m Michaelmas to Candlemas.

I

40 D0MB8T1C COOKERY, AND

FOR POULTRY AND GAME

In January - ^I'urkeys^ both cock and hen^ fowls, pullets with egg^ capons^ chickens^ every sort of wild fowl^ tame pigeons^ taihe rabbits^ and bares, are in season.

In February - ^Turkeys, cajpons, pullets with egg, chickens^ tame and wild pigeons, green geese, ducklings, turkey poults, tame rabbits, hares, and every description of wild fowl, are in season.

In March - ^The poultry, as in the preceding month, remain in season, with the exception of tht wild fowl, which now go quite out.

In April - ^Turkey poults, green ffeese, ducklings^ pullets, spring fowls, chickens, pigeons, leverets, and young wild rabbits, are in season. ^

In May - ^Fowls^ chickens, pullets, turkey poults, green geese, ducklings, rabbits, and leverets.

In Jt^ne- Green geese, pullets, chickens, fowls, turkey poults, ducklings, plovers, white-ears, rabbits, and leverets. -'f

In July - ^Fowls, chickens, pullets, green geese, pigeons, ducks, ducklings, twkey poults, leverets, plovers, wheat-ears, and rsibbits.

In August - Green-geese, turkey-poults, pullets, chickens, fowls, pigeons, leverets, rabbits, plovers; ¦ducklings, wild-ducks, and wheat-ears

In September- ^oYr\a, pullets, chickens, ducks, geese, turkeys, pigeons, larks, teal pairtridges, rabbits, and hares.

In October - ^Fowls, pullets, chickens, pigeons, turkeys, geese, woodcocks, snipes, teals, widgeons, wild-ducks, larks, dotterels, partridges, pheasants, hares, and rabbits.

In November - ^Pigeons, chickens, pullets, fowls.

USEFUL RECEIPT BOOK. 41

geese^ turkeys^ larks^ woodcocks^ snipes^ widgeons, teals^ wild-ducks^ dotterels, partridges, pheasants, ^^ rabbits, and hares. 9k

In Decein6er-*Capons, fowls, pullets, pigeons, turkeys, geese^ snipes, larks, woodcoclLS, rabbits, hares, dotterels, chickens, wild-ducks, widgeons, teals, pheasants, and partridges^

FISH.

F^om Christmas to Lady-day. - ^Fresh salmon, tench, soles^ carp» cod, p]aice, flounders^ mullets, whitings, eels, chub, salt fish, stock-fish, red herrings, smelts, gudgeons, perch, oysters, prawns, Jpbsters, criabs, craw-fish, thomback, skate, turbot, scollc^s, muscles, cockles, sprats, and cod-sounds, are in season.

JF^om Lady-day to Afi(f«tfi?imer*-])iackarel^ tench, carp, 'turbot, hoUibut, pj^led salmon, flounders^ soles, salmon, trout, dab, tierrings, shad, cratv-fish, lobsters, prawns, barbel, thdrnback, roach, bream, and dace, are in season.

From Midsummer to Micktiehnas - ^Tutbot, mackarel, fresh salmon, pickled saUnon, carp, barliel, TpSke, lobsters, trout, prawns, crabs, scate, thornhsdc, eels, soles, dace, and sturgeon, are in season.

R'Ofn Michaelmas to^Christmas - ^Thomback^ scate fimelts lobsters, soles, cod, eels, tench, carp^ haddock, ftesh salmon, pike, sturgeon^ whiting, hollibut, oysters, cockles, muscles, ling, mullet, flounders, and sprats, are in season.

% 3

. 43 DOMESTIC COOKERY^ AND



VEGETABLES AND FRUIT.

January --Colewort, savoys, cabbage-sprouts^ leeks^ onions, brocoli, sorrel, beet, chervil, celery, garlic, spinach, endive, potatoes, turnips, parsnips, shallots, cresses, lettuces, rape, mustard; all description of herbs,' dry and green. - ^By means of forcing, mushrooms, cucumbers, and asparagus, may be procured, though not in season.

Fruit. - Pears, nuts, walnuts, apples, medlars, and grapes.

February and March - ^The same as above, with the addition of kidney-beans to the vegetables, and forced strawberries to the fruit.

Fruit. - ^Apples, pears, forced strawberries, and grapes.

April - Sprouts, brocoli, coleworts, parsley, fioi- ^ Ael chervil, tarragon, radishes, spinach, bumetjft celery, endive, sorrel, lettuces, thyme, young onions, and idl sorts of sallad and pot-herbs. . Fruit.- Pears, apples, forced cherries, and apricots for tarts.

May - Cauliflowers, artichokes, early cabbages, spinach, turnips, carrots, radishes, early potatoes, thyme, parsley, sorrel, lettuces, mustard, cresses, fennel, bedm, mint, purslane, tarragon, cucumbers, asparagus, beans, peas, kidney-beans, and all sorts of small sallads and savoury herbs.

Fruit. - ^Apples, pears, melons, strawberries, green i^ncots, gooseberries, cherries, and cuorants for tarts.

June - Beans, peas, onions, parsnips, potatoes, radishes, cauliflowers, turnips, spinach, parsley, purslane, lettuces, cucumbers, artichokes, asparagus, kidney-beans, thyme, rape, cresses, and all sorts of small sallads, and pot-herbs.

USEFUL BSCBIPT BOOK. 43

Fruits in Junb. - ^MdonSj cherries^ strawberries^ currants^ and gooseberries for tarts; and green apricots. ^^

July - ^Mushrooms^ cauliflowers^ salsiiy; scorzo*^p nera, garlick, rocombole, potatoes, onions^ radishes, cresses, carrots, turnips, lettuce, purslane, sorrel, endive, chervil, finoehia, celery, artichokes, cabbages, sprouts, beans, kidney-beans, peas, mint, balm, thyme, and all sorts of small saJlads and potherbs

Fruit in July. - Gooseberries, strawberries, apples, plums, cherries, raspberries, apricots, damsons, currants, and melons.

August^^Turmps, radishes, potatoes, carrots, peas, salsify, scorzonera, shalots, garlick,. onions, beets, celery, endive^ sprouts, cauliflowers, cabbages, beans, mushrooms, artichokes, kidney-beans, lettuce, finochia, parsley, maijoram, savory, thyme, and all sorts of small sallads and soup-herbs.

^^^emfrer-- Peas, beans, salzify, scorzonera, leeks, garlick, onions, shalots, potatoes, carrots, turnips, celery, pa)*sley, endive, cardoons, cauliflowers, artichokes, sprouts, cabbages, mushrooms, kidneybeans, finochia, chervil, sorrel, beets, lettuces, and all sorts of small sallads and soup-heibs. .

Fbuit in August and Septbmbbb. - ^Figs, plums, peaches, mulberries, filberts, cherries, apples, pears, nectarines, melons, pines, strawberries, quinces, medlars^ morello cherries, and damsons.

October - Skirrets, salsify, potatoes, parsnips^ turnips, carrots, artichokes, caiQiflowers, sprouts, cabbag^, finochia, chervil, cardoons, celery, endive, rooombole, garlick, shalots, leeks, scorzonera, chardbeets, thyme, savory, lettuce, and all sorts of young sallads and pot-herbs.

Fruit in October - ^Peaches, figs, pears, apples.

44 D0HB8TIC COOXBBY, AND

bnHace^ grapes^ damsons^ medlars^ DUts^ quinces^ walnuts^ filberts, services, &e.

November - Potatoes, parsnips, carrots^ turnips,

orzonera, skirrets, shalots, leeks, onions, cabbage, savoys, spinach, coleworts, sprouts, chard-beets, cresses, endive, cardoons, celery, lettuces, sallad^ pot and other herbs.

Fbuit in November. - Nuts, walnuts, apples, pears, bullace, services, medlars, grapes, and chestnuts.

December - ^Parsnips, carrots, turnips, purple and white brocoli savoys, cabbages, shalots, onions, leeks, salsify, scorzonera, skirrets, potatoes, parsley, spinach, beets, endive, celery, rocombole, garlic, forced aq)aragu8, cardoons, cresses, lettuces, thyme, and all sorts of small sallads and pot-herbs.

Fbuit. - ^As the last month, with the exception of the buUace.

Oranges are in season so long as they can be obtained good.

NoTE.-^The various fruits, as they become ripe, should be carefully preserved for winter use; for which process, proper directions will be found in this yolume, by turning to the Indbx, and by means of which a constant supply may Jbe kept up throuj^out' the whole year.

USEFUL RECSIPT BOOK. 45

DOMESTIC COOKERY.

FISH.

General remarks on dressing Fuh.

If you do not order your fishmonger to dean the fish which you purchase^ it is rarely well done. Because^ if not sufficiently washed^ it must be necessarily filthy ', and^ if washed too much^ the flavour is greatly diminished.

When it is perfectly dean^ if you intend to boil it^ some salt^ and a small quantity of vinegar should be put into the water to give it firmness; but whitings haddock^ and cod, are much better, if a little salted^ and kept one day 5 though when the weather is not very warm, they may be k^t two days. - Peisons accustomed to purchase fish, may procure it at a cheap rate, by taking more than they immediately want for. one day, in which case sudi as will neither pot nor pickle, nor keep by being sprinkled with salt and hung up, will make an exceeding fine stew on the following day.

Such fish as are taken out of fresh water, have generally a muddy smell and taste, which may be removed by soaking them in strong salt and water, after they are nicely cleaned; or, if they are sufficiently large to bear it, scald them in the same, after which, dry and dress them.

.*f

46 D0ME9TIC COOKERY^ AND

You must be careful to place the fish in the wft' 1^ ter while cold and to let it do gently^ otherwise the outside will be broken before the inner part \$ half done -, but aU kinds of shell-fish must be pat into boiling water, otherwise they will be flabby and watery.

The attention of the cook in dressing fish is particularly necessary, in either boiling, broiling, or frying, especially the former; for if not taken up the moment it is sufficiently done, it will be breaking lo pieces, and very soon spoiled 3 and if the least underdone, it will be completely uneatable; therefore, you should make yourself thoroughly ac* quuinted with the time your fish-kettle will boil, at a proper distance over a good fire, and then you vdll soon be cook enough to dress fish to a given time, by putting it on the Are as many minutes before it is wanted as it will take to cook it in } but as a minute too soon or to9 late will i^il it, an4 no directions can be give^ 'to such a nicety of time as is necessary for this pui))ose, you mlist therefore be careful frequently to try fliem, by raising the fish a little in the kettle, and takfi out one of the finb, which, if the fish is .enough, will come out with a

fentle pull, and the ^yes Mrill also turn white. All inds ought to be served ut) quickly.

When small fish are neatly fried, covered with crumbs and egg, they make a far more elegant dish than if served plain. Considerable attention should also be paid to the proper garnishing of fish; for which purpose lemon, parsley, and horse-radish, may be made use of.

The liver and roe should be placed carefully on the dish, in such a manner 'that the mistress may see them, and consequently send a portion to every person in company.

Always fry fish in clean dripping, as butter gives

VBEFUL RECEIPT BOOK. . 47

a bad colour to fried fish but oil alone is best for this purpose^ by such as can afford the expence.

\\lien you design to broil fish^ it must be seatoned^ floured^ and placed on a very dean gridiron, the bars of which^ when hot^ should be rubbed witb a piece of suet^ to prevent the fish from sticking. Great attention should be paid to broil it on a clear fire, and to keep it at such a distance as to prevent scorching.

If the fish is to be fried, it must be placed in a soft doth, after it has been properly deaned and washed. When it is completely my, wet it with an egg, and sprinkle some very fine crumbs of brciad over it ', which process, if repeated a secoud'J^fiiipj will cause the fish to look much better 5 then, fumng a thick bottomed frying-pan upon the fire, coui^ibr ing a large quantity of dripping boiling hot, pltiiBi^ the fish into it, and let it fry, neither too quick ndn^ too slow, till it acquires a fine brown colour, and' id supposed ready.

Garnish with a fiinge of curled parsley, raw - or with pa^'sley fried, which must be thus executed: - ^when. washed, throw it again into clean water ^ when the dripping boils, throw the parsley immediately into it from the water, and it will instantly become g^reen and crisp, and must be taken out with a slice.

' To boil salmon.

Let it be carefully deaned; put it into lukewarm water, and boil it gently. Salmon, if underdone, is extremdy unwholesome. A thick piece will require to boil half an hour, and a small piece about twenty minutes. Garnish with horse-radish, and serve it up wiUi shrimp, lobster, or anchovy sauce*

r

48 DOMESTIC COORKRYj AND

Fo pickle salmon

Boil it as before directed^ and having taken the fish out^ boil as much of the liquor as will cover it, with bay leaves^ salt, and pepper-corns 5 to which add a sufficiency of vinegar -, pour the whole, when cold, over the fish.

To ffroU salmon.

Cut slices moderately thick, and having seascmed them, place each slice in half a sheet of white paper, well buttered, observing to twist the ends of it ', then broil them over a slow fire for about eight minutes. Serve them up in the paper, with anchovy or shrimp sauce.

To pot salmon.

Take one or more pieces of salmon, which must be carefully scaled and wiped, but not washed; salt it well, and suffer it to remain till the salt is melted and drained away from it; then season with cloves, whole pepper, and beaten mace -, lay in a small number of bay leaves, place it in a pan, cover the whole with butter, and bake it ^ if a large fish, do it three hours; if a small one, two hours. When done, drain it well from the gravy, put it into the pots to keep, press it close down, and when cold, cover it with clarified butter. This manner of dressing fish may be successfully used with any fin fish.

Salmon collared, ^

Split enough of the fish to form a handsome roll, wash, and wipe it 3 then, having previously mixed a sufficient quantity of white pepper, pounded mace, salt, and Jamaica pepper, to season it highly, rub it inside and out well -, after which^ roll it tight^

USEFUL RECEIPT BOOK. 49

Uid bandage it; put as much water and one third ^egar as will cover it^ with salt^ bay leaves^ and both sorts of pepper -, then cover it dose^ and simmer it till done enough. Drain and boil quick the liquor^ which put on when cold 3 serve with fennel. This forms an elegant dish^ and may be esteemed as a peculiar delicacy.

To boil turbot,

Turbot should lie about two hours in pump water, with salt and vinegar. During this time^ water should be prepared to boil it in^ of which there should be a sufficient quantity to cover the fish well, impregnated with a stick of horse-radish sliced, a handful of salt, and a bunch of sweet herbs. When this water has acquired a sufficient taste of the seasoning, take it o£f the fire, and let it cool, before you put in the turbot^ which would otherwise crack. A middle-sized turix t will require to be boiled twenty mint tes: when enough^ drain it. Serve it gami^ed with a fringe of curled parsley, and the sauce must be lobster, or anchovy.

To fry turbots or brill.

Take a well-cleaned brill or small turbot, cut it across as if it was ribbed, and flour it -, and put it in a large frying-pan, with boiling lard enough to cover it. Fry it till it is brown, and then drain it. Clean the pan^ put into it half a pint of white wine and half a pint of white gravy, one anchovy, salt, nutmeg, and a little ginger. Put in the fish, and let it stew till half the Uquor is wasted; then take it out, and put in a piece of butter rolled in flour, and a squeeze of lemon; let them simmer till of a proper thickness. Lay the turbot in the dish, and pour the saiice over it.

4

50 DOMESTIC COOKERY^ AND

I 111 " ¦ ¦ ¦!- ii

Cod*8 head and shoulders.

Rub the back-bone with a little salt^ which w3L . cause it to eat much finer; then lie it up^ and pot' it on the fire^ cosipletely covered with cold wat^Kj into which tilirow a handful of salt^ and let it boil, gently tiU enough., Particular care must be tajodii^ to serve it without a speck of black or scum. Garnish with lemon^ horse-radish^ and the milf^ roe^ and liver. Serve it with oyster or shrimp sauce.

A cod, when dressed whole, is boiled and served up in the same manner.

Crimp cod Blay be either boiled, broiled, or fried.

Cod^s sounds hoiUd,

Soak them for about half an hour in warm water, then scrape and dean them; and if you wish them to look white^ boil them in milk and water tiU tear der. Serve them with egg sauce, in a napkiiiL

Cod*8 sounds broiled.

Lay them in warm water a fe:pr minutes, rub them with salt, then scraps off the ^kin and dirt, aad put them into water, i^id boil them. Take theia out, and flour them well, p&p^, salt, and broil, them. Wh«n enough, lay them in.a di^ and pp^. melted butter and mustani into it^ or a little brv^vn gravy, to which add a little mustard, and aJ^t;o£ butter rolled in flour; give it atKiil* se^LSoa n^itt^ pepper, aud salt, and pour it over it^ sounds.

How to boU scatCf

Care must be taken in cleaning .this fish; and as it is generally too large to be boiled in a pai^ai oac^,

tTfiBrUL nZCEIPT BOOK. 51

it should be cut into long slips^ crossways^ about ap il^ broad^ and thrown into salt and watery when, if the. water boils quick, it will be done in three minutes. Drain it well 5 garnish with horseradish or lemon^ and serve it up with butter snd mustard in a sauce tureen^ and anchovy sauce in another.

To boil salt eod.

Soak and clean it well^ then lay it all night in Water witii a little vinegar. Boil it sufficiently^ then beat it into flakes on the dish; pour over it parsnips boiled^ pounded in a mortar, and then boil it up vnth cream, and a large piece of butter rubbed with flour. It may be served with eeg sauce, or the fish may be boiled, and sent up wimtat flaking, and with the parsnips whole.

To boil sturgeon.

Irving cleaned a sturgeon well, boil it in as mucA liquor a& will just cover it 5 add two or three bits of lemon-peel, some whole pepper, a stick of horse-radish, and a pmt of vinegar to every half gallon of water.

When done, garnish the dish -with fried oysters, sliced lemon, and horse radish, and serve it up with melted butter, with cavear dissolved in it; or with anchovy sauce; and with the body of a crab in the butter, and a little lemon juice.

To roast sturgeon.

Place it on a lark spit which fEisten on a large spit, baste it continually with butter, and serve With a good gravy, some lemon juice, and a glass dr sherry.

58 DOMESTIC COOKEBT^ AND

Maids

Should^ to eat well, be hung one day^ and then lied in the same manner as other fish.

Slewed carp.

Take half grfivy and half claret, as much as wiU cover your carp in the pan, with mace, whole pepper, a few cloves, two anchovies, a shalot or (mica, a small portion of horse radish, and a little salt; • cover your pan dose, that the steam may not escape j and stew them very slowly for at least one hour. When the carp is done, take it out, and boil the liquor as fast as possible, till it be just enough to mcd^e sauce, flour a bit of butter, and throw into it: squeeze the juice of one lemon, and pour it over the carp -, serve with sippets of fried bread, the roe fried, and a good deal of horse-radish and lemon.

Boiled cttrp.

Serve in a napkin, with the same sauce as stowed carp. This is the best method of dressing carp.

To fry carp.

After they are well scaled and cleaned, lay them on a cloth to dry, and then fry them in the same manner as other fish 3 fry some toast, cut threecornered ways, and the roes. When done, lay them on a coarse doth to drain: lay your carp in the dish, your roes on each side, and garnish with the fried toast and lemon. - Serve them with butter and anchovy, and lemon-juice.

To bake carp.

Clean a brace of carp well, then take an earthen pan, butter it a little^ and lay your carp in, season

irSBFUL R£CBIPT BOOC. 53

them with ^dores^ nutmegs inace^ black and white pepp^r^ a bundle of sweet herbs^ an onion, an anchovy, and pour in a bottle of white wine^ bake them an hour in a hot oven. When done, take them carefully up, and lay them in a dish: set it over hot water to keep them warm, and cover them dose. Then pour the liquor in which they were baked into a saucepan, boil it a few minutes, then rtrain it, and add half a pound of butter rolled in £biir: let it boil, and keep it stirring. Squeeze in the jmee of half a lemon, and ptit in what salt you require 3 pour the sauce over the fish, lay the roes round, and garnish with lemon 3 but be careful to skim all the &t off the liquor.

To pot carp.

Cut off the head and tail, take out the bones, and, deanse it well, and then do it exactly the same as salmon.

Ferch and tench.

Place them in cold water, boil them gently, and serve them with mdted butter and soy. Garnish with lemon and horse-radish. They may be fried or stewed, the same as carp^ but are not then so fine flavoured.

To fry trout.

Wash, gut, and scale them, then dry them, and lay them on a board, dustiihg th^m at the same tim^ with some Hour. Fry them findy brown with fresh dripping: serve with crimp pidrsiey and mdted butter.. Tench and Perch may be diessed in the same manner.

To boU trout, Bdl them in vinegar, w»t^ and salt^ with a

F 3

54 DbMESTIC COOKCRV^ AND

piece of horse-radish. White sauce^ anchovy Baute, and plain butter.

To slew trout.

Select a large trout^ clean it well^ and place it in a pan with gravy and white wine 3 then take two eggs buttered^ some nutmeg, salt, and pepper, lemon-peel, a little thyme, and^some grated bread, mix them together, and put in the belly of the trout, then suffer it to stew a quarter of an hour; then put in a piece of butter in the sauce 5 serve it hot, and garnish with lemon sliced. ^

To pot trout, perch, or tench.

Scale and clean the fish, cut off the head, tail, and fins, take out the bones, season the same, and bake and pot it as directed for salmon.

MackareU

When boiled, serve them with butter and fennel. To broil them, split and sprinkle with p^per and salt, or stuff them with pepper, salt, herbs, and. chopped fennel.

Collar then) the same as eels.

To pot them, clean, season, and bake them in aa pan with bay leaves, spice, and some butter: whfiii ^ cold, place them in a potting-pot, and cover them . with clarified butter. - ^To pickle them, boil them j then boil some of the liquor, a few pepper- coms, vinegar, and bay leaves 5 and when perfectly cold, pour it over them

Red mullet,

9 Clean them, but leave the inside, enclose them in oUed paper, and having placed them in a small dish, bake them gently; an excellent sauce may be mad9

USEFUL RECKIPT BOOK. 55

of the liquor that comes from the fish^ by addmg a little essence of anchovy^ a glass of sherry^ and a piece of butter rolled in flour -, give it a boil^ and serve it in a butter tureen. The fish must be served in the paper cases.

N. B. Mullets are boiled and broiled the same as salmon.

To bake pike.

Clean and scale them well open as near the throat as copvenient^ and use the following stuflKng: grated breads anchovies, herbs^ salt, suet, oysters^ mace, pepper^ four yolks of eggs, and, if it can be procmred, half a pint of cream; mix it over the fire till it is sufficiently thick, then put it into the fish, and sew it carefully up 3 then put some small bits of butter over the fish, and bake it 3 serve it up with gravy^ butter^ and anchovy.

To boil or fry soles.

Soles, when boiled, should be carefully attended to, that they may look white 3 to do which, they should lay two hours in vinegar, salt, and water, and afterwards be dried in a doth, an4 then put into the fish-kettle with an onion, some whole pepper, and a little salt -, serve with anchovy, shrimp, or .muscle sauce.

If fried, do them in the same manner, as other fish, with egg, crumbs, and lard, till they are of a fine brown.

To stew soles, flounders, plaice.

These three different species of fish must be stewed in one and the same manner. Half fry them in butter till of a fine brown; then take them up, put to your butter a quart of water, three

56 DOMESTIC COOKEiY AND

anchovies^ and an onion sliced. Put your fish in again^ and stew it gently half an hour. Take out 'the fish^ squeeze in a lemon^ and thicken the sauce with butter and flour } having given it a boil^ strain it through a sieve over the fish^ and serve up with oyster^ or shrimp sauce.

To boU haddocks.

Scale, gut^ and wash them well^ but do not rip their bellies open, but extract fbt guts with the gills ', then dry the fish in a clean cloth: should there be any roe or liver, put it in again, fkfdr them well, and have a good clear fire 3 then lay them cm your gridiron, and turn them quick two 01^ » three times to prevent their sticking -, when enough, serve them with plain butter.

Stuffing for pike, haddock, and small cod.

Take an equal quantity of fat bacon, beef suet, and fresh butter, some savoury, thymes and parsley, a few leaves of sweet . marjoram, two anchovies, with some salt, pepper, and nutmegs to this add crumbs, and an egg to bind; Oysters added to the above will be a considerable improvement.

To dress a large plaice.

Keep it a day sprinkled with salt, after whidi wash and wipe it dry, wet it over with egg, and cover with. crumbs of bread. When your laitl.^ to which must be added two table spoonsful of vmegar, is boiling hot, lay the fish in it, and fry it of a fine colour 5 when enough, drain it from the fat, and tserve willi fried parsley and anchovy sauee.

Smehs Should be fried in ^e same manner as other flsh^

USRFVL RECEIPT BOOK. 57

with eggB, crumbs, and Ix^iling lard, being particularly attentive to do them of a fine colour, on which -much of their beauty depends.

To spitchcock eels.

Take two large eels, and cut them into pieces, each three inches long, with the skin on, open them . and dean them well, dry them in a doth, then wet them with egg, and stew them with cut parsley, salt, pepper, and a bit of mace findy beaten. Then having rubbed your gridiron with a bit of suet, do the fish of a fine colour. Serve with anchovy and butter. They mayj^e dressed dther whole or cut, and with the skins off or on: if dressed whole, make them into forms agreeable to fency with a skewnr.

Fried eels

Should always be dipped into egg and crumbs of bread, which materially improve their appearance at table.

Boiled eels,

Sdect the small eels for boiling, and place them in a small quantity of water -, and when enough, serve with chopped parsley and butter.

Collared eels.

Slit open the eel, take out the bones^ cut off the head and tail, and lay it flat on the dresser. Shred some sage fine, and mix it with black pepper, grated nutmeg, and salt. Lay Jt all over ^e ed, and roll it up hard in little cloths, tying it up tight at each end. Then set on some water, with pepper, salt, five or six cloves, three or four blades of mace, and a bay-leaf or two. Boil these, with the boiies head^ and tail 3 then take out the bones^

58 DOUBSTIC COOKXRT^ AVD

head^ and tail, and put in the eels. Let them boil till tender^ then take them out of the liquor^ and boil the liquor longer. Take it o£P^ and when cold, put it to the eels; cover it close, but do not take off the little cloths^ till the eels are used..

To roast lobsters.

Having boiled your lobsters, lay them before the fire, and baste them well with butter, till they have a fine froth; serve them with plain melted butter.

To butter shrimps.

Take a quart of shrimps, stew them in half a piot of white wine, a good piece of batter, and a grated nutm^. When the butter is melted, and the shrimps are hot through, beat the yolks of fbor eggs with a little white wine, and pour it in; then dish it on sippets, and garnish with sliced lemon.

To make anchovy sauce.

For this purpose, take a pint of gravy, put in an anchovy, roll a quarter of a pound of butter in a little flour, which add to it, and stir the whole together till it boils. To this, if you wish it, may be added lemon-juioe, red wine, and ketchup.

To fry oysters.

Make a batter, then having washed your oyeiters, and wiped them dry, dip them into the batter, and roll them in some crumbs of bread, and mace finely beaten, fry them as other fish. .

To stew oysters.

Drain off the liquor of the oysters, and wash tAem in water^ then mix the liquor drained from

USEFUL RECEIPT BOOK. 59

tliem with an equal quantity of water and white wine^, a small portion of whole pepper^ and a blade oF mace. Place this mixture over the lire, and boil it well; then lay in the oysters, and let them just boil up, and thicken the whole with butter

rolled in flour. Serve them with sippets and the

Uquor, and garnish. with sliced lemon.

N.B. Some persons leave out the white wine.

To stew lampreys.

Clean the fish, and remote the sinew which runs down the back; season with nutmeg, pepper, mace, cloves, and allspice; place it in a stewpan with strong beef gravy ^ port wine, and an equal portion of Madeira 5 cover it dose, and let it stew till tend^, then take out the lamprey, and preserve it hot, while you boil up the liquor, with a few anchovies minced, and some flour and butter: strain th^ gravy through a sieve, to which add lemon juice, and some made mustard: serve vtrith sippets of bread and horse-radish. Cyder will do, instead of wtutewine^

To fry lamprey.

Bleed them, and save the blood, then yra^ themi, in hot water, and cut them in pieces; fry them ia' fresh butter, but not enough, pour out the fa,t, put in a little white wine, give the pan a shake round^ season it with whole pepper, salt, nutmeg, sweet herbs, and' a bay leaf; then put in a few capers, a large piece of butter rolled in flour, and' thW blood, shake the pan round often, and cover theniu dose. When enough, take them out, strain the sauce; then give it a quick boil/ squeeze in a little lemon-juice, and pour all over the fish: garuislk^ witji lemon, '' rj

60 DOMESTIC COOKERY^ AND

Fried herrings

Must be done a light brovm^ and served with onions sliced and fried 3 . in which manner they are very excellent

Broiled herrings.

When floured^ broil them of a good colour^ and serve them with plain melted butter^ and mustard. Great care must be taken not to burn or smoke them.

Potted herrings,^

The same as potted mackarel.

Sprats

Should be wiped clean with a cloth, and fiistened together by long skewers run through the heada; then broiled, and served hot and hot, otherwise they will not eat so well.

To pot lobsters and shrimps.

Parboil them, then extract the meat, and chop it into small pieces, season with white pepper, ai tmeg, mace, and salt, press the whole into a pot, and cover it with butter 3 bake half an hour, and then put the spawn in 3 when perfectly cold, take the lobster out, and lay it in the pots with a little of the butter. Beat the remaining butter in a mortar with a portion of the qiawn^ then mix the butter thus coloured with as much as will serve to cover the pots, and strain it.

Stewed lobsters.

Pick the lobster well, lay the spawn in a disk that has a lamp, and rub -them down with a piece of butter, four spoonsful of any sort of gravy, two

USEFUL RECEIPT BOOK 61

of soy^ a small portion of salt, cayenne^ two spoonsfol of port wine. Then stew the lobster^ cut into bits with the gravy as above.

Hot crab.

Extract the meat, dear the shell from the head, then put the head, with a nutmeg, salt, pepper, a Int of butter, crumbs of bread, and three spoonsful of vinegar, into the shell agidn, and set it before the fire. Serve it with dry toast.

To broil whitmgs, or haddocks.

Wash your fish with water and salt, and dry them weU, wet^them with a little vinegar to keep their skins whole, and flour them, make your gridiron hot, having previously rubbed it with beefsuet, lay them on, turn them often to prevent thdr sticking; and when enough, serve theni up vnth shrimp sauce, or melted butter and ..anchovy sauce.

To scalbp oysten,

Lay^ them in sc^aUop shells,' or saucers, with crumbs of bread, pepper^ nutmeg, salt^ and a piece of butter, bake them in a Dutch oven.

V

To pickle oysters,

Wasb eight dozen of the laigest oysters in their own liquor, wipe them dry, strain the liquor off, then add to it two desert spoonsful of pqiper, four blades of mace, and two table spoonsful of salt, six of white wine, and eifi:ht of vinegar. Let the oysters simmer a short time in the liquor, then place them in jars, boil the pickle up, skim it care^dly, and when perfectly cold, pour it over the oysters, and tie them closely down.

6Q DOMESTIC COOKERY^ AND

To dress a turtle.

Take the head ofif close to the shell, and open the callapee, observing to leave some of the meat to the breast and shell: take the entrails out, and scald thera in water with' the callapee 3 open the guts, and dean them corefullyj chop them small, ^d stew them four hours by themselyes; divide the other meat into moderate pieces, clean the find in the same manner as goose giblets, cut them in pieces, and stew the meat and fin$ together one hour, then strain them off, and season with cayenne, a bottle of Madeira, salt, pepper, aad' other spice, four ounces of butter, and force-^meat balls; thicken the soup, and lay the meat and entrails into it -, then pu*. the whole into the deep shell, and bake it in an oven.

The callapee is done two way^, with- brown and white sauce, with a paste run in the centre^ and anodier round the ed^e of the dish that the turtle is bioked in. But the best callapee must be cracked in the middle. The white side should be served Wiith yolks of eggs, wine, lemon;, cream, and butter drawn up thick, and poured over when it coiyes fhmi the oven, and the brown with some of the same sance that is put in the callapee.

SOUPS AND BROTHS.

OBSERVATIONS.

Particular attention is necessary to see that your pots, saucepans, &c. in which you intend to make

USEFUL RECEIPT BOOK. 68

soup are well tinned^ and perfectly Dree from sand, dirt, or grease; otherwise your soups will be ill tasted, and pemicioufi to tlie xonstitution; care must be paid in vespect to the quantity of water, -which should never be much more than you wish to haYc soup.

Gravy soup is invlyriably the best, when the juices are fresh* Soups, when preserved* should be chaqged daily into fresh pans, well scalded; and they should on no account be kept in metal.

When you make any kind of soups that have herbs or roots in them, remember to lay yoiu* meat at the bottom of the pan, with a piece of butter. Then cut the roots and herbs small, and having laid them over your meat cover your pot or sauce]ian very dose, and place it over a slow fire, which will draw all the virtues out of the vegetables, and turn them to a good gravy* When your gravy is almost dried up, replenish it with water; and take off the fat. In the preparation of white soup^ remember never to put in your cream till you take your -soup off the fire, and the last thing you do, must be the dishing of your soups, for some will get a skim over them by standing, and ^thfers will settle to the bottom, both which must be avoided Lastly, let the ingredients of your soups and broths be so properly proportioned, that they may not taste of one thing more than another, but that the taste be equal, and the whole of a fine and agreeable relish. If too thin, a little butter mixed with flour will always increase the richness, and give a proper thickness to the soup.

Fat may be removed firom the surface of soup by a tea-cupful of flour and water, well mixed and boiled in.

Soups require a considerable time to boil, and shoidd, if convenient, be made one day before they

04 DOMESTIC COOKSBY^ AMD

are wanted, by which means the fat can be taken off when cold.

Cow-heel jelly is a great improvement to eovxps, makipg it rich^ but not ^ ^ as are also truffles and morels.

Gravy soup.

Boil the bones of a rump of beef, with a piece of the neck^ till their richness is extracted; strain the liquor through a sieve, then leaven some butter, and add to it an onion, a few cloves, cellery^ endive, turnips, and carrots^ with salt^ and whole pepper, in such portions as you may think proper, and mixing these with the liquor, boil them till the herbs and roots are become tender 3 then serve it up with toasted bread cut into small pieces.

Beef tea.

Take a pound of beef perfectly lean, chop it -into small pieces^ and boil it in one gallon of water vnth a slice of under-crust of white breads and a small portion of salt 3 let it boil till reduced to two quarts, then stvain it^ and xhake use of it as necessary.

Veal broth.

Stew a knuckle in a^ gallon of water, sgme salt, three ounces of rice, and two blades of mace, till the quantity of water is one half reduced.

Good soup.

Take some slices of bacon, a knuckle of veal, mace, onions, and a small quantity of water, let It simmer till very strong, when it may be reduced^ by adding beef broth, and stewed till the meat is done to rags ^ add vermicelli, cream, and a rcUL

USJEFUL RJfiCSIFr BOOK.

dfck

Cui a neck of mutton in two^ boU' the scrag in a gallon of water^ being careful to skim it weU . then put in a small bundle of sweet herhs^ a crust of bread, and one, onion. Let it boil an hour^ then put in the other part of mutton^ with a turnip or two y marigolds, a few chives well chopped, and some parslqr also cut fine should be put in about ten minutes before the broth is enough. Season it with salt, and a quarter of a pound of pearl barley niay be put in with advantage at first.

Pease snup

Should be made with split peas and a leg of pork y and Jiiaving taken out and strained the liquor through a sieve^ put a pint of split peas to five quarts of it with cellery to your £[incy; season with salt and black pepper. Any pieces of meat in the house will be an improvement to'it^ particularly liam-bones^ roots of tongues, &c.

Green pease soup.

Having prepared a strong beef broth clear it off 5 shred some spinach, cabbage, lettuce, and a small porti6n of mint and parsley. Lay eight ounces of butter in a stewpan, spiinkle in some flour, and bum it over the fire, then throw in t^e hcfrbs, and toss them up a little with it j after which, pour in the broth, and one quart of green peas parboiled;let them simmer over the fire forty minutes, then throw in some slices of French bread, previously well dried before the firej season with salt, maoe, and pepper, after which let the whole stew thirty rainutes longer.

Serve this soup in a dish garnished with spinach

G 3

§B DOMESTIC COOKBBYj AND

I =

ColouHngfor soups or gravies.

Take eight ounces of loaf sugar^ two gills of water^ oiie ounce of fine butter^ and place it jn a small saucepan pver the fire^ observing to stir it constantly with a wooden spoon^ till it acquires a fine brown colour; then add a pint of water^ when it must be again boiled^ and carefully freed from scum. When cold^ bottle and cork it welL

A plain white soup.

Take a small knuckle of veal, and three quarts of water^ boil it till the meat falls to pieces^ and the water is reduced to about three pints. On the following day^ take off the hi, and remove the sediment^ then put it into a well tinned sau^epan^ and add vermicelli^ a small piece of firesh lemon-peel and a blade of finely powdered mace; serve with the addition of half a pint of new milk^ ja quarter of a pint of cream^ and a sufficiency 3f ground rice to give it a proper consistency.

Chicken broth.

Put a young cock after skimming him and taking away the fat, and breaking him to pieces^ into twd quarts of water^ add a crust of bread and two blades of mace, fioil this liquor weU down^ and then add a quart more of boiling water^ cover it dose, let it boil about forty minutes, and then strain it off^ seasoning.

Giblet soup.

Take three sets of giblets, stew them with two poundd of gravy beef, a bunch of sweet herbs, two onions, and a sufficiency of white pepper and ssJt $ add to this six pints of water, and let it simmer till the gizzards (which must be divided) are perfectly

USEFUL RBCSirr BOOK.

tender. Skim it dean^ then add three tea-spoonsfiil of mushroom powder^ and three quarters of an ounce of good butter rolled in flour: let it boil ten minutes^ strain it^ and serve with the giblets.

OytUr soup.

Make your stock of liquor^ to the quantity of two quarts^ with any sort of tish the place affords; put one pint of oysters bearded into a saucepan^ strain the liquor^ stew them five minutes ia their own liquor^ then pound the hard parts of the oyster in a mortar with the yolks of three hard eggs^ mix them with some of the soup^ then lay them with the remainder of the oysters and liquor in a saucepan^ with nutmegs pepper^ and salty let them boil a quarter of an hour^ when they will be

done.

I-"

Eel soup.

Take two pounds of eels^ two quarts of water a crust of breads six blades of mace« two onions; a few corns of whole pepper, and a buncKe of sweet herbs 3 boil them till half the liquor is wasted, then 'strain it^ and serve it up with toasted bread. ^



- Macaroni soup.

Boil two pounds of good macaroni in half a gallon of stock, till perfectly tender, then divide it equaDy, and put one half in another stew pot 3 add some more stock to the remainder, and continue it over the fire till done enough to squeeze the macaroni through a sieve: then add together that, the two iJqujiipfitfDmc boiling hot cream, according to fancy^ the macaroni that was first taken out, and make the whole hot« without suiBering it to boil: ferve it with rasped crust cut small.

DOMESTIC COOKERY^ AND

¦ 1 M\ \

Good clear brown stock for grav^ *oup, or gravy.

Take a knuckle of veal^ a pound of lean bacon, an La pound and a half c^ lean beef, all sliced, and put the whole into a stew pan with three onions, two carrots, three turnips, two or three heads of celery, and five pints of water, stew the meat tender, but on- no account make it brown. Stock thus prepared, will serve either for spup^ or brown or white gravy -, as it can be easily coloured with the colouring previously described.

yegeiable soup.

Pare and slice eight cucumbers, add the insides of eight cos-lettuces, a couple of sprigs of mint, four onions, pepper, salt, parsley, and a quart of young peas: lay all these in a saucepan, with twelve ounces of butter, and let them stew in their own liquor near a gentle fire, forty minutes, then pout tliree quarts of boiling water on the vegetables, and stew them nearly three hours: thicken it with flour and water, and then serve it.

Carrot soup.

Take one gallon of liquor in which beef or mutton has been boiled, and put in it some beef bones, three onions, two turnips, with a sufficiency of pepper and salt, stew the above at least for two hours, then scrape and slice eight large carrots, strain the soup on them, and boil the whole tiU the carrots are sufiiciently done to pulp through a sieve; then boil the pulp with the soi^ till it becomes as thick as pease soup.

N. B. This soup should be prepared the day before it is wanted, 'and the use of iron spoons should be carefully avoided ft may be seasoned according to fancy with cayenne^ &c,

/

USRFUL KECE1FT BOOK.

Soup maigre.

Take two quarts of green peas. Mour and firy thexn^ eight onions finely sliced^ celery^ three carrots^ two turnips^ and the same number of parsnips 3 then pour over them six quarts of water,«and stew it till the whole will pulp through a coarse cloth or sieve 3 then boil it quick^ and serve it up.

Partridge soup.

Take four old partridges, clean, skin, and cut them into pieces^ with eight slices of ham, two heads of celery, and five onions, cut into sli^^s, firy them nicely broWn in butter, but be careful to prevent them from burning 3 then lay them in a stew-pan with seven pints of boiling water, sofme pepper-coms a bit of beef or mutton, and a small portion of salt. Let the whole stew three hours, then strain it, and again put it in the stew-pan, and place it on the fire till near boiling, then serve . it up.

Pepper pot

Consists of equal portions of fish, fiesh, fowls^ and vegetables, with a small quantity of pulse: two pounds of each will require six quarts of water 3 a small suet dumpling may be boiled with it, and the fai should be carefully taken off as feist as it rises. - Season with cayenne and salt.

The whole must be stewed till the meat is completely tender.

Onion soup.

Take the liquor in which a leg of mutton has been boiled, into which put some carrots and turnips, and such bones as yoi^ may have 3 stew the whole two hours then strain the liquor on five onions.

90 DOMESTIC cookery; AND

mm, I ¦ I r !¦

which have been previously sliced and fried of a fine brown Qolour -, then let the whole simmer two hours, longer, (being particularly careful to skim i^ well) atid serve it with toasted bread.

Hare soup.

Cut an old h u*e into bits^ and add to it two pounds of very lean beef, a quarter of a pound of lean bacon, a bunch of sweet herbs and two onions^ en which pour five pints of Unling water^ simmer till the hare is done to rags^ then season with . cayenne^ soy^ and salt. Serve it with force-meat balls.

Seup-d'la'Sap,

Take one pound of grated potatoes, two pounds of beef cut into thin slices, a quart of grey peas, three onions, and six ounces of rice, to which add six quarts of water, which reduce to five by boiling. Strain the whole through a cullender -, after which pulp the peas into it, then put it into the saucepan again, with three heads of celery nicely sliced, stew it tender, and season with salt and pepper, and a little ketchup and soy, according to ^cy.

Mock turtle soup.

Cut a calf f-head, with the skin on, in halves, clean it well, parboil it, and cut all the meat in small square pieces j then break the bones, and boil them in some beef broth: fry some shalots hi •butter, and add enough of flour to thicken the ffravy, stir this into the browning, and give it a boil, taking off the scum; then add a pint of Madeira, and let the whole simmer, till the meat is perfectly tender   when nearly enough, throw in •oifie chives, parsley, basil, salt, cayenne pepper, one spoonful of ^y, and three of mushroom ket

USEFUL RBCEIPT BOOK.

m

chap; then squeeze a little lemon juice into the tureen^ pour your soup on it« and serve with forceiBeat balls.

A very cheap mock-turtle soup may be made by baking three cow^heels^ with herbs^ - &c. as abore, to which must be added pieces of boiled cow-heels and veal.

GEIAVIES AND SAUCB&.

OBSERVATIONS.

The cheapest method of making gravy is to ^se beef skirts and kidneys^ which will answer equally well as other meat^ if prepareif in the same manner. A considerable improvement may be made in gravies^ by adding the shank-bones of mutton^ well cleaned. A milt will also make excellent gravy.

A good stock gravy.

Put six pounds of beef into two gallons of water^ (for which purpose the neck^ free from fat, is the best,) seasoii with salt, and black and White pef^er whole; add four Med onions, two blades of mace, and a bunch of herbs. Let it boil, till reduced one half^ then strain, and keep it for use.

Brown gravy,

. Take one pound of lean coarse beef, score it small, flour it, and lay it in a stew pan, with two onions sliced, a small piece of butter, some salt^ pepper, and allspice to your pcdatC] and fry it' ovar a gentle iSre till the meat becomes browti on

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79 DOMESTIC COOKERY, AND

both sides, but it must not be burnt. Then pour on it a quart of boiling water, cover it close, and set it again over the fire 3 let it stew forty minutes, strain it, and ^skim the &t carefully o£ A small piece of milt makes it much richer.

Brown gravy without meat.

Take of water, and ale that is not bitter, one pint each, of walnut pickle, mushroom pickle, and ketchup, two table spoonsful each, two anchovies, two- onions shred, some salt, two or three blades of mace, and some whole pepper; to the above ingredients, add a quarter of a pound of butter, with a small portion of flour, having previously made it brown by stirring it tiU the firoth sinks. Then boil the whole together for twenty minutes, strain it, and use it.

White gravy.

Cut two pounds of veal into small pieces, and boil them with tome salt, two onions, two blades of mace five or six cloves, and about thirty black pepper-corns^ in two quarts of water, till reduced to the richness required.

Gravy for a fowl.

Boil the liver, gizzard, and neck, in a pint of water, with a small piece of bread toasted brown, pepper, salt, and thyme. Let it boil to half a pint, then add a glass of port wine, and strain it. Thicken with butter and flpur.

To melt butter thick.

Barely moistei\the bottom of yoilr saucepan with water; cut your butter into slices, and Lay it in the saucepan before the water you have put in becomes warm. As the butter melts^ stir the pan

USEFUL RECKIPT BOOK. 73

^^ne way frequently, and when it is melted, let it ^^»oil,«p, it will be then smooth^ thick^ and fine, ^o flour must be used.

Clear thm gravy.

Cut your beef into thin slices, and broil a part of them over a clear fire, in such a manner as will suffice to colour the gravy, without doing the meat; then place that and the raw meat into a stew-pan, with, three onions, three cloves, some allspice, whole pepper, sweet herbs, and cayenne 5 cover the whole with boiling water, let it boil, then skim it porfectly clear^ and let it simmer till sufficiently strong.

Rich brown gravy,

' Having rubbed some sliced beef and onions in flour, fry them till they acquire a fine brown colour, but be particularly attentive- to prevent them from getting blabk 3 then lay them in a saucepan well tinned, and pour boiling water into the fryingpan^ and let it boil up, after which pour it on the meat in the saucepan, add parsley, savoury, and thyme^ a small portion of marjoram, some tdlspice, mace, cloves, and pepper-corns; simmer till sufficiently strong, and then strain it; k bit of ham is a great improvement to this gravy which may be v^ed by anchovy and other sauces^ agreeable to foncy.

Excellent fish sauce^

Take four eels and skin them, then gut and clean them well, after which divide them into pieces, and lay them in h. stew-pan, add a quart of water, with a piece of browned bread, three blades of mace, some sweet herHs, four anchovies, some whole pepper, and a little salt, let it simmer till sufficiently rich, then thicken with flour and butter.

H

74 DOMESTIC COOKERY^ ANP

i

Sauce for wildfowl.

Take half a pint of port wine^ an equal portion of good gravy ^ a small quantity of pepper^ salt« and shalot^ with some nutmeg and mace j let this mixture simmer for fifteen minutes^ and then add a little butter and flour^ after which give it one boil^ and pour it through your wild fowl.

Rkh sauce for carp or turkey.

Roll three quarters of a pound of butter with a table-spoonftd of fiour^ to which add a smaU quantUp of water^ and melt it; to this you must add half a pint of thick cream^ one anchovy finely minced^ but not washed, place the whole over the fire, and as it boils add two or three table-spoonsful of soy -, pour it into the sauce-boat, with the addition ef salt and lemon.

In making this sauce, great care is requisite to keep it stirring, as it will otherwise curdle.

Sauce for cold fowl or game.

Pound the yolfl^s of three eggs, boiled hard, two anchovies, one table-spoonftd of oU, four of good vinegar, two shalots, a small quantity of mustard.

Quin's game and meat sauce.

Put one ounce of butter, two onions, two eschalots, and a clove of garhc sliced $ a smdl piece of carrot and parsnip, a bay-kaf, thyme, and two cloves^ into a stew-pan; shake it oyer the fire till it begins to colour, then add a dust of flour, a glass of port, half a pint of strong gravy, and a spoonfid of vinegar: boil it. naif an hour; skim off the fistt, and strain it through a sieve, season with cayenne and salt 3 boil it again^ and strain it over the meat

\m

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USB#fn. RECEIPT BOOK. 75

E* - M fcir., . n a;

Mushroom sauce.

Clean half a pint of young mushrooms^ take off the skin hj rubbing them with salt; lay them in a stew-pan^ ^vith a small quantity of salt^ half a pint of cream^ a little mace and nutmegs thicken the ^whole with butter and flour ^ let them boil, and^ to prevent them from curdling, they must be stirred till done. The above sauce is excellent for fowls and rabbits,

OnUm sauce.

Peel onions very dean^ and boil them till perfectly tender, then drain the water off, and beat them up very fine, after which add a sufficiency of butter^ and a small portion of cream.

Sauce for green geese.

Take half a pint of sorrel juice^ half a pint of white wine^ and some scalded gooseberries^ to which add a sufficiency of sugar and butter: let ihe whole boil up.

Bread sauce.

Boil an o^iion with whole ^black pepper and milk, till it is brought to a pulp,^then strain off the milk, and pour it on some grated stale bread, and cover it carefully up. In about forty liiinutes afterwards, put it in a saucepan with a large piece of butter rolled in flour, and when sufficiently boiled^ sei-ve it up.

Sauce for rump steaks.

Take a quarter of a pound of butter, and put it in a saucepan over the fire to brown, throw in two onions minced small, and fry them brown, but be carefiil to prevent burning; then add a table-spoonful of flour, and give the whole another fry; then

76 DOMESTIC COOKE

put half a pint of good gravy, with some salt and pepper, and a little cayenne, if agreeable; let it boil fifteen minutes, and skim it carefully, taking off all the fat, then add a desert spoonful of made mustard, the juice of one lemon, and two spoonsful of vinegar 5 boil the whole once more for five minutes^ and then pour it on the steaks.

QuviCsfish sauce.

Put a pint of walnut pickle, half a pint of mushroom pickle, six anchovies pounded, six otherswhole, a glass of white wine, three blades of mace, and half a tea-spoonful of cayenne^ into a stone, jar; let it stand three weeks, and strain it into small bottles for use.

. Quins game or meat sauce.

Put one oimce of butter, two onions, two eschalots, and a dove of garlic sliced, a small piece of carrot and parsnip, a bay-leaf, thyme, and two cloves, into a stewpan, shake it over the fire till it begins to colour, then add a dust of flour, a glass of port, half a pint of strong gravy, and strain through, a sieve, season with cayenne and sidt 5 boil again, and strain over the meat.

Sauce for fish pies.

Take a gill of vinegar, and the same quantity of white wine, oyster liquor, and ketchup: boil these ingredients with two anchovies, and when done, strain them, and pour them into the pie after it is baked.

Another,

Take half a pint of cream, two anchovies minced, a gill of good gravy, and two tea-spoonsful of soy, boil the whole up with an^ ounce of butter rolled in flour.

USEFUL RECEIPT BOOK. 77

Currant sauce

Boil two ounces of dried currants in a pint of water five minutes^ then add tlie crumb of a penny roU^ a dozen cloves^ a gill of port wine, and some butter, stirring it till it becomes perfectly smooth.

' Apple sauce.

Core and peel six large apples, then slice them thin, and put them in a jar, which place in a saucepan pf water over a gentle fire^ when done, pulp, them, after which add butter and brown sugar.-   This sauce is very excellent with goose and roast pork.

Egg sauce.

Shred hard-boiled eggs very fine, and put them to butter melted in a litde milk.

Tomkta sauce.

Take the ripest tomatas, and lay them in a jar, which must be placed in an Qven from which the bread has been drawn; let them remain till soft, dien separate the pulp from the skins, add chili vinegar, and some cloves of pounded garlick, agreeable to fancy, with powdered ginger and salt. This sauce should be preserved in small bottles, well corked, in a cool and dry place. ^It is exceedingly good with either hot or cold meats^

' Rich fish sauce*

Mince twelve unwashed anchovies, and five shalots, scrape two spoonsful of horse-radish, to which add six blades of mace, a gill of anchovy liquor, five or six cloves, one sHced lemon, a pint of hock, and an equal quantity of water; reduce this mix- ' ture by boiling to three half pints, then strain it off, and when cold, add three table-spoonsful of

H 3

ft

78 DOMESTIC COOKERt, AND

ketchup. It must be preserved in bottles well^ corked.

Oyster sauce.

Set over the fire the liquor of the oysters with the beards, with a blade of mace^ and some lemon-peel; when boiled, strain the liquor, and add the oysters, with some milk, and butter rubbed in flour. Set the whole over the fire again till it boils^ (observing- to stir it all the time) and then serve it.

Lobster sauce.

Beat the spawn in a mortar with three anchovies^ pour on three spoonsful of good gravy^ and strain the whole into melted butter 5 then add the meat of the lobster, with a little lemon juice^ and give the whole one boil.

The anchovies and gravy may be omitted^ if inconvenient to procure them.

Shrimp sauce

Is made by simply picking the shrimps, and placing as many as agreeable into melted butter, with a little lemon juice.

Anchovy sauce.

Mince three unwashed ^anchovies, add to them some flour, butter, and one table-spoonful of water ', stir the whole over a fire till it boils.

To melt butter.

Mix a quarter of a },ound of butter with a large tea-spoonful of flour, place it in a saucepan with four table-spoonsful of good milk, boil it quick^ and shake it continually till the butter is melted.

USEFUL RECEIPT BOOK. 79

To make verjuice.

Take a quantity of crab apples, and press out the jii.ice, keep it one month, and then distil in a cold stiU^ when it will be fit for use in a few days.

To make vinegar.

Boil ten pounds of coarse sugar, twelve gallons of ^Vater, and half a pound of brown bread together for 'one hour, then throw the bread out, and pour the liquor into an open vessel to cool, and on the following day. add half a pint of yeast. Let it stand tw^elve or fourteen . days, and then put it in a cask, "Which must be set in the sun till sufficiently sour, Avhich will commonly be in about six months. The bunghole must have merely a bit of tile over it, to keep out the dust. Draw it out of the cask into small stone bottles for use. ^

Gooseberry vinegar.

Take three gallons of water, and four quarts of gooseberries bruised, place the whole in a tub, in which it must remain three days, being stirred often 5 then strain it off,, and add to every gallon of liquor one poimd of coarse sugar -, pour the whole into a barrel with a toast and yeast. (The strength can be increased to almost any required degree by adding more fruit and sugar.) It must then be placed in the sun, and the bunghole covered as before mentioned.

fVin^ vinegar.

After making raisin winp, take the strained fruit, and to every fifty pounds* weight put eight gallons of water 5 then put the yeast, &c. as in the preceding instances.

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80 DOMESTIC COOKERY^ AND

False capers.

Take ftome nasturtiums^ keep them five or six days after they are gathered^ then pour boiling vinegar upon them^ sind when cold^ cover them closely.

Mustard.

The patent mustard should always be purchased, being on the long run more economical than the common method of. making your own mustard^ and certainly better.

To make patent mustard.

Take three onions, two doves of garlic, two ounces of grated horse-radish, and a spoonM of salt ', boil these in a pint of water for half an hour: strain, and when rather more than milk- warm, mix it gradually with half a pound of best flour of mustard; when done, keep it close stopped for use.

Spices,

Spice should be very finely powdered, ' and each kind kept closely stopped in a separate bottle. Spice thus prepared will go much further than when used in the common manner 3 besides which, it wiU add to the flavour. Previously to pounding, the spice should be well dried, and then done in sufficient quantities to last six months.

The bottles should be labelled, and put in a dry place.

Essence of anchovies.

Take fifty or sixty anchovies, mix them without the bone, but with some of their own liquor weU strained 3 add to them a pint of water, in which let them boil till dissolved, which generally

USEFUL RECEIP.T BOOK. 81

happens in five minutes. When cold, strain and bottle it, taking oare to close it well.

N.B. Should your stock of anchovies become dry, the defidiency may be well supplied by pouring upon them beef brine.

To dry mttshrooms.

Clean them well by wiping them, take out the brown, and carefully peel off the skin, dry them on sheets of paper in a cool oven, and afterwards preserve them in paper bags hung in a dry place. When used, let them simmer in gravy, and they will nearly regain their original size.

Mushroom powder.

Dry the mushrooms whole, set thera before the fire to crisp; grind, and sift the powder through a fine sieve, preserving it in glass bottles, closely corked.

Force-meat balls for ragouts, 8sc,

Pound some lean veal and beef suet, with sweet herbs, parsley, some shalots, bread crumbs, pepper, salt, and a little grated nutmeg, in a marble mortar. Make this up into balls with raw yolk of egg, and boil or fry them lightly before they are added to any preparation.

Force-meat for turkeys, fowls, pies, 8sc,

Take lean veal, ham, parsley, thyme, some shalots, a little pounded allspice and pepper, a few nice mushrooms, or s little mushroom powder, some salt, and lemon juice, and do them over a very slow fire, shaking the saucepan frequently, till about two-thirds done. Pound them very fine in a marble mortar, and add bread crumbs and raw yolk

82 DOMESTIC COOKERY^ AND

»

of egg to make them up into balls^ or fit for staffing.

Eg% baUs.

Pound the yolks of as many hard eggs as will be wanting^ in a marble mortar^ with a little flour and salt, add as much raw yolk of egg as will make this up into balls, and boil them before they are put into soups or any other preparation.

#Elegant force meat for atetoedfish, or fish soups.

Take a lobster, beat the flesh and soft parts to a pulp with an anchovy, some yolk of a hard e^, and a stick of boiled celery, to which add some bread crumbs, cayenne, mace, salt, two eggs well beaten, a litde ketchup, three ounces of butter warmed, and one table-spoonful of oyster-'liquor: form the whole into balls, and fry them in butter till they acquire a fine brown colour.

To make Utile eggs for turtle.

Pound hard yolks of eggs, and make a paste with the yolk of a raw one, then roll them into small ball8 and put them in ooiUng water for three minutes.

' Curry powder.

Take mustard seed, one ounce and a half 5 coriander seed, four ounces 5 turmeric, four ounces and a hajf; black pepper, three ounces 5 lesser cardamoms, one ounce 5 ginger, half an ounce 3 cinnaipon, one ounce; cloves, half an ounce -, and mace, half an ounce 5 all these ingredients must be first made into a fine powder, then mixed well together, and kept in a widc-mduthed bottle, closely stopped, for use.

USEFUL RECEIPT BOOK. 83

I

Walnut ketchup.

While the young walnuts. are tender^ press out two gallons of the juice^ let it simmer^ and skim it well^ then add four ounces of anchovies^ bones^ and liquor^ the same quantity of shalots^ three ounces of cloves and ginger^ with two ounces of mace and pepper each^ and three cloves of garlick -, let the whole simmer till the shalots sink^ then pour it into a pan^ let it remain till cool^ dfter which bottle it, and divide the spices; cork very tight, and tie down with a bladder.

This shoidd never be used under one year, and will keep for twenty.

Muuhroom ketchup.

Take two gallon^ of mushrooms (the larger the better) mesh them into an earthen pot, and stew the whole with salt 5 stir them frequently for two days, then let them stand for nine. Strsdn and boil the liquor with the addition of mace, ginger, cloves, mustard seed, and whole pepper, with a little c^Uspice.

When perfectly cold, pour it into bottles, and cork them closely; in three months boil it again, and it will then keep a long time,

DIRECTIONS

FOB THE

PREPARATION OF VEGETABLES.

The principal art in boilitig greens, is to preserve their beautiful green appearance and sweetness, to do which they must be carefully picked.

•\. «k. •'•"t

84 DOMESTIC COOKERY^ AND

, washed, and freed from insects^ and they should be as fresh as possible^ it being impossible to bring such as are stale to a good colouTr

la boiling them^ you should use a considerable quantity of water, and a tin, brass, or copper pan, in which they should be dressed by themselves, meat, or an iron pot, spoiling the colour.

Vegetable should be drained the moment they are enough, and attention should be paid that they be not over-boiled, in which case they lose their crJspness. - ^The preceding remarks hold good in respect to all kinds of vegetables, except carrots, which should be boiled with beef.

if your water is hard in which you desire to boil vegetables green, put in a small spoonful of salt i( wormwood, previous to laying in your vegetables.

To dress cauliflowers.

Separate the green part, and cut the flower close at the bottom from the stalk. Ijet it soak an hour in clear cold water, and then lay it in boiling milk and water, (or water alone,) observing to skim it well; when the flower or stalks feel tender it is enough, and should be instantly taken up. Drain it for a minute, and serve it up in a dish by itself with plain melted butter in a sauce- tureen.

To dress brocoli.

The small clusters round the main head must be taken off with a penknife, the outside skin on the stalks must be then care^iUy peeled off, then wash them dean, and lay them in boiling water, with a sufficiency of salt -, let them boil till the stalks are tender, and then serve as cauliflower.

To dress cabbage and sprouts. If your cabbage is large, cut it in two, or four^

USEFUL RECEIPT BOOK. 85

parts lay it in boiling water^ (of which there should be plenty); when the stalks are tender^ or sink to the bottom, they are enough. Salt shoiUd be thrown into the water before you lay in your greens. - Coleworts, savoys, and brown-cole^ must be boiled in the same manner.

Asparagus,

Great attention is necessary to boil asparagus it must be carefully washed and cleaned, the horny part must be cut away^ leaving only enough to take it up with the fingers. After the white horn^part has been well scraped, cut them all off at one length, and tie them up in separate bundles -, lay them in boiling water with a little salt. Boil them briskly, and they are enough when tender. - ^Dip a round of toasted bread in the liquor, and lay it in the dish, then pour some melted butter over the toast, and lay the asparagus on the toast Entirely round the dish. Serve with melted butter in a sauce tureen.

jiriichokes.

Wring the stalks off, and lay the artichokes in* the water cold, with tiie bottoms up 5 by which means, the dirt concealed between the leaves will boU out. After the water boils, they will take nearly two hours to be done. Serve with melted butter, salt, and pepper.

To fry them, blanch them first in water, then flour them and fry them in fresh buttery when enough, lay them in a dish, and pour melted butter over them.

Tofricasee artichoke bottoms.

If dried, lay them in warm Water four hours, observing*]; to change the water as many times, then

/

86 PpMESTiC COOKERY, AND

take half a pint of cream and an ounce of butter, which stir over the fire till melted: after which lay in the artichokes till hot, then serve them up.

French beans.

Lay them in wafer and salt, after having stringed them, €uid cut them in two 3 when your pan of water boils, throw in a little salt, and then your beans. When tender, they are enough: lay them in a small dish, and serve them with a tureen of melted Ihitter.

N^ B. If the beans are large, you must slit them down the middle, and then cut them in two.

Parsn^

Should be boiled in a oonsiderable quantity of water -, when they are soft, take them up, and carefully scrape off the dirt and spots, after which scrape them all fine; then lay them in a saucepan with milk, and let them simmer till thick $ then add . a piece of butter and salt, after which serve them up.

Or, when boiled and scraped, they may be served up in a dish whole^ with melted butter in a sauce tureen. •

Parsnips are very fine with salt fish.

To stew them, they must be boiled tender, scraped, and cut into slices, then lay them in a j saucepan with cream, butter rolled in flour, and salt, observing frequently to shake the saucepan, when the cream boils, pour them into a large dish, and serve them up.

To boil turnips.

Boil turnips, if possible, with the meat, as they eat best when so done. Wlien they are enough, take them out, put them into a pan, mesh them with butter and a little salt, and send them to

f

USBFT7L RECEIPT B06k. 87

tikble. Another method of boiling them is to pare the turnips^ and cut them into little square pieces of the size of dice: put them into a saucepan, and just cover them widi water. As soon as they are •nought throw them into a sieve to drain; then into a saucepan, with a good piece of butter; stir them over the fire for a few minutes, and serve them up.

Carrots.

Clean them well by washing and scraping, and when enough, rub them in a dean doth. If they are young, half an hour will do them 5 but if laige, an hoiur. - Carrots are very excellent with corned

To boU potatoes.

PotlLtoes should never be pared. Place them on the fire in cold water, and when about half done, throw in some salt and a small quantity ot cold water. When nearly enough, drain off the water, then lay a dean doth over them, and covering the pot, set them by the fire to steam. New potatoes must be taken off in good time, or they will eat watery.

To scollop potatoes.

After boiling the potatoes, beat them fine in a marble mortar with some milk, a large piece of butter, and a little salt -, then put them into scollop shells, make them smooth on the top, score them with a knife^ lay thin slices of butter on the top of them, and then put them into a Dutch oven to brown before the fire.

To mesh potatoes. Boil, peel, and lay them in a saucepan, then mirah

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86 DOMB9TIC COOKERY, AND

\

them with a strong spoon 5 add a pint of cream, or milk, with a sufficiency of salt -, stir them well together, to prevent them from sticking to the bottom of the saucepan, and when perfectly hot, stir in four ounces of butter, and when melted^ serve it up.

Garden, or Windsor beans.

Boil them by themselves with a little salt, parsley, and mint -, when tender, they are enough 3 then drain them, and serve with parsley and melted butter. - Beans are excelle.it with bacon or ham.

To boil green peas,

Sbell, but do not wash them, boil them in plenty of water, and skim well as soon as they boil. Put in some salt and mint tops, and be particularly careful not to overboil them, as they will then lose their colour and taste. When enough, serve them in a dish by themselves^ and melt in a good piece of 43utter among them.

To keep green peas.

Scald yourr peas, then strain' and dry them between clean cloths, after which put them in widemouthed bottles, and pour clarified suet over them, then close the bottle well, and rosin the cork down^ after which bury them under ground. When used, boil them till tender, with a bit of butter^ some mint, and a small portion of sugar.

Jerusalem artichokes

Must be taken up the moment they are enough, otherwise they will prove watery. Serve with butter and pepper.

Roast onions

With the skins onj when enough, peel them, and serve with cold butter^ salt, and potatoes roasted.

trSEFUL RECEIPT BOOK. 89

To stew cucumbers.

Slice some onions^ and cut the cucumbers lai^e^ then flour and fry them in good fresh butter -, after which pour on some gravy^ and stew them till enough.

To stew onions.

Peel twelve onions^ and having floured^ fry them of a light brown lay them in a stewpan with some gravy, two spoonsfril of ketchiip, pepper, salt, and if agreeable, a little cayenne. Place the whole over a gentle fire, and let them stew an hour and a h^lf .

To stew celery.

Wash four large heads, take off the outer leaves, Mvjde each head into halves, then cut them into pieces, each about three inches long, lay them in a stewpan with weak gravy, and let them simmer till perfectly tender; then add a small portion of cream, and season with pepper, salt, nutmeg, and mace 5 warm the whole^ after which serve it up.

Spinach

Must be carefully picked and washed, then lay it in d saucepan of a size (if convenient) barely to hold it, strew a little salt over the top, and cover it close. It must be frequently shaken; when done, beat it iwell with a bit of butter, then squeeze it quite dry between two plates, or into a mould, and serve it up with plain melted butter in a boat.

To stew red cabbage.

Slice the cabbage, and place it over a gentle fire, with gravy, onion, pepper, and salt, a little vinegar, one tea-spoonful of ketchup, and when done, add a bit of butter rolled in flour.

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90 DOMESTIC COOKERY^ AND

To stew mushrooms.

Great attention is requisite in the use of mushrooms^ as many sorts of them are sufficiently poisonous to cause death. For stewing^ the large buttons are preferable, clean them by rubbing them with salt and a bit of rag -, lay them in a stewpan^ with some pepper-corns, and sprinkle them with salt. Let the whole gently simmer till enoughj then add butter rolled in flour, and serve with sippets of bread. Cayenne, and a gill of good creamj is a considerable improvement.

Lobster salad.

Prepare a salad in the usual manner^ then chop the red part of a lobster and mix with it^ the colour of which presents a striking .contrast to the vegetables.

To niesh parsnips.

Boil them sufficiently tender, when, having scraped them, mesh them into a saucepan, add butter, pepper, and salt. Cream, if it can be procured, is a great improvement.

To dress chardoons.

Tie them into bundles, and dress and serve them as asparagus. Or boil them in salt and water tiU tender, then dry them, dip them in butter, and fry them. Serve with plain melted butter.

Beet roots

Are extremely wholesome, and contribute to form a very pretty salad in winter. It is very good, ii boiled till tender, then sliced moderately thin, with a small portion of onion, and laid in a stewpan with some gravy, a gill of white ^ine, and a spoon

USEFUL RECEIPT BOOK. 91

¦ m fill of vioegar; then let it simmer till the gravy becomes just tinged with its colour, and serte in a small dish. If very small onions are used, they should not be cut^ which greatly adds to the neat appearance of this dish.

Sea cale

Must be dressed and served up in the same manner as asparagus.

To keep vegetables through the winter.

Beet roots should be placed between layers of dry sand^ with the earth about them.

Parsnips - ^the same.

Carrots - ^the same.

Parsley - should be dried in a cool oven, by which means it preserves its colour.

Onions- shoiiid be preserved by hanging them in a dry cold room.

Potatoes - are to be carefully kept from the frost, which immediately renders them untit for use.

Truffles and mprels-^-should be dried, and kept in paper bags in a dry place.

Artichoke bottoms - ^the same.

Herbs of every kind- dried, and kept in bags in a dry room.

92 DOMESTIC COOKERY^ AND

it

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PICKLES

INSTRUCTIONS.

Pickles should never be taken out of their jars, except with a wood or bone spoon. The stone jars should be opened as seldom as possible, except when to fill the small ones in present use, and great attention is requisite to see that they are all tied very closely down. Pickles should be done in stew-pans, and always kept in stone jars, any other kind being pernicious, as the acid eats into, and draws the unwholesome particles out of all vessels, except stone or glass. It is too common a practice to make use of brass utensils, in order to give the pickles a fine green -, but the same purpose can be effected by heating the liquor, and keeping it in a proper degree of warmth on the hearth or the chimney comer. By this method, you will avoid the pernicious consequence of the use of brass utensils, or of verdigris of any kind, which are in their nature a very powerful poison, and may be productive of serious injury to those who partake of them. Very great care is necessary to make them well.

To pickle smelts.

Gut and dean them, then lay them in a pan in rows, then add ginger, nutmeg, mace, sliced lemon, powdered bay leav^es, and salt. Let the pickle be r&l^ine, vinegar, cochineal, and saltpetre.

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UBBFUL RECEIPT BOOK. 93

.... To pickle salmon.

Clean tK fidh carefully^ boil it gently till done^ and then take it up: strain the liquor, adding bayleaves^ pepper corns, and salt j give it a boil, and when cold, add vinegar to th^ palate, and pour over the fish.

Anchoioks,

Artificial anchovies are made in this manner: To a peck of sprats, take two pounds of common salt, a quarter of a pound of bay-salt, four of salt-petre, two ounces of prunella salt, and a small quantity of cochineal. Pound all in a mortar, put them into a stoiie pan, a row of sprats, then a layer of the compound, and so on alternately to the top. Press them hard down, cover them close, let them stand for six months, and they will be fit for use. Take particular care that the sprats are very fresh, and do not wash or wipe them, but take them just as they eome out of the water.

Oysters, cockles, and muscles.

Take one hundred of the newest and best oysters, and be careful to save the liquor in a pah as they are opened. Cut off the black verge, saving the rest, and put them into their own liquor; then put all the liquor and oysters into a kettle, stew them about half an hour on a gentle fire, and do them very slowly,^ skimming them as the scum rises 3 then take them off, take out the oysters, and strain the liquor through a fine doth: put in the oysters again, take out a pint of the liquor when hot, and add to it a quarter of an ounce of mace, and the same of cloves: just give it one boil, put it to the oysters, and stir up the spices well among tham3'then put in a tea-spoonfUl of

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96 DOMESTIC COOKERY^ AND

£UgOT, then take the worst of the barberrieQ^ and put them into this liquor^ and the best into glasses -, then boil the pickle^ careftilly taking off the scum; boil it till it assumes a fine colour^ let it remain till cold^ and then strain it hard through a coarse . cloth. Let it settle^ then pour it clear into the glasses^ and tie it down with bladder. To every pound of sugar thus used^ half a pound of white bait must be added.

To pickle samphire.

Lay your samphire when pickled in a pan^ throw some salt over it^ and cover it with spring water. Let it remain twenty-four hours; then strain off the liquor^ and place the samphire in a brass saucepan add some salt/ and cover the whole with good vinegar; cover the saucepan perfectly close^ and place it on a gentle ^re, Where let it remain only till crisp and green^ which requires great attention. Then put it in your jar and cover it close till coldy when it must be tied down with bladder and leather.

Radish pods.

Put the radish pods^ which must be gathered when they are quite youngs into salt and water all night: boil the salt and water they were laid in^ pour it upon the pods^ and cover the jar close to keep in the steam. When it is nearly cold^ make it boiling hot^ and pour it on again^ and keep doing so till the pods are quite green. Then put them into a sieve to drain^ and make a pickle for them of white-wine \'inegar, with a little mace, ginger, long pepper, and horse-radish. Pour it boiling hot upon the pods, and when it is almost cold, make the vine^r twice as hot as before, and pour it upon them. Tie them down with bladder^ and put thcu^ by for use. ^

OSEFUL RECRIPT BOOK. 9f

Lemon pickle.

Take twelve lemons^ and cut each into six pieces^, put on them two pounds of salt^ eight or nine cloves of garlick, with ihace^ nutmeg, cayenne, and allspice, half an ounce of each, and a quarter of a pound of flour of mustard; to these ingredients, add one gallon of good vinegar j boil the whole for half an hour, then put it in a jar, and set it by for eight iveeks, observing to stir it well every day. After wrhich, pour it into small bottles, and close them "very well.

Indian pickle.

Divide the heads of some cauliflowers into pieces, ^d add some slices of the. inside of the stalk, put to them two white cabbages, cut into pieces, with inside slices of carrots, onions, and turnips. Boil a strong brine, simmer the picldes in it two minutes, drain them, let them dry over an oven till they are shrivelled up, then put them into a jar, and prepare the following pickle: - To foiu* quarts of vinegar, add two ounces of floiu' of mustard, two ounces of long pepper, two ounces of ginger, four ounces, of horse radish, and a few shalots. Boil the whole, and pom* it on tlie pickles while hot^ when perfectly cold, tie them down^ and if necessary, add more vinegar afterwards; and in a mont^:^ will be excellent. y^vy

^ ¦%

Cucumber mangoes.

Take large cucumbers, cut a small hole in Ihe sides, and extract the seeds^ which must be mixed with mustard seeds and minced garlic; then stuff the cucumbers full with them, and replace the pieces cut from the sides j bind it up with a bit of ne^ packthread 5 then boil a suflicient quantity

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96 DOMESTIC COOKKBT; AXD

of vinegar with pepper, salt,, ginger, and mace^ Aid pour it boiling hot over the mangoes four successive days. On the last, add some scraped horseradish and flour of mustard to the vinegar, and stop the whole close. The vinegar may be poured on more than four times.

To pickle gherkins.

Take two or three hundred, lay them on a dish, salt them, and let them remain eight or nine days, then drain them, and laying them in a jar, pour Y)oiling vinegar upon them. Place them near the fire, covered with vine leaves. If they do not become sufficiently green, strain off the vinegar, boil it, and again pour it over them, covering with fresh leaves. Continue to do so, till they be::ome as green as you wish.

Cucumbers in slides.

Slice some large cucumbers before they are too ripe, and put them into an earthen pan. To every dozen of cucumbers, slice two lai^ onions, puting a handful of salt between every row: cover them with a dish, and let them stand twenty-four hours: put them into a cuHcMer, and let them dry well; put them into a jar, cover them over with white-wine vinegar, and let them stand four hours: pour the vinegar from them into a saucepan, and boil it with a little salt, mace, whole pepper, a lai^e race of ginger sliced, and then pour on them the boiling vinegar. Cover them dose, and when they are cold, tie them down, and they will be fit for use,



To pickle mushrooms. Take button mushrooms, rub them dean ^th

nSfiPVL RECEIPT BOOK. ^

flannel and salt^ throw some salt over them^ and lay them in a ctew-pan with mace and pepper; while the liquor comes out^ shake them well^ and continue to do so till the whole is dried into them again; then pour in as much vin^;ar as will cover them^ give the whole one warm^ and turn them into a jar. Prepared in this manner^ mushrooms will keep two years^ and are very excellent.

Or,

Clean some button mushrooms with a piece of flannel dipped in salt and water; boil them in salt and water a few moments, till the liquor is drawn out; lay them in a clol^ to cool, put them in jars, and fill them up with cold vinegar that has been boiled with mace, ginger, and salt^ then add one spoonful of sweet oil to each bottle, and cork them down.

To pickle misturtiutns.

Pick them when ypung on a warm day^ and put them in a jar of old vinegar, which has been taken from green pickles, or onions, and boiled afresh 3 or boil some fresh vinegar with salt and spice, and when cold, put in the nasturtiums.

To pickle French beans.

Pick your beans clean, strew some salt over them; when it begins to dissolve, stir them frequently, and the following day drain them, lay them in jars, and cover them with boiling vinegar 5 let the jars stand, four days some distance from the fire, then put the vinegar and pickles into a stewpan, set it on the fire, covered with vine- leaves, and when the leaves turn yellow, put in fresh ones, till the leaves become of a fine green colour 3 ob

lOQ DOMESTIC COOKERY^ AND

serve, they must only simmer, boiling would spoil them 5 add sliced ginger, pepper-corns, &c. Gherkins and radish pods are done in the same manner.

To pickle red cabbage.

Slice them into a sieve, and sprinkle each layer with salt, let the whole drain three days, then add some sliced beet-root, and place the whole in:ajar, over which pour boiling vinegar. The purple red cabbage is the finest. Mace, bruised ginger, whole iepper, and cloves, may be boiled with the vinegar, and will make a great improvement.

ROASTING, BOILING, AND SALTING

MEAT, &c.

INSTRUCTIONS.

For roasting, your fire should be regulated according to the thing to be dressed 3 if very little or thin, then you should have a pretty brisk fire, that it may be done qqickly and nicely j if a large joint, take care that a large fire is laid on to cake, and kept constantly free from ashes at the bottom, and you must observe that the fire should never be -stirred more than once during tlie time of roasting, on which occasion the meat and spit should be removed to a greater distance. All meat should be carefully washed before dressed 3 but meat intended

USEFUL RECEIPT BOOK. 101

to roast^ should be well dried before placed on the spit. If you are roasting beef» take care to paper the &t when it gets wann^ and baste well while at the fire^ not forgetting to sprinkle some salt on it. When Ihe smoke draws to the fire^ it is a sign that it is nearly enough 3 and then take off the paper^ baste and dredge with flour, to make it frothy. In roasting mutton or lamb, the loin, the chine, and the saddle^ must have the skin raised and skewered oh^ and when nearly done, take off the skin, and baste and flour, to froth it up. All other sorts of mutton and lamb must be roasted with a quick clear Are, without the skin being raised. You must be careful to roast veal of a fine brown; and if it be a fillet or loin, be sure to paper the fat, baste it well at first, and when nearly done^ baste again, and dredge with a little floQr. The breast must be roasted with the caul on, till the meat be enough done, and skewer the sweetbread on the. back side of the breast. Pork should be well done, or will otherwise make persons ill. When you roast a loin, cut the skin across with a slmrp knife, in order to make the crackling eat the better. When you roast a leg of pork score it in the same manner as the loin, and stuff the knuckle part with sage and onion chopped very fine, and skewer it up. The spring, or hand of pork, eats best boiled. The sparerib should be basted with a little butter, a very little dust of flour^ and some sage and onions shred small. **,

For boiling, the greatest attention is requisite in the cook to have every utensil perfectly clean, and the pots and saucepans properly tinned. In boiling any kind of meat, but particularly veal, much care is required. Fill your pot with a sufficient quantity of soft water 5 dust yoiu^ veal well with

K 3

]02 DOMESTIC COOKERY, AND

line flour, put it into your pot, and set it over a larg^ fire; some people put in milk to make it white; but this is of no use, and better omitted, for, if you use hard water, it will curdle the milk, give to the veal a yellow cast, and will often hang in lumps about it. Oatmeal will do the same thing; but by dusting your veal, and putting it into water when cold, it will prevent the foulness of the water hanging upon it. T^e the scum off clear as soon as it begins to rise, and cover up the pot closely. Let the meat boil as slowly as possible, put in plenty of water, which will make your veal rise and look plump. A cook cannot make a greater mistake, than to let any sort of meat, boil &st, sincj^ it hardens the outside before it is warm within, and contributes to discolour it. Thus a leg of veal, of twelve-pounds weight, will take three hours and a half boiling -, and the slower it boils, the whiter and plumper it will be. When mutton or beef is the object of your cookery, be careful to dredge them well with flour, betbre you put them into the pot of cold water j boil them very slowly, and keep it covered -, but do not forget to take off the scuni as often as it rises. Mutton and beef do not require so ^luch boiling 3 nor is it much minded^ if it be a little under-done; but lamb, pork, and veal, should be well boiled, as they otherwise will be unwholesome. A leg of pork will take half an hour more boiling than a leg of veal of the same weight; but, in general, when yo^boil beef or mutton, you may allow an hour for every four pounds weight. To put in the meat when the water is cold, is allowed to be the best method, as it thereby gets warm to the heart before the outside gets hard. A leg of lamb, of four pounds weight, will take an hour and a half.

USEFUL RECEIPT BOOK. 103

You should never boil vegetables^ with meat^ excepting carrots or parsnips.

A dry tongue should soak one day^ and it will then require four hours slow boiling, and a green one three hours. In short the principal art in boiling any kind of meat, or poultry, is to boil very slowly in clean saucepans, and keep them well skimmed; for if the utensils are dirty, it will discolour whatever is boiled in them,; and if any thing is boiled fast, it will be hard, dry, and ill flavoured 3 while slow boilings clean saucepans, and clean water, kept well scummed, wiU render all kinds of meat and poultry, white, plump, juicy, ~ and wholesome.

In respect to the time required for roasting or boiling a joints you must be directed by your own judgment, the size of the joint, and the strength of the fire. It is a common rule, however, to weigh the meat, and to allow about seventeen minuter for every pound. Meat when roasted, should not be placed too near the fire at first, which would occasion it to ifcorch^ but should be gradually placed nearer, l^ept constantly basted, and, when nearly done, dredged with flour, which will make it look frothy and nice. When put to roast, meat should be^ for a short time^ basted with ^salt and water

Meat, whether for salting or immediate dressing, eats much better if suffered to hang a few days.

Never purchase any meat that is br#Bed^ - as it will invariably taint in a short time: and observe, «» that the best joints, though generally dearer than the others, will ultimately prove the cheapest, because they go the farthest.

A great part of the suet may be taken from sirloins of beef, loins of mutton or veal, and darificd for fiiture use. Dripping is equally . good with '

104 DOMESTIC COOKERY^ AND

butter for basting all kinds of meat^ but not poultry. ' It will also serve very ivell for common pies^ and should therefore be carefully preserved.

Meat, during the summer months, should be well examined to discover the Hy-blows, which should be carefully cut o£f, and the part then washed.

PRELIMINARY HINTS FOR BROILING AND FRYING.

Before you lay your meat op the gridiron, be carefiil that your fire be very clear: the kind of ciud^ termed coke makes the best tire for broiling. Let your gridiron be very clean, and when heated by the fire, rub the bars with clean mutton suet: this will both prevent the meat from being discoloured, and hinder it from sticking. Turn your meat quickly while broiling, and have a dish, placed on a chafing dish of hot coals^- to put your meat in as fast as it is ready, and carry it hot and covered to table. Observe never to baste any thing on the gridiron, because that may be the means of burning it, and making it smoky.

Be carefid always to keep your frying-pan clean, and see that it is properly tinned. When you fry any sort of fish, first dry them in a cloth, and then flour them. Put 'into your frying-pan plenty of dripping or hog's lard, and let it, be boiling hot before you put in your fish. Butter is no^ so good for the purpose, as it is apt to bum and blacken the fish, an make them soft. When you have fried your fish, lay thein in a dish or hair sieve to drain, before you send them up to table.

Roast ribs of beef.

Spit, and lay it before a brisk fire, baste with salt and water twenty minutes 5 then dry and iioiu:

USEFUL RECEIPT BOOK. 105

it, and fasten some clean buttered paper over the side of the meat, and let it remain there tUl the meat is enough.

Roast mutton and lamb

* Lay your meat before a ekar quick fire, baste it continually, and when nearly done, dredge with flour. A breast should have the skin taken off before you lay it down.

Roast veaL

Be careful to roast veal a fine brown -, at first keep it some distance from the fire ^ baste a shoulder well till near done, after which iiour and baste it with a litde butter. It may be stuffed or not as agreeable. A loin should be covered with clean papery and if a breast, with the caul, with the sweetbread fastened on the backside with a skewer. When nearly don^, take off the caul, baste it, and dredge it with flour. A fillet must be stuffed with the following ingredients i thyme, marjoram, parsley, savoury, finely minced lemon-peel, mace, pepper, nutmeg, with bread crumbs, to which add two eggs, and four ounces of marrow suet -, lay thiiS stttffing in the udder, and if any remain, in such holes as you think proper, made in the fleshy part. Serve with melted butter, and garnish with the lemon-peel sliced.

Roast pork.

Lay it at some distance from the fire, and flour it well. When the flour dries, wipe the pork clean with a coarse cloth, then. cut the skin in rows with a sharp knife, put your meat closer to the fire, and roast it as quick as possible. Baste with butter and a little dry sage. Some jjersons add onions finely shred.

106 DOMESTIC COOKEKY, AND

To roast a tongue or udder.

Parboil, and then stick it with cloves, and baste it with butter 5 when enough, take it up, and serve it with gravy and sweet sauce.

To roast venison.

Wash it in vinegar and water^ then dry it well, and cover it either with the caul or buttered paper. Baste with butter tiQ nearly enough 3 then boil a pint of claret with mace, nutmeg, pepper and cloves. Pour this over yoiur venison three times ^ then take it up, strain the liquor, pour it over the venison again, and serve with sweet sauce.

Venison should never be overdone; a haunch will require about three hours and a half to roast.

Hashed venison.

Slice it and warm it with its own gravy, then put a few slices of mutton £it, which must be placed on the fire with a little port wine and sugar 5 let it simmer till dry^ and then put.it to the hash.

To fry venison.

Bone your venison, if it be either the neck^or breast; but if it be the shoulder, the meat must be cut off the bone in slices. Make some gravy with the bones; then take the meat and fry it of a light brown; take it up, keep it hot before the fire. Put some Hour to the butter in the pan, and keep stirring it till it be quite thick and brown. Take care it does not bum. Stir in half a pound of. fine sugar beat to powder, put in ihe gravy that came from the bones, and some red wine. Make it the thickness of a fine a^am 3 squeeze in the juice of a lemon, warm the venison in it, put in the dish,' and pour the sauce over it

USKFUL RECEIPT BOOK. 107

To salt beef.

The kernels of all meat should be carefully extracted. Particular attention is requisite in salting meat. It should be well sprinkled^ and six houis aftewards hung up to drain 3 after which, rub it %7in^with salt, and lay it in a salting tub with a " itSover td fit close 5 remember to turn it every day. The brine will serve very well again by being boiled and scummed, as long as any scum will arise.

To salt pork.

To pickle pork, you miist bone it, and cut it into pieces of a size suitable to lie in the pan into which it is intended to be put Rub the pieces well with saltpetre -, thi^n take two pints of common salt, and two of bay salt, and rub the pieces well with them. Put a hiyer of common salt at the bottom of tlve vessel, cover every piece over with common salt, lay them upon one another as close as possible, filling the hollow places on the sides with salt. As the salt melts on the top, strew on more, lay a coarse cloth over the vessel, a board over that, and a weight on the board to keep it down. Keep it cloke covered $ and it will keep the whole year.

To cure hams.

Rub well into each ham one ounce of saltpetre, half 2Ln ounce of sal-prunella pounded, and a pound of common salt. Lay them in salt-pans for ten day«, turn them once in the time, and rub them well with more common salt. Let them lie ten days longer, and turn them every day. Then take them out, scrape them clean; and dry them well with a cloth. Then rub them slightly over with a

108 DOMESTIC GOOKEKY, AND

little salt^ and hang them up to dry^ but not in too hot a place.

Hams the Yorkshire way.

First beat them well^ and then mix half a pecl% of salt^ three ounces of saltpetre^ half an ounce of sal-prunella^ and five pounds of coarse salt. Hub the hams well with this^ and lay the remainder on the top. Let them lie three days^ and then hang them up. Put as much water to the pickle as will cover the hams^ adding salt till it will bear an egg, and then boil and strain it. Next morning put in the hams^ and press them down so that they may be covered. Let them lie a fortnight, rub them well with bran, and dry them. The above ingredients i\re sufficient for three middling sized hams.

To pickle hams like Westphalia hams.

To two large,, or three small hams, take three pounds of common salt, and two pounds of coarse sugar, mix it, and rub it well into the hams; let them remain seven days turning them regularly, and rubbing the salt in: then take four ounces of powdered nitre, and mix it with half a pound of common saU and rub that well into your hams. Let them remain in pickle fourteen days longer, then smoke themi The pickle wiU afterwards do for tongues, if boiled and scummed.

Dutch beef.

Take a lean buttock of beef, rub it well with brown sugar, and let it lay in a pan three hours, ^ turning it two or three times 5 then salt it well with conmion bait and saltpetre, and let it remain ^.

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USEFUL BECKIPT BOOK. I^^)

fourteen days, turning it regularly; then roll it tight in a coarse cloth, and put it in a cheese-preM for twenty-four hours, and then smoke it. Observe it must be boiled in a cloth.

Management of hams.

When your hams are smoked, hang them for a month or two in a damp place, so as to make them mouldy. Then tie them well up in brown paper, and hang them in a very dry place - never lay these hams in water till you boil them 5 then put them in cold water, and let them be on the tire four hours before they boil. Skim the pot well, and frequently before it boils j when it boils, two hours will do it enough.

To boil hams.

Put your ham into a copper of cold v/ater, and when it boils, take czire that it boils slowly. A ham of twenty pounds will take four hours and a half boiling -, and so in proportion for one of a laiger or smaller size^ No soaking is required for a green ham; but an old and large ham w&l requhtL sixteen hours soaking in water, after Which it shoulil lie on damp stones, sprinkled with water, two or three days to mellow. Observe to' keep the pot well skimmed while your ham is boiling. When you take it up, pull off the skin as whole as possible, and save it; and strew on it raspings. When the ham is brought from table, put the skin upon it, which will preserve it moist.

To make bacon,

•Take a side of pork, then take off all the inside Jilt, lay it on a dresser, that the blood may run away; rub it well with good salt on both sides. iM it lie thus a week, then take a pint of bay salt.

110 DOMESTIC COOKERY^ AND

four ounces of saltpetre^ 'beatthem fiiief two pounds of coarse sugar^ and a quarter of a peck of common salt. Lay your pork in something that will hold the pickle^ and rub it well with the above ingredients; lay the skinny side downwards^ and baste it every day for a fortnight with the pickle j then hang it in wood smoke to dry^ afterwards hang it in a dry, but not a hot place. You are to observe that all hams and bacon should hang dear from every thing, and on no account against a wall. - Remember that you wipe off all . the old salt before you put it in this pickle.

Africandeauofbeef.

Take three pounds of lean beef, lard it with bacon, well seasoned vnth spices, according to fericy, then lay the whole in a stew-pan, with a sufficient quantity of gravy, a gill of white wine, some pep^per, salt, and two shalots, to which may be added, if agreeable, a few cloves, and a clove of garlick, with all kinds of sweet herbs. When the meat is tender, cover it close, then skim the sauce, and strain it, place it over the fire, and let it boil tiLl reduced to a glaze, with which glaze the larded side, and serve it up.

Stewed rump of beef.

Partly roast it, then lay it in a pot with four pints of water, some salt, a gill of vinegar^ three tablespoonsful of ketchup, a bunch of sweet herbs, onions, cloves, and cayenne } cover it close^ and let it simmer tiU tender -,. when enough, lay it in a deep dish, over hot water, and cover it close, then skim the gravy well, and add pickled mushrooms and a spoonful of soy, thicken with flour and buttof*warm the whole, and pom* it over the me&t^ and serve with force-meat balls.

USEFUL RECEIPT BOOK. Ill

To roast a rump or sirloin of beef.

Place them at a moderate distance from the fire, then flour and baste them constantly -, take four spoonsful of vinegar, a shalot^ some horse-radish, one glass of claret, and two spoonsful of ketchup, with which baste the beef four or five times^ then strain and lay it under the meat, garnish with horseradish finely scraped. A rump roasted in this manner is truly delicious; but the sauce thus mentioned Is not absolutely requisite^ if inconvenient.

To press beef.

Salt the tops of the ribs with salt and saltpetre six days, then boil them till perfectly tender, and put them in a cheese-press till cold.

To make a fillet of beef.

Hang four ribs, for as many days, then cut out all the bones, after which sprinkle adl with salt, roll the meat very tight and roast it. When dressed, it looks beautiAil, and eats far better than when dressed with the bones.

Hunter's beef.

To a' round of beef, boned, that weighs thirty pounds, and has hung four days, take four ounces of coarse sugar, the same quantity of saltpetre, two ounces of cloves, two nutmegs, an ounce of allspice, and half a pound of common salt} reduce these ingredients to a fine powder, which must be rubbed well into the meat; when this is done, the beef must be turned and rubbed every day for a . month.

When the beef is to be dressed, a little water must be thrown over it to wash off the loose spice, it must then be bound well up, and put into an

114 D0ME8T1C COOKERY^ AND

Stewed ox cheek.

Soak and clean half a head well. Separate the meat from the bones^ and lay M in an earthen pan with onions^ allspice;, pepper^ salt^ sweet herbs^ and a little Cayenne and ketchup, pour on two quarts of water^ and cover the pah close with a trencher, then let it stand six hours in a slow oven.

Marrow bon^

Must have the top covered with a floured cloth, and be served with dry toast.

Tripe

May be fried in batter, or served in a tureen with butter and mustard, after having been stewed in milk and onion till tender; or it may be fricaseed with white sauce, or soused.

Bubble and squeak.

Take some butter, pepper, salt, and cold cabbage, chop the whole together, and fry it; when done, lay on it some slices of underdone corned beef, fried of a fine brown colour.

Cow heels.

Boil till tender, (save the liquor they were boiled in, and use it for making soup), and serve with melted butter, mustard, and vinegar 5 or parsley and butter.

Or, having cut the heel into four parts, dip them in yolk of ^g, strew grated bread over them, and fry of a nice brown in dripping: fry. sliced onions, lay them in the middle of the dish, and the heel round it.

Knuckle of veal Requires merely to be boiled till perfiecUy^ tender^

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USEFUL RECEIPT BOOK., 115

and then serve it with melted butter and chopped parsley^ or it may be fried with sliced onion to a fine brown colour, then lay it in a stew-pan with some ready stewed pease, onions, lettuce, to which may be added a large cuciunber; simmer the whole till the meat is tender, and season with pepper and salt, then serve it, and garnish with lemon, sliced.

Observe, veal, in whatever manner it is dressed should always have bacon or ham to eat with it.

Neck of Veal

May be boiled, and served with parsley and melted butter.

The best end will eat very well roasted^ or make very excellent pies. It may be also stewed and seasoned agreeable to your own fancy, or broiled as chops.

Chump of veal, a-ki'daube.

Take the chump of the loin, and extract the edgebone, prepare some rich force-meat, and fill the hollow with it; secure ii; well, then place the,, veal ^ in a clean stew-pan, with some sweet herbs, . some ketchup, mace, white pepper, two anchovies, and a little finely shred lemon-peel; lay over the whole some neat ^ces of gbod fat bacon   then cover the pan close, and let it simmer two hours and a half, then remove the bacon, and glaze the veal 5 serve . it agreeable to fancy.

Harrico of veal.

Cut the bones from the best end of a neck, then lay the meat in a stew-pan, and cover it wilh good brown gravy 5 when nearly enough, have ready a pint of boiled pease, four cucumbers sliced, and one large cabbage-lettuce divided into quarters, aU stewed ia^i little strong broth, add them to the

116 DOMESTIC COOKERY, AND

veal, and let them simmer a quarter of an hour, then serve with force-meat-balls round the dish.

Ragoo of veal sweetBreads,

Divide them into pieces, wash and dry them, then put them in a stew-pan of hot burned butter, and stir them tiU brown, then cover them with rich gravy, to which add pepper, salt, mace, two cloves, a little allspice, and some mushrooms, let the whole stew forty minutes, then strain the liquor, and thicken it with butter and floury lay the sweetbread in a dish, and pour it over them. Garnish with sliced lemon.

To ragoo a leg of mutton.

Carefully separate the skin and fat, then cut the flesh off the right way of the grain in thin pieces, butter the stew-pan and dust it with flour, lay in the meat with a lemon, one onion cut very small, some sweet herbs and mace, stir the whole fdr a few minutes, then add half a pint of strong gravy, two minced ai^chovies, and some butter rolled in flour; stir the whole up again for ten minutes, ahd then serve it up.

A'la-mode berf.

Take either of the fbUoi^ang pieces of beef, thick flank, shoulder-of-mutton piece, clod, veiny piece; and take a deep tin pot that will rather more than hold the beef, cover the bottom with clean skewers, and put upon them four large onions fried a nice brown 5 put in the beef, sprinkling it with powdered flJlspice, four cloves powdered, black peeper, and salt, add one turnip, two heads of celery, and three carrots, all cut small; fill up the pot with one part of table-beer and two parts of water, cover it very clbse^ and let it stew gently ten hours.

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USEFUL RECEIPT BOOK. 117

To stew beef-steaks.

Half broil them^ and lay them in a stew-pan^ season agreeable to taste^ add enough strong gravy to cover them and a bit of butter roHed in flour; let them stew half an hour^ then throw in the beaten yolks of two eggs^ and stir the whole ten minutes, then serve it up.

Leg of beef

With a sharp knife^ cut off all the meat^ leaving the gristly part fast to the bone: saw the bone into several pieces^ and put them with three gallons of water, six onions, four carrots, sweet herbs, two leeks, a little allspice, salt, and black pepper, into an iron pot to stew over the fire all night: in the morning skim off the fat, and having cut the meat into thick slices, fry it a nice brown with a part of the fat thus skimmed 5 the remsdnder will make good pie crust. In the same pan fry six large onions -, put these and the slices of meat together with a quart of table-beer, into the pot with the liquor of the bones, adding more onions, carrots, turnips, &c.: let the whole stew gently eight hours 5 take up the meat, and strain the liquor over it.

To stew brisket of beef

Rub the brisket with common salt^and saltpetre, let it lay four or five days, then lard it with fet baoon, and lay it in a stew-pan with a quart of water, a pint of strong beer, some sweet herbs, eight ounces of butter, three shalots, some grated nutmeg and pepper, cover it close, and stew it over a slow fire, for five or six hours; then strain the liquor, and thicken with burnt butter; lay the beef in a large dish, and pour it over; then serve it up garnished with sliced lemon.

llg DOMESTIC COOKERY; ANi

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Tojrkasee lamb brown.

Rub the pieces over with yolks of eggs and roll them in a mixture of pepper, salt^ grated lemonpeel, nutmeg, and powdered herbs; put some butter in your stew-pan, and melt it, then throw in the meat, and fry it of a fine brown: when enough, strain off the butter, and pour in half a pint of gravy, a gill of Port wine, some pickled mushrooms, two minced anchovies, and a piece of butter rolled in flour; when sufficiratly thick, dish, and serve it up.

Rabbit and chicken are done in the same manner.

Tojrkasee lamb white.

Slice a leg of half-rpasted lamb when cold; lay it in a stew-pan with a little white gravy, some nutmeg, one shalot finely shred, a few minced capers, and some salt; let it simmer over the stove till enough, then thicke^ with cream, the yolks of two eggs, and some chopped parsley, beaten well together. Grarnish with oysters.

Fried beef -steaks.

Beat them well, then fry them in butter over a quick fire, till brown. WTien enough, pour off the butter, and add some good gravy, a little ketchup, and a sliced onion, thicken it with butter, and serve it up.

The quantity of onion may be increased at pleasure.

Scotch'Collops, brown.

Take slices of lean veal, dip them in the yolks of eggs, that have been beaten up with melted butter, salt, nutmeg, and grated lemon-peel. Fry them very ouirk frequently shaking them to prevent the

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USEFUL BECEIPT BOOK. 119

butter from oiling) then add strong beef gravy, and mushrooms. Gramish with sausages.

Scotch'Collops, uohite.

Take the veal as above, but do not dip it in eggs; when fWed tender, but not brown, then strain the liquor clear off, and add some cream, after which just give it one boil up.

Veal cutlets.

Slice your veal, lard it with bacon, season with nutmeg, pepper, salt, lemon-thyme, and sweet maijorum; wash them with eggs first, and then strew over the seasonings dip them in melted butter, and wrap them in buttered white paper, then broil them on a gridiron, at some distance from the fire -, when -enough, take off the paper, serve with gravy, and garnish with sliced lemon.

To force sirloin of beef

When roasted, lay it in the dish with the inside uppermost, then lift the skin, and cut the inside very fine; add pepper, salt, a little Cayenne, and some finely minced shalots^ cover it with the skin, an4 serve it up.

Hung'beef

Hang your beef till it begins to turn, then wipe it with a clean cloth, and salt it with a pound of bay salt, a quarter of a pound of saltpetre, and half a pound of coarse sugar; let it remain six weeks in this pickle, observing to turn it every dayj then dry it.

Mutton-hanu,

Cut a leg of mutton like a ham, and salt it with one ounce of saltpetre, a pound of coarse sugar.

120 DOMESTIC COOKERY^ AND

and the same quantity of common salt^ tmn and rub it for fourteen days 3 then roll it in saw-dust, and smoke it. Mutton-ham should never be boiled^ but eaten in rashers.

Minced veal. i

Cut your veal extremely fine, add to it some nutmeg, finely shred lemon-peel, and salt, pour over these ingredients, a few spoonsful of water; let the whole simmer, but not boil, then thicken with butter rubbed in flour. Serve with sippets and lemon.

To pot veal.

Take a pound of the fiUet when cold^ season with mace, cloves, and pepper-corns, lay it in a pan that will just hold it, fill it with water, and let it bake three hours -, after which pound it in a mort^, with a little salt, and gradually add the liquor in which it was baked, if for immediate use; but if to be preserved, omit the gravy, and supply its place with a little melted butter. When done^ cover it with clarified butter.

Veal cutlets fried.

Take your slices of veal^ beat them, and wet them with eggs^ then make a seasoning of bread* crumbs, parsley, thyme, nutm^, pepper, and salt, into which dip them, then fry them in butter nicely brown. They eat exceedingly well without herbs.

Scollops of cold veal or chicken.

Chop your meat small, add some nutmeg, pepper, salt, and a little cream, set the whole over a fire for ten minutes; then lay it in scollop-shells, and W. them with bread crumbs, over which, put some small pieces of butter, and brown them before a good fire.

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USEFUL RECEIPT BOOK. 121

Veal sausages.

'take one pound of lean veal^ and the same quantity of fat bacon^ with sage salt^ pepper, and four anchovies, chop the whole well, and then pound it in a mortar -, when used, roll and fry it. Serve with fried sippets.

To roast calfs head.

Wash the head very dean, take out the brains, and dry well with a cloth. Make a seasoning of beaten mace, white pepper and salt, some bacon cut very small, and some grated bread. Strew this over it, roll it up, and skewer it with a small skewer, and tie it with tape. Roast and baste it with butter: make a rich veal-gravy, thickened with butter, and

roll it in flour.

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V

To boil calf's head.

Wash it very clean, soak it in water for two hours; boil it white in a doth; and boil the brains in another doth^ with a very little parsley, and a leaf or two of sage. When they are boiled^ diop them small^ and warm them in a saucepan, with a bit of bjutter, and a little pepper and salt. Lay the tongue, boiled and peded in the middle of a small dish, and the brains round it; have, in another dish, baeon or pickled pork 5 greens or carrots in another.

To hash calf's head.

«

If any head is left, it will make an excellent hash the next day. For 4vhich purpose brown some butter, flour, and sliced onion, and throw in your meat sliced, with some strong gravy -, give it one boil, skim it carefiiUy, and then let it simmer till suffidently tender: season with pepper, salt, and

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1^ DOMESTIC COOKERY^ AND

Cayenne^ and herbs^ according to taste. Garnish with force-meat balls.

Mock turtle.

Cut a calf 's-head^ with the skin on^ In halves^ clean it well^ parboil it^ and cut all the meat in small square pieces   then break the bones, and boil them in some beef-broth: fry some shalots in butter, and add enough of flour to thicken the gravy, stir this into the browning, and give it a boil, taking off the scum; then add a pint of Madeira, and let the whole simmer, till the meat is perfectly tender j when nearly enough, throw in some chives, parsley, basil, salt, Cayenne pepper, one spoonful of soy, and three of mushroom ketchup; then squeeze a little lemon-juice into the tureen, pour your soup on it, and serve with forcemeat-balls.

Mock turtle, without calf's head.

Take three cow-heels, and having cut them in pieces, stew till tender in four quarts of second stock: add five anchovies, a piece of butter, salt, Cayenne, mace, cloves, shred lemon-peel, three leeks, parsley, and lemon-thyme, all finely shred: stew gently for two hours: cut two pounds of lean veal into small pieces, fry in butter of a light brown, and add to the above, with a pint of Madeira, four spoonsful of ketchup and stew another hour: have ready some force-meat balls and eggballs, which add a quarter.of an hour before serving, and immediately before put into the tureen, add the juice of two lemons.

Sweetbreads,

Parboil them, and stew them with white gravy, and add salt, pepper, floured butter, and cream '3

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USEFUL RfiCEIPT BOOK. 138

or they may be done in brown sauce^ and seasoned to fiincy, or they may be parboiled^ and then (tipped in egg and crumbs^ and fried.

To fry calf 8 liver and bacon.

Fry the bacon and parsley first, then put in the liyer. The liver should be soaked in water half an hour, then cut in slices, and dried well with a cloth, and iioured. After it is done, mix a little flour in a tea-cup of water, with a small piece of butter and a little salt 3 pour it inta the pan, and stir it well -, when boiled, pour it over the ^ve^and bacon and serve it up.

Calfs heart roasted.

Having made a force-meat of grated bread, a quarter of a poimd of beef suet chopped small, a little parsley, sweet marjoram and lemon-peel, mixed up with a little white pepper, salt, nutmeg, and the yolk of an egg, fill the heart with it, and lay a veal caul over the stuffing, or a sheet of writing-paper, to keep it in its place, and keep turning it till it is thoroughly roasted. Serve with good gravy under it.

N.B. A bullock*s heiurt is done in the same manner.

Kidney

May be either broiled or roasted, or chopped into small pieces, with some of the. fat, seasoned with pepper^ suet, and onion, then roll it into small balls with an egg, and ^ it.

To roast a leg of pork.

Take a small one, and slit the knuckle; fill the opening with sage^ onion^ crumbs of bread, pepper

124 DOMESTIC COOKERY, AND

and salt. When half done, score the outer skill with a sharp knife. Serve with apple sauce.

To boil a leg of pork.

Lay a leg which has been ten days in salt, half an hour in cold water -, then put it on the fire ', allow iifteen minutes for every pound, and thirty over from the time that it boils up: take the scum off frequently. Observe, to have your meat look well, it should be boiled in a cloth -, when enough, serve with pease pudding.

Pickled pork.

Having washed your pork, and scraped it clean, let it lie half an hour in cold water, put it in when the water is cold, and let it boil till the rind be tender.

Spnng of pork.

Extract the bones, strew salt, pepper, and dried sage^ over the inside, then flour it, roll the pork tight, secure it by tying, roast it, and baste with butter: it will be enough in two hours and a quarter.

Rolled neck ofporkm

Extract the bones^ put chopped sage, breadcrumbs, pepper, salt, and a little allspice over the inside 3 then roll the whole extremely tight, tie it securely, and roast it at some distance from the fire.

Spare rib.

Baste with butter and flour, sprinkle with dry broken sage, and serve with apple sauce.

Pork griskin. Cover it with cold water, and give it one boil up.

USEFUL RECEIPT BOOK. 125

then take it immediately out^ and lay it in a Dutchoven, haying previously rubbed it with butter and flour: a few minutes will do it.

Pork steaks.

Out them of a proper thickness, pepper, salt, and broil them, observing to broil them frequently ^ when hearly enough, add a little salt, and rub them with butter: serve them hot and hot.

Sausages, ^

Chop fiat and lean pork, or beef, well together, season with sage, pepper, salt, allspice, and nutmegs then lay it in b, pan, tde it well down, and keep it for use, for which purpose roll it, dust it with flour, and fiy it nicely brown: or it may be stuffed in well-cleaned hog's guts, in which case you must add to the meat a fourth part of bread-crumbs soaked in water. When dressed, observe to prick them with a fork, otherwise they wiU burst.

Oxford sausages.

Take of veal and pork, cleared from the skin and sinews, two pounds eadi, and one pound of beef tuet, mince and mix them well, to which add. the soaked crumb of a penny roll, with salt, pepper, and dried sage.

To roast a pig. Take one about six weeks old, stuff the belly with salt, pepper, sage, and bread crumbs, then sew it up 5 place it Tbefore a smart fire -, when perfectly dry, tie up a piece of butter in a clean cloth, and rub the pig all over with it, then dredge as much flour as wiU lie on it, and meddle no more with it till enough^ then take a knife and sorape all the flour off, and rub it again with the buttered idcrth; cut off the head, extract the brains^ and

M 3

1*26 DOMESTIC COOKERY^ AND

mix them with the gravy that comes from the pig: put this into the dish, and serve with melted butter: garnish with the ears and two jaws.

Pettitoes.

Take a small quantity of water^ in which boil the pettitoes with the liver and hearty then mince the meat 5 split the feet and smamer the whole till the feet are perfectly tender^ thicken with butter and fiour^ add a little cream^ and season with salt and pepper: serve with sippets.

To roast a porker's head.

Take your head^ and stuff with sage and breadj, sew it well up^ then roast it in a hanging jack as a pig^ and serve it up with the same sauce.

Boiled pig's cheek.

When sufficiently salt^ (which generally is the case in ten days^) wash it well^ and let it simmer till perfectly tender: serve with pease-pudding.

Pig*s harslet.

Take some liver^ sweetbreads^ and fat and lean pork^ wash the whole and dry it 5 season with sage^ minced onion^ salt^ and pepper -, lay the whole in a caul, and sew it well up, roast it by^ a string, and when done enough serve with Port wine and water^ boiled gently up wit}i scnne mustard.

Black puddings.

Stir three pints of blood with salt till cold; boil a quart of half-grits in as much water as will swell them, then drain them, and add the blood, twelve ounces of suet, with some powdered nutmeg, mace, cloves, and allspice, a pound of the hog's leaf cut small, fiome finely minced -parsley, sage, thyme, and liaar

VSBFUL RECEIPT BOOK. 127

joram^ half a pound of bread crumbs scalded: season with pepper and salt, mix the whole weU together, and then having some well cleaned guts, fill them with the above ingredients, tie them in luiks, and boil them, (diuing which operation they must be pricked, to prevent their bursting) then cover them with a cloth till cold.

Hog*s lard.

Should be carefully melted, and run either into very small jars, or bladders, and carefully stopped, as the entrance of the air will soon spoil the lard.

Leg cf mutton.

ShoiQd be slowly boiled, like a leg of lamb, in a white cloth y and when done, served up with caper sauce, and meshed turnips in one dish, and carrots in another 5 garnish with pieces of carrot or turnip prettily shaped. Or, you may roast it, and serve with currant jelly, or onion sauce. A shoulder is dressed the same, but never boiled.

Haunch of mutton.

Keep it sweet as long as possible: when you design to dress it, wash it wdl, fold the haimch in some strong paper, and set it at some distance from the fire, remove the paper about half an hoiur before serving, bring it nearer the fire, and baste it constantly, observing to froth it up as venison 5 serve with currant-jelly sauce.

' Neck of mutton.

Is a useful, but not an advantageous joint. The best end Aiaybe boiled, and served with meshed turnips -, or roasted, or dressed in steaks, or made into pies, or harrico.

The scrag end will make excellent broth, to which

138 DOMESTIC COOKERY^ AND

a little milk makes a great improvement. If the neck is too fat, cut off some of it^ and being chopped fine^ it will make an excellent pudding.

Roast saddle of mutton.

Let it hang some days^ lift the skin^ and skewer it on again ', twenty minutes before serving, take it quite off, sprinkle with salt, baste it,^ and dredge it well with flour. It should never be too large.

Hashed mutton.

Slice your cold meat, lay it in a stew-pan with some boiled onion, a gill of water, and a pint of gravy, add a spoonM of ketchup, two cloves, and a little salt and pqiper; let the whole simmer, but not boil; serve it with pickles, button mushrooms, and sippets.

Breast of mutton.

Take off some of the fat, roast the meat^ and serve with stewed cucumbers.

Loin of mutton.

May be roasted, same as the saddle, or it may be made into broth, or cut into chops, or made into pies.

Mutton, or lamb chops.

Should be taken from the loin, and broiled over a very clear fire, turned often, and seasoned when half done, with pepper and salt j when enough, lay them in a dish, rub a bit of butter on each, and serve them hot and hot. Pickles should be always sent to table with them.

Mutton steaks maintenon. Take good steaks, half fry them, and stew them



USEFUL RECEIPT BOOA 129

while hot, with crumbs^ herbs, and seasoning, then put them in paper, and finish on the gridiron: observe to butter the paper.

Grass lamb.

So many pounds as the joint weighs^ so many quarters of an hour it must boil. Serve it up with spinach^ carrots, cabbage, and brocoli.

Leg of lamb

Should be boiled in a cloth as white as possible 5 or it may be roasted: it will take near an hour.

Loin of lamb May be either cut into steaks, or roasted.

ji fore-quarter of lamb.

Lamb requires to be well roasted. A small forequarter will take an hoiu* and a half. For sauce, mint sauce, with salad, brocoli, potatoes, celery raw or stewed 3 or for a fore-quarter of houselamb, cut off the shoulder, pepper and salt the ribs, and squeeze a Seville orange over it.

Lamb steaks fried,

Should be of a very beautiful brown. When served, throw over some fried crumbs, and a little crimped parsley: serve with sauce robart.

Lamb cutlets, with spinach.

Stew your spinach, and lay it in the dish, then, having fned some steaks from the loin nicely brown^ lay them roimd it.

Lamb's head and hinge^

Soak it for some time in cold water; boil the head separately till quite tender, then, after you

130 DtME&TIC COOKERY, AND

have three parts boiled the liver and lights^ mince them small^ ami stew them in a little of the water in which they were boiled, season it to your palate, and thicken with floured butter: so-ve the head with the mince round it.

Lamb^sfry.

Fry it of a fin© brown, and serve with fHed parsley.

Lamb's sweetbread.

Lay them for a short time in cold water, then put. them in a stew-pan with half a pint of broth, some maoe, onions, pepper, and salt, add a bit of buttered floiur, and let the whole stew about forty minutes, then put in two eggs, well beaten^ some parsley, a little grated nutmeg, and half a pint of cream 5 after the cream and eggs are put in it must be constantly stirred, but not suffered to boil, which would curdle it; you may also add some young French-beans, or pease, or asparagus tops, previously boiled. The sweetbreads ought to be blanched.

DIRECTIONS CONCERNING POULTRY

AND GAME.

REMARKS.

To dress wild fowl, a clear fire is requisite, before which they should be done of a fine brown colour^ but not too much, for if the gravy runs out, it will destroy their flavour. Great care should be pai4

USEFUL AECEIPT BOOK. 131

to the picking of poultry^ which should then be nicely singed with writing papc^r. Tame fowls require more roasting^ as they are a long time before they get thoroughly heated. They should be often basted, in order to keep up a strong froth, as it makes them of a ^ner colour, and rise better. Ducks and geese should be roasted' before a good fire^ and turned quickly. Hares and rabbits require time and care, to see the ends are roasted enough. In order to prevent their appearing bloody at the neck when they are cut up, cut the neck-skin, when they are half roasted, and let out the blood. Al} sorts should be continually basted with fresh butter, which will give them a good co* lour, and make them frothy. A fuU grown fowl .will take three quarters of an hour, a middling one, thirty minutes, and a chicken twenty minutes. Wild ducks a quarter of an hour, a goose one hour, pheasants twenty minutes, a stuffed turkey one hour and a half, turkey poults twenty-four minutes, partridges half an hour, and a hare one hour, &c. But in all cases, you must be guided in txme by the manner your fhmily approve of them, as some persons eat game scarcely warmed, and others as well done as tame fowls.

To roast a luire.

Take of bread-crumbs and shred suet equal quantities, some chopped parsley and thyme, salt, jpepper and nutmeg, two eggs, two spoonsfull of port wine, and a little lemon-peel. Mix these ingredients well together, and sew them up in the hare's belly; place it before a slow fire, baste with milk till it becomes very thick, then msike your fire brisk, and baste with butter. Serve with currant jelly. N. B. If not convenient the wine may be U& out of the stuffing.

132 DOMESTIC COOKER Y AND

T(y rooit rabbits.

Baste them with good butter^ and dredge with flour ', they will require from thirty to fifty minutes, according to size; boil the liver with some parsley, chop it fine^ and mix it with melted butter, which pour over the rabbit when dished. Save a few slices of the liver for garnishing.

Rabbits roasted harefashion.

Lard your rabbit with bacon, and roast in the manner of a hare. If you lard it, you must make gravy sauce; but, if it be not lajrded^ white sauce will be most proper, - See Sauces.

To roast a green goose.

Put a large lump of butter into the goose^ spit it and lay it down to the fire. Singe it, dredge it with flour, and beiste it well with butter. If the goose be a large one, it must be kept to the fire three quarters of an hour -, and when you think it is enough, dredge it with flour, baste it till a fine froth rises on it, and the goose be of a nice brown. Same sauce as directed for green goose.

To roast a stubble goose.

Mix some sage, onion, pepper, salt, and butter, together, and lay it in the bdly of the goose, then spit it, dredge with flour, and baste with butter -, when enough, take it up and pour a little water through it. Serve with apple-sauce.

To boil turkey.

Take herbs, nutmeg, salt, pepper, breads two anchovies, a little lemon-peel, a small bit of butter^ some suet, and an egg, mix the whole weU together^ and stuff it in the crop, s6w it up^ and boil

USEFUL HECSIPT BOOK. 133

the turkey in a flannel cloth^ which will cause it to look wlute. Serve with oyster sauce^ enriched with cream^ and a little soy. .

Roiist turkey.

Twist the head under the wing -, stuff with sausage-meat^ lay a small strip of paper on the breastbone to prevent it from scorching^ baste with butter, and froth it well up. Serve with gravy in the dish, and bread-sauce in a tureen.

Observe, that the sinews of the leg should invariably be drawn out, whether roasted or • boiled. A few bread crumbs and a well beaten egg, is a considerable improvement to the sausage mefiit.

To boil/owls or chickens

For this purpose, never choose black-legged ones, pick, singe, and wash them well, then lay them in boiling water, after having floured them. Serve with melted butter and parsley. Ham should always be boiled to eat with boil^ fowls.

To roast pigeons.

Mix some butter, salt, pepper, and chopped parsley, well together -, lay these ingredients in the bellies of the pigeons, observing to tie the neck end tight, then roast them with a string fastened to their legs and rumps, torn them constantly, and baste with butter -, when enough, lay them in your dish^ and they will aboimd with gravy.

To roast larks.

Pick and clean them carefully, then place them on a bird-spit, and roast them } when enough, lay them in your dish, and throw fried bread crumbk over them.

N

134 DOMESTIC COOKERY^ AND

mmmmmmmmmmmmim^mmm^mmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmimiim

To roait chickens, Fluck your chickens very carefully^ draw them^ and cut off their claws only« and tmss them. Put them down to a good fire^ singe^ dust^ and haste them with hutter. A quarter of an hour will roast, them 3 and when they are enough^ firoth them'^ and lay them on your dish. Serve up with parsley and butter, or wlute sauce.

Fowls.

Having deansed and dressed your \arg& fbwk^ put them down to a good fire, singe, dust, and baste them well with butter. They must be near an hour at the fire. Make your gravy of the necks and gizzards, and when you have strained it, put in a spoonful of browning. Take up your fowls, pour some gravy into a dish, and serve them up with egg-sauce.

Pheasants,

Pheasants and Partridges x may be treated in the same manner. Dust them with flour, and baste them often with fresh butter, keeping them at a good distance from the fire. A good fire will roast them in half* an hour. Serve up with poivrade sauce, and bread sauce. IbwU Pheasant-fashion.

If you should have but one pheasant, and want two in a dish, take a lar^e full-grown fowl, keep the head on, and truss it just as you do a pheasant. Lard it witiii bacon, but do not lard the pheasant, and no body will know it

USEFUL RECEIPT BOOK. 185

Broiled fowls.

Split them down the back, pepper^ salt^ and broil them. Serve \vith mushroom-sauce.

To roast woodcocks and snipes.

Put them on a bird-spit^ then take a slice of bread, toast it brown, and lay it in a dish under the birds; baste with butter, and let the trail drop on the toast; when enough, lay the toast in a dish, and place the woodcocks upon it 3 pour a little grary in the dish, and send them to table. It may perhaps be necessary to remark, that nothing is ever taken out of a woodcock or snipe.

To stew a duck.

When perfectly clean, put it in a stew-p»n with strong beef-gravy, a gill of port-wine, some whole pepper, one. onion, two anchovies, and some lemonpeel $ when enough, thicken the gravy with but^ tered flour, and serve it up.

*

Tofricasee chickens or rabbits white.

Piece them, wash the blood off, and fry tjiem on a slow fire, then lay them in your stew-pan with some strong white gravy, season, and toss them up, and when nearly enough, add a pint of milk 5 thicken with floured butter, and serve them up.

To boil rabbits.

Boil your rabbit slowly in plenty of water, and skim it frequently: it will be enough in forty minutes: lay your rabbit in a dish, and bury it in onion sauce, in which manner serve it ^ previously dividing the head, and laying one half on each side of the dish.

136' DOMESTIC COOKERY, AND

To force fowt

This is done by staffing any part with fbrce-^meat, which is generally put just between the skin and the flesh.

To puU chickens. .

Skin and pull the flesh from the bones of 4 cold fowl, dredge the pieces with flour, and fry them of a fine brown colour in fresh butter ^ then having drained off the butter, let the flesh simmer in good gravy, season agreeable to fJEincy^ and thicken with floui«d butter.

Chicken currie.

Skin and cut up a fowl, make a mixture of two oimces of flour and half an ounce of currie-powder, in which roll each piece; slice two large onions, and fry them in butter of a fine light brown colour 5 then add the meat, and let it fry till it begins to turn brown, when the whole must be laid in a stewpan with just enough boiling water to cover it; let the whole simmer two hours, and serve with boiled rice.

Veal and rabbits make an equally good currie.

Ducks roasted.

Stuff your ducks with sage and onions, a few bread crumbs, a piece of butter, salt and pepper, when enough, serve with rich gravy and mustard.

When any is left cold, it may be hashed by warming it in rich gravy.

To boil ducks.

When you have scalded and drawn your ducks let them remain a few, minutes in warm water, then take them out, put them into an earthen pan, and pour a pint of boiling milk over them. Let them

tSEFUL RfiCEIPT BOOX^ 137

lie in it two or three hours^ and when you take them out^ dredge them well with flour 3 put them into cold water^ and cover them up. Hiaving hoile4 slowly about twenty minutes^ take them out, and smother* them with onion sauce.

To roast goose.

When carefully picked, singed^ washed, and dried, stuff in the same manner as duck, after which, secure it at the neck and rump, and then roast; - to prevent scorching, pin a sheet of white paper over the breast^ baste it well, and when enough^ serve with rich gravy and apple-sauce.

To slew giblets. See giblet pie - ^page 143. ^

To boil pheasants md partridges.

Boil them quick in a good deal of water, and fifteen minutes will be sufficient. For sauce, a quarter of a pint of cream, and a piece of fresh butter as large as a walnut 5 stir it one way till it be melted, and pour it into the dish. Garnish with lemon.

Grouse

Roast as fowls, observing to twist the head under the wing. They should be rather under-done, and served with rich gravy and bread sauce.

To pot birds.

When caref^y cleaned, season well with mace, white-pepper, salt, and allspice finely powdered; then lay them, breast downwards, in a pan, and pack them as close as possible; put plenty of butter

1S8 DOMESTIC COOKERY, AND

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on them, cover the pan with a coarse paste, and bake. When cold, cut them properly up, lay the pieces into pots and cover with clarified butter.

ffitd ducks, widgeon, teal, S^c,

Should be taken up with the gravy in, sprinkle a little salt over them before they are taken up, and pour some strong gravy over them. Serve with shalot sauce.

Observe, that wild fowl eat better without stuffing, and that they require much less dressing than tame -, and that their fishy taste may be taken off by basting them for about ten minutes with salt and water.

To dress plovers.

Roast the green ones without drawing, and serve on a toast as Woodcocks. Gray plovers may be either roasted or stewed.

To roast ortolans.

Carefully pick and singe, but not draw them, roast on a bird-spit^ and cover them with breadcrumbs.

Guinea and pea-fowl. Dress as pheasants.

To jug hare.

Clean, skigi, and cut it up, then season with all. spice, mace, pepper, salt, and nutmeg; lay it in a jar with some sweet herbs, an onion, and some coarse beef, tie the jar securely down, and stand it in a saucepan, of water, up to the neck 3 let the water boil four or five hours, when enough, thicken with flour and butter, and add a giU of port ^Pifine

USEFUL RECEIPT ROOK. 139

Stuffing for turkeys, hares, rabbits, ^c.

Chop very fine, beef suet, parsley, thyme, eschalots, a very small quantity of marjoram, savory, basil, and lemon-peel, with grated nutmeg, two eggs (or milk), pepper, salt, and an anchovy; mix all together with grated bread.

SAVOURY PIES.

REMARKS.

Savoury pies require considerable care, particularly in respect to, seasoning, which must be always done without any fixed rules, agreeable to the taste tSf the maker. When intended to eat cold, the use of suet must be avoided. Force-meat is a wonderful improvement to all meat pies.

Crtistfor meat pies.

Take half a quartern of fine flour, one poimd of but i^r, and two eggs, mix it into a paste with warm water, and work it to a good consistency.

^ Eel pie.

Cut the eels in pieces, each about three inches long, seasmi with pepper and ^alt, lay the whole in a dish with a few bits of butter, and cover with good paste.

Mackarelpie,

Mackarel will make a good, pie, done in the same manner, and seasoned well: serve with oystersauce.

140' DOMESTIC COOKERY, AND

Cod pie.

Salt a piece of cod twelve hours, then wash and

. season it weU, and lay it in your dish with a little

buttqr, and a gill of strong broth 3 cover it, and

whoi baked, add some cream, floured butter, and,

if convenient^ a few oysters.

Shrimp pie.

Take a sufficient quantity of picked shrimps, and season them with mace, and four cloves, to which add four minced anchovies, put some butter in the dish, both over and under the shrimps, then add a gill of white wine. The crust should be thin, and the pie will be enough, when that is.

Beef'Mieak pie, • •.

peat your steaks well, season With pepper and salt, add two table spoonsful of ketchup, put a little water in the dish, line the edges with puff paste^ and cover the whole with a good crust.

Veal pie.

Take the scrag-end of a neck, season it witli pepper, salt, nutmeg;, and mace -, cover with a good crust, and when baked, pour in some strong gravy. A few slices of lean ham baked in this pie, will be a material improvement.

Veal olive pie.

Cut some thin long collops, beat, and season them hiffhly with some Cayenne, and finely. shred shalot, roU them tight oyer a layer of force-meat, and £blsten them with small skewers 3 lay them round and round the dish, observing to make the middle the

¦ USEFUL RECEIPT BOOK. 141

highest ', fill it nearly with - water, and cover with good crust; when enough, serve with cream, gravy, and flour added to it.

Mutton pie.

Cut steaks from a loin of mutton, beat them and remove some of the fat, season it well, and put a little water at the bottom of the dish, cover the whole with a pretty thick paste, and bake it.

Squab pie.

Slice some onions and pippins, cover the bottom of the dish with them, strew some sugar over, and lay upon them some mutton chops, seasoned with pepper and salt, then another large pippin, and so on till the dish is full; pour in about a pint of water, and cover with good paste.

A breast of veal pie.

Cut a breast of veal into pieces, season with pepper and salt, lay it in the dish, and place upon the top of it the yolks of six hard boiled eggs, then nearly fill the dish with water, and cover with a good crust. This pie will require to be wdl baked.

Calfs'head pie.

Boil a calf s head about three parts, extract the bones, and slice the meat, season with mace, nutmeg, pepper, and salt, add some oysters, mushrooms, and force-meat balls with a. few bits of batter, then pour in a mixture of Port-wine, gravy, anchovies, and sweet herbs, previously boiled up and thickened with floiu^d butter: cover it with paste, and bake it.

I

14^ DOMESTIC COOKERY^ AND

Lamb stone pie,

Blanch and slice your lamb stones and some sweetbreads^ season with pepper and salt; put ' some sliced artichoke bottoms in the dish on some butter on which lay the meat; add some rich gravy^ and close it down.

Pork pie.

Steak a loin of pork^ ^dn 'and season with salt, pepper^ and nutmeg, lay them in your dish^ and pour in a pint and a half of water ^ cover the whole wit^ a good crusty and bake it well. Apple-sauce is very excellent with this pie.

Venison Pasty,

Cut your meat to pieces^ and lay it with fat between, put some pepper and salt at the bottom of the dish, and some butter, then pack the meat nicely in. The venison bones should be boiled with some fine old mutton -, put half a pint of this gravy cold into the dish, and cover as well as line the sides with, a thick crust, but put no qrust under the meat. When the pastry is baked, put the remainder of the gravy in by means of a funnel, and shake the dish that it may be mixed. Bake it four hours in a slow oven, and when you make your pastry, if you are short of fat, it may be supplied by some from a fine well hung loin of mutton, steqped twenty-four hours in equal parts of. rapevinegar and port-wine.

An excellent gravy for savoury pies.

Take some strong gravy, claret, four anchovies, an onion, and some sweet herbs, boil these ingre

VSBFUL BECEIPl* BOOK. 143

dients together^ and thicken with fioufed butter, when done, pour it into your pies, after they are baked.

Pigeon pie.

Clean your pigeons very well, cut off the pinions and necks, season each with pepper and salt, and lay a pieee of fresh butter in each of their bellies; place a good rump steak at the bottom, of the dish^ on which lay your birds, placing the necks, pinions, livers, gizzards, hearts, &c. in the centre, cover the whole with a good crust, and bake it well.

Fowl pie.

Cut a fowl in pieces, lay it in your idish,. season it, and add force-meat balls, sliced lemon, four ounces of butter, and the yolks of six hard e^gs^ cover the whole with a good paste.

Goose pie.

Bone a goose, season it well with pepper, and mace, lay the meat in your dish, and place on the top of it eight ounces of good fresh butter; cover with a good crust, and bake it in a slowoven.

Observe, there is no necessity for boning the goose, if inconvement.

Giblet pie.

Clean your giblets well, lay them in a stew-pan, with the exception of the livers, with a sufiSciency of water to cover them, add some whole pepper, salt, mace, onion, and a bunch of sweet herbs^ let them stew till quite tender * take your didi, place a rump-steak at the bottom well seasoned, on which lay the stewed giblets and tli« Uvers^ divided into

Jt

144 DOMESTIC COOKERY, AND

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moderate sized pieces -, then strain in the liquor in which the giblets, were stewed, cover with good paste^ and bake the whole one hour and a half.

Turkey pie.

Bone your bird, season it well with pepper and salt, fill up the pie with capons, cut into pieces, (or rabbits will serve equally well,) lay on some butter, and cover it with a good crust.

Hare pie.

Piece and break the bones of your hare, lay them in your dish, and season with pepper, salt, and force meat balls, add some sliced lemon, and hard boiled yolks of eggs j cover with a good crust, and bake it welL A beef-steak laid at th^ bottom of the dish, is a material improvement.

Minced meat.

Take four pounds of currants, wash, pick, and dry them well, three pounds of raisins of the sun, which must be carefully stoned, and chopped small, six pounds of finely shred beef-suet, one pound of loaf-sugar pounded, four nutmegs, two ounces of mace, and two cloves well beaten, eighty pippins, cored, pared, and minced small 5 lay the whole of the above ingredients into a large pan, and mix them well together, adding gradually one pint of brandy, and the same quantity of orange- flower water: a little candied lemon-peel is a considerable improvement 5 when well mixed tie the whole down in stone jars, and it will keep good for four manths.

Minced pies.

Should be made in small patties, with an excellent puff paste, on which the meat should be laijl, and when baked, serve with burnt brandy.

USKFUL RECEIPT BOOK. ]45

Green-goose pie,

Bone your birds^ and singe them nicely^ seasaa highly with salt, pepper, mace, and allspice, iay them in your dish, and cover with a good crust.

Potatoe pie.

Mesh your potatoes well, with some cream and butter, then take some fine rump steaks, and place alternate layers in your dish of meat and potatoes 5 cover with a good paste.

DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING PUDDINGS

REMARKS.

The outside of puddings have very frequently a. disagreeable taste, which may be prevented by observing that your cloth is perfectly clean, then dip it in warm water, and flour it well.

When you design to bake puddings, remember . to butter the dish well before you lay in your pudding, and the same, if boiled in any one. Observe that a batter-pudding should always be tied very close, a bread pudding, on the contrary, loose.

Puddings should be put into boiling water, and frequently removed to prevent them from sticking to the pot. The moment the puddings that are boiled in a cloth are taken from the pot, they should be just dipped into cold water, which will prevent the* cloth from sticking. " " '

»

14€ DOMESTIC COOKERY^ AND

\f vou boil in a bason, butter it^ and boil tb« pudding in plenty of water. Turn it often, and when enough, take it up in the bason, and let it stand a few minutes to cool. Then untie the string, clap the cloth round the bason, lay your dish over it^ and turn the pudding out; then take oflF the bason and cloth very carefully, light puddings being apt to break. When you make batter-puddings, first mix the flour well with a little milk, tben'put in the ingredients by degrees, and it wiU be quite smooth 5 but for a plain batter-pudding, the best way is to strain it through a^ coarse hair-sieve, that it may neither have lumps, nor the treadles of the eggs; and for all other puddings strain the eggs when you beat them. Bread and custard puddings for baking, require time and a moderate oven to raise them; batter and rice puddings a quick oven.

Two spoonsful of snow will supply the place of one eg^, and be equally good. Small beer, or bottled ale, will also answer the same purpose. The yolks and whites of eggs should be each well beaten in a separate bason.

A quaking pudding.

Grate a penny loaf, to which add two spoonsful of rice flour, and eight eggs well beaten, put the whole in a quart of new milk, with a little nutmeg, and rose water, tie it up, boil it one hour, and serve it with melted butter, white wine, and sugar.

Baiter pudding.

Take four spoonsful of flour, one pint of new milk, four eggs well beaten, a little grated nutmeff, ginger, and s^t, mix the whole together, tie it ui a, cloth, ar i boil one hour: serve with melted butter, wine, and sugar.

USEFUL BBOEIPT BOOK. 147

Batter-pudding without eggs.

Mix six spoonsful of flour with a little, milk, a tea-spoonful of salt, two tea-spoonsfiil of beaten ginger^ and two of the tincture of saffron. Mix it with near a quart of milk, and boil it an hour. Fruit may be added.

Boiled plum or Christmas pudding.

' Cut a pound of beef-suet extremely fine, to which add a pound of raisins well stoned, half a pound of currants, picked, cleaned, and dried; some nutmeg, two spoonsful of brandy, two oimces of candled lemon-peel, and one ounce of candied orange-peci shred fine, six well beaten eggs, a gill of cream, and seven or eight table-spoonsful of flour, mix them well, and boil it four hours j when done, serve with melted butter and grated sugar.

Oxford pudding.

A quarter of a pound of biscuits grated, a quarter of a pound of currants clean washed and picked, a quarter of a pound of suet shred small, half a large spoonful of powdered sugar, some grated nutmeg, mince it all well together, then take the yolks of eggs, and make it up into balls as big as turkeys' eggs, fry them in fresh butter of a fine light brown.

Custard pudding.

Take two spoonsful of flour, six eggs w;ell beaten, half a grated nutmeg, some sugar, a little salt, add a tea-spoonfiil of rose-water, then mix the whole in a pint of cream, boil it in a cloth thirty minutes; serve with melted butter and sifted siurar.

148 DOMESTIC COOKERY, AND

Suet-pudding

Take a pint of milk, two eggs well beaten, half a pound of finely chopped suet, a tea-spoonful of powdered ginger, and the same quantity of salt, add flour gradually till you have made it into a pretty thick batter, then let it boil two hours, and serve with melted butter.

Beef-steak pudding.

Make a good crust roll it out half an inch thick, and lay your steaks^ well seasoned, upon it, then roll them up in it, and tie the whole in a cloth. This pudding will take four hours boiling.

Pigeon pudding Is excellent made exactly as the above.

Baked apple pudding.

Take six large apples, peel and. quarter them, observing to cut out the core, boil them tender, with the rind of one lemon, but with the least possible water, then beat them in a mortar quite fine, and add the crumb of a penny loaf, six ounces of butter previously melted, the yolks of four and whites of two eggs^ to which add the juice of one lemon, and sugar agreeable to taste, beat the whole well together, and lay it in a dish with paste, to turn out, when baked.

An apple-pudding.

Make a good puff paste, roll it out, pare your fruit and core it, throw in some sugar as you fill the crust, and close the whole up, tie it up in a cloth, and boil it for two hours, if not very large, but if large, four. When enough, cut a bit of crust out of the top, lay in butter and sugar, (or cream.

USEFUL RECEIPT BOOK. ]4'9

¦ ¦ t . . - ¦

if convenient, instead of butter) then replace tlie crust, and send it to table hot,

Damson, pear, currant, cherry, plum, and apricot puddings may be all made in the same manner.

Apple dumplings.

Pare your apples, (but not core them, as the pips give a fine flavour,) make some good paste, roll it moderately thin, and wrap it round, each apple separately, with two cloves in each, tie each in a piece of ckvth, and put them in boiling water ^ boil near one hour, and serve them with melted butter, or a slice of butter and sugar.

Hunters* pudding.

Take a poimd of cleaned currants, the' same quantity of flow*, of suet, and of stoned and cut raisins, the rind of half a lemon finely shred, eight powdered Jamaica pepper corns, a gill of brandy, four eggs, and a little salt 3 mix the above ingredients well together, then add a sufliciency of milk to make the whole of due consistency j boil it in a melon-mould eight hours, and serve with sweet sauce.

This pudding wiU be good for six months, if preserved in the same cloth in which it was boiled (when cold,) and tied carefully round with paper to exclude the dust. When any of it is required for use, cut it off, and boil it in a doth for rather more than an hour.

Common plum^pudding^

Take a pound of flour, a pound of shred suet, and a pound of currants, one egg, beaten up in milk,^ome lemon and spice to fancy, and a glpss of brandy. This pudding will be very good, and requires to bp boiled thee or fpur hours.

o S

ISO DOMESTIC COOKERY^ AND

Bread pudding.

Melt four ounces of fresh butter in a pint of cream^ or new milk^ stir it continually till melted, then throw in as much grated white bread as will make it pretty lights add some nutmegs a little rose-water, four eggs, a few grains of salt, and some sugar. It may then be either baked or boiled for thirty minutes -, in the latter case, tie it in a cloth 5 serve with melted butter and sugar.

A cheap hread-puddir^.

Take some pieces of stale dry bread, and soak them weU in hot water, then press out the water, and wash the bread, add a little powdered ginger, nutmeg, salt, sugar, and a few well-picked currants, mix the whole well together, lay it in a buttered pan, with a few bits of butter on the top; bake it in a moderate oven, and it is excellent either hot or cold. A spoonful of rose-water will be an improvement.

Bread and butter pudding.

Take slices of bread and butter, and lay them f one upon another in a dish, with currants (well

^ cleaned and picked) between every slice, and a few

i thin slices of citron; then pour o^er some new

¦ milk, mixed with three eggs, a spoonful of rose « water, let it remain two hours to soak, frequently

i lading it over that the bread may be well soaked,

¦^ after which, put a paste round the edge of the dish,

and bake the whole till done.

A plain hakrd pudding.

Boil a pint of new milk, then stir in flour till thick, add three ounces of sugar, four ounces of

USEFUL RECEIPT BOOK. 151

I

butter, three eggs, with two of the whites, a little grated nutmeg, and a little salt, mix the whole well together, lay it in a buttered dish, and let it bake thirty minutes.

Or, if preferred, the same ingredients may be boiled for the same time, and served with melted butter, being equally good either way.

Sago pudding.

Boil . a pint of new milk, with three spoonsful of sago, weU cleaned and picked, cinnamon, lemon, nutmeg, and sugar, according to taste, and mix in three eggs 5 lay a puff paste round the edge of the dish, and bake the whole slowly.

Transparent pudding.

Beat four eggs very well, put them in a stewpan with four ounces of finely powdered sugar, some nutmeg, and a quarter of a pound of butter, set the whole on the fire, and stir it till it thickens, then pour it into a bason to cool 3 line the edge of your dish with a fine puff-paste, pour in your pudding, and bake it in an oven moderately hot

Baked rice-pudding.

Swell the rice over the fire, with a little milk and water, then add more mflk, eggs, sugar, allspice, and lemon-peel, bake it in, a deep dish with a puffpaste edge.

Almond pudding.

Blanch and beat a pound of sweet almonds with two spoonsful of rose-water, and four of Madeira, then add eight ounces of melted butter, the yolks of five, and the whites of two eggs, four ounces of pounded sugar, one quart of cream, one spoonful

152 DOMXSTIC COOKBRY^ AND

of flour^ and three of white bread crumbs; mix the whole well together, and let it boil thirty minutes, or it may be baked the same time.

Millet pudding.

Wash and pick clean half a pound of millet seed, put to it half a pound of sugar, a whole nutmeg grated and three quarts of mUk, and break in half a pound of fresh butter. 3utter the dish^ pour it into it^ and send it to the oven.

Curd puddings.

Curd a gallon of milk, and press off the whey, then rub the curd through a sieve, add half a pound of butter, the crumb of a two-penny loaf, a nutmeg grated, a gill of cream, and some sugar, butter small cups, and three parts fill them. Be care^ in baking them.

Yorkshire pudding.

Take A pint of new milk, four spoonsful of flour, and two well beaten eggs, mix the whole well togetha*, pour it into a square buttered pan, and lay it imder your roasting meat: when one side is sttfficiently brown, turn the other upwards. Serve . it out into square pieces.

Oxford dumplings.

Take of currants and shred suet, eight ounces each, grated bread four ounces, four spoonsful of flour, a considerable quantity of grated lemon-peel, a little fHiffflfMiid powdered pimento, mix it with four egg8 and a sufficiency of milk, into twelve dumpUngs, and fry them of a fine yellow brown. Serve with sweet sauce.

UtKFUL RECEIPT BOOK. 153

Mutton pudding.

Season some slices from the leg; well^ with pepper and salt, then lay them in a bason lined with good suet-crust, and add some shred onion, shalot^ and one spoonfull of ketchup, close it well, tie it in a cloth, and boil it sufficiently.

A quick-made pudding.

Take flour and suet, each four ounces, two eggs, a gill of new milk, two ounces of raisins, and the same quantity of currants, mix the whole well together, and let it boil thirty minutes, with the coverof the pot on

Ground rice pudding.

Boil three large spoonsfull in a quart of milk, with lemon-peel and cinnamon, when cold, add nutmeg, sugar, and four well beaten eggs j bake with a pufF crust round the edge of the dish.

A boiled rice pudding.

Tie a quarter of a pound of rice in a cloth, but give it room for swelling. Boil it an hour, then take it up, untie it, and with a spoon stir in a quarter of a pound of butter. Grate some nutmeg, and sweeten it to the palate. Then tie it up close, and boil it another hour. Then take it up, tiu-n it into the dish, and pour over it melted butter.

Or, take a quarter of a pound of rice, and half a pound of raisins, and tie them in a cloth; but give the rice a good deal of room to swell. Boil it two hours, and when enough, turn it into the dish, and pour melted butter and sugar over it, with a little nutmeg.



154 DOMESTIC COOKERY^ AND

Yetut dumplings.

Mix a light dough with yeast and milk, in th^ same manner as for bread, lay it before the fire, and when sufficiently risen, make your dough into moderate sii.\l balls, and throw them into boiling watery twenty, or thirty minutes at the farthest will do them; you may ascertain when enough, by sticking in a fork; if it comes out dean^ they are done. Eat them with' either salt^ sugar, butter, or meat.

Baker s dough will do for these dumplings.

Pancakes.

Take eggs, flour, and milk, with which make a light batter, add nutmeg, ginger, and salt, fry them in plenty of hot lard. Serve with lemonjuice and powdered loaf sugar. Snow will serve instead of eggs, during the winter, when they are generally very dear.

Fritters.

Prepare your batter as above, and drop a small quantity of it in your pan, then lay some sUced fruit in the centre, and fry it sufficiently. Fruits and sweetmeats of every kind, may be used for this purpose.

Backings.

Mix six ounces of buck-wheat flour, with half a pint of warm milk and two spoonsfull of yeast, place it before the fire about an hour to let it rise ', then mix eight eggs well beaten, and as much milk as will make the batter the usual thickness for pancakes 'y then fry them in the same manner.

USEFUL RECEIPT BOOK. 155.

PASTRY AND CONFECTIONARY.

Puff-paste,

Take an equal quantity of butter and finie flour, mix a little of the butter with the flour^ and wet it with as little water as will suffice to make it into a stiff paste, roll it out, and lay the butter, in slices^ all over it, turn in the ends, and roll it thin; do this twice, and touch it as little as possible. This paste should be baked in a quick oven.

A paste less rich may be made with two pounds of flour, and half a pound of butter: rub them well together, and mix into a paste, with a little water and two well beaten eggs 3 roll and fold it four times.

Raised crust for custards or fruit.

Put eight ounces of butter into a saucepan with water, and when it boils, add as much flour as you judge sufficient, knead it till smooth -, then put it under a pan to soak till near eold; when it is flt to be used.

Excellent short crust.

Take one pound of flour, and twelve ounces of butter, rub it together, and mix into a stiff paste, with as little water as ^ssible, beat it well, and roll it thin 3 bake in a moderate oven^

Cheesecakes.

Take two quarts of new milk, set it as for cheese, and gently whey it, then break it in a mortar, put to it the yolks of three, and ttaie whites of two egg», sweeten to taste, and add some nutmeg, rose-water^

\

156 DOM£STIC f;OOK£RYj AND

and^^k^ mix the whole together: set a pint of creafti over the fire^ and make it into a hasty puddings then mix all the ingredients well together; fin your patty-pans^ and put them immediately into the oven 5 when they rise well up, they are enough.

Rice cheesecakes.

Take eight ounces of ground rice, and boil it in two quarts of milk^ with a little whole cinnamon, till it be of a good thickness, then pour it into a pan, and add sik ounces of fresh butter; let it stand covered till it is cold, and then put in six eggs, (omitting the whites) and eight ounces of currants, some nutmeg and sugar, according to taste.

A plum^cake.

Take a pound and a half of flour, a little ale yeast, half a pint of milk, eight ounces of sugar, the same quantity of butter, and a small portion of alL^ice, make it into a dough before you add the plums, of which you may put in as many as you please.

A pound seed cake.

Take of flour, butter, afld powdered sugar, one pound each, eight yolks and four whites of eggs, and as many caraway seeds as you think proper; first beat up the butter to a cream, observing to beat it one way, then gradually beat in your eggs, sugar, and flour; bake it in a warm oven for an hour and a quarter. Observe, it must be placed in a tin, covered at the bottom and sides with buttered paper.

USEFUL RECEIPT BOOK. 157

Queeti-cakes.

Take one pound of fine flour, three quarters of a pound of butter, the yolks of three eggs, three quarters of a poimd of powdered sugar, a little rose-water, one nutmeg, and a pound of ciurants; beat your butter with your hand till it is thin, dry your flour well, put into it your sugar and nutmeg, and add the whole to your butter^ mix them well, then add your currants, put them in your tins, and bake in a moderate oven, fifteen minutes.

Caraway cakes.

Take two pounds of flour, to which add the same quantity of very fresh butter, (if possible withoutsalt,) sixteen spoonsful of yeast, eight of rosewater, the yolks of six eggs, caraway seeds to taste, and eight ounces of powdered sugar, ?aiead all into a paste 3 shape it according to fancy, and bake it suffidently.

Ratafia cakes.

Take eight ounces of bitter almonds, blanch and beat them fine, while beating them, add the whites of eight eggs, one at a time, and mix it up with sifted sugar to a light paste 5 roll the cakes, and lay them on wafer-paper, or tin plates, make the paste so light as to take it up with a spoon, then bake in a quick oven.

Gingerbread.

Take three pounds of treacle, four beaten eggs^ a pound of brown sugar, two ounces of finely powdered ginger, and of cloves, mace, and nutmegs^ a quarter of an ounce each, and of fine coriander and caraway seeds, one ounce each, and four pounds of meked butter^ paix the whole together, and add

15b DOMESTIC COOKERY^ A.ND

as much flour as will knead it into a very stiff paste, roll it out^ cut it into what form you please^ and bake it in a very quick oven.

#Rhubarb tarU,

Take your rhubarb, peel and slice it^ sweeten it to taste^ and make as a gooseberry tart. These tarts are very delicious.

* Fme tart paute.

Take of flour^ loaf sugar, and butter^ a pound each, work it up together, but do not roll it; then beat it well with the rolling-pin, for half an hour, folding it up and beating it out again; then roll out little pieces, as you want, for your tarts.

Calves* feet jelly.

Take a set of feet, extract the long bone, split each 'foot, and take ofut the fat, boil them in six quarts of water, with half an ounce of hartshorn shavings, till it becomes a jelly } then strain it, and scum off the fat, add the whites of twelve eggs well beaten, sugar enough to sweeten it, the juice of six lemons, and a pint of white wine, stir the whole together over a stove till it boils, then strain it through a jelly-bag, and let h run on the lemonpeel to give it a fine colour and flavour.

Red or white currant jelly ^

Strip off yoiu" Aniit, and put it in a jug, stand the jug in a kettle of water, and let it boil one hour, then throw your currants^ into a fine sieve, and press out aU the juice, to every pint of which add one pound of loaf sugary put it in your preservingpan over a clear fire, and stir it till it becomes a ielly, . observing to scum it carefully; whendoae.

JSEFU^ RECEfPT BOOK. 159

pour it into glasses^ and when cold^ lay some brandypaper on the top: then cover with white paper^ pricked full of holes.

Black currant jelly Is made the same as red cmrant jelly.

Black currant paste.

Take the cmrants just as they come to market^ put them in an earthen jar or pan^ in a baker's oven for six hours^ then pulp them through a fine hair sieve; put the pulp into your preserving pan^ and stir it on a slow fire till it is very stiff: add powdered lump sugar according to your palate 3 stir it a few minutes on the fire^ and lay it on tin plates to dry.

Hartshorn jelly.

Take half a pound of hartshorn-shavings^ and put them into three quarts of water^ and boil it over a gentle fire in an earthen pan till two parts are wasted^ strain off the remaining liquor 3 then add the following ingredients: six . ounces of white 81^-candy powder, a quarter of a pint of mountain wine, and one ounce of lemon-juice, then boil it all together over a gentle fire to the consistence of a jelly.

BUmonge,

Take equal quantities of dear hartshorn and ealves-feet jelly, make it sweet, add some orangeflower and rose-water, a little white wine, and the juice of an orange 3 then blanch some sweet almonds, and pound them well, adding gradually a little rose-water, then add as much of this to the blomonge as wiU turn it white; strain it well, stir all together till it jellies 3 then pour it in your jonjfvmio cool.

ISO DOMBSTIC COOKERY^ AND

A

Everlasting syllabubs.

Take three quarts of thick cream^ a quart of Rhenish wine, a pint of sack, six lemons, two pounds of the best loaf sugar, which must be well beaten, sifted, and put to the cream; grate off the yellow rind of six lemons, put that in, and squeeze the juice of six lemons into your wine; then put that to the cream, and beat the whole together with a spoon^ and till your glasses.

Custard,

Take a pint of new milk, the yolks of three eggs beat fine and strained, a little nutmeg, rose-water, and a bitter almond or two; either bake or boil them.

Or,

Take a quart of cream, a stick of cinnamon, three or four laurel leaves, and some large mAce, boil them all together, and take twelve eggs, beat them well together, sweeten them, and put them in your pan, h&e or boil them^ observing to stir them all one way till properly thick.

Junkets.

Take a pint of new milk and half a pint of cream, put them together warm, with a spoonful of rennet, and cover them with a cloth wrung out of cold water -, gather your curd, and put it in rushes till the whey has run out, and serve it either with or without cream, with sugar and nutmeg.

Ice.

Put in a pail of water one ounce of sal ammoniac, and it will all turn to ice.

176£FUL RECEIPT BOOK. 16]

i r' ' ¦

A Hoaftng island.

Take a pint of thick cream, sweeten with Jine sugar, grate in the peel of one lemon, and add a gill of sweet whit^ wine, whisk it well till you have raised a good froth 3 then pour a pint of thick cream into a China dish 5 take one French roll, slice it thin, and lay it over the cream as lightly as possible ^ then a layer of clear calves-feet jelly, or currant jelly 5 then whip up your cream, and lay on the froth as high as you can, and what remains pour into the bottom of the dish. Garnish the rim with sweetmeats.

, Macaroons.

Take half a pound of almonds, blanch them and throw them into cold water, dry them in a cloth, pound them in a mortar, and moisten them with the white of an egg, then take eight ounces of powdered sugar, the whites of two eggs, and a little milk, beat the whole wdl together, shape them round upon thin paper with a spoon, and bake them on tin plates.

Orgeat

Pound three oimces of sweet, and six single bitter almonds, add one pint of water, strain it through a lawn sieve, and then add two table-spoonsfid of orange-flower water.

Apple-pie,

Pare and core the fruit, lay it iii your dish, and sprinkle some sugar between every layer, when full, put in the juice of one lemon, a little of the peel finely shred, and a few cloves^ cover with a good paste.

Cherry-pie.

Having made a good crust, lay a little of it roimd the sides of the diah, and throw some sugar at the

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462 DOMESTIC COOKERY^ AND

¦-¦.¦- I ¦ ¦. ?

bottom. Then lay in4he firuit^ and some si^ar at the top^ A few red currants must be put along with the cherries, or it will be without juice. Then put on the crusty and bake it in a slack oven. A plumpie^ or a gooseberry-pie^ may be made in the same manner. A custard eats well with a gooseberrypie.

Icing for tarts.

' Beat the yolks of two eggs and some melted butter together^ lay it over the tarts with a feather^ and then sift some sugar upon them.

Pippin-tarts,

Pare thin four Seville oranges, boil the peel tender, and mince it extremely fine, pare and core forty pippins^ lay them in a stew-pan with as little water as possible; when half done, throw in a pound of sugar, the orange-peel and juice, and boil the whole tiU pretty thick ^ when cold, put it in patty-^ pans lined with paste, to turn out and be eaten. colicL

Apple-puffs.

Pare and bake the fruit, when cold mix the pulp of the apple with sugar and shred lemon-peel, lay it in thin paste, and bake it in a quick oven: twenty minutes will do thiem. Orange or quince marmalade is a great improvement to apples, in whatever manner they are used.

Preserved quinces to add to tarts.

Pare and core the fruit, then slice it, and boil till soft; to every four pounds of fruit, put three pounds of sugar, and boil the whole till it acquires a sufficient consistency. A little of this in apple-pies, tarts, &c. is truly excellent.

Codlin-tart, Scald the fruit, then take off the skin^ and lay

*¦ •¦ j«-». --¦ - •¦¦¦ ¦^ *•¦

USEFUL RECEIPT BOOK. 163

them whole in a dish, with a little of the water in which the apples were boiled 3 strew them over with Imnp sugar^ and when cold^ put a paste round the edges^ and cover with a good crust.

Orange- tart.

Squeeze^ pulp and boil four Seville oranges^ and double their weight of sugar^ and beat them thoroughly together^ then add an ounce of fresh' butter 3 line a shallow dish with a fine puff-crusty and lay in your orange-paste.

Lemon mince-pie.

Squeeze two lemons^ boil the rinds till tender enough to beat them into a mesh, to which add six minced apples^ and eight ounces of suetj, a pound of currants, half a pound of sugar, and the juice of the lemons, with candied fruit as for other pies, make a short crust, and fill the patty-pans as usual.

L^ht paste.

Beat the white of an egg to a froth, then add as much water as will make twelve ounces of fiour into a stiff paste; roll it very thin, and lay five ounces of butter on it in smaU bits, dredge it, and roll it up tight: do this three times.

Oyster-patties,

Line your patty-pans with fine puff-paste, and cover with the same, observing to put a bit of bread in each, to keep them hollow while baking, and against they are baked have the following .ready to fill with: take off the beards of oysters, cut the other parts into pieces, and put them in a small saucepan, with some nutmeg, white pepper, salt, finely shred lemon-peel^ a little cream^ and some of

164 DOMfifiTIC COOKERY^ AND

their own liquor^ let the whol^ simmer a few minutes^ and thea fill.

Lobster-patties may be made in the same manner.

SnoW'bails,

Swell rice in milk^ strain it, and lay it round some cored apples, put a bit of cinnanion, lemonpeel, and* a dove, in each; then tie them up in a cloth, and boil them well.

Gooseberrif or -^pple trifle.

Scald a sufficient quantity of fruit, and pulp it through a sieve, add sugar agreeable to tasljl^ inakc a thick layer of this at the bottom of "^St dish: mix a pint of milk, a pint of cream, and**the yolks of two eggs; scald it over the fire, observing to stir it; add a small quantity of sugar, and let it get cold; 'then lay it over the apples or gooseberries with a spoon, and put on the whole a whip made the day before.

If you use apples, add the rind of a lemon grated.

Cake trifle.

Bake a rice-cake in a mould; when cold^ cut it round a little way from the edge with a sharp knife^ observing not to perforate the bottom; put in a rich custard, and some raspberry jam^ and then put on a high whip.

Gooseberry-fool.

Stand your fruity mixed with Lisbon sugar^ in a jar on a stove with a gill of water; when soft, pulp it thrpugh a cullender; then have ready a sufficiency of milk and cream, or in lieu of the latter an egg, boiled together, but cold before used, sweeten it well, and stir in the fruit gradually.

Apples may be done in the same manner^

USEFUL RECEIPT BO Iv; 165

. Burnt cream.

-Make a rich custard without sugar, boiling lemonpeel in it; when cold, sift a quantity of sugar over it, and brown the top with a salamander.

Ratafia cream.

Boil a quart of cream with six laurel or nectarine leaves, strain it^ when cold, add the yolks of six eggs beaten and strained, sugar, and a gill of brandy; stir the whole quick into it, then scald till fiufiiciently tliick, and observe to stir it continually.

Lemon or Orange cream.

Take a quart of thick cream, put it on the fire, observing to stir it continually j let it simmer j sweeten with the finest white sugar, keep it stirring till it is pretty cool. Then add the juice of one lemon, with the peel squeezed in, to give it a fine bitter taste: then stir it till cold, after which stir it up high to bring a ftotli in the dish.

Remember this should be made early in the morning, to be ready for dinner.

Snow cream.

To a quart of cream add the whites of three eg^s well beaten, a little sweet wine, and sugar to taste, whip it to a froth, and serve in a dish.

Raspberry cream.

Take the whites of twelve eggs, and twelve spoonsfull of raspberry wash, put them into an earthen pan, and beat them weU till it comes to a cream; then fill yoiu: glasses.

Ice creams.

Mix the juice of fruits with as much sugar as will be required before you add the cream.

166 DOMESTIC COOKERY, AND

VarioiLs colourings for ices, jellies, creams, 8fc.

A tincture made by pouring hot water over some sliced beet-root will give a beautiful red. Or, boil a small quantity of cochineal finely powdered, with a dranpi of cream of tartar to half a pint of water; to which add, when boiling, a very little bit of alum.

For white, use almond paste or cream.

For yellow, tincture of saffron. '

For green, the expressed juice of spinach leaves.

A froth to set on cream, custards, ^c.

Sweeten a pound of the pulp of damsons, add to it the whites of eight eggs, well beaten, and beat the whole till it will stand as high as you d^oose.

To prepare ice for iceing.

Break four pounds of ice almost to powder, and throw two handsfiill of salt amongst it. (Do this in the coldest part of the house.) The ice and salt being in a bucket, put your cream into an ice-pot, and cover it. Immerse it in the ice, and draw that round the pot. In a few minutes, put a spoon in, and stir it well, moving the ice round the edges to the centre. Observe, there should be ^oles in the bucket to let off the water as the ice thaws.

Ice-water,

Rub some sugar on lemon or orange peel to give a flavour to the water, then squeeze the juice on its own peel, and add a sufficiency of sugar and water, strain the whole, and put it in the ice-pot.

Or the water may be mixed with the strained juice of any kind of fruit, agreeable to taste.

To scald codlins.

Wrap each in a vine leaf, and pack them close in a saucepan, when full, pour as much water in as

USIiFLL RKCEIPT BOOK. 167

will cover them^ set them over a fire, and let them simmer slowly, till done enough to take the skin off wlien cold.

Serve with cream^, or .custard, and powdei:ed sugary some of the latter should be strev^ftd over thgm.

Black caps.

Half and core the largest apples you can procure, lay them in a shallow pan, and strew some white sugar over them 5 then bo^ a glass of wine, and the same quantity of water, with some sugar,

for sauqe.

.'J

To stew pears.

Take twelve pears, peel and quarter six of them, peel the others, but do not cut them, lay them in a deep earthem pot with a few cloves, a piece of lemon-peel, a gill or more of red wine, and half a pound of fine sugar 5 cover them close with coarse brown paper, and bake them till enough. Serve them either hot or cold.

A little pounded cochineal will make them of a beautiful colour.

Syllabub.

Put three *pints of wine, either port or white, into a bowl, with some grated nutmeg, and plenty of sugar, then milk into it a gallon of milk frothed up.

Butter to serve as a little dish.

Roll butter in various forms, and mark it with a tea-spoon; or roll it with crimping rollers, or work it through a cullender.

Currant jam, black, red, or white. Pick your fruit from the stalks and bruise it. To

'Jl-^.^'

m

168 DOMESTIC COOKERY^ AND

every pound of it^ put twelve ounces of loaf sugar, stir it weU^ and boil it thirty minutes.

Raspberry jam.

Weigh equal quantities of fruit and loaf sugar^ put the fruit into your preserving pan, boll and break it, stir it continualLy, and let it bciil quickly 3 when most of the juice is wasted, add the sugar, and simmer thirty minutes.

This method j/s greatly superior to the common mode.

To preserve strawberries whole.

Take of the pine, or China strawberries, as many as you may want for your use, or as many as yoiu* preserving pan will conveniently do at once 3 cleanse them from the stalk and lay them in your preserving pan 3 then boil clarified sugar till it snaps 3 pour upon them as much as will cover them 3 then boil them several minutes, let them stand till the next day, then drain them from the syrupy boil the syrup, adding as much clarified sugar as will cover them; boil them till it blows 3 then put in your strawberries, boil them five minutes, let them stand till cold, then put them in your jars.

To preserve raspberries whole.

Take the raspberries with the stalks on or off, as you may fancy them 3 let them be quite sound 3 put them in your preserving pan 3 boO till it sn^ps as much clarified sugar as wiU cover them 3 then put them on a slow fire, and let them be gently boiled, the next day drain them from the syrup 3 boil the syrup till it blows 3 then put in your raspberries; inake them scalding hot, but do not let them boiL When cold, put them in your jars.

USEFUL RECEIPT BOOK. 169

Apple marmalade.

Scald them tiU they will pulp from the core, then take an equal weight of sugar in large lumps, dip them in water, and boil till it can be well skimmed, and becomes a thick syrup, then throw in the pulp, and let it simmer fifteen minutes over a quick fire. A very little grated lemon-peel will improve it.

Quince marmalade.

Quarter your quinces; boil them till very tender, pulp them through a fine hair sieve 3 to every pound of pulp, take one pound of powdered lump' sugar; let it boil to the consistence of raspberry jam} then put it into pots.

To make orange marmalade.

Take Sevil 'oranges, according to the quantity you propose to make ^ half them and squeeze th^ juice from them 3 then cut out the pulp, leaving the rind very thin 5; then shred the rind very finej boil it till very tender, boil the pulp very soft, and rub it through a fine hair sieve -, then mix the juice, pulp, and chips together; and to every pound add one pint of clarified sugar. Boil the sugar till it snaps, then add the other ingredients. Let them boil ten minutes, and put it into pots.

Dried apples.

Put them in a cool oven six or seven times, and gradually flatten them when soft enough to bear it without breaking. The oven must not be too hot, and should at first be very cool. Tart apples are the best for this purpose.

Ta preserve gooseberries green.

Take the gooseberries in the same state as for b«»ltling, making a slight opening at the smdl end;

170 DOMESTIC COOKERY, AND

make some water scalding hot, put the gooseberries into it, take them off the fire and cover thefn with common white paper, let them stand in the same water two days j then put them in yoiu* preserving pan and cover them with clarified sugar, let them stand four or five days j then put them on the fire and give them a gentle boil. The next day, drain them from the sugar, put them in your jar, boil the sugar till it blows, adding as much as will cover them; and they are fit for immediate use.

Note. - ^The sugar must be boiled till it blows j and it may be here necessary to observe what is meant by blowing: while the sugar is boiling, put in your scummer, let th6 sugar drain from it j then blow forcibly with your mouth; and if the sugar bladders on the opposite side of the scummer, it is sufficiently strong.

Gooseberry hops j the same as the gooseberries.

To candy any sort offruU.

When finished in the syrup, that is, after the fruit has been preserved, put a layer of any kind into a sieve, and dip it- suddenly into hot water to take off the syrup hanging about it. Then lay it on a napkin before the fire to drain, and then do some more in the sieve. When the fruit is sufficiently drained, sift plenty of double refined sugar over it till it becomes quite white. Then set it on the shallow end of sieves in a slightly warm oven, and turn it three or four times. It must not be suffered to get cold till quite dry.

To clarify sugar.

Break your sugar into large limips, and to every pound, put half a pint of water, set it over the fire with the white of an egg well whipt, let it boil, and

USEFUL RECEIPT BOOK. I7I

when ready to run over, check it with a little cold water, when it rises again, take it off the fire, and set it by in the pan for twenty minutes^ then take the scum gently off, and pour the syrup into a vessel very quickly from the sedim^t.

Directions how to prove sugar by the snap.

While your clarified sugar is boiling for use, take the stem of a tobacco pipe and some cold water, and when the sugar has boiled to a tolerable consistence, dip the pipe in the water, then in the sugar about the depth of an inch, then again in the water; and the sugar that adheres to the pipe will puU off} dip it in tiie water, and if strong enough, it will snap like glass.

. To preserve green gages.

Take the gages a little under ripe j prick them well all over with a small fork 5 put them in cold water as you do them; then put them on the fire 5 scald them till they are soft, taking care not to let the water boil; let them stand in the water in which they were scalded three days 5 then drain them^ and put them in your preserving pan; and cover them with hot clarified sugar. Put them on the fire: give •them a gentle boilj let them stand two days; then drain them; boil the S3Tup till it blows, adding as much clarified sugar as you find necessary } put them on the fire; let them be gently boiled and stand two days; then drain the syrup, jmt the gages in jars, boil the syrup till it blows, and pour it hot upon them.

To preserve apricots.

Take the apricots before they are quite ripe; push out ^he stones, and put the apricots on a slow tire; scald them till soft; take them out of the

178 DOMESTIC COOKERY, AND

water with your scummer as soon as they are ("eady; put them in cold water^ drain them^ and lay them singly in your preserving pan; boil clarified sugar tiU it blows; pour as much as will cover them; then put them on the lire and let them boil gently about two or three minutes, and let them stand four days. Then drain the syrup firom them 5 boil it till it blows strong, adding as much clarified sugar as is necessary to cover them. When cold, put them in your jars.

Fruit biscuits.

Take an equal weight of scalded fruit-pulp, and sugar finely sifted, beat it two hours, then put it into forms, made of white pepper, and dry it in a cool oven, turn the next day, and in three days box them.

Damson cheese.

Bake the fruit in a stone-jar, pour off some of the juice, and to every four pounds of fi-uit, weigh one pound of sugar. Put the fruit over the fire in the pan, let it boil quickly till it begins to look dry, take out the stones, and add the sugar, stir it well in, and simmer two hours slowly, then boil it quickly thirty minutes, till the sides of the pan candy, then pour the jam into potting pans about an inch thick.

Fine sweetmeat for tarts.

Take four pounds of ripe apricots, divide them, and take out the stones, blanch the kernels, and put them to the fruit, add to it six pounds of green gage plums, and five pounds of lump sugar. Let the whole simmer till the fruit be a clear jam. Remember it must not boil, and it must be well skiiiimed. When done, pour it into small pots.

USEFUL RECEIPT BOOK. 17S

Raspberry -cakes.

Take any quantity of fruit you please^ weigh and boil it, and when meshed, and the liquor is wasted, add as much sugar as was equal in weight to the raw fruit. Mix it very well off the fire, till the whole is dissolved, then lay it on plates, and dry it in th^ sun. When the top part dries, cut it off into small cakes, and turn them on a fresh plate. Wlien dry, put the whole in boxes with layers of jiaper.

To preserve currants in bunches.

Select, when ripe, some of the finest sprigs of sed or white currants 3 open every one of the currants with a needle, then tie them in bunches of wliatever ^ize you think proper; place them in your preserving pan 3 boil till it blows 3 take as much clarified sugar as will cover them 3 gently boil them, let them stand till the next day, drain them from the syrup, put them into yoiu* jars, boil the syrup till it blows, then pour it to them.

Curranjb sprigs are preserved in the same manner.

To keep gooseberries.

Pick full grown, but not ripe gooseberries, strip them, and put them into the wide-mouthed bottles: cork them gently with new soft corks, put them in an oven, from which the bread has been drawn, and let them stand till nearly a quarter shrunk, il)en take them out, and beat the corks in tight, cut them off level with the bottle, and rosin down close. Set them in a dry place.

To preserve damsons.

Boil three pounds of sugar with six pounds of damsons, over a slow fire, till the juice adhered to the fruity and forms a jam. Keep it in small jars.

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174 ' DOMESTIC COOKERY^ AND

Or,

Put them in small jars, or bottles, with wide mouths, set them tip to their necks in a boiler of cold water, then place it over the fire, and scald them. When perfectly cold, fill up with spring water, and cover them.

To presei-ve Mogul, or egg plums.

Take them not too ripe -, prick and scald them as green gages, taking care to have a very slow fire; fet them stand in the water in which they were scalded, till the next day; then drain them, put them in your preserving pan;- reduce your clarified sugar by adding a pint of water to every quart; pour as much as will cover thepa, put them on a slow fire, simmer them very gently five minutes, let them stand four days, then drain them; boil the syrup till it blows, gently pour it on them, let them stand six days; then drain them, put them in youf jars, boil the syrup till it blows strong, adding Glar rified sugar sufficient to cover them.

To preserve Morilla cherries.

Take as much clarified sugar as you think will cover the cherries you mean to preserve; boil it till it blows, then put in your cherries, let them boil briskly two minutes, take the scum off th^m, let them stand till the next day, drain them and boil the syrup till it blows; then put in your cherries, and as soon as they boil, take them off, and when cold put them into your jars.

To preserve cherries for drying.

Take the real Kentish cherries, stone them, and to every pound of cherries, take half a pint of clarified sugar } boil it till it snaps; put in your cher

USEFUL RECEIPT BOOK 17p

ries and let them boil five minutes^ let them atand till the next day, drain them, and as soon as ycmr syrup boils, put in your cherries -, let them boil two minutes, when cold, drain them, and spread them singly on hair sieves to dry. The quicker they are dried the better -, and the best mode is in a baker's oven^ after the bread is drawn.

To make iceingfor cakes.

Take of double refined loaf sugar, sifted fine, as much as you think will be sufficient for the cake or cakes vou have to ice -, put it in an earthern pan; add whites of eggs tiU it is pretty soft, then beat it well, adding a little lemon juice till you can just taste the acid, and lay it on your cake with a knife.

Observe the iceing should be beat with a small wooden spattle.

To preserve bunched raspberries.

Tie the raspberries In bunches of whatever size you please) place them in yoiir preserving pan 5 boil clarified sugar till it snaps, pour it on your raspberries 'f boil them two minutesi, let them stand two days ', then drain the syrup from them, put them In your jars, and boil the syrup till it blows very strong 5 then pour it to them.

Sprig raspberries aire preserved in the same manner.

Cranberries,

Are very good either for pies or puddings^ but they require a great portion of sugar.

Raspberry vinegar.

Put two pounds of fruit into a bowl, and pour upon it half a gallon of the best white wine vine

176 DOMESTIC tGOKERY, AND

¦jfi..

gar. The follomng day," strain the liquor on two pounds of fresh raspberries, and the day following the same, but do not squeeze the fruit, only drain it as dry as possible. 'Hie following day, pass it through a canvas previously wet with vinegar. Put the whole into a stone-jar, with a { ound of sugar to every pint of juice, broken into large lumps, stir it till melted, then stand the jar in a saucepan of water, let it simmer, and skim it well. \A^hen cold, bottle it, and cork tight.

A common cake.

Mix a pound and a half of flour with a pound of butter, half a pound of sugar, eight eggs, an ounce of carraways, and a gill of raisin wine. Beat it well, and bake in a quick oven.

Directions for keeping fruit.

As it is almost as necessary to know how to keep fruit when preserved as to preserve it, you wll please to observe the following directions: - When your fruit in syrup, is in, « state of fermentation, drain it from the syrup 5 then boil the syrup, put in your fruit, let that boU also. As soon as it is cold, return it to your jars. VVlien your fruit is candied in the syrup, turn both fruit and syrup together in your preserving pan, add a little water to reduce the strength of the syrup, let it boil and as soon as it is cold, return it to your jars.

Queen cakes.

Beat a pound of butter, and mix it with four well beaten e^gs strained, a pound of dried flour, the same quantity of powdered lump sugar, and the grated rind of two lemoiiB; add the whole together, and beat it tiiirty minutes with a silver spoon. Put it in buttered cups or patty-pans, halJJuU, and bake twenty minutes.

USEFUL RECEIPT BOOK. 177

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Spunge cake.

Weigh fifteen eggs, put their weight in very fine sugar^ aQd that of nine in flour^ beat the yolks with the flour, and the whites alone to a very stiff froth; then by degrees mix the whites and the flour with the other ingredients, and beat them forty minutes. Bake in a qiiick oven about one hour and ten minutes.

To make bread.

Put a bushe] of good flour into a trough, mix with it two gallons of warm water, and three pints of good yeast, put it into the flour, and stir it well with your hands till it becomes tough. Let it rise, and then add another two gallons of warm water and a pound of salt, work it well and cover it with a cloth 5 then begin to warm your oven^ and by the time it is ready, the dough will also be rea^y ', make your loaves about five or six pounds each 3 dean your oven, and put in your breads shut it close^ and bake three hours.

The water in summer should be milk^ warm, in winter rather warmer.

American flour

Is more profitable than English flour, because it requires double the quantity of water to make it into bread. This circumstance makes a balance in favour of the American flour of about three pounds of bread in every stone of flour of fourteen pounds.

To find whether chalk is mixed with bread.

Mix it with some strong vinegar, and if this throws it into a fermentation, you may be certain that either, chalk or whiting is put in the bread, which is often done by bakers in a shameful degree, especially in and about London.

IT'S DOMESTIC COOKERY, AND

Rice and wheat bread.

Simmer two poimds of rice in a gallon of water, till it becomes perfectly soft. AVhen it is of a due warmth, mix it very well with eight pounds of flour^ with yeast and salt as for other bread. When well kneaded, set it to rise before the fire. Bake as other bread. This is also an economical method of making excellent bread.

Fine rolls.

Warm a bit of butter in a half a pint of milk, add to it two spoonsful! of small beer yeast, and some salt ', with the above ingredients mix two pounds of flour. Let it rise an hour, and knead it well j form your rolls, and bake them in a quick oven.

French bread.

With a peck of fine flour, mix the yolks of twelve and the whites of eight eggs, beaten and strained, a quart of good yeast and some salt, and as much warm milk as will make the whole into a thin light dou^^ stir it well, but do not knead it. Have ready several wooden dishes, holding about a quart or three pints each, divide the dough among them aiid set it to rise 3 then turn them out of the bowls into a quick oven. When done, rasp them.

French rolls are made by rubbing an ounce of butter into every pound of flour -, one beaten egg, a little yeast, and a sufficiency of milk to make a moderately stiff dough 3 beat, but do not knead it. Let it rise, and bake on tins; when done, rasp. - Observe for the bread and rolls, the yeast must not be bitter, or the whole will be spoiled.

UaiiFUL RECEIPT BOOK. l^D

Potatoe bread,,

Boil six pounds of potatoes, work them with four ounces of butter^ and as much milk as will cause them to pass through a cullender 3 take a pint of good yeast and the same quantity cf warm water, mix it with the potatoes, and pour the whole on ten pounds of flour; add salt as usual. Knead it well; and, if necessary, add lAore milk and warm water; then let it stand before the fire about an hour to rise.

Yorkshire cakes, •

Take three pounds of flour, a pint and a half of warm milk, foiu* spoonsfull of yeast, and three eggs, beat the whole well together, Und let it rise; then form your cakes, and let them rise on the tins before you bake, which must be in a slow oven.

. Five ounces of butter may be warmed in the milk if agreeable.

Hard biscuits.

Warm half a pound of butter in as much skimmed milk as will make four pounds of flour into a very stiff paste. Beat it with a roUing-piu, and work it perfectly smooth. Roll it pretty thin, and stamp out your biscuits; prick them full of holes, and bake them, for which purpose six or eight minutes . will be sufficient.

Muffins,

Take fqdEpounds of flour, four eggs, a quarter of a pou^j^of butter melted in a quart of milk,^ and ten spoonsfull of good yeast. Mix ^he whole, and beat it welj; then set it to rise three 9r four hours. Bake on an iron plate, and when ^one on one iaide, turn them.

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180 DOMESTIC COOKERY^ AND

To make yeast.

An excellent substitute for this useful artiQle^ may be gained from a composition of potatoes. Boil and peel son^e of a mealy sort, and mesh them fine, adding as much water, or ade, as will reduce them to the consistence of common yeast. To every pound of potatoes, add two ounces of coarse sugar, ai^d, when just warm, stir it up with two spoonsfull of yeast. Keep it warm till the fermentation is over and in twenty-four hours, it will be fit for use. A quart of yeast may be thus made from one pound of potatoes, which will keep three months. The sponge should be set eight hours before the bread is Ittked.

MISCELLANEOUS.

T6 keep herbs for winter.

Take any kind of sweet herbs, and three times quantity of parsley, dry them in the air without exposing them to the sun 3 whep quite dry, rub them through a sieve, then bottle tlhe produce, and l^eep it for use. Sage, thyme, mint^ Ac. &c. should be tied in small bunches, and driQlh ri the air; after which, each sort should be put uHN^pfer bag, and hung up in the kitchen. Pcirsli^mould be ))!cked from the stalks, and dried in the shade to preserve its colour. Marigolds, when gathered and )tcked clean, should be dried in a cloth, and kept in paper bags.

USEFUL RECEIPT BOOK. ISl

To preserve nuts.

Hazel nuts may be preserved in great perfection for many months, by burying them under ground in earthen pots, well closed^ about two feet deep^ in a sandy (dace.

, To keep oranges and lemons.

Bake some clean sand; when it is cold put it into a vessel; place a layer of oranges, or lemons^ with the stalk end downwards, so that they may not touch each other, and cover them with the sand two inches deep, and so continue till your vessel is fiill. This will preserve them in excellent order for several inonths.

To keep cream.

Mix with any quantity of good cream, half the weight of finely powdered lump sugar, stir it to* gether, and preserve it in bottles well corked. It will then keep very good for six or eight months. .

To keep game or poultry.

Crame, or poultry, may be preserved for a long time, by tying a string tight roiind the neck so as to exclude the air, and by putting a piece of charcoal into the vent.

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182 DOMESTIC COOKERY, AND

HOME BREWERY.

A cheap and excellent method of brewing .

Take forty gallons of soft water^ and set it over the fire till it becomes so warm that you cannot hold your hand in it more than a minute^ then pour it into your mesh tub, and add to it one quarter of fine malt, meshing while the malt is putting in, which you must continue to do a fiill hour j cover it close, and let it remain one hour, after which draw it off; then take thirty gallons of water scalding hot^ and put that upon your malt, mesh it fifty minutes, and let it stand closely covered an equal length of time, after which draw it off to your fiirst wort. 3 then boil forty-eight gallons of water, and put it into your tun 3 mesh one hour, and cover it close ISfty minutes, after which draw it off into a separate tub to form your table-beer; after this is done, poiu* twelve gallons of cold water in your mesh tub^ where it must be suffered to remain forty minutes^ and then drawn off to your table-beer wort. Your first and second worts must be boiled with six pounds of hops very quickly for one hour and twenty minutes; then strain it, and run it into proper jpolers. Then boil your third worts very fast, witlAi few of the hops that had been previously used for the first and second worts 5 when the hops sink^ strain off your worts, and set it to cooL

Make eight gallons of the first and second wort

\ USEFUL B£CE1PT BOOK. 183

rather more than milk warm; then take a quart wooden bowl, and fill it with some new yeast, set it to swim in the eight gallons of wort, and when you perceive the yeast spread, add the remainder of the first and second worts milk warm^ then cover it up with your malt-sacks two days, and when you perceive it has a good head, skim the rough parts off. Having done this, take three ounces of salt, two ounces of ground ginger^ and six ounces of wheat flour; mix these ingredients well with four or five quarts of your first and second worts; add it to the whole, and mix it well together, by stirring it with a staff, affcer which, suffer it to remain for four hours, and then put it into your casks, observing to throw in some of the hops in each cask, having saved them for that purpose from the first boiling; then let it remain open till it has done working, after which, bung it closely down.

Your table-beer must be treated exactly in the same manner^ but you must not make use of so much yeast.

When you require very strong beer, use- the first worts only, and the second will make csuellent mild ale.

When you require very good ale, mix the first and second worts. For good beer, mix all the worts together.

One half, or a quarter of the quantity, may be made, by using half, or a quarter, of all the ingredients ', but the same time of boiling, meshing, and working, must be observed.

Strong beer, or ale.

Take fifteen bushels of malt to the hogshead for beer, and eight for ale. For either, pour the whole quantity of water hot, but not boiling, on it at

4

184 DOMESTIC COOKSRY^ AND

once, and let it stand to iniuse three hours; mesh it in the first half hour^ and let it stand the remainder of the time closely covered. Run it on the hops, previously soaked in water 3 for strong heer, three quarters of a pound to every bushel, but for ale only eight ounces. Boil them with the wort two hours and a half from the time it commences boiling. Cool about two gallons, to which add two quarts of ^east, which will prepare it for putting to the rest next day -, but, if possible, put it together the same night. Tun as usual. Cover the bunghole with paper when the beer has done working, and when it is ready to be stopped, put in one pound and a half of dried hops, then &sten it closely up. Observe that twelve bushels of malt will make good strong beer. It should stand in the cask one year before drawn, and i£ bottled, another year in bottles. The longer it is kept, the better it will be.

The ale will be good in four months.

After your strong beer, or ale, is thus made, a good table-beer may be prepared by pouring a hogshead of water on the grains, and repeating the same process as for the other. Some of the hops boiled for the strong beer will also serve for this.

When beer is soured by thunder or heat, a ttospoonfiil of salt and wormwood put in the jug, will set it right.

Observe, October and March are good months for brewing.

Fine table beer.

On a bushel of malt, pour four gallons of hot water, cover it warm thirty minutes, then mesh, and let it stand three hours more, then let it run off; when dry, add five gallons more water, mesh, and let it stand half an hour, run that into another tub^

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USEFUL RECEIPT ROOK. 185

and pour five ^;alloiis tnore water on th© malt, stir it well, and let it stand one hour or longer, then run it off, and mix the whole together. Half a pound of hops, previously infused in water, should be put into the tub for the first running.

Boil the hops with the wort one hour from the time it commences boiling. Strain it off, and cool it, and the same day, if sufficiently cool, put in rather more than half a pint of good yeast. When it has done working, cover the bunghole with a piece of paper for three days. Then fasten it close, and in three weeks the beer will be fit for use,

Fme Welsh ale, »

Pour twenty-one gallons of hot water (but not boiling) on four bushels of malt. Let it stand three hours closely covered, during which time infuse two pouqds of hops- into a little hot water, and put the water and hops into ^the tub, run the wort upon them, and boU the whole three hours^ then strain off the hops, and keep them for the small beer.

Let the wort stand till sufficiently cool to receive the yeast, of which put in one quart taken from ale or small beer. Mix it well, and often. When the wort has done working, (generally on the third day) the yeast will sink a little in the middle, then remove it, and tun the ale as it works out. Pour a, quart in at a time very gently. Lay a bit of paper over the bunghole about three days before you close it up.

Small beer may be prepared from the grains as before mentioned, using also the same hops. When barrels are emptied, the cock-hole should have a cork driven in,tfimd the vent-peg should also be hammered in tight, which will prevent beer-cusks from becoming musty*

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186 DOMBSTIC C0OKERT AND

Treacle beer^

Put a gallon of boiling water to two pounds of treacle, mix them well, add twelve quarts of ccdd water and half a pint of yeast, put it into a cask, cover it close, and in three days it will be fit to drink. If made in l^ge quantities or designed to keep, put in some malt and hops, and when the fermentation is over, stop it up close.

To refine beer, cyder ^ or wine.

Dissolve two ounces of isinglass in a quart of the liquor you wish to fine, whisk it well, dnd then add a quantity of the liquor into which you intend to put it, with a tea-spoonfull of pearl-ash, one oiuce of calcined salt of tartar and- the same quantity of powdered burnt alum. Mis: the whole well toge« ther, then pour it into the cask, and stir it weU about with a clean stick -, close it, and in three or four days it wiU be quite fine.,

To cleanse a musty cask.

Dissolve a pound of bay salt, and half a pound of alum in some water, then add as much fresh dung from a milking cow, as will make it thick, but not more so than will allow it to pass through a funnel; ppit it on the fire, and stir it with a stick tiU it is near boiling, and then put it in t he cask^ bung it up close, shake it about for five minutes, let it stand two hours, then take out the bung, and let the vapour out; &sten it down again, give it another shaking, let it stand two hours more, and then rinse with cold water till it comes out perfectly clear. Then have ready some water with half sl pound of bay salt and two ounc^ •f allum boiled in it ', serve this as you did the ftst washings and when einptied^ it wiU be fit for use.

USEFUL RECLIPT BOOK. 187

u

HOME MADE. WINES AND COMPOUNDS.

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t En^tsk mountain.

Take three gallons of spring water, and fifteen pounds of raisins chopped very fine; let them remain three weeks, then squeeze out the liquor, and put it in a cask that has heen fumigated with matches. Do not stop it till the fermentation has cetjlfied.

Hien bung it very tight and, when fine, bottle it oflF.

Currant wine.

Let your currants be ripe, mesh them with your hands, and to every quart of pulp add three pints of water. Mix them well together, and let them stand till they have done fermenting, then strain them through a hair-sieve, and to every gallon put three pounds (or mote) of moist sugar. When the sugar is perfectly melted, put the liquor in a cask with little dissolved isinglass. To ever^ten gallons, ad4^ one pint of brandy; bungit up, and let it remain one year, then bottle it.

Note - Half a pound more sugar to every gallon would be a great improvement.,

Raisin wine.

Take one hundred pounds of Malaga raisins, cut them slightly, and put them into a Cask with twenty gallons ef water^ and five half pints of brandy;

188 DOMESTIC COOKERY, AND

stir well once every day for a week, then bung it closely up^ and let it stand at least six months^ tlien bottle it. '

Orange tome.

To twelve pounds of lump sugar, put the whites of eight eggs well beaten, and six gallons of spring water, boil it one hour, obsei'ving to skim it; when nearly cold, add the juice and rinds of fifty Seville oranges. Let this stand till done fermenting, then put it in a cask. Take half a gallon of white wine, the juice of twelve lemons and two pounds of loaf sugar, cover them dose twelve hours, and take care to leave no seeds in, then add to the rest; put six of the lemon rinds into the cask., Let it stand fourteen days before you bottle it off.

Ginger wine.

To ten gallons of water, put ten pounds of lump sugar, ten ounces of bruised ginger, and the whites of eight eggs beaten to a froth, boil them together one hour, and take off the scum as it rises; then put it in a tub, and let it stand till cold 5 then put it in a barrel with the rinds of ten lemons peeled very thin, and the juice of thirteen strained from the seeds, and one quart of brandy; put a spoonful of yeast on the top, and stop it close; in a fortnight bottle it^ and in another fortnight it will be fit for use.

Gooseberry wine.

Take your fruit, not over ripe, bruise it in a wooden vessel, but not much, then measure, and to every gallon put two of cold water, mix them well together, and let them stand twenty-four hours, then strain it through a bag, and to every gallon put four pounds of sugar. Let it dissolve, stir it

USEFUL RECEIPT BOOK. 189

well^ cask it^ and let it work two days. Bung it. for a week, then draw it oflf. Rinse the cask with a little brandy^ and to every gallon add three quarters of a pound more of sugar: mix it weU, return it to the cask^ bung it up ^r two or more months^ then bottle it.

Cowslip wine.

To fifty poimds of sugar^ add twenty-four gallons of waterj'boil it for an hour^ carefully skimnyMp* Pour it into a tub^ and when cold^ add twel^ pecks of bruised cowslip flowers^ with the peel and jmce of twenty lemons^ and two quarterns of good ale yeast. Stir it well for three days^ then rack it into a clean cask^ cowslips and all^ with half a gallon of brandy. When it has done Workings bung it close.

Elder wine.

To every gallon of ripe elder berries^ pnt four gallons of water^ hjalf an oUnce of gingery and two ounces of aUspice^ boil it twenty minutes^ strain k through a hair-sieve^ and put it in your pan again with three pounds of moist sugar to every gallon, boil it thirty minutes, put in your tub a few pounds of raisins cut into halves, pour the boiling liquor on them; when it is nearly cold, add some ale yeast, and let it work three days, tun it, add a quart of brandy to every thirty-six gallons, and bottle it at Christmas.

Apricot wine.

Pick your fruit when nearly ripe, wipe and quarter them, to every eight pounds, add six quarts of water 5 let them boil till the water tastes strong, then strain them tlirough a hair-sieve, and put half a pound of fine sugar to every quart of liquor, beil and scum till it ceases to rise. Put it into an

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190 DOMESTIC COOKER r^ AND

earthen stein twenty-four hours, then bottle it up with a hunp of sugar in* each bottle.

Raspberry wine.

Take equal quantities of fruit and water^ bruise and let them stand two days, then strain it, and to every gallon put four pounds of coarse sugar j when dissolved, put the liquor in a barrel, and when fine (which will be^nerally in three months), bottle it, 99^ in each bottle put a large spoonfid of teandy.

*• Black currant wind .

To every gallon of juice, put tlie same quantity of water, and to every gallon, of this mixed liquor, put four pounds of the finest moist sugar, put the whole in a cask, reserving a little to fill up. Put the cask in a warm dry room, and the liquor will ferment of itself 5 skim off the refuse, and when the fermentation ceases, fill up with the reserved liquor. Wlien it has quite done working, add a bottle of brandy to every five gallons of v*ine. Bung it dose for one year, then bottle it, and filter the thick part.

Balm wine.

Boil six pounds of sugar in two gallons of water, scum it, and put in two handsfiil of balm, and let it boU fifteen minutes^ strain it off, cool, it, add some yeast, and let it stand two days -, put in the rind and peels of two lemons, and let it stand in the barrel six or eight months.

Mixed wine,

^Take of white, red, and black currants, cherries, and raspberries, equal quantities, mesh them, and pass the juice through a strainer 5 to every two quarts of which, boil six pounds of moist sugar

U8KFUL EECEIPT BOOK. 191

in six quarts of water^ and, scum it clean 5 when cold^ mix the juice with it, and put the whole into a barrel that will just hold it, put in the bung slightly, let it remain ten days, then close it up, and let it stand four months, observing to add a little brandy to it.

Family wine,

A very useful family wine may be made of the birch-tree. While the sap is rising in the early part of March, boles shoiQd be bored in the body of the tree, and fossets of elder placed in them to carry ofiF the liquor. If the tree is large, it may be .tapped in several places, and one branch will sometimes yield a gallon a day. The sap thus procured, is to be boiled with sugar, one pound of which must be put to every pound of liquor. It must be then fermented, and treated in the same manner as other made wines.

Mead. ^

Take twenty-four pounds of honey and six gallons of water^ boU it one hour, skim it well, then add an cmnce of hops to every gallon, and boil it thirty minutes longer, and let it stand till next day 5 put it into your cask, and to every twelve gallons, add one quart of brandy, stop it lightly till the fermentation is over, then stop it very dose. Keep it one year before you tap.

Ddmson wine.

To every gallon of water, put two pounds and a half of sugar, boil them^ two hours, and skim it carefully all the time, and to esuch gallon allow five pounds of fine damsons, with the stones taken out boil them till the colour is a fine red, strain the

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194 DOMESTIC COOKERY^ AND '

Lime water. Take three pounds of lime, put it in a pail, and pour on as much water as will slack it ^ when dissolved, add two gallons of water, and when cold and settled, it is fit for use.

English noyeau, Blanch and bruise half a pound of bitter almonds, put them into a quart of cold water, and let them stand two hours, then add six pints of the juice of white currants, six pounds of fine lump sugar, the peels of six lemons grated, and ten gallbns of white brandy -, stir them well together, and let them stand tltfee days, then strain it through a jelly-bag, and bottle it off. Two quarts of fresh brandy put on the dregs, will, after standing three days, make an excellent liquor for giving a flavour to puddings, &c.

Peppermint.

For compounds, any spirit extracted from sugar, malt, crab, cyder, or raisins, may be made use of.

For five gallons, take three and a half of spirits, and four pennyweights of the oil of peppermint, with three pounds of loaf sugar, and half a pint of spirits of wine, fill it up with water, and fine as you do Geneva. Also observe, that in all compounds, the oil must be killed and worked in a similar manner.

Quem*s coriial.

For three gallons of spirits, take two pennyweights of the oil of mint, one of oilof carawiBy,2m ounce of coriander seed, and the same of caraway seeds, half an ounce of cassia, half an ounce of mace, a pint of spirits of wine, and two pounds of lump sugar, add water to taste. Observe, the spice, seeds, and cassia, must be steeped in th^ spirits and wcU shaken daily. Fine with alum only.

:*

\

USEFUL RECEIPT BOOK. 195

V.

Prmce*s cordial.

Take of cherry brandy^ of currant wine^ and orange wine^ eadi a quart, one gaUon of . spirits, half an ounce of mace, a quarter of an ounce of cloves, and half an ounce of cinnamon, the same weight of coriander seeds, the same of caraway^ five drops of the oil of orange, and the same of the essence of lemon; with two pounds of loaf sugar -, measure the whole, and make it up to twelve quarts with water. Steep the spice and seeds in the spirits six days, havii^ previously bruised them; colour with burnt sugar.

Cappillaire.

Take fourteen pounds of Imnp sugar, and seven of moist, mix eight well beaten eggs with the sugar, and boil it in four gallons of water, continuing to skim it till no more scum appears. Strain it through a coarse bag, and add three pennyweights of the essence of lemon y then bottle it in small bottles for use.

Ratafia,

To make six gallons, take three quarts of spirits, and three grains of ambergris, one ounce of apricot and peach kernels, and three ounces of bitter almonds, a pound of powdered lump sugar, and three quarters of a pint of spirits of wine; make up the quantity with water that has been boiled, but left to grow cold.

English port

Put four gallons of good port wine mto a thirtygallon cask that has been fumed with a match; add to it twenty gallons of good cyder; then nearly fill your cask with French brandy - ^The juice of sloes and elderberries will make it of a proper

/

196 DOMESTIC COOKSmT^ AND

rougfaness; pat in some cochineal to colour it. You may use turnip juice^ or raisin cyder^ instead of cyder ^ and brandy cyder instead of fVench brandy.

English sack.

To every gallon of water, put four sprigs of nte and a handful of fennel roots^ boil these for half an hour - ^then strain itj and to every quart of liquor, put three quarters of a pound of honey: boil it two hours; skim it well -, when boiled pour it off, and turn it into a dean cask; then bottle it off, and turn it into a clean cask. Keep it one year in the cask; then bottle it off*, and it will be excellent.

English mountain.

To every gallon of spring water, put five pounds of raisins, chopped Acceding fine; let -them remain three weeks, then squeeze out the liquor, and put it into a cask that has been fumigated with some matches; do not stop it till the fermentation has ceased, then bung it tight, and, when fine^ bottle ito£P.

Blackberry wine.

When they are ripe, bruise them, and to every quart of blackberries, put a pint of boiling spring water, let them stand till next day, strain th^n through a sieve, and to every quart of liqupr, put rather more than half a pound of sugar; when your sugar is melted, put it in the cask.

Sweet Acid,

Take a gallon of lemon juice, and set it over a gentle fire, in a brass pan, with two pounds of good moist sugar; simmer till it becomes a syr ip and when cold, bottle for use.

USEFUL RECEIPT BOuK. ' 197

Bitters,

Steep an ounce of gentian root^ and a quarter of an ounce of Virginia snake root^ and a quarter of a dram of cochineal^ in a pint of brandy^ for three days, strain k through some paper and bottle it fbv use.

ShruK

Take a gallon of rum^ six pounds of lump sugar dissolved in a quart of lim^ juice^ and mix the whole well together; then put it-in a cask^ and wh^n fine^ botde it off for use.

Cyder and Perry.

In cyder^ use gennatins, golden -pippins, pearmains, red stressed pippins, &c. &c. for which purpose, they should be sufficiently ripe to shake from the trees with ease; bruise tiiem to a mesh and squeeze them through a hair-sieve into a cask that has been fumigated with a match, then mesh the pulp with some warm water, and when strained, add a fourth part of the cyder. To make work well, beat a little flouf, the whites of some eggs and a little honey together^ put them into a small linen bag, and let them hang by a string in the middle of the cask then put -in a pint of new ale yeast, let it cleanse itself six days 5 then bung it down.

Or,

Take the apples before they are quite ripe, and let them lie two days in a heap to sweat, mesh them, press out the juice put it in a cask, observing to leave room for it to work; make a small hole near the bung-hole, but allow it no other vent; add to the whole some sugar, but not more than two pounds to every hogshead, aoid fbur pounds of

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198 DOMESTIC COOKERY^ AND

Malaga ndsins; then rack it off, and put it m a cask with a small hole as before; then let it remain ItU you think proper to bottle it^ which should be done either in March or April.

Perry, •

Perry is made in the same manner as cyder^ only using pears instead of apples, and the fruit must be dry and the more unfit they are for eatings the better they are for perry.

Observe, when you bottle cyder and perry, it should be left- two days imcorked, and a lump of sugar should be put in each bottle.

To manage cyder.

To improve the flavour of a hogshead, take one gallon of French brandy, half an ounce of cochineal, a pound of alum, and three pounds of sugarcandy, beat the latter articles well together, and steep them two days in the brandy; pour ihe whole into the cyder, and stop it dose six months.

To cure the acid, or restore British wine, when it

is pricked.

Rack off your wine into another cask, fumigated with a match, and to every five gallons put in an ounce of oyster powder and a quarter of an ounce of bay salt, and stir it well in with a staff; then rack it, in a few days, into another cask that has be^n well fumigated. If you can procure the lees of some of the same kind, it will be an improvement, and. to every five gallons, put a pint of brandy.

To take an ill scent from wine.

Make a long thin roll of dough, bake it, -and stick it well with doves, hang it in the cask^ «nd it will draw the ill scent from the wines.

199 DOMESTIC COOLER Y^ AND

To sweeten wines.

To fifteen gallons of wine, put half a pound of dry ground mustard seed, and a small handful of clary flowers, put it ura linen bag, and sink it to the bottom of the cask.

For wine when decaying.

Make an ounce of roch alum into powder, draw out three gallons of the wine, put it in the alum, and beat it for half an hour, return it to the rest in^the cask, and when fine, which will be in seven or eiglit days, bottle it ofL

To cure ropy wine.

Tap the wine, and cover the end of the cock that goes into the cask, with apiece of coarse hnen doth $ rack it into a dry cask, with a quarter of a pound of powdered alum, shake it w^ell, and it wiU fine down, and be a pleasant wine.

DAIRY and POULTRY.

Great attention is requisite in the dairy, which may be comprised in two words, namely - perfect cleanliness. The milk when brought in should always be strained into the pans. Cold water should be frequently thrown on every part of the dairy. Neither meat nor any thing dse should be suffered to hang in it. " The sun should be excluded, but a free current of air admitted. The cows should be rq^nlarly milked at an early hour, and

USEFUL. mSCBIPT BOOK. 900

the udders perfectly emptied. In good pastnres^ the cows produce fsi an average three ^llons a day from Lady-day to Michadimas^ and fi^m thence to Christmas, one gallon a day. Cows may be milked with profit fifteen years 5 and should calve from Lady-day to May.

When you design to rear a calf, it should be removed from the cow in ten days at the £uihest; remove it from the mother in the morning, and give it no food till the following morning, when being extremely himgry, it will drink readily j feed it r^ularly in the morning and evening, and let the mdk given it be just warm: the skimmed milk wiU be qmte good enough.

Rennei. •

Take out the stomach of a calf just killed, and scour it well with salt and water, both inside and outside ^ let it drain, and then sew it up with two large handsful of salt in it, or keep it in the salt wet^ and soak a bit, which Mrill do by fresh water.

Cheese.

Warm your milk till equal to new 3 but observe it must not be too hot; add a sufficiency of rennet to turn it, and cover it over: let it remain till well turned, then strike the curd well down with the skimming dish, and let it separate, observing to keep it still covered. Put the vat over the tub, and fin it with curd, which must be squeezed close with your hand, and moi« added as it sinks, and at length left about three inches above the edge of the vat. Before the vat is in this manner iBlled, the cheese cloth must be laid at the bottom of it, and, when fuU, drawn smoothly over on all sides. The curd should be salted in the tub after the whey

5201 DOMESTIC COOKERY^ AND

x; iTV.

is out. When every thing is prepared as above directed^ put a board under ani over the vat^ then place it in the press; let it remain two hours^ then turn it out^ put on a «&esh cheese cloth^ and press it again ten hours -, then salt it all over and turn it again into the vat 5 then press it again twenty hours. Observe^ the vat should have several smaU holes in the bottom to let the whey run off.

Cream cheese,

P^t as I4uch salt to three quarts of raw cream

' as will season it^ stir it weU^ and pour it intuit sieve,

in which you have folded a cheese cloth fymr tunes

doubled, when it hardens, cover it with nettles on a

pewter dish.

Sage cheese.

Bruise some young red sage and spinach leaves, express the juice, and mix it with the curd 3 then do as with other cheese.

Butter.

Butter IS disagreeable when the cows feed on turnips or cabbages, but this may be partly obviated, by addiag one gallon of boiling water to every six ' of milk when strained into your pans. In summer, your milk should stand for cream one diky, and in winter two. When you skim it, put the creampot in a cold cellar, or, in short, the coldest place you have. Always chum twice a- week, and change your cream daily into fresh scalded pots. When the butter, is come, pour off the butter-milk, and put the butter into pans which have been scalded, and then cooled in cold water, and beat it with a flat board, till every drop of butter-milk is forced out, before which, however it must lay some time in water; and while you are thus working it, you

902 DOMESTIC COOKERY^ AND

must observe to change the water as fast as it becomes coloured^ till it at length remains perfectly clear; then add your salt, weigh and form the butter, and throw it into a pan of clean water, with a cover, by which method you wiU have excellent butter, even in the middle of summer.

To preserve butter.

Take two pounds of common salt, one pound of loaf sugar, and one pound of saltpetre, beat the whole well together ^ then, to fourteen pounds of butter, put one pomid of this mixture, work it well, and when cold and firm, put it in glazed earthen vessels that will hold fourteen pounds each. Butter thus preserved becomes better by being kept, but observe, it must be kept from the air, and securely covered down. If intended for winter usfe, add another dunce of the mixture to every pound of butter, and on the top of the pans, lay ei^iigh salt to cover them with brine.

To scald cream.

Let your milk stand twenty-fbur hoiurs, then put the pan on a warm hearth, where it must remain till the milk is perfectly hot, but on no account boiling, which would spoil the whole; you may judge when it is enough, by its having a ring round the pan the size of the bottom; then remove the pan into the dairy, and skim it the next day.

Observe, the fire should be stow; and in summer the milk, previous to scalding, need not stand more than sixteen hours.

Butter^milk.

If made of sweet cream, is excellent, but in all cases exceedingly wholesome, and serves extremely well for cakes and puddings.

USEFUL RECEIPT BOOK. 203

POULTRY.

Your hen-roost should be kept extremely clean^ and your breed should not be too large 5 ohe cock is sufficient to six or ei^t hens.

When your hens are near laying, mix a littfe nettle-seed with their food, and always feed your poultry at regular periods, which will cause them to be familiar.

When you design to set a hen, never put more jthan twelve eggs imder her.

Wormwood and rue should be planted round the house where you keep your poultry, as it will assist to destroy the vermin.

Rats, stoats, &c. so destructive to poultry, can only be destroyed by the help of traps, which should be set for that purpose. ^

Ducks usually commence* .la.yin^ in February, tiiey should have a place to retire to at night.

Geese require but little trouble, and will nearly svrpport themselves, especially if near a common, ^^en about to ^ lay, they must be driven to their nests, and shut up. Mix a little hemp-seed with their food.

Cramming capons or turkeys.

Mix some barely-meal into paste with new milk; then make it into long rolls, larger in the centre than at the ends, and with these give them a fiill gorge three times a day, and in fourteen days they wiU be perfectly fat; but not near so firm, nor wholesome, as by the following method: - •

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204 DOMBSTIC COOKEBY^ AND

To fatten poultry^

Poultry should be fattened in coops^ and kept very dean. They should be furnished with gravel, but with very little water. Their only food barleymeal^ mixed so thin with water as nearly to serve for drink. This shoidd not be put in troughs, but laid upon a board, which should be dean-wash^ every time fresh food is put upon it. It is foul and heated water which is the sole cause of the pip.

Turkeys

When young are extremely tender. When hatched, two or three pepper-ooms should be put down their throaty and grieat attention must be paid to them. Turkeys .are voracious, and will, when grown up, shift for themselves with one feed a day. The hen sits thirty days, and the young ones must be kept very warm, as the least damp or cold destroys them. Feed them frequently at some distance from the hen, chopped purds, cheese-parings, and cliderberries are very good for them, with a little fresh milk and Water to drink. Put the hen under a^ oo(^ in a situation exposed to the sun, for the first v^lcmth, and the yoimg must be shut up before the oew &lls. Turkeys commence laying in Mardi^ and sit in April.

Pea-fowls

Are fed in the same manner as turkeys, and the pea-hen will herself provide for her young ones withotit any trouble.

Guinea^hen.

Their eggs should be hatched under the conomon fowl. The young require great warmth, quiet, and

. USEFUL RECEIPT BOOK. 205

»

careful feeding: for which purpose^ use rice swelled with milk; and^ when first hatched^ put a pepper corn down their throats.

Paeons

Will Vreed sufficiently fest, after you have get three or four pair. Lay some clay near their house, and pour all the useless hrine over it, for they arc very fond of salt; feed them with white peas, barley, tares, &c.

RECEIPTS

FOR

SICK COOKERY, &c,

jin excellent broth.

Boil four poomds of loin of mutton in a gallon of M^fiter with some chervil, till it is reduced to two quarts, remove some of the fat, and use it as agreeable. Any other herbs may be used.

Calves'-feet broth

BiBil a set of feet in six quarts of water, till reduced to three, strain it, and set it by 5 when wanted for use, remove the fat, and put a cupfull of the jelly into a saucepan, with half a glass of sweet wine, some sugar, and nutmeg; when it is near boiling, beat up a little of it with the yolk of an^: egg, and a bit of butter, and some lemon }ieel; dtir the whole together, but do not suffer it to boil.

206 DOMESTIC COOKEBY^ AND

Eel broth.

Set a pound of small eels over the fire with six pints of water^ some parsley, onion, and a few pepper-eoms. Simmer till the broth is good, then strain it off, and add salt. /The. above quantitv should be reduced by simmering^ to three pints

Chicken bfotK

Skin and divide your chickeii, put it in some water with a blade of mace, one sliced onion, and a £bw white pepper-corns, simmer till sufficiently good; then strain it, and remove the fat.

Veal broth.

Put four pounds of veal into a gallon of water, with a large crust of bread, tWo blades of mace, and some parsley, let it boil three hours closely covlered, then skim it dean.

Arrow*root.

Care must be taken to procure that which is genuine, mix it in the same manner as you would starch; then add a glass of sherry, with sugar and nutmeg to fancy, or a little brandy.

Arrow^root jelly.

Boil a pint of water, with two spoonsfull of good brandy, some nutmeg, and sugar, then pour it boiling hot on two spoonsfull of arrow-root, previously mixed smooth with cold water.

Pork'jelly.

Beat a leg ot pork, and break the bone, put it over the fire with three gallons of water, and let It simmer till reduced to one, stew half an ounce of mace and the same quantity of nutmeg in it;

USEFUL RECEIPT BOOK. 907

Strain it, and when c6ld, remove the fat. A glassful the first and last thing is good. Season with salt.

Tapioca jelly.

Wash some tapioca in cold water, and soak it in fresh water six hours 5 then let it simmer in the same water, with a bit of lemon peel, till it becomes clear, then add lemon-juice, wine, and sugar, agreeable to taste.

Gloucester jelly.

Take two ounces each of hartshorn shavings, eringo root, pearl-barley, rice, and sago, simmer them with three quarts of water till reduced to one 5 then strain it off, when cold it will be a jelly; it may then be dissolved in wine, milk, or broth, as occasion may require.

Panada.

Set your water on the fire with a glas3 of sherry, some loaf sugar, and a little grated nutmeg and lemon peel; have some grated crumbs of bread ready, and the moment it boils, put them in without taking it off, and let it boil as &st as possible 5 when sufficiently thick just to drink, take it off.

Sippets,

On a very, hot plate, lay some sippets of bread, and pom* some beef, mutton, or veal-gravy on them, then sprinkle a little salt over them.

Weakly persons may take eggs in the following manner: beat an e^^ very fine, add some sugar and nutmeg, pour upon it a gill of boiling water.

I ^¦¦^'^^^"¦^^^¦^^¦- ^'^^p- ^i^l-i f^HiP

^08 DOMESTIC COOKfiRT, AND

and drink it immediately; or^ mix up an egg with a glass of wine^ or a spoonful of brandy and a little sugar., ¦ •

Or,

Eggs, very little boiled, or poached, are extremely nourishing, but the yolk alone should be eaten by sick persons.

¦

An excellent restorative.

Bake four calves feet in two quarts of water and the same quantity of new milk, in a close covereo jar four hours; when cold, remove the fat, and give a jelly-glass the first and last thing. It may be flavoured to taste by lemon-peel, cinnamon, mace, sugar, &c.

Or,

Boil half an o^unce of isinglas shavings with a* quart of new milk, till reduced to a pint) add some sugar and a bitter almond shred small. Take this at bed time, but not too warm»

Caudle.

Put two spoonsful of oatmeal into a quart'of ^ water, with some mace and lemon peel, stir it crften, and let it boil half an hour; strain it, put in some sugar, white wine, and nutmeg. To make brown caudle, prepare the articles as above, and after straining, add to them a pint of good mild ale, and flavour with brandy and sugar.

Or,

Boil up a pint of fine gruel, with a bit of butter about the size of a walnut, two table-spoonsful of brandy, the same quantity of white wine and capil* laire, add a little grate^ lemon-peel and nutm^.

tSKFUL RECEIPT BOOK. t09

White grit caudle.

Well wash half a pint of split grits^ and boil them* in three pints of water till it becomes sufficiently thick; stir it frequently; strain it through a hair sieve^ and sweeten to your taste.

Brown grit caudle.

Well wash half a pint of grits^ boil them in rather better than a quart of water till it is as thick as you possibly can strain it through a sieve; then thin it with half a pint of ale or mild beer^ and a glass of liquor; sweeten it to your taste*

Rice caudle.

Mix some ground rice smooth with a little cold water, then put It into boiling water; when it becomes sufficiently thick, add a bit of lemon-peel, and some cinnamon, a glass of brandy, and sugar to taste.

Mulled wine.

Boil a pint of wine with nutmeg, cloves, and sugar, serve it with slices of toasted bread; or beaf up the yolks of four eggs with a little cold wine, and mix them carefully with the hot wine, pour it backwards and forwards till it looks fine, heat it again over the fire till it is tolerably thick, pour it backwards and forwards, and serve with toasted bread as above.

Or,

Boil some spice in a little water, till the flavour is extracted, then add a pint of port wine, with some sugar and nutmeg.

t3

210 D0MB8TIC COOKEHT, ANP

Mulled ale.

9 »

Boil a quart of good ale with some nutmegs beat up six ^gs, and mix them with a little cold ale/ then pour the hot ale to it, and return it several times to prevent it from curdling 5' warm, and stir it till sufficiently thick, add a piece of butter^ or a glass of brandy, and serve it with dry toast.

Saloop,

Boil some wine, water, sugar, and lemon-ped, together; then add the saloop-powder, previously rubbed smooth with a little cold water, and boil the whole a few minutes.

Sago.

Soak your sago in cold water one hour, wash it well, and pour off the water; then add some more, and simmer the whole till the berries are clear; then add lemon, wine, spice, and sugar, and boil the whole up together.

Chocolate,

Scrape a cake of chocolate into a pint of boiling water, mill it off the fire till it is dissolved; then let it boil gently, pour it into a bason, and let it stand in a cool place for several days; when wanted, put in some milk^ boil it with sugar,, and mill it well; or, if the stomach is weak^ make some gruel as thick as the chocolate, strain it, and mix them together.

Coffee milk.

Boil two ounces of well ground coffee in a quart of milk for twenty-minutes, and put in a shaving or two of isinglass to clear it; let it boil a few minutes^ stand it by till fine, then sweeteii t6 taste.

s

USEFUL RECEIPT BOOK. ^iX

Coffee,

Four a quart of boQing water on one ounce of ground coffee^ let it boil a few niinutes; th^ pour out a cupM and rettirn it^ repeat this several times: dissolve five or six chips of isinglass in a little boiling water^ add it to the coffee, and boil it ten minutes longer: then stand it by, and in a few minutes the coffee will be perfectly clear: cream, and Lisbon sugar should be served with coffee.

^ Rice milk.

Rub down a little ground rice, miJ^ it with two quarts of milk, and boil it, add lemon-peel, cinnamon, and nutmegs when nearly done, sweeten it agreeable to taste.

Milk porridge.

Prepare a fine gruel of split giits, strain it, and then add a sufficiency of milk^ and sarve with toast.

Baked milk.

This is an excellent article for weak or consump* tive persons. Put half a gallon of milk into a jar, tie it down with writing-paper, and after the bread is drawn, let it stand all night in the oven 5 the next morning it will acquire the thickness of cream, and may be drank as occasion requires.

Artificial asses* milk.

The real should be taken, if it can be possibly procured^ but, if not, the following imitation must serve: mix four spoonsful of boiling water, four of milk, and two well beaten eggs, sweeten with white sugar-candy, powdered. T&e it three times dai^.

i

•'^

i

11^ DOMESTIC COOKERY, AND

Water gruel.

Put a laige spoonful uf oatmeal into a pint of water, stir it wc^ together, and let it boil three or* four times stirring it often. Then strain it through a sieve, salt it to the palate, and. put in a large piece of fresh butter. Brew it with a spoon till the butter is all melted, and it will be then fine and smooth.

Cranberry gruel. Mesh half a pint of cranberries in some water, and boil a large spoonful of oatmeal in two quarts of watery then put in the meshed cranberries with some sugar and lemon peel, boil it forty minutes, and strain it off) add a glass of brandy, or sweet wine.

Currant gruel.

Make a quart of water gruel, strain and boil it with two table-spoonsful of currants till they are quite plump, add some nutmeg, sugar, and a glass of sweet wine.

Fever drink.

Boil three ounces of currants, two of raisins carefully stoned, and an ounce and a half of tamarinds, in three pints of water, till it is reduced to a quart, strain it, throw in a bit of lemon-peel, and let it stand an hour.

Draught for a cough.

Beat two fresh eggs, mix them with half a pint of new milk warmed, two table spoonsful of capillaire, the same quantity of rose-water, and a little nutmeg. Observe, it must not be warmed after the egg is added. I'ake it the fh-st and last thing.

/ /

USEFUL RECEIPT BOOK ^i3

A pleasant drink.

Into a pint of cold water^ pour two table spoonsful of capillaire^ and the same quantity^ of Tineg^r.

Barley water.

' Boil a quarter of a pound of pearl-barley in a gallon of water^ till it is quite soft and white, thea strain off the water, and add to it a little currant jelly, lemon, or milk.

Or,

Wash a little common, barley, and let it simmer in three or four pints of water with a little lemonpeel. Xbis is preferable to pearl-barley.

Apple water.

Feel and slice some tart apples, add some sugar and lemon-peel 5 then poiu* some boiling water over the whole, let it stand in a covered jug by the fire for an hour or more, when it will be fit for use.

Or,

Pour boiling water on roasted apples; let them stand three hours, then strain and sweeten lightly.

Lembn water.

Peel some lemon rind very thin,' put it in a tea-pot, and pour on some boiling water; pour it out into a cup, with some milk and sugar.

Or,

Peel a lemon, cut a few slices, pour boiling water upon it, and it will soon be fit for use: this \8 proper' to drink in a fever.

^\6 DOMESTIC COOKEBT, AND

Bread soup.

Boil some pieces of bread-crust in a quart of water, with a small piece of butter, beat it up with a spooD, and keep it boiling till the bread and water be well mixed; dien add a little salt.

Slewed prunes.

Stew them gently in a small quantity of wato* ^M the stones will slip out; but, olMenre, they must not be boiled too much. These are usefiii' in any complaint where fruit is propo*, especially in fevers.

FAMILY

MEDICAL RECEIPTS.

Camphorated oil.

Beat two ounces of camphor in a mortar with four ounces of Florence oil, till the camphor is perfectly dissolved: this makes an excellent liniment for the rheumatism, and other cases of extreme pain.

Basilicon,

Take of bees-wax, white rosin, and frankincense, four ounces each, melt them well together over a slow fire, then add the ^ame weight of fresh lard, and strain it into your jar while warm: this ointment is of great use in cleansing andbealing wounds and ulcers,

• Cerate,

Take of white wax, and calumine stone, finely

powdered, each one pound, and three pints of olive

ell } let the calumine be rubbed smooth with somfe

^M)e oil, and added to the remainder of the oil and

jKx, which should be previously melted together:^

USEFUL BECElPT BOOK. 217,

you must observe to stir them continually till cold, when you will have an excellent cerate.

Fomentations,

Boil four ounces each of cammomil& flowers and, the tops of wormwood in a gallon of water, pour ofiP the liquor, p.ut it again on the fire; dip in a bit of flannel, and apply it to the part as warm as the patient can bear it; when this grows cold, dip in i

another piece of flannel, and continue to repeat this V

till the part is eased, observing that, as you change the flannel, you must not let th^ air get to the affected part.

For the tooth-ache, or any other acute pain, the following anodyne fomentation may be made use of: take four ounces of white poppy heads, and one ounce of elder flowers, boil them in three quarts of water till reduced to one -, then strain off the liquor, and proceed as above.'

Lip-salve,

Put in a jar four ounces of white wax, one ounce ^ of spermaceti, and half a pint of oil of sweet almonds, cover it close, and put it in a saucepan with as much water as will nearly reach the top of the jar, let it boil till the wax is melted (but observe, none of the water must boil over the jar;) then put in a small quantity of alkanet root tied up in a bag, dose the jar again, and boil it tiU it becomes red; remove the alkanet root, and add a little essence of lemon, or bergamot -, run it into your pots, and keep it for use.

A clyster.

A common clyster is composed of some strained gruel, and a large spoonful of salt or oiL A grown* • person should have a pint injected. ^

^18 D0JiK8TIC COOKERY, AND

Fumigation.

To make a vapour for a sore throaty boil a quart of vinegar, and two ounces of myrrh tc^tho-, for forty minutes, then pour the liquor into a bason; cover the bason with a large funnel, the small end of which must be taken into the mouth, by vhicb means the fiunes will be inhaled. This process must be renewed every twenty minutes^ and if regularly persbted in^ it will seldom Saul to remove the most obstinate sore throat or quinsy^ if opening medicine is taken at the same time.

Gargles.

Common gargles may be prepared of figs boiled in milk -and water, with a small quantity of salammoniac; or^ sage tea, with honey and vinegar mixed together; or^ infuse some red rose leaves, either fresh or dry, in some boiling water, and when they have stood an hour^ drain off the liquor, and add a few drops of the oil of vitriol -, gar^e ^e throat with either of the above four or five times every day^ taking some opening medicine.

Liniments.

Take an ounce of Florence oil^ and half an ounce of the spirit of hartshorn, shake them in a bottle well together; then moisten a piece of fl mnel with the liniment, and apply it to the throat every four hours. After bleeding, it rarely fails to carry off the complaint. This is one of the best remedies for a quinsy or inflammation of the throat j if some strong opening medicine is taken at the same time. An excellent liniment for the piles may be prered from one ounce of emollient ointment, and

USEFUL RECEIPT BOOK. 219

a quarter bf an- ounce of laudanum j mix them with the yolk of an egg well together.

Marmalade,

Beat three ounces of Malaga raisins to a fine paste with the same quantity of sugar-candy^ add ' half an ounce of the conserve of roses, twelve drops of oil of vitriol, and ten drops of oil of sulphur; mix the whole well together, and take a small tea-spoonful night and morning. This will be found an excellent remedy for a cough or cold.

Lime water.

Four four gallons of water upon two pounds of new quick lime, stir them well together, 'and let it remain till the lime is perfectly settled; then filter the liquor through paper, and boLtle it for use, observing to keep it closely corked. It is a good remedy for the gravel, for which purpose a pint of it- may be drunk every day.

Spermaceti ointment.

Take half a pint of fine sallad oil, half a pound of white wax, and an ounce of spermaceti; melt the whole over a gentle fire, and keep it stirring till the, ointment is cold.

Opening pills.

Take four drachms of Castile soap and the same quantity of succotrine aloes^ make it into pills with a sufficient quantity of common syrup.

Or,

Take four drachms of the extract of jalap, th^ same quantity of vitriolated tartar, and form it into pills with syrup of ginger: five of the above piUil

290 DOMESTIC COOKERY, AND

'Will be sufficient for a pur^; but to keep tiie body gently open, one may be taken night and morning.

Composing pills.

Take ten grains of purified opium; and half a drachm of Castile soap, beat them well together, and make it into twenty pills, two of which, when taken will have a good effect.

J common poultice

Is made of white bread boiled in water till sufficiently thick, when a little sweet oil must be added. Observe, water is better than milk.

Or,

A poultice to ripen swellings should be made of four ounces of white lily-roots, a pound of figs, and four ounces of meal or bean flour, boil the above in water, till sufficiently thick; then apply it to the diseased part while warm, and change it as often as it becomes dry.

Carrot poultice

Consists simply of carrots grated with water, so as to form a pulp: this is an excellent poultice to relieve pain arising from a sore, which it also cleanses, and removes the offensive smell: it is also good for cancers, and should be changed twice 45very day

Carminative powder.

Take an ounce of coriander seeds, four drachms of fine sugar, two drachms of ginger, and one drachm of nutmeg, powder them and mix them together for twenty-four doses. This is an excellent remedy for flatulencies.

USEFUL RECEIPT BOOK. 2^1

Tooth-powder^

Take four ounces of charcoal^ beat and sift it fine^ and mix it with two ounces of powder of bark. This forms a most excellent tooth-powder.

Sinapisnu.

A sinapism consists of a poultice made of vinegar^ instead of milk and water, and rendered warm and stimulating by the addition of garlic, mustard, horse'-radish, &c. To make a common sinapism, take crumbs of bread and mustard, an equi^ quantity, and mix it into a poultice with strong vinegar but should it be required still more powerful, add a little bruised garlic. Sinapisms are employed in cases of palsy, sciatica, &c. &c. Tliey are also useful when the gout attacks the head or stomach, when, if applied to the feet, they will frequently bring the disorder down -, but observe, they should not be suffered to remain on till they raise blisters, but only till they make the part red.

Aromatic tincture.

Take four oundbs of Jamaica pepper, infuse it for eight days in half a gallon of good brandy; then ' ' strain it off, and bottle it for use.

Tincture of rhubarb.

Take five ounces of rhubarb, and one otmce of lesser cardamom seeds, let them steep for ten days in half a gallon of brandy: then stndn off the tincture. To make the bitter tincture of rhubarb, add two ounces of gentian root, and two, drachms of snake root. Thb tincture is very beneficial' in cases of indigestion, pain, or weakness of the sto- f . mach ', and four spoonsfhl may be taken every dayj^*

uS

dSS DOMKSTIC COOKERY^ AND

Worm-powder.

Woxv^fowder is made of an ounce of tin finely powderedr tnd two drachms of £thiop*s mineral^ mixed toge^btfj divide it into six parts or doses^ and take one of mem in .a little syrup twice a day: when they are '^wd^ work them off with a little rhubarb. **/ ^

Compound tincture of bark.

Take four ounces of Peruvian bark powdored, one ounce of Seville-orange peel^ and the same quantity of bruised cinnamon, infiise the whole in three pints of good brandy^ let it stand in a close vessel eight days -, then strain it off; Take two teaspoonsful twice a day in a glass of port wine, sharpened with a few drops of spirits of vitriol. This is an excellent remedy for intermitting fevers, also in nervous and putrid fevers, especially towards their decline.

Tar-water,

Four half a gallon of water on one pound of clean tar, and stir it till it is thoroughly mixed, let it settle, and when it becomes fine, pour off the water for use 3 a half tumbler-fiill taken four times a day will be beneficial in cases of asthma, and extremely useful to public speakers.

Freckles on the face.

To disperse them, take two ounces of lemonjuice, half a drachm of powdered borax, and one drachm of sugar, mix them together, and let them stand a few days in a glass bottle till the liquor is fit for use; then rub it on the hands and face occasionally.

UREFUL RECEIPT BOOK. 2^

To remove chaps

Rub the part at bed time with a little unscented pomatum^ and let it remain till the morning 5 or, which is still better, rub the face and hands with honey-water, made as thick as cream, which will fbrm a kind of varnish on the skin, and effectually protect it from cold.

Head-ache.

This unpleasant pain may be prevented by wearing the hair short, and by washing the head daily with cold water 3 then rub the hair dry^ and expose it to the air.

Weak eyes

May be relieved by washing them frequently in cold water -, or ^ssolve four grsuns of the sugar of lead, and crude sal ammoniac in eight ounces of water; to which add a few drops of laudanum, and with this mixture bathe the eyes night and morning.-- Rose w^ter is also good for the eyes.

r

Inflamed eyes.

Leeches shotild be applied to the temples, and when the bleeding has ceased, a small blister ttittf be applied, and a little opening medicine taken. Shaving the head, and bathing the feet in itarm walibr, will in some cases, be found very beneficiaL

Bleeding at the nose.

Violent bleeding at the nose may be generally stopped by plugging the nostril with lint dipped in strong vinegar, applying, at the same time, clot^ wetted with cold water, externally. Should this fail, surgical aid should be then had recourse to.

r

224 DOMESTIC COOKERY^ AMD

M^- - ¦-- f -

Deafness.

Take an ounce of the oil of sweet almonds, and the same quantity of camphorated spirits af wine mix them weU together, pour a few drc^ into the ear every night, and put in a bit of cotton. Observe, whatever may be the cause of deafness, the head should be always kept warm.

Or,

Steep a table-spoonfiill of bay-salt in half a pint of spring water, twenty-four hours. When the salt is perfectly dissolved, pour a tea-spoonfiill of the solution into the affected ear, for eight or nine successive nights, while in bed^ observing to lay your head oh the opposite side. This i^ generally effect a cure. Should an insect get into the ear, drop in a few drops of sweet oil, wluch will effectually destroy it.

TooihHtch.

The best preventative to this painful disorder is to keep the teeth very clean. Some cotton moistened with laudanum, and laid on the affected tooth, will sometimes remove the pain. If the gums be inflamed, bleeding by leeches wiU remove the pain; and if the tooth is hollow, it should be constantly filled with fibe white wax.

Corns,

To prevent corns, wear easy shoes, and bathe the feet with luke-warm water, with a little salt dissolved in it. Corns may be effectually removed by rubbing them every day with a litUe caustic solution of pot-ash till a soft and pliable skin is formed.

USEFUL RECEIPT ROOK. 225

An ointment for sore nipples.

Take two ounces of diachylon^ one ounce of olive pilj and half an ounce of vinegar, boil them together over a gentle fire, stirring them till they are become an ointment; then pour it in your jar, and apply a little of it to the sore nipple occasionally, on a fine linen rag. If any fever accompanies the soreness of the nipple, it may be checked by the use of bark in electuary four times a day, each dose of which should be about the size of a nutmeg.

Ague.

On the first attack of ague, the patient should instantly take an emetic, and a little opening medicine. While the shaking fits continue drink plenty of warm gruel, and afterwards take some portwine and sack -, or, when the fit is on, take an egg beaten up in a glass of brandy, and go to bed immediately.

Asthma.

The diet and exercise should be light, a dish of very strong coffee, without sugar or milk, taken frequently, will at all times alleviate, and sometimes remove this distressing malady. Tar water villi also afford considerable relief. For common drink, use toast and water, with a little vinegar, or a few grains of nitre.

Hooping cough.

When the cough commences, the child should be removed for a change of air, and the juice of onions applied to the soles of the feet. The diet should be light and nomishing, and taken in small quantities. Every thing druuK should be lukewum^

For coM^kM.

In the cuiy stage of a eougli, orra ri m ic d bj cc^^ cbewing of fiqnorice, or ginn-anfaic^ will cxMnmooly prove effecthre; but if it has made too great a progress to jidd to the abore^ a fpooahd of the syrup of hordkoand pat into a glass of qiriiig water, and mixed with ten dropB of the spirit oi sulphur, will generally rdieve the most severe ookL

Debiiity.

Various disorders originate in debility, and consequently it req;aires a treatment in unison with the cause on which it depends. The warm bath will generally prove beneficiaL Diet must also be carefully attended to, as weakly persons should be extremely temperate in the use of animal food, but they may freely indulge themsdves in the use of nutritious vegetables, soup, eggs, strong broth, and sheU fish, all of which are extremely nourishing. Clotliing also should be carefiiUy attended to» so as to preserve a moderate temperature betwe^i heat and cold Invalids of this description should also take more rest than healthy pesons, and be careful not to exceed in their exerdse the strength they possess. Their bed should be clean^ but not too soft 'f the apartments in which they dwells large and airy, and the mind should be^ kept perfectly calm.

Strengtluening pills.

Take soft extract of bark, and vitriolated iron, each a drachm, make it into pills with common syrup, and take two of them three times a day.

USEFUL RECEIPT BOOK. 229

Flatulency,

Gentle laxatives^ moderate exercise, and a careful diet, are the only remedies for this unplesant disease, which is either occasioned by intemperance or costiveness.

Gout.

The patient should abstain from all . fermented and spirituous liquors, and be very moderate in the use of wine; all fat, rancid, and salted provisions, as well as all high seasoned dishes, should be carefully avoided. Barley-bread should be eaten constantly. Absorbent powders of two scruples of ma^esia^ and four grains ea ^h of purified kali and rhubarb, should be taken during the intervals of the gouty fits, and repeated every other morning for several weeks. The feet should be kept moderately warm. A gentleman of the namie of Reynolds, has lately discovered a cure for this dreadful disorder.

Gravel,

This disease is sometimes occasioned by the gout and rheumatism; it is also promoted by Ihe use of sour liquors, food that is difficult of digestion, especially cheese, and by a sedentary life. Respiration should be promoted by gentle methods -, constant temperance should be observed in respect to the food, and moderate exercise should be taken. For medicine take the juice of horse radish, made into a thin syrup, mixing it with sugar^ of which take a spoonful every four hours.

Heartburn,

Stale liquors, and flatulent food, will promote this disease^ consequently they should be avoided.

230 DOMESTIC COOKERY, AND

Take an infusion of bark^ or a tea-spoonfiil of the powder of gum-arabic dissolved in a little water either oi which wiU equally have the desired effect.

Indigestion.

Persons subject to indigestion are of weak and delicate habits, or else of a sedentary disposition. The free use of cold water in drinkuig^ washing, and bathing, will frequently effect a cure alone. Drinking sea-water, mild purgatives, light food, early rising, and moderate exercise, will be found the most certain cure.

Hiccough,

This very impleasant sensation is in general instantly stopped by taking a tea-spoonfol of vinegar, or a few draughts of cold water in succession. Peppermint- water, mixed with a few drops of vitriolic acid, will also stop the hiccough.

Hysterics.

Immediate relief may be aftbrded by throwing plenty of cold water on the face, neck, and hands, and also by immersing the feet in cold water at the same time, but, to afibct a radical cure, the cold Bath mineral waters, and other tonics, must be resorted to.

Iliac passion.

This terrible disease arises from spasms, violent exertions, eating of unripe fridt, drinking of scmr liquors, obstinate costiveness, and worms. The pain arising from it is horrible -, large blisters should be applied to the part where the pain is most severe; emollient clysters, fomentations, and the warm bath, may be tried, though in many instances . this dangerous disorder will not be controuled iy medicine,.

U8BPUL BECEIPT BOOK. 231

fVe^uent doses of castor is however, the best and safest remedy that can be applied 5 but should this fajly quicksilver in its natural state must be made use of as a final trial.

Inflammation of the bowels.

This malady requires great care 3 should the belly swell, and be painful when touched, flannels dipped in hot water should be applied, after being wrung out^ or the warm bath will be useful 3 a blister should be applied as soon as possible, and mild emollient clysters injected till stools are obtained. The patient should be laid between blankets, and supplied with light gruel; and when the extreme -violence of the disease is abated, the pain may be removed by opiate clysters. But this being a dangerouB disorder, medical advice should be resisted to, on Us fast appearance.

Lethargy.

This disease may be known by a continual drowsiness, or inclination to sleep, and is generally attended with a certain degree of fever, and a coldness of the extremities. Blisters and emetics have often procured relief; well washing the head is also attended with advantage.

Itch.

Rub the affected parts with the ointment of sulphur, or rub the palms of the hands, the bend in the arms, and imder the knees, with mercurial ointment on going to bed^ observing to keep the body moderately open, by daily taking a small dose of brimstone and treacle. When the cure is perfect, thoroughly wash every thing that has touched tlie body, and well fumigate the other clothes with sulphur, or the inftction will again spread

³^ DpMESTIC COOKERY^ AND

the disease. The dry itch requires a vegetable diet, and a very free use of antiscorbutics. The affected parts may be rubbed with a strong decoction of tobacco.

Measles,

The body should be kept open by means of tamarinds^ manna^ or other gentle laxative medicines. Supply the patient with barley-water at near intervals^ or linseed-tea^ sweetened with honey. Bathe the feet in warm water, keep the body moderately warm, and if there is the least inclination to vomit, promote it by the use of camomile-tea. Should the complaint strike inwards, the danger may be prevented by immediately applying blisters to the arms and legs, and rubbing the whole body with warm flannels.

Jaundice,

The diet should be light and cooling, consisting of vegetables and ripe fruits. Some persons haye been cured by eating nothing but raw eggs for several days. Butter-milk or whey sweetened with honey, should form the whole drink of the patient, Antiscorbutics, honey, blisters, and bitters, applied to the region of the liver, will frequently effect a cure.

Palpitation of the heart.

Persons of a full habit of body may find relief in bleeding, but when it is attended with nervous affections (which is generally the case), bleeding must on no account take place. The feet should be frequently bathed in warm water, and a stimulating plaister applied to the left side, which, with gentle exercise, will be found the most effectual remedy.

V

USfiFUL RECEIPT BOOK 233

POef.

Should this complaint arise from costiveness, remove the cause by gentle purgatives; but if it proceeds from weakness, strong purgatives should be avoided. The part should be washed three times daily with a sptmge and cold water, and the bowels kept open by the mildest laxatives 5 an electuary, consisting of one oimce of sulphur, and half an ounce of cream of tartar, mixed with some treacle, should be taken four times a day. The patient will, in geneifal, find relief by sitting over the steam of warm water.

Quinsy.

Apply a large blister to the chest, or between the shoulders, and use gargles of sage tea, vinegar, and honey; also bathe the feet in cold water, and use opening medicines. By doing as above, relief will be generally obtained 5 but if the swelling should increase, apply leeches to the neck, and the throat should be fumigated with the steam of warm water in which a little camphor has been dissolved.

RJieumatism.

Take nourishing diet, and a little generous wine, and carefully avoid costiveness; keep the painful part warm with flannel, and rub it frequently. Soft poultices of mustard may be applied with advantage. Should the above not succeed, take half a pint of spirit of turp^tine, to which add a quarter of an ounce of camphor 3 let the camphor dissolve, and then rub it on the a£fected part night and morning, and it will rarely fail to cure.

Note.- The latter mixture is also exceUent for sprains and bruises.

x3

d34 DOU&TIC COOKERY^ AND

Smallpox

Is now happily superseded by Vaccination, or, as it is vulgarly called, the Cow-Pox; but if, through the cruel neglect of the parent, any child should take the natural Small-pox, it is such a dangerous disease, that a medical man should be employed, as tampering with it may occasion fatal consequences.

Sprains,

Foment the part with vinegar, or camphorated spirits of wine, to which a few drops of laudanum maybe added. Renew this frequently, and keep the part in a state of rest.

Swoons,

Expose the person instantly to the open air, and throw water on the neck and face; volatile spirits, or vinegar, should also be held to the nose, and the feet put into warm water.

The thrush.

Cleanse the mouth with sage-tea, .sweetened with honey of roses, and mixed with a drachm of borax. But if it is in the stomach, great benefit may be derived from a decoction of carrots in water, or two ounces of linseed boiled in a quart of water till reduced to a consistence, and sweetened with four ounces of honey. Give a table spoonful occasionally, observing to keep the bowels gently open.

\

USEFUL RECEIPT BOOK. ^5

KITCHEN GARDEN.

JANUARY.

Throw up some new dung to heat for hot-beds for early cucumbers^ &c. Dig up the ground designed to be sown with the spring crops^ that it may lay and mellow. Nurse the cauliflower-plants under glasses^ letting in a little air during the middle of the fine days -, pick up the dead leaves^ and gather the mould about the stalks. Make a slight hot-bed in, the open ground for yoimg salading^ and cover it in the hard weather with hoops. Plant out endive for seed in warm borders^ and blanch celery. Sow a few beans and peas.

FEBRUABY.

Prepare beds for radishes^ onions^ parsnips, and Dutch lettuce. Le^s and spinach should also be sown now; also celery, beets^ marigolds, and sorrel, with any other of the hardy kinds. Make up the hot-beds for early cucumbers, and sow cauliflower seeds, and some others. Plant beans and peas, observing to put in a fresh crop every fourteen days, by which means, if one fails, another will succeed, and a constant supply be provided. Plant kidney-beans upon a hot-bed for an early crop. The Battersea, and dwarf white bean, are the best sorts. When up, admit the air in the middle of fine days, and water gently every other day. Transplant cabbages, plant out Silesia and cos lettuce

3S6 DomesTic cookbbt^ and

from the winter bed ^ and plant potatoes and Jerusalem artichokes.

MARCH.,

Sow carrots and lai^ P^ cabbages and savoys, and also a second crop of parsnips and carrots. - Towards the end of the month, put in large quantities of beans and peas. Sow parsley and plant mint. Sow cos and imperial lettuce, transplant the finer kinds. The last week make asparagus beds^ dear up the artichoke roots, slip off the weakest, and plaiit them out. Dig a warm border, and sow some French beans.

APRIL.

FLant French beans, cuttings of sage, and other aromatic plants 3 sow nlarrow-&t peas, and more beans for a succession; sow thyme, sweet maijoram, and savory. Prepare dung for making ridges to receive cucumber or melon-plants, designed for handglasses. Sow small-salading weekly; and also some cos and Silesia lettuces. Weed the growing crops, hoe between the beans and peas, cabbages, cauliflower plants, &c. At night, cover your cucumbers and melons with hand-glasses.

MAY

Water your beans^ peas, &c. occasionally. Destroy the weeds, and hoe between the rows. Sow some small-salading weekly. Sow purslain and endive. Plant a large quantity of beiuis and peas, and French beans, to succeed the others. Plant out * savoys, cabbages, and red cabbages 5 and water them well.

JUNE.

Transplant cauliflower plants, and water them

USEFUL RKCEIPT BOOK. 237

well. Plant out th3rme^, and other savoury herbs. Sow turnips and* brocoli^ and plant out celery in trenches for blanching; also endive. Destroy snails^ slugs^ &c.

JULY.

Sow French beans for a late crop^ weed the ground -, hoe between your peas^ beans^ cabbages^ and artichokes; water occasionally -, gathei: spinach and Welch onion seed. Take up large onions^ and dry them for winter use. Clear off the stalks of peas and beans past bearing. Attend to your melons^ water them a little, and your cucumbers plentifiiUy. .

AUaUST.

Sow some spinach and onions on a warm border. They wiU live through the winter, and be valuable in the spring. In the second week, sow cabbage seed of the early kinds, and the week after, caiQiflower seeds, the plants of which must be nursed under hand-gl^es during- the winter. A week afterwards another crop should be sown in case of accidents to the first. This last crop should be defended by a hot-bed frame. Sow the cabbage and brown Dutch lettuce on a warm sheltered piece of ground. Transplant some of the earlier lettuces to warm sheltered borders. Take up garlick, onions, rocambole, and shalots, and dry them for winter use.

8EPTEMBEB.

Sow' lettuce of various kinds; when up, shelter them under a sloping reed hedge, or hand-glasses. Make mushroom beds; thin your . turnips -, weed all young plants; transplant herbs, and earth up celery; sow young salading upon warm borders;

238 DOHcanc oookkbt^ avd

dean jfltiaij gi a beds in lliis manner: cot down tiie tUSks, and pare llie eardi off the sarhce of the afleys, andtlmnr hnpon the beds lialf an inch thick, and sprinkle over it some dsaig from an old mekm bed. Ridge the groond for winter; plant some peas and beans on wann, well-sheltered borders^ to stand oot die winter.

OCTOBKK.

Plant out the canliilower i^ants where they are to be sheltered; two under each glass, for foar one should foil; sow another crop of peas and beans in a sheltered situation, to stand tbe winter. TVans]dant lettuces under a reed hedge or wall; also cabbage plants and coleworts, where they are to remain. The cauliflowers, which now begin to shew their heads, must have a leaf broken in upon them to keep off the sun and rain.

NOVEMBER.

Carefully weed all late crops. Dig up a border under a warm wall, and sow carrots far spring - .also some radishes, in such another place. Turn the mould that was trenched up. Prepare hot-beds for salading; cover them five inches with mould, and sow upon them lettuces and small salading. Plant another crop of beans and peas. Trench the earth between your artichokes, and throw some earth over the roots. Make a hot-bed for forced asparagus. Take up carrots and parsnips, and lay them in sand for use. Give air occasionally to plants in hot-beds, and under hand-glasses.

DECEMBER.

Plant cabbages and savoys for seed. To do this, dig up a dry border, and break the mould well: then take up your stoutest plants, and hang them

USEFUJb RECEIPT BOOK 239

^p by the stalks five days^ and then plant them half way of the stalks into the ground^ drawing the earth round them like a hill. Put in another crop of peas and beans to take their chance. Make another hot-bed for asparagus. Continue to earth up celery, and^over your endive with pea-straw.

THE

MANAGEMENT OF BEES.

Bees^ whether we consider them as beneficial to the poor, from the very trivial expence at which they are kept, and the sure returns they make, or as creatures which produce us a luxurious treat, are equally worthy of our consideration. ' The hives should be placed in such a manner as to face the south, and sufficiently near the house to watch them, but so situated as not to be exposed to unpleasant smells, or too much noise. If near a running stream, so much the better, but if not, place some shallow troughs of water near them, with some small stones in it for them to. pitch on - for water is absolutely necessary to their well-being. Herbs, especially thyme, should be plentifully sown in the garden where they are kept: furze, broom, clover, and heath, are also excellent for bees.

Straw hives are the best, because they keep out the cold better than any otibers^ and are not liable

-- ^

840 DOMESTIC COOKBRY^ AND

to be over-heated by the rays of the sun. Their cheapness also renders their purchase easy.

Persons designing to keep bees^ should make theh* purchase at the latter part of the year, at which time they are cheapest. The hives should bi full of combs, and well stored with bees. The purchaser should inspect the combs, and select the whitest, which are always the product of that season -, and when the combs are very dark, that hive should be rejected, because the bees are old.

Bees should never be bought during the Summer, or, if purchased, should on no account be removed from their native place tiU the Autumn.

Bees generally swarm in April and May, but earlier or later according to tibe warmth of the season. They rarely swarm before ten o'clock in the morning, or later than three in the afternoon. If the swarm fly too high, throw some sand amongst them, which will cause them to descend, and when they settle, they should be immediately hived^ lest they should again take wing.

The hive should not be immediately placed on the stool where it is to remain, but should be suffered to stand near the place where the bees were swept into it, tiU the evening, and shaded with some boughs.

Bees are torpid during a great part of the winter, but revive on sunny days, in consequence of which a little food supports them. Every hive should therefore be weighed at the end of Autumn, and each ought then to weigh twenty pounds, but should any weigh less, that hive must be occasionally fed with honey, or sugar and water put in small troughs made with elder.

Bees are generally taken in September, for which purpose a hole is dug in the earth, and a rag dipt in melted brimstone, fastened to the end:of a stick.

USEFUL RECEIPT BOOK. ^41

is stuck in the hole so prepared. Then set it on fire, and instantly place the hive over it, observing to throw the earth up all round, to prevent the smoke from escaping.

In fifteen or twenty minutes, the bees will; be destroyed.

The valuable creatures thus destroyed may, however, be preserved, by using boxes instead of hives j by which method two boxes of honey may be taken during the summer (from one colony), each weighing forty pounds^ and yet a sufiident supply be left ibr the winter support of the bees in this manner preserved from destruction.

Consequently it appears ' that this plan combines humanity with great profit, to which motives we may add the pleasure of seeing them at work, and also the trouble which is saved during the swarming time.

The bees thus secured, are also much more effectually screened from wet and cold, from mice, and other vermin.

The boxes should be made of deal, which, from its spongy nature, sucks up the breath of the bees sooner than a more solid wood would do. Yellow Dram deal, well seasoned, is the best -, and an octagon form is preferable to a square. The boxes should be ten inches in depth, and fourteen in breadth, with a small glass window behind, with a thin deal oover on brass hinges, and a button to shut it with.

It will be of material service, when you intend to keep bees, to plant a great number of gooseberry and currant trees, on the blossom of which they will find a large quantity of food.

If bees are suffered to continue in one hive more than four years, they will degenerate both in numbers and strength.

r

^42 DOMESTIC COOKEKV, AND

MISCELLANEOUS.

I *•

To make soft pomatum.

Beat a pound of fresh lard in common water^ then soak and beat it in two rose waters, drain it, and beat it with a gill of brandy j let it drain from this: scent with any essence you please, and keep it in small pots.

~ Hard pomatum.

Take of beef-marrow and mutton-suet^ a pound each^ prepare it by soaking it in water three days^ and observe to change and beat it well every day: then put it into a saucepan of water: when melted, pour it into a bason with a little brandy, and beat it well; then add your scent, and run the whole into moulds; when cold, take it from the moulds, and put paper roimd every roll.

Lavender water.

Take a quart of highly rectified spirit of wine, essential oil of lavender two ounces, essence of ambergris five drachms 5 put it all into a bottle, and shake it till perfectly incoroorated.

Or,

Put two pounds of lavender blossoms into half a gallon of water, and set them in a still over a

.^ ^

USBKUL RECEIPT BOOK. ^43

slow fire, distill it off gently till the water is all exhausted; repeat the process a second time -, then cork it closely down in bottles. .

JRose water.

When the roses are in full blossom, pick the leaves carefully off, and to every quart of water put a peck of them -, put them in a cold still over a slow fire, and distill very gradually 5 then bottle the water, let it stand in the bottle thi^ee days, and then cork it close.

Milk of roses.

Mix four ounces of oil of almonds, with half a gallon of rose water, and then add forty drops of the o^ of tartar.

Hungary water.

Put some rosemary flowers into a glass retort, and pour on them as much spirits of wine as the flowers will imbibe: dilute the retort well, and let the flowers stand for six days 5 then distUl in a sand heat.

Honey water.

To every quart of rectified spirits of wine, put six drachms of essence of ambergris -, pour it into a bottle and shake it well daUy.

Windsor soap.

Cut some new white soap into thin slices, melt it over a slow fire, and scent it with oil of caraway, or any other agreeable scent 5 when perfectly dissolved pour it into a mould, and let it remain a week, then cut it into such sized squares as you may require.

Mi

T» tmkt ma muldem: from 2»eft.

» wanAi Bi&L, acBd tbt pact id « ksaoB, ftepBTKHi todb iades «^ a hrodi M» dbe gFHK, dar and xn^tty laD litf:

Ii^n-flKHdfc lan' be reoHrrcd bj tlbe of lif f MaDT fitduas monr be

Ai( dave or isar tima. StuB§ cashed bjacuk nuij be remored bj tjia^ Mane peari-ash op ia tbe fUimed fHift; tbea scEqie Maae soap ia soBMcold •oft water, and boil tbe liaea tiQ die staia is goae.

To make old wriiimg legiUe.

Take «& bnik ed galls^ and pot tbcm to a pint of tUtmg white wme: staad it m tbe sue forty-eigfat boon 'f tfaeo dip a brush into it, and wadi the writing, and bj the ooloor yon will discover whether jour mixture is ttroag enau^ of the gaUs.

To preserve a granary from insects and weasels. Lei the floor be made of Lombardy poplars.

To destrof crickets. LoLj Scotch snuff upon their holes.

To varnish drawings or card-work. '

Boil some parchment in clear water in a glazed pipkin^ till it becomes a fine clear size^ strain, and keep it for use; give your work two coats of the above^ observing to do it quickly and lightly 5 when dry apply your varnish.

USEFUL RECEIPT BOOK. ^45

To clean paintingi,

Oil-p^ting frequently becomes soiled with smoke or dirt^ when they must be treated with great care; dissolve a small' quantity of common salt in some stale urine; dip a woollen cloth in the liquid^ and mb the paintings over with it^ till they are quite clean^ then wash them with a sponge and clean water^ dry them gradually^ and rub them over with a clean cloth.

To cleaifi silver.

Lay it piece by piece upon a charcoal fire^ and when warm^ take them off^ and boil themjn tartar and water^ which will make your silver furnitiu-e look equal to new.

Or,

Use simple whiting finely powdered, and moistened with rectified spirits of vidne.

. To take ink out of mahogany.

Take a little diluted vitriol, and touch the part with a feather } then rub it quickly, and if not quite removed, repeat the same.

Lookingmglasses.

To renew the lustre of glaisses which are tarnished, nothing more is necessary than to rub them over with a linen bag containing some powdered blue.

To extract oil from boards or stone.

Make a strong lye of pearl-ashes, to which add as much unslacked lime as will take up 3 mix it well, let it settle, and then bottle it for use: when you use it, lower it with water, and scour the

yS

1M6 ^ommtTtc coomMMY,

boards, or sfone^ wfaick fiwnld ahnifs be doae iikkly, or it wffl tike oat the coloor ham At

To take mm simms cmi ofwtmiVe.

Mix eqpMl quDtitiet of spmt of Titriol joioe, dbdke it well; wet die spots, and m. m few ironntes, nd with soft linen, till they are gooe.

To makefmmiimre paste,

Scn4;ie half a pound of bees' wax into a basoo, and add as modi qiirits of torpentine as wiD mcHSten it tbrougb, and when this is dissolved, add half an ounce of powdered rosin, and as mndi Ini£an red as win give it a fine mahogany ooloor, stir it op, and it will be fit for use.

To take ncit oui ofsUeL

Rub the stedL well with sweet ofl, and in fbrtjeight hours, rub it well with unslairkfd powdered lime, till Uie rust disafypears.

To preserve fire irons, Icnioes, iscfrom rutt

Purchase at the chemist's some stuff vulgarly called ali-guentum, and rub your articles with it; and let them remain till wanted; then wipe it off, and the polish will be instantly restored by robbiiig them with unslacked powdered lime.

To mend iron poU,

To repair cracks, &c. in iron pots or pans, mix some finely sifted lime with well beaten whites of affgi^ till reduced to a paste; then add some iron file dust, and apply the composition to the ihjuied part, and it will soon become hard, and. fit for use.

V8EFVL RECEIPT BOOK. ^7

To mend broken glassi

Take two quarts of litharge, one of quick lime, and one of flint-glass, each separately and very finely powdered, and work the whole up into a paste with drying oil. This is an excellent cement for china or glass, and only becomes the harder by being immersed in water.

Cement for china

Powder lime, and sift it through some very fine muslin 5 then tie some in a thin bit of muslin, wet the edges of the broken china with some white of ^^ ^SS ^^^ ^^ 1^^ qtSckly- on, and unite the pieces

To prevent the creaking of a door.

This noise may be immediately removed by rubbings soap or oil on the hinges.

To make starch

Peel and grate a quantity of potatoes, put the pulp into a coarse cloth between two boards, and press it into a dry cake 5 the juice thus pressed out of the potatoe must be mixed with an equal quantity of water, and in an hour*s time, it will deposit a fine sediment, which may be used as starch

Ink,

Take two gallons of soft water, and a pound and a half of bruised blue galls; infuse them one month, observing to sthr them daily; then add half a pound each of green copperas, logwood chips, gum arable, and a gill of brandy.

Portable glue*

Take half a pound of fine glue, boil and strain it dear, then boil two ounees of isinglass; put it

S48 DOMBtTIC COOKXBT^ AND

in a double glue-pot with four ounces of fine brown •ngar^ and boil it pretty thick 3 then pour it out Into plates^ when cold, cut them into small pieces for the pocket, and diy them. This is anexodlent dement for paper, as it instantly dissolves in warm water, and fastens the paper very firmly.

Gleaning tteel stoves.

Stoves may be admirably cleaned in a few minutes, by using a small portion of fine corned emery-stone; and afterwards finishing with flour of emery or rotten-stone, either of which may be obtained at any ironmonger's.

To clean stone-stairs,

. Boil together half a pint each of size and stoneblue water, with two table-spoonsful of whiting, and two cakes of pipe-maker's clay in about two quarts of water. Wash the stones over with a flannel slightly wetted in this mixture; and whesa dry, rub them with flannel and a brusb. Some persons recommend beer, but water is much better for the purpose.

Best method of cleaning floor-cloths.

After sweeping and cleaning the floor-cloths with a broom and damp flannel, in the usual manner, wet them over with milk, and rub them till beautifully bright with a dry cloth. They will thus look as well as if they were rubbed first with a waxed flannel, and afte^Arards with a dry one; without being so slippery, or so soon clogging with dust or dirt.

Useful properties of charcoal.

All sorts oi glasjs vessels and other utensils may   c purified from long detained smells of every

trSEFUL RECEIPT BOOK. ^49

kind^ in the easiest and most perfect manner^ by rinsing them out well with charcoal powder, after the grosser impuritives have been scoured oflF with sand and potash. Rubbing the teeth^ and washing out the mouthy with fine charcoal powder, will render the teeth beautifully white, and the breath perfectly sweet, where an oflFensive breath has been owing to a scorbutic disposition of the gums. Putrid water is immediately deprived of its offensive smell by charcoaL

To make spruce beer.

This cheap and wholesome liquor is thus made: take of water sixteen gallons, and boil the half of it; put the water thus boiled, while in full heat, to the reserved cold part, which should b% previously put into a barrel, or other vessel; then add sixteen pounds of treacle or molasses, with a few table spoonsM of the essence of spruce, stirring the whole well together; add half a pint of yeast, aiid keep it in a temperate situation, with the bunghole open, for two days, till 'the fermentation be abated 3 then close it up, or bottle it off, and it will be fit to drink in a few days afterwards.'

To perfume linen.

Rose leaves dried In the shade, oloves beat to a jpowder, and mace scraped; mix them together, and put the composition into little hafrs.

To raise the surface of velvet.

Warm a smoothing Iron moderately^ and cover it with a wet cloth, and hold it under th^ velvet j the vapour arising from the heated cloth will raise the pile of the velvet with the assistance of a rushwhisk.

M

250 DOMESTIC COOKERY^ AND

To prevent the tooth^ache Clean the teeth well and regularly

Rules for preserving the teeth and gums.

The teeth are bones^ thinly covered over with a fine enamel/ and this enamel is more or less substantial in different persons. Whenever this enamd is worn t)irough by too coarse a powder^ or too freciuent cleaning the teeth^ or eaten through by a scorbutic humour in the gums^ the tooth cannot remain long sounds any more than a filbert kernel can^ when it has been eaten by a worm.

The teeth^ therefore^ are to be cleaned^ but with great precaution, for if you wear the enamel off fastet by cleaning the outside than nature supplies it within, your t^th will sufier more by this method than perhaps by a total neglect. A butcher's skewer, or the wood with which they are made, must be bruised, and bit at the end, till with a little use, it will become the softest and best brush for this purpose, and in general you must clean your teeth with this brush alone, without any powder whatever 3 and once in # fortnight, or oftener, dip your skewer brush into a few grains of gunpowder, breaking them first with the brush, and this will remove every spot and blemish, and give your teeth an inconceivable whiteness. It is almost needless to say that the mouth must be well washed after this operation, for besides the necessity of so doing, the salt-petre, &c. used in the composition of gunpowder, would, if it remains, be injurious to the gums and teeth; but has not^ nor can have^ any bad effect in so short a time.

To prevent the ill effects of charcoal^ Set an uncovered vessel, filled with boiling Mrater^

USEFUL RECEIPT BOOK. 251

over the pan containing the charcoal^ the vapour of which will counteract the deleterious furaes, and, while it keeps boiling, will make charcoal as safe as any other fiiel.

To prevent the rheumatism.

For the sake of bright and polished stoves, do not, when the weather is cold, refrain from making fires. There is not a more useful recipe for health to the inhabitants of this climate^ than '* to follow your feelings.'*

To cure disease in apple trees.

Brush off the white down, clear off the red stain underneath it, and anoint the places infected ^h a liquid mixture of train oil and Scotch snuff.

/

To prevent hares and rabbits barking trees.

Take any quantity of tar, and six or seven times as much grease, stirring and mixing them well to-, gether^ with this comjA^sition brush the stems of young trees as high as hares, &c. can reach 5 and it will effectually prevent their being barked.

To stain leather gloves.

Those different pleasing hues of yellow, brown, or tan colour, are readily imparted to leather gloves by the following simple process: Steep safiron in boiling hot soft water for about twelve hours; then, having slightly sewed up the tops of the gloves, to prevent the dye fi-om staining the insides, wet them over with a sponge or soft brush dipped into the liquid. The quantity of saffron, as well as of water, will of course depend on how much dye may be wanted; and their relative proportions^ on the depth

959 DQMBSTIC COOKEET, AND

of colour required A common tea-cop wUl eontam sufficient in quantity for a single pair of gloves.

Nankeen dye.

Boil equal parts of amatto and common potash, in water till the whole are dissolved. This will produce the pale reddish buff so much in use and sold under the name of Nankeen dye.



To dye cotton a fine huff.

Let the twist or yam be boiled in pure wator^ to cleanse it 3 then wring it^ run it through a diluted solution of iron liquor 3 wring, and run it through lime water to raise it ^ wring it again, and run it through a solution of starch and water; then wring it once more, and dry, wind, warp, and weave for use.

Substitute for cream.

Where cream or milk cannot be got, it is an excellent substitute to beat up the whole of a fresh egg, in a bason, and then gradually to pour boiling tea over it, to prevent its curdling. It is difficult, from the taste, to distinguish the composition from tea and rich cream. This is the usual substitute for milk at sea, as eggs may be.preserved fresh.

Preserving fruit all the year,

TaVe of saltpetre one pound, of bole-armoniac two pounds, of common sand, well freed from its earthy parts, four pounds, and mix all together. After this, let the fruit be gathered with the hand before it is thoroughly ripe, each fruit being handled only by the stalk 5 lay them regularly, and in order, in a large wide-mouthed glass vessel 5 then cover the top of the glass with an oiled paper^ and canying

USEFUL RECEIPT BOOK. ^55

it into a dry place, set it in a box filled all round, to about four inches thickness, with the aforesaid preparation, so that no part of the glass vessel shall appear^ being in a manner buried in the prepared nitre; and at the end of a year, such fruits may be taken out, as beautiful as when they were first put in.

To purify water.

I

This method is extremely simple, and consists of placing horizontally, in the midst of a common water-butt, a false bottom, perforated with a great niunber of small holes. The butt being thus divided into two equal parts, the upper is fiUed with pieces of charcoal, which must be neither too large nor too small, thoroughly burned, light, and wdil washed. Immediately under the cock, by which the water enters the butt, must be placed a wooden bowl, being merely to break the force of the water, and prevent it from falling on the charcoal with such violence as to detach from it any particles of dirt, and wash them through into the lower receptacle.

To prevent the Ul effects of lamp'Oil,

Let a sponge, three or four inches in diameter, be moistened with pure water, and in that state be suspended by a string or wire, exactly over the flame of the lamp, at the distance of a few inches j this substance will absorb all the smoke emitted during the evening or night, after which it should be rinsed in warm water, by which me^S' it will be again rendered fit for use.

\ * ¦ 1

Valuable effects of red spurge.

Warts, or corns anointed with the juice of this plant, presently disappear. A drop of it put into

'i

9M SOMBSTIC COOKKBTy AKD

the bollaw of a decayed aifd adiiiig tDolh, destroji the nerve, and co ns eqocntiy Rmofres the pain. Some people nib it bdiind the eara that it may blitteF^ and by that means give relief

EgceUemi Blaekimg.

Take eight ounces of iTory Uack, six ounces of treacle^ six table-spoonsfiil of sweet oil, and thne of oil of Titrk^; mix the above ingre d ie ut B well together with a quart of yine^ar, and botde it: in a week's time, it will be fit for ose.

To ohmiaU the smells of privies, etc

Water in which lime has been sladced, must be mixed with a ley of ashes, or soa^y water that hss been used in washing, and then thrown into the sink of the privy, it will destroy the c^Bmnve smelL By these means, for the value of a few pence, any collection of filth whatever may be neutralized.

For the night-chair of sick persons, put within the vessel half a pound of quicklime, half an ounce of powdered sal-ammoniac, and one pint of water; this will prevent any disagreeable smdl.

To dye silk a fair blue.

Take white silk, and soak it in water, then having wrung the water out, add eight ounces of woad four ounces of indigo, and one ounce of alum; then gently warm and dissolve them in the water, after which dip your materials till the coknir has taken.

To clean calico furniture, when taken down for the

summer.

First shake off the loose dirt, and slightly brtitti the article with a stnall long haired furniture bniulh;

USEFUL RECEIPT BOOK. 955

L ' . " ' ¦ ¦ ¦ I I ¦ ¦ ^

then wipe it with clean flannels, and rub it well with, dry bread. If this is. properly executed, the furniture will appear as fresh as it was when new.

To clean chairs.

Drop some linseed oil upon a wooU^i rag, and rub the chairs with it^ then rub them hard with a dry cloth till they appear bright, after which rub some yellow wax on a hard brushy and brush them all over; then rub them well with a rough woollen doth^ and they will look equal to new ones. As little oil as possible should be used in cleaning chairs or tables.

Portable balls to take out grease spots.

Take some perfectly dry Fuller's earth, and moistai it well with lemon juice -, add a small quantity of pure pearl-ash, well powdered, and work the whole into a thick paste. Roll this into small balls, each about the nze of a marble, and dry them well in the sun, after which they are fit for iise. The method of using them, is, by moistening with water the spots upon the cloth, then rubbing the ball over^ after which let it dry in the sun, then brush it off, and the spots will disappear

A liquid to remove spots, ^c.

In a quart of spring-water dissolve two ounces of pure pearl-ash . to which add two lemons cut into small pieces, mix tl^s well^ and keep it in a warm state two days^ then strain it off, and keep it in a bottle closely stopped for use. To use it, potu: a little upon the stained part, and the moment the spot disappears, wash the part in cold water. This is a most usefid article to remove pitchy grease^ &c.

956 DOM KSTIC COOKSmT, AND

To clean pami.

A doth should never be used for this pmpofle, remove the dust with a small long haired brash, having previously blown off the loose parts with the bellows. A careful attention to this will cause paint to look well a long time. When it is soiled, dip a bit of flannel into soda and water, and wash it quickly, then dry it immediately.

To clean windows

Rub them well over with a damp linen doth, and then with a dry one, after which dightly dust them over with a little powdered whitening in a muslin rag, which must be deaned off with a piece of wash leather, or dry cloth^ and the windows vnH then look beautif uL

To clean silk furniture.

Brush it clean until all the spots are taken out then take as much bran as the size of the silk requires, and having dried it well before the fire, add to it one ounce of powder blue; then lay the silk articles on a proper place, and rub them till they are clean ^ then brush them three different times, and they will look as well as new.

To wash scarlet cloaks.

Boil a quantity of fuller's earth in water, then take it off the fire, and let it stand till lukewarm; after which wash the cloaks in it, and when they are clean rinse them in cold water.

To wash black silks,

iVarm some small beer, and mix some milk with it, then wash your silk in this liquid, and it will give it a fine colour.

USEFUL RBCBIPT BOOK. 257

To wash thread and cotton stockings

Both these must have two lathers and a boil^ and the water must be well blued. When this is done^ wash them out of the bcfil, after which^ fold them up very smooth without rinsings and press them under a weight forty minutes^ and when they are quite dry, roll them up without ironing.

Worsted stockings must be washed in two cool lathers, till they are quite clean, (but do not put any soap upon them) then rinse them well, hang them up, and, when dry, fold them for use.

To wash sUk handkerchiefs.

These must be first washed in cold water; and the second lather must be only lukewarm; then rinse them in cold water, dry them gently, and send them to the mangle.

Substitute for table-beer.

As small beer frequently turns sour in warm' weather, an excellent substitute may be made by adding a bottle of porter to two gallons of water, and a pound 9f brown sugar. When well mixed, bottle off the liquor, and keep it loosely corked; in a warm cellar. In three days it will be fit for use. The addition of a spoonful of ginger wiU give it a lively and agreeable taste.

Varnish for hats.

For straw or chip hats, put one ounce of black sealing wax, powdered, into four ounces of spirits of wine, and stand it near the fire till the wax is dissolved 3 then lay this varnish on with a soft brush in the sun, or before the fire, and it wi^ give the article a fine gloss, and also render it waterproof.

z3

N.^1

! 58 DOMESTIC COOKEKY^ AND

fVet clothes.

Persons who are unfortunate enough to get wet, should not go too near the fire, nor into a warm room, so as to occasion a sudden heat. The safest method is to keep in constant motion, until some dry clothes can be procured, and then to exchange them as soon as possible.

Salad raised in two days.

Mustard seed, cresses, and lettuce seed, steeped in ac ua vitae, and. sown in fine mould, mixed with pigeons' dung and slacked lime, will produce a fine salad in fortjr-eight hours.

Mushrooms easily produced.

Strew the broken pieces qf mushrooms on old hot beds, and great numbers will be speedily produced 3 or, if the water in which mushrooms have been washed, be poured on the bed, it will have the same effect.

- »

To take ink from a green cloth or carpet.

Take it up the instant the accident occurs with a spoon, then pour on some dean water, and apply the spoon again; by repeating this, the stain of the ink will in a few minutes be entirely taken out.

To prevent flies from injuring picture-frames,

glasses, 8fc.

Boil three or four leeks in a pint of water, then with a gilding-brush do over your glasses ^ind frames, and the files will not go near the article so washed. This may be used without apprehension, as it will not do the least injury to the frames.

USEFUL RECEIPT BOOK. 259

DIRECTIONS

For placing Dishes on Table.

Soup^ broth^ or fish^ should always be set at the head of the table; if none of these^ a boiled dish goes to the head 3 where there is both boiled and roasted.

If but one principal dish^ it goes to the head of the table.

If three, the principal one to the head, and the two smallest to stand opposite eadi other, near the foot.

If four, the. biggest to the head, and the next biggest to the foot, and the two smaUest dishes on the sides.

If five, you are to put the smallest in the qiMdle* the other four op^iosite.

If six, you are to put the top and bottom as before, the two sm^ll ones opposite for side dishes.

If seven, you are to put three dishes down the middle of the table, and four others opposite to each other round the centre dish.

If eight, put four dishes down the middle, and the remaining four two on each side, at equal distances.

If nine dishes, put them in three equal lines, observing to put the proper dishes at the head and bottom of the table.

--? ^

MO BOMBSnC COOKKBT,

If ten daAcB, pat four down the eentre, one at each oomer, and one oq eadi aie, oppcste to the Tacancj between the two central &Aie%; or four down the vnMHe, and three on eadj^^de; each oppoaite to tiie ?acancj of tiie middle Aiies.

If twdre diahes, place th**n m time rows o' foor each ^ or six down the mnkile, and three at eqoal diatanoes on each side.

Note. - If more than die abo *€ mnnber of &hes are recjuired, the mannfr of laying them on the taMe must in a great meaaare dqiend on tbe taste of the dresaer.

Deserts are placed in tiie same manner; - if yon have an ornamental firame for deserts, or a bouquet, or any other ornament, for your dinner-table, in« variably place them in the middle of the table.

DIRECTIONS TO SERVANTS. iCl

DIRECTIONS to SERVANTS.

Previous to bur advice to servants individually^ -we shall request their attention to the following general hints and rules^ a due. attention to vehich will be productive of comfort, reputation, and respect to themselves.

The principal qualification in all servants (but especially in females) is a good disposition, which naturally urges them to anxiously endeavour to give universal satis&ction; and, it must be observed, that persons who really desire to please, seldom ML in their endeavours to do so. ^ A master or mistress who are themselves possessed of a good temper, will be delighted at your willingness j but if they are of a bad temper, your evident readiness to please will disarm them of their anger; and if they observe you are deficient in your business, through ignorance, not through obstinacy or indolence^ they vnll endeavour to instruct you in the proper discharge of your duties. ^But, on the contrary, . should your duties be discharged in the most pimctual manner, and yet with an air of indifference, your services will, in a great measure, lose their value. Persons fearful of offending, seldom give offence, and a cheerful respectful obedience to your superiors is a certain mode by whidi you may acquire their protection, their love, and

t6% DIRBCnONt TO tSBVAirrS.

a good rqmtalioOy with which alone other male or female servants can hope to prosper through life.

Another point of equal importance is cleanliness, which imperiondj demands the senoos attention of all servants, Imt most particolaily so of oooks and their inmiediate assistants. This should he carried to a minute d^ree of nicety^ particulariy in respect to thdr hair^ hands^ and taking snuff, &c. which latter propensity should on no account he indulged, it being altogether a most beastl j habit.

Servants entrusted with the care of children should be particularly attentive to the impcntant trust thus vested in their hands, the least breach of which may produce the most serious consequences. Harsh and cruel conduct to infants, no ai^gument can extenuate, and such behaviour will at once prove the turpitude of your hearts. You should remember that it was by tender attention you were yourselves reared to bc^me what you now are, and should therefore endeavour to be equally dili-^ gent and tender to such children as may be placed under your care, - it is a solemn duty whidi you are bound to discharge with propriety.

Avoid tale-bearing, it is the most pernicious of all evils, and produces nothing but mischief, while it prairie you to possess a bad heart. Remember tfiat every word, even though perfectly inoffensive, will bear a different construction when repeated from the mouth of another interested in creating anger. Tale-bearers are also generally supposed to tell a great deal more than they hear, and are always very justly despised by their fellow-servants, and even secretly so by the master or mistress, to whom they carry their invective stories. Do not, therefore, trouble yourselves about others.

mRBCTIONS TO SERVANTS. 363

but be content with duly discharging your own duties^ and leave them to the proper execution of theirs. Remember^ it is no bi^siness of yours, at all events 5 and, consequently, you can have no right to interfere.

Be particularly careful what acquaintance you form; a guarded conduct in this respect is highly necessary, because your reputation in a great degree depends upon it, and it is a very just observation, that you may generally tell a person's character from the company he keeps. This advice is still more necessary to females, and I must also remark, that your employers will be seldom agreeable to a large acqusdntance.

Invariably speak the truth, nothing can excuse a breach of this duty. If accused of a fault, which you have actually committed, never attempt to evade it by telling an untruth, by which you immediately add another to it, but confess your error, express your sorrow for it, and promise to avoid such misconduct in future, by which you will readily obtain forgiveness, and your character for veracity be established.

Be humble and modest, it is your duty to be so. If your employer be angiy, even on a groundless occasion, never aigue the case, but give a mild reply, and submit with humility, by which you will secure her good opinion, and when her wrath is abated, she virill think the better of you^ and treat you still more kindly^ but if you defend yourself by hnpertinent repUes, you will, by so doing, give real cause of offence, and, what is still worse, confirm her ill opinion of your character and conduct.

Honesty is one -of the most solemn duties of a servant. No possible excuse can be offered for a breach of its laws, and when you once violate its

S64 DIRECTIONS TO SERYANTII.

sacred principles^ from that instant you become worthless^ and totally unworthy even of conunoD respect. Remember that by a breach of honesty, although you merely gain one penny by it^ you are equauy guilty as though you gained a thousand pounds. When, therefore, money is entrusted to you by your employer, lay it out to the greatest advantage 5 discover the most reasonable mailcet for the goods you are directed to purchase -, have a bill made out by the persons of whom you purchase them, and on your return shew it to your mistress, and account faithfully tor the money remaining in your hands. Buy, therefore, for your employers, as you would for yourselves: seriously study the precepts of economy, and never forget the old adage, that " Honesty is the best policy/* By strictly attending to this advice, you will ensure the respect and confidence oi^ your superiors, you will always be trusted, and you will acquire the character of a ficdthful honest servant, which, give me leave to inform you, is an invaluaable one to persons dependent solely on their charaoters for their daily bread. Exclusive of all this, you will be happy in the approbation of your own conscience, which cannot then upbraid you of criminal conduct.

Never give, away the smallest article imtil you have received the permission of your employers to do so, because by so doing you would be acting unjustly towards them, and be taking a Hberty which you certainly are not authorised to do. Be equally careful to prevent the smallest waste; wanton waste being certainly one of the worst of crimes, and you may be assured it will ultimately meet its merited punishment.

Never speak lightly of your master and mistress, neither permit others to do so in your hearing.

DIRECTIONS TO SERVANTS. 265

without remonstrating on its impropriety) for by endeavouring to vindicate their conduct^ you are discharging a part of your duty as a gciod and faithful servant. This behaviour will gain you •their love^ if they should chance to discover it^ And will secure you the respect of others^ by which your reputation ' wUl be^ in some degree^ established.

Carefully avoid quarrels with your companions^ instead of being angry at trifles^ laugh at them^ Ijecause provocation is always best to be avoided, and disturbances in a family are at all seasons extremely unpleasant, and inevitably productive of anger firom your employers, who, yoji may be assured, wiU not suffer noise and strife amongst their domestics, neither would they, act with propriety were they to do so.

Female servants should be circumspect in their conduct towards the male servants, too much freedom may occasion improper liberties, and too much reserve may produce disgust and hatred; observe, therefore, a medium between the two^ - be civil and obliging, yet not forward or &milka; by so doing you will ensure their respect, and, at the same time, be treated with that obliging civility due to every female character, when governed by propriety of conduct.

Endeavour to acquire the habit so necessary to all servants, of being contented with thdr homes. Seldom accept invitations from other servants to go abroad, which only serves to render masters and mistresses angry, and certainly not without reason. We shall now say a few words to each female servant individually.

Aa

966 DIRECTIONS TO SERVANTS.

THE LADY'S MAID.

As it is the duty of this servant to be generally n^ear the person of her mistress, her edncatioii should have been rather superior to that of the generality of servants^ that she may be enabled to converse with her lady in a becomiRg manner, and without vulgarity; she will be expected to do 9omt fine needle-work; and occasionally she will have to read for her lady*9 entertainment. She should also anxiously endeavour to discover her lady's temper^ by which she wUl be enabled to please her, and at the same time render herself agreeable, and, in this manner, gain her respect and protection, llie principal business of a lady's maid consists in the washing of fine lace, gauzes, muslin, cambrics, &c. in the proper execution of which great care is requisite, lest it should be spoiled.

THE HOUSEKEEPBai.

The office of housekeeper is one of great importance, she being the representative of the mistress,'* consequently, she has the entire domestic arrangements under her direction, and to superintend the female servants. This situation is fOled by a superior kind of woman, generally one who has known better days, but who by unforeseen misfortunes has been reduced in the world.

The person who discharges the duties of this station should not be too young: the proper management of a house requiring a person of age

DIRECTIONS TO SBRTANTS. 267

an4 esperienoe^ who alone is capable of makeing every thing go on smoothly^ exclusive of which, the servants will be more inclined to treat such a woman with the respect due to her, than they would a young and thoughtless person. ' The housekeeper cannot be too industrious in Uie punctual dischaige of her duties for much of the internal comfort, and appearance of a respectable domestic establishment depends on the maB^ement and assiduity which she employs. By duly attending to such conduct, she will also ensure herself a good reputation. Persons desirous of procuring a housekeeper, should be particularly attentive to her character, and, if possible, select a female who has had a house of her own, and must, consequently, be acquainted with the practical management.

Housekeepers should avoid visitors as much as possible, and should seldom be out except on particular occasions, nor then, without permission of their lady, if it were only to set a proper example. They should also be particularly careful to rise with the other servants, in order to see that every thing goes on with propriety, and should invariably see all the other domestics to bed, the doors and windows properly fastened^ and every thing secure before they themselves retire to re . pose.

Great caution is requisite in their conduct towards the servants under their controul it being absolutely necessary and proper to treat them with tenderness, and at the same time to support their own authority^ and to see their duties executed. Housekeepers should also give servants such ad jfice as may prove beneficial to them and carefully iet, in their ovm persons, manners, and behaviour, an- example for the various domestics to follow.

866 DiKScftnoirs to Bmmrhnn*

They should alao be jMurticulurly attenthre to the fiimiture^ taking e^)ecial care that' it is well preserved, because it is all placed under their care.

In purchasing provisions, the housekeeper should be careful to procure the best, and to get the various articles required at as cheap a rate as possible; it is also her serious duty to see that nothii^ is wanted: and when servants do not attend to her remonstrances, she should promptly discharge them observing in the choice of others^ to be very attentive to characters

THE CHAMBERMAID

Must be particularly attentive to -the management of her mistresses clothes, Tdiich she should be careful to have in constant readiness, for which reason every article should be always deposited in its proper department, so that if hastily demanded, it may be found without any difficulty by which means she will secure the respect of her lady. She should also be very careful to preserve the linen clean and nice, and be particularly attentive to have it well aired.

When her mistress undresses^ she should examine her garments closely, when, should any spots be discovered, they shoidd be directly removed ^ after which, the articles should be folded and lai^ in their proper place.,

DIRECTIONS TO SERVANTS. 269

TH3 NURSERY-MAID.

Never suffer the children committed fa your CRre to go out of your sights nor trust thiem in any person's hands^ except their parents*. ' Teach them to love you^ and when you have occasion to chide^ do so mildly. Never suffer them to eat any thing which may prove unwholesome; and if they appear unwell^ acquaint their parents with the circumstance immediately^ that a prompt remedy may be applied.' Do not permit them to eat too much fruit: never ^ve them wine, unless it is diluted with water. Be particularly attentive to their morals^ teach them short prayers and hymns, and be very careful in avoiding all improper language before them, because children are very prone to learn it. Be not more partial to one than another, which will only create discord amongst them all, and make the others dislike you; and on no account encourage them to tell tales of each other. 'Remember also that great tenderness, combined with a strict attention to cleanliness, is absolutely neces«ary.

By attending to the above simple instructions, you wiH have the pleasing gratification of seeing the children entrusted to your charge, healthy, cheerful^ obedient, and affectionately attached to you, whilst their parents will respect you for the constant attention thus evinced towards their children.

THE HOUSE-MAED.

Her principal business is to keep the furniture clean, under the direction of the house-keeper;

Aa3

'.*•

S70 DIRECTIONS TO SBRTAKTTS.

- ^- ------ M-«^ ™i-- i1^-

great industry and natural cleanliness is requisite in this department. She must also keep the stoves, fire-irons, hearth-stones, &o. dean, light the fires, remove tiie ashes, clean the locks and brass work of the doors, &c. after which, she should sweep the carpets and the rooms, after tiiis is properly dcme, she should brush the window-curtains, wipe the dust from the windows, and blow the dirt off ftt)m pictiure and looking-glass firames, which she must not, on any account, rub. When all this is well done, her next duty is to rub the wainscot with a duster, after which the stittrs must be swept, observing to dust the balusters and wainscot afterwards.

When the family are up, the house-maid should immediately open tlie bed-room windows, uncover the beds, taking off every article singly, each of which must be lud careftilly on two £airs, and in making the beds she shpuld observe to shake them well, (feather-beds must be turned every day, and mattresses at least once a week). The house-maid should whisk the dust from the head of the bed, the vallencesan d curtains, and also carefully sweep under the bed. In short as her, denomination implies, she is to keep the different apartments clean and comfortable.

a

THE LAUNDRY MAID.

To this person the care of the linen is entrusted, it becomes, therefore, her pointed duty to see that it is well got up, as one bad washing does great injury. She should be careful that every artide^

DIRB0TION8 TO SBRVANT8. 371

properly mended previoiisly to its being washed; and^ when washed^it should be finished as soon as possible, otherwise it is opt to acquire a bad colour. She should be particularly attentive that her tubs, coppers, &c. are always kept very dean and nice, and be economical in the expenctiture of soap and other articles, as no servants can be justified in wasting the property of their etuployers.

Directions for ironing, - ^Rub your irons smooth against a mat until they are very bright, and then rub them perfectly clean with a smooth flannel, which must be done every time you take them from the fire. The hotter your iron is without injuring the linen, the better it will be. Sprinkle a few drops of water upon the linen, folding every article neatly up, and lay one on another the night before you begin to iron, always observing to put more water to the fine than to the coarse Tlie water renders it more pU^le to iron, and more stiff afterwards.

To prepare linen for wcuhing, - Look the whole of it carefully over, and then repair such as you may find torn, or it will be totally ruined in the process of washing. After you have done this fold it carefully up, and put it in a foul-linen bag to prevent it from gathering more dust., To boil linen. - ^When you have put your water on, mix some stone blue with it and then, having soap;d your linen, put it in to boil. When the fine linen hsus boiled ten, or the coarse linen fifteen minutes, put the water with the linen into the tub, and let it stand till you can bear your hand in it, then wash the linen perfectly dean, taking particular care not to leave any pieces of^soi^ upon it, which will cause it to look greasy. As soon as you have washed the different pieces, let them be thrown into dear pump water, mixed with stone



379 DIftBGTIONS TO SBRTANTS.

blue; then rinse tt perfectly dean, and when yoa have wrong it^ hang them out to dry, each piece at a moderate distance from the other and when dry, fold them up until they are ironed^ vdiich should be as soon as possible.

To make starch, - ^Moisten your starch with a little water^ then mix a small quantity of powder blue with it^ after which put it into half a pint of water, and stir it well together 3 then^ having a quart of boiling water on the fire, pour it into it^ and let it boil fifteen minutes^ observing to stir it constantly.

Those articles you wish to have most stiffened must be dipped in first; you must not rub the starch too strong, and you may weaken ii by the addition of a little water: before you use it^ be sure to strain it welL

It should be always boiled iQ a copper-vessel, because tin is very apt to burn it.

The common mode of mixing tallow, wax, &c. with starch, is injurious^ and the only good thing to mix Mrith it is one ounce of isinglass with every four ouces of starch.

7*0 make linen white that is turned ye^/otr.- Heal a gallon of milk over the fire, and scrape into it a pound of cake soap 3 when it is perfectly dissolved, put the linen in, and let it boil some time, then take it out, and put it into a lather of hot water, and wash it properly out.

To preserve linen from moths, &c. -When well washed and dried, fold it up, and scatter in the folding powdered cedar wood; having previously perfumed your chest with storax: this will efiectu« ally prevent dampness, moths, and worms

To whiten any sort of cJo^/i.- Let your cloth be

USBPUL RECEIPT BOOK. ^7S

well bucked, iheu spread it upon the gnss, and sprinkle it with alum water. Let it remain in this situation four days, then buck it again with soap and fuller's earth, and use it as before, by which means it will not only grow white, but swell in its substance.

THE COOK-MAID

Ought to be intimately acquainted with her pro« fession, and the general nature of provisions. She should be exceedingly attentive to cleanliness in her personal appearance, and never permit any part of her work to be done by another, unless immediately under her inspection; as should any dish be spoiled, she would very deservedly^ be blamed for inattention. She should never give away any meat, or other articles, vrithout having obtained permission to do so. For general rules in the art of cookery, see the first part of thia volume.

THE KITCHEN-MAID.

Her duty consists in keeping the various domestic offices clean. She must also be very careful of her coppers, sauce-pahs, &c. &c. which, after use, should be filled vnih water to prevent the tinning from coming o£P, and afterwards wiped and dried.

GENERAL INDEX TO DOMESTIC COOKERY [Omitted]





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