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The London Art Of Cookery, 1811

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TITLE: The London Art Of Cookery And Domestic Housekeeper's Complete Assistant
AUTHOR: John Farley
PUBLISHER: London, Scatcherd and Letterman
DATE: 1811
THIS VERSION: This transcript is based on the online edition at archive.org, digitized from an edition in the collections at University of California Libraries. This is an Optical Character Recognition scan, it has been partly edited, but still contains very significant errors.


THE
LONDON ART OF COOKERY,
AND
Domestic Housekeepers Complete Assistant,
UNITING
THE PRINCIPLES OF
ELEGANCE, TASTE, AND ECONOMY;
AND ADAPTED
TO THE USE OF SERVANTS,
AND
FAMILIES. OF EVERY DESCRIPTION.

CONTAINING
Every elegant and plain Preparation in improved Modern Cookery;
Pickling, Potting, Salting, Collaring, and Sousing
The whole Art of Confectionary, and making of Jellies, Jams, Creams, and Ices;
The Preparation of Sugar*, Candying, and Preserving;
Made Wines, Cordial-waters, and Malt-liquor* j Bills of Fare for each Month; Wood-cuts, illustrative of Truising, Carving, &c.

BY
JOHN FARLEY,
FORMERLY PRINCIPAL COOK AT THE LONDON TAVERN

LONDON:
PRINTED FOR SCATCHERD AND LETTEUMAN, AVE-MARIA LANE;

C. WILKIE AND J. ROBINSON; J. WALKER S LONGMAN, HURST, REE8, ORME, AND BROWN; CADELL AND DAVIES; LACKINGTON, ALLEN, AND CO.; J. RICHARDSON; DARTON AND HARVEY; 3. NUNN; B. CROiBY AND CO. J T. HUOHFS } GALE AND CURTIS; AND CRADOCK AND JOY.

1811

INTRODUCTION..... 1

HINTS ON DOMESTIC ECONOMY S

CHAPTER I. Marketing 9
II. Trussing 19
III. Boiling 26
IV. Roasting 36
V. Baking 45
VI. Broiling 49
VII. Frying 54
VIII. Stews and Hashes 60
IX. Ragouts 7G
X. Fricandeaus..,.. 81
XI. Fricassees 82
XII. Made-dishes 134
XIII. Frugal-dishes 134
XIV. Sauces, 141
XV. Soups and Broths ., 159
XVI. Roots and Vegetables 175
XVII. Puddings isi
XVIII. Pies 199
XIX. Pancakes and Fritters, , ...,,. .'., 218
PART II.
CHAPTER I. Pickling, 2-25
II. Collaring 239
III. Potting 243
IV. Salting and Sousing 250
V. Garden-stuffs and Fruits.,, , 258
vin
CONTENTS.
PART III.
CHAPTER I. Sugars 263
II. Tarts and Pufts * 265
III. Cakes 270
IV. Custards and Cheesecakes... 280
V. Creams and Jams 284
VI. Jellies and Syllabubs 290
VII. Preserving 298
VIII. Drying and Candying 307
IX. Ornaments for the Table 313
X. Instructions for Carving 316
PART IV.
CHAPTER I. Made Wines 324
II. Cordial-waters 339
III. Malt-liquors 345
APPENDIX.
SECTION I. Considerations on Culinary PoisoHs ....;..,. 36*
II. Bread, Cakes, Muffins, &c.... 367
III. Nourishment for the Sick 371
IV. Necessary Articles for Seafaring Persons 376
V. General Observations on the Breeding of
Poultry 379
CATALOGUE OF GARDEN-STUFFS, POULTRY, AND FISH 383
USEFUL TABLES 387


PREFACE.

V^OOKERY, like every other Art, has been moving forward to Perfection by slow Degrees; and yet daily Improvements are still making, as must be the Case in every Art depending on Fancy and Taste. From the many Books of this Kind already published, it could hardly be supposed there would be occasion for another, yet we flatter ourselves, that the Readers of this Work will find, from a candid Perusal, and an impartial Comparison, that our Pretensions to the Favours of the Public are not ill founded.

The Generality of Books on Cookery are grouped together, without Method or Order, and therefore rendered intricate and bewildering; even the Receipts are written with so much Carelessness and Inaccuracy, that they are not only perplexing, but frequently unintelligible. In this Work, however,

PREFACE.

we hope, that Perspicuity and Regularity will be seen in every step we have taken. We have divided the whole Book into separate Parts, and those Parts into Chapters; so that our Readers have only to look into the Contents, and they will there find at one view, the whole of that Branch of Cookery they may want to consult. The Utility of regularly classing every Thing in a Book of this Kind is too obvious to need Arguments lo support it.

The greatest Care and Precaution have boon taken to admit nothing inelegant, or prejudicial to the Constitution, in any of the Receipts; and we have not only given, in the Appendix, a distinct Section on Culinary Poisons, but have also in different Parts of the Work reminded the Cooks of the fatal Consequences of not keeping their Coppers and Saucepans properly clean and tinned,

As Farley's Cookery is intended for the Use of all Ranks in general, not only for those who have attained a tolerable Knowledge of Cookery, but also for others less experienced, .we have occasionfilly given the most simple with the most sumptuous dishes, and thereby afforded the means of decorating the Table of the Peer, or the M&hauic.

The various Branches of Pastry and Confectionary, comprising Pies, Puddings, Cakes, Custards,

PREFACE. VII

Jams, Creams, Jellies, Preserves, Conserves, Ices, and all the other numerous and elegant Articles of that Class; as well as the Preparation of Pickles, the Art of making Wines, Liqueurs, and Cordials, are treated under distinct Heads, and rendered plain, easy, and familiar, to every Capacity. We shall only add, that neither Labour, Care, nor Expense have been spared to make this Work worthy of the Patronage of the Public.

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BILL OF FARE FOR JANUARY. FIRST COURSE.

BILL OF FARE FOR FEBRUARY FIRST COURSE

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SECOND COURSE.

BILL OF FARE FOR MARCH, FIRST COURSE.

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BILL OF FARE FOR FEBRUARY. FIRST COURSE

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BILL OF FARE FOR MARCH, FIRST COURSE.

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BILL OF FARE FOR SEPTEMBER. FIRST COURSE.

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THE

LONDON ART OF COOKERY.

INTRODUCTION.

AN a publication like the present, it would be of little utility to trace the origin of cookery; nor would it be easy to say at what period man exchanged vegetable for animal diet: certain it is, that he no sooner began to feed on. flesh, fowl, and fish, than seasonings of some kind became requisite, not only to render such food more pleasing and palatable, but also to help digestion and prevent putrefaction. Of these seasonings, salt was probably the first discovered; though some are inclined to think, that savory roots and herbs were previously used. Spices, however, such as ginger, cinnamon, pepper, cloves, and nutmegs, by degrees came into practice, and the whole art of cookery gradually improved, till it reached its present perfection.

Boiling, or stewing, seems to have been the first mode of, dressing; toasting, or broiling, succeeded next; and beyond these, no improvements were made in the art of cookery for several centuries. The introduction of trade and commerce into Europe, soon made us acquainted with the products of other countries; and rich fruits and spices, im B

11 INTRODUCTION.

ported from the most remote regions of the globe were soon sought after with avidity. Cookery, including pickling, and the various branches of confectionary, soon became an art, and was as methodically studied as the more polite sciences. A regular apprenticeship is now served to it; and the professors of it are incorporated by charter, as forming one of the livery companies of London. Since then Cookery must be considered as an art, we shall proceed to treat of its different branches in regular order; but preface our directions, by some useful hints on domestic economy.

1 o every mistress of a family, we cannot too strenuously Recommend the superintendence of her domestic concerns, the investigation oP all accounts, particularly those of her tradesmen and her servants; and the most strict scrutiny into the characters of those she may admit as inmates of her house. Amongst the minor duties inseparable from her situation, are, the attention to her storeroom, and linen of every description. In the former, should be a selection of the most unperish^ able stores, of which description are groceries, candles, soap, starch, &c.; and of the latter, no more should be delivered to the housekeeper, than are absolutely requisite for constant use; and of these a correct inventory made, as a check upon the housekeeper, who will thereby be compelled to account for every deficiency.

The Housekeeper*

SHOULD take her orders for the day, early in the morning \ by which means all the under-servants will have sufficient time to perform their several duties, without either hurry or neglect: it is also her indispensable duty, not only to see that all the female servants perform their work in the most perfect manner; but that, in the discharge of it, they do not waste any thing. As all the linen in constant use is committed to her charge, she should see that it is neatly mended if torn; and should take care that it is not heedlessly torn or unnecessarily soiled: and before any more is given out, that the different articles already used, have been pat in their proper places. As under-servants are ever too ready to consider coarse cloths, such a.s duste.s, &,c. of little value; no more should be given them, unless they produce the remains of the old ones, and sufficiently account for their being worn out. As she will have the care of the stores for immediate consumption, she should be sparing in the distribution of

B 2

4 MINTS ON DOMESTIC ECONOMY.

them; particularly groceries, soap, and candles: the former are too often demanded for the purpose of entertaining friends; and the latter, frequently for a worse purpose. She should daily register the notes of the butcher, baker, fishmonger, and ot ers; and see that the articles specified in those notes, are actually of the implied weight and quality. As the housekeeper has more confidence placed in her than any other servant, of course her responsibility is greater; and she cannot do better than consider herself as the faithful steward of her master. Her bill of fare should contain a sufficient variety; and the different articles selected snould, when dressed, be so placed upon the table, as to accord with each other, thereby forming a picture, that, by pleasing the eye, may excite an appetite.

The Cook

WILL be immediately under the inspection of the housekeeper; but it is her province to dress the meat according to the modern costume, and afterwards to dish it up in an elegant manner. The larder must be particularly attended to, for on its neatness, the keeping of the meat, poultry, &c. will very much depend. The dressers, shelves, &c. must be well scoured, and the floor washed with plenty of cold water, and thoroughly mopped dry: for want of this precaution, mustiness is produced. All butcher's meat should be sent in before sun-rise; but as it is almost impossible to prevent flies from blowing it, the whole should be carefully looked over, and wiped clean and dry. All meat intended to be eaten cold, shouloVbe rather over-done in summer; for the gravy makes it spoil: roasted meat must be sprinkled with salt before taken from the fire. Cold meat of every kind, should be changed morning and evening into clean and dry dishes. Stews, sauces, and soups, should be boiled every second day at least in summer, to prevent fermentation. Lardings returned whole to the kitchen, should be covered with the sheets of bacon that covered them before they were taken out of the braise; and then put again into the same braise. Tenderones of lamb and veal, ox rumps, beef or veal olives, roulards of mutton or veal, rump of beef, and every other thing done in braises, should be carefully attended to; as they may be repeatedly served at table, with the same elegance as at first. Remember never to overstock the larder. For the care of different joints, poultry, c. See Marketing.

Very much will depend upon the care and economy of the cook: by good management, she may be the means of saving a large sum in the article of coals, bv carefully reserving the cinders for the laundry. As much very valuable china is an

HINTS ON DOMESTIC ECONOMY. 5

nually broken, for want of a little care; she will do well to change ail the best dishes for common ones, as soon as the dinner is sent from the dining-room. Respecting her culin.i rv vessel, i hey should be je\er kept with the greatest cleanliness; and fresh tinned whenever they may want it. Tin meat-covers are soon spoiled if not wiped dry after being u. eJ, and they may be restored to their Conner polish without injurv, bv usi;tg the following preparation: take fine whiting, ba-elv moistened with olive oil; with this and a piece of soft leather rub the covers; wipe clean with a soft linen, and lastly, sprinkle over them some dr} T whiting in fine po\vder, and polish with leather.

The Housemaid

WILL also be particularly under the inspection of the housekeeper; but still a great deal will depend upon her own cleanliness and exertions: the beds not in use should be every day aired by shaking t^em, and the blankets nicely folded and placed between the bed and mattress: the curtains and hangings should be slightly srmken and dusted with a proper brush, and replaced in their former order. Before sweeping the rooms, t l ey should be sprinkled with tea-leaves, and the carpets swept with a proper whisk-brush. In towns, carpets are very liable to be soiled by smoke, dust, &c. in which case, the following application, published by the Society for the encouragement of Arts, c. will be invariably found to remove the dirt, c. For every gallon of w.,ter intended to be used, take eight raw potatoes, grate them into fine pulp, mix them with the water, and wash the carpet slightly with a large spunge: this mixture will not only clean, but restore the colour of carpets to their former beauty.

For removing grease-spots on the boards Apply a few drops of oil of turpentine, rubbing it in with the finger: this will dissolve the grease, and make it mix with the soap when washed.

For preventing steel and iron from rusting. Take mutton suet, melt and strain it; warm the steel, or iron; nib it with the melted suet, and sprinkle finely powdered hot lime over it: or take two pounds of unsalted hogslard, melt it, and whilst warm, add as much black lead as will thicken it; rub this over the iron or steel.

For taking: rust out of polished grates, fenders, &V. Apply olive oil, letting it remain on the spot for forty-eight hours: powder some hot or unslackecl lime, sprinkle it over the place, and rub till the rust disappear.

For taking the black or burnt parts out of polished steel bar*. Boil in two- quarts of water, one pound of soft soap, till re

6 HINTS ON DOMESTIC ECONOMY.

duced to one quart: this when cold will form a jelly; of which take three spoonsful, and mix to the thickness of paste by adding powdered rmery: rub the bars with some of this mixture put on a piece of clean cloth, and polish with glasi paper.

For blacking stoves. -Take blacklead one pound, table beer one pint, soft soap about the size of a wa! iut; boil till the soap is dissolved: with this mixture brush over the stove, and when dry, polish with a common stove brush. Or take blacklead one pound, water a pint and a half, common gum one ounce: boil till the gum is dissolved, and apply it as in the former c.ise.

For blacking stone chimney-pieces. Grind together oil varnish and lamp black, add spirits of turpentine, till reduced to the thickness of paint. Having previously well cleaned the stone, and dried it, apply a coat of this varnish with a fine brush, and when quite dry a second coat. This varnish is usually sold under the name of Brunswick blacking.

For taking iron-moulds cut of marble. Drop a verv small quantity of weak oil of vitriol on the spots, rub with a linen rag, and they will disappt-ar: but observe immediately to wash the part with soap and water. As marble will in time become yellow, the following preparation will both- remove it and also fresh polish it: mix unslacked lime with strong soap-ley, as thick as batter; lay it on with a brush, and in two months time wash it off with a strong lather of soap and water: the polish may be heightened by well rubbing with a plean hard brush.

The Laundiymaid

SHOULD always use the cinders reserved for her use by the cook, as they will answer equally well with coals; arid when burnt either in the ironing stove or under the copper, will give an intense heat. She will find that by soaking the clothes over night in soft water, that they will wash much more easily; especially if the parts most soiled be slightly rubbed with soap. The best laundresses use a ley made by pouring water upon wood-ashes, and straining through an hair-cloth this ley not only saves soap, but gives a beautiful whiteness to the linen. In washing flannels, be careful never to pour boiling water upon them, as it will thicken them; but take the flannels, and put them in scalding water, which will keep them thin. Ink-stains, fruit-stains, and iron-mould, are easily removed by using the essential salt of lemons. Spirit ot salt may be also used for the same purpose; but if the part -is not immediately washed with soap and water, the texture of the linen may be hurt by it. In getting up fine

HINTS ON DOMESTIC ECONOMY. 7

things, the clear-starchers use gum-water; but as gum-arabic is very dear, its use should be confined to the finest articles.

The Butler

HAS, in most situations, nearly as great responsibility as the housekeeper; of course, like her, he has the superintendence of the footmen, and he should be particularly careful that the table, sideboard, &c. are well cleaned and rubbed; that the glasses and plate are brilliant and unsullied; and that both the disposition of the table and sideboard are neat and elegant. For cleaning plate, there is not any thing equal to rouge, the substance used for that purpose by the silversmiths and their polishers: it may be had at Fenn's, in Newgate Street; and at Knight's, in Forster Lane. In using it, a very small quantity may either be wetted with water, and slightly rubbed over the plate with a soft spunge, and afterwards polished with soft leather: or it may be mixed with olive oil, and use the leather. The cellar should be ever kept with the greatest neatness; and it will be highly creditable to the butler, if a regular cellar-book is kept; ty means of which, his master will easily perceive the faithful disposal of every bottle consumed. See Wines and Beer.

The Footman

WILL be under the control of the butler, and it will be greatly to his credit if every thing be kept in the neatest and best order. The decanters are apt to become furred, in which case they may be effectually cleansed and restored to their brilliancy, by scraping a raw potatoe into a pint of water: with this, rinse them, aad wash it out with clean water. An highly polished table and sideboard should be the foatman's pride: to obtain which, the Speenhausan receipt will very much contribute: take cold-drawn linsed oil, two quarts; alkanet-root bruised, two ounces; rose-pink, one ounce: put them together into a bottle, let them stand for a fortnight, shaking the bottle three or four times a day. To use this oil, the table must be first washed with warm vinegar, and when dry, the oil rubbed on with a linen cloth; in this state it should remain at least six hours, when it may be wiped off .with linen, and then polished with a linen cloth. Observe, you must never use a woollen cloth. At every other cleaning, it will be sufficient to use the oily cloth, and polish with a dry one. Tables rubbed with oil, acquire in time a polish unattainable by any other means: the common tables at Speen Hill ?.re a proof of this. But as this oil requires .a constant and continued use, it may not perhaps, on the whole, be as well liked as the following: take four ounces of beeswax, and half an ounce of white rosin, melt them in one ounce .of olive oil, adding rose-pink to make it of' a beautiful colour;

8 MINTS ON DOMESTIC ECONOMY.

to this composition add as much spirit of turpentine as will make it of the thickness of honey. Rub it on the table with a piece of linen cloth, and polish \\ith a clean cloth. The turpentine will fly off, consequently a little more must be added, as it grows too tliick. Nothing will more effectually clean coats, &c. after they have been first beaten and brushed, than by sprinkling them with a little dry sand, and brushing it o.'Y with the grain of the cloth. Grease spots may be removed by scraping upon them a little French chalk, rubbing it in well with the finger, and afterwards brushing it off: or by dropping a few drops of spirit of turpentine upon it, and rubbing it in well. The best blacking for shoes, r -itdc by dissolving the improved blacking-cake in water, wh cii i. ^old by Bailey, in Cockspur Street. And the following is an invaluable recipe for cleaning boot -tops: take half an ounce of oil of vitriol, two ounces of water, and nvx i; ndi.; iiy;n a strong earthen pot; (if not mixed gradually w ith the '. ater, it will heat too much and crack the p^t). With uiis liquid wash the boot-tops, and wipe them dry. Huve ready the white of one egg weli beaten in tlie juice of a lemon, and when well mixed, add half a pint of mi!k. With this mix'ure, wash over the boot-tops: when dry, wash then. ith n,nk and water, wipe them quite dry, and brush them with a ciean hard brush.

The Coachman

GFNERALLY is entrusted by his master to purchase the hay, oats, beans, and straw: in the choice of all these he cannot be too particular, as his horses cannot thrive upon bad coin or hay, nor will straw of a bad quality last nearly as long as good. In case of the illness of his horses, he should not consult every ignorant farrier, nor undertake the cure of them him. self. It will be less expense to take the advice of a veterinary surgeon. The varnish of carriages becomes, after a little use, rather dull, even by the best care: in this case it may be much heightened by using a little fine tripoli, moistened wilh olive oil, and put upon soft leather: with this let the carriage be rubbed and then wiped off, and polish off with olive oil and a clean leather. The harness should be oiled in the inside, and blacked on the outside: by this means it will always look well, and never crack: the plate maybe cleaned with;* fine whiting.

The Groom

MAY always easily clean his stirrups, bits, &c. by rubbing them over-night with olive oil, and by sprinkling hot lime on them in the morning: rub this off with a soft leather. The saddle may be cleaned by the composition nlready directed for boot-tops.

CHAPTER 1.

MARKETING.

DIRECTIONS FOR THE PROPER CHOICE OF DIFFERENT KINDS OF PROVISIONS.

IN the choice of ox-beef, observe, that, if the meat is young, it will have a fine smooth open grain, of a pleasing carnation reel, and feel tender; the fat must be rather white than yellow; for when it is quite yellow, the meat is seldom good; the suet must be perfectly white. The grain of cowbeef is closer, the fat whiter than that of ox-beef, but the lean has not so bright a red. The grain of bull-beef is still closer, the fat hard and skinny, the lean of a deep red, and has a stronger smell than either cow or ox-beef.

THE JOINTS IN THE OX ARE I

Sirloin - Rump - - - - Edge-bone Buttock Mouse ditto - Veiny-piece Thick-flank Thin, ditto

Leg Fore-rib: containing five ribs "Middle-rib: containing four ribs

Chuck: containing three ribs

Leg-of-mutton-piece,or shoulder 1 3

Brisket Clod - -, Neck or sticking-piece Shin

Cheek

- 14

- 15

- 16

- 17

- 18

CARE OF THE DIFFERENT JOINTS.

Sirloin. Tn this the flies are apt to blow under the loose side of the fat: wipe clean and dry, sprinkle the fat with salt; take out the pipe running along the chine-bone, and rub the place and the bone with salt; take out the kernel at

10

MARKETING.

the thick end, fill the hole with salt; and take out the pith, and rub the place with salt.

Rump. Take out the kernel left in the fat, filling the hole with salt; and sprinkle salt slightly over the whole.

Ribs. Cutoff the piece of skirt; nub the chine-bone, the inside of the ribs, and the tops of the ribs with salt. The above, should be all hung up.

Hound or buttock. Take out the kernel called the Pope's eye, and the other in thick fat. Without this precaution, no quantity of salt-will preserve it in summer.

Thick-flank. Take out the kernel in the middle of the fat.

Edge or aitch-bone. Take out the- kernel where the rump is cut off.

Brisket. Joint the bones, to let in the salt.

Mutton.

IF you squeeze young mutton with your fingers, it will feel very tender; but if it be old, it will feel hard and continue wrinkled, and the fat will be fibrous and clammy. The grain of ram mutton is close, the flesh is of a deep red, and the fat is spongy and yellow. The flesh of ewe mutton is paler than that of the wether, and the grain is closer. Most people give the preference to short-shanked mutton.

THE JOINTS IN THE SHEEP ARE:

Leg

Loin, best end

Ditto, chump ditto

Neck, best ditto

Ditto, scrag ditto

Shoulder Breast Chine, is two loins.

Saddle, is two necks.

CARE OF THE DIFFERENT JOINTS.

Leg. Take out the kernel from the fat of the upper part; fill ttie hole with salt, and sprinkle salt slightly over the whole in summer.

Shoulder. Rub the inside well with salt.

Chine. Take out the kernel near the tail, rub the place

MARKETING.

11

with salt; take out the kidney-fat quite clean, cut the pipe running along the back-bone, and rub the inside with salt.

Neck. Wipe quite dry with a cloth; trim the scrag; sprinkle the chine-bone and the inside of the ribs with salt.

Breast. Cut out the skirt, and sprinkle both sides with salt. These joints are all to be hung, and these directions are chiefly applicable to summer.

Lamb.

THE head of a lamb is good, if the eyes are bright and plump; but if they are sunk and wrinkled, it is stale. If the vein in the neck of the fore-quarter appear of a fine blue, it is fresh; but if it be green or yellow, you may be sure it is stale. In the hind quarter, if there be a faint disagreeable smell near the kidney, or if the knuckle is very limber, it is not good.

Lamb is generally cut in quarters if divided into joints, observe the same rules as those for mutton.

Veal.

THE Mesh of a co\v-calf is whiter than that of a bull, but the flesh is not so firm; the fillet of the former is generally preferred, on account of the udder; if the head is fresh, the eyes will be plump; but if stale, they will be sunk and wrinkled. If the vein in the shoulder is not of a bright red, the meat is not fresh: and if there are any green or yellow spots in it, it is very bad. A good neck an:J breast will be white and dry; but if they are clammy, and look green or yellow at the upper end, they are stale. The kidney is the soonest apt to taint in the loin, and if it is stale, it will be soft and slimy. .A leg is good if it be firm and white; but bad if it is limber, and the flesh flabby, with green or yellow spots.

THE JOINTS- IN A CALF ARE C

Loin, best end Ditto, chump ditto Filler Hind-knuckle Fore-kn"ck!e Neck, best end - Ditto, scrag ditto Blade-bone . - Breast, best end Ditto, brisket ditto -

12

MARKETING.

CARE OF THE DIFFERENT JOINTS.

Leg. Wipe the udder perfectly drv: take out the skewer which fastens down the udder, a- d rub t.Mj hole with s ilt; and take out the kernel from the tincl; fat.

Loin. Cut out the pipe running along the chine-bone; wipe dry with a do'h; examine the kidney of tiie loose side, wipe dry; and having taken out the kernel in the inside of the chump, sprinkle the whole over slightlv with salt.

Neck. Cut out the pipe running along the chine-bo n e; wipe the chine and the inside of the ribs very dry. and slightly sprinkle with salt.

Breast. Cut off the skirt on the inside, rub dry, and sprinkle with salt.

Pork.

MEASLY pork is very dangerous to eat; but this state of it is eas-iy discovered, by the tat being full of little kernels. If it is young the lean will break on beiug pinched, and the skin will dent, by nipping it with the fingers: the fat, like lard, will be soft and pulpy. If the rind is thick, rough, and cannot be nipped with the fingers, it is old. It the flesh is cool and smooth, it is fresh; but if it is clammy, it is tainted; and, in this case, the knuckle part will always be the worst. Observe, a thin rind is always best.

THE JOINTS IN A PIG ARE:

Theaparerib - Hand - Beily or spring Fore-loin Hind-loin Leg

Pork intended for roasting, should be always previously sprinkled with salt, as it eats with much more relish.

Hams.

THOSE are the best which have the shortest shank. If you put a knife under the bone of a ham, and if it come out clean,

MARKETING.

13

and smell well, it is good; but if it is danbed and smeared, and has a disagreeable smell, be sure not to buy it.

Bacon.

IF bacon is good, the fat will feel oilv, and look white, and the lean will be of a good colour; and SUCK close to the bone; but it is, or will be rusty very soon, if ri ere are anv yeilow streaks in the lean. The rind of y oung bacon is Always thin j but thick, if old.

Brawn.

THE rind of old brawn is thick and hard; but young, if moderate. 7'he rind and fat of barrow and sow brawn are very tender.

Venison.

THE fat of venison must, in a great measure, determine your choice of it. If the fat is thick, bright, and dear, the clefts smooth and close, it is young; but a very wide tough cleft, shows it is old. Venison will first change at the haunches and shoulders: run in a knife, and you will judge of its newness or staleness, by its sweet or rank smell. If it is tainted, it will look greenish or inclining to be very black.

THE JOINTS IN A DEER ARE:

Haunch Neck Shoulder Breast

Rub the different joints till perfectly dry; wipe over with a fresh dry cloth; and sprinkle over the whole, a composition of three parts of pepper and one of salt. Observe to take the kernel out of the haunch, as already directed for mutton.

Turkeys.

IF acock turkey is young-, it will have a smooth black leg, with a short spur; the eyes will be full and bright, and the feet limber and moist; but you must carefully observe, that the spurs are not cut or scraped to deceive you. When a turkey is stale, the feet are dry and the eyes sunk. The same rule

14 MARKETING.

will determine whether a hen-turkey be fresh or stale, young or old; with this difference, that if old, her legs will be rough and red; if with egg, the vent will be soft and open; but if she have no eggs, the vent will be hard.

Cocks and Hens.

THE spurs of a young cock are short; -but the same precaution will be as necessary here, in that point, as just observed in Ihe choice of turkeys. Their vents will be open, if stale; but close and hard, if fresh. Hens are always best when full of eggs, and just before they begin to lay. The combs and legs of an old hen are rough; but smooth when young. The comb of a good capon is very pale, its breast is peculiarly fat, and it has a thick belly, and a large rump.

Geese. '

A YELLOW bill and feet, with but few hairs upon them, are the mark of a young goose, but these are red when old. The feet will be limber, if fresh, but stiff and dry if old. Green geese are in season from May or June, till they are three months old. A stubble goose will be good till five or six months old, and should be picked dry; but green geese should be scalded. The same rules will hold good for wild geese, with respect to their being young or old.

Ducks.

THE legs of a fresh-killed duck are limber; and if it is fat, its belly wiil be hard and thick. The feet of a stale duck are dry and stiff. The feet of a tame duck are inclining to a duSlcy yellow, and are thick. The feet of a wild duck are smaller than a tame one, and are of a reddish colour. Ducks must be picked dry; but ducklings should be scalded.

Pheasants.

THESE very beautiful birds are of the English cock and. hen kind, and are of a fine flavour. The cock has spurs, which the hen has not, and the hen is most valued when with egg. The spurs of a young cock pheasant are short and blunt, or round; but if old, they are long and sharp. If the vent of the hen be open and green, she is stale; and when rubbed hard with the finger, the skin will peel: if with egg, the vent will be soft.

Woodcocks.

A WOODCOCK is a bird of passage, and is found with us only in the winter. They are best about a fortnight or three week

MARKETING. 15

after their first appearance, when they have rested after their Jong passage over the ocean. If fat, they will feel firm and thick, which is a proof of their good condition. Their vent will be also thick and hard, and a vein of fat will run by the side of the breast; but a lean one will feel thin in the vent. If newly killed, its feet will be limber, and the head and throat clean; but the contrary, if stale.

Partridges.

AUTUMN is the season for partridges, when, if young, the legs will be yellowish, and the bill of a dark colour. If they are fresh, the vent will be firm; but if stale, it will look greenish, and the skin will peel when rubbed with the finger. If old, the bill will be. white, and the legs blue.

Bustards.

THE same rules given for the choice of the turkey, will hold good with respect to this curious bird.

Pigeons.

THESE birds are full and fat at the vent, and limber-footed, when new; but if the toes are harsh, the vent loose, open, and green, they are stale. If old, their legs will be large and red. The tame pigeon is preferable to the wild, and should be large in the body, fat and tender; but the wild pigeon is not so fat. Wood pigeons are larger than wild pigeons, but in other respects like them. The same rules will hold good in the choice of the plover, fieldfare, thrush, lark, blackbird, &c.

Hares.

BOTH the age and freshness of a hare are to be considered in the choice of it. When old, the claws are blunt and rugged, the ears dry and tough, and the cleft wide and large; but on the contrary, if the claws are smooth and sharp, the ears tear easily, and the cleft in the lip is not much spread, it is young. The body will be stiff, and the flesh pale, if newly killed; but if the flesh is turning black, and the body limber, it is stale; though hares are not always considered as the worse for being kept till they smell a little. The principal distinction between a hare and a leveret, is, that the leveret should have a knob, or small bone, near the foot, on its foreleg, which a hare has not.

Rabbits.

THE claws of an old rabbit are very rough and long, and grey hairs are intermixed with the wool; but the wool and

16 MARKETING.

claws are smooth, when young. If stale, it will be limber, and the flesh will look bluish, with a kinJ of slime upon it; but it will be stiff, and the flesh white and dry, if fresh.

fish.

THE general rules for discovering whether fish a; ';esh or stale, are by observing the colour of their gills, whic hould be of a lively red; whether they are hard or easy to be opened, the standing out or sinking in of their eyes, the r ^ ns being st'ff or limber, or by smelling to their gills F sii taken in running water are always better than those taken from ponds.

Turbot.

IF a turbot is g "od, it will be thick and plump, and the belly of a yellowish white; but they are not good, if they appear thin and bluish. Turbot are in season the greater part of the summer, and are generally caught in the German and British Ocean.

Soles.

GOOD soles are thick and firm, and the belly of a fine cream-colour; but they are not good, if they are flabby, or incline to a bluish white. Midsummer is their principal season.

Lobsters.

IF^ lobster is fresh, the tail will be stiff', and pull up with a spring; but if stale, the tail will be flabby, and have no spring in it. This rule, however, concerns- lobsters that are boiled; and it is much better to buy them alive, and boil them yourself, taking cave that they are not spent by too long keeping. If they have not been long taken, the claws will have a quick and strong motion upon squeezing the eyes, and the heaviest are esteemed the best. '\ he cock-lobster is known by the narrow back part of his tail. The two uppermost fins within his tail arestiflFand hard; but those of the hen are soft, and the tail broader. The male, though generally smaller than the female, has the higher flavour, the flesh firmer, and the body of a redder colour, when boiled.

Sturgeon.

THE flesh of a good sturgeon is very white, with a few blue veins, the grain even, the skin tender, good-coloured, and soft. All the veins and gristles should be blue; for when these are brown or yellow, the skin harsh, tough, and dry, the

MARKETING. If

fish is bad. It has a pleasant smell when good, but a very disagreeable one when bad. It should also cut firm without crumbling. The females are as full of roe as our carp, which is taken out and spread upon a table, beat flat, and sprinkled with salt; it is then dried in the air and sun, and afterwards in ovens: it should be of a reddish brown colour, and very dry. This is called caviare, and is eaten with oil and vinegar.

Cod.

A COD should be very thick at the neck, the flesh very white and firm, and of a bright clear colour, and the gills red. When they are flabby, they are not good. They are in season from Christmas to Lady-day.

Skate.

THIS fish should be very' white and thick. When they are too fresh, they eat tough; and if stale, they have a very disagreeable smell: so that some judgment is required to dress them in proper time.

Herrings.

THE gills of a fresh herring are of a fine red, their eyes full, and the whole fish stiff and very bright; but if the gills are of a faint colour, the fish limber and wrinkled, they are bad. The goodness of pickled herrings is known by their being fat, fleshy, and white. Good red herrings are large, firm, and dry. They should be full of roe or milt, and the outside of them of a fine yellow.

* Trout.

ALL the kinds of this fine fresh-water fish are excellent: but the best are those that are red and yellow. The female are most in esteem, and are known by having a smaller head and deeper body than the male. They are high in season the latter end of June; and their freshness may be known by the rule we have already laid down for that purpose, concerning other fish.

Tench.

THIS is also a fresh-water fish, and is in season in July, August, and September. This fish should be dressed alive; but if they be dead, examine their gills, which should be red, and hard to open, the eyes bright, and the body firm and stiff 7, if fresh. Some are covered with a slimy matter, which, if clear and bright, is a good sign.

c

18 MARKETING.

Salmon.

THE flesh of salmon, when new, is of a fine red, and particularly so at the gills; the scales should be bright, and the fish very stiff. The spring is the season for this fish; but whether that caught in the Thames, or the Severn, be best, is a matter of some dispute.

Smelts.

WHEN perfectly fresh they are of a fine silver hue, very firm, and have an agreeable smell, resembling that of a cucumber.

Eels.

THE Thames silver eel is generally the most esteemed; and the worst are those brought by the Dutch, and sold at Billingsgate market. They should be dressed alive; and they are always in season? except during the hot summer months.

Flounders.

THIS fish is found in the sea as well as rivers, and should be dressed alive. They are in season from January to March, and from July to September. When fresh, they are stiff', their eyes bright and full, and their bodies thick.

Oysters.

THE Colchester, Pyfleet, and Milford oysters, are esteemed the best: though the native Milton are reckoned very good, being the fattest and whitest. They are known to be alive and vigorous when they close fast upon the knife, and let go as soon as they are wounded in the body.

Prawns and Shrimps.

THEY have an excellent smell when in perfection; are firm and stiff, and their tails turn stiffly inwards. Their colour is very bright, when fresh; but when stale, their tails grow Umber, the brightness of their colour goes off, and they become pale and clammy.

Butter.

IN buying of butter, you must not trust to the taste the seller gives you, lest he give you a taste of one lump, and sell you another. In choosing salt butter, trust rather to your smell than taste, by putting a knife into it, anil applying it to your nose. If the butter be in a cask, have it unhooped, and thrust in your knife, between the staves, into the middle of it; for the top of the cask is sometimes better butter than the middle, owing to artful package.

TRUSSING. 19

Cheese.

OBSERVE the coat of your cheese before you purchase it; for if it be old, with a rough and ragged coat, or dry at top, you may expect to find little worms or mites in it. If it is moist, spongy, or full of holes, it will give reason to suspect that it is maggoty. Whenever you perceive any perished places on the outside, be sure to probe to the bottom of them; for, though the hole in the coat may be but small, the perished part within may be considerable.

Eggs.

To judge properly of an egg, put the greater end to your tongue, and if it feel warm it is new; but if cold, it is stale; and according to the degree of heat or cold there is in the egg, you will judge of its staleness or newness. AnotrTer method is, hold it up against the sun or candle, and if the yolk appear round and the white clear and fair, it is a mark of goodness; but if the yolk be broken, and the white cloudy or muddy, the egg is a bad one. Some people, in order to try the goodness of an egg, put it into a pan of Cold water: the fresher it is, the sooner it will sink to the bottom; but if it be addled or rotten, it will swim on the surface of the water. The best method of preserving eggs is to keep them in meal or bran; though some place them in wood-ashes, with their small end downwards. -When necessity obliges you to keep them for any length of time, the best way will be to bury them in salt, which will preserve them in almost any climate; but the sooner an egg is used, the better it will be.

CHAPTER II. DIRECTIONS FOR TRUSSING.

PRELIMINARY HINTS AND OBSERVATIONS.

HOUGH the London poulterers truss every thing before they nd it home, yet it is absolutely necessary that every COOK

T.

send

should know how to perform this business properly, as it frequently happens that families take their cooks with them into the country, where they are obliged to draw and truss all kinds of poultry and game themselves. Let them therefore be careful to attend to this general rule; take care that 'all the stubs are perfectly removed; and when they draw any kind

c 2

20 TRUSSING.

of poultry or game, they must be very particular not to break the gall, because it will give the bird a bitter and disagreeable flavour, which neither washing nor wiping will be able to remove. We shall now proceed to particular rules.

Turkeys.

WHEN you have properly picked your turkey, break the kg-bone close to the foot, and draw out the strings from the thigh, for Vhich purpose you must put it on a hook fastened against the wall. Cut off the neck close to the back; but be careful to leave the orop skin sufficiently long to turn over to the back. Then proceed to take out the crop, and loosen the liver and gut at the throat end with your middle finger. Then cut off the vent, and take out the gut. With a crooked sharp-pointed iron pull out the gizzard, and the liver will soon follow. Be careful, however, not to break the gall. With a wet cloth wipe out the inside perfectly clean. With a large knife cut the breast-bone through on each side close to the back, and draw the legs close to the crop. Then put a cloth on the breast, and beat the high bone down with a rolU ing-pin till it lies flat. If the turkey is to be trussed for boiling cut the legs off; then put your middle finger into the inside, raise the skin of the legs, and put them under the apron of the turkey. Put a skewer in the joint of the wing and the middle joint of the leg, and run it through the body and the other leg and wing. The liver and gizzard must be put in the pinions; but take care first to open the gizzard, and take out the filth and the gall of the liver. Then turn the small end of the pinion on the back, and tie a packthread over the ends of the legs to keep them in their places. If the turkey is to be roasted, leave the legs on, put a skewer in the joint of the wing, tuck the legs close up, and put the skewer through the middle of the leg and body. On the other side put another skewer in at the small part of the leg. Put it close on the outside of the sidesman, and put the skewer through, and the same on the other side. Put the liver and gizzard between the pinions, and turn the point of the pinion on the back. Then put, close above the pinions, another skewer through the body of the turkey.

TRUSSING. 2 1

Turkey polts must be trussed in the following manner: Take the neck from the head and body, but do not remove the neck skin. They are drawn in the same manner as a turkey. Put a skewer through the joint of the pinion, tuck the legs close, run the skewer through the middle of the leg, through the body, and so on the other side. Cut off the under part of the bill, twist the skin of the neck round, and put the head on the point of the skewer, with the bill end forwards. Another skewer must be put in the sidesman, and the legs placed between the sidesman and apron on each side. Pass the skewer through all, and cut off the toe-nails. It is very common to lard them on the breast. The liver and gizzard may or may not be used, as you like.

Geese.

HAVING picked and stubbed your goose clean, cut the feet off at the joint, and the pinion off at the first joint. Then cut off the neck close to the back; but leave the skin of the neck long enough to turn over the back. Pull out the throat, and tie a knot at the end. With your middle finger loosen the liver and other matters at the breast end, and cut it open between the vent and the rump. Having done this, draw out all the entrails, excepting the soal. Wipe it out clean with a wet cloth, and beat the breast-bone flat with a rolling-pin. Put a skewer into the wing, and draw the legs close up. Put the skewer through the middle of the leg, and through the body, and the same on the other side. Put another skewer in the small of the leg, tuck it close down to the sidesman, run it through, and do the same on the other side. Cut off the end of the vent, and make a hole large enough for the passage of the rump, as it holds the seasoning much better by means.

22 TRUSSING.

Ducks.

DUCKS and Geese are trussed in the same manner, excepting that the feet are left on the ducks, and are turned close to the legs.

Fowls.

THEY must first be picked very clean, and the neck cut off close to the back. Then take out the crop, and with your middle finger loosen the liver and other matters. Cut off the vent, draw it clean, and beat the breast-bone flat with a rollingpin. If your fowl is to be boiled, cut off the nails of the feet, and tuck them down close to the leg. Put your finger into the inside, and raise the skin of the legs; then cut a hole in the top of the skin, and put the legs under. Put a skewer in the first joint of the pinion, bring the middle of the leg close to it, put the skewer through the middle of the leg, and through the body. Do the same on the other side. Having opened the gizzard, take out the filth, and the gall out of the liver. Put the gizzard and the liver in the pinions, and turn the point on the back. Remember to tie a string over the tops of the legs, to keep them in their proper place. If your fowl is to be roasted, put a skewer in the first joint of the pinion, and bring the middle of the leg close to it. Put the skewer through the middle of the leg, and through the body, and do the same on the other side. Put another skewer in the small of the leg, and through the sidesman. Do the same on the other side. Put another skewer through the skin of the feet. You must not forget that the nails are to be cut off.

TRUSSING. 23

Chickens.

THESE must be picked and drawn in the same manner as fowls. If the chickens are to be boiled, cut off the nails, give the sinews a nick on each side of the joint, put the feet in at the vent, and then put in the rump. Draw the skin tight over the legs, put a skewer in the first joint of the pinion, and bring the middle of the leg close. Put the skewer through the middle of the legs, and through the body, and do the same on the other side. Clean the gizzard, and take out the gall in the liver; put them into the pinions, and turn the points on the back. If your chickens are to be roasted, cut off the feet, put a skewer in the first joint of the pinions, and bring the middle of the leg close. Run the skewer through the middle of the leg, and through the body, and do the same on the other side. Put another skewer into the sidesman, put the legs between the apron and the sidesman, and run the skewer through. Having cleaned the liver and gizzard, put them in the pinions, turn the points on the back and over the neck, and pull the breast skin.

Wild Fowl.

THE directions we are giving will answer for all kinds of wild fowl in general. Having picked them clean, cut off the neck close to the back, and with your middle finger loosen the liver and guts next the breast. Cut off the pinions at the first joint, then cut a slit between the vent and the rump, and draw them clean. Clean them properly with the long feathers on the wing, cut off the nails, and turn the feet close to the legs. Put a skewer into the pinions, pull the legs close to the breast, and run the skewer through the legs, body, and the other pinion. First cut off the vent, and then put the rump through it.

Pigeons.

You must first pick them, and cut off the neck close to the back. Then take out the crop, cut off the vent, and draw out

24 TRUSSING.

the guts and gizzard, but leave in the liver, for a pigeon has no gall. If your pigeons are to be roasted, cut off the toes, cut a slit in one of the legs, and put the other through it. Draw the leg tight lo the pinion, put a skewer through the pinions, legs, and body, and with the handle of.a knife break the breast flat. Clean the gizzard, put it in one of the pinions, and turn the point on the back. If you intend to make a pie of them, you must cut the feet off at the joint, turn the legs, and stick them in the sides close to the pinions. If they are to be stewed or boiled, they must be done in the same manner.

Woodcocks and Sniper.

THESE birds are very tender to pick, especially if they be not quite fresh. They must therefore be handled as little as possible, for even the heat of the hand will sometimes pull off the skin, when the beauty of your bird will be destroyed. When you have picked them clean, cut the pinions off at the first joint, and with the handle of a knife beat the breast-bone flat. Turn the legs close to the thighs, and tie them together at the joints. Put the thighs close to the pinions, put a skewer into the pinion, and run it through the thighs, body, and the other pinion. Skin the head, turn it, take out the eyes and put the head on the point of the skewer with the bill close to the breast. Woodcocks, snipes, or plovers, are trussed in the same nrtgpfiner, but must never be drawn. ' Larks, Wheat-ears, Kc.

WHRN you have picked them clean, cut off their heads, and the pinions at the first joint. Beat the breast-bone flat with the handle of a knife, turn the feet close to the legs, and put one into the other. Draw out the gizzard, and run a skewer through the middle of the bodies of as many as you mean to dress. They must be tied on the spit.

Pheasants and Partridges.

PICK them very clean, cut a slit at the back of the neck, take out the crop, and loosen the liver and gut next the breast

TRUSSING. 25

with your fore-finger, then cut off the vent and draw them. Cut oft the pinion at the first joint, and wipe out the inside with the pinion you have cut off; for you never need pick these birds beyond U^e first joint of the pinion. With a rolling-pin beat the breast-bone flat, put a skewer in the pinion, and bring the middle of the legs close. Then run the skewer through the legs, body, and the other pinion; bring the head, and put it on the end of the skewer, the bill fronting the breast. Put another skewer into the sidesman, and put the legs close on each side the apron, and then run the skewer through all. You must leave the beautiful feathers on the head of the cock pheasant, and put paper to prevent the bad effects of the fire. You must also save the long feathers in the tajl to stick in the rump when roasted. In the same manner are trussed all kinds of moor-game. If they are to be boiled, put the legs in the manner as in trussing a fowl for boiling.

Hares.

.HAVING cut off the four legs at the first joint, raise the skin

of the back, and draw it over the hind legs. Leave the tail

whole, draw the skin over the hack, and slip out the fore legs.

Cut the skin off the neck and head; but take care to leave the

ears on, and mind to skin them. Take out the liver, lights, &c.

but be sure to take the gut out of the vent. Cut the sinews

that lie under the hind legs, bring them up to the fore legs,

put a skewer through the hind leg, then through the foreleg

under the joint, run it through the body, and do the same on

lie other side. Put another skewer through the thick part of

te hind legs and body, put the head between the shoulders,

ard run a skewer through to keep it in its place. Pur askewer

inachear to make them stand erect, and tie a string round

the middle of the body over the legs to keep them in their

pla . You may truss a young fawn in the same manner,

only-mind to cut off the ears.

26 BOILING.

Rabbits.

RABBITS are to be cased ih the same manner as hares, only observe to cut off the ears close to the head. Cut the vent open, and slit the legs about an inch upon each side the rump. Make the hind legs Jie flat, and bring the ends to the fore legs. Put a skewer in the hind leg, then in the fore leg and through the body. Bring the head round, and put it on the skewer. If you want to roast two together, truss them at full length, with six skewers run through them both, so that they may be properly fastened upon the spit.

CHAPTER III.

_

BOILING.

PRELIMINARY HINTS AND OBSERVATIONS.

-TN FATNESS being a most material requisition in a kitchen, the cook should be particularly cautious to keep all the utensils perfectly clean, and the pots and saucepans properly tinned. In boiling any kind of meat, but particularly veal, much care and nicety are required. Fill your pot with a sufficient quantity of soft water; dust your veal well with fine flour, put it into your pot, and set it over a large fire. It is" the custom with some people to put in milk to make it white; but this if of no use, and perhaps better omitted; for, if you use har water, it will curdle the milk, give to the veal a brownislyellow cast, and will often hang in lumps about it. Oatmal will do the same thing; but by dusting your veal, and puttng it into the water when cold, it will prevent the foulness of the water from hanging upon it. Take the scum off clear as.oon as it begins to rise, and cover up the pot closely. Le- the meat boil as slowly as possible, put in plenty of water, */hich will make your veal rise and look plump. A cook Cannot make a greater mistake, than to let any sort of meat b il fast, since it hardens the outside before it is warm within, fld contributes to discolour it. Thus a leg of veal, of twelv--pounds weight, will take three hours and a half boiling; and the slower it boils, the whiter and plumper it will be. Vhen mut

BOILING. 21

ton or beef is the object of your cookery, be careful to dredge them well with flour, before you put them into the pot of cold water, and keep it covered; but do not forget to take off the scum as often as it rises. Mutton and beef do not require so much boiling; nor is it much minded if it be a little under the mark; but lamb, pork, and veal, should be well boiled, as they will otherwise be unwholesome. A leg of pork will take half an hour more boiling than a leg of veal of the same weight; but, in general, when you boil beef or mutton, you may allow an hour for every four pounds weight. To put in the meat when the water is cold, is allowed to be the best method, as it thereby gets warm to the heart before the outside gets hard. To boil a leg of lamb, of four pounds \)'eight, you must allow an hour and a half.

Grass Lamb,

So many pounds as the joint weighs, so many quarters of an hour it must boil. Serve it up with spinach, carrots, cabbage, or brocoli.

Calf's Head. '

WASH it very clean, soak it in water for two hours, then parboil one half; beat up the yolk of an egg, and rub it over the head with a feather; then strew over it a seasoning of pepper, salt, thyme, parsley chopped small, shred lemon-peel, grated bread, and a little nutmeg; stick bits of butter over it, and send it to the oven. Boil the other half white in a cloth; put them both .into a dish Boil the brains in a bit of cloth, with a very little parsley, and a leaf or two of sage. When they are boiled, chop them small, and warm them in a saucepan, with a bit of butter, and a little pepper and salt. Lay the tongue, boiled and peeled, in the middle of a small dish, and the brains round it; have, in another dish, bacon or pickled pork; greens or carrots in another.

To boil Veal like Sturgeon.

TAKE a small delicate fillet of veal, from a cow-calf; take off the skin, and then lard it all over, top, bottom, and sides with some bacon and ham. Put into a stevvpan some slices of bacon and veal; strew over them some pepper, salt, and sweet herbs; then put in the fillet with as-much broth as will just cover them. Cover the stewpan very close, and let them simmer very gently. When the veal is nearly enough, put in a pint of white wine, an onion shred, a few cloves, and a little mace; put on the cover of the stewpau, set it over a stove, and lay some charcoal upon it. When it has been kept hot ten minutes, take it off the fire, and remove the charcoal. If it is intended to be eaten hot, the following sauce must be

2S BOILING.

made while it is stewing. Set on a saucepan, with a glass of gravy, a glass and a half of vinegar, half a lemon sliced, a large onion sliced, and a good deal of pepper and salt. Boil this a few minutes, and strain it. Lay the meat in a dish, and pour the sauce over it. If it is to be eaten cold, it must not be taken out of the liquor it is stewed in, but set by to cool all night, and it will be exceedingly good.

Haunch or Neck of Venison.

HAVING let it lie in salt for a week, boil it in a cloth well floured; and allow a quarter of an hour's boiling for every pound it weighs. For sauce, you may boil some cauliflowers^ pulled into Tittle sprigs, in milk and water, with some fine white cabbage, and some turnips cut in dice, add some beetroot cut into narrow pieces, about an inch and a half long, and half an inch thick. Lay a sprig of cauliflower, and some of the turnips mashed with some cream and a little butter. Let your cabbage be boiled, and then beat in a saucepan with a piece of butter and salt. Lay that next the cauliflower, then the turnips, then the cabbage, and so on till the dish be full. Place the beet-root here and there, according to your taste. Have a little melted butter. This is a very fine dish, and looks very prettily.

The haunch or neck, thus dressed, eats well the next day hashed with gravy and sweet sauce.

Hams.

PUT your ham into a copper of cold water, and when it boils, take care that it boils slowly. A ham of twenty pounds will take four hours and a half boiling: and so in proportion for one of a larger or smaller size. No soaking is required for a green ham; but an old and large ham will require sixteen hours soaking in water, after which it should lie on damp stones, sprinkled with water, two or three days to mellow. Observe to keep the pot well skimmed while your ham is boiling. When you take it up, pull oft' the skin as whole as possible, and save it; and strew on it raspings. When the ham is brought from table, put the skin upon it, which will preserve it moist.

Another way of dressing a Ham.

HAVING put the ham in a copper as before, add two pounds of veal: after boiling a quarter of an hour, add celery, three heads; young onions one handful, or one old one; thyme and sweet-marjorum, a small quantity; t\yo turnips; winter savory, one handful; one or two eschalots; and boil as before, till sufficiently tender. The broth will form a valuable present to poor families.

BOILING. 29

Tongues.

STEEP the tongue in water all night, if it be a dry one; but if it be a pickled one, only wash it out of water. Boil it three hour*.

Pickled Pork.

HAVING washed your pork, and scraped it clean, let it lie half an hour in cold water, put it in when the water is cold, and let it boil till the rind be tender.

Leg of Mutton with Cauliflowers and Spinach.

Cur a leg of mutton venison fashion, and boil it in a cloth: boil three or four cauliflowers in milk and water, pull them into sprigs, and stew them with butter, pepper, salt, and a little milk; stew some spinach in a saucepan; put to the spinach a quarter of a pint of gravy, a piece of butter, and flower. When it is enough, put the mutton in the middle* the spinach round it, and the cauliflower over all. The butter the cauliflower was stewed in must be poured over it, and it must be melted like a smooth cream.

Chickens.

PUT your chickens into scalding water, and as soon as the feathers will slip off, take them out, otherwise they will make the skin hard. After you have drawn them, lay them in skimmed milk for two hours, and then truss them with their heads on their wings. When you have properly singed, and dusted them with flour, cover them close in cold water, and set them over a slow fire. Having taken off the scum, and boiled them slowly for five or six minutes, take them off the fire, and keep them close covered for half an hour in the water, which will stew them sufficiently, and make them plump and white. Before you dish them, set them on the fire to heat; then drain them, and pour over them white sauce. See Sauces.

Fowls.

PLUCK your fowls, draw them at the rump, and cut off the head, neck, and legs. Take out the breast-bone carefully; and having skewered them with the ends of their legs in their bodies, tie them round with a string. Singe and dust them well with flour, put them into cold water, cover the kettle close, and set it on the fire; but take it off as soon as the scum begins to rise. Cover them close again, and let them boil twenty minutes very slowly. Then take them off, and 'he heat of the water, in half an hour, will stew them suffi

30 BOILING.

ciently. Then treat them in the same manner as above directed for chickens, though melted butter is as often used as white sauce.

Turkeys.

A TURKEY should not be fed the day before it is to be killed; but give it a spoonful of allegar just before you kill it, and it will make it white and tender. Let it hang by the legs four or five days after it is killed; and when you have plucked it, draw it at the rump. Cut off the legs, put the end of the thighs into the body, and skewer them clown, and tic them with a string. Having cut off the head and neck, grate a penny Joaf, chop fine a score of oysters at least, shred a little lemon-peel, and put in a sufficient quantity of salt, pepper, and nutmeg. Mix these up into a light forcemeat, with a quarter of a pound of butter, three eggs, a spoonful or two of cream, and stuff the craw with part of it; the rest must be made into balls, and boiled. Having sewed up the turkey, and dredged it well with flour, put it into a kettle of cold water; cover it, and set it over the fire, and take the scum off as soon as it begins to rise, and cover it again. It must boil very slowly for half an hour; then take off your kettle, and let it stand close covered. A middling turkey will take half an hour to stand in the hot water, and the steam beingconfined will sufficiently stew it. When you dish it up, pour a little of your oyster-sauce over it, lay your balls round it, and serve it up, with the rest of your sauce in a boat. Barberries and lemon will be a proper garnish. Set it over the fire, and make it quite hot before you dish it up.

Geese.

SALT a goose a week, and boil it an hour. Serve it up with onion sauce, or cabbage boiled or stewed in butter.

Another way.

SINGE a goose, and pour over it a quart of boiling milk. Let it lie in it all night, then take it out, and dry it well with a cloth. Cut small a large onion and some sage, put them into the goose, sew it up at the neck and vent, hang it up by the legs till next day, then put it into a pot of cold water, cover it close, and let it boil softly for an hour. Onion sauce.

A smoked Goose.

TAKE a large stubble goose, take off the fat, dry it well inside and " out with a cloth; wash it all over with vinegar, and then rub it over with some common salt, salt-petre, and

BOILING. 31

A quarter of a pound of coarse sugar. Rub the salts well in, and let it lay a fortnight; then drain it well-, sew it up in a cloth, and dry it in the middle of a chimney. It should hang a month. Serve it up with onions, greens, &c.

Ducks.

As soon as you have scalded and drawn your ducks, let them remain for a few minutes in warm water, then take them out, put them into an earthen pan, and pour a pint of boiling milk over them. Let them lie in it two or three hours/ and when you take them out, dredge them well with flour; put them into a copper of cold water, and cover them up. Having boiled slowly about twenty minutes, take them out, and smother them with onion sauce.

Pigeons.

SCALD and draw your pigeons, and take out the craAv as clean as possible. Wash them in several waters; and having cut off their pinions, turn their legs under their wings; dredge them, and put them into soft cold water. Having boiled them very slowly a quarter of an hour, dish them up, and pour over them good melted butter; lay round them a little brocoli, and ^ervethem up with butter and parsley.

Rabbits.

CASE your rabbits; skewer them with their heads straight up, the fore legs brought down, and the hind legs straight. Boil them at least three quarters of an hour, and then smother them with onion sauce. Pull out the jaw bones, stick them in their eyes, and serve them up with a sprig of myrtle or barberries in their mouths. See Sauces.

Partridges.

BOIL them quick in a good deal of water, and fifteen minutes will be sufficient. For sauce take a quarter of a pint of cream, and a piece of fresh butter as large as a walnut; stir it one way till it be melted, and pour it into the dish.

Pheasants.

BOIL your pheasants in a good deal of water, and be sure to keep it boiling. If it be a small one, half an hour will boil it; but if it be of the larger sort, you must allow it a quarter of an hour longer. Let your sauce be celery stewed and thickened with cream, and a little piece of butter rolled in flour; and when your pheasant is done, pour your sauce over it, and garnish with lemon. Observe so to stew your celery, that the liquor may not be all wasted before you put in your cream. Season with salt to your palate. See Sauces.

BOILING.

Snipes or Woodcocks.

YOUR snipes or woodcocks must be boiled in a good strong broth $ or beef gravy, made thus: cut a pound of beef into little ^pieces, and pour on it two qiwts of water, with an onion, a bundle of sweet herbs, a blade or two of mace, six cloves, and some whole pepper. Cover it close, let it boil till about half wasted, then strain it off, and put the gravy into a saucepan, with salt enough to season it. Gut the birds clean, but take care of the trails. Put them into the gravy, cover them close, and ten minutes will boil them. In the meantime, cut the trails and liver small, then take a little of the gravy the snipes are boiling in, and stew the trails in it, with a blade of mace. Fry some crumbs of bread crisp in some butter, of a fine light brown. You must take about as much bread as the inside of a stale roll, and rub them small into a clean cloth; and when they are done, let them stand ready in a plate before the fire. When your snipes are ready, take about half a pint of the liquor they were boiled in, and add to the trails two spoonfuls of red wine, and a piece of butter as big as a walnut, rolled in a little flour. Set them on the fire, shake your saucepan often, (but do not stir it with a spoon) till the butter is all melted. Then put in the crumbs, give the saucepan a shake, take up your birds, lay them in the dish, and pour your sauce over thetn. Lemon is a proper garnish.

Pig's Pettitoes.

LET the feet boil till they are pretty tender; but take up the heart, liver, and lights, when they have boiled ten minutes, and shred them rather small. Take out the feet, and split them; thicken your gravy with flour and butter, and put in yeur mincemeat, a little mace, a slice of lemon, a little salt, and give it a gentle boil. Lay s'ppets round the dish, and pour in your mincemeat, and in the centre the pettitoes.

Salmon.

HAVING scalded your salmon, take out the blood, wash the fish well, and lay it on a fish plate. Put your water in a fishpan, with a little salt, and when it boils, put in your fish for half a minute; then take it out for a minute or two. Do this four times, and then boil it till it be enough. When you take it out of the fish-pan, set it over the water to drain, and cover it with a cloth dipped in hot water. Frv a few slices of salmon, or some small fish, and lay them round it. Scraped horseradish and parsley will be a proper garnish.

BOILING. 33

Soles.

THEY must be boiled in salt and water, and served up "with anchovy sauce.

Soles the Dutch way.

TAKE a pair of large soles, skin, gut, and wash them very clean in spring-water. Set them on in a stewpan with some water and a little salt, and when it boils put in the soles, and let them boil a few minutes. Then put on a saucepan with some parsley cut small in a little water, and let it stand till the water is all consumed. Then shake in some flour, and put in a good piece of butter. Shake them well together till all is well mixed, and then lay the soles, when they are drained, upon a dish, and pour the sauce over them.

Trout.

BOIL them in vinegar, water, and salt, with a piece of horseradish. White sauce, anchovy saute, and plain butter.

Cod's Head.

FIRST take out the gills and the blood clean from the bone, and wash the head well; then rub over it a little salt, and a glass of vinegar. Lay it on your fish-plate, and when your water boils, throw in a large handful of salt, and a glass of vinegar. Put in your fish, and boil it gently half an hour; but if it be a large one, it will take three quarters. Take it up very carefully, and see that no water or scum hang about the fish. Garnish with a few smelts, or oysters fried, parsley, scraped horse-radish, and lemon cut in slices, laid round it. The roe and liver must be cut into slices, and laid close to it.

Salt Cod.

SOAK the fish six hours in soft water, then lay it on a stone or brick floor for eight hours: if very salt, repeat the soaking for six hours, otherwise three will be sufficient, and lay it again on the floor for two. Brush it well with a moderately hard brush, and boil gently in soft water. Serve in a napkin. Thus dressed it will swell considerably, and come off in fine flakes. Serve with egg sauce, mashed potatoes, and parsnips.

Cod Sounds.

SOAK them in warm water half an hour, then scrape and clean; boil in milk and water till tender. Serre in a napkin, with egg sauce.

D

34 BOILING.

Turbot.

YOUR turbot must be washed clean. Rub some vinegar over it, which will add to its firmness, Put it on your fishplate, with the white side upwards, and pin a cloth over it tight under your plate, which will prevent its breaking. Boil it gently in hard water with plenty of salt and vinegar, and skim it well, which will prevent the skin being discoloured; and when enough, take it up and drain it. Take the cloth off carefully, and slip the fish on your dish; garnish with double parsley, lemon, and horse-radish. The proper sauces, are lobster, anchovy, and plain butter. See Sauces.

Turbot boiled with Capers.

WASH and dry a small turbot, then take some thyme, parsley, sweet herbs, and an onion sliced. Put them into a stewpan, then lay in the turbot, (the stewpan should be just big enough to hold the fish.) Strew over the fish the same herbs that are under it, with some chives and sweet basil. Then pour in an equal quantity of white wine and white wine vinegar, till the fish is covered. Strew in a little bay salt, with some whole pepper; set the stewpan over a gentle stove, increasing the heat by degrees, till it be enough. Then take it off the fire, but do not take the turbot out. Set a saucepan on the fire with a pound of butter, two anchovies split, boned and washed, two large spoonfuls of capers cut small, some chives whole, and a little pepper, salt, some nutmeg grated, a little flour, a spoonful of vinegar, and a little water. Set the saucepan over the stove, and keep shaking it round for some time, and then set the turbot on to make it hot. Put it in a dish, and pour some of the sauce over it; lay some horse-radish round it, and put what remains of the sauce in a boat.

Pike.

GUT and gill your pike, and having washed it well, make a good forcemeat of chopped oysters, crumb of bread, a little lemon-peel shred fine, a lump of butter, the yolks of two eggs, a few sweet herbs, and season them to your taste with salt, pepper, and nutmeg. Mix all these well together, and put them into the belly of the fish, which must be sewed up, and skewered round. It must be boiled in hard water, with a little salt, and a tea-cup full of vinegar put into the fish-pan. Put in the fish as soon as the water boils, and if it be of the middling size, half an hour's boiling will be sufficient. Serve it up with oyster sauce in a boat. Use pickled barberries ami parsley for a garnish.

BOILING. 35

Sturgeon.

LAY as large a piece as you please of your fish all night in salt water, having first taken care to wash it clean. Take it out the next morning, and rub it well with vinegar, and let it lie in it two hours. Put your sturgeon into the fish-kettle when full of boiling water, and throw in an ounce of bay-salt, a few sprigs of sweet marjorum, and two large onions. When you perceive the bones begin to leave the fish, take it up, and strip off the skin; then flour it well; put it before the fire, and having basted it with fresh butter, let it stand till it be of a fine brown. When you dish it up, you must make use of the white sauce. Crisp parsley and red pickles, for garnish. See Sauces.

MackareL

WHEN you have gutted your mackarel, dry them carefully in a clean cloth, and gently rub them over with vinegar. Lay them on your fish-plate, and handle them as little as possible, as they are liable to break. Put them into your fish-pan when your water boils, put in a little salt, and let them boil gently about a quarter of an hour. When you take them up, drain them well, and serve them with fennel and parsley sauces. Your fish must be dished up with their tails in the middle,; nd scraped horse-radish and barberries will serve as garnish.

Flat Fish.

UNDER this article we include flounders, plaice, and the various species of flat fish of that tribe. First cut off the fins, nick the brown side under the head, and take out the guts. Dry them with a cloth, and boil them in salt and water. Garnish them with parsley, and serve them up either with shrimp, cockle, or anchovy sauce.

Herrings.

SCALE, gut, and wash them, clean and dry them, and rub them over with a little salt and vinegar. Skewer their tails in their mouths, and lay them on your fish-plate. Put them in when the water boils, and in about ten or twelve minutes take them up. Let them drain properly, and then turn their heads into the middle of the dish. Use parsley and butter for sauce, and garnish with scraped horse-radish.

Perch.

WHEN you have scaled, gutted, and washed your fish, put it into the water when it boils, with some salt, an onion cut into slices, and separated into round rings, a handful of parsley

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36 ROASTING.

clean picked and washed, and as much milk as will turn the water. Put the fish into a soup dish as soon as it is enough, and pour a little of the water, and the parsley and the onions, over it. It may be served up with butter and parsley in a boat, and with or without onions, as you choose. The same methgd may be observed in boiling a trout.

Eels.

HAVING skinned, gutted, and taken the blood out of your eels, cut off their heads, dry them, and turn them round on your fish-plate. Boil them in salt ami water, and serve them up with parsley sauce, and anchovy sauce.

Mullets.

BOIL them in salt and water; when they are enough, pour avray part of the water, and put to the rest a gill of red wine, sonje salt and vinegar, two onions sliced, with a bunch of sweet herbs, some nutmeg, beaten mace, and the juice of a lemon. Boil these well together, with two or three anchovies. Then 'put ifc the fish, and when they have simmered in it some time, put them into a dish, and strain the sauce ore 1 ' them. Shrimps or oysters may be added.

CHAPTER IV.

ROASTING.

PRELIMINARY HINTS AND OBSERVATIONS.

I: UT a little salt and water into the dripping-pan, and with it baste the meajs a little. When dry, dredge well with flour, and baste with fresh butter; because it will give a better colour to your meat. The fire should be regulated according to the thing to be dressed: if very little or thin, then you should have a pretty brisk fire, that it may be done quickly and nicely; if a large joint, take care, that a large fire is laid on to cake. The fire must be always clear at the bottom; and when the meat is half done, move the dripping-parr and spit a little from the fire, and stir it up, to make it burn clear and brisk; for a good fire is a material thing in the business of cookery. If you are roasting beef, take care to paper the top, and baste well while a the fire, not forgetting to sprinkle some salt on it. When the smoke draws to the

ROASTING. 37

fire, it is a sign that it is nearly enough; and then take off the paper, baste well, and dredge with flour, to make it frothy; but never salt your meat before you lay it to the fire, as that will draw out part of the gravy. In roasting mutton or lamb, the loin, the chine, and the saddle, must have the skin raised and skewered on, and when nearly done, take off the skin, and baste and flour, to froth it up. All other sorts .of mutton and lamb must be roasted with a quick clear fire, without the skin being raised. You must be careful to roast veal of a fine brown; and if it be a fillet or loin, be sure to paper the fat, that you may lose as little of it as possible. At first keep it at some distance from the fire, but when it is soaked, put it nearer. When you lay it down, baste well with butter; and when nearly done, baste again, and dredge with a little flour. The breast must be roasted with the caul on, till the meat be enough done, and skewer the sweetbread on the back side of the breast. When sufficiently roasted, take off the caul, baste it, and dredge a little flour over it. Pork should be well done, or it will otherwise be apt to surfeit. When you roast a loin, cut the skin across with a sharp knife, in order to make the crackling eat the better. When you roast a leg of pork, score it in the same manner as the loin, and stuff the knuckle part with sage and onion, and skewer it up. Put a little drawn gravy in the dish, and send it up with apple-sauce in a tureen. The spring, or hand of pork, if very young, and roasted like a pig, eats very well; but, otherwise, it is much better boiled. The sparerib should be basted with a little butter, a very little dust of flour, and some sage and onions shred small. Apple sauce is the only sauce made for this joint. Wildfowls require a clear brisk fire, and should be roasted till they are of a light brown, but not too much; for it is a great fault to roast them till the gravy runs out of fhem, as they thereby lose their fine flavour. Tame fowls require more roasting, as they are a long time before they get thoroughly heated. ' They should be often basted, in order to keep up a strong froth, and as it makes them of a finer colour, and rise better. Pigs and geese should be roasted before a good fire, and turned quickly. Hares and rabbits require time and care, to see the ends are roasted enough. In order to prevent their appearing bloody at the neck when they are cut up, cut the neck skin, when they are half roasted, and let out the blood. Having thus premised these general rules for roasting, we shall now proceed to particulars.

A Fore Quarter of House Lamb.

HOUSE lamb requires to be well roasted. A small forequarter will take an hour and a half; a leg, three quarters of

no ASH:-.

an hour. For sauce, mint sauce, with salad, brocoli, toes, celery raw or stewed: or for a fore quarter of lamb, cut off the shoulder, pepper and salt the ribs, and squeeze a Seville orange over it.

Tongues or Udders.

THE tongue should be parboiled, before it is put down to roast; stick eight or ten cloves about it; baste it with butter, and serve it up with some gravy. An udder may be roasted after the same manner.

Sweetbreads.

FIRST parboil them, and when cold lard them xvith bacou, and roast them in a Dutch oven, or on a poor man's jack. For sauce, plain butter, ketchup and butter, or lemon sauce.

Venison.

IN order to roast a haunch of venison properly, as soon ajs you have spitted it, you must lay over it a large sheet of paper, and then a thin common paste, with another paper over that. Tie it fast, in order to keep the paste from dropping oft'; and if the haunch be a large one, it will take four hours roasting. As soon as it is done enough, take off both paper and paste, dredge well with flour, and baste with butter. As soon as it becomes of a light brown, dish it up; serving brown gravy, and currant jelly sauce, in tureens.

Saddle of Mutton.

TAKE a saddle, and remove the skin very neatly near the rump, without taking it quite off, or breaking it. Take some lean ham, truffles, morels, green onions, parsley, thyme, sweet herbs, all chopped small, with some spice, pepper, and salt* Strew it over the mutton where the skin is taken off; put the skin over it neatly, and tie over it some white paper, well buttered, and roast it. When nearly enough, take off the paper, strew over it some grated bread, and when it is of a fine brown, take it up. Have ready some good gravy for 'sauce. Or it may be roasted without any force.

Haunch of Mutton.

To dress a haunch of mutton venison fashion, take a hind fat quarter of mutton, and cut the leg like a haunch. Lay it in a pan with the back side of it down, and pour a bottle of red wine over it, in which let it lie twenty-four hours. Spit and roast it at a good quick fire, and keep basting all the time with the same liquor and butter. It will require an hour and an half roasting; and when done, send it up with a little

ROASTING. 39

good gravy in one boat, and sweet sauce in another. A good i'at neck of mutton done in this manner, is esteemed delicate eating.

Mutton with Oysters.

TAKE a leg of mutton, after it has beeli killed two or three days, stuff it all over with oysters, and roast it. Garnish with horse-radish. It may be roasted with cockles in the same manner.

Pigs.

COOKS who choose to have the killing of the pig they are to dress, must proceed thus: stick the pig just above the breast-bone, and run the knife into its heart; for if the heart is not touched, it will be a long while dying. As soon as it is dead, put it a few minutes in cold water, and rub it over with a little rosin, beaten exceedingly fine, or you may make use of its own blood for that purpose. Let it lie half a minute in a pail of scalding water, then take it out, lay it upon a clean table, and pull off the hair as fast as possible; but if it do not come clean off, put it into the hot water again, and when perfectly clean, wash it in warm water, and then in two or three cold waters, in order that in may not taste of the rosin, when dressed. Take off the four feet at the first joint, slit it down the belly, and take out all the entrails. Put the heart, liver, lights, and pettitoes together; wash the pig well in cold water, and having perfectly dried it, fold it in a wet cloth to keep it from the air. Make a stuffing with chopped sage, two eschalots, two eggs, grated bread, and fresh butter; and season with pepper and salt: put it into the belly, sew it up, spit it, and rub it over with a paste-brush dipped in sweet oil. Roast gently, and when done, cut off the head; 'then cut the body and head in halves, lay them on a dish, put the stuffing with the brains into a stewpan, add to them some good gravy, make it boil, and serve up the pig with the sauce under it. See Sauces.

Hind Quarter of a Pig, Lamb fashion.

AT that season of the year, when house lamb bears an extraordinary price, the hind quarter of a large pig will be a very good substitute for it. Take off the skin and roast it, and it will eat like lamb. Serve with mint sauce, or a salad.

Ham or Gammon.

TAKE off the skin of the ham or gammon, when you have half boiled it, and dredge with oatmeal sifted very fine. Baste with butter, and roast gently two hours. Stir up your fire,

40 ROASTING.

and then brown it quickly; and when so done dish up, and pour brown gravy into the dish.

Calfs Head.

WASH the head very clean, take out the bones, and dry well with a cloth. Make a seasoning of beaten mace, white pepper aud salt, some bacon cut very small, and some grated bread. Strew this over it, roll it up, skewer it with a small skewer, and tie it with tape. Roast and baste it with butter; make a rich veal-gravy, thickened with butter, and roll it in flour. Some like mushrooms and the fat part of oysters: but it is very good without.

The German Way of dressing a Calf's Head.

TAKE a large calf's head, with great part of the neck cut with it. Split it in half, scald it very white, and take out the jaw-bone. Take a large stewpati or saucepan, and lay at the bottom some slices of bacon, then some thin beef ste..ks, with some pepper and salt. Then lay in the head, pour in some beef stock, a large onion stuck with cloves, and a bunch of sweet herbs. Cover the stewpan very close, and set it over a stove to stew. Then make a ragout with a quart of good beef gravy, and half a pint of red wine. Let the wine be well boiled in the gravy; add to it some sweetbreads parboiled, and cut in slices, some cocksy-combs, oysters, mushrooms, truffles, and morels. Let these stew till they be tender. When the head is stewed, take it up, put it into a dish, take out the brains, the eyes, and the bones. Then slit the tonue,cut it into small pieces, cut the eyes in pieces also, and chop the brains; put these into a baking-dish, and pour some of the ragout over them. Then take the head, lay it upon the ragout, pour the rest over it, and on that some melted butter. Then scrape some fine Parmesan cheese, and *trew it over the butter, and send it to the oven. It does not want much baking, but only requires tabe of a fine brown.

Calfs Liver.

WASH and wipe it; cut a long hole in it, and fill it up with a stuffing made of grated bread, chopped anchovy, sweet herbs, fat bacon shred fine, onion, salt, pepper, a bit of butter, and an egg: sew the liver up; then lard it, or wrap it in a veal-caul, and roast it. Serve with good gravy, and sweet sauce. See Sauces.

Stuffing for Turkeys, Hares, Rabbits, Veal, Kc.

CHOP very fine, beef suet, parsley, thyme, eschalots, a very small quantity of marjorum; savory, basil, and lemon peel.

ROASTING. 41

with grated nutmeg, two eggs (or milk), pepper, salt, and an anchovy; mix all together, with grated bread.

Green Geese.

PUT a large lump of butter into the goose, spit it and lay it down to the fire. Singe it, dredge it with flour, and baste it well with butter. Baste it three or four different times with cold butter, which will make the flesh rise much better than if it were basted with the contents of the dripping-pan. If the goose be a large one, it must be kept to the fire three quarters of an hour; and when you think it is enough, dredge it with flour, baste it till a fine froth rises on it, and the goose be of a nice brown. See Sauces.

Stubble Geese.

TAKE a few sage leaves and two onions, and chop them as fine as possible. Mix them with a large piece of butter, two spoonfuls of salt and one of pepper. Put this into the goose, spit it, and lay it down to the fire. Singe it, and dust it with flour, and when it is thoroughly hot, baste it with fresh butter. A large goose will require an hour and a half before a good fire, and when it is done, dredge it and baste it, pull out the spit, and pour in a little boiling water. See Sauces.

Chickens.

PLUCK your chickens very carefully, d/aw them, and cut off their claws only, and truss them. Put them down to a good fire, singe, dust, and baste them with butter. A quarter of an hour w r ill roast them; and when they are enough, froth them, and lay them on your dish. Serve up with parsley and butter, or white sauce. See Sauces.

Fowls.

HAVING cleansed and dressed your large fowls, put them down to a good fire, singe, dust, and baste them well with butter. They must be near an hour at the fire. Make your gravy of the necks and gizzards, and when you have strained it, put in a spoonful of browning. Take up your fowls, pomsome gravy into a dish, and serve them up with egg sauce. See Sauces.

Pheasants.

PHEASANTS and partridges may be treated in the same manner. Dust them with flour, and baste them often with fresh butter, keeping them at a good distance from the fire. A good fire will roast them in half an hour. Serve up with poivrade sauce, and bread sauce. See Sauces.

Fowls, Pheasant fashion.

IF you should have but one pheasant, and want two in a dish, take a large full-grown fowl, keep the head on, and truss it just as you do a pheasant. Lard it with bacon, but do not lard the pheasant, and no bt dy will know it.

Pigeons.

SCALD, draw, and take the craws clean out of your pigeons. and wash them in several waters. When you have dried them, roll a good lump of butter in chopped parsley, and season it with pepper and salt. Put this into your pigeons, and spit, dust, and baste them. A good fire will roast them in twenty minutes, and when they are enough, serve them up with parsley and butter. See Sauces.

Larks.

'SKEWER a dozen larks, and tie both ends of the skewer to the spit. Dredge and baste them, and let them roast ten minutes. Break half a penny loaf into crumbs, and put them, with a piece of butter about the size of a walnut, into a tossing pan, and having shaken them over a gentle fire till they are of a light brown, lay them between the birds, and pour a little melted butter over them.

Larks roasted a la Francois.

WHEN the larks are trussed, put a sage or vine leaf over their breasts: and having put them on a long skewer, put between every lark a thin piece of bacon. Tie the skewer to the spit, and roast the birds before a clear brisk fire. Baste with butter, and on removing the leaves, strew on them some grated bread, mixed with a little flour. When neatly roasted, put the larks round a dish, with grated bread fried in butter, in the middle.

Quails.

'-:

TRUSS the quails, and make a stuffing for them with beef suet and sweet herbs chopped very small, seasoned with a little spice. Put them upon a small spit, and when they grow warm baste them with water and salt; then dredge them and baste them with butter. For sauce, dissolve an anchovy in good gravy, with two or three eschalots cut very fine, and the juice of a Seville orange. Lay some fried bread crumbs round the dish. See Sauces.

ROASTING. 43

Ducks.

KILL and draw your ducks; then shred an onion, and a few sage leaves. Season these with salt and pepper, and put them into your ducks. Singe, dust, and baste them with butter, and a good fire will roast them in twenty minutes; for the quicker they are done the better they will be. Before you take them up, dust them with flour, and baste them with butter to give them a good frothing, and a pleasing brown. Your gravy must be made of the gizzard and pinions, an onion, a tea-spoonful of lemon-pickle, a few pepper corns, and a large blade of mace, a spoonful of ketchup, and the same of browning. Strain it and pour into your dish.

Turkeys.

HAVING dressed your turkey, according to the preparatory directions already given for boiling it, truss its head down to the legs, and make your stuffing as before directed. Spit it, and lay it down to a good fire, which must be clear and brisk. Singe, dust it with flour, and baste it several times with cold butter, which will froth it much better than the hot contents of the dripping-pan, and make the turkey more plump. When properly done, renew the frothing in the same manner as before, and dish up. A middling sized turkey must be down at the fire an hour and a quarter. See Sauces.

Ruff's and Rees.

THESE birds are said to be peculiar to Lincolnshire, being very rarely found in any other county. ' The properest food to give them is white bread and boiled milk, and they will be fat in about eight or ten days; but they must be fed separately, they being so delicate a bird, that they will riot both eat out of the same pot or trough. When you kill them, strip the skin off the head and neck, with the feathers on, and then pluck and draw them. Put them at a good distance from the fire in roasting, and they will be done enough in about twelve minutes, if the fire be good. When you take them up, slip the skin on again with the feathers on. Garnish the dish with crisp crumbs of bread round it, and send them up with gravy under them, such as is directed for the pheasant, and bread sauce in a boat. See Sauces.

Rabbits.

CASE your rabbits, skewer their heads with their mouths upon their backs, stick their fore legs into their ribs and ikewer the hind legs double. Use the stuffing before di

44 ROASTING.

reeled. Put it into their bellies, sew them up, and dredge and baste them well with butter. Take them up when they have roasted an hour; chop the livers, and lay them in lumps round the edge of your dish. Serve them up with parsley and butter for sauce. See Sauces.

Rabbits dressed Hare Fashion.

LARD your rabbit with bacon, and roast it in the manner of a hare. If you lard it, you must make gravy sauce; but if it be not larded, white sauce will be most proper. See Sauces.

Hares.

HAVING skewered your hare with the head upon one shoulder, the fore legs stuck into the ribs, and the hind legs double,proced to make your stuffing as before directed. While roasting, dredge with flower, and baste with milk, and so alternately, till a quarter of an hour before the hare is done: then baste it with a quarter of a pound of fresh butter put into the dripping pan. Serve up with a cullis sauce, and currant jelly. See Sauces.

Woodcocks and Snipes.

HAVING put your birds on a little spit, take a round of a threepenny loaf, and toast it brown; lay it in a dish under the birds; and when you lay them down to the fire, baste them with a little butter, and let the trail drop on the toast. When they be roasted enough, put the toast in the dish, and lay the birds on it. Pour about a quarter of a pint of gravy into the dish, and set it over a lamp or chafing-dish, for three or four minutes, when the whole will be in a proper condition to be sent to the table. Observe never to take any thing out of a woodcock or snipe.

Eels and Lampreys.

EELS and lampreys are roasted with puddings in their bellies in the same manner. Cut off their heads, gut them, and take off the blood from the bone as clean as possible. Make a forcemeat of shrimps or oysters, chopped small, half a penny loaf crumbled, a little lemon-peel shred fine, the yolks of two eggs, and a little salt, pepper, and nutmeg. Put this into the bellies of the fish, sew them up, and turn them round on the dish. Put flour and butter over them, pour a little water into the dish, and bake them in a-moderate oven. When vou take them out, take the gravy from under them, and skim off the fat, strain it through an hair sieve, and add to it

BAKING. 45

a tea-spoonful of lemon pickle, two of browning, a large spoonful of walnut ketchup, a glass of white wine, and anchovy, and a slice of lemon. Let it boil ten minutes, and thicken it with butter and flour. Lemon and crisp parsley may serve as a garnish.

Lobsters.

Pi T T a skewer into the vent of the tail of the lobster, to prevent the water from getting into the body of it, and put it into a pan of boiling water, with a little salt in it, and if it be a large one, it will take half an hour boiling. Then lay it before the fire, and baste it with butter till it has a fine froth. Dish it up with plain melted butter io a boat. This is a better way than actually roasting them, and is not attended with hajf the trouble.

Cod's Head.

HAVING washed the head very clean, and scored it with a knife, strew a little salt on it, and lay it in a large tin oven before the fire. Throw away all the water that comes from it for the first half hour; then sprinkle on a little nutmeg, cloves, mace beat fine,, and salt. Flour, and baste it with butter. When that has lain some time, turn and season it, and baste the other side the same. Turn it often, then baste it with butter and crumbs of bread. If it be a large head it will take four or five hours baking. Have ready some melted butter wi um anchovy, some of the liver of the fish boiled and bruised fine, and mix it well with the butter, and two yolks of eggs beat fine. Then strain them through a sieve, and put them into the saucepan, with a few shrimps or pickled cockles, two spoonfuls of red wine, and the juice of a lemon; serve up.

CHAPTER V. BAKING.

Leg of Beef.

(_/UT the meat off a leg of beef, and break the bones; put it into an earthen pan, with two onions and a bundle of sweet herbs, and season it with a spoonful of whole pepper, and a few cloves and blades of mace. Cover it with water, and having tied the pot down close with brown paper, put it into

BAKIN(;.

the oven to bake. As soon as it is enough, take it out and strain it through a sieve, and pick out all the fat and sinews, putting thenvmto a saucepan, with a little gravy, and a piece of butter rolled in flour. Set the saucepan on the fire, shake it often, and when it is thoroughly hot, pour it into the dish.. and send it to table. Ox cheek' may be done in the same manner; and if you should think it too strong, you may weaken it by pouring in a suflicient quantity of hot \va?n . but cold water will spoil it.

Rump of Beef .

TAKE a rump of beef and bone it, beat it well with a rolling pin, cut off the sinew, and lard it with a large piece of bacon. Season your lards with pepper, salt, and cloves: and lard across the meat, that it may cut handsomely. Season every part of the meat with pepper, salt, and cloves; put them in an earthen pot, with all the broken bones, half a pound of butter, some bay leaves, some whole pepper, one or two shalots, and some sweet herbs. Cover the top of the pan well; then put it in an oven; and let it stand eight hours. Serve' it up with some dried sippits, and its own liquor.

Calf's Head.

TAKE a calf's head, and pick and wash it very clean. Get an earthen dish large enough to hold the head, and rub the inside of the dish with butter. Lay some long iron skewers across the top of the dish, and lay the head on them. Skewer up the meat in the middle, that it may not touch the dish, and then grate some nutmeg on every part of it, a few sweet herbs, shred small, some crumbs of bread, and a little lemonpeel cut fine. Then flour it all over, and having stuck pieces of butter in the eyes, and on different parts of the head, flour it again. Let it be well baked, of a fine brown. You maythrow a little pepper and salt over it, and put into the dish a piece of beef cut small, a bundle of sweet herbs, an onion, a blade of mace, some whole pepper, two cloves, a pint of water, and boil the brains with some sage. When the head is enough, lay it on a dish, and put it before the fire to keep warm; then stir all together in the dish, and put it in a saucepan; then strain it off, and put it into the saucepan again. Put into it a piece of butter rolled in flour, the sage and the brains chopped fine, a spoonful of ketchup, and two spoonfpjs of red wine. Boil them together, take the brains, beat f*iem well, and mix them with the sauce. Pour all into the dish, and send it to table. The tongue must be baked in the head, and not cut out, as the head will then lie in the dish more handsomely.

BAKING. 1

Pigs.

WHEN necessity obliges you to bake a pig, lay it in a dish, tlour it well all over, and rub the pig over with butter. Butter the dish in which you intend to put it, and put it in the oven. Take it out as soon as it is enough; and having rubbed it over with a butter cloth, put it into the oven again till it be dry; then take it out, lay it in a dish, and cut it up. Take off* the fat from the dish it was baked in, and some good gravy will remain at the bottom. Add to this a litrie veal gravy, with a piece of butter rolled in flour, and boil it up; put it into the dish, with the brains and sage in the belly.

Salmon.

CUT a piece of salmon in slices of an inch thick, and make forcemeat as follows: take some of the flesh of the salmon, and the same quantity of the meat of an eel, with a few mushrooms. Season with pepper, salt, nutmeg, and cloves. Beat all together till very fine. Boil the crumb of a halfpenny roll in milk, beat it with four eggs till it be thick, then let it cool, and mix it. all together with four raw eggs. Take the skin from the salmon, and lay the slices in a dish. Cover every slice with forced meat, pour some melted butter over them, and add a few crumbs of bread. Lay a crust round the dish, and stick oysters round it. Put it into an oven, and, when it is of a fine brown, pour over it a little melted butter, with some red wine boiled in it, and the juice of a lemon.

Carp.

HAVING scaled, washed, and cleaned a brace of carp properly, get an earthen pan deep enough for them to lie in properly; and having buttered the pan a little, lay in the carp. Season them with a little black and white pepper, mace, cloves, nutmegs, a bundle of sweet herbs, an onion, and an anchovy; pour in a bottle of white wine, cover them close, and put them into a hot oven. If they are large, they will require an hour baking; but if small, less time will do them. When they are enough, take them up carefully, and lay them in a dish. Set it over hot water to keep hot, and cover close. Pour all the liquor in which they were baked into a saucepan; let it boil a minute or two, strain it, and add half a pound of butter rolled in flour. Keep stirring '*+ all the time it is boiling; squeeze in the juice of half a lemc.i, and put in a proper quantity of salt, observing to skim all the fat off" the liquor. Pour the sauce over the fish, lay the roes round them, and garnish with lemon.

48 BAKING.



Cod's Head.

MAKE the head very clean, and lay it in the pan, which you must first rub round with butter. Put in a bundle of sweet herbs, an onion stuck with cloves, three or four blades of mace, half a large spoonful of black and white pepper, part of a nutmeg bruised, a quart of water, a little piece of lemon-peel, and a little piece of horse-radish. Dust the head with flour, stick a piece of butter on various parts of it, and sprinkle raspings all over it, put it into the oven, and when enough, take it out of the dish, and lay it carefully in the dish in which you intend to serve it up. Set the dish over boiling water, and cover it up close, to prevent its getting cold. In the meantime, as expeditiously as you can, pour all the liquor out of the dish, in which it was baked, into a saucepan, and let it boil three or four minutes; then strain it, and put in a gill of red wine, two spoonfuls of ketchup, a pint of shrimps, half a pint of oysters, a spoonful of mushroom pickle, a quarter of a pound of butter rolled in flour, and stir all together till it be thick and boils: then strain it, and pour it into the dish, and have ready some toast, cut three corner ways, and fried crisp. Stick pieces of the toast about the head and mouth, and lay the remainder round the head.

Herrings.

HAVING scaled, washed, and dried your herrings properly,, lay them on a board, and take a little black pepper whole, allspice in fine powder, a few whole cloves, and plenty of salt; mix them together, and rub the fish all over with it. Lay them in a pot, cover them with half vinegar and half small beer, tie a strong paper over the pot, and bake them in a moderate oven. .They may be eaten either hot or cold, and they will keep good two or three months.

Sprats.

MAY be dressed in the same manner, only they should be slightly rubbed with saltpetre the preceding night; in order to make them red.

BROILING. 49

CHAPTER VI.

BROILING.

PRELIMINARY HINTS AND OBSERVATIONS.

JJEFORE you lay your meat on the gridiron, be careful that your fire be very clear: the kind or cinder termed coak makes the best fire for broiling. Let your gridiron be very clean, and when heated by the fire, rub the bars with clean mutton suet: this will both prevent the meat from being discoloured, and hinder it from sticking. Turn your meat quickly while broiling, and have a dish, placed on a chafingdish of hot coals, to put your meat in as fast as it is ready, and carry it hot and covered to table. Observe never to baste any thing on the gridiron, because that may be the means of burning it, and making it smoky.

Beef Steaks.

THE best beef steaks are those cut off a rump, and should not be more than half an inch in thickness. Lay on the steaks, and turn them often to keep in the gravy; or, having put them on the gridiron, keep them continually turning; whilst dressing, lay upon them a piece of fat; and when taken from the fire, put upon them a little grated horse-radish, together with a small portion of butter, mixed with white pepper and salt. Put into the dish a little hot gravy, in which let there be shred some eschalot, or young onions,

Mutton Chops.

TAKE a loin of mutton, and cut chops from it about half an inch thick, and cut off the skin, and part of the fat. Keep turning them often, and take care that the fat which fulls from them do not make the fire blaze and smoke your chops. Put them into a dish as soon as you think they are done, and rub them with butter. Slice an eschalot very thin into a spoonful of water, and pour it on them with a spoonful of mushroom ketchup, and a little salt. Or cut the best part of a neck of mutton into chops, having previously cut off the fat, and season them with white pepper and sak: keep frequently turning them. When sufficiently done, serve them up as hot as possible.

M BROILING,

Pork Chops.

THE same rules we have laid down for broiling mutton, will hold good with respect to pork chops, with this difference only, that pork requires more broiling than mutton. As soon as they are enough, put a little good gravy to them, and strew a little sage, rubbed fine, over them, which will givethem an agreeable flavour.

Chickens,

HAVING slitted your chickens down the back, season them with pepper and salt, and lay them on the gridiron, over a clear fire, and at a great distance. Let the inside continue next the fire, till it be nearly half done. Then turn them, taking care that the fleshy sides do not burn, and let them broil till they are of a fine brown. Have good gravy sauce, with some mushrooms, and garnish them with lemon, and the liver broiled, and the gizzards cut, slashed, and broiled with pepper and salt. See Sauces,

Pigeons.

WHEN you broil pigeons, take care that your fire be clear. Take some parsley shred fine, a piece of butter as big as a walnut, with a little pepper and salt, and put it into their bellies. Tie them at both ends, and put them on the gridiron. Or you may split and broil them, having first seasoned them with pepper and salt. Serve them up with a little parsley and butter.

Broiled Fish prepared thus:

WIPE the fish dry, flour them well, and have the gridiron clean; then rub the bars with a veal caul, and put the fish at a proper distance. Broil them gently over a clear fire till of a fine colour, and serve them up directly. Fish in general to be floured, except herrings, which are only to be scored with a knife.

Weavers.

GUT, and wash clean; dry in a clean cloth, and flour; then broil them. Serve with plain butter and anchovy sauce, See Sauces.

Cod.

CUT the cod into slices about two inches thick, and dry *nd flour them well. Make a good clear fire, rub the grid

BftOlLlNG. 51

iron with a piece of chalk, and set it high from the fire. Turn them often, till they be quite enough, and of a fine hrovvn. They require a great deal of care to prevent them from breaking. Lobster or shrimp sauce. See Sauces.

Crimped Cod.

PUT a gallon of pump water into a pot, and set it on the fire, with a handful of salt. Boil it up several times, and keep it clean scummed. When well cleared from the scum, take a middling cod, as fresh as possible, and throw it into a tub of fresh pump water. Let it lie a few minutes, and then cut it into slices two inches thick. Throw these into the boiling brine, and let it boil briskly a few minutes. Then take out the slices, take great care not to break them, and lay them on a sieve to drain. When they are well dried, flour them, and lay them at a distance upon a very good fire to broil. Lobster or shrimp sauces. See Sauces.

Trout.

CLEAN and wash, and dry them well in a cloth; tie theni round with packthread from top to bottom, to keep them entire and in shape. Then melt some butter, with a good deal of basket salt. Pour it all over the trout till it is perfectly covered; then put it on a clear fire, at a great distance, that it may do gradually. When done, lay it in a warm dish, and serve with anchovy sauce.

Cod Sounds.

LAY them a few minutes in hot water, then take them out, and rub them well with salt, and take off the skin and black dirt. Put them into water, and boil till tender. Take them out, flour them well, pepper and salt them, and then put them on the gridiron. Whilst broiling, season a little good brown gravy with pepper, salt, a tea spoonful of soy, and a little mustard: give it a boil with a bit of flour and butter, and pour it over the sounds.

Lobsters.

WHEN the lobsters are broiled, split their tails and chines, crack their claws, and pepper and salt them. Take out their bodies, and what is called the lady. Then put them again into the shel!s, and then upon the gridiron over a clear fire, as also the tails and the claws. Baste them with butter, and send them to table, with melted butter and anchovy sauce.

Mackerel. HAVING cleaned your mackerel, wipe dry, split them down the

$2 BROILING.

back, and season them with pepper and salt. Flour them, and broil them of a fine light brown. See Sauces.

If you choose to broil your mackerel whole, wash them clean, cut off their heads, and pull out their roes at the neck end. Boil their roes in a little water; then bruise them with a spoon, beat up the yolk of an egg, a little nutmeg, a little lemon peel cut fine, some thyme, some parsley, boiled and chopped fine, a little salt and pepper, and a few crumbs of bread. Mix these well together, and fill the fish with them. Flour them well, and broil^ them nicely. Butter, ketchup, and walnut pickle, will make a proper sauce.

Salmon.

TAKE pieces or slices of salmon, wipe dry, dip in sweet oil (or for want of oil, in fres'i butter that has been oiled), and season with pepper and salt; fold them in pieces of writing paper, broil over a clear fire, and serve them up hot.

Eels.

. HAVING skinnedj gutted, and washed your eels, dry them with a cloth, and rub them with the yolk of an egg. Strew grated bread over them and chopped parsley, and season them with pepper and salt. Baste them well with butter, and broil them on a gridiron. Serve with parsley and butter, and anchovy sauce.

Eels pitch-cocked.

HAVING skinned and cleansed your eels as before, sprinkle them with pepper, salt, and a little dried sage. Turn them backward and forward, and skewer them. Rub your gridiron with beef suet, and broil them till they are of a fine brown. Put them on your dish, serve them up with melted butter, and lay fried parsley round the dish.

Haddocks and Whitings.

HAVING gutted and washed your fish, dry them with a cloth, and rub a little vinegar over them, which will contribute to preserve the skin whole. Dredge them well with flour, and rub your gridiron with beef suet. Let your gridiron he very hot when you lay your fish on, otherwise they will stick to it. Turn them two or three times while they are broiling, and when enough, serve up with melted butter and anchovy sauce.

Another method is, when you have cleansed and dried your fish as before directed, put them in a tin oven, and set them before a quick fire. Take them from the fire as soon as the skin begins to rise, and having beaten up an egg, rub it over

BROILING. 53

them with a feather. Sprinkle a few crumbs of bread over them, dredge them well with flour, and rub your gridiron when hot with suet or butter; but it must be very hot before you lay your fish on it. When you have turned them, rub a little butter over them, and keep turning them as the fire may require, till they be enough, which may be known by their browning. Serve them up with either shrimp sauce, or melted butter and anchovy sauce.

Mullets. ARE to be dressed as directed for salmon.

Herrings.

SCALE, gut, and wash clean, dry in a cloth; score, and broil them. Plain butter and mustard for sauce.

Potatoes.

HAVING first boiled them, peel them, cut them into two, and broil them till they are brown on both sides. Then lay them in the plate or dish, and pour melted butter over them.

Mushrooms.

CLEAN fresh mushrooms with a knife, wash and drain them: make a case with a sheet of white paper; rub the inside well with fresh butter, and fill it with the mushrooms; season them with white pepper arid salt; put the case containing them upon a baking plate of cast iron (in the country called a backstone) over a slow fire; cover them with the cover of a stewpot, upon which place some fire, and when nearly dry, serve them up, with some rich cullis. See Sauces.

Eggs.

HAVING cut a toast round a quartern loaf, brown it, lay it on your dish, butter it, and very carefully break six or eight eggs on the toast. Take a red hot shovel, and hotd it over them. When done, squeeze & Seville orange over them, grate a little nutmeg over it, and serve it up for a side-plate. Or you may poach your eggs, and lay them on a toast; or toast your bread crisp, and pour a little boiling water over it. Season it with a little salt, and then lay your poached eggs on it.

54 FRYING.

CHAPTER VII. FRYING.

PRELIMINARY HINTS AND OBSERVATIONS.

JJE careful always to keep your frying-pan clean, and see that it is properly tinned. When you fry any sort of fish, first dry them in 'a cloth, and then flour them. Put into your frying-pan plenty of dripping or hog's lard, and let it be boiling hot before you put in your fish. Butter is not so good for the purpose, as it is apt to burn and blacken the fish, and make them soft. When you have fried your fish, lay them in a dish or hair sieve to drain, before you send them up to table.

Venison.

BONE your venison, if it be either the neck or breast; but if it be the shoulder, the meat must be cut off the bone in slices. Make some gravy with the bones; then take the meat and fry it of a light brown; take it up and keep it hot before the fire. Put some flour to the butter in the pan, and keep stirring it till it be quite thick and brown. Take care it does r^ot burn. Stir in half a pound of fine sugar beat to powder, pfit in the gravy that came from the bones, and some red wine. Make it the thickness of a fine cream; squeeze in the juice of a lemon, warm the venison in it, put it in the dish, and pour the sauce over it.

Ox Feet.

LET them boil till they are tender; then skin and split them, and take out the bones, and fry them in butter. When they have fried a little, put in some mint and parsley shred small, a little salt, and some beaten butter; beat the yolks of eggs, some mutton gravy and vinegar, the juice of a lemon or orange, sind nutmeg. Lay it in the dish, and pour the sauce over it. Some put a little shred onion in it.

Beef Steaks.

HAVING cut your steaks in the same manner as for broiling, put them into a stewpan, with a good piece of butter, set them over a very slow fire, and keep turning them till the butter becomes of the consistence of white gravy. Pour it into a bason, and add more butter to them. When they are Dearly fried, pour all the gravy into a bason, and put more

FRYING. 5

butter in your pan. Fry your steaks over a brisk fire till they are of a light brown, and then take them out of the pan. Put them into a pewter dish made hot, slice a eschalot among them, andput in some of the gravy that was drawn from- them, and pour it hot upon them.

Another method is, take rump-steaks, pepper and salt them, and fry them in a little butter very quick, and brown: then put them into a dish, and pour the fat out of the fryingpan. Take half a pint of hot gravy, half a pint of hot water, and pu: into the pan. Add to it a little butter rolled in flour, a little pepper and salt, and two or three eschalots chopped fine. Boil them up in your pan for two minutes, and pour it over the steaks You may garnish with a little scraped horseradish. Or fry the steaks in butter a good brown, then put in half a pint of water, one onion sliced, a spoonful of walnut ketchup, a little chopped eschalot, and some white pepper and salt. When enough, thicken the gravy with flour and butter, and serve up very hot.

Loin or Neck of Lamb.

HAVING cut your lamb into chops, rub both sides of them with the yolk of an egg, and sprinkle some grated bread ovei them, mixed with a little parsley, thyme, marjoram, winter savory, and a little lemon-peel, all chopped very fine. Fry in butter till of a nice light brown, and garnish with fried parsley.

Veal Cutlets.

CUT your veal into pieces about the thickness of half a crown, and as long as you please. Dip them in the yolk of an egg, and strew over them grated bread, a few sweet herbs, some lemon-peel, and a little grated nutmeg, and fry them in fresh butter. While they are frying, make a little gravy, and when the meat is done, take it out, and lay it in a dish before the fire; then shake a little flour into the pan, and stir it round. Put in a little gravy and pickled mushrooms^ squeeze in a little lemon, and pour it over the veal.

Cold Veal

CUT your veal into pieces of the thickness of half a crown, and as long as you please. Dip them in the yolk of an egg, and then in grated bread, with a few sweet herbs, and shred lemon-peel in it. Grate a little nutmeg over them, and fry them in fresh butter. The butter must be hot, just enough to fry them in. In the meantime, make a little gravy of the bone of the veal, and when the meat is fried, take it omt with a fork, and lay it in a dish before the fire. Then shake

5(5 FRYING.

a little flour into the pan, and stir it round. Then put in a little gravy, squeeze in a little lemon, and pour it over the veal 4

Sweetbreads.

CUT them into long slices, beat up the yolk of an egg, and rub it over them with a feather. Make a seasoning of pepper, salt, and grated bread; dip them into it, and fry in butter; or you mny fry them in the following batter. For sauce, ketchup and butter, with gravy or lemon sauce. Garnish with small slices of toasted bacon and crisped parsley. See Sauces.

Batter for frying different Articles; such as Celery, OxPeths, Sweetbreads, Artichoke Bottoms, Tripe, Eggs, Me.

TAKE four ounces of best flour sifted, a little salt and pepper, three eggs, and a gill of beer; beat them together with a wooden sypoon for ten minutes. Let it be of a good thickness to adhere to the different articles.

Tripe.

CUT your tripe into pieces four inches long, and about three inches wide; put it into batter, and fry in boiling lard. Fry till brown; then take it out, and put it to drain, and serve it up with plain butter in a boat: or you may add fried onions, and serve up with butter and mustard.

Sausages.

TAKE six apples, and slice four of them as thick as a crown piece; cut the other two in quarters, and fry them with the sausages till they are brown. Lay the sausages in the middle of the dish, and the apples round them. Garnish with the quartered apples. Sausages fried, and stewed cabbage, make a good dish. Heat cold pease-pudding in a pan, lay it in the dish, and the sausages round; heap the pudding in 'the middle, and lay the sausages all round up edgeways, except one in the middle at length.

Eggs.

PUT clarified butter in a frying-pan, break fresh eggs, one at a time; put a little white pepper and salt, and turn them half over. They should be fried of a nice brown, but not

11

hard.

Potatoes. CUT your potatoes into thin slices, as large as a crown piece,

FRYING. 51

and fry them brown. Lay them in a dish or plate, and pour melted butter over them.

Artichokes.

HAVING blanched them in water, flour them and fry them in fresh butter. Lay them in your dish, and pour melted butter over them.

Celery.

CUT celery heads throe inches long, boil them till half done, wipe dry, and dip in batter: have read^ boiling lard, take out the heads singly with a fork, fry them of a light colour, drain dry, and serve with fried parsley.

Parsley.

TAKE fresh gathered parsley, pick, wash, and drain it very dry with a cloth: have ready clean boiling lard, put the parsley into it, keep stirring with a skimmer, and. when a little crisp, take it out, put it on a drainer, and strew salt upon it.

Turbots.

THE turbot must be small; cut it across as if it were ribbed; when it is quite dry, flour it, and put it in a large frying-pan, with boiling lard enough to cover it. Fry it till it is brown, and then drain it. Clean the pan, put into it half a pint of white wine, and white gravy enough to cover it, anchovy, salt, nutmeg, and a little ginger. Put in the fish, and let it stew till half the liquor is wasted. Then take it out, and put in a piece of butter rolled in flour, and a squeeze of lemon. Let them simmer till of a proper thickness; rub a hot dish with a piece of eschalot, lay the turbot in the dish, and pour the hot sauce over it.

Soles.

HAVING skinned your soles in the same manner you do eels, except taking off their heads, which must not be done, rub them over with an egg, and strew over them grated bread. Fry them over a brisk fire in hog's lard till they are brown. Serve them up with melted butter, and anchovy sauce.

Smelts.

DRAW the guts out at the gills, but leave in the milt or roe; dry them with a cloth, beat an egg, rub it over them with a feather, and strew grated bread over them. Fry them with ho^'s lard, and put in your fish when boiling hot. Shake them a little, and fry them till they are of a fine brown.

A8 TRYING.

Drain them on a dish, or in a sieve. Fry a handful of parsley in the manner already directed.

Oysters,

WHEN you intend to fry your oysters, you must always choose those of the larger kind. Open twenty-four large oysters, blanch them with their own liquor; and when three parts done, strain them, and preserve the liquor; then wash, and let them drain: in the meanwhile, make a batter with four table-spoonfuls of Hour, two eggs a little pepper and salt, and their liquor. Beat it well with a wooden spoon for five minutes. Put the oysters into the batter, mix them lightly, and have ready boiling lard. Take the oysters out singly with a fork, put them into the lard, and fry them of a nice brown colour. Then put them on a drainer, strew over a small quantity of salt, and serve them up. If intended for a dish, put fried parsley under them, or stewed spinach.

Carp.

SCALE and gut your carp, then wash them clean, lay them in a cloth to dry, flour them, and fry them of a fine light brown. Take some crusts, cut tnree-corner ways, and fry them and the roes.. When your fish are done, lay them on a coarse cloth to drain, and prepare anchovy sauce, with the juice of lemon. Lay your carp on the dish, the roes on each side, and garnish with lemon and the fried toast.

Tench.

CLEAN your fish, slit them along the backs, and with the point of your knife raise the flesh from the bone. Cut the skin across at the head and tail, strip it off, and take out the bone. Take another tench, and mince the flesh small, with mushrooms, cives, and parsley. Season them with salt, pepper, beaten mace, nutmeg, and a few savory herbs, minced small. Mix these well together, pound them in a mortar with crumbs of bread (in quantity about the size of two eggs) soaked in cream, the yolks of three or four eggs, and a piece of butter. When these have been well pounded, stuff your fish with it. Put clarified butter into a pan, set it over the fire, and when hot, flour your fish, and put them into the pan one by one. Having fried them till brown, take them up and lay in a coarse cloth before the fire to keep hot. Then pour all the fat out of the pan, put in a quarter of a pound of butter, and shake some flour into the pan. Keep it stirring with a spoon till the butter is a little brown, and then pour in half a pint of white wine. Stir them together,

FRYING. 59

and pour in half a pint of boiling water, an onion stuck. with cloves, a bundle of sweet herbs, and two blades of mace. Cover these close, and let them stew as softly as you can for a quarter of an hour; then strain off the liquor, and put it into the pan again, adding two spoonfuls of ketchup, an ounce of truffles or morels, boiled tender in half a pint of water, a few mushrooms, and half a pint of oysters, clean washed in their own liquor. When you find your sauce is properly heated, and very good, put your tench into the pan, and make them quite hot; then take them out, lay them into the dish, and pour your sauce over them. Carp may be dressed in the same manner, as may tench in the manner above described for carp.

Eels.

MAKE your eels very clean, cut them into pieces, and having seasoned them with pepper and salt, flour them and fry them. Let your sauce be plain melted butter and anchovy sauce; but be careful to drain them properly before you lay them in the dish.

Lampreys.

BLEED them, and save the blood; wash them in hot water to take off the slime, and cut them in pieces. When nearly fried enough, pour out the fat, put in a little white wine, and give the pan a shake round. Season with pepper, sweet herbs, a few capers, a good piece of butter rolled in flour, and the blood. Shake the pan often, and cover close. Take them out as soon as enough, strain the sauce, and give it a quick boil. Then squeeze in a lemon, and pour it over the fish.

Mullets.

SCALE and gut them; melt some butter, and pour it into a deep dish. Score the mullets across the back, and dip them into the butter. Then set on in a stewpan some butter, and let it clarify. Fry the mullets in it, and when they are enough, lay them on a warm dish. For sauce, anchovy and butter.

Herrings.

HAVING scaled, washed, and dried your herrings properly, lay them separately on a board, and place them at the fire two or three minutes before they are wanted, which will prevent their sticking to the pan. Dredge your fish with flour; and when your butter boils in the pan, put in your fish, a few at a time, and fry them over a brisk fire. As soon as sufficiently fried,

60 STEWS AND HASHES.

set their tails up one against another in the middle of the dish, and fry a large handful of parsley crisp; take it out before it loses its colour, lay it round them, and serve them up with parsley sauce in a boa.t. Some fry onions, lay them round the dish, and make onion sauce; and others cut off the heads of the herrings after they are fried, chop them, and put them into a saucepan, with ale, pepper, 'salt, and an anchovy; they then thicken it with flour and butter, strain it, and put it into a sauce-boat.

CE1APTER VIII.

STEWS AND HASHES

*.j Tiivmp of Beef.

IN order to stew rump of beef property, you- must first half roast it, and then put it into a large saucepan, with two quarts of water, one pint of small beer, one pint of red wine, two or three blades of mace, an eschalot, two spoonfuls of walnut ketchup, one of lemon pickle, two of browning, and a little cayenne pepper and salt. Let these stew over a gentle fu-^fror two hours, closely covered; then take out your beef, and lay it on a deep dish, skim off the fat, and strain the gravy. Put into it an ounce of morels, half a pint of musliroor^s, and thicken your gravy, and pour it over your beef. Lay 'forcemeat balls round it. Or wash the beef well, season high with pepper, cayenne, allspice, three cloves, and a blade of mace, all in fine powder. Bind up tight, and lay in a pot that will just hold it. Fry three large onions sliced, put them to it, with three carrots, two turnips, an eschalot, four cloves, a blade of mace, a bundle of sweet herbs, and some celery. Cover the meat with beef broth: simmer as gently as possible till tender. Clear off the fat, .and add to the gravy half a pint of port wine, a glass of vinegar, two spoonfuls of ketchup; simmer for half an hour, and serve in a deep dish.

Brisket of Beef a La Francois,

BONE a brisket of beef, and season with sweet herbs, eschalots, beaten spides, pepper, and salt: bind it round with a packthread, and add beef gravy one quart, port wine one pint, walnut ketchup four spoonfuls; braise (stew gently) till tender; wipe the top dry, glaize, and serve it up with the

STEWS AND HASHES. 61

gravy round. Either onion, savoy, haricof, or ashee sauces may be used. For making glaize, &c. See Sauces.

Brisket of Beef a L'Anglois.

STEW in two gallons of water, for two or three hours over night, about ten pounds of brisket of beef. When sufficiently tender, take out the bones. Then boil in some of the liquor a few carrots, turnips, onions, celery, and white cabbage, till they become quite tender. Add these and some salt and a liftle pepper to the beef, and remainder of the broth, and stew all together till sufficiently done.

Beef Gobbets.

CUT any piece of beef, except the leg, into pieces about the size or a pullet's egg, and put them into a stewpan. Cover with water, stew, skim clean, and when they have stewed an hour, take mace, cloves, and whole pepper, tigd loosely in a muslin rag, and some celery cut small. Put them into the pan with some salt, turnips and carrots pared, and cut in slices, a little parsley, a bundle of sweet herbs, and a large crust of bread. You may put in an ounce of barley or rice, if you like it. Cover it close, and let it stew till tender. Take out the herbs, spices, and bread, and have ready a French roll cut in four. Dish up all together, and send it to table.

Beef stewed savourily.

CUT out the inside of a sirloin of beef, and take from it all the fat; prepare a sufficient quantity of rich forcemeat (see Sauces J, and put it within the beef, which must be tightly rolled and bound with a tape. Fry to a light brown, and after suffering the fat to drain from it, put it into a stewpan with a quart of good gravy, a little ketchup, anchovy liquor, and a few oysters, if in season.

Beef Steaks.

HAVING procured rump steaks, cut thick for this purpose, pepper and salt them, and lay them in a stewpan, with some butter and a little water; when brown, add half a pint of water, a blade or two of mace, two or three cloves, an anchovy, a small bundle of sweet herbs, a piece of butter rolled in flour, a glass of white wine, and an onion. Cover close, and let them stew softly till tender; then take out the steaks, and pour off all the fat. Then strain the sauce they were stewed in, and pour it into the pan, add a glassful of port wine, and toss it all up together, till the sauce be quite hot

C2 STEWS AND HASHES.

and thick; and if you choose to enrich it, von may add a quarter of a pint of oysteis. Lay }'our steaks into the dish, and pour the sauce over them. Or take three or four beef steaks cut thick, and season with white pepper, salt, and eschalot shred tine. Lay them in a stewpan, with some slices of bacon under and over them, together with a piece of butter. Stew over a slow fire for a quarter of an hour, after which put to them a pint of brown gravy, a few pickled mushrooms, a cucumber, a few morels, and two spoonfuls of port wine. Stew till the steaks are sufficiently tender; then take out the bacon, skim off the fat, and thicken the gravy with flour rolled in butter.

Beef Steaks stewed with Cucumber.

PARE four large cucumbers, and cut them into slices about an inch long, and put them into a stewpan, with four onions sliced, and a piece of butter. Fry till brown, and add a pint of gravy; dust in a little flour. When the cucumbers are sufficiently tender, skim off the fat. Take four rump steaks, having previously beaten and seasoned them with white pepper and salt. Fry these quickly in butter; and, when done, put them into a dish, pouring the cucumbers, onions, and gravy over them.

Ox Tongue.

STEW it in just water enough to cover it, and let it simmer two hours. Peel and put it into 'the liquor again, with some pepper, salt, mace, two cloves, and whole pepper, tied in u bit of fine cloth; a few capers, chopped turnips, and carrots sliced; half a pint of beef gravy, a quarter of a pint of white wine, and a bunch of sweet herbs. Let it stew very gently until tender; then takeout the spice and sweet herbs, and thicken with a piece of butter rolled in flour.

Hashed Beef or Mutton Savoury.

TAKE some onions and cut into slices, put a piece of butter into a saucepan, and then put in the onions, with two spoonfuls of good gravy; let them stew for ten minutes, taking care to keep them of a good yellow colour. Take off all the fat; cut the beef or mutton into thin slices, and put it into the sauce with a spoonful of walnut ketchup, four spoonfuls of port wine, salt, white pepper, and add a little gravy a short time before serving up.

Hashed Beef or Mutton Plain.

TAKE the bones of the meat, break small, and stew in a little water with onions and sweet herbs; strain. Take a

STEWS AND HASHES. 63

lump of butter rolled in flour, fry it till of a nice brown; add the gravy and the meat, previously seasoned with pepper, onion, and shred parsley, to the fried butter in the frying pan, and when warm serve up.

Lamb's Head.

IN order to stew a lamb's head, wash and pick it very clean. Lay it in water for an hour, take out the brains, and with a sharp knife carefully extract the bones and the tongue; but be careful to avoid breaking the meat. Then take out the eyes. Take two pounds of veal and two pounds of beef suet, a very little thyme, a good piece of lemon peel minced, part of a nutmeg grated, and two anchovies. Having chopped all these well together, grate two stale rolls, and mix all with the yolks of four eggs. Save enough of this meat to make about twenty balls. Take half a pint of fresh mushrooms, clean peeled and washed, the yolks of six eggs chopped, half a pint of oysters clean washed, or pickled cockles. Mix all together; but first stew your oysters, and put to them two quarts of gravy, with a blade or two of mace. Tie the head with packthread, cover it close, and let it stew two hours. While this is doing, beat up the brains with some lemon-peel cut fine, a little chopped parsley, a little grated nutmeg, and the yolk of an egg. Fry the brains in little cakes, in boiling dripping, and fry the balls, and keep them both hot. Take half an ounce of truffles and morels, and strain the gravy the head was stewed in. Put td it the truffles and morels, and a few mushrooms, and boil all together; then put in the rest of the brains that are not fried, and stew them together for a minute or two. Pour this over the head, lay the fried brains and balls round it, and garnish with lemon.

Lamb's Head and Appurtenances. See Made Dishes.

Knuckle of Veal.

BEFORE you begin your stew, take care that the pot or saucepan is very clean, and lay at the bottom of it four clean wooden skewers. Wash and clean the knuckle carefully, and lay it in the pot, with two or three blades of mace, a little whole pepper, a little piece of thyme, a small onion, a crust of bread, and two quarts of water. Having covered it down close, make it boil, and let it only simmer for two hours. When enough, take it up, lay it in a dish, and strain the broth on it.

Calf's Head.

TAKE a head without the scalp, chopped in half; wash and blanch it, peel the tongue cut in slices, and likewise the meat

64 STEWS AND HASHES.

frofri the head: add blanched morels and truffles, egg and forcemeat balls, stewed mushrooms, artichoke-bottoms, and well seasoned gravy. Let the meat stew gently till nearly done, and then add slices of throat sweetbreads. When serving up, put round the hash the brains and fried rashers of bacon. If desired, half the head .may be put on the top, and prepared thus: when the head is bl.incheO, one half is to be rubbed over with the yolk of a raw egg; then season with pepper and salt, strew with fine grated bread, bake till very tender; and brown with a salamander. The brains to be mixed with yolk of egg, and rolled in grated bread, and fried in boiling lard. Or take a calf's head with the skin on; scald off the hair, and when well washed, split the head and take out the brains: boil the head till tender, then from one half of it take off the flesh, and cut it into small pieces; dredge with a little flour, and let it stew for a quarter of an hour in a rich white gravy made of veal and mutton, a piece of bacon, and seasoned with white pepper and salt, onion, and a very little mace. Take off the meat from the other half of the hvjad in one whole piece, and roll it like a collar, having previously stuffed it with a rich forcemeat (see Sauces), and bind with a tape. Stew till tender in good gravy: when done enough, put it in a dish, with the hash made of the other part of the head round it, and garnish with forcemeat balls, fried oysters, and the brains made into cakes with grated bread and yolk of egg, and fried in butter; add wine, truffles, morels, mushrooms, or any other kind of seasoning to the taste.

Hashed Veal.

CUT your veal into thin round slices, of the size of a halfcrown, and put them into a saucepan, with a' little gravy. Put to it some lemon-peel cut exceedingly fine, and a teaspoonful of lemon-pickle. Put it on the fire, and thicken it with butter and flour. Put in your veal as soon as it boils, and just before you dish it np put in a spoonful of cream, and lay sippets round the dish.

Minced Veal.

HAVING cut your veal into slices, and then into square pieces (but do not chop it), put it into a saucepan, with two or three spoonfuls of gravy, a little pepper and salt, a slice of lemon, a good piece of butter rolled in flour, a tea spoonful of lemon-pickle, and a large spoonful of cream. Keep shaking over the fire till it boil; but it must not boil above a minute, as otherwise it will make the veal hard. Serve it up with sippets round the dish.

STEWS AND HASHES. 65

Minced Beef.

SHRED the beef least roasted very fine, with some of the fat; put it into a stewpan, with a small quantity of onion or eschalot, and a large spoonful of vinegar, or instead of onion two large spoonfuls of eschalot rinegar, a little water or broth, some of the gravy of the meat, and pepper and salt: let the whole simmer gently, but do not let it boil, as that will harden the meat. Serve in a dish, with sippets.

Hashed Beef and broiled Bones.

CUT the fillet from the inside of a sirloin that has been roasted the preceding day; or for want of it, the other part, into small collops; cut the bones into neat pieces, leave plenty of meat on, score, pepper, and salt the bones; put them into a tart-pan, and pour a little oiled butter over them; a short time before they are wanted, put them in the oven to warm through, and then on the gridiron to brown: put the trimmings of the meat and the rough bones into a stewpan, and two large onions sliced, a little vinegar, and a pint of stock (see Saucesj: set it on a stove to stew slowly for an hour; then strain and skim off the fat; put an ounce of butter into the stewpan, and set it on the fire to melt, then add a table spoonful of flour; stir over the fire for a minute or two; then put in the liquor the beef bones, &c. were stewed in; stir till it boil, then add a little ketchup, strain through a tamis, and put the collops to it; set it by the side of a stove to keep hot, for it should not boil, as that would harden the meat; season with pepper and salt; serve up with the broiled bones round the side.

Hashed Lamb and broiled Blade-bone.

CUT the blade-bone from the shoulder oJF lamb, leaving a little meat upon it; score, pepper, and salt it; put it on a tart-dish; pour over it a little oiled butter, and put it into the oven to warm througk: cut the other part of the meat into neat collops; put a little coulis (see Saucesj into a stewpan; make it hot, and add a little mushroom ketchup, and half a spoonful of eschalot vinegar: put in the collops, set them by the side of a stove to get not, but do not let them boil; take the blade-bone out of the oven; put it on a gridiron to brown, and put the hash on the dish, and the blade-bone on the middle of the dish.

Lamb's Head minced.

CHOP the head in halves, and blanch it with the liver, heart., and lights: clean the brains in warm water, dip them in yolk

F

66. STEWS AND HASHES.

of egg, grated bread, and chopped parsley, seasoned with white pepper and salt; and whilst the head is blanching, fry them in boiling lard, and drain. Chop the heart, &c. and add a little parsley and lemon-peel, chopped very fine, seasoned with white pepper and salt; stew in some cullis till tender. Wash the head over with yolk of egg, strew over grated bread, seasoned with white pepper and salt, and bake gently till very tender. Serve up, having browned the head with a salamander, put the mince under it, and the brains round it, with rashers of broiled bacon.

Ox Palates for Made Dishes.

STEW them till tender, which must be done by putting them into cold water, and letting them stew softly over a gentle fire, till they are as tender as you wish. Then take off the two skins, cut them in pieces, and put them into either your made dish or soup, with cocks-combs and artichoke bottoms cut small.

Neats Tongues whole.

PUT two tongues in water just sufficient to cover them, and let them stew two hours. Then peel them, and put them in again with a pint of strong gravy, half a pint of white wine, a bundle of sweet herbs, a little pepper and salt, some mace, cloves, and whole pepper, tied in a muslin rag; -a spoonful of capers chopped, turnips and carrots sliced, and a piece of butter rolled in flour. Let all stew together very softly over a slow fire for two hours, and then take out the spice and sweet herbs, and send the dish to table.

Venison hashed.

TAKE the part least done of ready dressed venison, cut it in slices, and put them into a stewpan; then pass a bit of fresh butter and flour, and chopped eschalots, over a slow fire for ten minutes, and add to them half a pint of port wine, two spoonsful of browning, a pint and -an half of veal stock, its own gravy, a little grated lemon-peel, cayenne pepper, salt, and lemon-juice. Season to the taste; boil all together for a quarter of an hour,-- and strain through a tamis on the venison: let it simmer till perfectly hot. Or cut the venison into neat thin slices, as near the shape of a cutlet as the meat will admit; lay the venison in a stewpan round the sides, like cutlets on a dish; put the gravy belonging to the venison in the stewpan, together with a quarter of a pint of stock (see Sauces); sprinkle with pepper and salt, adding a little cayenne: cut a sheet of paper to the size of the stewpan, and put it

STEWS AND HASHES. C7

over the meat to keep the steam in while it is warming by the side of the stove; put the trimmings and lean pieces into another stewpan, with two large onions sliced, three clores, a faggot of sweet herbs, a pint of stock, a table spoonful of browning, and a glass of port wine: let the stewpan simmer for two hours; then strain through a tamis, and skirn.off the fat; put an ounce of butter into the stewpan, and set it on the fire to melt; when melted, put as much flour as will dry up the butter; stir over the fire for a few minutes, then strain through a tamis into the stewpan containing the venison, and Jet it simmer till hot.

Mutton Venison.

SKIN and bone a loin of fine old wether mutton; after removing the suet, put it into a cold stewpan for one night, with the bones round it, and pour over it a pint of port wine and a quart of water: the following day, put it over the fire, together with the bones, laying the fat side downwards, and adding one eschalot, one blade of mace, a little parsley, marjoram, six pepper-corns, and a little lemon-peel: after stewing an hour, turn the fat side uppermost, and when enough, take up the meat, hold a salamander over it, skim off the fat, and strain the gravy.

Turkies or Fowls.

WHEN you stew a turkey or a fowl, put four clean skewers at the bottom, and lay your turkey or fowl thereon. Put in a quart of gravy, a bunch of celery cut small and washed very clean, and two or three blades of mace. Let it stew gently till there remain only ftnough for iauce, and then add a large piece of butter rolled in flour, two spoonsful of red wine, the same quantity of ketchup, and a sufficient quantity of pepper and salt to season it. Lay your turkey or fowl in the dish, pour the sauce over it, and send it to table.

Turkey stewed brown.

BONE your turkey, and fill it with forcemeat, made in the following manner: Take the flesh of a fowl, half a pound of veal, the flesh of two pigeons, and a pickled or dried tongue peeled. Chop these all together, and beat them in a mortar, with the marrow of a beef bone, or a pound of the fat from a loin of veal. Season it with a little pepper and salt, two or three blades of mace, as many cloves, and half a nutmeg dried at a great distance from the fire, and pounded. Mix all these well together, and fill your turkey with it. Then put it into a little pot, that will just hold it, having first laid four

68 STEWS AND HASHES.

or five skewers at the bottom of the pot, to prevent the turkey sticking to it. Put in a quart of good beef and veal gravy, in which sweet herbs and spice have been boiled, and cover it close. When it has stewed half an hour, put in a glass of white wine, a spoonful of ketchup, a large spoonful of pickled mushrooms, and a few fresh ones, if in season; a few truffles and morels, and a small piece of butter rolled in flour. Cover close, and let it stew half an hour longer. Get little French rolls ready fried, and get some oysters and strain the liquor from them. Then put the oysters and liquor into a saucepan, with a blade of mace, a little white wine, and a piece of butter rolled in flour. Let them stew thick, and then fill the loaves. Lay the turkey in the dish, and pour the sauce over it. If there is any fat on the gravy, take it off, and lay the loaves on each side of the turkey, but if you have no loaves, garnish with lemon, and make use of oysters dipped in batter and fried.

Stewed Chickens.

TAKE two fine chickens, and half boil them. Then take them up in a pewter dish, and cut them up, separating every joint one from the other, and taking out the breast bones. If the fowls do not produce liquor sufficient, add a few spoonsful of the water in which they were boiled, and put in a blade of mace, and a liitle salt. Cover it close with another dish, and set it over a stove or chafing dish of coall?. Let it stew till the chickens are enough, and then send them hot to the table.

Fowl stewed in Pice.

TAKE a fowl and half boil it in a moderate quantity of water: boil a quarter of a pound of rice, which, together with the fowl and a pint of veal gravy, must be put into a stewpan: add a blade of mace, and season with white pepper and salt.

Geese Giblets.

CUT the neck in four pieces, and the pinions in two, and clean well, and slice the gizzard. Let them stew in two quarts of water or mutton broth, with a bundle of sweet herbs, a few pepper corns, three or four cloves, an anchovy, an onion, and a spoonful of ketchup. When the giblets feel tender, put in a spoonful of cream, thicken it with flour and butter, lay sippets round it, and serve up in a soup dish.

Giblets stewed plain.

CUT two pay: of giblets into pieces of two inches long; then blanch them, trim the bones from the ends, and wash

STEWS AND HASHES. 69

the giblets: drain them dry, put them in a stewpan with half a pint of stock (see Sauces), cover close, and simmer over the fire till nearly done; then add good seasoned cullis (see Sauces), and stew till tender.

Giblets stewed with Pease.

PIIOCEED as above, but instead of cullis, take a pint of shelled young green pease, and mash them in a stewpan with a little fresh butter and salt, till three parts done: then add some cullis, and the giblets, and stew them till tender,

Pheasants,

STEW your pheasant in veal gravy, and let it stew till there is just enough liquor left for sauce. Then skim it, and put in artichoke bottoms parboiled, a little beaten mace, and white pepper and salt enough to season it, with a glass of white wine. Thicken it with a piece of butter rolled in flour, if not already thick enough. Squeeze in a little lemon; then pour the sauce over the pheasant, and put some forcemeat balls into the dish. A good fowl, trussed with the head on, like a pheasant, will eat equally as well.

Woodcocks and Partridges.

YOUR woodcock must be cut up as for eating, and the entrails worked very fine with the back of a spoon. Mix with them a spobnful of red wine, the same quantity of water, and half a spoonful of eschalot vinegar; roll a piece of butter in flour, and put all into your tossing-pan. Shake it over the fire till it boil, then put in your bird, and when thoroughly hot, lay it in your dish with sippets round, and strain the sauce over it. A partridge is dressed in the same manner.

Duck stewed.

You may lard it or not, as you like. Half roast it, and then put it into a stewpan, with a pint or more of good gravy, a quarter of a pint of red wine, onion chopped small, a spoonful of eschalot vinegar, a piece of lemon-peel, cayenne and salt Stew it gently, close cover it till tender. Take out the duck from the sauce, boil it up quick, strain and pour over the duck; add truffles and morels, if agreeable.

Duck stewed with Green Pease.

HALF roast a duck; put it into a stewpan with a pint of good gravy, a little mint, and three or four leaves of sage cut small. Cover up close, and let the duck continue in the pan fop half an hour. Put a pint of green pease boiled a*.

70 STEWS AND HASHES.

for eating, into the pan, after having thickened the gravy Serve up, pouring the gravy and pease upon the duck.

Hashed Turkeys, Fowls, and Rabbits.

CUT either of the above very neatly into pieces, and put it into a stewpan: into another stewpan put a piece of butter rolled in flour, and some chopped onions or eschalots; cover close and stew for ten minutes: add veal stock (see Sauces J, half a pint; lemon pickle, one spoonful; walnut ketchup, two spoonsful; browning, one spoonful; boil for ten minutes, and strain into the stewpan containing the hash: let this simmer till enough; and serve with grilled fowl round it.

Wild Ducks hashed.

HAVING cut up your duck as for eating, put it in a tossingpan, with a spoonful of good gravy, the same of red wine, an eschalot sliced exceedingly thin, and a tea spoonful of garlic vinegar. When it has boiled two or three minutes, lay the duck in the dish, and pour the gravy over it. You may add a little browning; but remember that the gravy must not be thickened.

Hares hashed. HARES are hashed in the same manner as venison.

Jugged Hare.

CUT your hare into little pieces, and lard them here and there with little slips of bacon. Season them with a little pepper a**d salt, and put them into an earthen jug, with a blade ni- two of mace, an onion stuck with cloves, and a bundle*of sweet herbs. Cover the jug close, that nothing may get in j set it in a pot of boiling water, and three hours will do it. Then turn it out into the dish, take out the onion and sweet herbs, and send it hot to table. As to the larding, .you may omit it, if you please. Or, case the hare, cut off the shoulders and legs, and the back in three pieces. Lard them well with fat bacon, and put them into a stewpot with the trimmings. Add to them allspice, mace, whole pepper, a little of each; a small clove of garlic or a spoonful of garlic vinegar, three onions, two bay leaves, and a small bundle of parsley, thyme and savory, tied together; a quart of veal stock, and three gills of port wine: let it simmer till nearly done; strain the gravy, skim off the fat, adding two spoonsful of browning, cayenne, salt, and lemon juice, and thicken with butter rolled in flour: put in the hare, 'and simmer it till sufficiently done.

STEWS AND HASHES. 71

4

Stewed Peas and Lettuce.

PUT a quart of green peas, two large cabbage-lettuces, cut small across, and \vashed very clean, into a stewpan, with a quart of gravy, and stew them till tender. Put in some butter rolled in flour, a spoonful of essence of ham, and season with pepper and salt. As soon as they are of a proper thickness, dish them up.

Pease stewed for Sauce.

To a quart of shelled young green pease add two ounces of fresh butter, a very little sifted sugar, and some salt: put them into a stewpan, cover close, simmer till nearly done, then add some good seasoned cullis (see Sauces), and stew them till tender. They may be served with lamb, veal, or chickens.

Cucumbers.

TAKE fresh gathered cucumbers, pare them, and cut them into slices: put them into a stewpan, and add a little salt, vinegar, and an onion, simmer over a fire till nearly done and the liquor consumed: or fry them with a bit of fresh butter, and add a strong cullis (see Sauces), letting the cucumbers stew till sufficiently done.

Mushrooms (brown).

WITH a knife, clean a pottle of fresh mushrooms, put them into water, and when stewed, take them out with a small tin slice: put them into a stewpan with two ounces of fresh-butter, a little salt, some white pepper, a tea spoonful of essence of anchovy, and the juice of half a lemon; cover the stewpan close, put it over the fire, and let it boil for five minutes: thicken with a little flour and water; add a spoonful of browning, two spoonsful of port wine, and stew gently for five minutes.

Mushrooms (white).

PROCEED as above, only instead of browning, and port wine, add a gill of good cream.

Sorrel.

TAKE some sorrel, and after being well washed and chopped, put it into a stewpan with a slice of ham, and a bit of butter: when stewed, squeeze gently, adding some stock (see Sauces), a spoonful of mushroom ketchup, a tea spoonful of vinegar, two tea spoonsful of lemon-pickle, a bit of butter,

71 STEWS AND HASHES.

and a lump of sugar: stew gently, and aftei' taking out the harn, and chopping the sorrel smooth with a wooden-spoon, add a little more stock, and season with Afhite pepper and salt.

Spinage.

MAY be stewed in the same way, and when there is a scarcity of sorrel, may be made to nearly resemble it in flavour, by squeezing in a sufficiency of lemon-juice to render it acidulous: or, it may be stewed with a few spoonsful of water, drained, and squeezed: returned into the stewpan after being well beaten, adding veal stock, cream, white pepper and salt: serve with poached eggs.

Artichoke bottoms.

BOIL six artichokes till half done; then take the leaves and choke away, trim the bottoms neatly; put them into a stewpan, with half a pint of veal stock (see Sauces), a little salt and lemon juice, and stew gently till done: serve up with benshamelle over them. See Sauces. ^

Endive.

TAKE white endive, and put it into a stewpan of cold water; when it boils take it off, and throw into cold water for an hour: take it out of the water, and squeeze very dry; lay it in a stewpan, covering it with weak stock (see Sauces ) t and let it boil till the stock is reduced: if intended to be brown, add coulis; if white, add benshamelle. See Sauces.

Chardoons.

CUT them about six inches long, string them, and stew them till tender. Then take them out, flour them, and fry them in butter till they are brown. Serve, with melted butter. Or you may tie them up in bundles, and boil them like asparagus. Put a toast under them, and pour a little melted butter over them.

Muscles.

HAVING washed your muscles very clean from the sand in two or three waters, put them into a stewpan, and cover them close. Let them stew till the shells are opened, and then take them out one by one, and pick them out of the shells. Be sure to look under the tongue to see if there be a crab, and if you find one, throw away that muscle. Having picked them all clean, put them into a saucepan, and to a quart of muscles put half a pint of the liquor strained through a sieve; add a

STEWS AND HASHES. 73

few blades of mace, a small piece of butter rolled in flour, and let them stew. Lay some toasted bread round the dish, and pour in the muscles.

Carp and Tench.

CARP and tench may be stewed in the following manner: gut and scale your carp and tench, and having dredged them with flour, fry them in dripping, or good suet, till they are brown. Put them into a stewpan, with a quart of water, the like quantity of port wine, a large spoonful of lemon-pickle, the same of browning, and the like of walnut .ketchup: add a little mushroom powder, a proper quantity of cayenne pepper, a large onion stuck with cloves, a spoonful of garlic vinegar, and a stick of horse-radish. Cover your pan close, that none of the steam may escape, and let them stew gently over a stove fire, till the gravy is reduced to barely the quantity sufficient to cover them in the dish. Then take them out, and put them on the dish you intend to serve them up in. Put the gravy on the fire, and having thickened it with a large piece of butter, and some flour, boil it a little, and strain it over your fish. Or, having scaled the carp, and cleaned the tench, dredge them with flour, and fry in dripping. When fried, put the fish into a stewpan with some good gravy, a few anchovies, a bunch of thyme and sweet herbs, a little mace, four spoonsful of ketchup, two spoonsful of browning, and a small slice of onion: stew till nearly enough; take up the fish into another stesypan, strain the gravy, skim off the fat, and having added half a pint of port wine, pour on the fish; stew till enough, thickening with flour and butter.

Carp stewed white.

HAVING scaled, gutted, and washed your carp, put them into a stewpan, with two quarts of water, half a pint of white wine, a little pepper, salt, and whole mace, a bunch of sweet herbs, two onions, and a stick of horse-radish. Cover the pan close, and let it stand an hour and a half over a stove. Put a gill of white wine into a saucepan, with an onion, two anchovies chopped fine, a quarter of a pound of butter rolled in flour, a little lemon peel, and half a pint of veal gravy. Having boiled them a few minutes, add the yolks of two eggs, mixed with a little cream, and when it boils, squeeze in the uice of half a lemon. Pour this hot upon the fish, and serve ^thern up.

Barbd.

TAKE a large barbel, scale, gut, and wash it in vinegar and salt, and afterwards in water. Put it into a stewpan, with eel

74 STKWS AND HASHES,

broth enough to cover it. Let it stew gently, then add some cloves, a bunch of sweet herbs, white pepper and salt. Let them stew gently, till the fish is done; then take it out, thicken the sauce with butter and flour, and pour it over the fish.

Lobsters.

BOIL the lobsters, and pick the meat clean from the shells. Take a pint of water, a little mace, a little whole pepper, and the shells of the lobsters. Let them boil till all their goodness is out; then strain off the liquor, and put it into a saucepan. Put in the lobsters with a bit of butter rolled in flour, half a pint of veal gravy, a spoonful or two of white wine, a spoonful of essence of anchovy, and a little juice of lemon. "Let them boil, and then lay them in the dish.

Lampreys and Eels.

HAVING skinned and gutted your lampreys, season them well with salt, pepper, a little lemon peel shred fine, mace, cloves, and nutmeg. Cut some thin slices of butter into the bottom of your saucepan, and put your fish into the pan, with half a pint of good gravy, a gill of white wine or cyder, the same of claret, a spoonful of essence of anchovy, a bundle of marjorum, winter savory, and thyme, and an onion sliced. Stew them over a slow fire, and keep the lampreys turning till quite tender; then take them out, and thicken the sauce with the yolk of an egg, or a little butter rolled in flour, and having poured it over the fish, send them up to table.

Eels may be stewed in the same manner.

Flounders, Plaice, and Soles.

THESE three different species of fish may be stewed in one and the same manner. Half fry them in butter till of a fine brown; then take them up, put to your butter a quart of water, two anchovies, and an onion sliced, and boil them slowly a quarter of an hour. Put your fish in again, with two anchovies, and stew gently twenty minutes. Take out the fish, put in a spoonful of lemon pickfe, and thicken the sauce with butter and flour; having given it a boil, strain it through a tamis over the fish, and serve up with oyster, cockle, or shrimp sauce.

Stewed Cod.

CUT some slices of cod, and season with nutmeg, pepper, and salt: put them into a stewpan with a gill of water, and two gills of gravy: cover close, and after stewing a short time, add half a pint of white wine, some lemon juice, a few oysters with their liquor, a piece of butter rolled in flour, and

STEWS AND HASHES. 75

two or three blades of mace: the fish will take a quarter of an hour to stew, when they are to be served up, with the sauce over them.

Stewed Cod's Head and Shoulders, in the Scotch manner.

BOIL the fish till nearly enough, take it out; put it in a stewpan with two bottles of strong ale; two ounces of butter; one spoonful of essence of anchovy; one spoonful of lernon pickle; a pint of beef gravy; two onions; a few oysters; white pepper and salt: let it stew till the fish is done; and strain the sauce over it.

Holibut may be done in the same manner, adding forcemeat balls, made of a part of the fish chopped, shred thyme, parsley, and marjorum, a little nutmeg, pepper, and salt, rolled in egg, and fried butter.

To make Water-Souclice, of Perch, Plaice, or Flounders.

WASH clean, and cut the fins close off the fish; take three pints of water, a few of the fish, some clean picked and washed parsley, parsley-roots washed and sliced, and stew till quite tender: pulp them through a sieve: put the liquor and pulp into a stewpan, together with the fish you mean to water-souchee, adding more parsley and parsley-roots as before, a little white pepper and salt: stew till done, and serve up with the liquor, parsley, and roots.

Stewed Oysters.

OYSTERS for stewing, should be of the largest kind: put the oysters in their own liquor on to blanch, and as soon as they boil, take them up, lay them on a cloth to dry, and strain the liquor through a tamis: melt a bit of butter in a stewpan, and when melted, add a little flour and their liquor: stir till it boil, and add half a glass of white wine, a little beaten mace, white pepper and salt, and half a pint of coulis (see Sauces): boil for a few minutes; put in the oysters, and simmer for a minute or two: serve with sippets.

Escaloped Oysters.

BLANCH the oysters, beard them, and strain the liquor; put a bit of butter into a stewpan, and when melted, add as much flour as will dry up the butter: now add the oyster liquor and a little good stock (see Sauces}, half a spoonful of essence of anchovy, a little grated nutmeg, white pepper, and salt: boil for a few minutes; put in the oysters to heat through, and fill the escalop-shells, having previously buttered them: strew

76 RAGOUTS.

grated bread over them, and drop oiled butter on the top: put them into an oven, or Dutch oven, and if not sufficiently brown, hold the salamander over them.

Prawns, Shrimps, or Crawfish.

TAKE about two quarts, and pick out their tails. Bruise the bodies, and put them into half a pint of white wine or cyder, with a blade of mace, and some coulisY^e Sauces}. Let them stew a quarter of an hour, then stir together, and strain: wash out the saucepan, and put tflnt the strained liquor and tails. Grate in a little nutmeg, add salt, white pepper, and a quarter of a pound of butter rolled in flour. Shake all together; cut a thin toast round a quartern loaf, toast brown, on both sides, cut into six pieces, lay close together in the bottom of your dish, and pour your fish and sauce over it. Send it hot to table.

CHAPTER IX.

RAGOUTS.

Afore Quarter of House Lamb.

V^UT off the knuckle bone, and take off the skin. Lard it all over with bacon, and fry of a nice light brown. Then put it into a stewpan, and just cover over with mutton gravy, a bunch of sweet herbs, some pepper, salt, beaten mace, and a little whole pepper. Cover close, and stew for half an hour. Pour out the liquor, and take care to keep the lamb hot. Strain off the gravy, and have ready half a pint of oysters fried brown. Pour all the fat from them, add them to the gravy, with two spoonsful of red wine, a few mushrooms, and a bit of butter rolled in flour. Simmer all together, with the juice of half a lemon. Lay the lamb in the dish, and pour the sauce over it.

Beef.

TAKE a large piece of flank of beef, which is fat at the top, or any piece that is fat at the top and has no bones in it, even the rump will answer the purpose. Strip the bone very nicely, flour the meat well, and fry it brown in a large stewpan, with a little butter; then cover with stock (see Sauces), adding a pint of port wine, two spoonsful of walnut ketchup, an ounce of truffles and morels, cut small, and some fried or

RAGOUTS. 11

dried mushrooms also cut small. Cover close, and let it stew till the sauce be rich and thick. Then have ready some artichoke bottoms quartered, and a few pickled mushrooms. Give the whole a simmer, and when your meat is tender, and your sauce rich, lay the meat into a dish, and pour the sauce over it. You may add a sweetbread cut in six pieces, a palate stewed tender, and cut into little pieces, some cockscombs, and a few forcemeat balls.

Ox Palates. CLEAN them well, and boil very tender.

Calf's Feet.

BOIL the feet, bone and cut the meat in slices, brown the frying-pan, and put them in some good beef gravy, with morels, truffles, and pickled mushrooms, the yolks of four eggs boiled hard, some salt, and a little butter rolled in flour.

. Breast of Veal.

HAVING half roasted a breast of veal, bone it, and put it into a tossing-pan, with a quart of veal gravy, an ounce of morels, and the same quantity of truffles. Stew till tender, and just before you thicken the gravy, put in a few oysters, some pickled mushrooms, and pickled cucumbers, all cut in small square pieces, and the yolks of four eggs, boiled hard. Cut your sweetbread in pieces, and fry of a light brown. Dish up your veal, and pour the gravy hot upon it.

Neck of Veal.

HAVING cut a neck of veal into steaks, flatten them with a rolling-pin. Season them with salt, pepper, cloves, and mace; lard them with bacon, lemon-peel, and thyme, and dip them into the yolks of eggs. Make a sheet of strong foolscap paper up at the four corners, in the form of a dripping-pan. Pin up the corners, butter the paper, and also the gridiron, and set it over a charcoal fire. Put in your meat, and let it do leisurely, keeping it basting and turning to keep in the gravy. When enough, have ready half a pint of strong cullis (see Sauces), season high, arid put in mushrooms and pickles, forcemeat balls dipped in the yolks of eggs, oysters stewed and fried, to lay round and at the top of your dish, and then serve it up. If for a brown ragout, put in red wine; but if for a white one, put in white wine, with the yolks of eggs beat up with two or three spoonsful of cream.

"i S RAGOUTS.

Sweetbreads (brown).

TAKE throat sweetbreads, previously blanched and cut into slices; morels blanched and cut in halves; stewed mushrooms; egg balls (see Sauces); artichoke bottoms or Jerusalem artichokes, parboiled and cut in pieces; green truffles pared and cut in thick slices, and stewed in stock till nearly reduced; and cocks-combs almost boiled; mix all together, and add coulis (see Sauces), half a pint; port wine, four spoonsful; walnut ketchup, two spoonsful; browning, two spoonsful; cayenne and salt; stew gently for a quarter of au hour, and serve.

Sweetbreads (white).

IN a stewpan, put stewed mushrooms, egg balls, slices ot blanched throat sweetbreads, cocks-combs nearly boiled, four spoonsful of white wine, a tea spoonful of garlic vinegar, and half a pint of consume^ stew ten minutes, strain the sauce into another stewpan, and reduce over the fire to half the quantity: beat up the yolks of two eggs, a gill of cream, a little mace, white pepper, and salt; and strain through a sieve to the sweetbreads, c.: simmer for five minutes (but do not boil ), and serve.

Leg of Mutton.

TAKE off all the skin and fat, and cut it very thin the right way of the grain; then butter your stewpan, and shake some Hour into it. Slice half a lemon, and half an onion, cut them very small, and add a little bundle of sweet herbs, and a blade of mace. Put these and your meat into the pan, stir a minute or two, and then put in six spoonsful of gravy. Have ready an anchovy, minced small, and mixed with some butter and flour. Stir it all together for six minutes, and then dish it up.

Goose.

BREAK the breast bone of the goose, and make it quite flat, When it is skinned, dip it into boiling water; season with pepper, salt, and a little mace beaten to powder: lard, and then flour it all over. Take near a pound of beef suet cut small, put it into a stewpan according to the size of the goose; when melted, and boiling hot, put in the goose. When brown all over, add to it a quart of beef stock (see Sauces), boiling hot, a bunch of sweet herbs, a blade of mace, a few cloves, some whole pepper, two or three small onions, and a bay leaf!

RAGOUTS. 19

Cover very close, and stew very softly. An hour will do it, if a small one; if a large one, an hour and a half. Make the following ragout for it: some turnips and carrots cut as for a harrico of-mutton, and some onions, all boiled enongh, and half a pint of rich beef stock. Put them all into astewpan, with some pepper, salt, and a piece of butter rolled in flour. Let them stew a quarter of an hour. Take the goose out of the stewpan when done, drain well from the liquor it was stewed in, serve in a dish, and pour the ragout over it.

Pigs Feet and Ears.

HAVING stewed the feet and ears in good veal stock, split tjae feet down the middle, and cut the ears in narrow slices: dip them in yolk of egg and grated bread, and fry brown. Put a little veal stock in a tossing-pan, with a tea-spoonful of lemon-pickle, a large one of mushroom ketchup, the same of browning, and a little salt. Thicken with a lump of butter rolled in flour, and put in your feet and ears. Let them boil gently, and when enough, lay your feet in the middle of the dish, and the ears round them; then strain your gravy, pour it over them.

Livers,

TAKE as many livers as you would have for your dish. The liver of a turkey, and six fowl livers, will make a pretty dish. Pick the galls from them, and throw them into cold water. Put the livers in a saucepan with a quarter of a pint of stock, a spoonful of mushrooms, either pickled or fresh, the same quantity of ketchup, and a piece of butter the size of a nutmeg, rolled in flour. Season to your taste with pepper and salt, and let them stew gently ten minutes. In the meantime broil the turkey's liver nicely, and lay it in the middle, with the stewed livers round it. Pour the sauce over all, and serve.

Mushrooms.

PEEL some large mushrooms, and take out the inside. Broil them on a gridiron, and when the outside is brown, put them in a tossing-pan, with stock (see Sauces), sufficient to cover them: let them stand ten minutes, add a spoonful of port wine, the same of bVowning, and a very little eschalot vinegar. Thicken with butter and flour, and boil a little. Serve it up with sippets round the dish.

Artichoke Bottoms.

LET them lie in warm water for two or three hours changing the water. Put to them some good gravy, mushroom

80 RAGOUTS.

ketchup, or powder, cayenne and salt. Thicken with a little flour, and boil all together.

Asparagus.

SCRAPE one hundred of grass very clean, and throw it into cold water; then cut it as far as it is good and green, about an inch long, and take two ends of endive, clean picked and washed, and cut very small; a young lettuce, clean washed, and cut small, and a large onion peeled and cut small. Put a quarter of a pound of butter into a stewpan, and when melted, throw in the above ingredients. Toss them about, and fry them ten minutes; then season with a little pepper and salt, shake in a little flour, toss them about, and pour in half a pint of veal stock. Let them stew till the sauce is very thick and good, and then pour all into your dish. Garnish the dish with a few of the little tops of the grass.

Cucumbers.

TAKE two cucumbers and two onions: slice and fry them in a little butter: drain them in a sieve, and put them into a saucepan; add six spoonsful of stock, two of white wine, and a blade of mace. Let them stew five or six minutes; and take a piece of butter the size of a walnut, rolled in flour, a little salt and cayenne pepper. Shake them together, and when thick, serve up.

Cauliflowers.

WASH a large cauliflower very clean, and pick it into pieces as for pickling: take brown cullis, and stew till tender: season with pepper and salt, and put them into the dish with the sauce over them.

Muscles.

MELT a little butter in a stewpan, take the muscles out of their shells, fry them a minute with a little chopped parsley; shake over them a little flour, put in a little cream, white pepper, salt, nutmeg, and lemon juice. Boil them up. If they are to be brown, put good gravy instead of cream.

Another Method.

WHEN the muscles are well cleaned, stew them without water till they open. Take from them the shells, and save the liquor. Put into a stewpan a bit of butter, with a few mushrooms chopped, a little parsley, and a little grated lemon peel: stir this a little about, put in some stock, with pepper and salt; thicken with a little flour, boil it up, put in the

FfclCANDEAUS. 81

muscles with a little liquor, and let them be hot. When muscles are stewed, throw among them half a crown, or any piece of silver; if that be not discoloured, the muscles may be eaten w tn the greatest safety, without taking any thing out of them, as is the usual method.

Oysters.

BLANCH two dozen large oysters, and having preserved the liquor, wash and beard them: put into a stewpan, adding stewed mushrooms; a throat sweetbread, blanched and cut into slices; the liquor strained from the sediment; a quarter of a pint of strong veal stock (see Sauces}; two spoonfuls of ketchup; one spoonful of lemon pickle; cayenne, and salt to the palate: thicken with butter and flour; add a spoonful of browning; and simmer gently for ten minutes.

CHAPTER X,

FRICANDEAUS.

.T ROM a fillet of veal, cut a long or round piece; flatten with a chopper; make an incision in the underside; stuff with forcemeat containing oysters (see Sauces); fasten up the incision with a small and clean wire skewer; lard neatly with fat bacon, and put into a stewpan with a little weak stock; stew till brown and tender: into another stewpan put carrots, onions, turnips, celery, all cut small; allspice, two cloves, and a little pepper: over these put some slices of fat bacon; then put in the fricandeau, with some good veal stock (see Sauces ): let the whole simmer till the veal is exceedingly tender, and the gravy is nearly reduced. Have ready some stewed sorrel (see Stewing), and serve the veal upon it: or for want of sorrel, take stewed spinage (see Stewing), and make it a little acid with lemon juice.

Beef.

CUT some slices of beef five or six inches long, and half an inch thick; lard them with bacon, dredge with flour, and set it in a Dutch oven before a brisk fire to brown: ihen put it in a stewpan with a quart of good stock (see Sauces J, some truffles, morels, and half a lemon cut in slices; stew half an hour; add one spoonful of ketchup, one spoonful of browning, and a little cayenne pepper: thicken with butter and flour: serve, and lay over it, forcemeat balls, (see Sauces}, and hard-boiled yolks of eggs round it.

82 PRICASEES.

Mutton.

FROM the leg, cut long slices with the grain \ flatten with a chopper; and having larded it with fat bacon, put it in a stewpan with a pint of stock (see Sauces), two spoonfuls of walnut ketchup; a spoonful of eschalot vinegar; a gill of port wine; some onions, carrots, turnips, and celery, all cut small; cover close and stew till very tender, and all the liquor is nearly reduced: take up the mutton, glaze it (see Sauces J, and serve with stewed sorrel or spinage. See Stewing.

N. B. All lardings should be put into the oven a few minutes before they are glazed.

Fowl.

BONE a large fowl without cutting the skin, and singe it; lard it, and lay the bottom of a stewpan with slices of bacon; upon the bacon lay the bones of the fowl and any other trimmings, and upon these, the fowl; put in a pint of weak stock (see Sauces}, a few bay leaves, onions, a faggot of sweet herbs; cover the fowl with slices of bacon, arjd over that a sheet of paper cut to the size of the stewpan: set it on a stove, put fire on the top of the stewpan, and simmer slowly for one hour and a half: take it up, put into an oven for a few minutes to raise the larding; glaze (see Sauces), and serve up on stewed endive. See Stewing.

Turtle

MAY be dressed in .the same manner as veal, having a little white wine added to it.

CHAPTER XL FRICASEES.

Lamb-Stones.

1 AKE what quantity you please of lamb-stones, dip them in batter, and fry them of a nice brown in hog's lard. Have ready a little veal stock (see Sauces), and thicken with butter and flour. Put in a slice of lemon, a little mushroom ketchup, a tea-spoonful of lemon pickle, and a little grated nutmeg. Beat the yolk of an egg and mix with two spoonfuls of cream. Put in your gravy and keep shaking it over the fire till it look white and thick; then put in the lamb-stones, and give them a shake. When they are properly heated, serve up, and lay boiled forcemeat balls round them

FRICASEES. 83

Calf's Feet.

BOIL them, take out the long bones, split, and put them into a stewpan with some veal stock, and a very little white wine. Beat the yolks of two or three eggs with a little cream, and put to them a liitle grated nutmeg, some salt, and a piece of butter. Stir till of a proper thickness.

Swettbreads (white).

SCALD, and cut them in long slices; thicken some veal stock with a bit of butter mixed with flour, a little cream, some grated lemon peel, and nutmeg, white pepper, salt, and a little mushroom powder and liquor. Stew this a little time, put in the sweetbreads, and simmer them, shaking the pan. Squeeze in a little lemon juice.

Sweetbreads (brown).

FIRST scald two or three, and then slice them; dip them in the yolk of an egg, mixed with pepper, salt, nutmeg, and a little flour. Fry them a nice brown; thicken a little good stock with some flour; boil it well, and add cayenne, ketchup, or mushroom powder, and a little juice of lemon. Stew the sweetbreads in this a few minutes, and garnish with lemon.

Sweetbreads and Palates.

PARBOIL one or two sweetbreads; stew two or three palates till very tender; blanch and cut them in pieces, and slice the sweetbreads. Dip these in eggs, strew over them very fine grated bread, seasoned with pepper, salt, nutmeg, and a pounded clove; fry and drain them; thicken some good gravy with a little flour; add cayenne, ketchup, and salt, if necessary. Stew them in this about a quarter of an hour; add a few pickled mushrooms or lemon-juice; lamb-stones may be added, parboiled and fried. Palates do very well alone } dressed as above, or with the sweetbread roasted, and put in the middle of the dish.

Ox Palates.

WASH your ox palates in several waters, and lay them in warm water for half an hour; then put them in a stewpot, and cover them with water. Put them in the oven for three or four hours, take them out, strip off the skins, and cut them into square pieces. Season with cayenne, salt, mace, and nutmeg . Mix a spoonful of flour with the yolks of two eggs, dip your palates into it, and fry till of a light brown. Put them in & sieve to drain, and have ready half a pint of veal stock, with a little caper liquor, a spoonful of browning, and a few mushrooms. Thicken with butter and flour, pour it hot into your dish; then lay on your palates.

02

84- PRICASKES.

Chickens (white}.

CUT them into pieces, and blanch and drain them dry; put (hem into a stewpan with a little veal stock (see Sauces ), a blade of mace, and an onion: stew gently till three parts done; add slices of blanched throat sweetbreads; white button mushrooms, stewed; egg-balls (see Sauces}, and pieces of artichoke bottoms previously blanched and parboiled; when nearly stewed, season with white pepper, salt, and lemon juice; simmer till done; take up the chickens; set the sauce on the fire till nearly reduced, and add benshamelle (see Sauces}.

Chickens (brown}.

CUT the chickens into pieces; fry them in a little lard till of a light brown; drain them in a cloth very dry; put them in a stewpan; add button rnushrooms stewed, pieces of artichoke bottoms previously blanched and parboiled, blanched truffles, morels, egg balls (see Sauces}, a spoonful of browning (see Sauces}, and some well seasoned cullis; stew gently till done, and serve with fried oysters.

Pulled Chicken.

BOIL a chicken till three parts done, and let it stand till cold; take off the skin, cut the white meat into slips, put them into a stewpan, add a little cream, four spoonsful of veal stock, a very little grated lemon peel, and pounded mace, cayenne, salt, one eschalot chopped, a little lemon juice, and a spoonful of consume (see Sauces}; thicken it with a little flour and water, set over the fire for ten minutes to simmer; in the meantime score the legs and rump, season with pepper and salt, broil of a good colour, and serve them up over the pulled chicken.

Pulled Fowl.

PROCEED as with the chicken; but instead of thickening with flour and water, add, five minutes before it is to be served up, a leason (see Sauces} of two eggs.

Pulled Turkey.

PROCEED as with the chicken; but instead of thickening with flour and water, add, ten minutes before it is to be served up, some benshamelle.

Pigeons.

CUT your pigeons as above described for chickens, and fry them of a light brown. Put them into some good mutton, stock, and stew them near half an hour; then put in a slice of lemon, half an ounce of morels, and a spoonful of browning. Thicken your gravy, and strain it over your pigeons.

Another method to fricasee pigeons is as follows: take eight

FIUCASEES. 85

pigeons, just killed, and cut them in small pieces. Put them into a stewpan, with a pint of water, and the same quantity of claret. Season them with pepper and salt, a blade or two of mace, an onion, a bundle of sweet herbs, and a large piece of butter rolled in a little flour. Cover close, and Jet them stew till there is just enough for sauce. Then take out the onion and sweet herbs, beat up the yolks of three eggs, grate a little nutmeg, and with a spoon push the meat to one side of the pan, and the gravy to the other, and stir in the eggs. Keep them stirring to prevent their curdling, and when the sauce is fine and thick, shake all together. Put the meat into the dish, pour the sauce over it, and have ready some slices of bacon toasted, and oysters fried: scatter the oysters over it, and Jay the bacon round it.

Rabbits (white).

PROCEED as directed for chickens; but when nearly stewed, season with salt, white pepper, and a little lemon juice; add a leason (see Sauces) of three eggs; simmer for five minutes, take care not to let it curdle, and serve up hot, with the mace and onion taken out.

Rabbits (brown).

MAY be dressed after the manner already described for chickens brown.

Neafs Tongues.

BOIL your tongues till tender, peel and cut them into slices, and fry them in fresh butter. Then pour out the butter, put in as much stock as you may want for sauce, a bundle of sweet herbs, an onion, some pepper and salt, a blade or two of mace, and a glass of white wine. Having simmered all together about half an hour, take out the tongues, strain the gravy, and put both that and the tongues into the stewpan again. Beat up the yolks cf two eggs, a little nutmeg grated, and a small piece of butter rolled in flour. Shake all together for four or five minutes, and dish it up.

Tripe (white).

CUT the tripe into small slips, and boil in a little consume (see Sauces), till the liquor is nearly reduced; add a leason (see Sauces) of two yolks of eggs and cream, salt, cayenne, and chopped parsley simmer over a slow fire for five minutes, and serve: or instead of the leason, benshamelle and chopped parsley may be added.

Tripe (brown).

CUT the tripe into triangular shapes; add mushrooms chopped fine, a little scalded parsley chopped, an anchovy rubbed

through a hair sieve, a spoonful of ketchup, browning, and white wine, a gill of cullis (see Sauces}, season to the palate with cayenne, white pepper, and salt; simmer gently till done, and serve hot.

Artichoke Bottoms.

THESE may be fricaseed, either dried or pickled; if dried, lay them three or four hours in warm water, shifting the water two or three times: have ready a little cream, and a piece of fresh butter, stirred together one way over the fire till it is melted: put in the artichokes, and when hot, serve them up.

Mushrooms.

HAVING peeled and scraped the inside of } r our mushrooms, throw them into salt and water; but if buttons, rub them with flannel: take them out and boil them in water, with some salt in it, and when tender, put in a little shred parsley, and an onion stuck with cloves. Toss them up, with a good piece of butter rolled in flour, and add two spoonfuls of thick cream, and a little grated nutmeg; the onion must be taken out before you send your mushrooms to table. Instead of the parsley, you may, if you choose, put in a glass of wine.

Skirrets.

HAVING washed the roots well, and boiled them till they are tender, take off the skin of the roots, and cut them into slices. Have ready a little cream, a piece of butter rolled in: flour, the yolk of an egg beaten, a little nutmeg grated, two or three spoonfuls of white wine, a very little salt, and stir all together. Put your roots into the dish, and pour the sauce over them.

Eggs.

BOIL your eggs hard, and take out some of the yolks whole. Then cut the rest in quarters, yolks and whites together. Set on some stock, with a little shred thyme and parsley in it, and give it a boil or two. Then put in your eggs with a little grated nutmeg, and shake it up with a piece of butter, till of a proper thickness. Fry artichoke bottoms in thin slices, and garnish with eggs boiled hard, and shred small.

Eggs, with Onions and Mushrooms.

BOIL the eggs hard, take the yolks out whole, cut the whites in slips, with some onions and mushrooms, and fry the onions and mushrooms. Throw in the whites, and turn them about a httle. If there is any fat pour it off. Flour the onions, &c put to it a little good stock, boil this up, and add pepper and salt, and the yolks.

FRICASEES. 87

Cod Sounds.

CLEAN them well, and cut them into small pieces. Boil them tender in milk and water, and put them to drain. Put them into a clean saucepan, and season them with beaten mace and grated nutmeg, and a little white pepper and salt. Pour in a cupful of cream, with a good piece of butter rolled in flour, and keep shaking it till thick enough.

Soles.

SKIN, gut, and wash your soles very clean, cut off their heads, and dry your fish in a cloth. Then very carefully cut the flesh from the bones and fins on both sides, and cut the flesh longways, and then across, so that each sole may be in eight pieces. Take the heads and bones, and put them into a saucepan, with a pint of water, a bundle of -sweet herbs, an onion, a little whole pepper, two or three blades of mace, a little salt, a small piece of lemon peel, and a crust of bread. Cover close, and let it boil till half be wasted. Then strain through a fine sieve, and put it into a stewpan. Put in the soles and with them half a pint of white wine, a little parsley chopped fine, a few mushrooms cut small, a little grated nutmeg, and a piece of butter rolled in flour. Set all together on the fire, but keep shaking the pan all the while till the fish is enough.

Plaice and Flounders.

RUN your knife all along upon the bone on the back side of the fish, and raise the flesh on both sides, from the head to the tail. Then take out the bone clear, and cut your fish in six collops. Dry it well, sprinkle with salt, dredge them with flour, and fry them in a pan of hot beef dripping, so that the fish may be crisp. Take it out of the pan, and keep it warm before the fire; then clean the pan, and put into it some minced oysters, and their liquor strained, some white wine, a little grated nutmeg, and three anchovies. Having "stewed these up together, put in half a pound of butter, and then your fish. Toss them well together, dish them on sippets, and pour the sauce over them.

Skate or Thornback.

HAVING cut the meat clean from the bone, fins, &c. make it very clean. Then cut it into thin pieces, about an inch broad, and two inches long, and lay them in your stewpan. To one pound of the flesh put a quarter of a pint of water, a little beaten mace, and grated nutmeg; a small bundle of sweet herbs, and a little salt. Cover it and let it boil fifteen minutes. Take out the sweet herbs, put in a quarter of a pint of good

88 MADE DISHES.

cream, a piece of butter, the size of a walnut, rolled in flour, and a glass of white wine. Keep shaking the pan ail the time one way, till it is thick and smooth; then serve.

Fish in general.

Tofricasee fish in general, melt butter according to the quantity of your fish, and cut your fish in pieces of the length and breadth of three fingers. Then put them and your butter into a stewpan, and put it on the fire: but take care that it does not boil too fast, as that may break the fish, and turn the butter into oil. Turn them often, till enough, having first put in a bunch of sweet herbs, an onion, two or three anchovies cut small, a little pepper and salt, some nutmeg, mace, lemon peel, and two or three cloves; then put in some claret, and let them stew altogether. Beat up six yolks of eggs, and put them in with such pickles as you please, as mushrooms, capers, and oysters. Shake them well together, that they may not curdle; and if you put the spice in whole, take it out when done. The seasoning ought to be stewed first in a little water, and the butter melted in that and the wine before you put your fish in. Jacks eat very well done in this manner.

CHAPTER XII.

MADE DISHES.

PRELIMINARY HINTS AND OBSERVATIONS.

As this is one of the most important chapters in this book, it may not be improper to give the young cook some general hints. It is an important point to take care that all the copper-vessels are well tinned, and kept perfectly clean from any foulness or grittiness. Before you put eggs or cream into your white sauce, have all your other ingredients well boiled, and the whole of a proper thickness; for neither eggs nor cream will contribute much to thicken it. After you have put them in, do not stir them with a spoon, nor set your pan on the fire, for fear it should gather at the bottom, and be lumpy; but hold your pan at a proper height from the fire, and keep shaking it round one way, which will keep the sauce from curdling; and be particularly cautious that you do not suffer it tp boU. Remember to take out your collops, meat, or what'

MADE DISHES. 89

ever you are dressing, with a fish slice, and strain your sauce upon it, which will prevent small bits of meat mixing with your sauce, and thereby leave it clear and fine. In browning dishes, be particularly cautious that no fat rioats on the top of your gravy, which will be the case if you do not properly skim it. It should be of a fin, 1 bro n, without any one predominant taste, which must depend on the judicious proportion in the mixture of your various articles of ingredients. . If you make use of wine, or anchovy, take off its rawness, by putting it in some time before your dish is ready; for nothing injures the reputation of a made dish so much as raw wine, or fresh anchovy. Be sure to put your fried forcemeat balls to drain on a sieve, that the fat may run from them; and never let them boil in your sauce, as that will soften them and give them a greasy appearance. To put them in after the meat is dished up, is indisputably the best method. In almost every made dish, you may use forcemeat balls, morels, truffles, artichoke bottoms, and pickled mushrooms; and, in several made dishes, a roll of forcemeat may supply the place of balls; and where it can be used with propriety, it is to be preferred.

Beef-a-la-mode,

HAVING boned a rump of beef, lard the top with bacon, and make the following forcemeat: take four ounces of marrow, the crumb of a penny loaf, a few sweet herbs (hopped small, one clove of garlick, and season with salt, pepper, and nutmeg; then beat up the yolks of four eo;gs. mix all together, and stuff it into the beef where the bone was extracted, and also in several of the lean parts. Skewer it round and fasten it properly with a tape. Put it into the pot, adding a pint of red wine, and tie the pot down with a strong paper. Put it into the oven for three or four hours, and when it comes out, if to be eaten hot, skim the fat from the gravy, and add a spoonful of pickled mushrooms, and half an ounce of morels. Thicken with flour and butter, serve up, and pour on your gravy. Garnish it with forcemeat balls.

Or take a thick flank, and with a sharp knife make holes deep enough for the following larding: bacon cut into Jong slices nearly an inch thick, dipped first into vinegar, and afterwards into black pepper, allspice, a clove, and salt, all finely powdered; parsley, thyme, marjoram, and chives, shred very fine: with this larding fill all the holes in the beef; rub the remainder of the spices and herbs upon the beef, and bind up tight with a tape: put the beef into a stewpan with a pint of

y() MADE DISHES.

water, a pint of table beer, four spoonsful of vinegar, four onions previously roasted, two carrots, one turnip, and two heads of celery, cut in pieces: stew very gently for six or eight hours, take up the beef, pull off the tape, skim the gravy, strain off the herbs, and to the gravy add a glass of port wine: let it boil five minutes; and serve in a tureen, pouring it over the beef.

Beef-a-la-royal.

TAKE a brisket of beef, bone it, and with a knife make holes in it about an inch from each other. Fill one hole with fat bacon, a second with parsley chopped, and a third with chopped oysters. Let these stuffings be seasoned with pepper, salt, and nutmeg. U hen the beef is completely stuffed, pour upon it a pint of wine boiling hot, then dredge it well with flour, and send it to the oven. Let it remai'i in the oven better than three hours, and when it comes out, skim off the fat, strain the gravy over the beef, and serve.

Beef -a-la- daub.

BONE a rump of beef, or take a part of the leg-of-mutton piece, or a piece of the buttock, and daub either of them with slips of fat bacon, seasoned with sweet herbs, eschalots, beaten spices, pepper, and salt: bind it round with tape, and having put it into a stewpan with a sufficiency of weak stock, braise till tender (set Sauces); wipe dry, glaze the top, serve up with the same round it; and either onion, savoy, haricot, or ashee sauces.

Beef Olives.

TAKE rump-steaks cut rather thin, and having trimmed them neatly, beat well with a paste-pin; rub them over with yolk of egg, and sprinkle them with sweet herbs shred fine, and seasoned with pepper and salt: roll them up tight, and having put a little stock at the bottom of a stewpan that will exactly hold them, lay them in, cover with sheets of fat bacon, and over them with writing paper: stew them very gently over a stove till tender, take up the beef, put aside the bacon, strain and skim the gravy, and to it add a spoonful of ketchup, the same of port wine, half a pint of sauce tournay (see Sauces}, a spoonful of browning, cayenne pepper, and salt: thicken with flour; let it boil, and pour OA'er the beef.

Beef tremblonque.

TIE up closely the fat end of a brisket of beef, and boil it six hours very gently. Season the water with a little salt,

MADE DISHES. 91

allspice, two onions, two turnips, and a carrot. In the meantime, put a piece of butter into a stewpan, and melt it. Then put in two spoonfuls of flour, and stir till smooth. Put in a quart of stock, a spoonful of ketchup, the same of browning, turnips and carrots, and cut them as for harrico of mutton: stew gently till the roots are tender, and season with pepper and salt. Skim the fat clean off, put the beef in a dish, and pour the sauce "over it.

Beef Chops.

TAKE rump-steaks, or the fillet from the under part of a rump of beef: cut into small thin slices, fry in butter till half done: add slices of pickled cucumbers, small mushrooms stewed, oysters blanched, and some well seasoned coulis (see Sauces): stew till tender.

Fillet of Beef.

FROM a small rump of beef, take out the bone, and force the cavity with the following forcemeat: lean veal, ham, and fat bacon cut in pieces; chopped parsley, thyme, eschalots, blanched oysters, pepper, salt, lemon juice, a few cleaned mushrooms, grated bread, and yolks of eggs: turn it round like a fillet of veal; and having covered it with paper, half roast it: put it in a stewpan with some good stock; simmer till tender and the gravy is nearly consumed, take up the beef, wipe dry, and glaze: skim the gravy, and add a spoonful of lemon pickle, two of ketchup, and a quarter of a pint of ravigot sauce (see Sauces): give the sauce a boil, and serve, pouring the sauce round the meat.

Bouillie Beef.

PUT the thick end of a brisket of beef into a kettle, and cover it over with water. Let it boil fast for two hours, then stew it close by the fireside for six hours more: put in with the beef some turnips cut in slices, some carrots, and some celery cut in pieces. About an hour before it is done, take as much stock as will fill your tureen, and boil in it, for an hour, turnips and carrots cut out in little round or square pieces, with some celery, and season it to your taste with salt and pepper. Serve in the tureen.

Bouillie Beef au Choux.

TAKE six pounds of brisket of beef which has been salted two days: stew in weak stock till tender: whilst stewing, cut a large cabbage in slices, wash clean, then blanch and squeeze it: put into a stewpan with half a pound of fresh butter, an

92 MADE DISHES.

onion stuck with four cloves, half a gill of vinegar, a teaspoonful of coriander seeds pounded and sifted, a clove of garlic, white pepper and salt: set the whole over a slow fire till the cabbage is nearly done; then add a pint of veal stock (see Sauces), and a little flour; stew the cabbage till tender, without burning it: wipe the beef dry, glaze it; and serve, with the cabbage round it.

Sirloin of Beef en Epigram.

HAVING roasted a sirloin of beef, take it off the spit, and raise the skin carefully off. Then cut out the lean part of the beef, but observe not to cut near the ends or sides. Hash the meat in the following manner: cut it into pieces about the size of a crown-piece, put half a pint of stock into a tossing pan, an onion chopped fine, two spoonsful of ketchup, some pepper and salt, six small pickled cucumbers cut in thin slices, and the gravy that comes from the beef, with a little butter rolled in flour. Put in the meat, and toss it up for five minutes; put it on the sirloin, and then put the skin over, and send it to table.

The Inside of a Sirloin of Beef forced.

LIFT up the fat of the inside, and with a sharp knife cut off all the meat close to the bone. Chop it small: take a pound of suet, and chop that small; as much grated bread, a little lemon peel, thyme, pepper and salt, half a nutmeg grated, and two eschalots chopped fine. Mix all together with a glass of red wine, and then put the meat into the place you took it from; cover it with the skin and fat, skewer it down with fine skewers, and cover with paper. The paper must not be taken off till the meat is put on the dish, and your meat must be spitted before you take out the inside. Take a quarter of a pint of red wine, two eschalots shred small, and a spoonful of garlic vinegar; boil them, and pour into the dish with the gravy that comes out of the meat.

The Inside of a Rump of Beef forced.

THIS must be done nearly in the same manner as the above; only lift up the outside skin, take the middle of the meat, and proceed as before directed. Put it into the same place, and with fine skewers put it down close.

A Round of Beef forced.

FIRST rub it with some common salt, a little bay-salt, some saltpetre, and coarse sugar; then let it stand a full week or

MADE DISHES. 95

more, according to the size, turning it every day. Wash and dry it, lard it a little, and make holes, which fill with grated bread, marrow, or suet, parsley, grated lemon-peel, sweet herbs, pepper, salt, nutmeg, yolk of an egg, made into stuffing. Bake it with a little water, and some small beer, some whole pepper, and an onion. It may be boiled, and is a handsome sideboard dish for a large company.

Baked Beef.

TAKE either the sticking, clod, leg, or tops of the ribs boned: wash clean, chop together parsley, thyme, eschalots, marjoram, savory, and basil, of each a moderate quantity, and season with kitchen pepper (see Sauces): with these ingredients rub the beef well, lay it in an earthen pan, adding half a pint of port wine (or stale strong beer) a gill of vinegar, ten whole onions peeled, two bay leaves, and a few fresh mushrooms, or mushroom powder, let it remain twenty-four hours; then add water to cover it, and bake in a slow oven, tying paper over the pan: when baked, take up the meat, strain the gravy, skim off' the fat, and serve in a tureen with the beef.

Beef steaks rolled.

TAKE what quantity you want of beef steaks, and beat them with a cleaver to make them tender; make some forcemeat with a pound of veal beat fine in a mortar, the flesh of a fowl, half a pound of cold ham or gammon of bacon, fat and lean; the kidney fat of a loin of veal, and a sweetbread, all cut very fine: some truffles and morels stewed, and then cut small, two eschalots, some parsley, a little thyme, some lemonpeel, the yolks of four eggs, a little grated nutmeg, and half a pint of cream . Mix all these together, and stir them over a slow fire ten minutes. Put them upon the steaks, and roll them up; then skewer them tight, put them into the frying-pan, and fry them of a nice brown. Then take them from the fat, and put them into a stewpan, with a pint of good stock, a spoonful of red wine, two of ketchup, a few pickled mushrooms, and let them stew for a quarter of an hour.

Bosuf a la Vinegrette.

FROM the round of beef cut a slice of three inches thick, with very little fat. Stew it in water and a glass of white wine, seasoned with salt, pepper, cloves, a bunch of sweet herbs, and a bay leaf. Let it simmer till the liquor is almost consumed; and when cold, serve it up. What liquor remains, strain off, and mix with a little vinegar.

MADK DISH I .

Ox Cheek.

BONE and clean wash the cheek; tie it up like a rump of beef, put it in a stewingpan with some stock (see. Sauces); skim it when it boils, adding two bay leaves, a little garlic, some onions, mushrooms or mushroom powder, celery, carrots, half a cabbage; turnips, a bundle of sweet herbs, whole pepper, mace, and allspice: in this let the cheek stew till nearly done, and having cut the string, put the cheek in a clean stevvpan; in the meantime strain the gravy, skim clean, season with lemon juice, cayenne, and salt: add two spoonsful of browning, clear the whole with eggs, and when cleared, strain through a tamis over the cheek in the clean stewpan, and stew till tender.

Beef Tails.

HAVING cut them into joints, blanch and wash them: put them in a stewpan with a sufficient quantity of stock, and braise till tender: drain them, and serve with haricot sauce over them. See Sauces.

Beef Escarlot.

TAKE a brisket of beef, half a pound of coarse sugar, tw ounces of bay salt, and a pound of common salt. Mix all together, rub the beef with it, lay it in an earthen pan, and turn it every day. It may lie a fortnight in this pickle: then serve it up with savoys or pease pudding, but -it eats much better when cold and cut into slices.

Beef Palates.

BLANCH, peel, and broil the palates; trim them into the shape of cutlets; braize with a pint of veal stock till nearlyall is reduced: serve with allemand sauce. See Sauces,

Beef Palates baked (brown).

HAVING blanched, peeled, and boiled the palates, line a tin mould with a veal caul; lay a palate upon it, and over it some light forcemeat containing green truffles pounded: fill the mould with alternate layers of caul, palates, and forcemeat: add a sufficient quantity of sto~k, and bake in a moderate oven: take out the palates, &c. and put aside the cauls; lay the palates in the dish with the forcemeat over each: strain the gravy, skim off the fat, add two spoonsful of port wine, one of browning, and four pf Spanish sauce (see Sauces) boil all together, and pour it over the palates.

MADE DISHES.

. Beef Palates baked (white) .

WHEN the palates come out of the oven, strain the gravy and skim off the fat, adding a leasori (see Sauces) of two yolks of eggs, and two spoonsful of benshamelle.

Tripe a la Kilkenny.

THIS dish is very much admired in Ireland, and is thus prepared: take a piece of double tripe cut in square pieces, and two cow-heels also cut in pieces. Peel and wash ten large onions, cut them in two, and boil in water till tender. Then put in your tripe and cow-heels, and boil it ten minutes. Pour off almost all your liquor, shake a little flour into it, and put in some butter, with a little salt and mustard. Shake all over the tire till the butter is melted, then put it into your dish, and send it to table as hot as possible.

Tongue roasted.

LET the tongue, if a dried one, be soaked in water for at least four days, changing the water daily: if a green tongue fresh out of pickle, twenty-four hours will be sufficient: in either of these cases, the tongue must be simmered in water till tender, and the skin can be easily taken off: if a fresh tongue is used, blanch it till the skin can be easily taken off: scrape, trim neatly, and wash clean: make several incisions with a sharp knife, and fill with a savory forcemeat (see Sauces): cover with a veal caul, and tie on a spit: when do.ie, take off the caul, wipe dry; glaze, and serve with stewed spinage under it. See Stewing.

Cold roasted Tongue and Barberries.

PUT into a stewpan half a pint of sauce tournay (see Sauces ), and two spoonsful of preserved barberries: when these have boiled up, add slices of cold roasted tongue, letting them remain in the sauce till thoroughly warm; and serve with the barberries in the middle of the dish.

Hodge Podge.

TAKE half a pound of pickled pork, half a pound of brisket of beef, each cut into two pieces, and four beef tails cut into joints* having put them into a pot and covered them with water, boil: then skim clean, and add two ounces of dried mushrooms, turnips, carrots, onions, Igeks, celery, all cut small, and kitchen pepper (see Sauces): when the liquor is nearly consumed, add two quarts of veal stock, and stew the

96 MADE DISHES.

meat till tender, when it is to be taken up, and the gravy strained from the vegetables and skimmed: add browning two spoonsful, and cayenne, salt, and lemon-juice to the palate: in the meantime, cut turnips and carrots into shapes, and celery into lengths about two inches; sweat them in a stewpan till quite tender, and strain their liquor to the gravy obtained from the meat: now put in the meat, simmer till thoroughly hot, add the vegetables which have been sweated, and serve.

Porcupine of a Breast of Veal.

TAKE the finest and largest breast of veal you can procure, bone, and rub it over with the yolks of two eggs. Spread on a table, and lay over it a little bacon cutas thin as possible, a handful of parsley shred fine, the yolks of five hard-boiled eggs chopped small, a little lemon peel cut fine, grated bread steeped in cream, and season to your taste with salt, pepper, and nutmeg. Roll the breast close, and skewer it up. Then cut fat bacon, and the lean of ham that has been a little boiled (if you use the ham raw, it will turn the veal red), and pickled cucumbers, about two inches long, to answer the other lardings. Lard it in rows, first ham, then bacon, and then cucumbers, till you have larded every part of the veal. Put it in a deep earthen pot, with a pint of water, and cover it, and set it in a slow oven for two hours. As soon as it comes from the oven, skim off the fat, and strain the gravy through a sieve into astewpan. Put in a glass of white wine, a little lemon pickle and caper liquor, and a spoonful of mushroom ketchup. Thicken it with a little butter rolled in flour, lay your porcupine on the dish, and pour it hot upon it; and serve with forcemeat balls round it.

Shoulder of Veal a la Haut-gout.

CUT off the knuckle and flaps of a shoulder of veal; raise the skin, leaving it fast at the knuckle, and lard all over with fat and lean bacon, seasoning with white pepper and salt: rub the larding with the yolk of an egg, and sprinkle it wkh grated bread, parsley, pickled mushrooms, a little lemon peel, and green truffles, all shred very fine: skewer the skin over these, and put the veal in a stewpan with fresh butter: stew till of a light brown, frequently turning the meat; then add a quart of weak stock (see Sauces), a spoonful of ketchup, the same of garlic vinegar, and a glass of white wine: stew till sufficiently tender; take up the veal, strain and skim the gravy, to which add forcemeat balls, fresh mushrooms, truffles, and morels: give these a boil, put in the veal for a few minutes, and serve, having previously removed the skin.

MADE DISHES.

Veal a la Bourgeoise.

HAV ING cut veal into thick slices, lard them with bacon, and season their, \\itb kitchen pepper (sec Sauces) and chopped parsley. Cover the bottom of your stewpan with slices of fat bacon, lay the veal upon them, cover the pan; and set it over the tire for eight or ten minutes, just to be hot, and no more. Then, with a brisk fire, brown your veal on both sides, and shake some flour over it: add a quart of veal stock, cover close, and stew gently till enough. Then take out the slices of bacon, and skim ail the fat oft' clean, and add a leason of eggs and a spoonful of benshamelle to the gravy. Mix all together, and stir one way till it is smooth and thick, and serve^with the sai'ice over the meat.

Roasted Loin of Veal a la Benshamelle.

TAKE a cold roasted loin of veal, or a part of one that has been already served at table; and having poured a little melted butter over it, paper, and put it into an oven till warm through: take it out; and having cut out the underside or fillet, mince the same, adding Benshamelle (see SaucesJ, a little garlic vinegar, white pepper, lemon, salt, and a smaJl lump of sugar: simmer in a small stewpan; take up the mince, and put it into the place from whence you cut it; sprinkle over it a little grated bread, and pour over it some clarified butter: put the veal, with the mince upwards, into an oven to brown; and serve with benshamelle sauce under it. A cold neck may be done in the same manner.

Neck of Veal larded.

TKIM the veal neatly, taking off the under part of the bone, and leaving only a part of the long bones: lard with fat bacon, cover with a veal caul, and roast gently till nearly done: take off the caul, roast till sufficiently done, wipe dry, glaize the upper side, and serve with sorrel sauce under it.

Neck of Veal a VEspagnol.

HAVING trimmed the neck as for larding, set it on with water to blanch: take it out of the water, and put it into a stewpan with a white braise (see Sauces); let it simmer till sufficiently done; take it out of the braise, to which add a quarter of a pint of Spanish sauce: let the braise with this addition boil a few minutes; and serve with the sauce over jt, and Spanish onions boiled round the veal.

H

98 MADE DISHES.

Neck of Veal braised with Oyster Sauce.

PROCEED in the manner already directed for the same joint a TEspagnol: but instead of serving it with the braise and benshamelle, serve a part of the braise mixed with oyster sauce (see Sauces) poured over the veal.

Breast of Veal a la Flammand.

HAVING covered the bottom of a stewpan with a sheet of fat bacon, put in the veal, covering it with slips of bacon; add a pint of stock (see Sauces), half a pint of white wine, white pepper and salt: stew till quite tender, take up the meat, lay aside the bacon, strain and skim the gravy, and add mushrooms, a spoonful of eschalot vinegar, a small lump of sugar, and a little lemon-juice; give the same a boil, and serve with the veal.

Breast of Veal a VEcossois.

HAVING boned the veal, lay over it a light forcemeat (see Sauces), and over that layers of minced ham, pickled cucumbers, fat bacon, and an omlet of eggs: roll tight in a cloth, tying the ends, and braise in a brown-braise till tender: take up the meat, wipe dry, and glaize it; serving with stewed celery and benshamelle. See Sauces.

Breast of Veal a Vltalienne.

BRAISE in a brown-braise (see Sauces), into which cut a pound of truffles: let the truffles stew with the veal for half an hour; take them up and put into a separate stewpan, with half a pint of good coulis, two spoonsful of garlic vinegar, a glass of port wine, a little lemon-juice, ketchup, and browning, of each one spoonful; season with pepper and salt: when the meat is sufficiently braised, take it up and put it into the stewpan with the truffles and sauce; give the whole a simmer, and serve with the truffles over, and the sauce round.

Breast of Veal a TAnglois.

BONE the meat, and having nicely trimmed it, lard with fat bacon: put into a stewpan with a quart of good veal stock (see Sauces), a few fresh mushrooms, or mushroom powder, an onion and carrot minced very small, a glass of white wine, a tea-spoonful of essence of anchovy, cayenne and salt: let the meat stew till tender; take it up, wipe dry, and glaize: to the gravy in the stewpan add blanched morels, truffles, slices of sweetbread, egg balls (see Sauces), arti

. MADE DISHES. 99

choke bottoms, a spoonful of ketchup, the same of browning, season with cayenne and salt: let these boil for a few minutes, and serve with the veal in the middle, and the sauce poured over it.

Veal Olives.

TAKE a fillet of veal, and having cut off large collops, flatten them well with a beater: spread very thinly forcemeat over each of them, and roll them up, and roast them, or bake them in an oven. Make a ragoo of oysters and sweetbreads, cut in square bits a few mushrooms and morels, and lay them in the dish with the veal. If you have oysters enough, chop and mix some of them with the forcemeat, as it will add much to its goodness. Put nice brown gravy into the dish, and send them up hot, with forcemeat balls round them.

Fillet of Veal with Collops.

TAKE a small fillet of veal and cut what collops you want: then take the udder, and fill it with forcemeat; roll it round, tie it with a packthread across, and roast it. Lay your collops in the dish, and lay your udder in the middle. Garnish with lemon.

Bombarded Veal.

HAVING nicely (aken out the bone from a fillet of veal, make a forcemeat in the following manner: Take grated bread, half a pound of fat bacon minced, an anchovy boned, two or three sprigs of sweet marjoram, a little lemon-peel, thyme, and parsley: chop these well together, and season to your taste with salt, cayenne, and a little nutmeg grated: mix all together with an egg and a little cream, and with this forcemeat fill up the place from whence the bone was taken. Then make cuts all round the fillet, at about an inch distant from each other: fill one with forcemeat; a second with spinach that has been well boiled and squeezed; a third with crumbs of bread, chopped oysters, and beef marrow; a fourth with the forcemeat, and thus fill up the holes round the fillet. Wrap a caul close round it, and put it in a deep pot, with a pint of water. Make a coarse paste to lay over it, in order to prevent the oven giving it a disagreeable taste. As soon as it is taken out of the oven, skim off' the fat, and put the gravy into a stewpan, with a spoonful of mushroom ketchup, another of lemon-pickle, five boiled artichoke bottoms cut in quarters, two spoonfuls of browning, and half an ounce of morels and truffles -. thicken with butter and flour, give it a gentle boil, and serve with your sauce over the veal.

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100 MADE DISHES.

Shoulder of Veal a la Piedmontoue.

CUT the skin off a shoulder of veal so that it may hung at one end, then lard the meat with bacon and ham, and season with pepper, salt, mace, sweet herbs, parsley and lemonpeel: cover 'it again with the skin, stew it with stock, and, when tender enough, take it up. Then take sorrel, some lettuce capped small, and stew them in some butter with parsley, onions, and mushrooms. The herbs being tender, JMU to them some of the liquor, some sweetbreads, and some bits of ham. Let all stew together a little,while; then lift up the skin, lay the stewed herbs over and under, cover it again with the skin, wet it with melted butter, strew it over with crumbs of bread, and send it to the oven to brown. Serve it up hot, with some good gravy in the dish. The French, before it goes to the oven, strew it over with parmesan.

Sweetbreads of Veal a la Dauphine.

LARD the largest sweetbreads you can get, and open them in such a manner that you can stuff in forcemeat (see Sauces): fill your sweetbreads, and fasten them with fine wooden skewers. Take the stewpan, lay layers of bacon at the bottom of the pan, and season with pepper, salt, mace, cloves, sweet herbs, and a large onion sliced. Upon that lay thin slices of veal, and then lay on your sweetbreads: cover close, let it stand eight or ten minutes over a slow fire, and then pour in a quart of boiling weak stock. Cover close, and stew two hours very softly: take out the sweetbreads, Jay aside the bacon and veal, keep them hot, strain the gravy, skirn all the fat off, and boil till it is reduced to about half a pint: put in the sweetbreads/and give them, two or three minutes stew in the gravy; then lay them in the dish, and pour the gravy over them.

Sweetbreads en Gordiniere.

PARBOIL three sweetbreads; take a stewpan, and lay layers of bacon, or ham and veal; over that lay the sweetbreads, with the upper side downwards. Put a layer of veal and bacon over them, a pint of veal stock, and three or four blades of mace: stew gently three quarters of an hour, then take out the sweetbreads, strain the gravy through a tamis, and skina off the fat: to this add a leason of eggs (see Sauces), and two spoonfuls of sauce a la reine.

Sweetbreads larded.

LARD the sweetbreads with fat bacon: and, haying cover^d the bottom of a stewpan with bacon, lay them upon it,

MADE DISHES. 101

adding a sufficient quantity of veal stock (see Sauces); cover with bacon, and paper over that: let them stew till tender; take them up, laying aside the bacon; glaize them, and having strained the gravy in which the sweetbreads were stewed, carefully skim olf the fat, and add a quarter of a pint of benshamelle: put in the sweetbreads, and when hot, serve with the sauce over them.

Sweetbreads boiled.

HAVING blanched two fine sweetbreads, wash and trim off the pipe, and boil in milk and water for half an hour: take them up, drain dry, and serve with a leason of eggs, adding two spoonfuls of sauce a la reine. See Sauces.

Sweetbreads broiled.

PROCKED with the sweetbreads as above directed, but only boil for a quarter of an hour: drain dry, cut into large slices, seasoning with cayenne and salt: broil till of a nice brown, and serve with haricot sauce. See Sauces.

Sweetbreads fried.

BLANCH three fine sweetbreads; drain and cut them into slices; dip them into the following batter; four ounces of flour, three eggs, a gill of table beer, salt and white pepper, well beaten with a wooden spoon for ten minutes: fry of a nice brown, and serve with a good cullis under, and fried parsley round them.

Sweetbreads en Erisori.

ON three sweetbreads lay a little light forcemeat, and having brushed them pver with whites of eggs, work a sprig with strips of pickled cucumber, ham, breast of fowl, omlets, boiled carrot, and capers: put into a stewpan with a little stock (see Sauces), and stew gently till sufficiently done, taking care not to disturb the ornament: glaize the plain part; and serve with a cullis under them.

A Caffs Appurtenances.

BOIL the lights and part of the liver; roast the heart stuffed with suet, sweet herbs, and a little parsley, all chopped small, a few crumbs of bread, some pepper, salt, nutmeg, and a little lemon-peel; mix up with the yolk of an egg. When the lights and liver are boiled, chop them very small, and ^)ut them into a saucepan with a piece of butter rolled in flour, some pepper and salt, with a little lemon or vinegar if agreeible. Fry the other part of the liver as before mentioned,

102 MADE DISHES.

with some little slices of bacon. Lay the mince at the bottom, the heart in the middle, and the fried liver and bacon round, with some crisped parsley.

A Midcalf.

STUFF a calf's heart with forcemeat, and send it to the oven in an earthen dish, with a little water under it. Lay butter over it, and dredge it with flour. Boil half the liver, and all the lights for half an hour; then chop them small, and put, them in a stewpan with a pint of stock, a spoonful of ketchup, and one of lemon-pickle. Squeeze in a half a lemon, season with pepper and salt, and thicken with a good piece of butter rolled in flour. When you serve up, place the mincemeat in the bottom, and have the other half of the liver ready fried of a fine brown, and cut in thin slices, and little pieces of bacon. Set the heart in the middle, and lay the liver and bacon over the minced meat.

Calf's Heart roasted.

HAVING made a forcemeat of grated bread, a quarter of a pound of beef suet chopped small, a little parsley, sweet marjoram and lemon peel, mixed up with a little white pepper, salt, nutmeg, and the yolk of an egg, fill the heart with it, and lay a veal caul over the stuffing, or a sheet of writing paper to keep it in its place. Lay it in a Dutch oven, and keep it turning till it is thoroughly roasted. Serve with a good cullis under it.

Calfs Liver roasted.

CUT a slit in the under part of the liver, and fill it with the following stuffing: grated bread, marrow, nutmeg, parsley and thyme shred fine, two mushrooms and one eschalot chopped small, mix with one egg: sew it up, lard the top with slips of fat bacon, cover with a veal caul, and roast gently: when enough, lay aside the caul, glaize the top, and serve with good cullis under it (see Sauces}, and fried parsley round H.

alfs fflad surprised.

TAKE the hair off a large calf's head, then raise off the skin with a sharp pointed knife, and as much of the meat from the bone as you can possibly get, so that it may appear like a whole head when stuffed; but be careful not to cut holes in the skin. Then fill with forcemeat (see Sauces ), and put a a little of it into the ears, then lay it in a deep pot, just wide enough to take it in, and -put to it two quarts of water, half a

MADE DISHES, 103

pint of white wine, a blade or two of mace, a bundle of sweet herbs, an anchovy, two spoonsful of walnut and mushroom ketchup, the same quantity of lemon-pickle, and a little salt and cayenne. Lay a coarse paste over it to keep in the steam, and put it for two hours and a half in a very quick oven. When you take it out ? lay the head in a soup-dish, skirn off the fat from the gravy, and strain it through a tamis into a stewpan: thicken with a lump of butter rolled -m^flour, and when it has boiled a few minutes, put in the yolks of six eggs well beaten, and mixed with half a pint of cream. Have ready boiled a few forcemeat balls, half an ounce of truffles and morels; but do not stew them in the gravy. Pour the gravy over the head, and serve.

Breast of Veal in Hodge-Podge.

CUT the brisket of a breast of veal into little pieces, and every bone asunder. Then flour it, and put half a pound of good butter into a stewpan. When hot, throw in the veal, fry it all over of a fine light brown, and having ready boiling water, fill up the stewpan, and stir it round. Throw in a pint of green peas, a fine whole lettuce clean washed, two or three blades of mace, a little whole pepper tied in a muslin rag, a small bundle of sweet herbs, a small onion-stuck with a few cloves, and a little salt: cover close, and let it stew an hour, or till boiled to your palate, if you would have soup made of it; but if you would only have sauce to eat to the veal, you must stew till there is just as much as you would have for sauce, and season with salt to your palate. Take out the onion, sweet herbs and spice, and pour it all together into your dish. If you have no peas, pare three or four cucumbers, scoop out the pulp, and cut them into little pieces; and take four or five heads of celery clean washed, and cut the white part small. When you have no lettuces, take the little hearts of savoys, or the little young sprouts that grow on the old cabbage stalks. If you would make a very fine dish of it, fill the inside of your lettuce with forcemeat, and tie the top close with a thread. Stew it till there is just enough for sauce. Set the lettuce in the middle, and the veal round, and pour the sauce all round it.

Disguised Leg of Veal and Bacon.

HAVING larded your veal all over with slips of bacon, and a little lemon-peel, boil it Avith a piece of bacon. When enough, take it up, cut the bacon into slices, and have ready some dried sage and pepper rubbed .fine. Rub it over the

101 MADE D.1SHES.

bacon, lay the veal in the dish, and the bacon round it; strew it all over with fried parsley, and serve with sorrel sauce.

Loin of Veal en Epigram.

HAVING roasted a fine loin of veal, take it up, and carefully take the skin off the back part without breaking it. Cut out all the lean meat; but leave the ends whole, to hold the following mincemeat: mince all the meat very fine with the kidney part, put it into a little veal stock, enough to moisten it with the gravy that comes from the loin. Put in a little white pepper and salt, some lemon-peel shred fine, the yolks of three eggs, and a spoonful of benshamelle (see Sauces). Thicken it with a little butter rolled in flour. Give it a shake or two over the fire, and put it into the loin, and then pull the skin over: brown it with a salamander, and serve.

Pillow of Veal.

HAVING half roasted a neck or breast of veal, cut it into six pieces, and season it with white pepper, salt, and nutmeg. Take a pound of rice, put to it a quart of stock, some mace, and a little salt. Do it over a stove,' or very slow fire, till it is thick; but butter the bottom of the pan or dish you do it in. Beat up the yolks of six eggs, and stir them into it. Then take a little round deep dish, butter it, and lay some of the rice at the bottom. Then lay the veal on a round heap, and cover it all over with" rice. Wash it over with the yolks of eggs, and bake it an hour and a. half. Then open the top, and pour in a pint of rich good gravy.

Savoury Dish of- Veal.

HAVING cut large collops out of a leg of veal, spread them abroad on a dresser, hack them with the back of a knife, and dip them into the yolks of eggs. Season with salt, mace, nutmeg, and pepper, beaten fine. Make forcemeat with some of your veal, beef suet, oysters chopped, sweet herbs shred fine, and kitchen pepper: strew all these over your collops, roll and tie them up, put them on skewers, tie them to a spit, and roast them. To the rest of your forcemeat add a raw egg or two, and roll them in balls and fry them. Put them into your dish, with your meat when roasted, and make the sauce with strong stock, an anchovy, an eschalot, a little white wine, and some spice. Let it stew, and thicken it with a piece of butter rolled in flour. Pour the sauce into the dish, lay the meat in, and serve.

MADE D-ISHE.&. 1O3

70 make Slove Veal.

CUT out the middle bone from a fillet of veal of a cow. calf, so that the meat may lie flat in the stewpan. Cut off the udder, ami slice it in long pieces, and roll it in seasoning of pepper, salt, nutmeg, and sweet herbs, finely shred. Make holes in the fillet, and stick in these seasoned pieces as thick as you can, until the whole-is stuffed in. Then lay butter in the pan, and put in the meat, set it on a gentle fire, turning and shaking it: skim the fat off, and put in an onion stuck with cloves, a lemon pared and cut in half, and squeeze in the juice. Continue to shake it, and let it simmer five hours. One hour before it is done, put in a pint of strong stock. When the meat is just done enough, set on a pint of mush-,, rooins, with a little of the gravy, and let the meat be again skimmed clean from the fat, and thicken it with flour and butter, and serve in the dish with the meat.

To dress the Umbles of Deer.

TAKE the kidney of a deer, with the fat of the heart; season them with a little pepper, salt, and nutmeg. First fry them, and then stew them in some good stock till they are tender. Squeeze in a little lemon; take the skirts, and stuff them with a forced meat made with the fat of the venison, some fat of bacon, grated bread, pepper, mace, sage, and onion chopped very small: mix with the yolk of an egg. When the skirts are stuffed with this forced meat, tie them to the spit to roast; but first lard them with thyme and lemon-peel. When they are done, lay the skirts in the middle of the dish, and the fricasee round it.

Haricot of a Neck of Mutton, or Mutton Cutlets.

HAVING cut the best end of a neck of mutton into chops, or a loin with the fat cut off, flatten and fry them of a light brown. Put them into a stewpan, with a little weak stock, to prevent their burning, and simmer till tender: serve with haricot sauce over them. See Sauces.

Shoulder of Mutton surprised.

PUT a shoulder of mutton, having first half boiled it, into a stewpan, with two quarts of veal stock, four ounces of rice, a little beaten mace, and a tea-spoonful of mushroom powder: stew it an hour, or till the rice is enough, and then take up your mutton, and keep it hot. Put to the rice half a pint of

106 MADE DISHES,

cream, and a piece of butter rolled in flour, shake it well, and boil it a lew minutes. Lay your mutton on the dish, and pour your gravy over it.

A Basque of Mutton.

LAV the caul of a leg of veal in an earthen pan, of the size of a. small punch-bowl, and take the lean of a leg of mutton that has been kept a week. Having chopped it exceedingly small, take half of its weight in beef marrow, half a pound of grated bread, the rind of half a lemon grated, half a pint of red wine, two anchovies, and the yolks of four eggs. Mix it as you \vonld sausage iineat, lay it in the caul in the inside of the pan, fasten the caul, bake it in a quick oven, and having taken off the caul, serve with a coulis under it, and venison sauce in a tureen.

Mutton Rumps and Kidnies.

BOIL six rumps in veal stock; then lard your kidnies with bacon, and set them before the fire in a tin oven. As soon as they are tender, rub them over with the yolk of an egg, a little grated nutmeg, and some caj'enne: fry till of a light brown; glaize the kidnies, and serve with slewed sorrel under them.

Mutton Rumps a la Braise.

BOIL six mutton rumps for fifteen minutes in water; then take them out, and cut them into two, and put them into a stewpan, with half a pint of good stock, a gill of port wine, an onion stuck with cloves, and a little salt and cayenne. Cover close, and stew them till they are tender. Take them and the onion out, and thicken the gravy with a little butter rolled in flour, a spoonful of browning, and the juice of half a lemon: boil till it is smooth, but not too thick; put in your rumps, give them a toss or two, and serve them up hot.

Mutton Rumps marinated.

CLEAN, trim, and cut the rumps of an equal size, laying them in a pan, covered with marinate (see Sauces}, for a night: put the whole into a stewpan, and simmer till nearly done: take them out of the marinate, let them cool, and brush them over with the yolk of an egg, sprinkling grated bread over them: fry gently in boiling lard till of a nice brown, and sufficiently done; drain dry, and serve with a good coulis and two spoonsful of ketchup under them.

MADE DISHES. 107

Betf and Mutton Steaks marinated

IN the same manner as mutton rumps; except that for beef an eschalot may be chopped very fine, and mixed with the grated bread: serve with puree of potatoes. See Sauces.

Pork Steaks marinated

IN the same manner as mutton rumps; except that an onion and a few leaves of sage may be finely shred and mixed with the grated bread: -serve with sauce piquant under them.

Mutton kebobbed.

HAVING cut a loin of mutton into four pieces, take off the skin, rub them with the yolk of an egg, and strew over them a little grated bread, and parsley shred fine. Spit and roast them, basting them all the time with fresh butter, in order to make the froth rise: when properly done, serve with sauce ravigot. See Sauces.

Mutton the Turkish Way.

HAVING cut your meat into thin slices, wash it in vinegar, and put it into a pot or saucepan that has a close cover to it. Put in some rice, whole pepper, and three or four whole onions. Let all these stew together, skimming it frequently. When enough, take out the onions, and season with salt to your palate. Lay the mutton in the dish, and pour the rice and liquor over it.

Leg of Mutton a la Haut-gout.

TAKE a leg of mutton that has hung a fortnight; stuff every part of it with cloves of garlic, rub it with pepper and salt, and then roast it. When properly roasted, send it up, with some good gravy and sweet sauce in a tureen.

Leg of Mutton roasted with Cockles.

HAVING boned it, fill the cavity with a forcemeat containing minced cockles: sew it up, roast of a nice brown, and serve with a quarter of a pint of coulis, two spoonsful of the cockle liquor, a few stewed mushrooms, and blanched cockles, all simmered together.

Leg of Mutton roasted with Oysters.

BONE the leg, fill the cavity with a forcemeat, containing bearded oysters pounded, and two eschalots shred very fine:

108 MADE DISHES

sew it up, roast, and serve with sauce poivrade (see Sauces}, containing a little of 'the oyster liquor, and a few blanched and bearded oysters.

Leg of Mutton roasted with Lobster or Crab.

BONK the leg, fill the cavity with a forcemeat, containing the meat of a crab or lobster shred and pounded, a little grated lemon-peel, and nutmeg: sew it up; roast, and serve, with lobster or crab sauce under it.

Mutton Chops in Disguise.

RUB them with the yolk of an egg, and sprinkle with pepper, salt, nutmeg, and a little parsley. Roll each chop in half a sheet of white paper, well buttered in the inside, and rolled close at each end. Boil some hog's-lard or beef dripping in a stewpan, and put the steaks into it. Fry them of a fine brown, drain them dry, and serve with sauce royal in a tureen.

Shoulder of Mutton en Epigramme.

TAKE a shoulder of mutton, and when roasted almost enough, carefully take off the skin about the thickness of a crown piece, and also the shank bone at the end. Then season both the skin, blade and shank bone, with pepper and salt, a little lemon-peel cut small, and a few sweet herbs and crumbs of bread. Lay this on the gridiron, till of a fine brown; and in the meantime, take the rest of the meat, and cut it like a hash, about the bigness of a shilling. Save the gravy, and put it to it, with a few spoonsful of strong

i- ! i i \r i couhs, a little grated nutmeg, hair an onion cut hne, a small bundle of herbs, a little pepper and salt, some gerkins cut very small, a few mushrooms, two or three truffles cut small, two spoonsful of port wine, and a little flour dredged into it. Let all these stew together very slowly for five or six minutes, taking care that it do not boil. Take out the sweet herbs, Jay the hash in the place from whence it was taken, and the broiled upon it, so as to make it appear like a whole shoulder; and serve with a good coulis under it.

Leg of Lamb braised.

HAVING boned a leg of lamb, fill it with forcemeat, cover it with slices of lemon and sheets of fat bacon, and braise in a white braise over a stove or gentle fire for two hours: take it up, drain it, pouring benshamelle over it.

MADE DISHES. 109

Leg of Lamb braised, and savoury Jelly.

FORCE and bruise the lamb as in the preceding directions: take it up, put it in an earthen pan, pouring the braise over it: let it lie all night in the braise, and when wanted, take it up, and serve with savoury jelly over it. See Sauces.

Shoulder of Lamb braised, and Sorrel Sauce,

MAY he prepared as directed for leg of lamb, only serving jt on sorrel sauce.

Shoulder of Lamb glaized,

MAY be prepared also as directed for leg, &c. When taken out of the braise, it must be drained dry, wiped, glaized, and served with a good coulis under it.

Shoulder of Lamb en Epigramme,

MAY be prepared in the same manner as already directed for mutton.

Shoulder of Lamb grilled.

HAVING roasted the shoulder till three parts done, take it up, and with a sharp knife score it in small diamonds, seasoning with pepper and salt, or if intended to be highly seasoned, with cayenne; broil of a nice brown, and serve with a good coulis under it, to which add two spoonsful of ketchup, a little lemon juice and butter, and place over thin slices of lemon.

Hind Quarter of Lamb marinated.

BONE the leg, and fill with forcemeat, as directed for leg of lamb braised: sew it up, and lard the loin part: lay it in the marinate (see Sauces) for six hours, turning it frequently: take it up, cover with a veal caul, and roast it: glaize the larding, and serve with the marinate boiled down till nearly consumed, adding a good coulis.

Neck of Lamb glaized.

HAVING cut off the scrag, and sawed off the chine, carefully take away the skin and part of the fat: lard with fat bacon, cover with a veal caul, and roast gently: take it up, glaize it, and serve with white onion sauce. See Sauces.

' Lamb Cutlets, with Cucumber Sauce. Cut the chine off a neck of lamb, cut it into cutlets, and trim them neatly: into a stewpan put three ounce* of butter,

1 10 MADE DISHES.

pepper, salt, chopped eschalots, thyme, parsley, and lemon juice: melt the butter, and put in the cutlets till three parts done: take them up, and when nearly cool, brush them over with yolk of egg, sprinkle with grated bread, and fry in boiling lard: drain off the fat, and serve with cucumber sauce in the middle of the dish. See Sauces.

N. B. Veal -and mutton cutlets may be dressed in the same manner.

Lamb Cutlets, with Ttndrons.

PROCEED as above with the cutlets; and serve with tendrons braised in the centre, and turnip sauce poured over the tendrons. See Sauces.

Tendrons are the gristle bones of the breast, cut into slices: braise these in a brown braise. See Sauces.

Lamb Cutlets, with mashed Potatoes.

PROCEED exactly as already directed for cucumbers, instead of which place mashed potatoes in the middle of the dish. Sec Potatoes mashed, Chap^ Vegetables.

Lamb Cutlets, with Sauce Robert.

PROCEED as above, and serve with sauce Robert under them. See Sauces.

Lamb's Head and Appurtenances.

Having sawed the head in halves, take out the brains, wash them in warm water, wipe them dry, and having dipped them in yolk of egg, sprinkle them over with grated bread, when they will be ready for frying: blanch the head, liver, heart, and lights, and having chopped the three latter small, add a little parsley and lemon-peel shred very fine, and a pint of seasoned coulis; in which gently stew them till tender: brush the head over with yolk of egg, strewing grated bread over it, and bake in a moderate oven till tender; and when done, brown it with a salamander: fry the brains in boiling lard, drain dry; fry also thin rashers of bacon; and serve with the mince in the middle of the dish, the head over it, and the brains and rashers of bacon placed alternately round it.

Lamtfs Head and Appurtenances, with Powrade.

SAW the head in two, take out the tongue whole, and clean and prepare the brains as above directed: boil the head and tongue till quite tender; pull out all the bones, and with a light forcemeat stuff the meat, and mould it into the shape of a lamb's head: brush this and the tongue with yolk of egg,

MADE DISUSE. 1 1 1

strewing over them grated bread; put them into an oven, and when become firm, brush them over again with egg, and strew grated bread over them: repeat this three -times, still preserving the head of a proper shape, and make the tongue look large: cut the liver and heart in slices, and fry them and the brains: serve with poivrade sauce (see Sauces) in the dish, the tongue in the middle, the head on each side, and the fry round it.

Lamb's Rumps and Ears (brown)..

SCALD an equal number of each very clean; take a pint of veal stock, in which braise them till half done: take up the rumps, and having brushed them over with yolk of egg, strew with grated bread, and broil gently: stew the ears till the liquor is nearly reduced, and having now added coulis, stew till tender, and serve with the rumps round the ears and sauce.

Lamb's Ramps and Ears (white).

PROCEED as above directed; and when they are tender, and the liquor is nearly reduced, add a leason of eggs, and serve.

Lamb Cutlets a la Maintenon.

HAVING sawed off the chine bone of a. loin of lamb, cut it into chops, trim off the fat, shape them nicely, and put them into a stew pan, with a little fresh butter, eschalots, thyme, and parsley, all shred fine; pepper, salt, pounded mace, and a little lemon juice: keep moving in the stewpan till nearly done; take them up, strain the gravy over them, and when nearly cold, strew grated bread over them: fold them up separately in white paper oiled; broil over a slow fire, and serve with poivrade in a tureen. See Sauces.

Mutton chops may be done in the same manner.

Scotch Collops.

CUT your collops off the thick part of a leg of veal, the size and thickness of a crown piece, and put a piece of butter browned in your stewpan: lay in the collops, arid fry them over a quick fire: shake and turn them, and keep them on a fine froth. When fried of a light brown, put them into a stewpan, with half a pint of coulis, to which add half a lemon, a little essence of anchovy, half an ounce of morels, a large spoonful of browning, the same of ketchup, two teaspoonsful of lemon pickle, and season to your taste with salt and cayenne: thicken with butter and flour, let it simmer five or six minutes, and serve with forcemeat balls, and little

112 MADE DISHES.

slices of fried bacon round them, and a few mushrooms over them.

Oxfwd John.

CUT a stale leg of mutton into as thin collops as you can, and take out all the sinews. Season with salt, pepper, and mace, and strew among them a little shred parsley, thyme, and^two or three eschalots. Put a good lump of butter into a stewpan, and as soon as it is hot, put in the collops, stirring them with a wooden spoon till they are three parts done; then add half a pint of coulis, a little juice of lemon, and thicken it with flour and butter. Let them simmer four or five minutes, and serve tfith the sauce strained over them.

A Pig au Pere. Duillet.

HAVING cut off the head, and divided the pig into quarters, lard them with bacon, and season them well with salt, pepper, nutmeg, cloves, and mace. Place a layer of fat bacon at the bottom of a stewpan, Jay the head in the middle, and the quarters round it. Then put in a bay leaf, an onion shred, a lemon, some carrots, parsley, and liver, and cover again with bacon. Put in a quart of second stock, stew it for an hour, and then take it up: put the pig into a stewpan, pour in a pint of white wine, cover close, and let it stew for an hour very slowly. While the pig is stewing in the wine, take the first gravy it was stewed in, skim oft the fat, and strain it: then take a sweetbread cut into five or six slices, some truffles, morels, and mushrooms, and stew all together till enough: thicken with the yolks of two eggs, or a piece of butter rolled in flour; and when the pig is enough, take it out, and lay it in your dish. Add the wine it was stewed in to the ragoo, and pour all over the pig, and serve.

Fillet of Pork with Sauce Robert.

HAVING boned a loin or neck of pork, cut off the rind: put some second stock into a stewpan, and lay in the pork, covering it with shred onions and sage, seasoned with white pepper and salt: over these place the rind, and stew gently for three hours: take it up, and having dried it, glaize, and serve on sauce Robert. See Sauces.

Leg of Pork a la Boisseau.

TAKE a leg of pork that has been in salt for four days, put into boiling water, and boil for ten minutes: take it up, skin, spit, and roast it: when done, brush it over with yolk of egg,

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strew grated bread all over it, and brown with a salamander, serving it with sauce poivrade under it. See Sauces.

Ham brained.

HAVING soaked the ham for twenty four hours in warm water, set to boil in cold water for twenty minutes: take it up, and having taken off" the rind and trimmed it, lay it in a stewpan with a pint of white wine and a brown braise (see Sauces); cover very closely, and stew very gently till sufficiently done: take it up, wipe dry, and glaze, serving it on stewed spinach.

Loin of Pork a la Sicilienne.

CUT the loin of pork as for chops, but do riot entirely divide them: shred small a sufficient quantity of sage, and with it stuff all the cuts between the chops: tie it together with a tape, and having put it into an earthen pan, cover it with equal parts of vinegar and water, and let it lie covered for ten days: cover the pan with a strong sheet of white paper, and bake it: take the pork out of the liquor, and serve with currant jelly; or a little of the liquor skimmed, a lump of sugar, and a glass of port wine.

Petit-toes, or young Pigs' Feet.

. HAVING scalded two or three sets of feet, and the plucks, take them up, and put them into a stewpan, with half a pint of water, two eschalots, a little parsley and sage, all shred fine; season with a blade of mace, a little grated nutmeg, white pepper, and salt: when they are nearly done, and the liquor consumed, mince the pluck, and add it to the feet with a white coulis, two tea-spoonsful of lemon pickle, a tablespoonful of white wine, and season with cayenne and salt: stew the whole till tender, and serve with sippets round them.

Large Pigs' 1 Feet and Ears.

SCALD and clean them; split the feet, and tie them together with string: having put them into a pot covered with water, let them boil; skim clean, and add a little thyme, onions, eschalots, two cloves of garlic, two bay leaves, whole pepper, two blades of mace, allspice, and salt: stew till tender; take them up, and put them in an earthen pan for use: when wanted, take any number, put them into a stewpan with a bit of fresh butter, a little chopped parsley, thyme, eschalots, pepper, salt, and lemon juice: shake them about in the stewpan till they have imbibed all the flavour of the

MADE DISHES.

herbs, and are sufficiently done; take them up, brush them with yolk of egg, strew grated bread over them, and broil over a o-eutle fire: cut the ears in slices, put them into a stewpaiffor ten minutes with a good seasoned coulis (see Sauces), and serve with the feet over them.

Goose a la Royale.

HAVING boned the goose, stuff it with the following forcemeat: twelve sage leaves, two onions, two apples, shred all very fine; mix with grated bread, four ounces of beef marrow, two glasses of port wine, grated nutmeg, pepper, salt, shred lemon peel, and four yolks of eggs: sew up the goose; try in butter of a light brown; and put it into a stewpan with two quarts of good stock, letting it stew two hours, and till the liquor is nearly consumed t take up the goose; strain the liquor, and skim off the fat, adding a spoonful of lemon pickle, the same quantity of browning and port wine, a teaspoonful of essence of anchovy, beaten mace, cayenne, and salt: give it a boil, and serve over the goose.

Ducks a la Mode.

CUT a couple of fine ducks into quarters, and fry them in butter till they are a little brown: pour out all the fat, dust a .little flour over them, and put in half a pint of good stock, a quarter of a pint of red wine, an anchovy, two eschalots, and a bundle of sweet herbs. Cover close, and let them stew a quarter of an hour. Take out the herbs, skim off the fat, and let your sauce be as thick as cream.

Ducks a la Braise.

HAVING singed and dressed your ducks, lard them quite through with bacon rolled in shred parsley, onions, thyme, pepper, salt, and beaten mace. Put a few slices of fat bacon in the bottom of a stewpan, the same of gammon of bacon or ham, two or three slices of beef or veal, and lay your ducks in with their breasts downwards. Cover the ducks with slices the same as you put under them, and cut in a carrot or two, a turnip, a head of celery, an onion, four or five cloves, a blade of mace, and a little whole pepper. Cover them close down, and let them simmer a little over a gentle fire till the breast is of a light brown: add some good stock, cover them down again closely, and stew them gently till enough, and the liquor is nearly consumed, which will require two or three hours: take some parsley, an onion or eschalot, a few gerkins or capers, and two anchovies; chop all very fine, and

MADE DISHES. 1 1 5

put them in a stewpan, with the liquor from the ducks, a little browning, and the juice of a lemon. Boil it up, and cut the ends of the bacon even with the breasts of your ducks. Lay them on your dish, pour the sauce hot upon them, and serve them up.

Ducks a la Daube.

HAVING larded two ducks, fill them with a good forcemeat, containing two eschalots minced very fine, and put them into a stove with a little second stock for ten minutes: add a pint of good stock, the bones, giblets, six onions, two cloves, a faggot of herbs, cayenne, salt, lemon juice, two blades of mace, and half a pint of claret: cover with sheets of bacon, and 'stew slowly for two hours: take them up, and having strained and skimmed the liquor, pour it over them.

Ducks larded.

PROCEED as above directed, except that the breasts of the ducks must be larded: having stewed for two hours, take them up, wipe dry; glaze them, and strain the gravy, pouring it into the dish, and serving the ducks upon it.

Ducks aux Naves.

PROCEED as above directed a la daube, omitting the eschalots; and when sufficiently stewed, serve on turnip sauce, with the gravy in a tureen.

Ducks aux Concombres.

PROCEED as for ducks larded, omitting the eschalots, and substituting white wine for claret: take them up, wipe dry, glaze, and serve on cucumber sauce, with the gravy in a tureen.

Ducks a la Benshamelle.

PROCEED as directed aux concombres, substituting benshanielle for cucumber sauce.

Turkey a la Daube.

PROCEED as for the ducks a la daube, adding some chopped oysters to the forcemeat, and larding the breast: take up the turkey, wipe dry, and glaze: strain and skim the gravy, add a little oyster liquor, and some bearded oysters: let these simmer, and serve with the turkey over the sauce.

13

116 MADE DISHES.

Fowl a la Daube.

HAVING boned a large fowl, fill it with a good forcemeat (see Sauces), and braise in a white braise: when tlone, take it up, wipe dry, and glaze it: strain the braise into a small stewpan, adding a spoonful of essence of ham, and some pickled mushrooms; let this sauce simmer, and serve with the fowl over it.

Fowl a la Menehout.

HAVING taken the bones out of the legs and wings, draw them in, and split the fowl down the back: skewer it flat, and put it into a stewpan, with a little butter, eschalots, thyme, parsley, lemon juice, salt, and pepper: shake it about (or pass it) till nearly done: take it up, and when cold, brush it over with yolk of egg, strewing over it grated bread: broil gently till enough; and having strained the liquor in which it was passed, adding a good coulis, two spoonsful of ketchup, a tea-spoonful of lemon pickle, and a few pickled mushrooms: let these simmer, and serve with the fowl over it.

Chickens in savoury Jelly.

TAKE two chickens, and roast them. Boil some calf's feet to a strong jelly; take out the feet, and skim oft' the fat; beat up the whites of three eggs, and mix them with half a pint of while wine vinegar, thejuice of three lemons, a blade or two of mace, a few pepper-corns, and a little salt. Put them to the jelly; and when it has boiled five or six minutes, strain it several times through a jelly bag till very clear. Then put a little in the bottom of a mould large enough to hold the chickens, and when they are cold, and the jelly set, lay them in with their breasts down: then fill the mould quite full with the rest of the jelly, which you must take care to keep from setting, so that when you pour it into the bowl it will not break. Let it stand all night; and the next day put the mould into warm water, pretty near the top. As soon as you find it loose, lay your dish over it, and turn it out whole.

Chicken Surprise.

ONE large fowl will do for a small dish. Roast it, and take the lean from the bones; cut it into thin slices, about an inch long, and toss it up with six or seven spoonsful of cream, and a piece of butter, as big as a walnut, rolled in flour. Boil it up, and set it to cool. Then put six or seven thin

MADE DISHES. 1 17

slices of bacon round it, place them in a pattypan, and put some forcemeat on each side. Work them up into the form of a French roll, with a raw egg, leaving a hollow place in the middle. Put in your fowl, and cover them with some of the same forcemeat, rubbing them smooth with a raw egg. Make them of the height and bigness of a French roll, and throw a little fine grated bread over them. Bake them three quarters, or an hour, in a gentle oven, or under a baking cover, till they come to a fine brown, and place them on your mazarine, that they may not touch one another; but place them so that they may not fall flat in the baking; or you may form them on your table with a broad kitchen knife, and place them on the thing you intend to bake them on. You may put the leg of a chicken into one of the loaves you intend for the middle. Let your sauce be gravy, thickened with butter, and a little jaice of lemon.

Chickens Chiringrate.

HAVING cut off the feet of the chickens, break the breastbone flat with a rolling pin; but take care you do not break the skin. Flour them, fry them of a fine brown in butter; drain all the fat out of the pan, but leave the chickens in. Lay a pound of gravy-beef cut very thin over your chickens, and a piece of veal cut very thin, a little mace, two or three cloves, some whole pepper, an onion, a little bunch of sweet herbs, and a piece of carrot. Then pour in a quart of second stock, cover close, artd let it stew for a quarter of an hour: take out the chickens, and keep them hot; let the gravy boil till rich and good; strain it off, and put it into your pan again, with two spoonsful of red wine', and a feumushrooms. Put in the chickens to heat; and serve with the sauce over them.

Large Fowls forced.

HAVING cut the skin of a large fowl down the breast, carefully slip it down so as to take out all the meat, and mix .it with a pound of beef suet, cut small. Then beat them together in a marble mortar, and take a pint of large oysters cut small, two anchovies, an eschalot, a few sweet herbs, a little pepper, some nutmeg grated, and the yolks of four eggs. Mix all these together, and lay it on the bones, then draw the skin over it, and sew it up. Put the fowl into a bladder, and boil it an hour and a quarter. Stew some oysters in good gravy, thickened with a piece of butter rolled in flour, take the fowl out of the bladder, lay it in your dish, and pour the sauce over it.

118 MADE DISHES.

Fowls marinated.

WITH your finger raise the skin from the breast-bone of a large fowl or turkey; cut a veal sweetbread small, a few oysters and mushrooms, an anchovy, a little thyme, some lemon peel, and season with pepper and nutmeg. Chop them small, and mix them with the yolk of an egg. Stuff it in between the skin and the flesh, but be careful not to break the skin, and then stuff what quantity of oysters you please into the fowl: or you may lard the breasts of the fowls with bacon; roast with a paper over the breasts, and serve with a good coulis under them.

Pigeons compote.

SKEWER six young pigeons in the same manner as for boiling, put forcemeat (see Sauces) into the craws, lard them down the breast, and fry them brown. Put them into strong stock, and when they have stewed three quarters of an hour, thicken it with a lump of butter rolled in flour. When you serve them up, strain your gravy over them, and lay forcemeat balls round them.

Pigeons in savoury Jelly.

AFTER having roasted the pigeons with the head and feet on, put a sprig of myrtle in their bills, and make a jelly for them in the same manner as before directed for chickens, and treat them the same in every other respect.

Pigeons a la Daube

MAY be prepared in either of the modes already described for ducks, &c.

Pigeons au Poire.

HAVING made a forcemeat like the above, and cut off the feet, stuff them in the shape of a pear; roll them in the yolk of an egg, and then in crumbs of bread; stick the leg at top, and butter a dish to lay them in; then send them to an oven to bake, but do not let them touch each other. When enough, lay them in a dish, and serve with a good coulis under them.

Pigeons Surtout.

HAVING forced your pigeons, lay a slice of bacon on the breast, and a slice of veal beat with the back of a knife, and seasoned with mace, pepper, and salt. Tie it on with a small packthread, or two small fine skewers are better. Spit them

MADE DISHES. 119

on a fine bird spit, roast, and baste them with a piece of butter, then with the yolk of an egg, and then baste them again with the crumbs of bread, a little nutmeg, and sweet herbs. When enough, serve them upon a goodcoulis, adding truffles, morels, and mushrooms.

French Pupton Pigeons

HAVING put savory forcemeat, rolled out like paste, into a tin "dish; add a layer of very thin bacon, squab pigeons, sliced sweetbread, asparagus tops, mushrooms, cocks-combs, a palate boiled tender and cut into pieces, and the yolks of hard eggs: make another forcemeat, and lay it over like a pie: bake it, and when enough, turn it into a dish, and pour gravy round it

Pigeons transmogrified.

SEASON your pigeons with pepper and salt. Take a large piece of butter, make a puff-paste, and roll each pigeon in a piece of paste. Tie them in a cloth, so that the paste do not break, and boil them in a good deal of water. When the}' have boiled an hour and a half, untie them carefully that they do not break. Lay them on the dish, and pour a little good gravy round them.

Pigeons d-la-Soussell.

BONE four pigeons, and make a forcemeat (see Sauces): stuff them, and put them into a stewpan with a pint of veal stock. Stew them half an hour very gently, and then take them out: in the meantime make a veal forcemeat, and wrap it all round them. Rub it over with the yolk of an egg, and fry them of a nice brown in good dripping. Take the gravy they were stewed in, skim off the fat, thicken with a leason of eggs and cream. Season with pepper and salt, mix all together, and stir one way till it is smooth. Strain it into .your dish, and serve the pigeons on it: or instead of the leason and cream; glaze the breasts, and' serve on stewed sorrel, with the gravy in a tureen.

Pigeons en Poqueton.

PUT some forcemeat into a small stewpan, and spread it at the bottom and sides as a paste, rubbing your stewpan first with butter. Put in a couple of pigeons, some sweetbreads and palates neatly cut and ranged in your pan, and some fresh mushrooms. Close the top with forcemeat, cover it over with slices of bacon, and bake it in a gentle oven. Before you close it, pour some gravy in the inside. Your pigeons, &c.

120 MADE DISHES.

should bfe seasoned with pepper, salt, and a little eschalot. When done, turn it out carefully into your dii h; and pour into it a good coulis.

Partridges a la Braise.

TRUSS two braces of partridges with the legs in the bodies: lard them, and season with beaten mace, pepper, and salt. Take a stewpan, lay slices of bacon at the bottom, then slices of beef, and then slices of veal, all cut thin; a piece of carrot, an onion cut small, a bundle of sweet herbs, and some whole pepper. Lay the partridges with their breasts downwards, lay some thin slices of beef and veal over them, and some parsley shred fine. Cover them, and let them ste^r eight or ten minutes over a slow fire. Then give your pan a shake, and pour in a pint of weak stock. Cover close, and let it stew half an hour over a little quicker fire. Then take out the birds, and reduce the gravy till there is about half- a pint: strain it off, and skim off the fat. In the meantime, nave a veal sweetbread cut small, truffles and morels, cockscombs, and fowl's livers, stewed in a pint of good gravy half an hour, some artichoke bottoms, and asparagus tops, both blanched in warm water, and a few mushrooms. Then add the other gravy to this, and put in your partridges to heat. If not thick enough, take a piece of butter rolled in flour, and toss up in it,

Pheasants a la Braise.

HAVING put a layer of beef all over your pan, a layer of veal, a little piece of bacon, a piece of carrot, an onion stuck with cloves, a blade or two or mace, a spoonful of pepper, black and white, and a bundle of sweet herbs, lay in the pheasant. Then lay a layer of beef, and a layer of veal, to cover it. Set it on the fire for five or six minutes, and then pour in two quarts of boiling stock. Cover close, aod let it stew very softly an hour and a half. Then take up your pheasant, and keep it hot: let the gravy boil till it is reduced to about a pint, strain it off, and put it in again. Put in a veal sweetbread, first being stewed with the pheasant: add truffles and morels, some livers of fowls, artichoke bottoms, and asparagus tops, if you have them: let these simrcer in the gravy about five or six minutes, and add two spoonsful of ketchup, two of red wine, and a little piece of butter rolled in flour, with a spoonful of browning. Shake all together, put in your pheasant, let them stew altogether, with a few mushrooms, about five or six minutes more. Then take up your pheasant, and pour your ragottt all over, with a few forcemeat balls.

MADE DISHES. 121

Small Birds in savoury Jelly.

PUT a good piece of butter into the bellies of eight small birds, with their heads and feet on, and sew up their vents. Put them in a jug, cover it close with a cloth, and set them in a kettle of boiling water, till they are enough. Drain them, and make your jelly as before, and put a little into a mould: when it is set, lay in three birds with their breasts down, and cover them with the jelly: when this is set, put in the other five, with their heads in the middle, and proceed in the same manner as before directed for chickens.

FJorendine Hares.

LET the hare be a full grown one, and let it hang up four or; five days before you case it. Leave on the ears, but take out all the bones, except those of the head, which must be left entire. Lay the hare on the table, and put into it the following forcemeat: take the crumb of a penny loaf, the liver shred fine, half a pound of fat bacon scraped, a glass of red wine, an anchovy, two eggs, a little winter savory, som6 sweet marjoram, thyme, and a little pepper, salt, and nutmeg. Having put this into the belly, roll it up to the head, skewer it with packthread, as you would a collar of veal. Wrap it in a cloth, and boil it an hour and a half, in a saucepan covered, with two quarts of weak stock: as soon as the liquor is reduced to about a quart, put in half a pint of red wine, a spoonful of lemon pickle, one of ketchup, and the same of browning: stew till it is reduced to a pint, and thicken it with butter rolled in flour. Lay round your hare a few morels, and four slices of forcemeat boiled in a veal caul. When you serve it up, draw the jaw-bones, and stick them in the eyes for horns. Let the ears lie back on the roll, and stick a sprig of myrtle in the mouth. Serve on the sauce.

Florendine Rabbits.

SKIN three young rabbits, but leave on the ears, and wash and dry them with a cloth. Carefully take out the bones, but leave the head whole, and proceed in the same manner as above directed for the hare. Have ready a white sauce made of veul s:ock, a little anchovy, the juice of half a lemon, or a tea-spoonful of lemon pickle. Strain it, and take a quarter of a pound of butter rolled in flour, so as to make the sauce pretty thick. Keep stirring it while the flour is dissolving. Add a leason of eggs and cream, nutmeg, and salt, and mix with the gravy: let it simmer a little over the fire, and pour it over the rabbits.

122 MADE DISHES.

Rabbits Surprised.

TAKE young rabbits, skewer them, and put the same pudding into them as directed for roasted rabbits. When roasted, draw out the jaw-bones, and stick them in the eyes to appear like horns. Then take offthe meat clean from the bones; but the bones must be left whole. Chop the meat very fine, with a little shred parsley, some lemon-peel, an ounce of beef marrow, a spoonful of cream, and a little salt: beat up the yolks of two eggs boiled hard, and a small piece of butter, in a marble mortar; then mix all together, and put it into a stewpan: having stewed it five minutes, lay it on the rabbit where you took the meat off, and put it close down with your hand, to make it appear like a whole rabbit: brush it over with yolk of egg, strew over it grated bread, and with a salamander brown it all over: pour a good brown coulis, made as thick as cream, into the dish, and stick a bunch of myrtle into their mouths.

Rabbits in Casserole.

HAVING divided your rabbits into quarters, you may lard them or not. Shake some flour over them, and fry them in lard or butter: put them into an earthen pan, with a quart of good stock, a glass of white wine, a little pepper and salt, a bunch of sweet herbs, and a small piece of butter rolled in flour: cover close, and let them stew half an hour; then serve them up, and pour the sauce over them.

Turtle.

TAKE a turtle weighing one hundred pounds; the evening before you dress it, tie a cord to the two hind fins, and hang it up: tie a cord in like manner to the fore fins to pinion it; and cut off the head. Lay the turtle with the back shell downwards upon a block, anil loose the shell all round the edge by cutring it, and raise the shell clean off the flesh: take out the gall without breaking it; cut the fore fins off, and all the flesh will come away with them: cut off the hind fins; takeout the liver whole, and the heart and kidneys: cut out the entrails from the back bone, and put them into a large pan: wash the shell so as to free it from the blood, and turn it down to drain: cut the fins from tiie lean meat; and cut the belly shell into twelve pieces: turn up the back shell, and take all the fat from it. putting it into a stewpan: saw off the upper part of the back shell about six inches deep: set a large stewpan full of water upon the fire, and when it boils, dip the fins, head, and pieces of shell, separately into it, clearing each as it

MADE DISHES. 125

is scalded, peeling the fins, head, and shell: put the pieces of shell into a stewpan with eighteen large onions; and a faggot of turtle herbs; and having filled it with water, make it boil, and then set by the side of the fire to simmer till they are tender: cut the fore fins into four, and the hind ones into two pieces; and having put them into a stewpan that will exactly hold them; add twelve large onions and a faggot of turtle herbs; cover with water and set on a stove to boil; when it boils, set by the side of the fire to simmer till the fins are tender: draw out all the bones and put them by themselves on a dish; take up the pieces of shell on another dish, and strain the liquor both were boiled in, into one pan: cut off the lean meat, and let what is not reserved for the callipee, be added, together with three fowls, a faggot of turtle herbs, a dozen large onions, and two pounds of lean ham: put the ham at the bottom of a soup-pot, with the fowls cut in pieces, and the lean meat over them, adding a bottle of madeira, and set the pot on a stove to draw-down, taking care it does not burn: let it stew an hour, and fill it up with the liquor strained from the fins and pieces of shell; and when it boils, set it by the side of the fire, to stew for two hours: strain it off, taking what lean meat may be wanted for the tureens, and keep it covered with stock that it may be hot: scour and scald the entrails quite clean, cutting them into pieces about two inches long; and set them on in cold water to blanch: having washed them clean, cover the bottom of a stewpan with fat bacon, put in the entrails with the liver blanched, adding a few onions, two lemons peeled and cut into slices, a quart of stock, and cover with fat bacon, letting them stew gently for three hours: put two pounds of butter into a stewpan with a pound of lean ham cut small, some mushrooms, truffles, eschalots, parsley, marjoram, thyme, basil, a large onion, and a pint of stock; set the stewpan over a stove to stew for an hour, add a plateful of flour by degrees, and the remainder of the turtle stock that the fins and shell were stewed in: to these add four or five quarts of rich veal stock, and a bottle of madeira: let it boil for a few minutes, and rub it through a tamis: take one half of this soup, and put it into a soup-pot with the lean meat cut in pieces about two inches square, forcemeat balls and egg balls, to be served in tureens: take the other half of the soup, and having put it into a soup-pot, add the fins and head cut in pieces, together with forcemeat balls and egg balls, to be served in tureens: put the green fat to stew with a little stock and madeira; and when done, cut it into small pieces, and add it to each of the soup-pots: take a little of the soup out of each pot, and season with cayenne, pounded spices, and salt; and divide it equally: just before the turtle is

124 MADE DISHES.

served, squeeze into a bason four lemons, and three Seville oranges, adding a pint of madeira, a table-spoonful of pounded sugar, and a little salt: divide this equally between the souppots, and servo in tureens.

Callipee.

TAKE a quarter of the under part of the turtle, and scald it; taking out the shoulder-bone, and filling the cavity with a well high seasoned forcemeat made with the lean of the turtle; put it into a stewpan, with a pint of madeira, cayenne, salt, lemon juice, a clove of garlic, mace, cloves, allspice pounded, faggot of turtle herbs, six large onions, and four quarts of strong veal stock; and stew gently till three parts done: take up the turtle, and put it into another stewpan with some of the entrails boiled, and egg balls; add a thickening of flour and butter to the liquor, let it boil, and strain it to the turtle: stew till tender, and serve in a deep dish, having a border of paste ornamented, and previously baked.

Mock Turtle without Calves Head.

TAKE three cow-heels, and having cut them in pieces, stew till tender in four quarts of second stock: add five anchovies, a piece of butter, salt, cayenne, mace, cloves, shred lemonpeel, three leeks, parsley, and lemon-thyme, all finely shred: stew gently for two hours: cut two pounds of lean veal into small pieces, fry in butter of a light brown, and add to the above, with a pint of madeira, four spoonfuls of ketchup, and stew another hour: have ready some forcemeat balls and egg balls, which add a quarter of an hour before serving, and immediately before put into the tureen, add the juice of two lemons.

Mock Turtle of Calves Head.

TAKE a scalp cleaned by the butcher, scald for twenty minutes, wash it clean, and cut into pieces two inches square; add four quarts of veal stock, and boil till nearly done: take two pounds of veal cut into pieces about an inch square, and stew in a quart of strong veal stock, seasoned with a faggot of turtle herbs, six onions, cayenne, salt, mace, and cloves; stew fill tender, and strain, adding the meat and strained liquor to the head, &c.: let the whole stew a quarter of an hour adding a pint of madeira, forcemeat balls, and egg balls: just before serving, squeeze in the juice of a large lemon.

Or having scalded a calf's head with the skin on, saw it in two; take out the brains, tie up the head in a cloth, and boil it one hour: cut the meat in small square pieces, and throw

MADE DISHES. 1 25

them into cold water, washing them clean: put the meat into a stewpan with a sufficient quantity of good veal stock to cover it; let it boil till tender, and remove it from the fire: into another stewpan put half a pound of butter, the same of lean ham cut fine, parsley, thyme, eschalots, mushrooms, marjoram, basil, and four onions, all chopped very fine, and add a pint of stock: let them all simmer for two hours; strain, and thicken with flour, adding stock sufficient to make two tureens, and a bottle of madeira; let it boil five minutes, add forcemeat balls, egg balls, and the meat with the stock; season with cayenne, salt, and pounded spices: let the whole heat thoroughly without boiling, add the juice of a lemon and Seville orange, and serve immediately.

Souties of Carp, Tench, Salmon, Eels.

HAVING cleaned the fish, bone and cut them into thin collops; flat, and put them into a souties-pan prepared in the following manner: having taken a bit of fresh butter, shake it over the fire till melted, sprinkling thyme, parsley, eschalot, and a little basil, all finely shred, and seasoned with white pepper, salt, and cayenne: shake the fish gently over a stove till half done; and having turned the slices, continue to move the pan till they are enough: take them up, place them round a dish, and change the herbs, &c. into a small stewpan, adding a glass of claret or port, a tea-spoonful of essence of anchovy, the same of oyster ketchup and lemon pickle, a lump of sugar, and half a pint of good coulis: boil for a few minutes, and having strained the sauce through a tamis, pour it into the middle of the dish.

Souties of Haddocks, Co4, Me.

HAVING boned the fish, cut them into collops; butter a souties-pan, and sprinkle it with pepper and salt; and having flatted the collops, put them on the souties-pan: set them on a stove for five minutes, turn them and put them on a dish: put the liquor that comes from the fish into a stewpan with half a pint of benshamelle (see Sauces ), a tea-spoonful of essence of anchovies, the same of garlic, vinegar, and lemon pickle, and half a tea-spoonful of sugar; let "the whole boil, and serve over the fish.

Entree of Crimped Cod.

TAKE a slice of crimped cod three inches thick, put it into boiling salt and water, and let it boil ten minutes: when cold, prick it into flakes, and dip each flake separately into the following batter: two spoonsful of flour, one of sweet oil, and

126 MADE DISHES.

the same of white wine, seasoned with a little salt and white pepper: fry in boiling lard till of a nice brown; and having drained them dry, serve with fried parsley round, and oyster sauce in a tureen.

Entree of Fish in a Mould.

HAVING wiped the mould clean, rub the inside with fresh butter, and strew over the bottom a layer of grated Parmezan cheese an inch thick, and upon that another layer of boiled ribband maccaroni: upon this, place slices offish boned, and strewed with parsley, thyme, and eschalots, kitchen pepper, and cayenne, all shred fine: on these lay maccaroni and Parmezan cheese, as at first: put the mould into a moderate oven, bake it an hour, turn it out, and serve with a goodcoulis round it.

Entree of Eels.

HAVING skinned and ',oned two large eels, cut them in pieces three inches long; pass them over a fire in a small quantity of sweet herbs and eschalots chopped very fine, fresh butter, pepper, salt, and lemon juice: when three parts done, put all on a dish, dip each piece into the liquor, roll it in grated bread, and broil it: serve with anchovy sauce.

Entree of Soles.

HAVING cleaned and filleted the soles, roll them up; put them into a stewpan, adding a little fresh butter, lemon juice, pepper, and salt, and simmer over a slow fire till done: serve with a strong coulis coloured with pounded lobster spawn, adding to it a few button onions, mushrooms, sliced pickled cucumbers, cayenne, and salt.

Entree of Fillets of Soles.

HAVING boned and filleted the soles, roll them up, tying them with thread: wipe one half of them dry, dip them in egg, roll in grated bread, and fry of a nice brown: boil the other half in salt and water, and place them alternately in the dish, with nicely coloured lobster sauce under them.

Entree of Salmon.

HAVING made white paper cases, put a little sweet oil in the bottom of each: cut the salmon into pieces, pepper and salt them, and put them into the cases: set them on a baking plate over the fire, or put them into the oven: when done, serve Avith a poached egg on each, and anchovy sauce in a tureen.

MADE DISHES. 127

Entree of Skate.

BOIL four or five rings of crimped skate in strong salt and water for ten minutes: drain dry, and serve with the following sauce over it: a gill of weak veal stock, a gill of melted butter, a gill of cream, the yolks of four eggs, and a little mustard, beaten well together, to these add the liver previously boiled and rubbed through a sieve, a little chopped parsley, white pepper and salt; let the whole warm thoroughly, but not boil.

Entree ofMackarel.

HAVING split them down the back, season with white pepper and salt, and lay a sprig of fennel in each: broil them gently, take out the fennel, and serve with the following sauce: melted butter, green onions and parsley chopped vety small, white pepper, salt, and lemon juice.

Entree of any kind of Fish in Balls,

HAVING boned the fish, pound it in a mortar, adding to it parsley, thyme, basil, and eschalots, chopped very fine; kitchen pepper, a spoonful of white wine, cayenne, salt, grated bread, half a gill of cream, and the yolks of four eggs; mix all well together, and roll into small balls: put them into boiling water, simmer for a quarter of an hour, drain dry, and serve with a strong coulis over them.

Fillets of Salmon.

HAVING cut six thin slices of Salmon, flat them gently; brush them over with yolk of egg, season with white pepper and salt, roll them up, tying them with thread, and put them into a stewpan that will just hold them: cover them with bacon, and add half a pint of stock, and set the stewpan on a stove for half an hour: take up the salmon, skim the liquor, add a gill of coulis, a glass of madeira, a tea-spoonful of essence of anchovy, a small lump of sugar, a few chopped capers, cayenne, and salt: let the sauce simmer, and serve with the fish over it.

Fillets of Soles.

HAVING filleted a pair of soles, shred two of the fillets and as much fat bacon, and put them into a mortar with a little parsley and eschalots shred: pound these, and add two ounces of grated bread previously soaked in cream, the yolk of an egg, two anchovies washed, boned, and shred, white pepper

128 MADE DISHES.

and salt: pound these well together, and having flattened the fillets, brush them over with yolk of egg, and spread over them a thin sheet of the above force: roll them up, tying the rolls with thread; and having lined a tart,pan Avith sheets of fat bacon, put in the rolls, cover with sheets of fat bacon, and add a little stock: put the tart-pan into a slow oven for half an hour, take up the rolls, and serve with Italian sauce over them.

'Fillets of Whitings.

HAVING boned and filleted the whitings, put the fillets for five minutes into boiling water; take them up, and serve, with Italian sauce over them.

Fillets of Sturgeon

ARE to be dressed exactly in the way already directed for soles, except that a very little garlic finely shred may be added to the farce: serve with sauce royal over them.

Matelot of Carp and Tench.

HAVING scaled and cleaned the fish, put them into a stewpan with a pint of port wine, a pint of stock, two dozen small onions, a quart of mushrooms, a faggot of turtle herbs, and a few blades of mace: set it on a stove for half an hour: into another stewpan put an ounce of. butter, parsley, eschalots, 'four anchovies, all shred; set these on the fire for a minute or two, taking care that they do not burn, and add a gill of stock: let this simmer till the fish is done; take up the fish, mix the contents of both stewpans together, let them boil, strain through a tamis, a"nd serve over the fish, with two dozen blanched oysters.

Salmon it la Royale.

HAVING skinned and cleaned a large eel, take out the bone, chop the meat quite fine, adding two anchovies, a little lemon peel shred fine, peppe;, grated nutmeg, parsley, and yolk of an egg boiled hard anH shred: mix all together, and roll up in a piece of butter; a.id with this make a stuffing for a handsome piece of the salmon: lay the fish in a stewpan that will just hold it, adding half a pound of fresh butter, and when it is melted shake in a little flour, and stir till it is brown: to this put a pint of fish-stock (see Sauces)^ pint of madeira, an onion, a faggot of turtle-herbs, and season with kitchen pepper; let the whole stew till nearly done, and add mushroom powder, truffles, and morels; when quite done, take up the salmon, and strain the sauce over it.

MADE DISHES. 129

Turbot, Soles, and Flat Fish, a la Francoise.

HAVING cleaned the fish, put them into an earthen dish, with u quart of water and half a pint of vinegar; let them lie two hours, take them out, dry them with a cloth, and put them into a stewpan, with a pint of white wine, a quarter of a pint of water, a little marjoram, winter savory, and an onion stuck with four cloves, sprinkle in a little bay-salt, cover close, and stew till done: take up the fish, and keep it warm: to the liquor add a piece of butter rolled in flour, boil till sufficiently thick, and strain over the fish.

Matelot of Tench, Carp, Pike, and Perch.

HAVING scaled and cleaned the fish, put them into a stewpan with a pint of stock, a pint of port wine, two dozen button onions, half a pottle of mushrooms, a few blades of mace, and a faggot of turtle herbs; set it on to stew for half an hour; take out the fish, and to the liquor add, chopped parsley, eschalots, three anchovies, and half a pint of good coulis; let the whole boil well, and having strained it through a tamis, add two dozen blanched oysters, and a little lemon juice, and serve over the fish.

Lobster (hot).,

PICK the meat from the shells of two lobsters, and put them into a stewpan with some melted butter, a table spoonful of essence of anchovy, a little white pepper, salt, and powdered mace: stew all together, and shake the pan till the lobster is thoroughly hot; or add a little lemon juice, or lemon pickle*

Lobsler in the shell (hot) .

CUT the fleshy parts of two or three middling sized lobsters into small squares, and season them: put the contents of the body into a rnortar, with a quarter of a pound of butter, and some white pepper and salt; pound it well, and puJp through a sieve: boil a little good stock, and add the Hesh of the lobsters: when cold, put the meat into the body shells, and lay the forced meat that has been pulped evenly over it; sprinkle it with grated bread, put it into the oven to heat, and serve with a good coulis under it.

Lobster (cold).

TAKE the flesh as whole as possible from the tails and claws, and having split the tail, make the sauce in the following manner: bruise the yolks of two hard boiled eggs, and when

1 30 MADE DISHES.

rubbed fine, add a little mustard, oil, vinegar, essence of anchovy, white pepper, salt, and a little elder vinegar.

Crab (hot}.

BEAT the flesh and inside of a crab in a marble-mortar, with white pepper, salt, grated nutmeg, and crumbs of bread; to this add half a pint of good veal stock, and two spoonsful of wine: put the whole into a stewpan with some butter rolled in flour, and when quite hot, add a little lemon juice.

Crab (cold). To be dressed in the same manner as lobster.

Cucumbers with Eggs.

PARE, quarter, and cut six large cucumbers into squares, about the size of a dice. Put them into boiling water, and give them a boil: take them out of the water, and put them into a stewpan, with an onion stuck with cloves, a slice of ham, a quarter of a pound of butter, and a little salt. Set it over the fire a quarter of an hour, keep it close covered, skim it well, and shake it often, for it is apt to burn. Then dredge in a little flour, and put in as much veal stock as will just cover the cucumbers. Stir it well together, and keep a gentle fire under it till no scum will rise. Then take out the ham and onion, and put in the yolks of two eggs beat up with a teacup full of good cream. Stir it well for a minute, then take it off the fire, and just before you put it into a dish, squeeze in a little lemon juice. Lay on the top of it five or six poached eggs Potatoes, Puree of.

BOIL the pared potatoes in very good stock; rub them through a tamis, and add a little sauce tournay.

SANDWICHES. Shrimps.

Pur a layer of potted shrimps, between two slices of bread and butter, and with a mould cut them into shapes.

Lampreys. To be made as directed for shrimps.

Lobsters and Anchovies. To be made as directed for shrimps.

Beef, Ham, Chicken, Veal, Game, fa. To be made as directed for shrimps.

MADE DISHES. 131

Cold Meat.

TAKE equal quantities of butter and grated Cheshire cheese, and a sufficient quantity of mustard, beat the whole in a mortar, and having spread it upon thin slices of bread, lay on it thin slices of cold meat, cover with bread, and cut into shapes with a mould.

Cheshire Sandwich.

TAKE anchovies, Cheshire cheese, and butter, in equal proportions; made mustard to the palate; pound well in a marble mortar, and with this composition spread thin slices of bread, and cover with thin slices of any kind of cold meat, and again with bread, &c.: cut into shapes.

/, with gravy.

CUT two chickens into pieces, and fry gently in butter, strewing over them at the same time three table spoonsful of curry powder: have ready fried six large onions chopped small; put these with the chickens and a pint of veal stock into a stewpan; cover closely, and stew gently till tender: just before serving up, add the juice of a lemon. As curry is generally eaten with rice, the East India mode of dressing it is subjoined:

Rice.

TAKE half a pound of Patna rice, wash it in salt and water j strain and put it into two quarts of boiling water; let it boil twenty minutes, and strain through a colander; set the colander before the fire for the rice to dry, and when perfectly so, shake the colander over the dish, so that every grain of rice may be separated. Carolina rice will require a pint more water.

Curry ) without gravy.

HAVING cut a chicken into pieces, take a table spoonful of curry powder, and a tea-spoonful of powdered turmeric, mix together in a mortar with a little water, add a clove of garlic finely shred, and beat them well; add a little salt and water, and rub part of this mixture over each piece of the chicken: put a large piece of butter into a stewpan, and hold it over the fire till completely melted, and having sliced a large onion, put together with the chicken into the melted butter, and fry till thoroughly done: before serving up. add a little lemonjuice.

K2

132 MADE DISHES.

Curry of Pork, Mutton, Giblets, Lobsters, and Prawns, A.Uf. made in either of the ways above described.

Burdwan, Indian, to be dressed at table.

CUT up a boiled fowl, and put it into a pan over a lamp, with three table spoonsful of essence of anchovy, three table spoonsful of madeira, a little water, a lump of butter rolled in flour, a large onion shred fine, cayenne and salt: stew till the onions are tender.

Burdwan, English, to be dressed at table.

TAKE either cold rabbit, fowl, veal, or lamb, and having cut it into pieces, put it into a pan over a lamp, with as much good gravy as will cover it: add a piece of butter rolled in Hour, an onion shred fine, two spoonsful of .essence of anchovy, a glass of port wine, cayenne and salt: stew slowly for a quarter of an hour.

Brado Fogado.

HAVING picked and washed some spinach very clean, put it into a stewpan without water; when enough, squeeze the liquor from it. Shred some onions, and fry them in butter: put to the spinach, a pint of shrimps cleared from the shell, or the tail of a large lobster shred small, a table spoonful of curry powder, a little water, and salt: stir well together, adding the fried onions, and let the whole stew a quarter of an hour, without burning.

A Solama-gundy.

TAKE a handful of parsley, two pickled herrings, four boiled eggs, both yolks and whites, and the white part of a roasted chicken. " Chop them separately, and exceedingly small. Take the lean of some boiled ham scraped fine, and turn a china bason upside down in the middle of a dish. Make a quarter of a pound of butter into the shape of a pine-apple, arid set it on the bason's bottom. Lay round your bason a ring of shred parsley, then a ring of yolks of eggs, then whites, then ham, then chickens, and then herrings, till you have covered your bason, and disposed of all the ingredients. Lay the bones of the pickled herrings upon it, with their tails up to the butter, and let their heads lie *on the edge of the dish. Lay a few capers, and three or four pickled oysters round the dish.

MADE DISHES. 133

Maccaroni.

HAVING boiled four ounces of maccaroni till quite tender, lay it on a sieve to drain, and then put it into a tossing-pari, with ahout a gill of cream, and a piece of butter rolled in flour. Boil it five minutes, pour it on a plate, lay Parmesan cheese all over it, brown with a salamander, and send it up on a waterplate.

Omelettes.

BEAT six eggs, strain them through a hair sieve, and put them into a frying-pan, with a quarter of a pound of hot butter. Throw in a little boiled ham scraped fine, a little shred parsley, and season with pepper, . salt, and nutmeg. Fry it brown on the under side, and lay it on your dish, but do not turn it. Hold a hot salamander over it for half a minute, to take off the raw look of the eggs.

Omelette of Asparagus.

BEAT up six eggs with cream, boil some of the largest and finest asparagus, and when boiled cut off all the green in small pieces. Mix them with the eggs, and put in some pepper and salt. Make a slice of butter hot in a pan, put them in, and serve them on buttered toast.

Ramequins.

BRUISE in a stewpan a piece of Parmesan or mild Cheshire cheese, with about a quarter of a pound of butter, half a pint of cold water, a very little salt, and an anchovy minced very fine. Let it all boil, and put as much flour as the, sauce requires to thicken it. Let it dry upon a slow fire, until it becomes like thick batter. Then put it into another stewpan, and beat up as many eggs as the butter can bear without becoming too liquid, for it should be rather stiff'. Serve in square papers, pinched up at the four corners, and lay them on a tin, which you must put into the oven until they become of a fine yellow brown: then serve.

1 34 FRUGAL DISHES.

CHAPTER XIII.

FRUGAL DISHES.

Bee/ and Cabbage.

V^UT the cabbage in slices as for pickling, and having rubbed the bottom of an iron pot with butter, put in layer of cabbage, either white or red, seasoned with white pepper; on this place a piece of salted beef, cover it with the remainder of the cabbage, and over the whole pour a quart of boiling water: cover the pot close, and let the whole stew gently till enough: a piece of bacon may be added if approved of.

Leg of Beef (See Plate.)

WITH a sharp knife cut off all the meat, leaving the gristly part fast to the bone: saw the bone into several pieces, and put them with three gallons of water, six onions, four carrots, sweet herbs, two leeks, a little allspice, salt, and black pepper, into an iron pot to stew over the fire all night: in the morning ski in off the fat, and having cut the meat into thick slices, fry it a nice brown with a part of the fat thus skimmed; the remainder will make good pie crust. In the same pan fry six large onions; put these and the slices of meat, together with a xjuart of table beer, into the pot with the liquor of the bones, adding more onions, carrots, turnips, &c.: let the whole stew gently eight hours; take up the meat, and strain the liquor over it.

Pepper Pol.

To one gallon of water, take three pounds of neck of mutton and a pound of pickled pork; to these add, in summer, pease, spinach, lettuce, onions, and sweet herbs; in winter, carrots, turnips, celery, onions, and sweet herbs: put the whole into a pot, and when boiling, skim it; season with pepper and salt, and stew gently till enough. A pepper-pot may be made with a variety of things, observing a proper proportion of each.

Vegetable Soup.

TAKE any cold meat, bones, &c.; add carrots, onions, turnips, celery, pepper, and salt: put these with a proper proportion of water into a pot; stew gently four or five hours;

FRUGAL DISHES. 135

strain off the bones, vegetables, &c.; and adding fresh vegetables cut in the form of a dice; simmer till tender, and serve.

Cold roasted Beef, different modes of dressing.

HAVING cut the beef into very thin slices, season with pepper, salt, and a very little ground allspice; to these add a handful of parsley, and an onion, shred small: put these into a small saucepan: take the bones of the meat, break them small, put them into a saucepan with an onion, carrot, thyme, and other sweet herbs, all shred, and draw a little good gravy: strain this gravy into the saucepan with the meat, adding a giJI of table beer and a a spoonful of vinegar: let it simmer very gently a. quarter of an hour, and stir in the yolks of two eggs previously well beaten: serve immediately.

Or, having made the gravy as in the former receipt, cut the meat and fat into rather thicker slices, dredge them with flour, and fry of a nice brown: chop an eschalot and anchovy, put them into a small saucepan, and add the fried beef, and the gravy strained upon it, season with pepper and salt; let the whole simmer very gently till thoroughly hot: add two spoonsful of vinegar, ana serve.

Or, having prepared the gravy as before directed, cut the meat into slices half an inch thick, and four inches square; on these spread a forcemeat of grated bread, cold fat, eschalot, and an anchovy, all shred fine; season with pepper and salt, roll them up, tie with tape or string, and put them into a saucepan, pouring on them the drawn gravy, and stewing very gently till tender.

Or, having prepared the gravy as above, mince the beef with an onion, anchovy, pepper, and salt; add a little gravy, and put the meat into escalop shells, or saucers, till three parts full; fill the remaining part with mashed potatoes, and put them into an oven, or Dutch oven, to brown.

Or, having prepared the gravy as above, mince the meat, and add to it grated bread, onion, anchovy, parsley, and lemon-peel, all shred very fine; put these into a saucepan with a bit of butter to warm, stir all well together; let it cool, and make into balls with yolk of egg, strewing grated bread over them: fry of a nice brown, thicken the gravy with a little flour, strain it on the dish, and serve the balls upon it.

Beef a la Vinaigrette.

CUT slices of undone cold boiled beef about two inches thick, and stew in a gill of water, a gill of vinegar, and a gill of table beer: to these 1 add an onion stuck with cloves, a fag-.

136 FRUGAL DISHES.

got of sweet herbs, and having seasoned to the palate, stew till the liquor is nearly consumed, and turning it once. When cold, skim off the fat, strain the liquor, adding a little vinegar to it, and serve with the beef.

Ox Heart,

HAVING cut off the deaf ears, wash them, and put them Into a saucepan with an onion stuck with four cloves, two large onions sliced, a carrot sliced, sweet herbs, pepper, and salt: set these by the side of the fire to stew for gravy: \vash and wipe the heart clean, stuff it with forcemeat made of grated bread, suet shred, parsley and thyme chopped, and season with pepper and salt: skewer up the holes that the stuffing may not come out, and roast gently for an hour and an half; or bake it: strain the gravy over it, and serve.

Ox Cheek.

HAVING boned and washed the cheek clean, tie it up like a rump of beef, and put it into a stewpan with a pint of water and a pint of table beer; when it boils, skim it, and add two carrots cut in pieces, a turnip, two large onions sliced, and one stuck with two cloves, a faggot of sweet herbs, pepper and salt: let the cheek stew till nearly done, take it up, strain the liquor, return it into the same stewpan, adding half a gill of ketchup, a spoonful of vinegar, white pepper and salt to the palate; put in the cheek; and having stewed till tender, serve with the gravy.

Bubble and Squeak.

TAKE cold boiled cabbage or greens of any kind, and having chopped them, add a little butter, pepper and salt; fry all together, and keep warm in a dish before the fire: fry some slices of underdone beef slightly, and serve upon the fried cabbage.

Coifs Liver roasted.

HAVING washed and wiped the liver, cut a long hole in it, and fill with a forcemeat of grated bread, an anchovy chopped, fat bacon chopped, swe-et herbs and an onion finely shred, a bit of butter, the yolk of an egg, salt and pepper: sow up the hole, and having covered the liver with a caul, roast it gently: serve with gravy made from bones of any kind, with an onion, sweet herbs, a gill of table beer, and the same of water; all well stewed, and strained over the liver.

FRUGAL DISHES. 137

Liver and Lights.

TAKE an equal quantity of liver and lights, and boil them; cut them into mince, adding a few spoonsful of the liquor they were boiled in, a bit of butter rolled in flour, salt, pepper, a little ketchup, and a spoonful of vinegar: let the whole simmer a few minutes, and serve on sippets of toasted bread.

Pickled Mackard or Caveach.,

HAVING cleaned the mackarel, divide them along the back, and fry them in oiled butter of a nice brown: when cold, lay them in a large pot, and cover them with boiling vinegar, prepared in the following manner: take a sufficient quantity of vinegar, and put into it pepper, allspice, a few cloves, and a blade of mace, all beaten to powder; let the whole boil till the goodness is extracted from the spices, add salt to the palate, and strain over the fried mackarel.

China Chilo.

MINCE a pound of raw mutton with a little of its fat, add two onions and a lettuce sliced, a pint of green pease,- half a gill of water, three ounces of clarified butter, season with white pepper and salt, and simmer gently in a stewpan closely covered, for two hours: serve in the middle of a dish of plain boiled rice.

N. B. When the rice is boiled, pour it into a colander, let it remain till all the water is run off, and lightly shake it into the dish, so that every grain may appear separated from the rest.

Calf's Liver, Bacon, Eggs, and Herbs.

TAKE two large handfuls of green parsley, one of green onions, and chop them together very small; clean and drain a good quantity of spinage, and having put it into a stewpan, sprinkle it in layers with the chopped onions and parsley: add a little butter, white pepper, and salt; let the whole stew very gently; and when done, serve in the middle of the dish, with fried liver, bacon, and eggs alternately.

Haddocks and Whitings, to dry and dress.

CHOOSE the largest, and having taken out the gills, eyes, and entrails, remove the blood from the back bone: wipe dry, and put salt into the eyes and bellies; lay them on a board

138 FRUGAL DISHES.

for a night, hang them up in the chimney corner, and in three days they will be fit to dress in the following manner: take oft the skin, rub them over with yolk of egg. strew grated bread over them, put them into a Dutch oven, oaste with butter, and serve with egg sauce. *

Pig's Harslet.

WASH and dry some liver, pig's sweetbreads, and fat and lean pieces of meat, trimmed from the chine, or hams; season with white pepper, salt, sage, and an onion, shred fine; mix all together, and having sewed them in the pig's caul, roast by a string before the fire: serve with gravy made from the bones, onion, sweet herbs, &c.

Herrings to dry and dress.

CLEAN and lay them in salt and a little saltpetre for one night: run a stick through their eyes, and let its ends rest upon the sides of a wide cask, into which you have previously put some sawdust; on the sawdust drop a red-hot heater, and let the herrings be thus smoked twenty-four hours; they are best dressed in the following manner: pour over them a sufficient quantity of boiling table beer, in which let them soak for half an hour: drain them dry, put them on a toastingfork before the fire till they are hot through, and serve with egg sauce, or butter and mustard.

Hatch Patch.

TAKE a knuckle of veal, and a scrag of mutton, put them into a saucepan with three pints of water, four large onions fried, a piece of butter rolled in flour, a quart of pease, two lettuces, and four whole onions; season with white pepper and salt, and stew gently till perfectly tender.

Or take bones of any sort, add to them the vegetables as above, and when they have stewed an hour and a half, take out the bones, and add some fried mutton, lamb, or beefsteaks fried: let these stew gently half an hour, and serve.

Jugged Hare.

HAVING skinned and cleaned an old hare, cut it up in pieces, and season them with kitchen pepper, common pepper, and salt; lay these in a jar with some sweet herbsj three onions with a clove in each, and two spoonsful of ketchup and vinegar: tie the jar with a bladder, put a little hay in the bottom of a saucepan, in which place the jar, and pour in water till it is as high as the neck: let the saucepan boil for five hours,

FRUGAL DISHES. 139

filling it up as the water wastes: take up the pieces of hare, place them in a deep dish; strain the gravy, and thicken it with flour and butter, and serve over the hare.

Soy, English, for .Roasted Meat, Poultry, and Fish.

TAKE green walnuts as for pickling, cut them in pieces, and pound in a mortar; squeeze all the juice through a sieve, and to every pint of it, put a pound of anchovies: boil till the anchovies are dissolved, and strain through a sieve: boil again, adding eight e^cfaiots shred, three clones of garlic, allspice, and whok- pepper; after these have boiled a short time, add a pint of vinegar, and a bottle of strong stale ale or beer: boil till the esctiaiots are tender; strain through a sieve, and when cold, bottle for use in small bottles.

Pilchard or Herring, and Leek Pie.

CUT the white part of some large leeks, wash them in cold water, drain them, and having scalded them in milk and water, put a la-er of them into the dish, and upon them either salted pilchards or herrings, which have soaked for a day in water: upon these place another layer of the cut leeks; cover with a plain crust (see PicsJ, and when baked, raise the side crust, pour off the liquor, and through the same hole pour half a pint of scalded cream.

Marrow Bones.

Having sawed off both ends of the bone, tie a piece of clean rag dipped in boiling water and floured over each, put into boiling water, and when enough, serve in the middle of a dish, with dry toast round it.

Ox Cheek.

CLEANSE a cheek the day before using it, and let it soak all night in salt and water; wipe clean and put into a stewpan with two quarts of water, and a quart of table beer: after it has boiled up, skim it well, and let it simmer gently for two hours, skimming it frequently: then add, six onions cut in slices and fried brown with flour, four large onions with a clove in each, three turnips cut in quarters, two carrots, two leeks also cut, pepper and salt: let it slew till perfectly tender; take out the cheek, keep it hot, strain the gravy, and xvhen cold, take off the fat; heat the gravy afresh, and serve in a tureen or bowl, with the cheek in it.

14O FRUGAL DISHES.

Cow Heels.

BOIL till tender, (save the liquor they were boiled in and use it in making soup), and serve with melted butter, mustard and vinegar; or parsley and butter.

Or, having cut the heel into four parts, dip them in yolk of egg, strew grated bread over then), and fry of a nice brown* in dripping: fry sliced onions, lay them in the middle of the dish, and the heel round it.

Herrings baked.

GUT, wash, and drain the herrings without wiping them; rub them over with saltpetre, and let them lie all night on a board. Having put them into an earthen pan, sprinkle them over with povvdered allspice, black pepper, and salt; cover them over with equal parts of vinegar and table beer, adding t\vo whole onions with two cloves in each, and a few bay-leaves: cover the pan with paper, and having tied it down, bake them in a slow oven.

Sprats baked.

SPRATS are done in the same manner as herrings, but they do not require gutting.

Beef Steaks stewed.

FRY the steaks of a nice brown, with an onion sliced; pour on them half a pint of table beer, half a pint of water, a spoonful of vinegar, a spoonful of ketchup, pepper and salt: let them stew in the pan very gently for half an hour; take up the steaks, and having thickened the gravy with a bit of butter rolled in flour, strain over the steaks.

Irish Stew.

CUT a piece of -the best end of a neck of mutton into thin chops; pare a sufficient quantity of unboiled potatoes, and cut them also into thin slices; shred four large onions, and take a stewpan, on the bottom of which lay a row of clean skewers, on these place a layer of steaks seasoned with pepper and salt, then a layer of sliced pptatoes and shred onions, and so alternately till the whole is put in; add a pint of boiling water, and stew gently for an hour.

Alamode Beef.

TAKE either of the following pieces of beef, thick flank, shoulder- of-mutton piece, clod, veiny piece; and take a deep

SAUCES. 141

tin pot that will rather more than hold the beef, cover the bottom with clean skewers, and put upon them four large onions fried a nice brown; put in the beef, sprinkling- it with powdered allspice, four cloves powdered, black pepper and salt; add one turnip, two heads of celery and three carrots, all cut small; fill up the pot with one part of table beer and two parts of water, cover it very close, and let it stew gently ten hours.

Potatoe Salad.

THE potatoes being boiled and skinned, cut them into thin slices, and pour over them the sauce usually eaten with common salads, adding a little essence of anchovy, or anchovy liquor.

Soup for the Poor.

TAKE one pound of lean beef cut into small pieces, half a pint of split pease, two ounces of rice or Scotch barley, four potatoes pared and sliced, two onions cut in quarters, pepper and salt to the palate: put these into a stone jar with nine pints of water, and bake for three hours.

Or, take the skimmings of the pot in which meat of any kind is boiled; to this add a sufficient quantity of the liquor, together with half a pint of split pease, two onions shred small, two leeks washed and cut, turnips, carrots, and sweet herbs; let the whole boil half an hour, and add four onions shred small, and fried in dripping or fat of any kind: let them simmer half an hour, and put into each jug or bowl some slices of. cold potatoes previously fried, pouring the soup over them.

CHAPTER XIV.

SAUCES.

Beef Slock.

XIAVING cut lean beef into pieces, put it into a pot with sufficient water to cover it: let it boil, and when boiling skim it well, adding a faggot of parsley and thyme, carrots scraped, leeks, onions, (in winter, turnips), celery, and a little salt; let the whole stew till tender, and strain through a fine sieve into broad shallow pans, not containing more than four quarts each: let the fat remain on the top till vranted, as it excludes air, and preserves the stock.

142 SAUCES.

Second Beef Stock

Is made by adding half the quantity of water put in at first, to the beef and vegetables from which the first stock has been drawn.

Veal Stock.

TAKE a knuckle of veal and some lean ham, free from all rancidity; and having cut the meat into pieces, put it into a pot with three pints of water, carrots, (in winter turnips), onions, leeks, and celery: stew the whole till tender, taking care that it do not contract any degree of colour; add a sufficient quantity of second beef stock, stew for one hour longer; skim off all the fat, and strain into pans. Game added to the above will greatly improve its flavour.

Clear Brown Stock.

TAKE three quarts of veal stock, perfectly free from fat, adding a small quantity of browning to make it of a good colour: season with cayenne and salt; beat up the yolks of two eggs, and whisk them with some of the stock: let it boil gently for a few minutes, and strain through a fine sieve.

Jelly Stock.

PUT four calves feet with four quarts of second stock into a stewpan; boil gently for four hours, strain through a tamis, and when cold scrape off the fat: when used, season with cayenne, salt, and lemon juice.

Fish Stock.

CLEAN and cut two eels, two tench, and two carp into thin pieces; put these into a large stewpot, together \vith any fish bones that may be left from fillets; add eight heads of celery, a faggot of thyme and parsley, four blades of mace, one dozen umvashed anchovies, one dozen onions, and a pint of water: set on a slow stove, and draw down for two hours, when the stewpot will be nearly dry; but take care not to burn: aciJ six quarts of second stock; boil gently for three hours, and strain through a tamis. Plaice, soles, &c. will do as well as carp and tencn.

Glaize t for Poultry, Larding, Hams, Kc.

TAKE a leg of veal, lean of ham, beef, a couple of indifferent fowls, a small quantity of celery, turnips, carrots, onions,

SAUCES. 143

leeks, all cut in pieces; a little lemon-peel, mace, and black pepper: put all these into a large stewpot with three quarts of second stock, and sweat them down till three parts done: cover the whole with second stock, and boil till all the goodness is extracted: skim and strain into a large pan: when cold, take off the fat very clean, set it in a stewpan over the fire, and when warm, clear it with whites and a few yolks of eggs; add a little browning, and strain through a tamis: return it into a clean stewpan, and boil quickly till reduced to a glaze, taking care it do not burn.

Glaize of Herbs

MAY*be prepared in the same way, from each herb separately; in order to extract the essence of each, and to render them portable; but the different glaizes must be preserved in bottles closely stopped down.

Consume, or Essence o

Is made by reducing veal stock to a thick consistence, taking care not to burn it.

Coulis.

TAKE slices of veal and ham, add celery, (in winter, turnips), carrots, onions, leeks, a faggot of sweet herbs, allspice, mace, and a little shred lemon-peel: put all these into a stewpan with a quart of second beef or veal stock, and draw them down to a light colour, taking care not to let them burn: add a sufficient quantity of beef stock to cover the whole, and when boiling skim it, and thicken with butter rolled in flour or passing: let it boil three quarters of an hour; season with cayenne, salt, and lemon-juice: strain through a tamis, and add a little browning to make it of a good colour.

Browning for Sauces, Sfc.

PUT into a clean fryingpan a quarter of a pound of good brown sugar, and half a gill of water; set over a gentle fire, stir with a wooden spoon till burnt of a fine brown: when it boils, skim it well, and add half a pint of water; strain, and put by in a covered pot for use.

Passing of Butter.

MELT fresh butter in a stewpan over the fire; and when melted, shake in a sufficient quantity of flour with a dredger to make it into a paste, mix well together, and whisk over a very slow fire for ten minutes,

144 SAUCES.

To melt Butter in the best way.

LET the cook have a plated saucepan for this purpose, into which put a quarter of a pound of fresh butter with two teaspoonsrul of cream: shake the pan over a clear fire one way, till the butter is completely melted.

Royal Sauce (broken).

TAKE half a pound of lean Westphalia ham free from all rancidity, a chicken cut in pieces, six eschalots shred fine, a faggot of parsley, and two or three blades of mace; put all into a stewpan with a little stock to draw it down, then add a sufficient quantity of coulis; strain through a tamis, and season with cayenne, salt, and lemon juice.

Royal Sauce (white) .

DRAW the sauce with the same materials as those in the former receipt; and instead of adding coulis, use benshamelle.

Benshamelle Sauce.

TAKE white veal, lean ham, turnips, celery, onions shred, a blade of mace, and a little whole pepper; sweat them down over a very gentle heat till three parts tender, and add beef stock: when it boils skim it clean, and thicken it with passing, adding cream enough to make it quite white, and of the thickness of light batter: let it simmer gently half an hour, and strain through a tamis.

Italian Sauce (brown) Sauce Italienne.

MINCE a slice of lean ham very fine, put it together with a few chopped truffles and eschalots into a stewpan, adding a little stock, and a glass of madeira: let it simmer a quarter of an hour, and season with cayenne, salt, lemon juice, a dust cf sugar, little browning, and a few drops of garlic vinegar; strain through a tamis.

Italian Sauce (white) Sauce Italienne.

PROCEED as above directed till the ingredients have simmered a quarter of an hour: add benshamelle to make up the requisite quantity, and let this simmer a minute: strain through a tamis, and season with white pepper, salt, lemon juice, a dust of sugar, and a few drops of garlic vinegar.

SAUCES; 145

German Sauce, or Sauce Allemande.

PUT a little minced ham into a stewpan, and a few trim* tilings of poultry, dressed or undressed; four eschalots, a small clove of garlic, a bay-leaf, two tarragon- leaves, and a few spoonsful oi stock: let. it simmer gently for half an hour; strain thiough a tamis, return into a clean stewpan, and add a sufficient quantity of coulis to make up the requisite quantity, give it a boil, and season with cayenne, salt, a dust of sugar, and a little lemon juice.

Spanish Sauce Sauce Espagnole.

SLICE four large onions, and put them into a stewpan with a little vinegar, half a pint of sherry, two slices of ham shred small, a htnall qlove of garlic, a truffle chopped, two eschalots shred, a bay-leaf, three blades of mace, and half a pint of coulis: boil all slowly for a quarter of an hour, rub through a tamis; season with cayenne and salt, and squeeze in a little lemon juice,

Flemish Sauce Sauce Flammande.

BOIL a sprig of thyme, two eschalots, and a bit of lemonpeel^a few minutes in a gill of stock; strain through a tamis j return into a clean stewpan, adding a sufficient quantity of coulis, season with cayenne, salt, a oust of sugar, and lemon juice; let it boil a minute.

Dutch Sauce Sauce Hollandoise.

HAVING sliced an onion, put it into a stewpan with a little scraped horse-radish, two anchovies, a little elder vinegar, and a gill of second stock: boil for ten minutes, strain through a tamis; return into a clean stewpan, and having made a liaison of eggs, add it gradually to the sauce, let it get hot.

Sauce Tcurnaif*

COVER the bottom of a stewpan with clean skewers, and lay a layer of Jean ham upon them; cover them with a fowl cut up, and a pound of lean veal: add a faggot of thyme and parsley, a few onions, three blades of mace, arid a pint of veal stock: let these stew, till the stock is nearly reduced, and fill up again with veal stock, letting it boil an hour: strain through a tamis, and when cold, skim off the fat, and return into a clean stewpan with a passing, adding a few mushrooms; let these simmer, put in a pint more veal stock, boil for ten minutes, and strain through a tamis.

L

146 SAUCES.

2ueen's Sauce Sauce a la Reine.

CUT up a fowl, half a pound of lean ham, six eschalots, and three blades of mace: put all these into a stewpan, with half a pint of stock, and let them s mmer a quarter of an hour: add three pints of stock, boil for half an hour, and strain through a tamis into a clean stewpan: add a passing and half a pint of cream, boil a few minutes, and again strain through a tamis j season with white pepper and salt.

Ravigot Sauce.

PUT into a stewpan a gill of stock, adding a small clove of garlic, a little burnet, tarragon, eschalot chopped, mushrooms, truffles and parsley shred fine; let them simmer a few minutes, and add as much coulis as is requisite for the quantity; rub through a tamis, season with cayenne, salt, a dust of sugar, and lemon juice.

Poivrade Sauce.

SHRED twelve eschalots, adding to them a gill and a half of vinegar, a spoonful of consume, half a spoonful of essence of anchovy, cayenne and salt: boil, and serve hot if for hot meat; if for cold, boil, and let it get cold.

Piquant Sauce for hot Poultry or Meat.

PUT four shred eschalots into a stewpan, and season with salt, adding half a gill of stock; let it simmer till the stock is consumed, taking care not to burn it: add as much coulis as there is required of sauce, let it boil a few minutes, season with cayenne, salt, a dust of sugar, a few drops of garlic vinegar, and a little lemon juice.

Hash Sauce Sauce Hachis.

CUT a few mushrooms, onions, pickled cucumbers, pickled walnuts having the black skin scraped off, and carrots, into dice; boil them in a little stock, till it comes to a glaze; add the requisite quantity of coulis, and let it boil up.

Robert Sauce.

TAKE a gill of coulis, a bay-leaf, an onion sliced, a blade of mace, a little made mustard, and a gill of Rhenish wine: boil all together a quarter of an hour, strain through a tamis; return into a clean stewpan, and reduce it till half is consumed.

SAUCES. 147

Sauce Piquant for cold Meat.

BONE two anchovies, and after pounding them in a marble mortar, add two table-spoonsful of salad oil, and a tea-spoonful of made mustard; mix well together, adding two eschalots and a little parsley shred very fine, season with white pepper, cayenne, salt, and vinegar to the palate.

Russian Sauce for cold Meat.

TAKE grated horse-radish, four spoonsful; made mustard, two tea-spoonsful; salt, one salt spoonful; sugar, one teaspoonful; vinegar, sufficient to cover the ingredients.

Sauce for a Goose.

TAKE a table-spoonful of made mustard, half a tea-spoonful of cayenne, a salt-spoonful of salt, and three spoonsful of port wine; mix well together, heat over a lamp, and pour quite hot into the goose through a slit in the apron.

Hachis Sauce mellee.

TAKE the breast of a cold roasted or boiled fowl, two eggs boiled hard, pickled cucumbers, capers, eschalots, parsley and lean ham, all chopped small; add to them coulis, and two spoonsful of mushroom ketchup: let them simmer half an hour.

tipple Sauce, for Pork, Geese, fife.

PARE, quarter and core, baking apples; and having put them into a stewpan, add a small stick of cinnamon, a few cloves, a bit of lemon rind, and a small quantity of water; cut a piece of white paper to fit the stewpan, press it down close on the apples, put on the cover, and simmer gently till the apples are tender: take out the peel and spices; add a bit of fresh butter, sugar to the palate, and beat fine with a wooden spoon.

Gravy for Poultry, Meat, and Steaks.

CUT slices of lean beef, lean ham, and veal; pare onions, turnips, carrots, and celery; cut them small, adding a faggot of parsley and thyme, a little mace and whole pepper, and a few spoonsful of water: having put them into a stewpan, sweat them over a gentle fire, till the liquor is of a light brown: add stock, and a little browning, season with salt, and let it simmer till the meat is thoroughly done; strain through a tamis, and when cold, skim off the fat.

L 2

148 SAUCES.

Green Sauce, for Green Geese, Ducklings, Kc.

WASH sorrel, and having bruised it in a marble mortar; strain the juice through a tamis: add a little loaf sugar, the yolk of an egg well beaten with it, and a spoonful of vinegar to every gill of the juice; let it barely simmer, stirring with a wooden spoon, and serve.

Or having picked green spinach, wash and bruise it in a mortar, and strain the liquor through a tamis: to every gill of the juice, add a little lump sugar, the yolk of an egg, and two table-spoonsful of the pulp of gooseberries rubbed through a sieve: let them simmer, &c. as above.

Bread Sauce, for Game, Turkeys, Kc.

SOAK grated bread in half a pint of milk or cream; add a small onion; set them over the fire, stirring with a wooden spoon till all the milk is taketi up: take out the onion, add two ounces of fresh butter, white pepper and salt to the palate; beat all very fine, and serve hot.

Essence of Ham for Sauces.

TAKE four pounds of raw but lean Westphalia ham; put it into a stewpan with a little water, six peeled eschalots, and two bay-leaves: cover the pan closely, and simmer till three parts done; add two quarts of water, and boil till tender: strain through a fine sieve^ and when cold skim off all the fat: return it into a clean saucepan, and when warm, clear it with whites of eggs: strain through a tamis; return it into a stewpan, and boil till reduced to a pint: when cold, put it into snuali bottles, and cork them close.

Liaison or Leason, for Fricassees, Kc.

TAKE the yolks of four eggs, half a pint of cream, and a little salt, mixed well together: simmer, and mix as directed in the different receipts.

Lemon Sauce for Fowls, Kc.

HAVING pared two lemons, cut them into very small pieces of the shape of dice; and take the liver and scalded parsley chopped fine: put them into a stewpan, adding boiling benshatnelle and a little melted butter: simmer for a minute or two.

SAUCES. 149

Marinate.

TAKE a little stock, salt, whole pepper, vinegar, onions sliced, a clove of garlic, a few bay-leaves, and a little thyrne: boil all together, and strain through a tamis.

Onion Sauce.

HAVING boiled the onions, take of? two coats from the outsides; chop the remainder quite smooth, and add them to fresh butter melted with a little good cream: season \rith salt and white pepper, and simmer till quite hot.

Queen Sauce of Chicken.

To half a pint of boiling veal stock, add two ounces of grated French bread, two ounces of Jordan almonds blanched and pounded very fine; also the yolks of two hard-boiled eggs, and the white meat of a fowl cut and pounded; let these all simmer, and rub them through a tamis: add a little cream and season to the palate, making it quite hot when put over the chickens, &c,

French Olive Sauce.

STONE the olives, and stew in veal stock till tender, and the ^liquor nearly reduced; season with cayenne, salt, and lemon juice.

Sweet Sauce for Venison, Mutton, Kc.

TAKE half a gill of coulis, two spoonsful of vinegar, a gill of port wine, an onion boiled and rubbed through a sieve, a little pounded cinnamon, and lump sugar to the palate Jet the whole boil, and serve hot.

Truffle Sauce for Turkeys, Sc.

HAVING cleaned and pared green truffles, put them into a stewpan with a pint of beef stock, and stew them gently: when the liquor is almost reduced, add a well seasoned conlis, and serve hot.

Sauce for Wild Ducks, Kc.

TAKE a gill of stock, the same of port wine, two eschalots shred, a blade 'of mace, a little grated nutmeg, cayenne, and salt: let these simmer ten minutes, and strain through a tamis.

150 SAUCES.

Stock Sauce.

TAKE a quart of white wine, the juice of two lemons, and put them into a stone jar: take five large anchovies, some whole Jamaica pepper, ginger sliced, mace, cloves, lemon peel, sliced horse-radish, a faggot of sweet herbs, a few sliced eschalots, two spoonsful of capers and a little of the liquor; and having tied these all loosely in a muslin bag, put into the jar with the wine, stop it close, and set it in a kettle of hot water for an hour, and keep in a vrarm place. In a month this sauce will be fit for use, and a spoonful is a great improvement to any other sauce.

Sauce for Roast Meat.

WASH an anchovy very clean, and put to it a glass of red wine, a little strong stock, grated nutmeg, an eschalot chopped, and Ihe juice of a Seville orange; let these stew gently five minutes, and strain to the gravy that runs from the meat.

Sauce for Pies.

TAKE some'veal stock, one anchovy, a bunch of sweet herbs, and a little mushroom liquor; boil for a few minutes, and thicken with butter rolled in flour; add half a glass of claret, and pour through a funnel into the pie.

Lemon Sauce (white).

PARE a lemon, and having cut it into slices, pick out the seeds, and chop very small; boil the liver of a fowl, and with a spoon rub it through a sieve; mix these in a little veal stock, and add a liaison (see Sauces}: season with white pepper and salt.

Mushroom Sauce.

HAVING chopped some pickled mushrooms, add three spoons, ful of veal stock, salt, and grated nutmeg; let them simmer a few minutes, and add. melted butter.

Parsley Sauce.

TAKE some parsley seed, and having bruised it, tie it in a linen rag, and boil ten minutes in a saucepan with half a pint of water: take out the seed, and reserve the water. Take as much of the water as is wanted, and to it add butter and flour; melt together, and add a little finely chopped spinach.

SAUCES. 151

Sauce for cold Chicken, Partridge, or Veal.

Two anchovies boned, washed, and chopped; shred parsley, a small onion or eschalot chopped; white pepper, oil, vinegar, mustard, mushroom and walnut ketchup: mix well together.

Quirts Fish Sauce.

HALF a pint of walnut pickle, half a pint of mushroom pickle, six anchovies pounded, six others whole, a glass of white wine, three blades of mace, and half a tea-spoonful of cayenne: let it stand a fortnight or longer, and strain into small bottles for use.

Quill's Game or Meat Sauce.

PUT two ounces of butter into a stewpan, with two onions, two eschalots, and a clove of garlic sliced; the outward parts of a caiTot and parsnip, a bay-leaf, thyme, basil, and two cloves: shake ovef the fire till it begins to colour, and add a dust of flour, a glass of port, half a pint of strong stock, and a spoonful of vinegar: boil half an hour; skim off the fat, strain through a tamis, and season with cayenne and salt: boil again, and strain over the meat.

Egg Sauce.

SHRED hard-boiled eggs very fine, and add them to butter melted in a little good cream.

Sauce for Fish Pies (with cream}.

HAVING chopped an anchovy very small, dissolve it in hajf a gill of veal stock; to these add a gill of good cream, and a little passing; let them simmer till quite hot, and pour in through a funnel.

Keeping Fish Sauce.

TAKE a gill of mountain wine, a pint of port, half a pint of walnut ketchup, a gill of walnut pickle, twelve anchovies and their liquor, the rind and juice of a fine lemon, six eschalots shred small, three ounces of grated horse-radish, two tea-spoonsful of made mustard, three blades of mace, three cloves, cayenne and salt: let these all boil till half consumed; strain through a tamis, and when cold, put in small bottles corked and sealed.

159 SAUCES.

Sauce for Fish Pies (without cream}.

TAKE equal quantities of Lisbon wine, vinegar, oyster liquor, and mushroom ketchup; with these, boil a chopped anchovy till dissolved: strain through a tamis, and pour into the pie.

Essence of Anchovies.

TAKE one pound of anchovies; put them into a stewpan with two quarts of water, two bay-leaves, a little whole pepper, scraped horse-radish, a sprig of thyme, two blades of mace, six eschalots shred small, a gill of port wine, a gill of mushroom ketchup, and half the rind of a lemon: boil for half an hour, strain through a tamis, and when cold, put the essence into small bottles, corking them well, and keeping them in a dry place.

Fennel Sauce.

TAKE green fennel, mint, and parsley, a little of each; wash them clean, and having boiled them tender, chop all fine j add them to butter melted with a little cream, and when quite hot, add two spoonsful of green gooseberries scalded and pulped through a sieve: serve immediately, as the herbs lose their colour by standing in the butter,

Lobster Sauce.

TAKE the meat and spawn of a large lobster, and having cut it into small pieces, pound it in a marble mortar, and rub through a tamis cloth: melt a pound of fresh butter with half a pint of good cream, in this put the pulp, and thicken with a passing: when it simmers, season with essence of anchovy, lemon juice, cayenne and salt.

Crab Sauce

MAY be prepared as above directed for lobsters; the inside being pounded with the meat.

Oyster Sauce, for Fish.

HAVING blanched the oysters, strain, and preserve their liquor: wash, drain, and beard them; putting them into a stewpan with fresh butter, and their liquor (free from any sediment): let them warm, when add a passing; let these simmer, stirring one way with a wooden spoon, and season with cayenne, salt, essence of anchovy, a little lemon juice apd a spoonful of mushroom ketchup.

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Oyster Sauce (white), for Fish.

BLANCH large oysters till half done, strain and preserve the liquor: beard, wash, and drain the oysters; and put their liquor free from sediment into a stevvpan with two ounces of fresh butter, half a pint of good cream, a bit of lemon peel, and a blade of mace; set it on the fire, and when nearly boiling, mix a passing to thicken it: season with cayenne, salt, and lemon juice, and strain through a hair sieve upon the oysters previously put into another stewpan: let them simmer gently five minutes.

Oyster Sauce, for Steaks.

BLAXCH a pint of .oysters, and having preserved their liquor; wash, beard, and drain them, putting their liquor (free from sediment, into a stewpan with a spoonful of soy, and ketchup: to these add a gill of coulis, a bit of horse-radish, and a quarter of a pound of fresh butter: when near boiling thicken with a passing, season with cayenne, salt, and lemon juice: strain through a sieve to the oysters, and stew gently five minutes.

Shrimp Sauce.

HAVING picked, washed, and drained the shrimps, put their shells into a stewpan, with a gill of water and a blade of mace: let them simmer till all the flavour is extracted from them; and strain the liquor through a sieve into another stevvpan containing fresh butter, anchovy essence, lemon juice, cayenne, and salt: shake in a sufficient quantity of flour to thicken, bring it to boil, and skim it: put in the shrimps, and let them simmer five minutes.

Anchony Sauce.

HAVING put half a pound of fresh butter into a stewpan, with three spoonsful of essence of anchovy, of mushroom and walnut ketchup, each a spoonful; soy, a tea-spoonful; juice of half a lemon, cayenne, and passing, to thicken; boil together, and skim clean.

Celery Sauce (brown).

HAVING cut celery heads three inches long, blanch them, and drain off the water; adding a sufficient quantity of stock to boil them in till tender: when the liquor is nearly reduced, coulis well seasoned, and simmer till hot.

154 SAUCES.

Celery Sauce (white J.

PROCEED as above till the celery is tender; and add bensham el le.

Carrot Sauce.

HAVING cut the red part of a large carrot into small dice, boil in stock till it comes to a glaze; then add couiis.

Chervil Sauce.

PICK a large handful of chervil leaves, and having put them into a stewpan with stock; stew till the stock is almost reduced: add couiis sufficient for the quantity, a little madeira, lemon juice, and a dust of sugar.

Cucumber Sauce.

HAVING pared the cucumbers, cut them into quarters, cutting out all the seeds, and dividing each quarter into four pieces: take as many small onions as pieces of cucumbers, and put them together with the cucumber into vinegar, salt, and water, for two hours: drain them, and put into astewpan with as much stock as will cover them, boiling them down to a glaze; add couiis sufficient to make the quantity of sauce.

Eschalot Sauce.

HAVING shred six eschalots, put them into a stewpan with a little stock, letting them simmer till tender; add a little couiis, and season with lemon juice, and a dust of sugar.

Puree of Potatoes.

HAVING pared some mealy potatoes, boil them in stock, and rub them through a tamis, adding some tournay, and a little salt.

Tarragon Sauce Is made in the same manner as chervil sauce.

Turnip Sauce.

HAVING pared four turnips, sweat them with a little water till they are done; rub them through a tamis, and add a small quantity of benshamelle.

Sorrel Sauce.

HAVING chopped four large handfuls of picked sorrel, put it into a stewpan with a small piece of butter, a slice of

SAUCES. 155

ham, and two onions shred: let these gently simmer in the juice of the sorrel for tefl minutes; add a gill of stock, and simmer half an hour longer: rub all through a tamis, add a little coulis to it, and season with cayenne, salt, and lemon juice.

Haricot Roots.

HAVING scooped an equal quantity of turnips and carrots,, peel as many button onions: put on the carrots to boil in stock, a quarter of an hour before the onions and turnips, and having boiled them to a glaze, add a sufficient quantity of coulis, for the sauce required.

Salad Sauce.

TAKE the yolks of two eggs boiled hard, a dessert spoonful of Parmesan cheese, a tea-spoonful of made mustard, a dessert spoonful of tarrogan vinegar, and a spoonful of ketchup: when well mixed together, add four spoonsful of salad oil, and having made it unite with the former ingredients, add one spoonful of elder vinegar.

Or, take the yolks of two raw eggs, add a salt-spoonful of powdered lump sugar, mix together, and add by degrees four^ spoonsful of salad oil, mixing it very well the whole time: to these put best vinegar and salt, to the palate.

Brown Braise.

CUT some beef suet, and trimmings of any kind of meat, and put them into a stewpan with four onions, a faggot of thyme, parsley, basil, and marjoram; two blades of mace, a carrot cut in slices, six heads of celery, a few bay-leave*, a bit of butter, and a little stock: set it over the fire, and draw down for half an haur, fill it up with second stock, and add a little white wine to it.

White Braise.

TAKE part of the udder of veal, and having put it into cold water, make it boil; take it out, put it into cold water for a few minutes, take it out and cut into small pieces, putting them into a stewpan with a bit of butter, onions, a faggot of thyme and parsley, a pared lemon cut in thin slices, a few blades of mace, and a spoonful of water: set over a very gentle fire, stirring for a few minutes; then add a little white stock.

Forcemeat hot, or Farce.

TAKE veal free from sinews and gristle, cut it into small pieces-, as much fat of ham, or bacon; half as much marrow,

156 SAUCES.

or beef suet; put these into a stewpan with a little bit of butter in the bottom, season with parsley, thyme, mushrooms, truffles, and eschalots all very finely shred, cayenne, white pepper, and salt; put it over the fire, add a little grated nutmeg, and stir with a wooden spoon till the juice of the meat begins to draw; let it simmer very gently for ten minutes; put it to cool, and when cold, beat the whole in a marble mortar till very fine.

Cold Forcemeat, for Sails, Kg.

TAKE the same ingredients as above directed, and having well beaten them in a mortar, add yolk of egg and grated bread, sufficient to make into balls.

Turtle Herbs, to preserve.

TAKE basil, pot marjoram, orange thyme, lemon thyme, common thyme, parsley four times the quantity of the other herbs; let them dry gradually in a warm dry place, and rub them through a hair sieve, preserving them in a wide-mouthed bottle, closely corked.

Mushroom Powder.

DRY the mushrooms whole, set them before the fire to crisp; grind, and sift the powder through a fine sieve, preserving it in small bottles, closely corked.

Mushroom Ketchup.

TAKE mushrooms, and having cut off part of the stalk towards the root, wash them clean, drain, and then bruise them a little in a marble mortar; and having put them into an earthen pan, cover them with a moderate quantity of salt, letting them remain for four days: strain through a tamis cloth, and pour off the clear liquor into a stewpan; to every pint of juice add half a gill of port wine, a little whole alfspice, cloves, mace, pepper, and cayenne: boil for twenty minutes, then skim and strain the ketchup, and when cold, put it into small bottles, closely corked.

Curry Powder.

TAKE mustard seed, scorched and finely powdered, one ounce and a half; coriander seed in powder, four ounces; turmeric in powder, four ounces and a half; black pepper in powder, three ounces; lesser cardamoms in powder, one ounce; ginger in powder, half an ounce; cinnamon in po\v

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der, one ounce; cloves in powder, half an ounce; mace in powder, half an ounce; mix all the powdered ingredients well together, and keep in a wide-mouthed bottle, closely stopped.

Camp Vinegar.

CHOP a large head of garlic fine, and put into a widemouthed bottle, with half an ounce of cayenne, a spoonful of soy, two spoonsful of walnut ketchup, four anchovies chopped, a pint of vinegar, and a sufficient quantity of cochineal to give it a good colour; let it stand six weeks, strain through a'tamis, and keep in smati bottles, closely corked.

Kitchen Pepper.

TAKE ginger, one ounce; cinnamon, a quarter of an ounce; black pepper, Jamaica pepper, and nutmeg, half an dunce of each; ten cloves, and six ounces of salt, all finely powdered: keep in a wide-mouthed bottle, closely stopped.

Spices

SHOULD each be finely powdered, and kept in separate bottles, with glass stoppers.

Walnut Ketchup.

HAVING put any quantity of walnuts into jars, cover them with cold best vinegar, and tie them close for twelve months: take out the walnuts from the vinegar, and to every gallon of the liquor put two heads of garlic, half a pound of anchovies, a quart of red wine, and of mace, cloves, long, black, and Jamaica pepper, and ginger, an ounce each: boil them all together till the liquor is reduced to half the quantity, and the next day bottle it for use.

Or, take green walnuts before the shell is formed, and grind them in a crab-mill, or pqund them in a marble mortar. Squeeze out the juice through a coarse 'cloth, and put to every gallon of juice a pound of anchovies, the same quantity of bay-salt, four ounces of Jamaica pepper, two of long, and two of black pepper; of mace, cloves, and ginger, each a quarter of an ounce, and a stick of horse-radish. Boil all together till reduced to half the quantity, and put it into a pot. When cold, bottle it, and in three months it will be fit for use.

Lemon Pickle.

GRATE off very thin the out-rinds of two dozen of lemons, and cut the lemons into four quarters, but leave the bottoms

158 .-i.U'CES.

whole. Rub on them equally half a pound of bay-salt, and spread them on a large earthen dish. Put them into a cool oven, or let them dry gradually by the fire, till all the juice is dried into the peels. Then put them into a well-glazed jar, with half an ounce of mace, a quarter of an ounce of cloves beat fine, an ounce of nutmegs cut into thin slices, four ounces of peeled garlic, and half a pint of mustard seed a little bruised, and tied in a muslin rag. Pour over them two quarts of boiling white wine vinegar, and close the pitcher up well. Let it stand by the fire five or six days, shake it up well every day, then tie it up, and let it stand three months, by which time it will lose its bitter taste: strain through a hair sieve, press them well to get out the liquor, and let it stand another day. Then pour off the fine, and bottle it; let the other stand three or four days, and it will fine itself. Then pour off the fine, and bottle it; and let it stand again to fine, and thus proceed till the whole is bottled.

Garlic Vinegar.

TAKE four large heads of garlic, two drams of mace, four cloves, and a quart of vinegar, boil for half an hour, and stop close in ajar for a month: strain into small bottles.

Eschalot Vinegar.

TAKE half a pound of eschalots peeled, and proceed as directed for garlic.

Mustard.

TAKE four onions, eight eschalots, two cloves of garlic, two ounces of grated horse-radish, and a spoonful of salt; boil in a pint of water for half an hour: strain } and when rather more than milk-warm, mix gradually with half a pound of best flour of mustard.

Tomata Sauce (Love Apple).

TAKE tomatas when ripe, and having baked them till soft, scoop them out with a tea-spoon, and pulp them through a sieve: to the pulp add as much Chili vinegar as \\ill bring it to a proper thickness, with salt to the taste: to each quart, add garlic half an ounce, and eschalot one ounce, both sliced very thin; boil for a quarter of an hour, skimming the mixture well. Strain, and when quite cold, put into bottles, letting them stand a few days before they are corked.

Mock Tomata Sauce

Is made by substituting sharp-tasted apples for tomatas, and after baking them, colouring the pulp with turmeric, so as to resemble tomatas.

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Oyster Ketchup (brown).

HAVING opened the oysters, save the liquor, and'scald them in it; let it settle, and strain through a tarnis; add to it browning sufficient to colour, two cloves, two blades of mace, a quarter of an ounce of whole pepper, a little salt, cayenne, a clove of garlic sliced, a spoonful of essence of anchovy, and a glass of port wine: boil all together for ten minutes, strain, and when cold, put into small bottles well corked.

Oyster Ketchup (white) .

TAKE the scalded liquor as above, add a glass, of sherry, lemon juice and peel, white pepper, mace, and nutmeg: boil together as above.

Cockle Ketchup (white and brown). TREAT in the same way as oysters.

CHAPTER XV.

SOUPS AND BROTHS.

PRELIMINARY HINTS AND OBSERVATIONS.

I AKE great care that your pots? saucepans, and covers, are very clean, and free from all sand and grease, and that they are properly tinned; since, if this be not cautiously attended to, your soups and broths will not only acquire a bad taste, but become pernicious to the health and constitutions of many. When you make any kind of soup, particularly vermicelli, portable or brown gravy soups, or any other soups that have herbs or roots in them, be sure to remember to lay your meat at the bottom of the pan, with a large piece of butter. Then cut the roots and herbs small, and having laid them over your meat, cover your pot or saucepan very close, and keep under it a slow fire, which will draw all the virtues out of the vegetables, turn them to a good gravy, and give the soup a very different flavour from what it would have by a contrary conduct. When your gravy is almost dried up, replenish it with water; and when it begins to boil, take off the fat, and follow the directions given you for the particular kind of soup or broth you are making. Soft water will suit

1GO SOUPS.

your purpose best in making old peas soup; but when you make soup of green peas, you must make use of hard water, as it will the better preserve the colour of your peas. In the preparation of white soup, remember never to put in your cream till you take your soup off the fire, and the last thing you do, must be the dishing of your soups. Gravy soup will have a skin over it by standing; and from the same eause peas soup will often settle, and look thin at the top. Lastly, let the ingredients of your soups and broths be so properly proportioned, that they may not taste of one thing more than another, but that the taste be equal, and the whole of a fine and agreeable relish.

Soup a la Reine.

PUT three quarts of water to a knuckle' of veal and three or four pounds of beef, with a little salt, and when it boils, skim it well. Then put in a leek, a little thyme, some parsley, a head pr two of celery, a parsnip^ two large carrots, and six large onions, and boil all together till the goodness is quite out of the meat: strain through a hair sieve, and let it stand about an hour: skim it well, and clear it off gently from the settlings into a clean pan: boil half a pint of cream, pour it on the crumb of a halfpenny loaf, and let it soak well. Take half a pound of almonds, blanch arid beat them as fine as possible, putting in now and then a little cream to prevent their oiling: then take the yolks of six hard eggs, and the roll that was soaked in the cream, and beat them all together quite fine: make your broth hot, and pour it to your almonds, strain it through a tamis, rubbing it with a spoon till all the goodness is gone quite through into a stewpan: add more cream to make it white, and set it over the fire. Keep stirring it till it boils, skim off the froth as it rises, and soak the tops of French rolls in melted butter In a stewpan till they are crisp, but not brown: take them out, and lay them on a plate before the fire; and, about a quarter of an hour before you send it to table, take a little of the hot soup, and put it to the rolls in the bottom of the tureen. Put your soup on the fire, keep stirring it till it nearly boils, and then pour it into your tureen, and serve it up hot. Be careful to take otf all the fat of the broth before you pour it to the almonds, or they will curdle and spoil it.

Soup and Bauillie.

To make the bouillie, roll five pounds of brisket cf beef tight with a tape; put it into a stewpot, with four pounds of the leg of mutton piece of beef, and about seven or eight

SOUPS. 161

quarts of water. Boil these up as quick as possible, and skim it very clean; add one large onion, six or seven cloves, some whole pepper, two or three carrots, or a turnip or two, a leek and two heads of celery. Stew these very gently, closely covered, for six or seven hours. About an hour before dinner, strain the soup through a tamis cloth. Have ready boiled carrots cut like wheels, turnips cut in balls, spinach, a little chervil and sorrel, two heads of endive, and one or two of celery cut into pieces. Put these into a tureen, with a Dutch loaf or a French roll dried, after the crumb is taken out. Pour the soup to these boiling hot, and add a little salt and cayenne. Take the tape from the boullie, and serve it in a separate dish.

Mutton Broth.

CUT a neck of mutton of about six pounds into two, and boil the scrag in about a gallon of water. Skim it well, and put in a little bundle of sweet herbs, an onion, and a good crust of bread. Having boiled this an hour, put in the other part of the mutton, a turnip or two, a few chives chopped fine, and a little parsley chopped small. Put these in about a quarter of an hour before your broth is enough, and season with salt. A quarter of a pound of barley or rice may be added.

Portable Soup.

THIS is a very useful soup for travellers, and must be made thus: cut into small pieces three large legs of veal, one of beef, and the lean part of half a ham. Put a quarter of a pound of butter at the bottom of a large stewpot, and lay in the meat and bones, with four ounces of anchovie^ and two ounces of mace; cut off the green leaves of five or six heads of celery, wash them quite clean, and cut them small. Put in these, with three large carrots cut thin, and cover the stewpot close. Put it over a moderate fire, and when you find the gravy begin to draw, take it up till you have got it all out: cover the meat with water, set it on the fire again, and let it boil four hours slowly: strain through a tamis into a clean stewpan, and let it boil three parts away: strain the gravy drawn from the meat into the pan, and let it boil gently till of the consistence of glue, observing to keep skimming off the fat clean as it rises. Great care must be taken, when nearly enough, that it do not burn. Season it to your taste with cayenne, and pour it into flat earthen dishes a quarter of an inch thick. Let it stand till the next day, skim off all the fat, and then cut it out by round tins a little larger than

M

162 SOUPS.

a crown piece. Lay the cakes in dishes, and set them in the sun to dry, and be careful to keep turning them often. When the cakes are dry, put them in a tin hox, with writing-paper between every cake, and keep them in a dry place. This soup should be made in frosty weather. By pouring a pint of boiling water on one cake, and a little salt, it will make a good bason'of broth; and a little boiling water poured on it will make gravy for a turkey or fowls. It possesses one valuable quality, that of losing none of its virtues by keeping.

Gravy Soup.

TAKE a shin of beef, and put it into six quarts of water, with a pint of peas, and six onions Set it over the fire, and let it boil gently till all the juice is out of the meat: strain through a sieve; when cold, skim off the fat, and return into a stewpan to reduce to half the quantity. Season to your taste with pepper and salt, and put in a little celery and beet leaves, arid boil till tender.

White Soup.

PUT a knuckle of veal into six quarts of water, with a large fowl, a pound of lean bacon, half a pound of rice, two anchovies, a few pepper-corns, a bundle of sweet herbs, two or three onions, and three or four heads of celery cut in slices. Stew ail together, till the soup is as strong as you would have it, and then strain it through a hair sieve into a clean earthen pot: let it stand all night, skim oil the fat, and pour it into a stewpan. Put in half a pound of Jordan almonds beat fine, simmer a little, and run it. through a tamis: add a pint of cream and the yolk of an egg, and send it up hot.

Soup Maigre.

MELT half a pound of butter in a stewpan, and shake it well; when it is done hissing, throw in six middling-sized onions, and shake the pan well for five minutes: put in four or five neads of celery cut small, a handful or t\vo of spinach, a cabbage-lettuce, and a bunch cf parsley, all cut fine; shake these well in the pan for a quarter of an hour, stir in some fioiir. and pour into it two quarts of boiling water, with some stale crusts of bread, some beaten pepper, and three or four blades of mace beat fine: stir all together, and let it boil sentry for half an hour. Then take it off, beat the yolks of two eggs, and stir them in: add a spoonful of vinegar, and pour it into the tureen.

Or take a quart of green moratto peas, three quarts of soft water, four onions sliced; floured and fried in fresh but

SOUPS. 163

ter, the coarse stalks of celery, a carrot, a turnip, and a parsnip, and season the whole with pepper and mace to your taste. Stew all these verv gently together, till the pulp will force through a sieve. Have ready a handful of beet-leaves and root, some celerv and spinach, which must be first blanched and stewed tender in the strained liquor. Have ready the third part of a pint of spinach juice, which must be stirred in \\ ith caution when the soup is ready to be served up, and not be suffered to boil after it is put in, as that will curdle u: add a crust of bread, some tops of asparagus, and artichoke bottoms.

Scotch Barley Broth.

CHOP a leg of beef into pieces, and boil it in three gallons of water, with a piece of carrot and a 'crust of bread, till it is half boiled away: then strain it off, and put it again into the po-, with half a pound of barley, four or five heads of celery cut small and washed clean, a bundle of sweet herbs, a large onion, a ml a little parsley chopped fine. Let this boil an hour, and take a large fowl clean picked and washed, and put it into the pot: boil it till the broth is quite good, theii season it with salt to your taste. Take out the onion and sweet herbs, and send it to table with the fowl in the middle: or you may omit the fowl, as it will be very good without it.

This broth is sometimes made with a sheep's head instead of a leg of beef, and is very good; but in this case you must chop the head all to pieces. Six pounds of the thick flank, in six quarts of water, make good broth. Put in the barley with the meat, first skim it well, and boil it an hour very softly. Then put in the above ingredients, with turnips and carrots clean scraped and pared, and cut in little pieces. Boil all together softly till the broth is very good: then season with salt, and send it to table with the beef in the middle, turnips and carrots round, and pour the broth over all.

Soup au Bourgeois.

TAKE twelve heads of endive, and four or five bunches of celery; wash them very clean, cut then into small bits, let them be well drained from the water, pnt them into a. large pan, and pour upon them a gallon of boiling water: set ort three quarts of beef stock in a large saucepan; strain the herbs from the water very dry: when the gravy boils, put them in. Cut off the crusts of two French rolls, break them and put into the rest. When the herbs are tender, the soup is enough. A boiled fowl may be put into the middle, but it is

SOUPS.

very good without. If a white soup is, liked better, it must be veal stock, with the addition of a pint of cream.

Soup Lorraine.

TAKE a pound of almonds and blanch them, and beat them in a mortar, with a very little water to keep them from oiling; put to them all the white part of a large roasted fowl, and the yolks of four poached eggs: pound all together as fine as possible, and take three (marts of strong veal stock, and pour it into a stewpun, with the other ingredients, and mix them well together: boil softly over a stove or clear fire, and mince the white part of another fowl very fine. Season it with pepper, suit, nutmeg, and a little beaten mace. Put in a bit of butter of the size of an eg^, and a spoonful or two of the soup strained, ami set it over the stove to be quite hot. Cut two French rolls into thin slices, and set them before the fire to crisp. Then take one of the hollow rolls which are made for oyster loaves, and fill it with the mince; lay on the top as close as possible, and keep it hot. Strain the soup through a tamis into a clean saucepan, and let it stew till of the thickness of cream. Put the crisped bread in the dish or tureen, pour the soup over it, and place in the middle of it the roll with the mincemeat.

Chesnut Soup.

PICK half a hundred of chesnuts, put them in an earthen pan, and set them in the oven for half an hour, or roast them gently over a slow fire, but take care they do not burn. Then peel them, and set them to stew in a quart of good beef stock till quite tender. In the meantime, take a piece or slice of ham or bacon, a pound of veal, a pigeon beat to pieces, an onion, a bundle of sweet herbs, a piece of carrot, and a little pepper and mace. Lay the bacon at the bottom of a stewpan, and lay the meat and ingredients on it. Set it over a slow fire till it begins to stick to the pan, and then put in a crust of bread, -and pour in two quarts of stock: let it boil softly till one third is wasted, then strain it off, and put in the chesnnts. Season with suit, and let it boil till it be well flavoured: then stew two pigeons in it, and a F'rench roll fried erisp. Lay the roll in the middle of the dish, and the pigeons on each side; pour in the soup, and send it up hot.

Partridge Soup.

TAKE two old partridges and skin them, cut them into small pieces, with three slices of ham, some celery, and tw*

SOUPS. 165

or three onions sliced: fry them in butler till they are perfectly brown, but take care not to burn them. Then put them into three quarts or' second stock, with u few peppercorns, and boil it slowly till about a pint or little more of it is consumed. Then strain it, put in it some stewed celery and fried bread, and serve it up hot.

Vermicelli Soup.

PUT four ounces of butter into a stewpan, cut in a knuckle of veal and a scrag of mutton into small pieces, about the size of a walnut. Slice in the meat of a shank of ham, with two or three carrots, two parsnips, two large onions, with a clove stuck in at each end, three or four blades of mace, four or five heads of celery washed clean, a bunch of sweet herbs, eight or ten morels, and an anchovy: cover the pan close, and set it over a slow fire, without any water, till the gravy is drawn out of the meat. Then pour out the gravy into a bason, and let the meat brown in the same pan, but take care not to let it burn. Then 'pour in four quarts of second stock, and let it boil gently till it is wasted to three pints. Then strain it, skim off' the fat, and put the other gravy to it: set it on the fire, and add to it two ounces of vermicelli. Then cut the nicest part of a head of celery, seasoned to your taste with salt and cayenne, and let it boil four minutes. If it is not of a good colour, put in a little browning, lay a French roll in the soup dish, pour the soup in upon it, and lay some, of the vermicelli at top.

Soup Cressu.

CUT a pound of lean ham into small bits, and put them at the bottom of a stewpan. Then cut a French roll, and put over the ham. Take two dozen heads of celery cut small, six onions, two turnips, one carrot, cut and washed very clean, six cloves, four blades of mace, and two handfuls of watercresses. Put them all into the stewpan, with a pint of stock. Cover close, and sweat them gently for twenty minutes: fill it up with veal stock, and stew four hours: rub through a tamis cloth, and put it into your pan again; season with salt and cayenne: give it a simmer up, and send it to table hot, with some French roll toasted hard in it. Boil a handful of cresses till tender, in water, and nut in over the bread.

Hare Soup.

CUT a large old hare into small pieces, and put it in a jug, with three blades of mace, a little salt, two large onions, two

166 SOUPS.

Anchovies, six morels, half a pint of red wine, and three quarts of water. Bake it three hours in a quick oven, and then strain it into a stewpan. have ready boiled three ounces of French barley, or .^ago, in water: then put the liver of tbe. Hare two minutes in scalding water, and rub it through a hair sieve with the back of a v/obden spoon. Put it into the soup with the barley or sago, and a quarter of a pound of butter. Set over the fire, and keep stirring it, but do not let it boil. If the liver is disliked, add crisped bread steeped in red wine.

Gibht Soup.

To four.pounds of gravy beef, put two pounds of scrag of mutton, and two pounds of scrag of veaL Put to this meat two gallons of water, and let it stew very softly till it is a strong broth. Let it stand till cold, and skim off the fat. Take two pair of giblets, well scalded and cleaned, put them into the broth, .and let them simmer tilLthey are very tender. Take out the giblets, and strain the soup through a tarnis: put apiece of butter rolled in flour into a stewpan, and make it of a light brown. Have ready chopped small some parsley, chives, a little basil, and a little sweet marjoram. Put the soup over a very slow fire; put in the giblets, fried butter, herbs, a little Madeira wine, some salt, and cayenne: let them simmer till the herbs are tender, and send the soup to table with t, e giblets in it,

Almond Soi/p.

CHOP into small pieces a neck of veal, and the scrag end of a neck of mutton, and put them into a large stewpan. Cut in a turnip, with a blade or two of mace, and five quarts of water: set it over the fire, and let it boil gently till reduced to two quarts: strain through a hair sieve into a clean stewpan, and add six ounces of almonds blanched and beat fine, half a pint of thick cream, and season to your taste with cayenne. Have ready three small French rolls made for the purpose, of the size of a small tea-cup; if too large, they will suck up too much of the soup, and will not look well: blanch a few Jordan almonds, cut them lengthways, and stick them round the edges and the top of the rolls, and put them in the tureen: serve with the soup poured upon the rolls.

Maccaroni Soup.

TAKE four quarts of stock: take half a pound of small pipemaccaroni, and boil in three quarts of water, with a little butter

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in it, till tender; strain the water from it, and cut it in pieces of about two inches long. Put it into the soup, and boil it up for ten minutes: add the crust of a French roll baked in the tureen, and pour the soup to it.

Cow-Heel Soup.

TAKE six pounds of mutton, five pounds of beef, and four of veal, the coarsest piece will do: cut them crossways, and put them into a pot, with an old fowl beaten to pieces, and the knuckle part of a ham; let these stew without any liquor over a very slow fire, but take care it does not burn to the pot: when it begins to stick to the bottom, stir it;about, and then put in some good beef stock that has been well skimmed from the fat; then add some turnips, carrots, and celery cut small, a bunch of sweet herbs, and a bay-leaf, and let it stew about an hour. While this is doing, take a cow-heel, split it, and set it on to boil in stock, and when very tender, take it off, and set on a stewpan with some crusts of bre;id, and some more stock, and let them soak for eight or ten minutes. When the soup is stewed enough, Jay the crusts in a tureen t And then two halves of the cow-heel upon them; and pour on the soup.

Ox-Cheek Soup.

BREAK the bones of an ox-cheek, and wash them perfectly clean; lay them in warm water, and throw in a little salt, which will take out the slime: take a large stewpan, and put two ounces of butter at the bottom of it, and lay the fleshy side of the cheek-bone in it. Add to it half a pound of a shank of ham cut in slices, and four heads of celery, with the leaves pulled off, and the heads washed clean; cut them into the soup, with three large onions, two carrots, a parsnip sliced, a few beets cut small, and three blades of mace. Set it over a moderate fire for a quarter of an hour, which will draw the virtue from the roots, and give to the gravy an agreeable strength. When the head has simmered a quarter of an hour, put to it six quarts of second stock, and let it stew till reduced to two quarts. If intended to be eaten as soup, strain and take out the meat and the other ingredients, and put in the white part of a head of celery cut in small pieces, with a little browning to make it of a fine colour. Take two ounces of vermicelli, give it a scald in the soup, anr! put it into the tureen, with the top of a French roll in the middle of it. If to be eaten like a stew, take up the face as whole as possible, and have ready boiled turnip or carrot, cut in square pieces, and a slice of bread toasted and cut in small slices: add a little cayenne pepper,

168 SOUPS.

and strain the soup through a tamis upon the msat, bread, turnip, and carrot.

' Green Peas Soup,

TAKE a peck of green peas, shell and boil them in spring water till soft, and then work them through a hair sieve. Take the water the peas were boiled in, and put into it three slices of ham, a knuckle of veal, a few beet-leaves shred small, a turnip, two carrots, and add a little more water to the meat: set it over the fire, and let it boil an hour and a half; then strain the gravy into a bowl, and mix it with the pulp: then add a little juice of spinach, which must be beat and squeezed through a tamis cloth, and put in as much as will make it look of a pretty colour: give it a gentle boil, to take off the taste of the spinach, and slice in the whitest part of a head of celery: add a lump of sugar, a slice of bread, cut it into little square pieces, and a little bacon cut in the same manner, and all fried of a light brown in fresh butter. Cut a large cabbage-lettuce in slices, fry it after the other, and put it into the tureen, with the fried bread and bacon. Have ready boiled, as for eating, a pint of young peas, put them into the soup, and pour all into the tureen. If approved of, a little chopped mint may be added.

Green Peas Soup without Meat.

As the peas are shelled, separate the young from the old; boil the old ones soft enough to pulp through a sieve, and mix together the liquor, the pulp, and the young peas whole. Add some whole pepper, two or three blades of mace, and some cloves: when the young peas are nearly done, take some spinach, a little mint, a little green onion not shred too small, and a little faggot of thyme and sweet marjoram; put these into a saucepan with near a pound of butter, and as they boil shake in some flour to boil with it, to the quantity of a dredging box full: put a roll of French bread into the liquor to boil; mix the liquor and herbs together, and season with salt to the taste.

White Peas Soup.

PUT four or five pounds of lean beef into six quarts of water, with a little salt, and a* soon as it boils take off the scum. Put in three quarts of old green peas, two heads of celery, a little thyme, three onions, and two carrots. Boil them till the' meat is quite tender,, then strain it through a hair sieve, and rub the pulp of the peas through the sieve. Split the blanched part of three cos-lettuces into four quarters,

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and cut them about an inch long, with a little mint cut small. Then put half a pound of butter in a stevvpan large enough to hold your soup, and put the lettuce and mint into the butter, with a leek sliced very thin, and a pint of green peas; stew them a quarter of an hour, and shake them frequently: then add a little of the soup, and stew them a quarter of an hour longer: put in the soup, as much thick cream as will make it white, and keep stirring it till it boils. Fry a French roll a little crisp in butter, put it at the bottom of thr tureen, and pour the soup over it.

Common Peas Soup.

PUT four quarts of soft water to one quart of split peas, with a little bacon, or roast-beef bones; wash a head of celery, cut it, and put it in, with a turnip. Boil till reduced to two quarts, and then work it through a hair sieve with a wooden spoon. Mix a little flour and water, and boil it well in the soup. Slice in another head of celery, and season it to your taste with salt and cayenne. Cut a slice of bread into small dice, and fry them of a light brown. Put them into your tureen, and pour the soup over them.

Peas Soup for Winter.

CUT into small pieces about four pounds of lean beef, and about a pound of lean bacon, or pickled pork. Put them into two gallons of water, and skim it well when it boils. Then add six onions, a carrot, two turnips, four heads of celery cut small, twelve corns of allspice, and a quart of split peas. Let them boil gently for three hours, strain them through a sieve, and rub the peas through the sieve: put the soup irato a clean pot, and add some dried mint rubbed to a fine powder. Cut off the white of four heads of celery, and cut two turnips into the shape of dice, and boil them in a quart of water for a quarter of an hour; strain them off, and put them into your soup. Take about a dozen small rashers of fried bacon, put them into your soap, and season it to your taste with pepper and salt. Boil the whole a quarter of an hour longer, put fried bread into the soup-dish or tureen, and pou/* your soup over it. Or this soup may be made in the following manner: When you boil a leg of pork, or a good piece of beef, save the liquor. Take off the fat as soon as the liquor is cold, and boil a leg of mutton the next day. Save that liquor also, and, when cold, in like manned take off the fat. Set it on the fire, with two quarts of peas, and let them boil till tender. Then put in the pork or beef liquor, with

no SOUPS.

the ingredients as above, and let it boil till it is as thick as you wish it, allowing for another boiling: strain it off, and add the ingredients, as above directed, for the last boiling.

Soupe de Santti.

TAKE four quarts of stock made as follows: take six good rashers of lean ham, and put them on the bottom of a stewpan. Then put over them three pounds of lean beef, and over the beef three pounds of lean veal, six onions cut in slices, two carrots and two turnips sliced, two heads of celery, a bundle of. sweet herbs, six cloves, and tvo blades of mace. Put a little water at the bottom, and draw it very gently till it sticks: then add a gallon of water, and let it stew for two hours; season with salt to your taste, and strain it. Have ready a carrot cut in *mall slices of two inches long, and about as thick as a goose quill; also a turnip, two heads of leeks, the same of celery, and the same of endive, cut across; two cabbage-lettuces cut across, and a very little sorrel and chervil. Put them into a stewpari, and sweat for a quarter of an hour; and put them into your soup, boil them up gently for ten minutes, put in a crust of French roll into your tureen, and pour your soup over it.

Soup de Sanle, tht English way.

To ten or twelve pounds of gravy beef add a knuckle of veal and the knuckle part of a leg of mutton, a couple of fowls, or two old cocks will do as well, and a gallon of water. Let these stew very softly till reduced to one half; but mind to set them to stew the night before. Add to them some crusts of bread, a bunch of sweet herbs, some celery, sorrel, chervil, and purslain, if agreeable; or any of them may be left out: When it is strong and good strain it, and serve with either a roast or boiled fowl, or a piece of roast or boiled neck of veal in the middle.

Onion Soup.

TAKE eight or ten large Spanish onions, and boil them in milk and water till quite soft, changing the milk and water three times while the onions are boiling. When they are quite soft, rub them through a hair sieve. Cut an old cock in pieces, and, with a blade of mace, boil it for gravy: then strain it, and having poured it on the pulp of the onions, boil it gently, with the crumb of an old penny loaf, grated into half a pint of cream, and season it to your taste with salt and

SOUPS. 171

Cayenne. Stewed spinach, or a few heads of asparagus, may be added, as they give it a very pleasing flavour.

White Onion Soup.

BOIL thirty large onions in five quarts of water with a knuckle of veal, a little whole pepper, and a blade or two of mace. Take the onions up as soon as they are quite soft, rub them throug'.i a hair sieve; and work into them half a pound of butter, with some flour. When the meat is boiled off" the bones, strain the liquor to the onions, and boil it gently for half an hour, and then serve with a large cupful of cream, and a little salt. When the flour and butler-are .added, stif well to prevent burning.

Hop-Top Soup.

IN the month of April, take a large quantity of hop-tops, when they are in the greatest perfection. Tie them in bundles of twenty or thirty in each; lay them in spring water for %n hour or two, drain them well from the water, and put them to some thin peas soup. Boil them well, and add three spoonsful of the juice of onions, some pepper and salt. Let them boil some time longer, arid, when done, soak some crusts of bread in the liquor, lay them in the tureen, and pour in the soup k

Asparagus Soup.

CUT four or five pounds of beef to pieces; set it over a fire, with an onion or two, a few cloves, and some whole black pepper, a calf's foot or two, a head or two of celery, and a very little bit of butter. Let it draw at a distance from the fire; put in a quart of warm beer, and three quarts of warm beef stock. Let these stew till enough; strain it, take off the fat very clean, put in some asparagus heads cut small (palates may be added, boiled very tender), and a toasted Drench roll, the crumb taken out,

Plumb Porridge for Christmas.

PUT in a leg and shin of beef into eight gallons of water, and boil them till very tender. When the broth is strong, strain it out. Then wipe the pot, and put in the broth again. Slice six penny loaves thin, cut off the tops and bottoms, put some of the liquor to them, and cover them up, and let them stand for a quarter of an hour; then boil and strain it, and put it into your pot. Let it boil a quarter of an hour, then put in five pounds of currants clean washed and picked. Let

172 SOUPS.

them boil a little, and add five pounds of stoned raisins of the sun, and two pounds of prunes. Let these boil till they swell, and put in a quarter of an ounce of mace, a quarter of an ounce of cloves, and a small nutmeg, all beat fine. Before you put these into the pot, mix them with a little cold liquor, and do not put them in but a little while before you take off the pot. When you take off the pot, put in three pounds of sugar, a little salt, a quart of sack, a quart of claret, and the juice of two or three lemons. Yon may thicken with sago instead of bread. Pour your porridge into earthen 'pans, and keep it for use.

Milk Soup.

TAKE two quarts of new milk," two sticks of cinnamon, a couple of bav-leaves, a very little basket-salt, and a very little sugar. Then blanch half a pound of sweet almonds, while the former matters are heating, and beat them up to a paste in a marble mortar. Mix some milk with them by little and little, and while they are beating, grate some lemon peel with the almonds, and a little of the juice: strain it through a coarse sieve, mix all together, and let it boil up, Cut some slices of French bread, and dry them before the fire. Soak them a little in the milk, lay them at the bottom of the tureen, and then pour in the soup.

Milk Soup the Dutch way.

BOIL a quart of milk with cinnamon and moist sugar. Put sippets into the dish, pour the milk over it, and set it over a charcoal fire to simmer till the bread is soft. Take the yolks of two eggs, beat them up, mix it with a little of the milk, and throw it in: mix all together, and send it up to table.

Rice Soup.

PUT a pound of rice, and a little cinnamon, into two quarts of water. Cover close, and simmer very softly till the rice is quite tender. Take out the cinnamon, then sweeten it to the palate, grate half a nutmeg, and let it stand till it is cold: beat up the yolks of three eggs, with half a pint of white wine, mix them very well and stir them into the rice. Set them on a slow fire, and keep stirring all the time for fear of curdling. When of a good thickness, and boiling, take it up. Keep stirring it till it is put into the dish.

Turnip Soup.

PARE a bunch of turnips, save three or four out, and put the rest into a gallon of water, with half an ounce of whole pep

SOUPS. 173

per, an onion stuck with cloves, a blade of mace, half a nutmeg bruised, a bundle of sweet herbs, and a large crust of bread. Let these boil an hour pretty fast, then strain it through a sieve, squeezing- the turnips through. Wash and cut a bunch of celery very small, set it on in the liquor on the fire, cover it close, and let it stew. In the meantime, cut the turnips you saved into dice, and two or three small carrots clean scraped, and cut into little pieces. Put half these turnips and carrots into the pot with the celery, and the other half fry brown in fresh butter, flouring them first; then two or three onions peeled, cut into thin slices and fried J r own: put all into the soup, with one ounce of vermicelli. Let the soup boil softly till the celery is quite tender, and the s Sup good. Season with salt to the palate.

Egg Soup.

HAVING beaten the yolks of two eggs in a dish, with a piece of butter as big as a hen's egg, take a tea-kettle of boiling water in one hand, and a spoon in the other. Pour in about a quart by degrees, then keep stirring it all the time well till the eggs are well mixed, and the butter melted: pour it into a saucepan, and keep stirring it all the time till it begins to simmer: take it off the fire, and pour it between two vessels, out of one into another, till it is quite smooth, and has a great froth. Set it on the fire again, keep stirring it till quite hot, then pour it into the soup-dish, and send it hot to table.

Cray-fish Soup.

TAKE half a hundred of fresh craw-fish, boil them, and pick out all the meat, which must be carefully saved: take a fresh lobster and pick out all the meat, which must be likewise saved: pound the shells of the lobster and cray-fish fine in a marble mortar, and boil them in four quarts of water, with four pounds of mutton, a pint of green split peas nicely / picked and. washed, a large turnip, carrot, onion, an anchovy, mace, cloves, a little thyme, pepper, and salt. Stew them on a slow fire, till the goodness is out of the mutton and the shells, and strain it through a sieve. Then put in the tails of the cray-fish and the lobster meat, cut in very small pieces, with the red coral of the lobster, If it has any. Boil half an hour, and just before serving it up, put to it a little butter melted thick and smooth. Stir it round several times, take care not to make it too strong of the spice, and send it up hot.

174 SOUPS.

Oyster Soup.

TAKE what quantity may be wanted of fish-stock; then take two quarts of oysters bearded, and beat them in a mortar, with the yolks of ten e-gs boiled hard. Put them to the fish-stock, and set it over the fire. Season with pepper, salt, and grated nutmeg, and when it boils, put in the eggs and oysters. Let it boil till it be of a good thickness, and like a fine cream.

Eel Soup.

TAKE a pound of eels, which will make a pint of good soup, or any greater weight of eels, in proportion to the quantity of soup intended to be made; to every poui^d of eels put a quart of water, a crust of bread, two or three blades of mace, a little whole pepper, an onion, and a bundle of sweet herbs. Cover them close, and let them boil till half the liquor is wasted. Then strain it, and toast some bread; cut it small, lay the bread into the dish, and pour in the soup.

Muscle Soup.

WASH an hundred of muscles very clean, put them into a stewpan, and cover them close. Let theifi stew till they open; then pick them out of the shells, strain 'the liquor through a fine lawn sieve to your muscles, and pick out the beard or crab, if any. Take a dozen crayfish, beat them fine with a dozen of almonds blanched, and beat fine: then take a small parsnip, and a carrot scraped, and cut it into thin slices, and fry them brown with a little butter: take two pounds of any fresh fish, and boil them in a gallon of water, with a bundle of sweet herbs, a large onion stuck with cloves, whole black and white pepper, a little parsley, and a little piece of horse-radish. Let them boil till half is wasted, and strain them through a sieve. Put the soup into a saucepan, twenty of the muscles, a few mushrooms and truffles cut small, and a leek washed and cut very small. Take two French rolls, take out the crumb, fry it brown, cut it into little pieces, and put it into the soup. Boil it altogether for a quarter of an hour, with the fried carrot and parsnip. In the meantime, take the crust of the rolls fried crisp; take half a hundred of the muscles, a quarter of a pound of butter, a spoonful of water, shake in it a little flour, and set them on the fire, keeping the saucepan shaking all the time till the butter is melted. Season with pepper and salt, beat the yolks of three e^gs, put them in, tir them all the time for fear of curdling, and grate in a little

VEGETABLES. H5

intmeg. Wlien it is thick and fine, fill the rolls, pour the oup into the dish, put in the rolls, and lay the rest of the mus;les round the rim of the dish.

Skate or Thornback Soup.

SKIN and boil two pounds of skate or thornback in six parts of water. When enough, lake it up, pick off the flesh, ind lay it by. Put in the bones again, and about two pounds f any fresh fish, a very little piece of lemon pee!, a bundle f sweet herbs, whole pepper, two or three blades of mace, t little piece of horse-radish, the crust of a pefiny loaf, and a ittle parsley; cover close, and let it boil till reduced to about wo quarts: strain it off, and add an ounce of vermicelli, set it n the fire, and Jet it boil gently. In the meantime, take a Yench roll, cut a little hole in the top, take out the crumb, md fry the crust brown in butter. Take the flesh of the fish aid by, cut it into little pieces, and put it into a saucepan, vith two or three spoonsful of the soup; shake in a little flour, mt iri a piece of butter, and a little pepper and salt; shake hem together in the saucepan over the fire till it is quite hick, and then fill the roll with it. Pour the soup into the ureen, and let the roll swim in the middle.

CHAPTER XVI. ROOTS AND VEGETABLES.

PRELIMINARY HINTS AND OBSERVATIONS.

HE very careful that your greens are nicely picked and washed, and when so done, alwaj's lay them in a clean pan, for fear of sand and dust, which is apt to hang round wooden i-essels. Boil all your greens in a well-tinned copper saucepan by themselves, and be sure to let them have plenty of water. Boil no kind of meat with them, as that will discolour them; and use no iron pans, sucb being very improper for the purpose, but let them be either copper or br&ss well tinned; or silver. Numbers of cooks spoil their garden stufls by boiling them too much. All kinds of vegetables should have a little crispness; for if you boil them too much) you will deprive them both of their sweetness and beauty.

N. B. A tea-spoonful of American pearl -ash thrown into the water, will boil greens of a much finer colour than salt; and it is besides, perfectly wholesome.

VEGETABLES.

Cabbages.

ALL sorts of cabbages and young sprouts must have plenty of water allowed them to boil in, and when the stalks become tender, or fall to the bottom, it is a proof of their being sufficiently boiled. Then take them off before they lose their colour; but remember always to throw some salt into the water before the greens are put in. Send the young sprouts to table whole as they come out of the pot; but many people think cabbage is best chopped, and put into a saucepan, with a. piece of butter, stirring it about for five or six minutes, till the butter is all melted, then empty it on a dish, and serve it

up.

Turnips.

TURNIPS may be boiled in the pot with the meat, and indeed eat best when so done. When they are enough, take them out, put them into a pan, mash them with butter and a little salt, and in that state ^end them to table. Another method of boiling them is as follows: pare the turnips, and cut them into little square pieces of the size of dice: put them into a saucepan, and just cover them over with water. As soon as they are enough, take them off the fire, and throw them into a sieve to drain. Put them into a saucepan, with a good piece of butter, stir them over the fire for a few minutes, and they will then be fit for the table.

Potatoes.

THOUGH greens require plenty of water to be boiled in, potatoes must have only a quantity sufficient to keep the saucepan from burning. Keep them close covered, and as soon as the skins begin to crack, they will be enough. Having drained out all the water, let them stand covered for a minute or two.

Scolloped Potatoes.

HAVING boiled the potatoes, beat them fine in a marble mortar, with some cream, a large piece of butter, and a little salt: put them into scollop shells, make them smooth on the top, score them with a knife, and lay thin slices of butter on the top of them. Then put them into a Dutch oven to brown before the fire.

Spinach.

HAVING picked the spinach very clean, and washed it in five or six waters, put it into a saucepan that will just hold

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it, throw a little salt over it, and cover it close: put in no water, but take care to shake the pan often. Put the saucepan on a clear and quick fire, and as soon as the greens are shrunk and fallen to the bottom, and the liquor that comes out of them boils up, it is a proof the spinach is enough. Throw them into a clean sieve to drain, and just give them a gentle squeeze; lay them on a plate, and send them, up with butter in a boat, but never pour any over them.

Carrots.

SCRAPE the carrots very clean, put them into the pot, and when they are enough take them out, and rub them in a clean cloth, then slice them into a plate. If young' spring carrots, half an hour will boil them sufficiently; if large, they will require an hour; and old Sandwich carrots will take two hours boiling.

French Beans.

STRING the beans, cut them in two, and then across: or, cut them into four, and then aci'ossyso that each bean will then be in eight pieces. Put them into salt and water, and when the pan boils, put them in with a little salt. They will be soon done, which may be known by their becoming tender: but take care not to suffer them to lose their fine green colour.

French Beans ragooed*

STRING a quarter of a peck of French beans, but do not split them. Cut them across in three parts, and lay them in salt and water: take them out, and dry them in a coarse cloth; then fry them brown, pour out all the fat, and put in a quarter of a pint of hot water. Stir it into the pan by degrees, ami let it boil. Then take a quarter of a pound of fresh butter rolled in a little flour, two spoonsful of ketchup, a spoonful of mushroom pickle, four spoonsful of white wine, an onion stuck with six cloves, two or three blades of mace beaten, half a nutmeg grated, and a little pepper and salt. Stir it all together for a few minutes, and then throw in the beans. Shake the pan for a minute or two, take out the onions, and pour all into your dish.

French Beans ragoocd with a Force.

HAVING made a ragoo of beans as above directed, take two large carrots, scrape them, and then boil them tender. Then mash them in a pan, and season them with pepper and salt. Mix them with a little piece of butter, and two eggs. Mak$

N

118, , VEGETABLES.

it into any shape, and bake it a quarter of an hour in a quick oven; but a tin oven is the best. Lay it in the middle of the dish, and the ragoo round it.

Cauliflowers.

CUT off all the green part from the cauliflowers, then cut the flowers into four, and lay them into water for an hour: then have some milk and water boiling; put in the cauliflowers, and be sure to skim the saucepan well. When the stalks are tender, take up the (lowers carefully, and put them into a cullender to drain. Then put a spoonful of water into a clean stewpan, with a little dust of flour, about a quarter of a pound of butter, and shake it round till it is all finely melted with a little pepper and salt. Then take half the cauliflower, and cut it as for pickling. Lay it into the stewpan, turn it, and shake the pan round. Ten minutes will do it. Lay the stewed in the middle of the dish, and the boiled round it, and pour over it the butter.

Or, cauliflowers may be dressed in this manner: cut the stalks off, leave a little gfcpen on, and boil them in spring water and salt, for about fifteen minutes. Take them out and drain them, and send them up whole, with some melted butter in a boat.

Asparagus.

HAVING scraped all the stalks very carefully till they look white, cut all the stalks even alike, throw them into water, and have ready a stewpan boiling. Put in some salt, and tie the asparagus in little bunches. Let the water keep boiling, and when they are a little tender take them up. If boiled too much they will lose both their colour and taste. Cut a round of a small loaf, about half an inch thick, and toast it brown on both sides. Then dip it in the liquor the asparagus was boiled in, and lay it in the dish. Pour a little butter over the toast, then lay the asparagus on the toast all round the dish, with the white tops outwards.

Asparagus forced in French Rolls.

CiPr a piece out of the crust of the tops of three French rolls, and take out all their crumb; but be careful that the crusts fit again in their places from whence they were taken. Fry the rolls brown in fresh butter. Then take a pint of cream, the yolks of six eggs beat fine, and a little salt and nutmeg: stir well together over a slow fire till it begins to be thick. Have ready a hundred of small grass boiled, and save tops enough to stick the rolls with. Cut the rest of the tops

VEGETABLES. 179

small, put them into the cream, and fill the rolls with them. Before frying the rolls, make holes thick in the top crusts, to stick the grass in. Then lay on the pieces of crust, and stick the grass in, that it may look as if it were growing.

Parsnips.

PARSNIPS must be boiled in plenty of water; and when they become soft, which may be known by running a fork into them, take them up, and carefully scrape all the dirt off them. Then scrape them all fine with a knife, throwing away all the sticky part, and send them up plain in a dish with melted butter.

Brocoli.

CAREFULLY strip off all the little branches but the top one, and then with a knife peel off all the hard outside skin that is on the stalks and little branches, and then throw them into water. Have ready a stewpan of water, throw in a little salt, and when it boils, put in the brocoli. When the stalks are tender, it will be enough. Put a piece of toasted bread, soaked in the water the brocoli was boiled in, at the bottom of the dish, and put the brocoli on the top of it, in the same way as asparagus, and send it up to table with butter in a boat.

Windsor Beans.

THESE must be boiled in plenty of water, with a good quantity of salt. Boil and chop some parsley, put it into good melted butter, and serve them up.

Green Peas.

THE peas must not be shelled till just before they are wanted: put them into boiling water, with a little salt and a lump of loaf sugar, and when they begin to dent in the middle, they will be enough. Strain them into a sieve, put a good lump of butter into the dish, and stir them till the butter is melted. Boil a sprig of mint by itself, chop it fine, and lay it round edge of the dish in lumps.

Peas Francoise.

SHELL a quart of peas, cut a large Spanish onion small, and two cabbage or Silesia lettuces N Put to them half a pint of water with a little salt and a little pepper, mace, and nutmeg, all beaten. Cover them close, and let them stew a quarterljf an hour. Then put in a quarter of a pound of fresh

N2

1 80 VEGETABLES.

butter rolled in a little flour, a spoonful of ketchup, and at piece of burnt butter of the size of a nutmeg. Cover them close, and simmer a quarter of an hour, observing frequently to shake the pan.

Endive ragoocd.

LAY three heads of fine white endive in salt and water for two or three hours. Then take a hundred of asparagus, and cut off the green heads; then chop the rest small, as far as it is tender, and lay it in salt and water. Take a bunch of celery, wash it and scrape it clean, and cut it in pieces about three inches long. Put it into a saucepan with a pint of water, three or four blades of mace, and some white pepper tied in a rag. Let it stew till quite tender, then put in the asparagus, shake the saucepan, and let it simmer till the grass is enough. Take the endive out of the water, drain it, and leave one large head whole. Take the other leaf by leaf, put it into the stewpan, and put to it a pint of white wine. Cover the pan close, and let it boil till the endive is just enough: then add a quarter of a pound of butter rolled in flour, cover the pan close, and keep it shaking. When the endive is enough, take it up, and lay the whole head in the middle: with a spoon take out the celery and grass, and lay them round it, and the other part of the endive over that. Then pour the liquor out of the saucepan into the stewpan, stir it together, and season it with salt. Have ready the yolks of two eggs beat up with a quarter of a pint of cream, and half a nutmeg grated in. Mix this Avith the sauce, keep it stirring one way till it is thick, and pour it over the ragoo.

Force-meagre Cabbage.

BOIL a white-heart cabbage, as big as the bottom of a plate, five minutes in water: drain it, cut the stalk flat to stand in the dish, and carefully open the leaves, and take out the inside, leaving the outside leaves whole. Chop what is taken out very fine, and take the flesh of two or three flounders or plaice clean from th* bone. Chop it with the cabbage, the yolks and whites of four eggs boiled hard, and a handful of pickled parsley. Beat all together in a mortar, with a quarter of a pound of melted butter. Then mix it up with the yolk of an egg, and a few crumbs of bread. Fill the cabbage, and tie it together; put it into a deep stewpan or saucepan, and put to it half a pint of water, a quarter of a pound of butter lolled in a little flour, the yolks of four eggs boiled hard, an onion stuck with six cloves, some whole pepper and mace tied in a muslin rag, half an ounce of truffles and morels, a spoon

PUDDINGS. 181

ful of ketchup, and a few pickled mushrooms. Corer it close, and let it simmer an hour; if not sufficiently done in that time, let it simmer longer: when done, take out the onion and spice, lay it in the dish, untie it, and pour the sauce over it.

CHAPTER XVII. PUDDINGS.

PRELIMINARY HINTS AND OBSERVATIONS.

\VHEN you boil a pudding, take particular care that your cloth is clean, and remember to dip it in boiling water; flour it well, and give it a shake, before you put your pudding into it. If it be a bread pudding tie it loose, but close if a batter pudding. If you boil it in a bason, butter it, and boil it in. plenty of water. Turn it often, and do not cover the pan; and whe/i enough, take it up in the bason, and let it stand a few minutes to cool. Then untie the string, clap the cloth round the bason, lay your dish orer it, and turn the pudding out; then take off the bason and cloth very carefully, light puddings being apt to break. When you make a batter pudding, first mix the flour well with a little milk, then put in the ingredients by degrees, and it will be smooth and not lumpy; but for a plain batter pudding, the best way is to strain it through a coarse hair sieve, that it may neither have lumps, nor the treadles of the eggs; and for all other puddings, strain the eggs when you beat them. Bread and custard puddings for baking, require time and a moderate oven to raise them; batter and rice puddings a quick oven, and always remember to butter the pan or dish before you put your pudding into jt.

Steak Pudding.

HAVING made a good crust, with flour and suet shred fine, and mixed it up with cold water, season it with a little salt, and make a pretty stiff crust, in the proportion of two pounds pf suet to a quarter of a peck of flour. Take either beef or mutton steaks, well season them with pepper and salt, and make it up in the same manner as an apple pudding; tie it in a cloth, and put it in when the water boils. If a small pudding, it will be boiled in three hours, but a large one will take Jive hours.

PUDDINGS.

Calf's Foot Pudding.

MINCE very fine a pound of calves' feet, first taking out the fat and brown. Then take a pound and a half of suet, pick off all the skin, and shred it small. Take six eggs, all the yolks, and but half the whites, and beat them well. Then take the crumb of a halfpenny roll grated, a pound of currants clean picked aad washed, and rubbed in a cloth, as much milk as will moisten it with the eggs, a handful of flour, a little salt, nutmeg, and sugar, to season it to the palate. Boil it nine hours. ^Then take it up, lay it in the dish, and pour melted butter over it. White wine and sugar may be put into the butter, and it will be a very great improvement.

Yorkshire Pudding.

THIS pudding is usually baked under meat, and is thus made: beat four large spoonsful of fine flour with four eggs, and a little sak, for fifteen minutes. Then put to them three pints of milk, and mix them well together. Then butter a dripping-pan, and set it under beef, mutton, or a loin of veal, when roasting. When it is brown, cut it into square pieces, and turn it over; and when the under side is browned also, send it to table on a dish.

Hunting Pudding.

Mix eight eggs beat up fine with a pint of good cream, and a pound of flour. Beat them well together, and put to them a pound of beef suet finely chopped, a pound of currants well cleaned, half a pound of jar raisins stoned and chopped small, two ounces of candied orange cut small, the same of candied citron, a quarter of a pound of powdered sugar, and a large nutmeg grated. Mix all together with half a gill of brandy, put it into a cloth, tie it up close, and boil it. four hours.

Marrow Pudding.

GRATE a penny loaf into crumbs, and pour on them a pint of boiling hot cream. Cut very thin a pound of beef marrow, beat four eggs well, and then add a glass of brandy, with sugar and nutmeg to the taste. Mix them all well together, and then boil or bake it. Three quarters of an hour will do it. Cut two ounces of citron very thin, and when it is served, stick them all over it.

Or, having laid a thin paste in the dish, take some cream, the yolks and whites of eight eggs beat up in rose water, some

PUDDINGS. 183

sugar, and a little nutmeg. Mix them all together. Rasp some stale French rolls, and cut them in thin slices. Take a quarter of a pound of currants washed, picked, and dried; put a layer of bread in the dish, strew some currants and marrow sliced over it, then some custard, and so on alternately until the dish is full. The dish must not be very deep. After it is boiled, strew sugar over it.

Plum Pudding boiled,

CUT a pound of suet into little pieces, but not too fine, a pound of currants washed clean, a pound of raisins stoned, eight yolks of eggs, and four whites, half a' r nutmeg grated, a tea-spoonful of beaten ginger, a pound of flourf and a pint of rnilk. Beat the eggs first, then put to them half the milk, and beat them together, and by degrees stir in the flour, then the suet, spice, and fruit, as much milk as will mix it well together very thick. It will take five hours boiling.

Oxford Pudding.

TAKE a quarter of a pound of grated biscuits, the same quantity of currants clean washed and picked, the same of suef shred small, half a large spoonful of powdered sugar, a little salt, and some grated nutmeg. Mix them all well together, and take two yolks of eggs, and make them up into balls of the size of a turkey's egg. Fry them of a fine light brown, in fresh butter, and let the sauce be melted butter and sugar, with a little white wine put into it.

Custard Pudding.

FROM a pint of cream take two or three spoonsful, and mix them with a spoonful of fine flour. Set the rest of the cream on the fire to boil, and as soon as it is boiled, take it off, and stir it in the cold cream and flour very well. When cool beat up five yolks and two whites of eggs, and stir in a little salt and some nutmeg, two or three spoonsful of sack, and sweeten to the palate: butter a bason, and pour it into it, tie a cloth over it, and boil it half an hour. Then take it out, untie the cloth, turn the pudding into the dish, and pour on it melted butter.

Sweetmeat Pudding.

COVER the dish with,a thin puff paste, then take candied orange, lemon peel, and citron, of each an ounce. Slice them thin, and lay them all over the bottom of the dish. Then

184 PUDDINGS.

beat eight yolks of eggs and two whites, near Haifa pound of 'sugar, and half a pound of melted butter. Beat all veil together, pour in all the sweetmeats, and bake it something less than an hour in a moderately heated oven.

Prune or Damson Pudding.

FROM a quart of milk take a few spoonsful, and beat in it six yolks of eggs and three whites, four spoonsful of Hour,;i little salt, and two spoonsful of beaten ginger. Then, by degrees, mix in all the milk, and a pound of prunes. Boil it an hour tied up in a cloth, and pour melted butter over it. Damsons done this way eat full as well as prunes.

A

Orange Pudding.

HAVING boiled the rind of a Seville orange very soft, beat it in a marble mortar with the juice, and put to it two Naples biscuits grated very fine, a quarter of a pound of sugar, half a pound 01 butter, and the yolks of six eggs. Mix well together, lay a good puff paste round the edge of the dish, and bake it half an hour in a gentle oven.

Or, take the yolks of sixteen eggs, beat them well with half a pint of melted butter, grate in the rind of two Seville oranges, beat in half a pound of line sugar, two spoonsful of orange flower water, two of rose water, a gill of sack, half a pint of cream, two Naples biscuits, or the crumb of a halfpenny loaf soaked in cream, and mix all well together. Make a thin puff paste, and lay it all round the rim und over the dish. Then pour in the pudding and bake it.

Or, beat sixteen yolks fine, mix them with half a pound of fresh butter melted, half a pound of white sugar, half a pint of cream, a little rose water, and a little nutmeg. Cut the peel of a large Seville orange so thin that none of the white may appear, beat it fine in a mortar till like a paste, and by degrees mix in the ingredients. Then lay a puff paste all over the dis.h, pour in the ingredients, and bake it,

Or, gratq off the rind of two large Seville oranges as far as they are yellow. Then put the oranges in water, and let them boil till tender: shift the water three or four times, to take put the bitterness, and when tender, ctit them open, and take away the seeds and strings. Beat the other part in a monar with half a pound of sugar, till a paste, and add to it the yolks of six eggs, three or four spoonsful of thick cream, and half a Naples biscuit grated. Mix these together, melt a pound of fresh butter very thick, and stir it well in. When sold,, put a little puff paste about the bottom and rim of th$

PUDDINGS. 185

dish. Pour in the ingredients, and bake it about three quarters of an hour. %

Biscuit Pudding.

POUR a pint of boiling milk or cream over three Naples biscuits grated; cover it close; when cold add the yolks of four eggs, the whites of two, some nutmeg, a little brandy, half a spoonful of flour, and some sugar. Boil this an hour in a china bason, and serve it with melted butter, wine, and sugar.

Lemon Pudding.

CUT the rind very thin of three lemons, and boil them in three quarts of water till tender. Then pound them very line in a mortar, and have ready a quarter of a pound of Naples biscuits, boiled up in a quart of milk or cream. Mix them and the lemon rind with it, and beat up twelve yolks and six whites of eggs very fine. Melt a quarter of a pound of fresh butter, and put in half a pound of sugar, ami a little orange Hower water. Mix all well together, put it over the stove, keep it stirring till it is thick, and then squeeze in the juice of half a lemon. Put puff paste round the dish, as before directed, then pour the pudding, cut some candied sweetmeats and strew over it, and bake it three quarters of an hour.

Or, blanch and beat eight ounces of Jordan almonds with orange flower water, and add to them half a pound of cold butter, the yolks of ten eggs, the juice of a large lemon, and half the rind grated fine. Work them in a marble mortar till they look white and light, then put the putf paste on the dish", pour in the pudding, and bake it .half an hour,

Sago Pudding.

BOIL tv. o ounces of sago in a pint of milk till tender. When cold, add five eggs, two Naples biscuits, a little brandy, and sugar it to the taste. Boil it in a bason, and serve it with melted butter, a little wine and sugar.

Almond Pudding.

HAVING boiled the skins of two lemons very tender, and beat them fine, beat half a pound of almonds in rose water, and a pound of sugar, till they are very fine. Melt halt' a pound of butter, and let it stand till quite cold. Beat the yolks of eight, and the whites of four eggs, and then mix and beat them all together with a little orange flower water. Bake it in the oven.

186 PUDDINGS.'

Or, beat line a pound and a half of blanched almonds with a little rose water, a pound of grated bread, a pound and a quarter of fine sugar, a quarter of an ounce of cinnamon, a large nutmeg beat fine, and half a pound of melted butter, mixed with the yolks of eight eggs, and the whites of four beat fine; a pint of sack, a pint and a half of cream, and some rose or orange/ flower water. Boil the cream, tie a little saffron in a bag, and dip it into the cream to colour it. First beat the eggs well, and mix them with the butter. Beat it up, add the spice, then the almonds, then the rose water and wine by degrees, beating it all the time; then the sugar, and then the cream by degrees, keeping it stirring; and then add a quarter of a pound of vermicelli. Stir all together, and have ready some hog's guts nicely cleaned. Fill them only half full, and whilst filling, here and there put in a bit of citron. Tie both ends of the gut tight, and boil them about a quarter of an hour.

Ipswich Almond Pudding.

TAKE a little more than three ounces of the crumb of white bread sliced, or grated, and steep it in a pint and a half of cream. Then beat half a pint of blanched almonds very fine, with a little orange flower water, till like a paste. Beat up the yolks of eight eggs, and the whites of four. Mix all well together, put in a quarter of a pound of white sugar, and stir in about a quarter of a pound of melted butter. Put it over the fire, and keep stirring it till it is thick. Lay a sheet of puff paste at the bottom of the dish, and pour in the ingredients. Half an hour will bake it.

Duke of Buckingham's Pudding,

TAKE a pound of suet chopped fine, a quarter of a pound of raisins stoned and chopped, two eggs, a little nutmeg and ginger, two spoonsful of flour, and sugar it to the taste. Tie it close, boil it four hours at least, and serve it with melted butter, sack, and sugar.

Duke of Cumberland's Pudding.

TAKE flour, grated apples, currants, chopped suet, and sugar, of each six ounces; six eggs, a little nutmeg and salt. Boil it two hours at least, and serve it with melted butter, wine, and sugar.

Herb Pudding.

TAKE a quart of grots, and steep them in warm water half an hour. Take a pound of hog's lard, and cut it into little

PUDDINGS. 181

bits. Take of spinach, beets, parsley, and leeks, a handful of each; three large onions chopped small, and three sage-leaves cut fine. Put in a little salt, mix all well together, and tie it close. It will require to be taken up in boiling, to loosen the string a little.

Spinach Pudding.

PICK and wash clean a quarter of a peck of spinach, put it. into a saucepan with a little salt, cover it close, and when boiled just tender, throw it into a sieve to drain. Then chop it with a knife, beat up six eggs, and mix well with it half a pint of cream, and a stale roll grated Fine, a little nutmeg, and a quarter of a pound of melted butter. Stir all well together, put it into the saucepan in which the spinach was boiled, and keep stirring it all the time till it begins to thicken. Then wet and flour the cloth well, tie it up and boil it an hour. When enough, turn it into the dish, pour melted butter over it, and the juice of a Seville orange.

Cream Pudding.

BOIL a quart of cream with a blade of mace, and half a nutmeg grated, and let it stand to cool. Beat up eight eggs and three whites, and strain them well. Mix a spoonful of flour with them, a quarter of a pound of almonds blanched, and beat very fine, with a spoonful of orange flower, or rose water. Mix with the eggs, then by degrees mix in the cream and beat all well together. Take a thick cloth, wet and flour it well, pour in the mixture, tie it close, and boil it half an hour. Let the water boil fast all the time, and when it is done, turn it into the dish, pour melted butter over it, with a little sack, and throw fine sugar all over it.

Vermicelli Pudding.

TAKE four ounces of vermicelli, and boil it in a pint of new milk till it is soft, with a stick or two of cinnamon. Then put in half a pint of thick cream, a quarter of a pound of butter, the like quantity of sugar, and the yolks of four eggs beaten. Bake it without paste in an earthen ciish.

Rice Pudding.

HAVING boiled four ounces of ground rice in water till it is soft, beat the yolks of four eggs, and put to them a pint of cream, four ounces of sugar, and a quarter of a pound of butter. Having mixed them well together, either boil or bake it.

Or, take a quarter of a pound of rice, put it into a sauce

188 PUDDINGS.

pan, with a quart of new milk, a stick of cinnamon, and stir it often to prevent it sticking to the saucepan. When it is boiled thick, put it into a pan, stir in a quarter of a pound of fresh butter, and sugar it to the palate. Grate in half a nutmeg, add three or four spoonsful of rose water, and stir all well together. When cold, beat up eight eggs with half the whites, and then beat it all well together. Pour it into a buttered dish, and bake it.

Or, take a quarter of a pound of rice, and half a pound of raisins, and tie them in a cloth; but give the rice a good deal of roo;n to swell. Boil it two hours, and when enough, turn it into the dish, and pour melted butter and sugar over it, with a little nutmeg.

Or, tie a quarter of a pound of rice in a cloth, but give it room for swelling. Boil it an hour, then take it up, untie it, and with a spoon stir in a quarter of a pound of butter. Grate some nutmeg, and sweeten it to the palate. Then tie it up close, and boil it another hour. Then take it up, turn it into the dish, and pour over it melted butter.

Or, boil a quarter of a pound of rice in a quart of new milk, and keep stirring it that it may not burn. When it begins to be thick, take it off, and let it stand till it is a little cool. Then stir in well a quarter of a pound of butter, and sugar it to the palate. Grate in a small nutmeg, then pour the pudding into a buttered dish, and bake it.

Flour Hasty Pudding.

PUT four bay-leaves into a quart of milk, and set it on the fire to boil; then beat up the yolks of two eggs, and stir in a little salt: take two or three spoonsful of milk, and beat up with the eggs, and stir in the milk: then with a wooden spoon in one hand, and the flour in the other, stir it in till it be of a good thickness, but not too thick. Let it boil, and keep it stirrng; then pour it into a dish, and stick pieces of butter here and there. The eggs may be omitted, but they are a good addition to the pudding. A little piece of butter stirred in the milk makes it eat short and fine. Before the flour i* put in, take out the bay-leaves.

Fine Hasty Pudding.

HAVING broken an egg into fine flour, with the hand work up as much as possible into a stiff paste, and thus mince it as small as possible. Then put it into a quart of boiling milk, and add a little salt, a little beaten cinnamon, a little sugar, a piece of butter as big as a walnut, and stir all one way. When it is as thick as required, stir in such another piece of butter.

PUDDINGS. 189

then pour it into the dish, and stick pieces of, butter in different places.

Millet Pudding.

WASH and pick clean half a pound of millet seed, put to it half a pound of sugar, a whole nutmeg grated, and three quarts of milk, and break in half a pound of fresh butter. Butter the dish, pour it into it, and send it to the oven.

Apricot Pudding.

TAKE six large apricots, and coddle them till tender, break them very small, and sweeten them to the taste. When cold, add to them six yolks and two whites of eggs: mix them well together with a pint of good cream, lay a puff paste all over the dish, and pour in the ingredients. Bake it half an hour, in a moderately heated oven, anJ when enough, throw a little fine sugar all over it.

Quaking Pudding.,

BEAT well together the yolks of six and the whites of three eggs, with a pint of cream, and mix them well together. Grate in a little nutmeg, a little salt, and add a little rose water. Grate in the crumb of a halfpenny roll, or a spoonful of flour, first mixed with a little of the cream, or a spoonful of the flour of rice. Butter a cloth well, and flour it. Then put in the mixture, tie it rather loose than tight, and boil it half an hour briskly; but remember the water must boil before the pudding is put in.

Oat Pudding baked.

TAKE two pounds of decorticated oats, and drown them in new milk: eight ounces of raisins of the sun stoned, the same quantity of currants well picked and washed, a pound of sweet suet shred finely, and six new-laid eggs well beaten up. Season with nutmeg, beaten ginger, and salt, and mix all well toether.

An Oatmeal Pudding, after the New England manner.

TAKE a pint of whole oatmeal, and steep it in a quart of boiled milk over night. In the morning take half a pound of beef suet shred fine, and mix with the oatmeal and boiled milk, some grated nutmeg, and a little salt, with the yolks and whites of three eggs, a quarter of ?i pound of currants, a quarter of a pound or' raisins, and as much sugar as will sweeten it. -Stir it well together, tie it pretty close, aud boil it two hours. For tauce use melted batter.

190 PUDDINGS.

Transparent Pudding.

PUT eight eggs well beaten into a pan, with half a pound of butter, and the same quantity of loaf sugar beat fine, with a little grated nutmeg. Set it on the fire, and keep stirrinoit till of the thickness of buttered eggs. Then put' it into u bason to cool, roll a rich puff paste very thin, lay it round the edge of the dish and pour in the ingredients. Bake it half an hour in a moderately heated oven, and it will cut light and clear.

French Barley Pudding.

TAKE the yolks of six eggs and the whites of three, beat them up well, and put them into a quart of cream. Sweeten to the palate, and put in a little orange flower water, and a pound of melted butter. Then add six handfuls of French barley, having first boiled it tender in milk. Then butter a dish, put it into it, and send it to the oven.

Potatoe Pudding.

BOIL a quarter of a pound of potatoes till they are soft, peel them, and mash them with the back of a spoon, and rub them through a sieve to have them fine and smooth. Then take half a pound of fresh butter melted, half a pound of fine sugar, and beat them well together till they are smooth. Beat six eggs, whites as well as yolks, and stir them in with a glass of sack or brandy. Half a pint of currants may be added. Boil it half an hour, melt some butter, and put into it a glass of white wine, sweeten it with sugar, and pour it over it.

Or, boil two pounds of white potatoes till they are soft, peel and beat them in a mortar, and pulp them through a sieve till quite fine. Then mix in half a pound of fresh butter melted, beat up the yolks of eight eggs, and the whites of three. Stir them in with half a pound of white sugar finely pounded, half a pint of sack, and stir them well together. Grate in half a large nutmeg, and stir in half a pint of cream. Make a puff paste, lay it all over the dish, and round the edges; pour in the pudding, and bake it till it is of a fine light brown.

Carrot Pudding.

SCRAPE a raw carrot very clean, and grate it. Take half a pound of the grated carrot, and a pound of grated bread; beat up eight eggs, leave out half the whites, and mix the eggs with half a pint of cream. Then stir in the bread and carrot, half a pound of fresh butter melted, half a pint of sack, three

PUDDINGS. 191

.spoonsful of orange flower water, and a nutmeg grated. Sweeten it to the palate. Mix all well together, and if not thin enough, stir in a little new milk or cream. Let it be of a moderate thickness, lay a puff paste all over the dish, and pour in the ingredients. It will take an hour's baking. If intended to be boiled, melted butter, white wine and sugar, must be added.

Or, pare the crust of two penny loaves, soak them in a quart of boiling milk, and let them stand till cold. Then grate in two or three large carrots, and put in eight egg.? well beaten, and three quarters of a pound of fresh butter melted. Grate in a little nutmeg, and sweeten to the taste. Cover the dish with ppff paste, pour in the ingredients, and bake it an hour.

Suet Pudding boiled.

TAKE four spoonsful of flour, a pound of suet shred small, four eggs, a spoonful of beaten ginger, a tea-spoonful of salt, and a quart of milk. Mix the eggs and flour with a pint of the milk very thick, and with the seasoning mix in the rest of the milk and suet. Let the batter be pretty thick, and boil it two hours.

Veal Suet Pudding.

CUT the crumb of a three-penny loaf into slices; boil and pour two quarts of milk on the bread; one pound of veal suet melted down and poured into the milk. Add to these one pound of currants, ancl sugar to the taste, half a nutmeg, and six eggs well mixed together. If to be baked, butter the dish well. This will do for either baking or boiling.

Cabbage Pudding.

TAKE two pounds of beef suet, and as much of the lean part of a leg of veal. Take a little cabbage and scald it; then bruise the suet, veal, and cabbage together in a marble mortar. Season with mace, nutmeg, ginger, a little pepper and salt, some green gooseberries, grapes, or barberries. Mix them all well together, with the yolks of four or five eggs well beaten. Wrap all up together in a green cabbage leaf, and tie it in a cloth. An hour will boil it.

Lady Sunderland's Pudding.

TAKE a pint of cream, eight eggs, leave out three whites, five spoonsful of flour, and half a nutmeg. When they are going to the oven, butter small basons, fill them half full, bake

1 92 PUDDINGS.

them half an hour, and grate some sugar over them. For sauce, melted butter, wine, and sugar. When they are baked, turn them out of the basons, and pour some of the sauce over them.

Pith Pudding.

PUT a'proper quantity of the pith of an ox all night in water, to soak out the blootl, and in the morning strip it out of the skin, and beat it with the back of a spoon in orange wator till it is as fine as pap. Then take three pints of thick cream and boil in it two or three blades of mace, a nutmeg quartered ^ and a stick of cinnamon: add half a pound of the best Jordan almonds, blanched in cold water, and beat them with a little of the cream; and as it dries, put in more cream. When they are all beaten, strain the' cream from them to the pith. Then take the yolks of ten eggs, and the whites of but two, and beat them well, and put them to the ingredients. Take a spoonful of grated bread, or Naples biscuit, and mix all these together, with half a pound of fine sugar, the marrow of four large hones, and a little salt. Fill them in small ox or hog's guts, or bake it in a dish, with puff paste round the edges and under it.

Citron Pudding.

TAKE a spoonful of fine flour, two ounces of sugar, a little nutmeg, and half a pint of cream. Mix them all well together, with the yolks of three eggs. Put it in tea-cups, and stick in it two ounces of citron cut very thin. Bake them in * pretty quick oven, and turn them out upon a China dish.

Bread Pudding.

SLICE thin all the crumb of a penny loaf into a quart of milk., and set it over a chafing dish of coals till the bread has soaked up all the milk. Then put in apiece of butter, stir it round, and let it stand till it is cold; or the milk may be boiled and poured over the bread, and covered up close, which will equally answer the same purpose. Then take the yolks of six eggs, and the whites of three, and beat them up with a little rose water and nutmeg, and a little salt and sugar. Mix all well together, and boil it an hour.

Or, cut thin all the crumb of astale penny loaf, and putit into a quart of cream. Set it over a slow fire till scalding hot, and then Jet it stand till cold. Beat up the bread and cream well together, and grate in some nutmeg. Take twelve bitter almonds, boil them in t-.vo spoonsful of water, pour the water to the cream, stir it in with a little salt, and sweeten it to the

PUDDINGS, 19$

taste. Blanch the almonds, and heat them in a mortar,, with two spoonsful of rose or orange-Mower water till they are a fine, paste. Then mix them by degrees with the cream., and when well mixed, take t ! ie yolks of eight eggs, and the whites of four; beat them well, and mix them with the cream, and th'-n mix them all together. A bowl or bason will be best to boil it in; but if a cloth is used, dip it in the hot water, and flour it well. Tie it loose, and boil it an hour. Take care that the water boil when it is put in, and that it keep boiling all the uri". When enough, turn it into the dish. . Melt some bimer, and put into it two or three spoonsful of; white wine or sack; give it a boil, and pour it over; the pudding. Then strew a good deal of fine sugar all over the pudding and dish, and send it hot to table.

A baked Bread Pudding.

RASP or crumble the crumb of a penny loaf, take the same qu ntity of flour, the yolks of four eggs, and two whites, a tea-spoonful of ginger, half a pound of raisins stoned, half a pound of' currants clean washed and picked, and a litile salt, Mix first the bread and flour, ginger, salt, and sugar, to the palace, then the eggs, and as much milk as will make it like a good batter; then the fruit. Butter the dish, pour it in, and bake it.

Or, boil half a pint of milk with a bit of cinnamon; take four eggs, and he whites well beaten, the rind of a lemon grated, half a pound of suet chopped fine, and as much bread as necessary. Pour the milk on the bread and suet, keep mixing it till cold, then put in the lemon peel, eggs, a little sugar, and some nutmeg grated fine. This pudding may be either baked or boiled.

A Spoonful Pudding.

TAKE a spoonful of flour, a spoonful of cream or milk, an egg, a little nutmeg, ginger^, and salt. Mix all together, and boil it in a little bason half an hour. Or add a few currants^

Tansy Pudding.

To four Naples biscuits grated, put as much boiling hot cream as will wet them. Then beat up the yolks of four eggs, and have ready a few chopped tansy leaves, with as much spinach as will make it a pretty green. Be careful not to put in too much tansy, as that will make it bitter. When" the cream is cold, mix all together with a little sugar, and set jt over a slow fire till it is thick. Then take it off, and when cold put it in a cloth well buttered and floured. Tie it UH

o

194 PUDDINGS.

close, and let it boil three quarters of an hour. Take it up in a bason, and let it stand one quarter of an hour. Then turn it out carefully, and put round it white wine sauce.

Or, blanch four ounces of almonds, and beat them very fine with rose-water. Pour a pint of cream boiling hot on a French roll sliced very thin. Beat four eggs well, and mix with them a little sugar and nutmeg- grated, a glass of brandy, a little juice of tansy, and the juice of spinach, to make it green. Put all the ingredients into a stewpan, with a quarter of a pound of butter, and give it a gentle boil. It may be either boiled or baked.

White Puddings in Skins.

. j.

BOIL half a pound of rice in milk till it is soft, having first washed the rice well in warm water. Put it into a sieve to drain, and beat half a pound of Jordan almonds very fine with some rose-water. Wash and dry a pound of currants, cut into small bits a pound of hog's lard, beat up six eggs well, half a pound of sugar, a little nutmeg grated, a stick of cinnamon, a little mace, and a little salt. Mix them well together, fill the skins, and boil them.

Quince, Apricot, or White Pear-Plumb Pudding.

HAVING scalded the quinces till thev are very tender, pare them thin, and scrape off the soft. Mix it with sugar till it is very sweet, and add a little ginger and cinnamon. To a pint of cream put three or four yolks of eggs, and stir it into the quinces till they are of a good thickness. Remember to make it pretty thick. Butter the dish, pour it in, and bake it. Apricots, or white-pear plumbs may be treated in the same manner.

Cowslip Pudding.

CUT and pound small the flowers of a peck of cowslips, with half a pound of Naples biscuits grated, and three pints of cream. Boil them a little, then take them off the fire, and beat up sixteen eggs with a little cream and rose-water. Sweeten to the palate. Mix it all well together, butter a dish, and pour it in. Bake it, and when enough, throw fine sugar over it, and serve it up. New milk will do well enough for these sorts of puddings, if cream cannot be had.

Pearl Barley Pudding.

WASH a pound of pearl barley clean, put to it three quarts of new milk, half a pound of double refined sugar and a nut

PUDDINGS. 195

. meg grated; then put it into a deep pan, and bake it with

brown bread. Take it out of the oven, beat up six eggs, and mix all well together. Butter a dish, pour it in, bake it again an hour, and it will be very good.

French Barley Pudding.

To six eggs well beaten put a quart of cream, half the whites, sweeten to the palate, a little orange flower or rosewater, and a pound of melted butter. Then put in six handfuls of French barley, which has been boiled tender in milk. Butter the dish, and put it in. It will take as long baking as a venison pasty.

Chesnut Pudding.

BOIL a dozen and a half of chesnuts in a saucepan of water for a quarter of an hour. Then blanch, peel, and beat them in a marble mortar, with a little orange-flower or rose-water and sack, till they come to a fine thin paste. Then beat up twelve, eggs with half the whites, and mix them well. Grate half a nutmeg, a little salt, and mix them with three pints of cream, and half a pound of melted butter. Sweeten it to the palate, and mix all together. Put it over the fire, and keep stirring it till it is thick. Lay a puff paste all over the dish, pour in the mixture, and bake it. When cream cannot be had, take three pints of milk. Beat up the yolks of four eggs, and stir it into the milk. Set it over the, fire, stirring all the time till it is scalding hot, and then mix it instead of cream.

Sweetmeat Pudding.

HAVING put a thin puff paste all over the dish, take candied orange, lemon peel, and citron, of each an ounce. Slice them thin, and lay them all over the bottom of the dish, then beat eight yolks of eggs and two whites, near half a pound of sugar, and half a pound of melted butter. Beat all well together, and pour it on the sweetmeats as soon as the oven is ready, which must not be too hot. An hour or less will bake it

Bread and Butter Pudding.

CUT a penny loaf into thin slices of bread and butter, as for tea. Butter the dish, and lay slices all over it. Then strew a few currants washed and picked clean, then a row of bread and butter, then a few currants, and so on till the bread and butter is all in: take a pint of milk, beat up four eggs, a little salt, and half a nutmeg grated. Mix all together with sugar to the taste: then pour it over the bread, and bake it

O 3

1 6 PUDDINGS.

half an hour. A puff paste under does best. Two spoonsful of rose-water may be added, if approved of.

Cheese-curd Pudding.

TURN a gallon of milk with rennet, and drain off all the curd from the whey. Put the curd into a mortar, and beat it with half a pound of fresh butter, till tue butter and curd are well mixed. Then beat the yolks of six eggs and the whites of three, and strain them to the curd: grate two Naples biscuits, or half a penny roll. Mix all the.-e together, and sweeten to the palate. Butter pattypans, and fill t tern with the inuredient. Bake them in a moderately heated oven, and when they are done, turn them out into a dish. Cut citmnand candied orange peel into little narrow bits, about an inch long, and blanched almonds cut in long slips. Stick them here and there on the tops of the puddings, according to fancy. Pour melted butter, with a little sack in it, into the dish, and throw fine sugar all over the puddings and dish.

tipple Pudding.

PARE twelve large pippins, and take out the cores. Put them into a saucepan, with four or five spoonsful of water, and boil them till soft and thick: beat them well, stir in a pound of loaf sugar, the juice of three lemons, and the peel of one cut thin and beat fine in a mortar, and the yolks of eight eggs beaten. Mix all well together, and bake it in a slack oven. When nearly done, throw over it a little fine sugar. It may be baked with a puff paste at the bottom of the dish, and round the edges of it.

Apple Dumplins.

HAVING pared the apples, take out the core with an applescraper, and fill the hole with quince or orange marmalade, or sugar: take a piece of cold paste, and make a hole in it. Lay in the apple, and put another piece of paste in the same form, and close it up round the side of the apple, which is much better thnn gathering it in a lump at one end. Tie it in a cloth, and boil it three quarters of an hour. Serve them up vith melted butter poured over them.

Gooseberry Pudding.

TAKE half a pint of green gooseberries, and scald them in water till soft. Put them into a sieve to drain, and when cold work them through a hair sieve with the back of a clean wooden spoon. Then add half a pound of sugar, the same of but

PUDDINGS. 197

ter, four ounces of Naples biscuits, and six eggs beaten. Mix all together an:! beat them a quarter of an hour. Pour it in an carter,:; dish, without paste, and bake it half an hour.

Suet Dumplins with Currants.

TAKE a pint of milk, four eggs, a pound of suet, a little salt and nutmeg, two tea-spoonsful of ginger, and what flour will make it into a light paste. When the water boils, make the paste into dumplins, rolled with a little flour, the size of a goose's egg. Throw them into the water, and move them g nr!\ to prevent their sticking. A little more than half an hour will boil them.

Raspberry Dumplins.

MAKE a good puff paste, and roll it. Spread over it raspberrv jam, roll it up, and boil it an hour. Cut it into five slices, pour melted butter into the dish, and grated sugar round it.

Pennyroyal Dumplins.

GRATE the crumb of a penny loaf, take three quarters of a pound of beef suet, the same of currants, four eggs, a little brandy, a little thyme and pennyroyal, and a handful of parsley shred. Mix all well, roll them up with flour, and put them into cloths. Three quarters of an hour will boil them.

Yeast Dumplins.

WITH flour, water, yeast, and salt, make a light dough as for bread, cover it with a cloth, and set it before the fire, for half an hour. Then have a saucepan of water on the fire, and when it boils take the dough, and make it into little round balls, as big as a large hen's egg. Then flatten them, with the hand, put them into the boiling water, and a few minutes will do them. Take care that they do not fall to the bottom of the pot or saucepan, for they will then be heavy, and be sure to keep the water boiling all the time. When enough take them up, and lay them in the dish, with melted butter in a boat. To save trouble, dough may be had at the baker's, which will do equally as well.

Norfolk Dumplins.

TAKE half a pint of milk, two eggs, a little salt, and make them into a good thick batter with flour. Have ready a clean saucepan of water boiling, and drop the batter into it, and two or three minutes will boil them; but be particularly careful that the water boils fast when the batter is put in. Theu

198 PUDDINGS.

throw them into a sieve to drain, turn them in a dish, and stir a lump of fresh butter into them. They will be very good if eaten hot.

Hard Dumplins.

MAKE some flour and water, with a little salt, into a sort of paste. Roll them in balls as big as a turkey's egg. lloll them in a little flour, throw them into boiling water, and half an hour will boil them. They are best boiled with a good piece of beef. Add, for change, a few currants. Serve them up with melted butter in a boat.

Batter Pudding.

TAKE a quart of milk, beat up the yolks of six eggs, and the whites of three, and mix them with a quarter of a pint of milk. Take six spoonsful of flour, a tea-spoonful of salt, and one of beaten ginger. Mix them all together, boil them an hour and a quarter, and pour melted butter over the pudding. If approved, put in half a pound of prunes or currants, and two or three more eggs.

Or, take a quart of milk, mix six spoonsful of flour with a little of the milk first, a tea-spoonful of salt, two of beaten ginger, and two of the tincture of saffron. Then mix all together, and boil it an hour.

Baiter Pudding without Eggs.

Mix six spoonsful of flour with a little milk, a tea spoonful of salt, two tea-spoonsful of beaten ginger, and two of the tincture of safFon. Mix it with near a quart of milk, and boil it an hour. Fruit may be added.

A Grateful Pudding.

To a pound of flour add a pound of white bread grated. Take eight eggs, but only half the whites. Beat them up, and mix with them a pint of new milk. Then stir in the bread and flour, a pound of raisins stoned, a pound of currants, half a pound of sugar, and a little beaten ginger. Mix all well together, and either bake or boil it. It will 'take three quarters of an hour baking. Cream instead of milk, will be a great improvement.

Ratafa Pudding.

BOIL a quart of cream, with a laurel leaf; take it out, and break in half a pound of Naples biscuits, half a pound of but

PIES. 199

ter, some sack, nutmeg, and a little salt. Take it off the fire, cover it up, and when almost cold, put in two ounces of blanched almonds beaten fine, and the yolks of five eggs. Mix all together, and bake it half an hour in a moderately heated oven. Before it is put into the'oven grate a little sugar over it.

CHAPTER XVIII. PIES.

PRELIMINARY HINTS AND OBSERVATIONS.

x\s the heat of your oven must be regulated by what you intend to bake, the following rules should be carefully attended to. Light paste requires a moderate oven, but not too slow, as that will deprive it of the light appearance it should have; and too quick an oven will catch and burn it, without giving it time to rise. Tarts that are iced require a slow oven, 'or the icing will be brown before the paste is properly baked. Raised pies must have a quick oven, and be well closed up, or your pie will fall in the sides. It should have no water put in till just before you put it into the oven, as that will make the crust look sodden, and perhaps be the cause of the pie running, which will infallibly spoil it.

Different kinds of Pastes for Tarts, Pies, Sfc.

CRISP paste for tarts is made thus: Mix an ounce of loaf sugar, beat and sifted, with a pound of fine flour, and make it into a stiff paste with a gill of boiling cream. Work three ounces of butter into it, roll it very thin, and having made the tarts, beat the white of an egg a little, and rub Jjt over them with a feather, and bake them as above directed? "

* Icing for Tarts.

BEAT the white of an egg to strong froth, and put in, by degrees, four ounces of double-refined sugar, with as much gum as will lie on sixpence, beat and sifted fine. Beat them naif an hour, and then lay it thin on the tarts.

PuffPaste.

RUB a pound of butter very fine into a quarter of a peck of flour. Make it up into a light paste with cold water, just stiff

PIES.

enough to work.it. Then roll it out about the thickness of a:rown piece, and put a layer of butter ad over. Sprinkle ou a htile flour, double it up, and 10'; it out again. Double it and roll it out sexen or ei.ght times, when it will be fit for all sorts oi pies and tarts that require a puff paste.

Or, beat the wh te oi an egg to a strong froth, and mix it with as much water as will make three quarters of a poiii'd of flour into a to.erably stiff paste. Rofl it out vet thin, lay the th.rd part of a half pound of butter in thin piece.-*, and .dredge it with a little more flour. Roll it up n^l,, then roll it out again, and continue to do so until half a pound ol hotter a:.d .flour is used. Cut it in square pieces, and make the tarts. This will require a quicker oven than for your crisp paste.

Paste for Custards.

POUK half a pound of br iling butter on two pounds of flour, with as much water as will make it into a good paste. Work it well, and when it has cooled a little, rai^e t e custards, put a paper round the inside of them, and when they arc half baked, fill them.

In making any kind of dripping-paste, boil it four or five minutes in a good quantity of water, to take the strength oft 7 it.

Ccld Crust with Suet.

SHRED the suet fine, pour part of it into the flour, then make it into a paste, and roll it out as before, with this difference, make use of suet instead of butter.

A good Crust for great Pics.

PUT the volks of three eggs to a peck of flour, and in some boiling \\ater, then put half a pound of suet, and a pound and a half of butter. Skim off the butter and suet, and as much of the liquor as will make it alight gooa crust. Work it up well, and roll it out.

A standing Crust for great Pies.

TAKE a peck rf flour; and six pounds of butter boiled in a gallon of water. Skim it off into the flour, and as little of the liquor as possible. Work it up well into a paste, and then pull it into pieces till it is cold: make it up into the form required. 1 his paste is proper for the walls of a goose pie.

Lamb or Vtal Pies.

CUT lamb or veal into little pieces, and season if with pepper, salt, cloves, mace, and nutn eg, beat fine. Make a good putt paste crust, lay it into the dish, then lay in the meat, and strew on it some stoned rai-.hs and currants clean washed, and some sugar: add some forcemeat balls made sweet, and in the

Plies. 201

.-summer some artichoke bottoms boiled, and in the winter, scalded grapes. Boil Spanish potatoes cut in pieces, candied citron, candied orange, lemon peel, and three or four blades of mace. Put butter on the top, close up the pie, and bake it. Against its return from the oven, have ready a liaison made thus: take a pint of white wine, and mix in the yolks of three eggs. Stir it well together over the fire, one wav, all the time, till it is thick: take it off, stir in sugar enough to sweeten it, and squeeze in the juice of a lemon: put it hot into the pie, close it up again, and serve as hot as possible.

Savoury Veal Pie.

CUT a breast of veal into pieces, season it with pepper and salt, and lay it ail into the crust. Boil six or eight hard PI _ s, but take only the yolks; put them into the pie here and mere, then fill the dish almost full of second stock, put on the lid, and bake it well.

- Beef Steak Pie.

BEAT some rump steaks with a rolling-pin, and season them with pepper and salt to the palate. Make a good crust, lay in the steaks, and then pour in as much \\ater as will half fill the dish. Put on the crust, and bake it well.

Ox Cheek P-ie.

HAVING baked the ox-cheek, taking care not to do it too much, let it lie in the oven all night, and it will be ready for further use the next day. Make a fine puff paste crust, and let the side and top-crust be thick. The dish must be deep, in order to hold a good deal of gravy. Cover the inside of it with crust, then cut ail the flesh, kernels, and fat off' the head, with the palate cut in pieces. Cut all the meat into little pieces, as if it were for a hash, and lay it in the dish. Take an ounce of truffles and morels, and throw them over the meat, the yolks of six eggs boiled hard, a gill of pickled mushrooms, if fresh ones are not to be had; put in plenty of forcemeat balls, a few artichoke bottoms, or asparagus tops, if in season. Season the pie with pepper and salt, and fill it with the gravy it was baked in. If the head were rightly seasoned before it went to the oven, it will want very little more when it comes out. Then put on the lid and bake it, and the pie will*be enough as soon as the crust is properly baked.

. CaJfs Foot Pie.

HAVING put the calf's feet into a saucepan, with three quarts of water, and three or four blades of mace, let them

202 PIES.

boil softly till there is about a pint and a half only: take out the feet, strain the liquor, and make a good crust. Cover the dish, then pick off the flesh from the bones, and lay half in the dish: strew over it half a pound of currants, clean washed and picked, and half a pound of raisins stoned. Then lay on the rest of the meat, skim the liquor, sweeten it to the taste, and put in half a pint of white wine. Then pour all into the dish, put on the lid, and bake it an hour and a half.

Mutton Pie.

TAKE off the skin and inside fat of a loin of mutton, and cut it in steaks; season it well with pepper and salt to the palate. Lay it into the crust, fill it, and pour in as much water as will almost fill the dish: put on the crust, and bake it well.

Venison Pasty.

HAVING boned a breast or shoulder of venison, season it well with pepper, salt, and mace; lay it in a deep dish, with the best part of a neck of mutton, cut in slices, and laid over the venison: pour in a large glass of red wine, put a coarse paste over it, and bake it two hours in an oven. Then lay the venisen into a dish, and pour the gravy and a pound of butter over it: make a good puff paste, and lay it near half an inch thick round the edge of the dish; roll out the lid, which must be somewhat thicker than the paste on the edge of the dish, and lay it on: then roll out another lid pretty thin, and cut it in flowers, leaves, or whatever form is required, and lay it on the lid. If the pie should not be immediately wanted, it will keep in the pot it was baked in, eight or ten days; but in that case, keep the crust on, to prevent the air getting into it.

Savoury Veal Pie.

SEASON a loin of veal, cut into steaks, with salt, pepper, nutmeg, and beaten mace; lay the meat in the dish, with sweetbreads seasoned, and the yolks of six hard eggs, a pint of oysters, and half a pint of good gravy: lay a good puff paste round the dish, half an inch thick, and cover it with a lid of the same thickness. Bake it an hour and a quarter in a quick oven, and when it is taken out of the oven, cut off the lid; and divide it into eight or ten pieces, sticking them round the inside of the rim. Cover the meat with slices of lemon.

Ham Pie.

CUT cold boiled ham into slices about half an inch thick, and put a good thick crust over the dish: put in a layer of

PIES. 203

ham, and shake a little white pepper over it; take a large young fowl, clean picked, gutted, washed, and singed. Put a little white pepper and salt in the belly, and rub a very little salt on the outside. Lay the fowl on the ham, boil some eggs hard, put in the yolks, and cover all with the ham. Then shake some white pepper on the ham, and put on the top crust. Bake it well, and have ready against it comes out of the oven, some very rich beef gravy, enough to fill the pie: then lay on the crust again, and send it to table. Some truffles and morels boiled, or some fresh mushrooms, or dried ones, put into the pie, are a great improvement.

Calf s- Head Pie.

HAVING cleansed and boiled the head tender, carefully take off the flesh as whole as possible: take out the eyes, and slice the tongue; make a good puff paste crust, cover the dish, and lay on the meat. Throw the tongue over it, and lay the eyes, cut in two, at each corner. Season it with a very little white pepper and salt, pour in half a pint of the liquor it was boiled in, lay on it a thick top crust, and bake it an hour in a quick oven. In the meantime, boil the bones of the head in two quarts of second stock, with two or three blades of mace, half a quarter of an ounce of whole pepper, a large onion, and a bundle of sweet herbs. Let it boil till it is reduced to about a pint; strain it off, and add two spoonsful of ketchup, three of red wine, a small piece of butter rolled in flour, and half an ounce of truffles and morels. Season to the palate, and boil it. Boil half the brains with some sage, beat them, and twelve leaves of sage chopped fine: stir all together, and give it a boil. Take the other part of the brains, and beat them, with some of the sage chopped fine, a little lemon peel finely minced, and half a small nutmeg grated. Beat it up with an egg, and fry it in little cakes of a fine light brown. Boil six eggs hard, of which take only the yolks; and when the pie comes out of the oven, take off the lid, lay the 'eggs and cakes over it, and pour in all the sauce Send it hot to table without the lid.

Goose Pie.

TAKE half a peck of flour, and make the walls of a goose pie, as directed in the second article of this chapter respecting the different kinds of pastes. Having raised the crust just big enough to hold a large goose, take a pickled dried tongue boiled tender enough to peel, and cut off the root: bone a goose and a large fowl; take half a quarter of an ounce of mace beat fine, a large tea-spoonful of beaten pepper, and three tea

204 PIES.

spoonsful of salt. Mix all together, and season the fowl and goose with it. Then lay the fowl in the goose, the* tongue in the fowl, and the goose in the same manner as if whole. Put half a pound of butter on the top, and put on the lid. This pie may be eaten either hot or cold.

Yorkshire Goose. Pie.

SPLIT a large fat goose down the back, and take out all the bones; treat a turkey and two ducks the same way, and season them well with salt and pepper, and also six woodcocks. Lay tht goose down on a clean dish, with the skin-side clown, and lay the turkey into the goose in the same manner. Have reudy a large hare, well cleaned, and cut in pieces, and stewed in the oven, with a pound of butter, a quarter of an ounce of mace beat fine, the same of white pepper,;:nd salt to the taste. Stew it till the meat leaves the bones, and skim the butter off the gnw. Pick the meat clean off, and beat it very fine in a marble mortar witii the butter taken off, arid then lay it in the turkey. Take twentv-four pounds of the finest flour, six pounds of bu;ter, and half a pound of fresh rendered suet. Make the paste pretty thick, andr,aise the pie in an oval form. Roil out-a lump of paste, and cut it into vine-leaves, or any other form; then rub the pie with the yolks of eg^s, and put the ornaments on the walls: turn the hare, turkev, and goose, upside down, and lay them in the pie, with the ducks at each end, and the woodcocks at the sides; make the lid pretty thick, and put it on. Ornament the lid, but make a hole in the middle of it, and make the walls of the pie an inch and a half higher than the lid. Then rub it all over with the yolks of eggs, and bind it round with three fold paper, and lay the same over the top. Bake it four hours; and when it comes out, melt two pounds of butter in the gravy that comes from the hare, and pour it hot into the pie through a funnel. Close it well up, and do not cut it in less than eight or ten days. If the pie is to be sent to any distance, it will be necessary, in order to prevent the air getting to it, to stop up the hole in the middle of the lid with cold butter.

Yorkshire Gibkt Pie.

PUT a tea-cup full of grots into the blood of the goose while it is warm, in order to swell them. Grate the crumb of a penny loaf, and pour on it a gill of boiling milk. Shred half a pound of beef suet very fine, chop four or five leaves of sage and two leeks very small, put three yolks of eggs, and season it to the taste with pepper, salt, and nutmeg. Mix them all

PIES. 205

up together, and have ready the giblets well seasoned with pepper and salt. Lay them round a deep dish, and put a pound of fat beef over the pudding in the middle of the dish. Pour in half a pint of gravy, lay on a good paste, and bake it in an oven moderately heated.

Common GiLlet Pie.

CLF.AN two pair of giblets well, and put all but the livers into the saucepan, with two quarts of water, twenty corns of wlioie pepper, three blades of mace, a bundle of sweet herbs, and a large onion. Cover them close, and let them stew very slowly till they are quite tender. Have a good crust ready, cover the dish, lay at the bottom a fine rump steak seasoned with pepper and salt, put in the giblets with the livers, and strain the liquor they were stewed in: season it with salt, and pour it into the pie. Put on the lid, and bake it an hour and a half.

Duck Pie.

TAKE two ducks, scald them, and make them very clean; cut off the feet, the pinions, the neck, and head; take out the gizzards, livers, and hearts, and pick all clean, and scald them. Pick out the fat of the inside, lay a good puff paste crust all over the dish, season the ducks both inside and out with pepper and salt$ and lay them in the dish, with the giblets at each end properly seasoned. Put in as much water as will nearly fill the pie, and lay on the crust.

Pigeon Pie.

LET the pigeons be very nicely picked and cleaned, and season them with pepper and salt. Put a large piece of fresh butter, with pepper and salt, into their bellies. Then cover the dish with a puff paste crust, and lay in the pigeons, and put between them the necks, gizzards, livers, pinions, and hearts, with the yolk of a hard egg, and a beef steak in the middle. Put as much water as will nearly fill the dish, and lay on the top crust, and bake it well.

Savoury Chicken Pie.

TAKE small chickens and season them with pepper, salt, and mace. Put a piece of butter into each of them, and lay them in the dish with the breasts upwards. Lay a thin slice of bacon over them, which will give them an agreeable flavour. Then put in a pint of strong gravy, and make a good puff paste. Put on the lid, and bake it in a moderately heated oven

206

Hare Pie,

CUT it into pieces, and season it with nutmeg, pepper, and salt. Ju- it with half a pound of butter. It must do above an hour, close covered in a pot of boiling water. Make forcemeat, to whiqh add the liver bruised, and a glass of red wine. Let it be high seasoned, lay it round the inside of a raised crust, put in the hare when cool; and add the gravy that comes from it, with some more rich gravy. Put on the lid, and bake it two hours.

Rabbit Pie to be eaten hot.

TAKE a couple of young rabbits, and cut them into quarters; take a quarter of a pound of bacon, and bruise it to pieces in a marble mortar, with the livers, some pepper, salt, a little mace, and some parsley cut small, some chives, and a few leaves of sweet basil. When these are all beaten fine, make the paste, and cover the bottom of the pie with the seasoning. Then put in the rabbits, pound some more bacon in a mortar, and with it some fresh butter; cover the rabbits with it, and over that la}^ some thin slices of bacon. Put on the lid, and send it to the oven. It will take t\ro hours baking. When it is done, take off the lid, take out the bacon, and skim off the fat. If there is not gravy enough in the pie, pour in some rich veal gravy boiling hot.

Partridge Pie to be eaten hot.

TAKE three brace of full-grown partridges, and let them be trussed in the same manner as a fowl for boiling. Put into a marble mortar shalots, some parsley cut small, the livers of the partridges, and twice the quantity of bacon: beat these together, and season them with pepper, salt, and a blade or two of mace. When these are all pounded to a paste, add to them some fresh mushrooms. Then raise the crust for the pie, and cover the bottom of it with the seasoning; then lay in the partridges, but no stuffing in them; put the remainder of the seasoning about the sides and between the partridges; then strew over them some pepper and salt, and a little mace, some fresh mushrooms, and a little bacon, beat fine in a mortar. Lay a layer of it over the partridges, and some thin slices of bacon. Put on the lid. It will take two hours and a half baking, When it is done, take off the lid and the slices of bacon, arid skim off the fat. Put in a pint of rich veal gravy, and squeeze in the juice of an orange.

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Partridge Pie to be eaten cold.

TRUSS and beat the breasts of six or eight young partridges very flat; singe and broil them upon a stove over a very clear charcoal fire. When they are cold, lard them; beat some bacon in a mortar, and mix it with the livers scalded and bruised. Put some of this into the partridges. Then make a seasoning with some sweet herbs, pepper, salt, nutmeg, mace, and some lemon peel shred very fine. Make a raised crust for the pie, and lay upon it a little of the stuffing of the livers of the partridges; over that a little of the seasoning, and then lay in the partridges; strew some of the seasoning over them; then put among them some bits of butter, and a little bacon cut very fine, with a few leaves of sweet basil, two or three bay-leaves, a few fresh truffles. Lay these amongst the partridges, and over them a few thin slices of bacon. Put on the lid, and send it to the oven. It will take three hours baking; after which it must stand to be cold.

A Woodcock Pie to be eaten cold.

THE woodcock and partridge pie are made nearly alike, only the entrails are made use of. When the woodcocks are picked, put the entrails by, and truss them as for roasting. Make the breast-bone flat, and broil them over some clear charcoal. When they are cold, lard them all over; then pound some bacon in a marble mortar, mix it with the livers of the woodcocks, which also bruise, with two or three leaves of sweet basil. Cut the entrails very small, and mix them with the other seasoning. Raise the pie, lay at the bottom some of the stuffing, and put the rest into the birds, putting between them some pounded bacon and fresh butter mixed together, with a very little mace, pepper, and salt. When the pie is almost filled, take a cutlet, cut quite round a fillet of veal, and over that some slices of bacon cut very thin. Then put on the lid. It should stand three or four hours, according to the quantity of birds, and when it comes out of the oven, set it to cool.

Savoury Patties.

TAKE a quarter of a pound of beef suet, and a pound of the inside of a cold loin of veal, or the same quantity of cold fowl that has been either boiled or roasted, and chop them as small as possible with six or eight sprigs of parsley. Season them with pepper and salt, and half a nutmeg finely grated. Put them into a stewpan, with half a. pint of veal stock: thicken the gravy with a little flour and butter, and two

208

spoonsful of cream: shake them over the fire two or three minutes, and fill the patties. The pattie* must be made in this manner: Raise them of an oval form, and Lake them as for custards. Cut some Ioi5g, narrow bits of paste, an-! bake them on a dusting-box, bi:t not to go round, they being for handles. Fill the patties when quite hot wi'h the meat, and set on the handles across the patties, when they will look like baskets.

Cheshire Pork Pie.

SKIN a loin of pork, and cut it into steaks. Season it with pepper, salt, and nutmeg, and make a good crust. Put into the dish a layer of pork, then a layer of pippins pared and cored, and sugar sufficient to sweeten it. Then place another layer of pork, and put in half a pint of white wine. Then lay some butter on the top, and close the pie.

French Pie.

PUT three quarters of a pound of butter to two pounds of flour, and make it into a paste, and raise the walls of the pie. Then roll out some paste thin as for a lid, and cut it into vineleaves, or the figures of any moulds required. Beat the yolks of two eggs, and rub the outside of the walls of the pie with it, and lay the vine-leaves or other figures round the walls, and rub them over with the eggs. Fill the pie with the bones of the meat, to keep the steam in, that the crust may be well soaked; for it must have no lid on when it goes to table. Then take a calf's head, wash and clean it well, and boil it half an hour. When cold, cut it in thin slices, and put it in a stewpan, with three pints of veal stock, and three sweetbreads cut thin. Let it stew an hour, with half an ounce of morels and the same quantity of truffles. Have ready two calf's feet boiled and boned; cut them into small pieces, and put them into the stewpan, with a spoonful of lemon pickle, one of browning, some cayenne, and a, little salt. When the meat is tender, thicken the gravy a little with butter and Hour: strain it, and put in a few pickled mushrooms, but fresh ones are preferable, if they are to be had. Put the meutJnto the pie out of which the bones were taken, and lay the nicest part at the top. Have ready a quarter of a hundred of asparagus heads, and strew them over the top of the pie, having first poured in all the gravy.

Devonshire Squab Pie.

COVFR the dish with a good crust, and put at the bottom of it a layer of sliced pippins, and then a layer of mutton

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steaks cut from the loin, well seasoned with pepper and salt. Then put another layer of pippins, peel some onions, and slice them thin, and put a layer of them over the apples. Then put a layer of mutton, and then pippins and onions. Pour in a pint of water, close up the pie, and hake it.

Apple Pie.

HAVING put a good puff paste, crust round the edge of the dish, pare and quarter the apples, and take out the cores: lay a thick row of apples, and throw in half the sugar intended to be put into the pie. Mince a little lemon peel fine, spread it over the sugar and apples, and squeeze a little lemon over them: scatter a few cloves over it, and lav on the rest of the apples and sugar. Sweeten to the palate, and squeeze a little more lemon. Boil the peeling of the apples and cores in some water, with a blade of mace, till it. has a pleasing taste; strain it, and boil the syrup with a little sugar, till there is but a small quantity left. Pour it into the pie, put on the upper crust, and bake it. A little quince or marmalade may be added. In the same manner a pear pie may be made, but omit the quince. A liaison may be added to the pie when cold.

Apple Tart.

HAVING scalded eight or ten large codlins, let them stand till they are cold, and then skin them. Take the pulp, and beat it as fine as possible with a spoon: mix the yolks of six eggs, and the whites of four. Beat altogether very fine, put in grated nutmeg, and sweeten it to the taste. "Melt some good fresh butter, and beat it till of the consistence of fine thick cream; make a puff paste, and cover a tin pattypan with it; pour in the ingredients, but do not cover it with the paste. Having baked it a quarter of an hour, slip it out of the pattypan on a dish, and strew over it some sugar finely beaten and sifted.

Codlin Pie.

PUT some small codlins into a clean pan with spring water, lay vine-leaves on them, and cover them with a cloth wrapped round the cover of the pan to keep in the steam. As soon as they grow soft, peel them, and put them in the same water with the vine-leaves. Hang them a great height over the fire to green, and when of a fine colour, take them out of the water, and put them into a deep dish, with as much powder and loaf sugar as will sweeten them. Make the lid of rich puff paste, and bake it. When it comes from the oven,

p

210 PIES.

take off the lid, and cut it in little pieces like sippets, and stick them round the inside of the pie with the points upwards. Then add a liaison.

Potatoc Pie.

TAKE three pounds of potatoes, boil and peel them. Make a good crust, and Jay it in your dish. Put half a pound of butter at the bottom of it, and then lay in the potatoes. Throw over them three tea-spoonsful of salt, and a small nutmeg grated all over; boil six eggs hard, chop them fine, and scatter them over it, as also a tea-spoonful of pepper, and add half a pint of white wine. Cover the pie, and bake it half an hour, or till the crust is enough.

Artichoke Pie.

HAVING boiled twelve artichokes, take off the leaves and chokes, and take the bottoms clear from the stalks. Make a good puff paste crust, and lay a quarter of a pound of good fresh butter all over the bottom of the pie. Then lay a row of artichokes, strew a little pepper, salt, and beaten mace over them, then another row, and strew the rest of the spice over them. Put in a quarter of a pound more of butter in little bits, take half an ounce of truffles and morels, and boil them in a quarter of a pint of water. Pour the water into the pie, cut the truffles and morels very small, and throw them all over the pie: have ready twelve eggs boiled hard, of which take only the hard yolks, and lay them over the pie. Pour in a gill of white wine, cover the pie, and bake it. When the crust is done, the pie will be enough. Four large blades of mace, and twelve pepper-corns, with a tea-spoonful of salt, will be sufficient.

Onion Pie.

PEEL some onions, and wash and pare some potatoes, and cut them into slices; also pare some apples, and slice them. Make a good crust, cover the dish, and lay a quarter of a pound of butter all over. Take a quarter of an ounce of mace beaten fine, a nutmeg grated, a tea-spoonful of beaten pepper, and three tea-spoonsful of salt. Mix altogether, and strew some over the butter. Lay a layer of potatoes, a layer of onions, a layer of apples, then a layer of eggs, and so on till the pie is filled, strewing a little of the seasoning between each layer, and i quarter of a pound of butter in bits, with six spoonsful of water. Close the pie, and bake it an hour and a half. A pound of potatoes, a pound of onions, a pound of apples, and twelve eggs, will be sufficient.

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Cherry Pie.

HAVING made a good crust, lay a little of it round the sides of the dish, and throw sugar at the bottom. Then lay in the fruit, and some sugar at the top. A few red currants put along with the cherries make an agreeable addition. Then put on the lid, and bake it in a slack oven. A plumb pit, or gooseberry pie may be made in the same manner. If it is desired that the fruit look red, let the pie stand a good while in the oven after the bread is drawn. A custard eats very well with a gooseberry pie.

Mince Pie.

TAKE a neat's tongue, and boil it two hours; then skin it, and chop it as small as possible. Chop very small three pounds of beef suet, the same quantity of good baking apples, four pounds of currants clean washed, picked, and well dried before the fire, a pound of jar raisins stoned and chopped small, and a pound of powder sugar. Mix them all together with half an ounce of mace, the same quantity of grated nutmeg, a quarter of an ounce of cloves, the same quantity of cinnamon, and a pint of French brandy. Make a rich puff paste, and as the pattypans are filled, put in a little candied citron and orange cut in little pieces. Put close down in a pot what mincemeat is left, and cover it up; but never put any citron or orange to it till wanted for use.

Or, shred three pounds of suet very fine, and chopped as small as possible. Take two pounds of raisins stoned, and chopped as fine as possible; two pounds of currants nicely picked, washed, rubbed, and dried at the fire; half a hundred of fine pippins pared, cored, and chopped small; half a pound of fine sugar pounded fine; a quarter of an ounce of mace, the same quantity of cloves, and two large nutmegs, all beat fine. ?Put all together into a great pan, and mix them well together with half a pint of brandy, and the same quantity of sack. Put it close down into a stone pan, and it will keep good for months. If meat is approved of in the pies, take two rounds of the inside of a sirloin of beef boiled, chopped as fine as possible, and mixed with the rest; or a neat's tongue parboiled, and treated as above directed.

Lent Mince Pie.

BOIL six eggs hard, and chop them fine; take twelve pippins pared and chopped small; a pound of raisins of the sun, stoned and chopped fine; a pound of currants, washed, picked^ and rubbed clean; a large spoonful of sugar beat'

212 PIES.

finp, a quarter of an ounce of mace and cloves beat fine, an ounce of citron, an ounce of can lied o.ange, both beat fine, an 1 a little nutmeg beat fine. Mix ail together nva gill. of brandy and a gill of sack. Make the crust good, and bake it in a slack oven. Squeeze in the juice of a Seville orange.

I'orkshire Chris/mas Pie.

HAVING made a good standing crust, with the wall and bottom very thick, take and bone a turkey, a goose, a fowl, a partridge, and a pigeon. Season them well, and take half an ounce of mace, the same quantity of nutmegs, a quarter of an ounce of cloves, and half an ounce of black pepper, all beat fine together. Then add two large spoonsful of salt: mix all well together. Open the fowls all down the back, and bone, first the pigeon, then the partridge, and cover them. Then proceed in the same manner with the fowl, goose, and turkey, which must be large. Season them all well, and then lay them in the crust, so that it may look only like a whole turkey. Then have a hare ready cased, and wiped with a clean cloth. Disjoint the hare into pieces, season it, and lavit as clo e as possible on one side; and on the other side put woodcocks, moor-game, and any sort of wild fowl. Season them well, and lay them close. Put at least four pounds of butter into the pie, and then lay on the lid, which must be very thick, and let it be well baked. It must have a very hot oven, and will take four hours baking at least. This crust will take a bushel of flour.

Shropshire Pie.

Cur two rabbits into pieces, with two pounds of fat pork cut small, and season both with pepper and salt to the taste. ThLMi m;;ke a good puff paste crust, cover the dish with it, and lay in the rabbits Mix the pork with them; but take t':e livers of the rabbits, parboil them and beat them in a mortar, with the same quantity of fat bacon, a little sweet herbs, and some ovsters. Season them with pepper, salt, and nutmeg, mix it up with the yolk of an egg, and make it up into littl^ balls. Scatter them about the pie, with some articnoke bottoms cut in dices, and some cock's-combs. Grate a small nutmeg over the meat, then pour in half a pint of red wine, ani:iaif a pint of second stock. Close the pie, and bake it an hour and a half in a quick but not too fierce oven.

Fine Patties.

TAKE any quantity of either turkey, house-lamb, or chicken, and slice it with an equal quantity of the fat of Jamb, loin of

PIES. 213

veal, or the inside of a sirloin of beef, and a little parsley, thyme, and lemon peel shred. Put all into a marbie n;ortar, pound it very line, and season it with salt and \vii;tr pepper. Make a fine pun 1 ' paste, roll it nut in thin square sheet*, and put the forcemeat in the middle. Cover tne pie, clo-^o it all round, and cut the pasj;e even. Befo.e they are put into the oven, wash them over with the yolk of an e^g, and bake them twenty minutes in a quick oven. Have ready a little white gravy, seasoned with pepper, salt, and a little eschalot, thickened tip with a little cream or hutter. When the patties come out of the oven, make a hole in the top, and pour in some gravy; hut take care not to put in too much, lest it should run out at the sides, which will spoil thu appearance of them.

Olive Pie.

TAKE the thin coMops of the hest end of a leg of veal, in quantity proportionate to the .size of the intended pie. Hack them with the back of a knife, and season them with pepper, salt, cloves, and mace. Wash over the collops with a bunch of feathers dipped in eggs, and have in readiness a bunch of sweet herbs shred small, such as thyme, parsley, and spinach. Take the yolks of eight hard eggs minced, and a few oysters parboiled and chopped, and some beef suet shred very fine. Mix these together, and strew them over the collops. Then sprinkle a little orange-flower water over them, and roll the collops up very close. Then put the crust on the dish, lay the collops in it, put butter on the top, and ciose the pie. When it comes out of the oven, have ready some hot gravy, with an anchovy dissolved in it, and pour it into the pie.

Egg Pit.

TAKE a pound of marrow, or beef suet, twelve eggs boiled hard, and chop them very fine. Season them with a little beaten cinnamon and nutmeg; take a pound of currants clean washed and picked, two or three spoonsful of cream, and a little sack and rose-water. Mix all together, and fill the pie with it. When it is baked, stir in half a pound of fresh butter, and the juice of a lemon.

Sweet Egg Pie.

COVER the dish with a good crust, and then take twelve eggs boiled hard, cut them into slices, and lay them in the pie. Throw half a pound of currants, clean washed and picked, all over the eggs. Then beat up four eggs well, mixed with half a pint of white wine, grate in a small nut

PIES.

meg, and make it pretty sweet with sugar. Remember to lay a quarter of a pound of butter between the eggs, then pour in the wine and eggs, and cover the pie. Bake it till the crust js done, which will be in about half an hour.

Orange or Lemon Tarts.

RUB six large lemons well with salt, and put them into water, with a handful of salt in it, for two days. Then change them every day into fresh water, without salt, for a fortnight: boil them for two or three hours till they are tender; cut them into half quarters, and then cut them three-corner ways as thin as possible. Take six pippins pared, cored, and quartered, and a pint of water. Let them boil till the pippins break, put the liquor to the orange or lemon, half the pulp of the pippins well broken, and a pound of sugar. Boil these together a quarter of an hour, then put it into a bason, and squeeze into it an orange. If a lemon tart, squeeze a lemon. Two spoonsful are enough for a tart. Put very fine puff paste, and very thin, into the pattypans, which must be small and shallow. Just before the tarts are put into the oven, with a feather or brush rub them over with melted butter, and then sift double-refined sugar over them, which will form a pretty icing.

Tart de Moi.

LAY round the dish a puff paste, and then a layer of biscuit; then a layer of butter and marrow, another of all sorts of sweetmeats, and thus proceed till the dish is full: boil a quart of cream, and thicken it with four eggs, and put in a spoonful of orange-flower water. Sweeten it with sugar to the palate, and pour it over the whole. Half an hour will bake it.

Skirret Pie.

BOIL the skirrets tender, peel and slice them, and fill the pie with them. To half a pint of cream take the yolk of an egg, and beat it fine. Put to it a little grated nutmeg, a little beaten mace, and a little salt. Beat all well together, with a quarter of a pound of fresh butter melted, and pour in as much as the dish will hold. Put on the top-crust, and bake it half an hour. If cream cannot be put, add milk.

Turbot Pie.

WASH and parboil the turbot, and season it with a little pepper, salt, cloves, mace, nutmeg, and sweet herbs cut fine. N\ hen the paste is made, lay in the turbot, with some yolks,

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of eggs boiled hard, a whole onion, which must be taken out when the pie is baked. Lay a great deal of fresh butter on the top, and close it up. It is good cold or hot.

Tench Pie.

LAY a layer of butter at the bottom of the dish, then grate in some nutmeg, with pepper, salt, and mace. Lay in the tench, cover them with some butter, and pour in some red wine and a little water. Then put on the lid, and when it comes from the oven, pour in melted butter, with some gravy in it.

Trout Pie.

LARD a brace of trout with eels; raise the crust, and lay a layer of fresh butter at the bottom. Then make a forced meat of trout, mushrooms, truffles, morels, chives, and fresh butter. Season them with salt, pepper, and spice; mix these up with the yolks of two eggs; stuff the trout with this forced meat, lay them in the pie, cover them with butter, put on the lid, and send it to the oven. Have some good fish gravy ready to pour into the pie when it is baked.

Eel Pie.

HAVING skinned and washed the eels very clean, cut them in pieces an inch and a half long: season with pepper, salt, and a little dried sage rubbed small, and raise the pies about the size of the inside of a plate. Fill them with eels, and lay a lid over them. Bake them well in a quick oven.

Carp Pie.

SCALE, gut, and wash, a large carp clean. Take an eel, and boil it till almost tender, pick off all the meat, and mince it fine, with an equal quantity of crumbs of bread, a few sweet herbs, a lemon-peel cut fine, and a little pepper, salt, and grated nutmeg; an anchovy, half a pint of oysters parboiled and chopped fine, and the yolks of three hard eggs cut small. Roll it up with a quarter of a pound of butter, and fill the belly of the carp. Make a good crust, cover the dish, and lay in the carp. Save the liquor the eels were boiled in, put into it the eel bones, and boil them with a little mace, whole pepper, an onion, some sweet herbs, and an anchovy. Boil till reduced to about half a pint, strain it, and add to it about a quarter of a pint of white wine, and a piece of butter about the size of a hen's egg mixed in a very little flour. Boil it up, and pour it into the pie. Put on the lid, and bake

216 PIES.

it an hour m a quick oven. If there be any forcemeat left after filling the belly of the carp make balls of it, and put it into the pie. If there is not liquor enough, boil a few small eels for that purpose.

Salt Fish Pie.

LAY a side of salt fish in water all night, and next morning put it over the fire in a pan of water till tender. Drain it, and lay it on the dresser; take off all the skin, and pick the meat clean from the bones, and mince it small. Take the crumb of two French rolls cut in slices, and boil it up with a quart of new milk. Break the bread very fine with a" spoon, put it to the minced salt fish, with a pound of melted butter, two spoonsful of minced parsley, half a nutmeg grated, a little beaten pepper, and three tea-spoonsful of mustard. Mix all well together, make a good crust, lay it all over the dish, and cover it up. Bake it an hour.

Sole Pie.

COVER the dish with a good crust, boil two pounds of eels till they are tender, and pick all the flesh clean from the bones. Throw the bones into the liquor the eels were boiled in, with a little mace and salt, till it is very good, and reduced to a quarter of a pint, and then strain it. In the meantime, cut the flesh of the eel fine, with a little lemon-peel shred fine, a little salt, pepper, and nutmeg, a few crumbs of bread, chopped parsley, and an anchovy. Melt a quarter of a pound of butter and mix with it, and then lay it in a dish. Cut the flesh off a pair of large soles, or three pair of very small ones, clean from the bones and fins. Lay it on the forcemeat, and pour in the liquor of the eels. Put on the lid of the pie and bake it. Boil the bones of the soles with the eel bones, to make it good; but if the sole bones are boiled with one or two little eels, without the forcemeat, the pie will be very good. A turbot may be dressed in the same manner.

Flounder Pie.

HAVING gutted the flounders, wash them clean, and dry them in a cloth. Just boil them, cut off the meat clean from the bones, lay a good crust over the dish, and lay a little fresh butter at the bottom, and on that the fish. Season with pepper and salt to your mind. Boil the bones in the water the fish was boiled in, with a little bit of horse-radish, a little parsley, a very little bit of lemon-peel, and a crust of bread. Boil it till there is jnst enough liquor for the pie, then strain it, and put it into the pie. Put on the top crust, and bake it.

PIES. 217

Herring Pie.

HAVING scaled, gutted, and v;ashed the herrings clean, cut off their heads, fins, and tails. Make a good crust, cover the dish, and season the herrings with beaten rnace, pepper, and salt. Put a little butter in the bottom of the dish, and then a row of herrings. Pare some apples, and cut them into thin slices over the dish. Then peel some onions, and cut them in the same manner. Lay a little butter on the top, put in a little water, lay on the lid, and bake it well.

Salmon Pie.

HAVING made a good crust, cleanse a piece of salmon well, season it with salt, mace, and nutmeg, lay a piece of butter at the bottom of the dish, and lay the salmon in. Melt butter according to the pie. Take a lobster, boil it, pick out all the flesh, chop it small, bruise the body, and mix it well with the butter, which must be very good. Pour it over the salmon, put on the lid, and bake it well.

Lobster Pic.

BOIL two or three lobsters, take the meat out of their tails whole, and cut them in four pieces longways. Take out all the spawn, and the meat of the claws; beat it well in a mortar, and season it with pepper, salt, iwo spoonsful of vinegar, and a little anchovy liquor. Melt half a pound of fresh butter, and stir all together, with the crumbs of a halfpenny roll rubbed through a fine cullender, and the yolks of two eggs. Put a fine puff paste over the dish, lay in the tails, and the rest of the meat over them. Put on the cover, and bake it in a slow oven.

Muscle Pie.

HAVING laid a good crust all over the dish, wash the muscles clean in several waters; then pu f them into a deep stewpan, cover them, and let them stew till they open: pick them out, and see there are no crabs under the tongue. Put them into a saucepan, with two or three blades of mace (strain liquor just enough to cover them), a good piece of butter, and a few crumbs of bread. Stew them a few minutes, fill the pie, put on the lid, and bake it half an hour. Always let the fish be cold before the lid is put on, or it will spoil the crust. Oyster pie may be made in the same manner.

218 PANCAKES AND FRITTERS.

CHAPTER XIX.

PANCAKES AND FRITTERS.

Cream Pancakes.

JMix the yolks of two eggs with half a pint of cream, two ounces of sugar, and a little beaten cinnamon, mace, and nutmeg; rub the pan with lard, and fry them as thin as possible: grate sugar over them.

Milk Pancakes.

PUT six or eight eggs, leaving out half the whites, into a quart of milk, and mix them well till the batter is of a fine thickness: observe to mix the flour first with a little milk, then add the rest by degrees. Put in two spoonsful of beaten ginger, a glass of brandy, and a little salt. Stir all together, and make the frying-pan very clean. Put in a piece of butter of the size of a walnut, and then put in a ladleful of batter, which will make a pancake, moving the pan round, so that the batter may be every where even alike in the pan; when that side is enough, toss it or turn it cleverly without breaking it. When done, lay it in a dish before the fire, and proceed to do the rest in like manner. Strew a little sugar over them, and take care that they are dry.

Rice Pancakes.

TAKE three spoonsful of flour of rice, and a quart of cream; set it on a slow fire, and keep stirring it till as thick as pap: pour into it half a pound of butter and a nutmeg grated: pour it into an earthern pan, and when cold, stir in three or four spoonsful of flour, a little salt, some sugar, and nine eggs well beaten; mix all well together, and fry them nicely. When cream is not to be had, use new milk, and a spoonful more of the Hour of rice.

Custard Fritters.

Beat the yolks of eight eggs with one spoonful of flour, half a nutmeg, a little salt, and brandy, add a pint of cream; sweeten it, and bake in a small dish. When cold, cut it into quarters; dip them in batter made of half a pint of cream, a quarter of a pint of milk, four eggs, a little flour, and a little

PANCAKES AND FRITTEUS. 219

ginger grated. Fry them a little brown, in good lard or dripping. Grate sugar over them, and serve them up hot

Common Fritters.

GET the largest baking-apples, pare them, and take out the core with an apple-scraper; cut them in round slices, and dip them in batter made thus: take half a pint of ale and two eggs-, and beat in as much flour as will make it rather thicker than a common pudding, with nutmeg and sugar to the taste. Let it stand three or four minutes to rise. Having dipped the apples into this batter, fry them crisp, and serve them up with sugar grated over them, and wine sauce in a boat.

Fine Fritters.

TAKE some of the finest flour, and dry it well before the fire: mix it with a quart of new milk, but take care not to make it too thick. Put to it six or eight eggs, a little nutmeg, mace, and salt, and a quarter of a pint of sack or ale, or a glass of brandy. Beat them well together, then make them pretty thick with pippins, boiled and pulped through a sieve, and fry them dry.

White Fritters.

WASH at least an ounce of rice in five or six different waters, and dry it well before the fire. Then beat it very fine in a mortar, and sift it through a lawn sieve: put it into a saucepan, just wet it with milk, and when well incorporated with it, add to it another pint of milk. Set the whole over a stove, or a very slow fire, and take care to keep it always moving: add a little ginger, and some candied lemon-peel grated. Keep it over the fire till it almost come to the thickness of a fine paste, flour a peal, pour it on it, and spread it out with a rolling-pin. When cold, cut it into little morsels, taking care that they do not stick one to the other. Roll up the fritters handsomely, and fry them. Serve them up with sugar over them, and pour over them a little orange-flower water.

A Quire of Paper.

TAKE three spoonsful of fine flour, a pint of cream, sijf eggs, three spoonsful of sack, one of orange-flower water, a little sugar, half a nutmeg grated, and half a pound of melted butter almost cold. Mix all well together, and butter the pan for the first pancake. Let them run as thin as possible, and when they are just coloured, they will be enough. In this manner all the fine pancakes should be fried.

220 PANCAKES AND FRITTERS.

Almond Froze.

STEEP a pound of Jordan almonds blanched, in a pint of cream, ten yolks of eggs, and four whites: take out the almonds, and pound them fine in a mortar; mix them again in the cream and eggs, and put in some sugar and grated white bread: stir them all together, put some fresh butter into the pan, and as soon as it is hot, pour in the batter, stirring it in the pan till of a good thickness. When enough, turn it into a dish, and throw sugar over it.

Fritters Royal.

PUT a quart of new milk into a saucepan, and when it begins to boil, pour in a pint of sack: take it off, ]et it stand five or six minutes, skim off the curd, and put it into a bason. Beat it up well with six eggs, and season it with nutmeg. Then beat it with a whisk, and flour sufficient to give it the usual thickness of batter, put in some sugar, and fry them quick.

Currant Fritters without Eggs.

TAKE half a pint of ale that is not bitter, and stir into it flour to make it pretty thick, with a few currants. Beat this up quick: have the lard boiling; throw in a large spoonful at a time.

Raspberry Fritters.

GRATE the crumb of a French roll, or two Naples biscuits; put to either a pint of boiling cream: when this is cold, add to it the yolks of four eggs well beaten. Beat all well together with some raspberry juice; drop them into a pan of boiling lard, in very small quantities. Stick them with blanched almonds sliced.

Tansy Fritters.

Pouu a pint of boiling milk on the crumb of a penny loaf grated. When cold, add a spoonful of brandy, sugar to the taste, the rind of half a lemon, the yolks of four eggs, and spinach and tansy juice to colour it. Mix this over the fire, with a quarter of a pound of butter, till thick. Let it stand near three hours, and drop it, a spoonful to a fritter, ii to boiling lard.

Rice Fritters.

BOIL a quarter of a pound of rice in milk till it is pretty thick; then mix it with a pint of cream, four eggs, some

PANCAKES AND FRITTERS. 221

sugar, cinnamon, and nutmeg; six ounces of currants washed and picked, a little salt, and as much flour as will make it a thick batter. Fry them in little cakes in boil.ng lard. Serve them with white sugar and butter.

Carrot Fritters,

TAKK two or three boiled carrots, beat them wit'i a spoon, and pulp them through a sieve. Put to every carrot svo or three eggs; a little nutmeg; to three carrots pur a h..miful of flour; wet them with cream, milk, or sack, and ad. I to Mem as much sugar as will sweeten them. Beat them well half an hour, and fry them in boiling lard. Squeeze over them a Seville orange, and shake some fine sugar over them.

German Fritters.

TAKE some well-tasted crisp apples, pare, quarter, and core them; take the core quite out, and cut them into ror,'id pieces: put into a stewpan a quarter of a pint of Fre-ch brandy, a table spoonful of fine sugar pounded, an.; I ^le cinnamon. Put the apples into this liquor, and set tuem over a very gentle fire, stirring them often, but not to break t ijem. Set on a stewpan with some lard. When it boils dnu.i the apples, dip them in some fine flour, and put them into the pan; they will be brown and very good. Strew som s;!gar over a dish, and set it on the fire; lay in the fritters, strew a little sugar over them, and glaze them over with a red-hot salamander.

Bilboquet Fritters.

BREAK five eggs into two handsful of fine flour, and put milk enough to make it work well together; then put in some salt, and work it again. When it is well maJe, put a teaspoonful of powder of cinnamon, the same quantity of lemonpeel grated, and half an ounce of candied citron cut very small with a penknife. Put on a stewpan, nib it over with butter, and put in the paste. Set it over a very gentle fi'e on a stove, and let it be done very gently, without sticking to the bottom or sides of the pan. When it is in a manner baked, take it out and lay it on a dish. Set on a stewpan witii a large quantity of lard; when it boils cut the paste t^e size of a finger, and then cut it across at each end, which wid rise and be hollow, and have a very good eil'ect. Put them into the boiling lard, but great care must be taken in frying them, as they rise so much. When they are done, sift some sugar on a warm dish, lay on the fritters, and sift some more sugar over them.

222 PANCAKES AND FRITTERS.

Point du Jour Fritters.

TAKE a glass of mountain, and a large spoonful of brandy. Mix two handsful of flour with some warm milk, and the brandy and wine, and work it into a paste. Beat up the white of four eggs to a froth, and mix them with the batter. Then add to them half an ounce of candied citron-peel, half an ounce of fresh lemon-peel grated, some salt and sugar. Let it be all well beat up together; then set on a small deep stewpan, with a good quantity of hog's lard, and when it is boiling hot, drop in some of the batter through a tin funnel made on purpose, with a large body and three pipes. Hold the funnel over the boiling lard, and pour the batter through it with a ladle. It must be kept moving over the pan till all is run out, and this, from the three streams, shapes the fritters. When the batter is all out, turn the fritters, for they are soon brown. Then put one at a time upon a rolling pin, and they will be the shape of a rounded leaf, which is the proper shape of these fritters. Great nicety is required in making them; but they are an elegant dish. When the first is made, it should be a pattern for the rest. If too thick, pour in the less batter for the next; and if too thin, a little more.

Chicken Fritters.

PUT on a stewpan with some new milk, and as much flour of rice as will be necessary to make it of a tolerable thickness. Beat three or four eggs, the yolks and whites together, and mix them well with the rice and milk. Add to them a pint of rich cream, set over a stove, and stir it well. Put in some powdered sugar, some candied lemon-peel cut small, and some fresh-grated lemon-peel cut very small. Then take all the white meat from a roasted chicken, pull it into small shreds, put it to the rest of the ingredients, and stir it all together. Then take it off", and it will be a very rich paste. Roll it out, cut it into small fritters, and fry them iu boiling lard. Strew the bottom of the dish with sugar finely powdered. Put in the fritters, and shake some sugar over them.

Hasty Fritters.

PUT some butter into a stewpan, and let it heat. Take half a pint of good ale, and stir into it by degrees a little flour. Put in a few currants, or chopped apples, beat them up quick, and drop a large spoonful at a time all over the pan. Take care that they do not stick together, turn them with an e rgshce, and when they are a fine brown, lay them on a dish, and throw some sugar over them.

PANCAKES AND FRITTERS. 223

Fritters.

HAVING beat the yolks of eight eggs and the whites of four well together, strain them into a pan: take a quart of cream, and make it scalding hot: add a quarter of a pint of sack, three quarters of a pint of ale, and make a posset of it. When cool, put it to the eggs, beating it well together. Then put in salt, ginger, nutmeg, and flour. Having made the batter pretty thick, put in pippins sliced or pared, and fry them quick in a good deal of batter.

Curd Fritters.

TAKE a handful of curds and a handful of flour, and ten eggs well beaten and strained; some sugar, cloves, mace, and nutmeg beaten, and a little saffron. Stir all well together and fry them quick, and of a fine light brown.

Skirret Fritters.

To a pint of pulp of skirrets add a spoonful of flour, the yolks of four eggs, sugar and spice. Make them into a thick batter, and fry them quick.

Syringed Fritters.

To a pint of water add a piece of butter of the size of an egg, with some lemon-peel, rasped preserved lemon-peel, and crisped orange-flowers. Put all together in a stewpan 'over the fire, and, when boiling, throw in some fine flour. Keep it stirring, put more flour in by degrees, till the batter is thick enough, and then take it off the fire. Take an ounce of sweet almonds, four bitter ones, and pound them in a mortar. Stir in two Naples biscuits crumbled, and two eggs beaten. Stir all together, and put in more eggs till the batter is thin enough to be syringed. Fill the syringe, the batter being hot, then syringe the fritters in it, to make it of a true-lover's-knot, and being well coloured, serve them up for a side dish. Or, rub a sheet of paper with butter, over which syringe the fritters, and make them of the required shape: the butter being hot, turn the paper upside down over it, and the fritters will easily drop off". When fried, strew them with sugar, and glaze them.

Vine-leaf Fritters.

HAVING procured some of the smallest vine-leaves, and having cut otf the great stalks, put them into a dish with

224- PANCAKES AND FRITTERS.

some French brandy, green lemon rasped, and some sugar. Take a good handful of fine flour, mixed with white wine or ale: let the batter be hot, and with a spoon drop it in, and take great care that they do not stick to each other. On each fritter lay a leaf, then fry them quick, and strew sugar over

them. Glaze them with a salamander.



Clary Fritters.

CUT off the stalks of the clary leaves, and dip them one by one in a batter made with milk and flour. The batter being hot, fry them quick.

PART IL

CHAPTER I.

PICKLING.

PRELIMINARY HINTS AND OBSERVATIONS.

IT is an essential point with the housekeeper, to take care never to be without pickles of her own preparing, that she may not be obliged to purchase them at shops, where they are often badly prepared, and made to please the eye by the use of pernicious ingredients. It is too common a practice to make use of brass utensils, in order to give the pickles a fine green; but the same purpose might be effected by heating the liquor, and keeping it in a proper degree of warmth on the hearth or the chimney corner. By this method you would avoid the pernicious consequence of the use of brass utensils, or of verdigris of any kind, which are in their nature a very powerful poison. Stone jars are undoubtedly the best for keeping all sorts of pickles; for, though they are expensive on the first purchase, yet they will, in the end, be found much cheaper than earthen vessels, through which, it has been found by experience, salt and vinegar will penetrate, especially when put in hot. When you take any pickle out of your jars, be sure never to do it wrth your fingers, as that will spoil your pickle; but always make use of a spoon for that purpose. We shall now proceed to give an account of the different kind of spices made use of in pickling, as well as of vinegars, &c. &c.

Pepper:

OF every kind, should be kept ground, in bottles withglas? stoppers the whole pepper in jars, tied over with bladder.

22$ PICKLING.

Ginger, Cloves, Nutmegs, Mace, Cinnamon, and Allspice^ should be treated, as directed for Pepper.

Common Vinegar.

PUT as many pounds of coarse Lisbon sugar as gallons of water; boil it, and skim it as long as any scum will rise: then put it into tubs, and when it is as cold as beer to work, toast a large piece of bread, and rub it over with yeast. Let it work twenty-four hours; then have ready a vessel, ironhooped, and well painted, fixed in a place where the sun has full power, and fix it so as not to have any occasion to move it. When it is drawn off, fill the vessels, and lay a tile on the bung-hole to keep the dust out. Make it in March, and it will be fit to use in. June or July. Then draw it off into little stone bottles, let it stand till wanted for use, and it will never be foul any more; but should it not be sour enough, let it stand a month longer before it is drawn off.

Elder-Flower Vinegar.

PUT two gallons of strong vinegar to a peck of the peeps of elder flowers, and so in proportion for any greater quantity. Set it in the sun in a stone jar for a fortnight, and then filter it through a flannel bag. When it is drawn off, put it into small bottles, in which it will preserve its flavour better than in large ones. In mixing the flowers and the vinegar together, be careful not to drop any of the stalks among the peeps.

Gooseberry Vinegar.

CIIUSH the ripest gooseberries in a tub, and to every peck of gooseberries put two gallons of water. Mix them well together, and let them work for three weeks. Stir them up three or four times a day, then strain the liquor through a hair sieve, and put to every gallon a pound of brown sugar, a pound of treacle, a spoonful of fresh barm, and let it work three or four days in the sanxj tub well washed. Run it into iron-hooped barrels, let it stand twelve months, and then draw it into bottles for use. This is far superior to white-wine vinegar.

Tarragon Vinegar.

STRIP off the leaves of tarragon just as it is going into bloom, and to every pound of leaves put a gallon of strong white-wine vinegar in a stone jug, to ferment for a fortnight

PICKLING. 227

Then fun it through a flannel bag, and to every four gallons of vinegar put half an ounce of isinglass dissolved in cyder. Mix it well, put it into large bottles, and let it stand a month to fine. Then rack it off into pint bottles, and use it as it is wanted.

Sugar Vinegar.

To six gallons of water put nine pounds of brown suo-ar, and so in proportion for any greater quantity. Boil it for a quarter of an hour, and put it lukewarm into a tub. Put to it a pint of new barm, and let it work four or five days. Stir it up three or four times a day, then turn it into a clean ironhooped barrel, and set it in the sun. If made in February, it will be fit for use in August. It may be used for most sorts of pickles, except mushrooms and walnuts. This is nearly the same as that mentioned under the title of Common Vinegar.

Cucumbers, catted Gerkins.

THE cucumbers must be as free from spots as possible, and of the smallest size. Put them into strong salt arid water for nine or ten days, or till they are quite yellow, and stir them twice a day at least, or they will grow soft. When perfectly yellow, pour the water from them, and cover them with plenty of vine leaves. Set the water over the fire, and when it boils pour it upon them, and set them upon the hearth to keep warm: when the water is nearly cold, make it boiling hot again, and pour it upon them. Proceed in this manner till they are of a fine green, which they will be in four or five times. Be careful to keep them well covered with vine leaves, with a cloth and dish over the top to keep in the steam, Avhich will help to green them the sooner.

When greened, put them in a hair sieve to drain, and make the following pickle for them: To every two quarts of white wine vinegar, put a quarter of an ounce of mace, ten OF twelve cloves, an ounce of ginger cut into slices, the same of black pepper, and a handful of salt: boil all together for five minutes, pour it hot upon the pickles, and tie them down with a bladder for use. A clove of garlic may be added.

Cucumbers in Slices.

SLICE some large cucumbers before they are too ripe, and put them into an earthen pan. To every dozen of cucumbers, slice two large onions, putting a handful of salt between every row: cover them with a dish, and let them stand twenty-four hours: put them into a cullender, and let them

Q 2

228 PICKLING.

dry well; put them into a jar, cover them over with whitewine vinegar, and let them stand four hours: pour the vinegar from them into a saucepan, and boil it with a little salt, mace, whole pepper, a large race of ginger sliced, and then pour on them the boiling vinegar. Cover them close, and when they are cold, tie them down, and if wanted for use in a few days, reboil the vinegar.

Walnuts pickled black.

YOUR Avalnuts must be taken from the tree before the shell is hard, which may be known by running a pin into them, and always gather them when the sun is hot upon them. Put them into strong salt and water for nine days, and stir them twice a day, observing to change the salt and water every three days. Then put them into a hair sieve, and let them stand in the air till they turn black. Put them into strong stone jars, and pour boiling vinegar over them. Cover them up, and let them stand till cold. Then give the vinegar three more boilings, pour it each time on the walnuts, and let it stand till cold between every boiling. Then tie them down with paper and a bladder over them, and let them stand two months. Having stood that time, take them out of the vinegar, and make for them the following pickle: To every two quarts of vinegar, put a quarter of an ounce of mace, a dram of cloves; of olacK pepper, of Jamaica pepper, ginger, and long pepper, an ounce each, and two ounces of common salt. Boil ten minutes, pour it hot on the walnuts, and tie them down, covered with paper, and a bladder. This quantity of spice, is intended for three hundred walnuts.

Walnuts pickled white.

HAVING procured a sufficient quantity of walnuts of the largest size, and taken the above precautions that their shells are not hard, pare them very thin till the white appear, and throw them into spring-water, with a handful of salt. Let them stand in that water for six hours, and put a thin board upon them to keep them under the water. Then set on a stewpan, with some clean spring-water on a charcoal fire. Take the nuts put of the water, put them into the stewpan, and let them simmer four or five minutes, but not boil: have ready a pan of spring-water, with a handful of white salt in it, stir it till the salt is melted, take the nuts out of the stewpan with a wooden ladle or spoon, and put them into the cold water and salt. Let them stand a quarter of an hour, with the board lying on them to keep them down as before; for if they are not kept under the liquor they will turn black.

PICKLING. 129

Then lay them on a cloth, and cover them with another to dry; carefully rub them with a soft cloth, and put them into the jar, with some blades of mace and nutmeg sliced thin. *Mix the spice between the nuts, and pour distilled vinegar over them. When the jar is full of nuts, pour mutton fat over them, and tie them close down with a bladder and leather, to keep out the air.

Walnuts pickled of an Olive-colour.

HAVING gathered the walnuts with the same precautions as above directed, put them into strong vinegar, and tie them down under a bladder and paper to keep out the air. Let them stand twelve months, then take them out of the vinegar, and make for them a pickle of strong vinegar. To every quart, put half an ounce of Jamaica pepper, the same of long pepper, a quarter of an ounce of mace, the same of cloves, a head of garlic, and a little salt. Boil them all together five or six minutes, and then pour it upon the walnuts. As it gets cold, boil it again three times, and pour it on the walnuts. Tie them down with a bladder and paper over it; and if your vinegar be good, they will keep several years, without either turning colour or growing soft.

Walnuts pickled green.

FOR this purpose, make choice of the large double or French walnuts, gathered before the shells are hard. Wrap them singly in vine leaves, put a few vine leaves in the bottom of the jar, and nearly fill it with walnuts. Take care that they do not touch. one another, and put a good many leaves over them. Then fill your jar with good vinegar, cover them close that the air cannot get in, and let them stand for three weeks. Pour the vinegar from them, put fresh leaves on the bottom of another jar, take out the walnuts, and wrap them separately in fresh leaves, as quickly as possible. Put them into the jar with a good many leaves over them, and fill it with white-wine vinegar. Let them stand three weeks, pour off the vinegar, and wrap them as before with fresh leaves at the bottom and top of the jar. Take fresh white-wine vinegar, put salt in it till it will bear an egg, and add to it mace, cloves, nutmeg and garlic. Boil it about eight minutes, and then pour it on the walnuts. Tie them close with paper and a bladder, and set them by for use.

Kidney Beans,

PUT some young and small beans into a strong salt and water for three days, stirring them two or three times each

23.O PICKLING.

day. Then put them into a pan, with vine leaves both under and over them, and pour on the.n the same water they came out of. Cover them close, and set them over a very slow fire till they are of a very fine green. Put them into a hair sieve to drain, and make a pickle for them of white-wine vinegar. Boil it five or six minutes with a little mace, Jamaica pepper, long pepper, and a race or two of ginger sliced, pour it hot upon the beans, and tie them down with a bladder and paper.

Mangoes.

CUCUMBERS used for this purpose must be of the largest sort, and taken from the vines before they are too ripe, oryellow at the ends. Cut a piece out of the side, and take out the seeds with an apple -scraper, or a tea-spoon. Then put them into very strong salt and water for eight or nine days, or till they are very yellow. Stir them well two or three times each day, and put them into a pan with a large quantity of vine leaves both over and under them. Beat a little ailum very fine and put it into the salt and water they came out of. Pour it on the cucumbers, and set it upon a very slow fire for four or five hours, till they are pretty green: take them out, and drain them in a hair sieve, and when cold, put to them a little horse-radish, then mustard-seed, two or three heads of garlic, a few pepper-corns, a few green cucumbers sliced in small pieces, then horse-radish, and the same as before-mentioned, till they are filled. Take the piece cut out from the side, and sew it on with a large needle and thread, and do all the rest in the same manner. Have ready the following pickle: To every gallon of vinegar put a quarter of an ounce of mace, the same of cloves, two ounces of sliced ginger, the same of long pepper, Jamaica pepper, and black pepper; three ounces of mustard-seed tied up in a bag, four ounces of garlic, and a stick of horse-radish cut in slices. Boil them five minutes in the vinegar, then pour it upon the pickles, tie them down, and keep them for use.

Codlins.

Youn codlins must be gathered when they are about the size of a large French walnut. Put them into a pan with a great many vine-leaves at the bottom, and cover them well with the vine-leaves. Set them over a very slow fire till the skin will peel, and take them carefully up in a hair sieve; t peel them with a pen-knife, and put them into the same pot again, with the vine-leaves and water as before. Cover them

PICKLING. 231

close, and set them over a slow fire till they are of a fine green: drain them through a hair sieve, and when C9ld, put them into distilled vinegar. Pour a little mutton fat on the top, and with a bladder and paper tie them down close.

Golden Pippins.

HAVING procured fine pippins, free from spots and bruises, put them into a preserving-pan, with cold spring water, and set them on a' charcoal fire. Keep them stirring with a wooden spoon, till they will peel, but do not let them boil. When enough, peel them, and put them into the water again, with a quarter of a pint of the best vinegar, and a quarter of an ounce of alum. Cover them close, and set them on the charcoal fire again, but do not let them boil. Let them stand, turning them now and then, till they look green: then take them out, and lay them on a cloth to cool. When cold, put to them the following pickle: To every gallon of vinegar put two ounces of mustard seeds, two or three heads of garlic, a good deal of ginger sliced, half an ounce of cloves, a dram of mace and nutmeg. Mix the pickle well together, pour it over the pippins, and cover them close,

Peaches, Nectarines, and Apricots,

MUST be gathered when they are at their full growth, and just before they turn ripe, and be sure that they are not bruised. Take as much spring water as will cover them, and make it salt enough to bear an egg, for which purpose use an equal quantity of bay and common salt: lay in the peaches, and put a thin board over them to keep them under the water. Let them stand three days, then take them out, wipe them .very carefully with a fine soft cloth, and lay them in the jar. Then take as much white-wine vinegar as will fill the jar, and to every gallon put one pint of the best well made mustard, two or three heads of garlic, a good deal of ginger sliced, and two drams of cloves, mace, and nutmegs. Mix the pickle well together, and pour it over the peaches. Tie them up close, and they will be fit to eat in two months. Nectarines and apricots are pickled in the same manner.

Berberries.

HAVING procured berberries that are not over ripe, pick off the leaves and dead stalks, and put them into jars, with a large quantity of strong salt and water, and tie them down with a bladder. When a scum rises, put them into fresh salt and water, but they need no vinegar, their own sharpness being fully sufficient to preserve them.

2Sf PICKLINO.

Radish Pods.

PUT the radish pods, which must be gathered when they are quite young, into salt and water all night: boil the salt and water they were laid in, pour it upon the pods, and cover the jar close to keep in the steam. When it is nearly cold, make it boiling hot, and pour it on again, and keep doing so till the pods are quite green. Then put them into a sieve to drain, and make a pickle for them of white-wine vinegar, with a little mace, ginger, long pepper, and horse-radish. Pour it boiling hot upon the pods, and when it is almost cold, make the vinegar twice as hot as before, and pour it upon them. Tie them down with a bladder, and put them by for use.

-Beet Roots.

BOIL the roots till tender, take off the skins, cut them in slices, gimp them in the shape of wheels, or any other form, and put them into a jar. Take as much vinegar as will cover them, and boil it with a little mace, a race of ginger sliced, and a few slices of horse-radish. Pour it hot upon the roots, and tie them down.

Parsley pickled green.

MAKE a strong salt and water that will bear an egg, and throw into it a large quantity of curled parsley. Let it stand a week, then take it out to drain, make a fresh-salt and water as before, and let it stand another week. Drain it well, put it into spring water, and change it three days successively. Then scald it in hard water till it becomes ^reen, take it out and drain it quite dry, and boil a quart of distilled vinegar a few minutes, with two or three blades of mace, a nutmeg sliced, and a shalot or two. When quite cold, pour it on the parsley, with two or three slices of horse-radish, and keep it for use.

Elder Buds.

HAVING procured elder buds, gathered when thev are about the size of hop buds, put them into strong salt and water for nine days, and stir them two or three times a day. Then put them into a pau, cover them with vine-leaves/ and pour on them the water they came out of. Set them over a slow fire till they are quite green, and then make a pickle for them of vinegar, a little mace, a few shalots, and some ginger

PICKLING. 233

sliced. Boil them two or three minutes, and pour it upon the buds. Tie them down, and keep them in a dry place foi 1 use.

Elder Shoots,

PUT the elder shoots, which must be gathered when they are of the thickness of a pipe shank, into salt and water all night. Then put them into stone jars in layers, and between every layer strew a little mustard seed, scraped horse-radish, a few shalots, a little white beet-root, and a cauliflower pulled into small pieces. Then pour boiling vinegar upon them, and scald them three times. Keep in a dry place, with a leather tied over them.

Nasturtiums.

PUT the nasturtium berries, which must be gathered soon after the blossoms are gone off, into cold salt and water, and change the water for three days successively. Make the pickle of white-wine vinegar, mace, nutmeg sliced, shalots, peppercorns, salt and horse-radish. The pickle must be made pretty strong, as it must not be boiled. When the berries are drained, put them into ajar, and pour the pickle to them.

Grapes.

LET the grapes be of their full growth, but not ripe. Cut them into small bunches fit for garnishing, and put them into a stone jar with vine-leaves between every layer of grapes: take spring water,- as much us will cover them, put into it a pound of bay-salt, and as much white salt.as will make it bear an egg. Dry the bay-salt and pound it before it is added, as that will make it melt the sooner. Put it into a pot, and boil and skim it well; but take off only the black scum. When it has boiled a quarter of an hour, let it stand to cool and settle; and when almost cold pour the clear liquor on the grapes, lay vine-leaves on the top, tie them down close with a linen cloth, and cover them with a dish. Let them stand twenty-four hours, then take them out, lay them on a cloth, cover them over with another, and let them dry between the cloths. Then take two quarts of vinegar, a quart of spring water, and a pound of coarse sugar. Let ic boil a little, skim it very clean as it boils, and let it stand till quite cold. Dry the jar with a cloth, put fresh vine-leaves at the bottom, and between every bunch of grapes and on the top. Then pour the clear of the pickle on the grapes, fill the jar that the pickle may be above the grapes, and having tied a thin piece of board in a piece of flannel, lay it on the top of the jar, to

PICKLING.

keep the grapes under the liquor. Tie them down with a blaoder and a leather, and when wanted for use, take them out with a wooden spoon.

Cauliflowers.

PULL the whitest and closest cauliflowers into bunches, and spread them on an earthen dish. Lay salt all over them, and let them stand for three days to bring out all the water. Then put them into jars, and pour boiling salt and water upon them. Let them stand! all night, then drain them into a hair sieve, and put them into glass jars. Fill up the jars with distilled vinegar, and tie them down close.

Red Cabbage.

HAVING sliced the cabbage cross-ways, put it on an earthen dish, and sprinkle a handful of salt over it. Cover it with another dish, and let it stand twenty-four hours. Then put it into a cullender to drain, and lay it into the jar. Take white-wine vinegar enough to cover it, a little cloves, mace, and allspice. Put them in whole, with a little cochineal bruised fine. Then boil it up, and put it hot on the cabbage. Cover it close with a cloth till cold, and tie it up close.

Indian Pickle, or Piccalillo.

TAKE large fresh cauliflowers in the month of July, pick them in small pieces, take also white cabbages cut in half quarters, whole French beans, heads of celery, heads of asparagus scraped, onions whole and sliced, pickling melons peeled thin and cut in halves, and wash them clean: put them into a pan with plenty of salt over them for three days; then drain, and lay them thin, to dry in the sun, repeatedly turning them. Then put plenty of whole ginger, slices of horseradish, peeled garJic, and whole long pepper into salt and water for one night; drain and dry them also; and then boil more than sufficient vinegar to cover them, to every two quarts adding an ounce of turmeric, and a quarter of an ounce of cayenne: having put the vegetables, &c. into stone jars, pour the boiling vinegar over them, letting them stand close covered till next day; repeat this process the two following days, and cover them with bladder and leather.

Sour Crout.

TAKE large white cabbages when in season, cut them into halves, and these into slips; wash clean, and drain dry: put into a tub a layer of cabbage, and a layer of salt, with a few

PICKLING. 235

-coriander seeds pounded and sifted very fine, and so alternately till it is nearly full: lay upon it a board that will nearly fit it, and upon that a he?.vy weight to press it well: set it in a cool dry place, and cover with a cloth.

Mode of dressing Sour Crout.

PUT the prepared cabbage into boiling water over a fire for five minutes, and strain it: have ready, an equal number of pieces of 'brisket of beef, and pickled pork, each weighing about a quaiter of a pound, and all nearly boiled enough; put them into a stewpan, add the cabbage, some fresh butter, a little vinegar, onions sliced thin, whole pepper, allspice, and ny'ce ..ii tied in a bit of muslin: let all stew till tender, take 6!Tt the sp: ce, season with cayenne, and serve with fried onions, and fried sausages round.

Mushrooms.

TAKE a sufficient quantity of double distilled vinegar to cover the mushrooms; add whole white pepper, ginger, mace, esciialois, and a small quantity of garlic peeled; boil ten minuter, and let it stand till cold closely covered: peel fresh buttons, wash, clean, strain, and put them into a stewpan: to each quart of mushrooms, add the juice of a lemon strained, and a tabL' spoonful of salt: cover the stewpan close, set it over the fire, and when the liquor is sufficiently drawn from the mushrooms, put the whole into small glasses, and cover them with the pickle, and tie with bladder.

Artichokes,

TAKE young artichokes as soon as they are formed, and boil them for two or three minutes in strong salt and water. Lay them upon a hair sieve to drain, and when cold, put them into narrow-topped jars: take as much white-wine vinegar as will cover the artichokes. Boil them with a blade or two of mace, a few slices of ginger, and a nutmeg cut thin. Pour it on them while it is hot, and tie them down close.

Artichoke. Bottoms.

BOIL the artichokes till the leaves can be pulled off; take off the chokes, and cut them from the stalk; but take great care not to let the knife touch the top. Throw them into salt and water for an hour, take them out, and lay liiem on a cloth to drain. As soon as they are dry put them into large wide-mouthed glasses, tvith a little mace and sliced nutmeg between, and fill them either with distilled vinegar, or sugar

P/CKLING.

vinegar and spring-water. Cover them with mutton fat fried, and tie them down with a leather and a bladder.

Onions.

TAKE a sufficient number of the smallest onions, and put them into salt and water for nine days, observing to change the water every day: put them into jars, and pour fresh boiling salt and water over them. Let them stand close covered until cold, then make some more salt and water, and pour it boiling hot upon them. When cold, put the onions into a hair sieve to drain, then put them into wide-mouthed bottles, and fill them up with distilled vinegar. Put into every bottle a slice or two of ginger, a blade of mace, and a large teaspoonful of eating oil, which will keep the onions white. If the taste of a bay-leaf is approved, put one or two into every bottle, and as much bay-salt as will lie on a sixpence. Cork them up well.

Caveach, or pickled Mackerel. &ZG Frugal Dishes. Indian Bamboo imitated.

ABOUT the beginning or middle of May, take the middle of the stalks of the young shoots of elder, for the tops of the shoots are not worth doing. Peel off the out rind, and lay them all night in a strong brine of salt and beer. Dry them singly in a cloth, and in the meantime make a pickle of an. equal quantity of gooseberry vinegar and wine vinegar. To every quart of pickle put an ounce of long pepper, the same quantity of sliced ginger, a few corns of Jamaica pepper, and a little mace. Boil it, and pour it hot upon the shoots. Stop the jar close, and set it by the fire-side for twenty-four hours, taking care to stir it frequently.

Asparagus.

CUT off the white ends of the largest asparagus, and wash the green ends in spring water: put them into another clean water, and let them lie therein two or three hours. Put into a broad stewpan, full of spring water, a large handful of salt, set it on the fire, and when it boils, put in tne asparagus, not tied up, but loose, and not too many at a time. Just scald them, and no more; then take them out with a broad skimmer, and lay them on a cloth to cool: make the pickle with a gallon or more, according to the quantity of asparagus, of white-wine vinegar and an ounce of bay-salt. Boil it, and put the asparagus into the jar. To a gallon of pickle put two nutmegs, a quarter of an ounce of mace, and the same quan

PICKLING. 237

tity of whole white pepper. Pour the pickle hot over the asparagus, and cover them with a linen cloth, three or four times double: and when they have stood a week, boil the pickle again. Let them stand a week longer, then boil the pickle again, and pour it on hot as before. When they are cold, cover them close, in the same manner as other pickles.

Ox Palates. '

WASH the palates well with salt and water, and put them into a saucepan with some clean salt and water; when ready to boil, skim them well, and put to them as much pepper, cloves, and mace, as will give them a quick taste. When boiled tender, which will require four or five hours, peel them, and cut them into small pieces, and let them cool. Then make the pickle of an equal quantity of white wine and vinegar. Boil the pickle, ana put in the spices that were boiled in the palates. When both the pickle and palates are cold, lay the palates in a jar, and put to them a few bayleaves, and a little fresh spice. Pour the pickle over them, cover them close, and keep them for use. They are very useful to put into made dishes; or you may at any time make a pretty little dish, either with brown sauce or white, or butter ana mustard, and a spoonful of white wine.

Samphire.

LAY green samphire into a clean pan, and throw over it two or three handfuls of salt; then cover it with spring water. Let it lay twenty-four hours, then put into a clean saucepan, throw in a handiul of salt, and cover it with good vinegar. Cover the pan close, and set it over a slow fire. Let it stand till just green and crisp, and take it off at that moment; for if it should remain till soft, it will be spoiled. Put it in the pickling pot, and cover it close. As soon as cold, tie it down with a bladder and leather, and keep it for use; or it may be preserved all the year, in a very strong brine of salt and water; throw it into vinegar just before it is used.

Red Currants.

TAKE white-wine vinegar, and to every quart of vinegar put in half a pound of Lisbon sugar. Then pick the worst of the currants, and put them into this liquor; but put the best into glasses: boil the pickle with the worst of the currants, and ^skim it very clean. Boil it till it looks of a fine colour, and let stand till cold before it is strained; strain it through a cloth, wringing it, to get all the colour from the

238 PICKLING.

currants. Let it stand to cool and settle; then pour it clean into the glasses in a little of the pickle; and when cold, cover it close with a bladder and leather. To every half pound of sugar put a quarter of a pound of white salt.

Smelts:

WHEN smelts are in great plenty, take a quarter of a peck of them, and wash, clean, arid g-jt them: take half an ounce of pepper, the same quantity of nutmegs, a quarter of an ounce of mace, half an ounce of salt-petre, and a quarter of a pound of common salt. Beat all very fine, and then lay the smelts in rows in a jar. Between every layer of smelts strew the seasoning with four or five bay -leaves; then boil red wine, and pour over them a sufficient quantity to cover them. Cover them with a plate; and when cold, stop them down close. Many people prefer them to anchovies.

Anchovies.

ARTIFICIAL anchovies are made in this manner: To a peck of sprats, take two pounds of common salt, a quarter of a pound of bay-salt, four of salt-petre, two ounces of prunella salt, and a small quantity of cochineal. Pound all in a mortar, put them into a stone pan, a row of sprats, then a layer of the compound, and so on alternately to the top. Press them hard down, cover them close, let them stand for six months, and they will be fit for use. Take particular care that the sprats are very fresh, and do not wash or wipe them, but take them just as they come out of the water.

Oysters, Cockles, and Muscles.

TAKE two hundred of the newest and best oysters, and be careful to save the liquor in a pan as they are opened. Cut off the black verge, saving the rest, and put them into their own liquor; then put all the liquor and oysters into a kettle, boil them about half an hour on a gentle fire, and do them very slowly, skimming them as the scum rises; then take them off the fire, take out the oysters, and strain the liquor through a fine cloth: put in the oysters again, take out a pint of the liquor when hot, and add to it a quarter of an ounce of mace, and the same of cloves: just give it one boil, put it to the oysters, and stir up the spices well among them; then put in about a spoonful of salt, three quarters of a pint of the best white-wine vinegar, and a quarter of an ounce of whole pepper. Then let them stand till cold, and put the. oysters into a barrel. Put in as much liquor as the barrel

COLLARING. 239

hold, letting them settle a while, and they will soon be fit to eat; or put them into stone jars, cover them close Avith a bladder and leather, and be sure they are quite cold before they are covered up. In the like manner do cockles and muscles, with this difference only, that there is not any thing to be picked off cockles, and as they are small, the above ingredients will be sufficient for two quarts of muscles, but take great care to pick out the crabs under the tongues of the muscles, and the little pus which grows at the root of the tongue. Cockles and muscles must be washed in several waters to clean them from the grit. Put them in a stewpan by themselves, cover them close, and when they open, pick them out of the shells, and strain the liquor.

Salmon.

CLEAN the fish carefully, boil it gently till done, and then take it up: strain the liquor, adding bay-leaves, peppercorns, and salt; give it a boil, and when cold, add vinegar to the palate, and pour over the fish.

CHAPTER II. COLLARING.

PRELIMINARY HINTS AND OBSERVATIONS.

LT is a necessary article in collaring, to take care that you roll it up properly, and bind it close. Be cautious that you boil it thoroughly enough; and when quite cold, put it into the pickle with the same binding it had on when boiled; but take it off the next day, and it will leave the skin clear. Make fresh pickle frequently, which will preserve your meat much longer.

Beef.

BONE a piece of thick flank of beef, cut the skin off, and salt it with two ounces of saltpetre, two ounces of sal-prunella, the same quantity of bay-salt, half a pound of coarse sugar, and two pounds of white salt. Beat the hard salts fine, and mix all together. Turn it every day, and rub it well with the brine "for eight days; then take it out of the pickle, wash it, and wipe it dry. Take a quarter of an ounce

f40 COLLARING.

of cloves, the same quantity of mace, twelve corns of allspice, and a nutmeg beat very fine, with a spoonful of beaten pepper, a large quantity of chopped parsley, and some sweet herbs chopped fine. Sprinkle it on the beef, and roll it up very tight; put a coarse cloth round it, and tie it very tight with tape. Boil it in a large copper of water; and if a large collar, it will take six hours boiling; but a small one will be done in five. Take it out, and put it in a press till cold; or between two boards, and a large weight upon it.

Breast of Veal,

TAKE a breast of veal, bone it, and beat it a little. Rub it over with the yolk of an egg, and strew over it a little beaten mace, nutmeg, pepper and salt; a large handful of parsley chopped small, with a few sprigs of sweet marjoram, a little lemon peel finely shred, an anchovy washed, boned, and chopped very small, and mixed with a few crumbs of bread: roll it up very tight, bind it hard with a fillet, and wrap it in a clean cloth; then boil it two hours and a half in salt water; and when enough, hang it up by one end, and make a pickle for it: to a pint of salt and water put half a pint of vinegar; and when sent to table, cut a slice off one of th ends.

Breast of Mutton.

TAKE off the skin of a breast of mutton, and with a sharp knife nicely take out all the bones; but take care not to cut through the meat. Pick all the fat and meat off the bones, then grate some nutmeg all over the inside of the mutton, a very Tittle beaten mace, a little pepper and salt, a few sweet herbs shred small, a few crumbs of bread, and the bits of fat picked off the bones. Roll it up tight, stick a skewer in to hold it together, but do it in such a manner that the collar may stand upright in the dish. Tie a packthread across it, to hold it together; spit it; then roll the caul of a breast of veal all round it, and roast. When it has been about an hour at the fire, take off the caul, dredge it with flour, baste it well \\ith fresh butter, and let it be of a fine brown. It will require on the whole, an hour and a quarter roasting. For sauce, take some stock and coulis well seasoned.

Or, bone a large breast of mutton, and take out all the gristles. Rub it all over with the yolk of an egg, and season it with pepper, salt, nutmeg, parsley, thyme, sweet marjoram, all shred small, and shalot if approved. Wash and cut an anchovy in bits. Strew all this over the meat, roll it up hard, tie it with a tape, and put it into a ewpan; brown it, add

COLLARING. 241

some gravy well seasoned, and thicken it with flour and butter. Add some truffles and morels, or pickled cucumbers, or girkins sliced.

Calf's Head.

TAKE off the hair of a calf's head, but leave on the skin. Rip it do\vn the face, and take out "all the bones carefully from the meat. Steep it in warm milk till it is white, then lay it flat, rub it with the white of an egg, and strew over it a spoonful of white pepper, two or three blades of beaten mace, a nutmeg grated, a spoonful of salt, two score of oysters chopped small, half a pound of beef marrow, and a large handful of parsley. Lay them all over the inside of the head, cut o(F the ears, and lay them on a thin part of the head: roll it up tight, bind it up with a fillet, and wrap it up in a clean cloth. Boil it two hours; and when almost cold, bind it up with a fresh fillet, and put it in a pickle made, asbefore directed, for a breast of veal.

Pig.

HAVING killed your pig, dress oil the hair, and draw out the entrails. Then wash it clean, and with a sharp knife rip it open, and take out all the bones; then rub it all over with pepper and salt beaten fine, a few sage-leaves, and sweet herbs chopped small; then roll up your pig tight,- and bind it with a fillet. Fill your boiler with soft water, a bunch of sweet herbs, a few pepper-corns, a blade or two of mace, eight or ten cloves, a handful of salt, and a pint of vinegar. When it boils put in your pig, and let it boil till it is tender. Then take it up; and when it is almost cold, bind it over again, put it into an earthen pot, and pour the liquor your pig was boiled in upon it. Remember to keep it covered.

Venison.

TAKE a side of venison, bone it, and take away all the sinews, and cut it into square collars. It will make two or three collars. Lard it with fat clear bacon, and cut the lards as big as the top of the finger, and three or four inches long. Season the venison with pepper, salt, cloves, and nutmeg. Roll up the collars, and tie them close with coarse tape; then put them into deep pots, with seasonings at the bottoms, some fresh butter, and three or four bay-leaves; then put in the rest, with some seasoning and butter on the top, and over that some beef suet finely shred and beaten; cover up the pot with coarse paste, and bake them four or five hours.

R

242 COLLARING.

After that, take them out of the oven, and let them stand a little. Take out the venison, and let it drain well from the gravy. Take off all the fat from the gravy, add more butter to the fat, and set it over a gentle fire to clarify. Then take it off, and let it stand a little and skim it well. Make the pots clean, or have pots ready fit for each collar. Put a little seasoning, and some of the clarified butter at .the bottom: then put in the venison, and fill up the pots with clarified butter, and be sure the butter is an inch above the meat. When thoroughly cold, tie it down with double paper, and lay a tile on the top. They will keep six or eight months; and when a pot is wanted, put it for a minute into boiling water, and it will come out whole. Let it stand till cold, stick it round with bay-leaves, and a sprig ^t the top.

Eds.

CUT the eel open, take out the bones, cut off the head and tail, and lay the eel flat on the dresser. Shred some sage as fine as possible, and mix it with black pepper beaten, some nutmeg grated, and some salt. Lay it ali over the eel, and roll it up hard in little cloths, tying it up tight at each end. Then set on some water, with pepper and salt, five or six cloves, three or four blades of mace, and a bay-leaf or two. Boil these, with the bones, head, and tail j then take out the bones, head, and tail, and put in the eels. Let them boil till tender, then take them out of the liquor, and boil the liquor longer. Take it off; and when cold put it to the eels; but do not take off the little cloths till the collars are used.

Salmon.

TAKE a side of salmon, and cut off about a handful of the tail. Wash well the large piece, and dry it with a cloth. Wash it over with the yolks of eggs, and make some forcemeat with what was cutoff the tail; but take off the skin, and put to it a handful of parboiled oysters, a tail or two of lobsters, the yolks of three or four eggs boiled hard, six anchovies, a good handful of sweet herbs chopped small, a little salt, chives, mace, nutmeg, pepper, and grated bread. Work all these together in a mortar with yolks of eggs, and lay it all over the fleshy part, with a little more pepper and salt all over the salmon. Then roll it up into a collar, and bind it with broad tape. Boil it in water, salt, and vinegar; but let the liquor boil first. Then put in the; collars, with a bunch of sweet herbs, sliced ginger, and nutmeg. Let them boil gently nearly two hours; and when enough, take them up. Put tlu-m into the sousing-pan; and as soon as the pickle i*

POTTING. 21-3

cold, put it to the salmon, and let it stand in it till wanted for Use; or it maybe potted after it is boiled, and fill it up with clarified butter; and this way it will keep good the longer.

Mackerel.

HAVING gutied the mackerel, slit it down the belly, cut off the head, and take out the bones; but take care not to cut it in holes. Then lay it flat upon its back, season it with pepper, salt, mace, and nutmeg, and a handful of parsley, shred fine. Strew it over them, roll them tight, and tie them well separately in cloths. Boil them gently twenty mimites in vinegar, salt, and water; then take them out, put them into a pot, and pour the liquor on them. The next day take the cloth off the fish, put a little more vinegar to the pickle, and keep them for use.

CHAPTER III. POTTING.

PRELIMINARY HINTS AND OBSERVATIONS.

JDEFORE you send your meat to the oven, take care to cover it well with butter, fasten it down with strong paper, and bake it well. As soon as it comes from the oven, drain the gravy rom the meat, and be careful to pick out all the skins, as otherwise they will hurt the look of the meat, and the gravy will soon turn it sour. Remember always to beat your seasoning well before you put in your meat, and put it in by degrees as you beat. When you put your meat into your pots, press it well, and be sure never to pour your clarified butter over your meat till it is quite cold.

Marble Veal.

BOIL, skin, and cut a dried tongue as thin as possible, and beat it very well with near a pound of butter, and a little beaten mace, till it be like a paste. Have ready some veal stewed and beat in the same manner. Then put some veal into some potting-pots, thin some tongue in lumps over the vea!; but do not lay on the tongue in any form but in lumps, and it will then cut like marble. Fill the pot ( closeup with veal; press it very hard down, and pour clarified butter over

R 2

Ml POTTING.

it. Remember to keep it in a dry place; and when sent to table, cut it out in slices.

Geese and Turkeys.

TAKE a fat goose and a fat turkey, cut them down the rump, and take out all the bones. Lay them flat open, and season them with white pepper, salt, and nutmeg, allowing a nutmeg, with the Jike proportion of pepper, and as much salt as both the spices. When seasoned al^over, let the turkey be within the goose, and keep them in seasoning two nights and a day; then roll them up as collared beef, very tight, and as short as possible, and bind it very fast with strong tape. Bake it in a long pan, with plenty of butter, till very tender. Let it lie in the hot liquor an hour; then take it out, and let it stand till next day; then unbind it, place it in the pot, and pour melted butter over it. Keep it for use, and slice it out thin.

Tongues.

RUB a neat's tongue with an ounce of saltpetre, and four ounces of brown sugar, and let it lie two days; then boil it till quite tender, and take off she skin and side bits. Cut the tongue in very thin slices, and beat it in a marble mortar, with a pound of clarified butter, and season it to the taste with pepper, salt, and mace. Beat all as fine as possible, then put it close down into small potting-pots, and pour over them clarified butter.

Or, take a dried tongue, boil it till tender, and then peel it. Take a goose and a large fowl, and bone them; take a quarter ot an ounce of mace, the same quantity of olives, a large nutmeg, a quarter of an ounce of black pepper, and beat all well together; add a spoonful of salt, and rub the tongue and the inside of the fowl well with them. Put the tongue into the fowl, then season the goose, and fill it with the fowl and tongue, and the goose will look as if it were whole. Lay it in a pan that will just hold it, melt fresh butter enough to cover it, send it to the oven, and bake it an hour and a naif; then uncover the pet, and take out the meat. Carefully drain it from the butter, lay it on a coarse cloth till cold, then take

ff the hard fat from the gravy, and lay it before the fire to melt. Put the meat again into the pot, and pour the butter over it. If there is not enough, clarify more, and let the butter be an inch above the meat. It will keep a great while, n;ie, and look beautiful; but must be cut crossways quite Observe, in potting it, to save a little of the spice to throw over it before the last butter is put on, otherwise the meat will not be sufficiently seasoned

POTTING. 24

Beef.

TAKE half a pound of brown sugar, and an ounce of saltpetre, and rub it into twelve pounds of beef. Let it lie twenty-four hours; then wash it clean, and dry it well with a cloth. Season it to the taste, with pepper, salt, and mace, and cut it into five or six pieces. Put it into an earthen pot, with a pound of butter in lumps upon it, set it in a hot oven, and let stand there three hours. Then take it out, cut olTthe hard outsides, and beat it in a mortar. Add to it a little more pepper, salt, and mace. Then oil a pound of butter in the gravy and fat that came from the beef, and put it in as required; but beat the meat exceedingly fine. Then put it into the pots, press it close down, pour clarified butter over it, and keep it in a dry place.

Or, take a buttock of beef, and cut the lean of it into pound pieces. To eight pounds of beef, take four ounces of saltpetre, the same quantity of petre-salt, a pint of white salt, and an ounce of sal-prunella. Beat all the salts very fine, mix them well together, and rub them into the beef. Then let it lie four clays, turning it twice a day. After that, put it into a pan, cover it with pump-water, and a little of its own brine. Bake it in an oven, with the household bread, till it is tender; drain it from the gravy; and take out all the skin and sinews. Pound it into a marble mortar, lay it in a broad dish, and mix in it a quarter of an ounce of cloves and mace, three quarters of an ounce of pepper, and a nutmeg, all beat very fine. Mix all well with the meat, adding a little clarified fresh butter to moisten ir. Mix all again well together, press it down into pots very hard, set it at the mouth of the oven just to settle, and cover it two inches thick with clarified butter. Cover it with white paper as soon as it isco'id.

Or, take two pounds of lean beef, cut it into slices, and lay them upon a plate; season with salt and pepper, and a little cochineal. Turn and season them on the other side, and then let them lie one upon another all night: put them into a pan; add to them half a pint of small beer, a little vinegar, and as much water as will cover them, and some black and Jamaica, pepper: cover very close, and bake them. When they are baked, take the slices out of the pickle, while they are hot, let them lie till cold, and then beat them in a mortar. Add to them a pdund of fresh butter, while they are beating, some salt, pepper, and nutmeg. When they are well beaten, put them into the pot, and when the bread is drawn, put it into the oven until it is hot through. When cold, cover it over with clarified butter, and it win !;ee; a mnnth or two.

246 POTTING.

To Pot Cold Beef.

CUT it small, add to it some melted butter, two anchovies, boned and washed, and a little Jamaica pepper beat fine. Put them into a marble mortar, and beat them well together till the meat is yellow. Then put it into pots, and cover with clarified butter.

Small Birds.

HAVING picked and gutted the birds, dry them well with a cloth, and season them with pepper, salt, and mace. Then put them into a pot with butter,, tie the pot down with caper, and bake them in a moderate oven. When they come out, drain the gravy from them, and put them into potting-pots. Pour clarih'ed butter over them, and cover them close.

Pigeons.

PICK and draw the pigeons, cut off the pinions, wash them clean, and put them into a sieve to drain: dry them with a cloth, and season with pepper and salt. Roll a lump of butter in chopped parsley, and put it into the pigeons. Sew up the vent, put them into a pot with butter over them, tie them down, and set them in a moderately heated oven. When they come out, put them into potting-pots, and pour clarified butter over then).

Woodcocks.

TAKE six woodcocks, pluck them, and draw out the trail. Skewer their bills through their thighs, put their legs through each other, and their feet upon their breasts: season with three or four blades of mace, and a little pepper and salt. Put them into a deep pot, with a pound of butter over them; bake them in a moderate oven, and when enough, lay them on a dish to drain the gravy from them. Then put them into potting-pots; take all the clear butter from the gravy, and put it upon them. Fill up the pots with clarified butter. Keep them in a dry place for use.

Moor Game.

HAVING picked and drawn the game, wipe them clean with a cloth, and season well with pepper, salt, and mace. Put one leg through the other, and roast them till of a good brown. When cold, put them into potting-pots, and pour

POTTING. 247

over them clarified butter; but observe to keep their heads uncovered with butter. Keep them in a dry place.

Venison.

RUB the venison with vinegar, if stale, and let it lie an hour; dry it with a cloth, and rub it all over with red wine; season with pepper, salt, and beaten mace, and put it on an earthen dish: pour over it half a pint of red wine, and a pound of butter, and set in the oven. If a shoulder, put a coarse paste over it, and bake it all night in a brown bread oven. When, it comes out, pick it clean from the bones, and beat it in a marble mortar, with the fat from the gravy. If not sufficiently seasoned, add more seasoning and clarified butter, and keep beating it till it is a fine paste. Then press it hard down into the pots, and pour clarified butter over it.

Hares.

LET the hare hang up for four or five days with the skin on, then case it, and cut it up as for eating. Put it into a pot, and season it with pepper, salt, and mace. Put a pound of butter upon it, tie it down, and bake it in a bread oven. When it comes out, pick it clean from the bones, and pound it very fine in a mortar, with the fat from the gravy: put it close down into pots, and pour over it clarified butter.

Herrings.

CUT off the heads of the herrings, and put them into an earthen pot; lay them close, and between every layer of herrings strew some salt, but not too much. Put in cloves, rnace, whole pepper, and a nutmeg cut in pieces. Fill up the pot with vinegar, water, and a quarter of a pint of white wine. Cover it with brown paper, tie it down, and bake it in an oven with brown bread. As soon as cold, put it into potting-pots for use.

Chars.

AFTER having cleansed them, cut off the fins, tails, and heads, and lay them in rows in a long baking-pan, having first seasoned them with pepper, salt, and mace. When done, let them stand till cold, put them into potting-pots, and cover them with clarified butter.

Eels.

SKIN, cleanse, and wash clean a very large eel. Dry it in a cloth, and cut in pieces about four inches long. Season

243 POTTING.

with a little beaten mace and nutmeg, pepper, salt, and a little sal-prunella beat fine. Lay in a pan, and pour as much clarified butter over as will cover it. Bake half an hour in a quick oven; but the size of the eel will determine the tim in baking. Take it out with a fork, and Jay it on a coarse cloth to drain. When quite cold, season again with the same seasoning, and lay them close in the pot. Then take off the butter it was baked in clear from the gravy of the fish, arid set it in a dish before the fire. When melted, pour the butter over it, and put by for use. The eels may be boned; but in that case put in no sal-prunella.

. Lampreys.

SKIN the lampreys, cleanse them with salt, and wipe them dry; bear some black pepper, mace, and cloves, mix them with salt, and season the fish with it: lay them in a pan, and cover them with clarified butter; bake them an hour, season well, and treat them in the same manner as above directed for eels. If your butter is good they will keep a long time.

Smelts.

DKAW out the inskJe; season with salt, pounded mace, and pepper, and butter on the top; bake them, and when nearly cold, take them out, and lay them on a cloth. Put them into pots, take off the butter from the gravy, clarify it with more y and pour it on them.

Pike.

SCALE the. pike, cut off its head, split it, and take out iljp chine bone; strew all over the inside some bay-salt and pepper; roll it up round, and lay it in a pot,~~cover it, and bake it an hour: then take it out, and lay it on a coarse cloth to drain, and when cold, put it into the pot, and cover with clarified butter.

Lobster.

BOIL a live lobster in salt and water, and stick a skewer in the vent of it to prevent the water (retting in. As soon as cold, take out the gut, take out all the flesh, beat it fine in a mortar, and season with beaten mace, grated nutmeg, pepper and salt: mix all together, melt a piece.,0/ gutter the size of a walnut, und mix it with the lobster fP&lst beating it. When beaten to a paste, put it into the pottfiio-pot, as close and as hard as possible. Set some butler in a deep broad pan before the fire, and when all melted, take off the scum at the top, if any, and pour the clear butter over the meat as thick

POTTING. 249

as a crown -piece. The whey and churn-milk will settle at the bottom of the pan; but take great care that none of that goes in, and always let the butter be very good.

Shrimps.

WHEN they are boiled, and shelled; season well with pepper, salt, and a little pounded cloves: put them close into a pot, set them for a few minutes into a slack oven, and pour over them clarified butter.

Salmon.

SCALE a piece of fresh salmon, and wipe it clean, season with Jamaica pepper, black pepper, mace, and cloves beat fine, mixed with salt, and a little sal-prunella; then pour clarified butter over it and bake it well: take it out carefully and lay it to drain. When cold, season it again, and lay it close in the pot, covered with clarified butter.

Or, scale and clean the salmon, cut it down the back, dry it well, and cut it as near the shape of the pot as possible: take two nutmegs, an ounce of mace and cloves beaten, half an ounce of white pepper, and an ounce of salt; take out all the bones, cut off the jowl below the fins and cut off the tail. Season the scaly side first, lay that at the bottom of the pot, then rub the seasoning on the other side, cover it with a dish, and let it stand ail night. It must be put double, and the scaly side top and bottom; put some butter at the bottom and top, and cover the pot with some stiff coarse paste. If a large fish it will require three hours baking; but if a small one, two hours will do it. When it comes out of the oven, let it stand h 9 an hour; then uncover it, and raise it up at one end, that the gravy may run out, remembering to put u trencher and a weight on it to press out the gravy. When the butter is cold, take it out clear from the gravy, add more butter to it, and put it in a pan before the fire. When melted, pour it over the salmon, and as soon as it is cold, paper it up.

Carp, Tench, and Trout, MAY be potted in manner already directed for salmon.

250 SALTING AND SOUSING.

CHAPTER IV.

SALTING AND SOUSING.

THE PREPARATION OF BACON, HAMS, Ifc.

Bacon.

CUT off the hams and head of the pig, and, if a large one, take out the chine, but leave in the spareribs, as they will keep in the gravy, and prevent the bacon getting rusty. Salt it with common salt, and a little saltpetre, and let it lie ten days on a table, to let ^11 the brine run from it. Then salt it again ten or twelve days, turning it every day after the second salting: then scrape it very clean, rub a little salt on it, and hang it up. Take care to scrape the white froth off it very clean, and rub on a little dry salt, which will keep the bacon from rusting. The dry salt will candy and shine on it like diamonds.

Or, take off all the inside fat of a side of pork, and lay it on a long board or dresser, that the blood may run from it. Rub it well on both sides with good salt, and let it lie a day. Then take a pint of bay-salt, a quarter of a pound of salt-petre, and beat them both fine; two pounds of coarse sugar, and a quarter of a peck of common salt. Lay the pork in something that will hold the pickle, and rub it well with the above ingredients. Lay the skinny side downwards, and baste it every day with pickle for a fortnight. Then hang it in a wood smoke, and afterwards hang it in a dry place but not in a hot place. Observe, that all hams and bacon should hang clear from every thing, and not touch the wall. Take care to wipe off the old salt before it is put into the pickle, and never keep bacon or hams in a hot kitchen, or in a room exposed to the rays of the sun, as all these matters contribute to make it rusty.

Westphalia Bacon.

HAVING chosen a fine side of pork, make the following pickle: take a gallon of pump-water, a quarter of a peck of bay-salt, the same quantity of white salt, a pound of petresalt, a quarter of a pound of saltpetre, a pound of coarse sugar, and an ounce of socho tied up in a rag. Boil all these

SALTING AND SOUSING. 251

well together, and let it stand till cold. Then put in the pork, let it lie in this pickle for a fortnight, take it out, and dry it over sawdust smoke. This pickle will answer very well for tongues; but in that case, the tongues must first lie six or eight hours in pump-water, to takeout the sliminess; and when they have lain a proper time in the pickle, dry them as pork.

Hams.

CUT out the hams from the pig, and rub them well with an ounce of saltpetre, half an ounce of sal-prunella pounded, and a pound of common salt. Observe, that these quantities of salts must be allowed to each ham. Lay them in salt-pans for ten days, turn them once in the time, and rub them well with more common salt. Let them lie ten days longer, and turn them every clay. Then take them out, scrape them as clean as possible, and dry them well with a clean cloth. Then rub them slightly over with a little salt, and hang them up to dry, but not in too hot a place.

Or, take a fat hind-quarter of pork, and cut off a fine ham: take two ounces of saltpetre, a pound of coarse sugar, the same quantity of common salt, and two ounces of sal-prunella, mix ail together, and rub the pork well with it. Let it lie a month in this pickle, turning and basting it every day: then hang it in a wood smoke in a dry place, so that no heat can come to it; and if intended to be kept long, hang them a month or two in a damp place, taking care that they do not become mouldy, and it will make them cut fine and short. Never lay these hams in water till they are boiled, and then boil them in a copper, or in the largest size pot.

Hams the Yorkshire Way.

FIRST beat them well, and then mix half a peck of salt, three ounces of saltpetre, half an ounce of sal-prunella, and five pounds of coarse salt. Rub the hams well wit!; this, and lay the remainder on the top. Let them lie three days, and then hang them up. Put as much water to the pickle as will cover the hams, adding salt till it will bear an egg, and then boil and strain it. Then next morning put in the hams, and press them down so that they maybe covered. Letthem lie a fortnight, rub them well with bran, and dry them. The above ingredients are sufficient for three middling sized hams.

New England Hams.

FOR two hams, take two ounces of sal-prunella; beat it fine, rub it well in, and let them lie twenty-four hours. Then

252 SALTING AND SOUSING.

take half a pound of bay-salt, a quarter of a pound of brown salt, a quarter of a pound of common salt, and one ounce of saltpetre, all beat fine, and half a pound of the coarsest sugar. Rub all these well in, and let them lie two or three days. Then take common white sult,and make a pretty strong brine with about two gallons of water, and half a pound of brown sugar. Boil it well, arid skim it when cold. Then put in the hams, and turn them every two or three days in the pickle for three weeks. Then hang them up in a chimney, and smoke them well a day or two with horse -litter. Afterwards let them hang about a week on the side of the kitchen chimney, and then take them down. Keep them dry in a box, with bran covered over them. They may be eaten in a month, or will keep very well one year.

Westphalia Ham.

RUB it with half a pound of the coarsest sugar, and let it lie till night. Then rub it with an ounce of saltpetre finely beaten, and a pound of common salt. Let it lie three weeks, turning it every day. Dry it in wood smoke, or where turf is burnt. When boiled, put it into the pot or copper, with a pint of oak sawdust.

To cure two Hams after the IV tstmor eland Manner.

RUB the hams over night with ten ounces of saltpetre, and next morning take three pounds of common salt, three pounds of the coarsest sugar, and one pound of bay-salt. Boil all these in three quarts of strong beer; and when it has boiled a little time, pour it over the hams. Let theni lie in this pickle one month, rubbing and turning them every day, observing not to take them out of the pan. The same pickle is good for tongues and sauces. Before they are smoked, rub a handful of bran over them to dry them, and let them hang three weeks or a month.

Mutton Ha jus.

CUT a hind-quarter of mutton like a ham, and rub it well with an ounce of saltpetre, a pound of coarse sugar, and a pound of common salt well mixed together. Lay it in a hollow tray, with the skin downwards, and baste it every day for a fortnight. Then roll it in sawdust, and hang it in woodsmoke for a fortnight. Boil it, and hang it in a dry place. Cut it out in slices, and broil them as you want them, and they eat very fine.

SALTING AND SOUSING. 253

Veal Hams.

TAKE a leg of veal, and cut it like a ham. Take a pint of bay-salt, two ounces of saltpetre, and a pound of common salt. Mix them all together, with an ounce of beaten juniper berries, and rub the ham well with them. Lay it in a hollow tray, with the skinny side downwards, and baste it every day with the pickle for a fortnight, and then hang it in wood smoke for a fortnight longer. It may be either boiled, parboiled, or roasted.

Beef Hams.

TAKE the leg of a fat Scotch or Welch ox, and cut it like a ham. Take an ounce of bay-salt, an ounce of saltpetre, a pound of common salt, and a pound of coarse sugar, which will be a sufficient quantity for about fourteen or fifteen pounds of beef; and if a greater or less quantity of meat, mix the ingredients in proportion. Rub the meat with the above ingredients, turn it every day, and baste it well with the pickle every day for a month. Take it out, and roll it in bran or sawdust. Hang it in wood srnoke, where there is but little tire, and a constant smoke, for a month. Take it down, and hang it in a dry place, not a hot one, and keep it for use. Cut a piece off as there is occasion, and either boil it, or cut it into rashers, and broil it with poached eggs, or boil a piece, and it eats very good cold,. and v/ill shiver like Dutch beef.

Tongues.

HAVING scraped and dried the tongues clean with a cloth, salt them with common salt, and half an ounce of saltpetre to every tongue. Lay them in a deep pot, and turn them every day for a week or ten days. Salt them again, and let them lie a week longer. Then take them out, dry them with a cloth, flour them, and hang them up in a dry, but not in, a hot place.

Hung Beef.

MAKE a strong brine with bay-salt, saltpetre, and puinpwater, and put into it a rib of beef for nine days. Then hang it up in a chimney where wood or sawdust is burnt. When it is a little dry, wash the outside with blood two or three times, to make it look black; and when it is dried enough, boil it for use.

Or, take the navel piece, and hang it up in your cellar as long as it will keep good, and till it begins to be a little

254 SALTING AND SOUSING.

sappy; then take it down, and wash it in sugar and water, one piece after another, as it must be cut into three pieces Then take a pound of saltpetre, and two pounds of bay-salt dried and pounded small. Mix with them two or three spoonsful of brown sugar, and rub the beef well with it in every place. Then strew a sufficient quantity of common salt all over it, and let the beef lie close till the salt is dissolved, which will be in six or seven days. Turn it every other day for a fortnight, and after that hang it up in a warm, but not a hot place. It may hang a fortnight in the kitchen, and when it is wanted, boil it in bay-salt and pump-water till tender. It will keep when boiled, two or three months, rubbing it with a greasy cloth, or putting it two or three minutes into boiling water, to take off the mouldiness.

Dutch Beef.

TAKE a raw buttock of beef, cut off the fat, rub the lean all over with brown sugar, and let it lie two or three hours in a pan or tray, turning it two or three times. Then salt it with saltpetre and common salt, and let it lie a fortnight, turning it every day. Then roll it very straight in a coarse cloth, put it in a cheese-press a day and a night, and hang it to dry in a chimney. When it is boiled, put it in a cloth, and when cold, it will cut like Dutch beef.

Pickled Pork.

HAVING boned your pork, cut it into pieces of a size suitable to lie in the pan into which it is intended to be put. Rub the pieces well with saltpetre; then take two pints'of common salt, and two of bay-salt, and rub the pieces well with them. Put a layer of common salt at the bottom of the vessel, cover every piece over with common salt, lay them upon one another as close as possible, rilling the hollow places on the sides with salt. As the salt melts on the top, strew on more, lay a coarse cloth over the vessel, a board over that, and a weight on the board to keep it down. Keep it close covered; and thus managed, it will keep the whole year.

Mock Brawn.

TAKE the head and a piece of the belly part of a young porker, and rub it well with saltpetre. Let it lie three days, and then wash it clean. Split the head, and boil it; take out the bones, and cut it in pieces. Then take four ox feet boiled tender, cut them in thin pieces, and lay them in the

SALTING AND SOUSING. 255

belly piece with the head cut small: roll it up tight with sheet tin, and boil it four or five hours. When it comes out, set it up on one end, put a trencher on it within the tin, press it down with a large weight, and let it stand all night. The next morning, take it out of the tin, and bind it with a fillet. Put it into cold salt and water, and it will be fit for use. It will keep a long time, if fresh salt and water are put to it every tour days.

Sausages.

TAKE six pounds of young pork, free from skin, gristles, and fat. Cut it very small, and beat it in a mortar till very fine. Then shred six pounds of beef suet very fine, and free from all skin. Take a good deal of sage, wash it very clean, pick off the leaves, and shred it very fine. Spread the meat on a clean dresser or table, and then shake the sage all over it, to the quantity of about three large spoonsful. Shred the thin rind of a middling lemon very fine, and throw it over the meat, and also as many sweet herbs as, when shred fine, will fill a large spoon. Grate over it two nutmegs, and put to it two tea-spoonsful of pepper, and a large spoonful of salt; then. throw over it the suet, and mix all well together. Put it down close in a pot, and, when used roll it up with as much egg as will make it roll smooth. Make them of the size of a sausage, and fry them in butter or good dripping. Be sure that the butter in the pan is hot before they are put in, and keep rolling them about. When they are thoroughly hot, and are of a fine light brown, take them out and serve them up. Veal eats well done in this manner, or veal mixed with pork. Or, clean some guts, and fill them with this meat.

Bologna Sausages.

TAKE a pound of beef suet, a pound of pork, a pound of bacon, fat and lean together, and the same quantity of beef and veal. Cut them small and chop them fine. Take a small handful of sage, pick off the leaves, and chop them fine with a few sweet herbs. Season pretty high with pepper and salt. Take a large gut well cleaned, and fifi it. Set on a saucepan of water, and when it boils, put it in, having first pricked the gut to prevent its bursting. Boil it gently an hour, and then lay it on clean straw to dry.

^ 's Puddings with Almonds,

CHOP fine a pound of beef marrow, half a pound of sweet almonds blanched, and beat them fine, with a little oraoge

256 SALTING AND SOUSING.

flower or rose water, half a pound of white bread grated fine, half a pound of currants clean washed and picked, a quarter of a pound of fine sugar, a quarter of an ounce of mace, nutmeg, and cinnamon together, of each an equal quantity, and half a pint of sack. Mix all well together with half a pint of good cream, and the yolks of four eggs. Fill the guts half full, tie them up, and boil them a quarter of an hour. Or leave out the currants for change; but then a quarter of a pound more sugar must be added.

Hog's Pudding with Cuwants.

To four pounds of beef suet finely shred, put three pounds of grated bread, and two pounds of currants clean picked and washed; cloves, mace, and cinnamon, of each a quarter of an ounce finely beaten, a little salt, a pound and a half of sugar, a pint of sack, a quart of cream, a little rose water, and twenty eggs well beaten, leaving out half the whites. Mix all these well together, fill the guts half full, boil them a little, and prick them as they boil, to keep them from breaking the guts. Take them up upon clean c!oths, and then lay them on the dish.

Black Puddings.

TAKE a peck of grits, boil them half an hour in water, drain them, and put them into a clean tub or large pan. Then kill the hog, and save two quarts of the blood, and keep stirring it till the blood is quite cold: mix it with the grits, and stir them well together. Season it with a large spoonful of salt, a quarter of an ounce of cloves, mace, and nutmeg together, an equal quantity of each. Dry it, beat it well and mix it. Take a little winter savoury, sweet marjoram, and thyme; chopped very fine. Of these take just a sufficient quantity to season them, and to give them a flavour, but no more. The next day take the leaf of the hog, and cut it into dice; scrape and wash the guts very clean; then tie one end, and begin to fill them. Mix in the fat whilst filling them, and be sure to put in a good deal of fat. Fill the skins three parts full, tie the other end, and make the puddings whatever length may be required. Prick them with a pin, and put them into a kettle of boiling water. Boil them very sof than hour, take them out, and lay them on clean straw.

Scotch Black Puddings.

TAKE blood of a goose, chop off the head, and save the blood: stir it well till cold, and then mix it with grits, spice,

SALTING AND SOUSING. 2 51

salt, and sweet herbs, according to their fancy, and some beef suet chopped. Take the skin off the the neck, then pull out the windpipe and fat, fill the skin, tie it at both ends, and make a pie of the giblets, laying the pudding in the middle.

Turkey soused in Imitation of Sturgeon.

DRESS a fine large turkey very clean, dry and bone it, then tie it up like a sturgeon, and put it into the pot with a quart of white wine, a quart of water, the same quantity of good vinegar, and a very large handful of salt; but remember that the wine, water, and vinegar, must boil before the turkey is put in, and that the pot is well skimmed before it boils. When enough, take it out, and tie it tighter; but let the liquor boil a little longer. If the pickle want more vinegar or salt, add it when cold, and pour it upon the turkey. It will keep some months, if covered close from the air, and kept in a cool dry place. It may be eaten with oil, vinegar, and sugar; and some admire it more than sturgeon.

Soused Tripe.

BOIL the tripe, and put it into salt and water, which must be changed every day till the tripe is used. When wanted, dip it in batter made of flour and eggs, and fry it of a good brown; or boil it in fresh salt and water, with an onion sliced, and a few sprigs of parsley. Send it up to table, with melted butter in a boat.

Pigs Feet and Ears soused.

HAVING cleansed them properly, boil them till they are N tender, and then split the feet, and put them and the ears into salt and water. When used, dry them well with a cloth, dip them in batter, fry them, and send them up to table, as above directed for tripe. They will keep some time, and may be eaten cold; but take care to make fresh pickle every other day.

,/

Admiral Sir Charles Knowles's Receipt to salt Meat,

As soon as the ox is killed, let it be skinned and cut up into pieces fit for use, as quick as possible, and salted whilst the meat is hot; for which purpose have a sufficient quantity of saltpetre and bay-salt pounded together and made hot in an oven, of each equal parts. With this sprinkle the meat at the rate of about two ounces to the pound. Then lay the pieces on shelving boards to drain for twenty-four hours. Turn them, and repeat the same operation, and let them lie for

268 GARDEN STU1FS AND FUU1TS.

twenty -four hours longer. By this time the salt will be all melted, and have penetrated the meat, and the pieces be drained off. Each piece must be then wiped dry with clean coarse cloths, and a sufficient quantity of common salt made hot likewise in an oven and mixed, when taken out, with about one third of brown sugar. The casks being ready, rub each piece well with this mixture, and pack them well down, allowing about half a pound of the salt and sugar to each pound of meat, and it will keep good several years, and eat very well. It is best to proportion the casks or barrels to the quantity consumed at a time, as the seldomer it is exposed to the air the better. The same process does for pork, only a larger quantity of salt, and less sugar; but the preservation of both depends equally upon the meat being hot when first salted.

CHAPTER V. TO KEEP GARDEN STUFFS AND FRUITS.

PRELIMINARY HINTS AND OBSERVATIONS.

.As the art of preserving garden stuffs and fruits from being injured or spoiled by keeping, j s a matter of some consequence to the superintendant of the kitchen, it will be necessary to observe, that every species of the vegetable tribe must be kept in dry places, as damp places will not only cover them with mould, but also totally deprive them of their fine flavour. The same thing will hold good with respect to bottled fruit; but take care r while you endeavour to avoid putting them into damp places, you do not put them where they may get warm, as that will equally spoil them. When you boil any dried vegetables, be sure that you allow them plenty of water.

To keep French Beans all the Year.

O.vnU'R the beans on a very fine day, and take only those that are young and free from spots. Clean and dry them, put a layer of salt at the bottom of a large stone jar, and then a layer of beans; then salt, and then beans, and so on till the jar is full. Cover them with salt, tie a coarse cloth over them, put a board on that, and a weight to keep out the air. Set them in a dry cellar; and when taken out, cover the rest

GARDEN STAFFS AND FRUITS, 259

close again. Wash those taken out very clean and let" tlrem lie in soft water twenty-four hours, shifting the water frequently; and when boiled, do not put any salt in the water,

The Dutch Method of preserving French Beans.

TAKE a thousand French beans, when in full season, cue them slanting, and as thin as possible; then procure a stone jar sufficient to contain them; in which deposit alternately a layer of beans, and then of common table salt, observing that the proportion of salt must be, for every thousand or beans, about four pounds. When the jar is full, let it stand' to the following day, and then press them down well till the water overflows, and the harder they are pressed the better. Cover them with a cloth within the jar, tight down upon the beans, over which place a trencher the size of the inside of the jar, and then a heavy weight on the top. It will be proper now and then to take off the cloth and wash it clean, when it must be put on again, as before-mentioned. By these means the beans may be preserved for a considerable time. When, dressed, let the quantity chosen be steeped the night before in cold water. In the morning they must be well washed in two or three fresh waters, and put into boiling water, lettingthem boil hard till they become tender, for which half an hour will be sufficient. Take them off the fire, and stew themwittv a little butter, when they will be fit for the table.

To keep Grapes,

WHEN the grapes are cut from the vine, take care to leave a. joint of the stalk to them, and hang them up in a dry room, at a proper distance from each other, that the bunches may hung separate and clear of each other;. for the air must pass freely between them, or there will be danger of their growing mouldy and rotten. The Frontiniac grape is the best for thk purpose, which, if managed properly, will keep to the end. of January at least.

To keep Green Peas till Christmas,

BE sure to choose peas for this purpose that' are young ancfc fine; shell them, and throw them into boiling water with some salt in it: let them boil five or six minutes, and then throw them into a cullender to drain. Then lay a cloth four or five times double on a table, and spread them on it. Dry them well, and having bottles ready, fill them, and cover them with mutton fat fried. When a little cool, fill the necks almost to the top, cork them, tie a bladder over them, and set them S2

260 GARDEN STUFFS AND FRUITS.

in a cool place. When used, boil the water, put in a little salt, some sugar, and a piece of butter: when boiled enough, throw them into a sieve to drain, and put them into a saucepan, with a good piece of butter; keep shaking it round all the time till the butter is melted; then turn them into a dish, and send them to table.

To keep Gooseberries.

BEAT an ounce of allum very fine, and put it into a large pan of boiling hard water. Pick the gooseberries, put a few in the bottom of a hak sieve, and hold them in the boiling water till they turn white. Then take out the sieve, and spread the gooseberries between two clean cloths. Put more gooseberries in the sieve, and then repeat it till all are done. Pijt the water into a glazed pot till next day; then put the gooseberries into wide-mouthed bottles, pick out all the cracked and broken ones, pour the water clear out of the

Eot, and fill up the bottles with it. Cork them loosely, and jt them stand for a fortnight. If they rise to the corks, draw them out, and let them stand for three or four days uncorked; Then cork them close, and they will keep several months.

Or, pick large green gooseberries on a dry day, and, having taken care that the bottles are clean and clry, fill and cork them. Set them in a kettle of water up to the neck, let the water boil very slowly till the gooseberries, are coddled; then take them out, and put in the rest of the bottles till all are done. Have ready some rosin melted in a pipkin, dip the neck of the bottles into it, which will keep all the air from getting in at the cork. Keep them in a cool, dry place, free from damps, and they will bake as red as a cherry.

To dry Artichoke Bottoms.

JUST before the artichokes come to their full growth, pluck them from the stalks, which will draw out all the strings from the bottoms. Then boil them till the leaves can be easily plucked off, then lay the bottoms on tins, and set them in a cool oven. Repeat this till they are dry, which may be known by holding them up against the light; when, if they are dry enough, they will be transparent. Hang them up in a dry place, in paper bags.

To keep Walnuts.

PUT a layer of sea sand at the bottom of a large jar, and then

i la;:er of walnuts; then sand, then the nuts, and so on till the

jar is lull; but be sure they do not touch each other in any of

GARDEN STUFFS AND FRUITS. 261

the layers. When wanted for use, lay them in warm milk and water for an hour, shift the water as it cools, and rub them dry, and they will peel well and eat sweet. Lemons will keep thus covered better than any other way.

To bottle Green Currants.

CURRANTS should be gathered when the sun is hot upon them. Strip them from the stalks, and put them into glass bottles. Cork them close, set them in dry sand, and they will keep all the winter.

To keep Mushrooms.

TAKE large buttons, wash them in the same manner as for stewing, and lay them on sieves with the stalks upwards. Throw over them some salt, to fetch out the water. When properly drained, put them in a pot, and set them in a cool oven for an hour. Take them out carefully, and lay them to cool and drain. Boil the liquor that comes out of them with a blade or two of mace, and boil it half way. Put the mushrooms into a clean jar well dried; and when the liquor is cold, pour it into the jar, and cover the mushrooms with it. Then pour over them rendered suet, tie a bladder over the jar, and set them in a dry closet, where they will keep very well the greater part of the winter. When used, take them out of the liquor, pour over them boiling milk, and let them stand an hour: stew them in the milk a quarter of an hour, thicken them with flour, and a large quantity of butter; but be careful not to oil it. Beat the yolks of two eggs in a little cream, and put it into the stew; but do not let it boil after the eggs are added. Lay untoasted sippets round the inside of the dish, then serve them up, and they will eat nearly as good as when fresh gathered. If they do not taste strong enough, put in a little of the liquor. This is a very useful liquor, as it will give a strong flavour of fresh mushrooms to all made dishes.

Or, scrape, peel, and take out the insides of large flaps. Boil them in their own liquor, with a little salt, lay them in tins, set them in a cool oven, and repeat it till they are dry. Then put them in clean jars, tie them down close, and keep them for use.

Te bottle Cranberries.

CRANBERRIES for this purpose must be gathered when the weather is quite dry, and put into dry clean bottles. Cork them up close, and put them in a dry place, where neither heats nor damps can get to them.

2 62 GARDEN STUFFS AND FRUITS.

To bottle Damsons.

GATHER damsons on a dry day, before they are ripe, or rather when they have just turned their colour. Put them in wide-mouthed bottles, cork them up closely, and let them stand a fortnight; then look them over, and if any of them are mouldy or spotted, take them out, and cork the rest close down. Set the bottles in sand, and they will keep good till spring.

N. B. The method of preserving different kinds of fruits in sweets and jellies, will be found in the Third Part, under the .Chapter of PRESERVING.

French Method of preserving Sorrel.

HAVING washed sorrel clean, let it drain; then melt a pound of butter (or less according to the quantity of sorrel meant to be preserved) in an earthen pot, and put the sorrel on to boil. - When it is done enough, empty it out quite hot into stone or earthen jars, the sides of which must be well rubbed with butter, and let it stand until next morning. Then melt some mutton or beef fat, to cover the top about an inch thick, to prevent the air from getting- to the sorrel, as the least particle of air would turn it mouldy.

French Method of preserving Endive.

THE endive must be first washed whole; then cut oif the root, and, having tied an handful of the leaves together, put them into an earthen pot to boil. When they have bubbled two or three times, take them out and cut them into slices: range them in pots with salt and water sufficient to cover them; after which, tie them down tight with a bladder and a piece of leather. If wished to be eaten alone, they must be boiled in plain spring water, to take the salt out.

PART III. CONFECTIONARY IN GENERAL,

CHAPTER I.

The Preparation of Sugars.

1 O prepare sugars properly is a material point in the bnsi ness of confectionary; and as some rules are undoubtedly necessary to be given in a work of this kind, we shall begin with the first process, that of clarifying sugar, which must be doue in this manner:

Break the white of an egg into the preserving-pan, put in four quarts of water, and beat it up to a froth with a whisk Then put in twelve pounds of sugar, mix all together, set it over the fire, and when it boils, put in a little cold water. Proceed in this manner as many times as may be necessary till the scum appears thick on the top. Then remove it from the fire, and let it settle; take off the scum, and pass it through a straining bag. If the sugar should not appear very fine, you must boil it again before you strain it, otherwise, in boiling to a height, it will rise over the pan. Having thus finished the first operation, proceed to clarify the sugar to either of the five following degrees:

First Degree, called Smooth or Candy Sugar.

HAVING clarified the sugar as above directed, put any quantity over the fire, and let it boil till it is smooth. This may be known by dipping the skimmer into the sugar, and then touching it between the fore finger and thumb, and immediately opening them, a small thread will be drawn between, which will immediately break, and remain as a drop on the thumb. This will be a sign of its being in some degree of smoothness. Then give it another boiling, and it will draw into a larger string, when it will have acquired the first degree above mentioned.

264 SUGARS.

Second Degree, called Blown Sugar.

To obtain this degree, boil the sugar longer than in the former process, and then dip in the skimmer, shaking off the sugar into the pan. Then with the mouth blow strongly through the holes, and if certain bladders or bubbles blow through, it will be a proof of its having acquired the second degree.

Third Degree, called Feathered Sugar.

THIS degree is to be proved by dipping the skimmer when the sugar has boiled longer than in the former degree. First shake it over the pan, then give it a sudden flirt behind, and if it is enough, the sugar will fly off like feathers.

Fourth Degree, catted Crackled Sugar.

HAVING let the sugar boil longer than in the preceding degree, dip a stick into the sugar, and immediately put it into a pot or cold water. Draw off the sugar that hangs to the stick into the water, and if it becomes hara, and snaps in the water, it has acouirecl the proper degree; but, if otherwise, boil it till it answers that trial. Take particular care that the water used for this purpose is very cold, otherwise it will lead into errors.

Fifth Degree, Called Carmel Sugar.

To obtain this degree, the sugar must boil longer than in either of the former operations: prove it by dipping in a stick, first into the sugar, and then into cold water; but observe, when it comes to the carmel height, it, will, the moment it touches the cold water, snap like glass, which is the highest and last degree of boiled sugar. Take care that the fire is not very fierce when this is boiling, lest, flaming up the sides of the pan, it should cause the sugar to burn, which will discolour and spoil it.

Little Devices in Sugar.

STEEP gum-tragacanth in rose-water, and with some double refined sugar make it up into a paste: colour the paste with powders and jellies according to fancy, and then make them up into the requisite shape. Moulds may be made in any shape, and they will be pretty ornaments placed on the tops of iced cakes. In the middle of them put little pieces of paper, with some pretty smart sentences written on them, and they will afford much mirth to the younger part of a company.

TARTS AND P UFFS. 265

Sugar of Roses in various Figures.

CLIP off the white of rose-buds, and dry them in the sun. Having finely pounded an ounce of them, take a pound of loaf sugar. Wet the sugar in rose- water, and boil it to a candy height. Put in the powder of roses, and the juice of lemon. Mix all well together, put it on a pie-plate, and cut it into lozenges, or make it into any other figure, such as men, women, or birds. Ornaments for the dessert, may be gilded or coloured.

CHAPTER II.

TARTS AND PUFFS.

Different Sorts of Tarts.

\

N the eighteenth chapter of the first part of this work we have given sufficient directions for making of puff paste for tarts, and also the method of making tarts as well as pies; what we have therefore here to mention concerns only tarts and puffs of the smaller kind. If you make use of tin patties to bake in, butter them, and put a little crust all over them, otherwise you cannot take them out; but if you bake them in glass or china, youthen need use only an upper crust, as you will not then want to take them out when you send them to table. Lay fine sugar at the bottom, then your cherries, plumbs or whatever sort you may want to put in them, and put sugar at the top. Then put on your lid, and bake them in a slack oven. Mince-pies must be baked in tin-patties, because of taking them out, and puff paste is best for them. Apples and pears, intended to be put into tarts, must be pared, cut into quarters, and cored. Cut the quarters across again, set them on a saucepan with as much water as will barely cover them, and let them simmer on a slow fire just till the fruit be tender. Put a good piece of lemon peel into the water with the fruit, and then have your patties ready. Lay tine sugar at the bottom, then your fruit, and a little sugar at top. Pour over each tart a tea-spoonful of lemon juice, and three tea-spoonsful of the liquor they were boiled in. Then put on your lid, and bake them in a slack oven. Apricot tarts may be made the same, excepting that you must not put in any lemon juice.

266 TARTS AND PUFFS.

When you make tarts of preserved fruits, lay in your fruit, and put a very thin crust at top. Let them be baked but a little while; and if you would have them very nice, have a large patty, the size of your intended tart. Make your sugar- crust, roll it as thin as a halfpenny, then butter your patty and cover it. Shape your upper crust on a hollow thing made on purpose, the shape of your patty, and mark it with a marking-iron for that purpose, in what shape you please, that it may be hollow and open to show the fruit through, it. Then bake your crust in a very slack oven, that you may not discolour it, and have it crisp. When the crust is cold, very carefully take it t, and fill it with what fruit you please. Then lay on the lid, and your business will be done.

Currants, Cherries, Gooseberries, and Apricot Tarts,

CURRANTS and raspberries make an excellent tart, and do not require much baking. Cherries require but little baking. Gooseberries, to look red, must stand a good while in the oven. Apricots, if green, require more baking than when ripe. Preserved fruit, as damsons and bullace, require but little baking. Fruit that is preserved high, should not be baked at all; but the crust should first be baked upon a tin of the size the tart is to be. Cut it with a marking-iron or not, and when cold take it off, and lay it on the fruit.

Rhubarb Tarts.

TAKE the stalks of the rhubarb that grows in the garden, peel it, and cut it into the size of a gooseberry, and make it as gooseberry tart.

Raspberry Tart with Cream.

HAVING rolled out some thin puff paste, lay it in a pattypan; lay in some raspberries, and strew over them some very fine sugar. Put on the lid, and bake it, cut it open, and put in half a pint of cream, the yolks of two or three eggs well beaten, and a little sugar. Let it stand till cold before it is sent to the oven.

Almond Tarts.

HAVING blanched some almonds, beat them very fine in a mortar, with a little white wine and some sugar (a pound of sugar to a poundof almonds) some grated bread, a little nutmeg, some cream, and the juice of spinach to colour the almonds green. Bake it in a gentle oven; and when it is done, thicken it with can iie 1 orange or citron.

TARTS AND PUFFS. 267

Green Almond Tarts.

TAKE some almonds off the tree before they begin to shell; scrape off the down with a knife; have ready a pan with some cold spring water, and put them into it as fast as they are done. Then put them into a skillet, with more spring water, over a very slow fire, till it just simmers. Change the water twice, and let them be in the last till they begin to be tender. Then take them out, and put them on a clean cloth, with another over them, and press them to make them quite dry. Then make a syrup with double refined sugar, put.them into it, and let them simmer a little. Do the same the next day, put them into a stone jar, and cover them very close, for, if the least air comes to them, they will turn black. The yellower they are before they are taken out of the water, the greener they will be after they are done. Put them into the sugar crust, put the lid down close, and let them be covered with syrup. Bake them in a moderate oven.

Orange Tarts.

TAKE a Seville orange, and grate a little of the outside rind off it; squeeze the juice of it into a dish, throw the peels into water, and change it often for four days. Then set a saucepan of water on the fire, and when it boils, put in the oranges; but mind to change the water twice to take out the bitterness. When they are tender, wipe them very well, and beat them in a mortar till they are fine. Then take their weight in double refined sugar, boil it into a syrup, and skim it very clean: put in the pulp, and boil it altogether till it is clear. Let it stand to be cold, then put it into the tarts, and squeeze in the juice. Sake them in a quick oven. Good tarts are made with conserve of oranges.

Chocolate Tarts.

RASP a quarter of a pound of chocolate, a stick of cinnamon, add some fresh lemon peel grated, a little salt, and some sugar: take two spoonsful of fine flour, and the yolks of six eggs well beaten, and mixed with some milk. Put all these into a stewpan, and let them be a little over the fire: add a little lemon peel cut small, and let it stand to be cold. Beat' up the whites of eggs enough to cover it, and put it in puff paste. When it is baked, sift some sugar over it, and glaze it with a salamander.

'

268 TARTS AND PUFFS.

Angelica Tarts.

TAKE sonic golden pippins or nonpareils, pare and core them; take the stalks of angelica, peel them, and cut them into small pieces; 'apples and angelica, of^each an equal quantity. Boil the apples in just water enough to cover them, with lemon peel and fine sugar. Do them very gently till they are a thin syrup, and then strain it off. Put it on the fire, with the angelica in it, and let it hoil ten minutes. Make a puff paste, lay it at the bottom of the tin, and then a layer of apples and a layer of angelica till it is full. Bake them, but first fill them up with syrup.

Spinach Tarts.

SCALD some spinach in some boiling water, and drain it very dry. Chop it, and stew it in some butter and cream, with a very little salt, some sugar, some bits of citron, and a very little orange-flower water. Put it in very fine puff paste.

Petit Patties.

MAKE a short crust, roU it thick, and make them as big as the bowl of a spoon, ana about an inch deep. Take a piece of veal big enough to fill the patty, and as much bacon and beef suet. Shred them all very fine, season them with pepper and salt, and a little sweet herbs. Put them into a little stewpan, keep turning them about, with a few mushrooms chopped small, for eight or ten minutes. Then fill the patties, and cover them with crust. Colour them with the yolk of an egg, and bake them. Some fill them with oysters, for fish dishes, or the milts of the fish pounded, and 3tsoned with pepper and salt.

Curd Puffs.

PUT a little rennet into two quarts of milk, and when it is broken, put it into a coarse cloth to drain. Then rub the curd through a hair sieve, and put to it four ounces of butter, ten ounces of bread, half a nutmeg, a lemon peel grated, and a spoonful of wine. Sugar it to the taste, rub the cups with butter, and put them for little more than half an hour into the oven.

Sugar Puffs.

BEAT the whites of ten eggs till they rise to a high froth ' rhen put them in a marble mortar or wooden bowl, and add

TARTS AND PUFFS. 26*

as much double refined sugar as will make it thick; the* rub it round the mortar for half an hour, put in a few carrawfay seeds, and take a sheet of wafers, and lay it on as broad as a sixpence, and as high as possible. Put them into a moderately heated oven for a quarter of an hour, and they will look

as white as snow.

\

Wafers.

TAKE a spoonful of orange flower water, two spoonsful of flour, two of sugar, and the same of cream. Beat them well together for half an hour; then make the wafer-tongs hot, and pour a little of the batter in to cover the irons. Bake them on a stove fire, and as they are baking, roll them round a stick like a spiggot. When cold, they will be very crisp, and are very proper to be eaten with jellies, or with tea.

Chocolate Puffs,

HAVING beat and sifted half a pound of double-refined sugar, scrape into it an, ounce of chocolate very fine, and mix them together. Beat the white of an egg to a very high froth, and strew in the sugar and chocolate. Keep beating it till it is as stiff as a paste. Then sugar the paper, drop them on the size of a sixpence, and bake them in a very slow oven.

, Almond Puffs.

TAKE two ounces of sweet almonds, blanch them, and beat thein very fine with orange flower water. Beat the whites of three eggs to a very high froth, and then strew in a little sifted sugar. Mix the almonds with the sugar and eggs, and then add more sugar till it be as thick as a paste. Lay it in cakes, and bake it in a cool oven on paper,

Lemon Puffs.

TAKE a pound of double refined sugar, beat it and sift it through a fine sieve. Put it into a bowl, with the juice of two lemons, and beat them together. Then beat the white of an egg to a very high froth; put it into the bowl, beat it half an hour, and then put in three eggs, with two rinds of lemons grated. Mix it well up, and throw sugar on the papers, drop on the puffs in small drops, and bake them in an even moderately hot.

270 CAKES.

CHAPTER III. CAKES.

PRELIMINARY HINTS AND OBSERVATIONS.

KE you begin to make any cake, take care that all your ingredients are ready to your hand. Beat up your eggs well, and then do not leave them to go about any thing else till your cake is finished, as the eggs, by standing unrnixed r will require beating again, which will contribute to make the cake heavy. If butter is put into the cakes, be sure to beat it to a fine cream before sugar is added, otherwise it will require double the beating, and after all will not answer the purpose so well. Cakes made with rice, seeds, or plurnbs, are best baked in wooden garths; for when baked either in pots or tins, the outside of the cakes will be burned, and will besides be so much confined, that the heat cannot penetrate into the middle of the cake, which will prevent it from rising. All kinds of cakes must be baked in a good oven, heated according to the size of the cake.

A rich Cake.

TAKE seven pounds of currants washed and rubbed, four pounds of flour dried and sifted, six pounds of the best fresh butter, and two pounds of Jordan almonds, blanched andbeajen with orange flower water till fine; four pounds of eggs, but leave out the whites; three pounds of double-refined sugar beaten and sifted; a quarter of an ounce of mace, the same of cloves and cinnamon, and three large nutmegs, all beaten fine; a little ginger, half a pint of sack, half a pint of French brandy, and sweetmeats, such as orange, lemon, and citron, to the liking. Before mixing the ingredients, work the butter to a creum. Then add the sugar, and work them well together. Let the eggs be well beaten and strained through a sieve: work in the almonds, then put in the eggs, and beat them together till they look white and thick. Then put in the sack, brandy, and spices; shake in the flour by degrees, and when the oven is ready, put in the currants and sweetmeats, as it is put into the hoop. Put it into a quick oven, and four hours will bake it. Remember to keep beating it with the hand whilst mixing it; and when the currants are

CAKES. 271

well washed and cleaned, let them be kept before the fire, that they may go warm into the cake. This quantity will bake best in two hoops, it being too large for one.

Plum Cake.

To a pound and a half of fine flour, well dried, put the same quantity of butter, three quartern of a pound of currants washed and well picked; stone and slice half a pound of raisins, eighteen ounces of sugar beat and sifted, and fourteen eggs, leaving out half the whites; shred the peel of a large lemon exceeding fine, three ounces of candied orange, the; same of lemon, a tea spoonful of beaten mace, half a nutmeg grated, a tea-cupful of brandy, or white wine, and four spoonsful of orange flower. First work the butter with the hand to a cream, then beat the sugar well in, whisk the eggs for half an hour, then mix them with the sugar and butter, and put in the flour and spices. The whole will take an hour and a half beating. When the oven is ready, mix in lightly the brandy, fruit, and sweetmeats, then put it into the hoop, and bake it two hours and a half.

White Plum Cakes.

TAKE two pounds of flour well dried, half that quantity of sugar beaten and sifted, a pound of butter, a quarter of an ounce of nutmegs, the same of mace, sixteen eggs, two pounds and a half of currants picked and washed, half a pound of sweet almonds, the same of candied lemon, half a pint of sack or brandy, and three spoonsful of orange flower water. Beat the butter to a cream, put in the sugar, beat the whites of the eggs half an hour, and mix them with the sugar and butter. Then beat the yolks half an hour, and mix them with the whites, which will take two hours beating. Put in the flour a little before the oven is ready, and just before putting it into the hoop, mix together lightly the currants, and other ingredients. It will take two hours hours baking.

A Pound Cake.

BF.AT a pound of butter in an earthen pan with the hand one way till like a fine thick cream. Then have ready twelve eggs; but leave out half the whites; beat them well; then beat them up with the butter, a pound of flour beat in it, a pound of sugar, and a few carravvays. Beat all well together with the hand for an hour, or beat it with a wooden spoonPut all into a buttered pan, and bake it in a qnick oven for one hour.

CAKES.

. Rice Cakes.

BEAT the yolks of fifteen eggs for near half an hour with a whisk. Put to them ten ounces of loaf sugar sifted fine, and beat it well in. Then put in half a pound of rice flour, a little orange water or brandy, and the rinds of two lemons grated. Then put in seven whites (having first beaten them well neav an hour \vith a whisk), and beat them all well together for a quarter of an hour. Then put them in a hoop, and set them for half an hour in a quick oven.

Cream Cakes.

TAKE the whites of nine eggs, and beat them to a stinFroth. Stir it gently with a spoon, lest the froth should fall; and to every white of an egg grate the rinds of one lemon. Shake in softly a spoonful of double refined-sugar, sifted fine; lay a wet sheet of paper on a tin, and with a spoon drop the froth in little lumps on it, at the same distance from each other. Sift a good quantity of sugar, over them, set them in an oven after brown bread, then n.ake' the oven close up, and the froth will rise. They will be baked enough as soon as they are coloured. Then take them but, and put two bottoms together; lay them on a sieve, and set them to dry in a cool oven. Or, before closing the bottoms together to dry, lay raspberry jam, or any kind of sweetmeats, between them.

Macaroons.

TAKE a pound of sweet almonds blanched ^and beaten, and put to them a pound of sugar, and a little rose water to keep them from oiling. Then beat the whites of seven eggs to a froth, and put them in, and beat- them well together. Drop them on. wafer-paper, grate sugar .over them, and put them into the oven.

Lemon Biscuits.

TAKE the yolks of ten eggs, atfd the whites of five, and beat them well together, with four spoonsful of orange flower water, till they froth up. Then put in a pound of loaf sugar sifted, beat it one way for half an hour pr more, put in half a pound of flour, with the" raspings of two lemons, and the pulp of a small one. Butter the tin, and bake it in a quick oven; but do not stop up the mouth at first, for fear it should scorch. Dust it with sugar beforejmtting it into the oven,

CAKES. 273

French Biscuits.

TAKE a pair of clean scales; in one scale put three newlaid eggs, and in the other the same weight of dried floui. Have ready the same weight of fine powdered sugar. First beat up the whites of the eggs well with a whisk, till they are of a fine fioth; then whip in half an ounce of candied lemon peel cut very thin and fine, and beat well; then by degrees whip in the flour and sugar; then put in the yolks, and with a spoon temper thejn well together. Shape the biscuits on fine white paper vith a spoon, and throw powdered sugar over them. Bake them in a moderate oven, not too hot, giving them a fine colour on the top. When- they are baked, with a fine k/rife cut them oft' from the paper, and lay them up for use in dry boxes.

Sponge Biscuits.

TAKE twelve eggs, and beat the yolks of them for half an hour; then put in a pound and a half of sugar beat and sifted, and whisk it '.ell till it rise in bubbles. Then beat the whites to a strong froth, and whisk them well with the sugar and yolks. Beat in fourteen ounces of flour, with the rinds of two lemons grated. Bake them in tin moulds buttered, and let them have a hot oven, but do not stop the mouth of it. They will take half an hour baking; but remember to sift pounded sugar over them before they are put into the oven.

Drop Biscuits.

TAKE the whites of six eggs, and the yolks of ten. Beat them up with a spoonful of rose water for half an hour, and then put in ten ounces of beaten arid sifted loaf sugar. Whisk them well for half an hour, and then add an ounce of carraway seeds crushed a little, and six ounces of fine flour. Whisk in the flour gently, drop them on wafer papers, and bake them in an oven moderately heated.

Spanish Biscuits.

TAKE the yolks of eight eggs, and beat them half an hour, and beat in eight spoonsful of sugar. Beat the whites to a strong froth, and then beat them well, with the yolks and' sugar near half an hour. Put in four spoonsful of Horn-, and a little lemon peel cut exceedingly fine. Bake them oa papers.

'274

Common Biscuits.

TAKE eight eggs, and beat them half an hour. Then put in a pound of beaten and sifted sugar, with the rind of a lemon grated. Whisk i an hour, or till it looks light, and then put in a, pound of flour, with a litvle rose water. Sugar them over, and bake them in tins or on papers.

Gingerbread Cakes.

TAKE three pounds of flour, a pound of sugar, the same quantity of butter rolled in very fine, two ounces of ginger beat fine, and a large nutmeg grated: then take a pound of treacle, a quarter of a pint of cream, and make them warm together. Make up the bread stiff, roll it out, and make it up into thin cakes. Cut th-. j m out with a tea-cup or small glass, or roll them round like nuts, and bake them in a slack oven on tin plates.

Green Caps.

HAVING gathered as many codlins as are wanted, just before they are ripe, green them in the same manner as for preserving; then rub them over with a little oiled butter, grate double-refined sugar over them, and set them in the oven till thev look bright, aad sparkle like frost: take them out, and put them into a china dish; make a very fine custard, and pour it round them. Stick single flowers in every apple, and serve them up.

Black Caps.

TAKE out the cores, and cut into halves twelve large apples. Place them on a tin patty-pan as closely as they can lie, with the fl t side downward. Squeeze a lemon into two spoonsful of orange-flower water, and pour it over them. Shred some lemon peel fine, and throw over them, and grate fine sugar over all. Set them in a quick oven, and half an hour will do them. Throw fine sugar all over the dish, when sent to table.

Bath Cakes.

,

TAKE a pound of butter, and rub it into an equal weight of flour, with a spoonful of good barm. Warm some cream, and make it into a light paste. Set it to the fire to rise, and when making them up, take four ounces of carraway comfits, work part of -hum in, and strew the rest on the top. Make them into a. round cake, the size of a French roll. Bake them on

CAKES. 275

.sheet tins, and they will eat well hot for breakfast, or at tea jn the afternoon.

Portugal Cakes.

TAKE a pound of fine flour, and mix it with a pound of beaten and sifted loaf sugar: then rub it into a pound of fresh butter till it is thick like grated white bread. Put to it two spoonsful of rose water, two of sack, and ten eggs; whip them well with a whisk, and mix into it eight ounces of currants. Mix all well together, butter the tin pans, and fill them about half full, and bake them. If they are made without currants the}' will keep half a year. Add a pound of almonds blanched, and beat them with rose water, as above directed, but leave out the flour.

Shrewsbury Cakes.

BEAT half a pound of butter to a fine cream, and put in the same weight of flour, one egg, six ounces of beaten and sifted loaf sugar, and half an ounce of carraway seeds. Mix them into a paste, roll them thin, and cut them round with a small glass or little tins; prick them, lay them on sheets of tin, and bake them in a slow oven.*

Saffron Cakes.

TAKE a quartern of fine (lour, a pound and a half of butter, three ounces of carraway seeds, six eggs well beaten, a quarter of an ounce of cloves and mace finely beaten together, a little cinnamon pounded, a pound of sugar, a little rose water and saffron, a pint and a half of yeast, and a quart of milk. Mix all together lightlv with the hands in this manner: first boil the milk and butter, then skim off the butter, and mix it with the flow and a little of the milk. Stir the yeast into the rest, and strain it: mix it with the flour, put in the seeds and spice, rose water, tincture of saffron, sugar, and eggs: beat it all well up lightly with the hands, and bake it in a hoop or pan well buttered. .It will take an hour and a half in a quick oven. The seeds may be omitted; and some think the cake ia better without them.

Prussian Cakes.

TAKE half a pound of dried flour, a pound of beaten and sifted sugar, the yolks and whites of seven eggs beaten separately, the juice of a lemon, the peels of two finely grated, and half a pound of almonds beaten fine with rose water. As soon as the whites are beaten to a froth, put in the yolks, and

T 2

276 CAKES.

every thing else, except the flour, and beat them together for half an hour. Shake in the flour just before it is set into the oven; and be sure to remember to beat the yolks and whites of the eggs separately, or the cake will be heavy.

Apricot Cakes*

SCALD a pound of nice ripe apricots, and peel them, and take out the stones as soon as the skin will come off. Then beat them in a mortar to a pulp; boil half a pound of double refined sugar, with a spoonful of water, and skim it exceedingly well. Then put in the pulp of the apricots, let them simmer a quarter of an hour over a slow fire) and stir it softly all the time. Then pour it into shallow flat glasses, turn them out upon glass plates, put them into a stove, and turn them once a day till they are dry.

Quince Cakes.

TAKE a pint of the syrup of quinces, and a quart or two of raspberries. Boil and clarify them over a gentle fire, taking care to skim it as often as may be necessary. Then a pound and a half of sugar, and as much more brought to a candy height, which must be poured in hot. Constantly stir the whole about till almost cold, and then spread it on plates, and cut it out into cakes.

Orange Cakes.

QUARTER Seville oranges that have very good rinds, and boil them in two or three waters until they are tender, and the bitterness gone off. Skim them, and then lay them on a clean napkin to dry. Take all the skins, and seeds out of the pulp, with a knife shred the peels fine, put them to the pulp, weigh them, and put rather more than their weight of fine sugar into a tossing-pan, with just as much water as will dissolve it. Boil it till it becomes a perfect sugar, and then, by degrees, put in the orange peels and. pulp. Stir them well before setting them on the fire; boil it very gently till it looks clear and thick, and then put them into flat-bottomed glasses. Set them in a stove, and keep them in a constant and moderate heat: and when they are candied on the top, turn them out upon glasses.

Lemon Cakes.

TAKE the whites of ten eggs, put to them three spoonsful of rose, or orange flower water, and beat them an hour with a vhi.sk. Then put in a pound of beaten and sifted sugar, and

CAKES. 217

grate into it the rind of a lemon. When well mixed, put in the juice of half a lemon, and the yolks often eggs beaten smooth. Just before putting it into the oven, stir in three quaaci of a pound of flour, butter the pan, put it into a modei-ate oven, and an hour will bake it. Orange cakes may be made in the same manner.

Bride Cakes.

TAKE two pounds of loaf sugar, four pounds of fresh butter, and the same quantity of fine well dried flour; pound and sift fine a quarter of an ounce of mace, the same of nutmegs, and to every pound of flour put eight eggs; wash four pounds of currants, and pick them well, and dry them before the fire; blanch a pound of sweet almonds, and cut them lengthways very thin; a pound of citron, a pound of candied orange, the same of candied lemon, and half a pint of brandy. First work the butter to a cream with the hand, then beat in the sugar a quarter of an hour, and beat the whites of the eggs to a very strong froth. Mix them with the sugar and butter, beat the yolks half an hour at least, and mix them with the cake. Then put in the flour, mace, and nutmeg, and keep beating it well till the oven is ready. Put in the brandy, and beat the currants and almonds lightly in. Tie three sheets of paper round the bottom of the hoop, to keep it from running out, and rub it well with butter. Then put in the cake, and lay the sweetmeats in three layers, witli some cake between every layer. As soon as it is risen and coloured, cover it with paper before the oven is covered up. It must be baked three hours. If approved, put an icing on it. See Icing.

Little Fine Cakes.

TAKE a pound of butter beaten to a cream, a pound and a quarter of flour, a pound of sugar beaten fine, a pound of currants clean washed and picked, and the yolks of six and the whites of four eggs. Beat them fine, and mix the flour, sugar, and eggs, by degrees, into the butter. Beat all well with both hands, and make them into little cakes.

Or, take a pound of flour, and half a pound of sugar, beat half a pound of butter with the hand, and mix them well together.

Snow Balls.

PARE and take out the cores of five large baking apples, and fill the holes with orange or quince marmalade: then make some good puff paste, roll the apples in it, and

'278 CAKES.

the crust of an equal thickness. Put them in a tin drippingpan, b. ke them in .a moderate oven, and when taken out, mako icing lor them. Let the icing be about a q arter of an inch thick, and set them at a good distance from the fire till they are hnrdened; but take care not to let them brown. Put one in the middle of a dish, and the others round it.

Little Plum Cakes.

TAKE half a pound of sugar finely powdered, tvo pounds of flour well dried, four yolks and two white? of eggs, half a pound of butter washed with rose water, six spoonsful of cream warmed, arid a pound and a half ot currants unwashed, but picked, and rubbed very clean in a cloth. Mix all well together; make them up into cakes, bake them m a; ot oven, and let them stand half an hour till the\ 7 are coloured on both sides. Then take down ti:e oven lid, and let tiu-m *tand 10 smoke. Rub the butter well into the flour, then the eggs and cream, and then the currants.

JRafifia Cakes.

FIRST blanch, and then beat half a pound of sweet almonds and the same quantity of bitter almonds, in fine orange, rose, or ratifia water, to keep the almonds from oiling. Take a pound of fine sugar pounded, and sifted, and mix it with the almonds. Have ready the white of four eggs well beaten, and mix them lightly with the almonds and sugar. Put it into a preserving pan, and set it over a moderate fire. Keep stirring it one way until it is pretty hot, and when a little cool, roll it in small rolls, and cut it into thin cakes. Dip the hands in flour, and shake them on them; give each of them a light tap with the finger, and put them on sugar papers. Just before putting them into a slow oven silt a little sugar over them.

Nuns Cakes.

TAKE four pounds of the finest flour, and three pounds of double refined sugar beaten and sifted. Mix them well together, and let them stand before the fire till the other materials are prepared. Then beat four pounds of butter with the hand till it be as soft as cream; beat the yolks of thirtyfive eggs and the whites of sixteen, strain off the eggs from the treads, and beat them and the butter together till they are finely incorporated. Put in four or five spoonsful of orangeflower or rose water, and beat it again. Then take the flour and sugar, with six ounces of carraway seeds, and strew them Ik* by degrees, beating it up for two Hours together. Put in

CAKES. 279

as much tincture of cinnamon as is approved. Then butter the hoop,- and let it stand three hours in a moderate oven. In beating butter, always observe to do it with a cool hand, and always beat it in a deep earthen dish, one way.

Seed Cakes.

TAKE a pound of sugar beaten and sifted, the same quantity of butter, the same or well dried flour, two ounces of carraway seeds, eight eggs, a nutmeg grated, and its weight of cinnamon. First beat the butter to a cream, then put in the sugar; beat the whites of the es^gs half an hour, and mix theni with the sugar and butter, i hen beat the yolks half an hour, and put the whites to them. A little before it goes to the oven, beat in the flour, spices, and seeds. The whole will take two hours beating. Put it into the hoop, and bake it two hours in a quick oven.

Queen Calces.

BEAT and sift a pound of loaf-sugar, take a pound of well dried flour, a pound of butter, eight eggs, half a pound of currants washed and picked, grate a nutmeg, and the same quantity of mace and cinnamon. Work the butter to a cream, and put in the sugar. Beat the whites of the eggs near half an hour, and mix them with the sugar and butter. Then beat the yolks near half an hour, and put them to the butter. Beat them exceedingly well together, and when they are ready for the oven, put in the flour, spice, and currants. Sift a little sugar over them, and bake them in tins.

Currant Cakes.

DRY well before the fire a pound and a half of fine flour, take a pound of butter, half a pound of fine loaf sugar well beaten and sifted, four yolks of eggs, four spoonsful of rose water, the same of sack, a little mace, and a nutmeg grated. Beat the eggs well, and put them to the rose water and sack. Then put to them the sugar and butter. Work them all together, strew in the currants and flour, having taken care to have them ready warmed for mixing. Make six or eight cakes of them; but mind to bake them of a fine brown, ano^ pretty crisp.

Whigs.

PUT half a pint of warm milk to three quarters of a pound of fine flour, and mix in it two or three spoonsful of light

280 CUSTARDS AND CHEESECAKES.

'barm. Cover it up, and set it before the fire an hour, in order to make it rise. Work into the paste four ounces of sugar, and the same quantity of butter. Make it into whigs with as little flour as possible, and a few seeds, and bake them in a quick oven.

Icings for Cakes.

WHISK the whites of four eggs to a solid froth; and add to .them as much sifted treble-refined sugar as they will take: add the juice of a lemon strained, mix all together with a spoon, and spread over the cake whilst warm.

CHAPTER IV.

CUSTARDS AND CHEESECAKES,

PRELIMINARY HINTS AND OBSERVATIONS.

1 HE greatest care must be taken in the making of custards, that your tossing-pan is well tinned; and always remember to put a spoonful of water into your pan, to prevent your ingredients sticking to the bottom of it; and what we have here said of custards, must be attended to in the making of creams, of which we shall treat in the next chapter. Cheesecakes must not be made long before they are put into the oven, particularly almond or lemon cheesecakes, as standing long will make them grow oily, and give them a disagreeable appearance. They should always be baked in ovens of a moderate heat; for if the oven be too hot, it will burn them, and spoil their beauty, and too slack an oven will make them look black and heavy. This is a matter, however, for which no precise rules can be given, and can be learned only by cautious practice and the nicest observations.

Baked Custards.

BOIL a pint of cream with some mace and cinnamon, and when it is cold, take four yolks and two whites of eggs, a little jree and orange flovrer-water and sack, arid nutmeg and sugaj.to the palate. Mix them well together, and bake them in cups.

CUSTARDS AND CHEESECAKES. 281

Almond Custards.

BLANCH and beat a quarter of a pound of almonds very fine, take a pint of cream, and two spoonsful of rose water. Then sweeten it to the palate, and beat up the yolks of four eggs. Stir all together one way over the fire till it is thick, and then pour it into cups.

Plain Custards.

SET a quart of good cream over a slow fire, with a little cinnamon, and four ounces of sugar. When it has boiled, take it off the fire, beat the yolks of eight eggs, and put to them a spoonful of orange-flower water, to prevent the cream from cracking. Stir them in by degrees as the cream cools, put the pan over a very slow fire, stir it carefully one way till it is almost boiling, and then pour it into cups.

Or, take a quart of new milk, sweeten it to the taste, beat up well the yolks of eight eggs, End the whites of four. Stir them into the milk, and bake it in custard cups. Or, put them in a deep china dish, and pour boiling water round them, till the water is better than half way up their sides; but take care the water does not boil too fast, lest it should get into the cups, and spoil the custards.

Orange Custards.

HAVING boiled very tender the rind of half a Seville orange, beat it in a mortar, till it is very fine, put to it a spoonful of the best brandy, the juice of a Seville orange, four ounces of loaf sugar, and the yolks of four eggs. Beat them all well together for ten minutes, and then pour in by degrees a pint of boiling cream. Keep beating them till cold, then put them in custard cups, and set them in an earthen dish of hot water. Let them stand till they are set, then take them out, and stick preserved orange on the top. They may be served up either hot or cold.

Lemon Custards.

TAKE half a pound of double-refined sugar, the juice of two lemons, the out-rind of one pared very thin, the inherrind of one boiled tender and rubbed through a sieve, and a pint of white wine. Let them boil a good while, take out the peel and a little of the liquor and set it to cool: pour the rest into the dish intended for it, beat the yolks and two whites of eggs, and mix them with the cold liquor. Strain them into the dish, stir them well up together, and set them on a slow

282 CUSTARDS AND CHEESKCAKfiS.

fire in boiling water. When it is enough, grate the rind of a lemon all over the tcp, or brown it over with a hot salamander. This, like the former, may be eaten either hot or cold.

Beest Custards.

SET a pint of beest (milk taken from the cow within three days of her calving) over the fire, with a little cinnamon, or three bay leaves, and let it be boiling hot: take it off, and have ready mixed a spoonful of flour, and the same of thick cream. Pour the hot beest upon it by degrees, mix it exceedingly well together, and sweeten it to the taste. You may bake it .in either crusts or cups.

Cheesecakes.

PUT a spoonful of rennet into a quart of new milk, and set it near the fire; let the milk be blood warm, and when it is broken, drain the curd through a coarse sieve. Now and then break the curd gently with the fingers, and rub into it a quarter of a pound of butter, the same quantity of sugar, a nutmeg, and t-vo Naples biscuits grated, the ^olksoi four eggs and the white of one, and an ounce ot' almonds well beaten, with two spoonsful of rose wa^er, and the same of sack. Clean six ounces of currants weii, and put nem into the curd. Mix all well together, and send it to the oven.

Citron Cheesecakes.

BEAT the yolks of four eggs, and mix them with a quart of boiled cream. When it is coid, set it on the fire, and let it boil till it curds. Blanch some almonds,. beat them with orangeflower water, put them into the cream, with a few Naples biscuits, and green citron shred fine. Sweeten it to the palate, and bake it in cups.

l*emon Cheesecakes.

BOIL very tender the peel of two large lemons, and pound

t well in a mortar, with a quarter of a pound of loaf suoar,

the yolks of six eggs, half a pound of fresh butter, and a little

curd beat fine. Pound and mix all together, lay a puff paste

on the patty pans, fill them half full, and bake them. Orange

jesecakes are done the same way; but boil the peel in tvvo

or three waters, to deprive it of its bitter taste.

Almond Cheesecakes.

BLANCH four ounces of Jordan almonds, and put them into d water; beat them with rose water, in a marble mortar or

CUSTARDS AND CHEESECAKES. 283

wooden bowl, and put to them four ounces of sugar, and the yolks of tour eggs beat fine. Work it in the bowl or mortar till it becomes frothy and white, and then make a rich puff paste in this manner: Take half a pound of flour, a quarter of a pound of Itutter, and rub a little of the butter into the flour. Mix it stiff with a little cold water, then roll the paste straight out, throw over it a little flour, and lay over it one third of the butter in thin bits. Throw a little more flour over the butter, and do so for three times. Then put the paste in tins, fill them, grate sugar over them, and put them in a gentle oven to bake.

Curd Cheesecakes.

BEAT half a pint of good curds with four eggs, three spoonsful of rich cream, half a nutmeg grated, and a spoonful of ratifia, rose, or orange water. Put to them a quarter of a pound of sugar and half a pound of currants well washed and dried before the fire. Mix them all well together, put a good crust into patty pans, and bake them.

Bread Cheesecakes.

HAVING sliced a penny loaf as thin as possible, pour on it a pint of boiling cream, and let it stand two hours: then take eight eggs, hall a pound of butter, and a nutmeg grated. Beat them well together, and put in half a pound of currants well washed and dried before the lire, and a spoonful of white wine or brandy. Bake them in patty pans or raised crust.

Rice Cheesecakes.

TAKE four ounces of rice, and having boiled till it be ten-, der, put it in a sieve to drain. Then put in four eggs well beaten, half a pound of butter, halt a pint of cream, six ounces of sugar, a nutmeg grated, and a glass of brandy or ratifia water Beat them all well together, and put them into raised crusts, and bake them.

Fine Cheesecakes.

WARM a pint of cream, and put to it five quarts of milk warm from the cow. Then put to it rennet, give it a stir about, and when it is- turned, put the curd into a linen cloth or bag. Let it drain well away from the whey, but do not sqiu eze it too much. Then put it into a mortar, and break the curd as fine as butter. Put to the curd half a pound of sweet almonds blanched and beaten exceedingly fine, and half a pound of macaroons beaten very fine, or Naples biscuits', add

284 CREAMS AND JAMS.

to it the yolks of nine eggs beaten, a nutmeg grated, two perfumed plums dissolved in rose or orange .flower water, and half a pound of fine sugar. Mix all well together, then melt a pound and a quarter of butter, and stir it well in. Make a puff paste in this manner: Take a pound of fine Hour, wet it with cold water, roll it out, put into it by degrees a pound of fresh butter, and shake a little flour on each coat whilst rolling it. Finish the cake in the manner before directed. The perfumed plums, may be left out, if disliked.

CHAPTER V.

CREAMS AND JAMS.

Steeple Cream.

1 ARE two ounces of ivory shavings, and five ounces of hartshorn shavings, and put them in a stone bottle; fill it up to the neck with water, and add a small quantity of gum-arabic and gum-tragacanth: tie up the bottle very close, and set it into a pot of water, with hay at the bottom of it. Let it stand six hours, take it out, and let it stand an hour before opening it, lest it fly about: strain it, and it will be a strong jelly. Take a pound of blanched almonds beaten very fine, and mix it with a pint of thick cream, let it stand a little, then strain it out, and mix it with a pound of jelly. Set it over the fire till scalding hot, and sweeten to the taste with double-refined sugar: take it off, put in a little amber, and pour it into small high moulds like a sugar-loaf at top; when cold, turn them out, and lay cold whipt cream about them in heaps: take care that it is not suffered to boil after the cream is put into it.

Pistachio Cream.

TAKE out the kernels of half a pound of pistachio nuts, and beat them in a mortar with a spoonful of brandy. Put them into a tossing-pan, with a pint of good cream, and the yolks of two eggs beaten fine. Stir it gently over a slow fire till it grows thick, and then put it into a china dish. When it grows cold, stick it all over with small pieces of the nuts, and it will be ready for table.

C RE A MS AND JAMS . 285

Hartshorn Cream.

BOIL four ounces of hartshorn shavings in three pints of water till reduced to half a pint, and run it through a jellybag: put to it a pint of cream, and let it just boil up; put it into jelly-glasses, let it stand till cold, and then, by dipping the glasses into scalding water, it will slip out whole: stick them all over with slices of almonds cut lengthways. It eats well, like flummery, with white wine and sugar.

Burnt Cream.

TAKE a little lemon peel shred fine, and boil it with a pint of cream and some sugar; take the yolks of six eggs and the whites of four, and beat them separately; put in the eggs as soon as the cream is cooled, with a spoonful of orange flower water, and one of fine flour. Set it over the fire, keep stirring it till it is thick, and then put it into a dish. When cold, sift a quarter of a pound of fine sugar all over it, and salamander it till very brown.

Barley Cream.

BOIL a small quantity of pearl barley in milk and water till tender, and strain the liquor from it; put the barley into a quart of cream, and let it boil a little: take the whites of five eggs and the yolk of one, beaten with a spoonful of fine flour, and two spoonsful of orange-flower water; take the cream off the fire, mix in the eggs by degrees, and set it over the fire again to thicken. Then sweeten it to the taste, and pour it into basons for use.

Ice Creams.

TAKE a pint and a half of good cream, add to it half a. pound of raspberry or any other jam, (or half a pound of the pulp of any kind of ripe fruics stoned, beaten in a mortar, and pulped through a sieve); mix well with sifted sugar, and rub through a fine sieve: put it into a freezing mould, set it in ice and salt, and stir together till it begins to congeal: cover the bottom of the shape mould with white paper, and having put on the bottom, fill with the cream; cover the top with white paper, put on the cover, and set in ice till well frozen: when turned out for table, dip the mould in cold water, take off the top paper and cover; take also off the bottom cover, and push through the mould with the bottom paper.

236 CREAMS AND JAMS.

A Tnjle.

COVER the bottom of a trifle dish with Naples biscuits broken into pieces, mactiroons broken in half, an I ratifi* cakes; just wet them all through \\ ith white wine, and make a good boiled custard, not too thick, and when cold, put it over it, and then a syllabub over that: garnish with ratifia cakes, currant jelly, and coloured comfits.

Or, having placed three iarge macaroons in the middle of a dish, pour as much white wine over them as will perfectly moisten them; take a quart of cream, and put in as much sugar as will sweeten it; but first rub the sugar over the rind of a lemon to get out the essence: put the cream into a pot, mill it to a strong froth, and lay as much froth upon a sieve as will fill the trifle dish; put the remainder of the cream into a tossing-pan, with a stick of cinnamon, the yolks of four eggs well beaten, and as much sugar as will sweeten it. Set them over a gentle fire, stir it one way till it is thick, and then take it off the fire: pour it upon the macaroons, and when it is cold, put on the frothed cream, lay round it different coloured sweetmeats, and figures.

Tea Cream.

BOIL a quarter of an ounce of fine hyson tea with half a pint of milk, strain out the leaves, and put to the milk half a pint of cream, and two spoonsful of rennet: set it over some hot embers in the dish in which it is intended to be sent to table, and cover it with a tin plate: when it is thick, it will be enough. Garnish with sweetmeats.

Ratifia Cream.

BOIL two laurel leaves in a quart of thick milk, with a little ratifia, and when it has boiled, throw away the leaves. Beat the yolks of five eggs with a little cold cream, and sugar to the taste: thicken the cream with the eggs, set it over the fire again, but do not let it boil; stir it all the while one way, till it is thick', and then pour it into china dishes, to cool for use.

Spanish Cream.

TAKE a quarter of a pint of rose water, and dissolve it in three quarters of an ounce of isinglass cut small: run it through a hair sieve, and add to it the yolks of three eggs, beaten and mixed with half a pint of cream, two sorrel leaves, and sugar it to the taste: dip the dish in cold water before putting in the cream, then cut it out with a jigging iron, and lay it in rings round different coloured sweetmeats.

CREAMS AND JAMS. 287

Lemon Cream.

TAKE the rinds of two lemons pared very thin, the juice of three, and a pint of spring water; beat the whites of six eggs very fine, and mix them with the water and lemon. Then sugar it to the taste, and stir till it thickens, but take care it does not boil: strain it through a cloth, beat the yolks of six eggs, and put it over the fire to thicken; then pour it into a bowl, and put into glasses as soon as it is cold.

Orange Cream.

PARE off the rind of a Seville orange very fine, and squeeze the juice of four oranges; put them into a tossing pan, with a pint of water, and eight ounces of sugar; beat the whites of five eggs, and mix all, and set them over the fire: stir it one way till it grows thick and white, then strain it through a gauze, and stir it till it is cold. Beat the yolks of five eggs exceedingly fine, and put it into the pan, with some cream; stir it over a very slow fire till it is ready to boil, then put it into a bason to cool, and having stirred it till it is quite cold, put it into glasses.

Raspberry Cream.

RUB a quart of raspberries, or raspberry jam, through a hair sieve, to take out the seeds, and mix it well with cream. Put in sugar to the taste, and then put it into a milk-pot to raise a froth with a chocolate mill. As the froth rises, take it off with a spoon, and lay it upon a hair sieve. When there is as much froth as is wanted, put what cream remains into a deep china dish, pour the frothed cream upon it as high as it will lie on, and stick a light flower in the middle of it.

Chocolate Cream.

TAKE a quarter of a pound of the best chocolate, and having scraped it fine, put to it as much water as will dissolve it; then beat it half an hour in a mortar, and put in as much fine sugar as will sweeten it, and a pint and a half of cream. Mill it, and as the froth rises, lay it on a sieve. Put the remainder of the cream, into glasses, and lay the frothed cream upon them.

Whipt Cream.

TAKE the whites of eight eggs, a quart of thick cream, and half a pint of sack; mix it together, and sweeten it to the taste with double-refined sugar: it may be perfumed if approved

288 CREAMS AND JAMS.

of, with a little musk or ambergris tied in a rag, and steeped a little in the cream. Whip it up with a whisk, and some lemon peel tied in the middle of the whisk; take the froth with a spoon, and lay it in glasses. This makes a pretty appearance over fine tarts.

Pompadour Cream.

TAKE the whites of five eggs, and beat them to a strong froth; put them into a tossing pan, with two spoonsful of orange-flower water, and two ounces of sugar; stir it gently for three or four minutes, then pour it into a dish, and pour good melted butter over it. This is a pretty corner dish for a second course at dinner, and must be served up hot.

Snow and Cream.

HAVING made a rich boiled custard, put it into a china or glass dish; then take the whites of eight eggs beaten with rose water and a spoonful of treble-refined sugar, till it is of a strong froth: put some milk and water into a broad stewpan, and as soon as it boils, take the froth off the eggs, lay it on the milk and water, and let it boil once up. Then take it off carefully, and lay it on the custard. This is a pretty supper dish.

Gooseberry Jam.

CUT in two, and pick out the seeds of green walnut gooseberries, gathered when full grown, but not ripe; put them into a pan of water, green them, and put them into a sieve to drain. Then beat them in a marble mortar, with their weight of sugar. Take a quart of gooseberries, boil them to a mash in a quart of water, squeeze them, and to every pint of liquor put a pound of fine loaf sugar. Then boil and skim it, put in the green gooseberries, and having boiled them till very thick, clear, and of a pretty green, put them into glasses.

Apricot Jam.

HAVING procured some of the ripest apricots, pare and cut them thin; then infuse them in an earthen pan till tender and dry: to every pound 1 and a half of apricots, put a pound of double refined sugar, and three spoonsful of water. Boil the sugar to a candy height, and put it upon the apricots: stir them over a slow tire till they look clear and thick; but observe, that they must only simmer, and not boil. Put them into glasses.

CREAMS AND JAMS, 389

Strawberry Jam.

BRUISE very fine some scarlet strawberries gathered when Very ripe, and put to them a little juice of strawberries; beat and sift their weight in sugar, strew it among them, and put them into* the preserving pan: set them over a clear slow fire, skim and boil them twenty minutes, and then put them into glasses.

While Raspberry Jam.

.GATHER the raspberries on a fine day, and when full ripe; immediately crush them fine, and strew in their own weight of loaf sugar, and half their weight of the juice of white currants: boil them half an hour over a clear slow fire, skim them well, and put them into pots or glasses. Tie them down with brandy-papers, and keep them dry.

Red Raspberry Jam.

OBSERVE the same precautions in gathering these as above recommended. Pick them very carefully from the stalks, crush them in a bowl with a silver or wooden spoon, then strew in their own weight of loaf sugar, and half their weight of red currant juice baked and strained as for jelly: set them over a clear slow fire, boil them half an hour, skim them well, and stir them all the time: then put them into pots or glasses as above directed.

Black Currant Jam.

BLACK currants must be gathered dry and full ripe, and picked clear from the stalks; then bruise them well in a bowl, and to every two pounds of currants put a pound and a half of loaf sugar finely beaten; put them into a preserving pan, boil them half an hour, skim and stir them all the time, and then put them into pots.

290 JELLIES AND SYLLABUBS.

CHAPTER VI.

JELLIES AND SYLLABUBS.

Blanc Mange.

1 His jelly is made three different ways, the first of which is called green, and is thus prepared from isinglass: having dissolved the isinglass, put to it two ounces of sweet and the same quantity of bitter almonds, with a sufficient quantity of the juice of spinach to make it green, and a spoonful of French brandy: put it over a stove fire till almost ready to boil, then strain it through a gauze sieve, and when it grows thick, put it into a melon mould, and the next day turn it out.

Or, take a quart of water, put into it an ounce of isinglass, and let it boil till reduced to a pint; then put in the whites of four eggs, with two spoonsful of rice water to keep the eggs from poaching, and sugar it to the taste. Run it through a jelly bag, then put to it two ounces of sweet and one ounce of bitter almonds. Give them a scald in the jelly, and put them through a hair sieve. Then put it into a mould, and the next day turn it out, stick it all over with almonds blanched and cut lengthways. ^

Or, skim off the fat, and strain a quart of strong calf's feet jelly; then beat the whites of four eggs, and put them to the jelly. Set it over the fire, and stir till it boils. Then pour it into a jelly bag, and run it through several times till it is clear. Beat an ounce of sweet and the same quantity of bitter almonds to a paste, with a spoonful of rose water squeezed through a cloth; then mix it with a jelly, and add to it three spoonsful of very good cream. Set it again over the fire, and stir it till it is almost boiling. Then pour it into a bowl, stir it very often till it is almost cold, and then fill the moulds, having first wetted them.

Orange Jelly.

INTO two quarts of spring water put a pound of hartshorn shavings, and let it boil till it is reduced to a quart. Then pour it clear off, and let it stand till it is cold. Take the rind of three oranges, pared very thin, and the juice of six, and let them stand all night in half a pint of spring- water. Then

JELLIES AND SYLLABUBS. 2i?i

strain them through a fine hair sieve, melt the jelly, and pour the orange liquor to it. Sweeten it to the taste with doublerefined sugar, and put to it a blade or two of mace, four or five cloves, half a small nutmeg, and the rind of a lemon. Beat the whites of five or six eggs to a froth, mix it well with the jelly, and set it over a clear fire. Boil it three or four minutes, then run it through a jelly bag several times till it is clear; but take great care not to shake it when pouring it into the bag.

Fruit in Jelly.

TAKE a bason, put into it half a pint of clear stiff calf's feet jelly, and when it be set and stiff, lay in three fine ripe peaches, and a bunch of grapes with the stalk upwards. Put over them a few vine leaves, and then fill up your bowl with jelly. Let it stand till the next day, and then set your bason to the brim in hot water. As soon as you perceive it gives way from the bason, lay your dish over it, and turn your jelly carefully upon it. Yoii may use flowers for your garnish.

. Calf's Feet Jelly.

TAKE two calf's feet, and boil them in a gallon of water till it comes to a quart; when cold, skim off all the fat, and take the jelly up clean; leave what settling may remain at the bottom, and put the jelly into a saucepan, with a pint of mountain wine, half a pound of loaf sugar, and the juice of four lemons: beat up six or eight whites of eggs with a whisk, then put them into the saucepan, stir all well together till it boils, and let it boil a few minutes. Pour it into a large flannel bag, and repeat it till it runs clear. Have ready a large china bason, and put into it lemon peel cut as thin as possible; let the jelly run into the buson, and the lem^n peel will give it an amber colour and a fine flavour: then fill the glasses.

A Turkey, Fowls, or Game, in Jelly.

BOIL a fine turkey, and let it stand till cold; have ready a jelly made thus: Skin a fowl, and take off all the fut; but -do not cut it in pieces, nor break all the bones; take four pounds of a leg of veal without either fat or skin, and put it into a well-tinned saucepan. Put to it full three quarts of water, and set it on a very clear fire till it begins to simmer; but be sure to' skim it well, and take great care that it does not boil. Put to it two large blades of mace, half a nutmeg, and twenty corns of white pepper, with a little bit of lemon peel. Let it simmer six or seven hours, and when the jellv is stiff enough,

u 2

JELLIES AND SYLLABUBS.

which may be known by taking a little out to cool, be sure t 7 skim off all the fat, if any, but do not stir the meat in the saucepan. A quarter of an. hour before it is done, throw in a large tea spoonful of salt, and squeeze in the juice of half a fine Seville orange, or lemon. When enough, strain it off through a clean sieve; but do not pour it off clean from the bottom, for fear of settlings; lay the turkey in the dish, and then pour the jelly over it. Let it stand till quite cold, and then send it to table. All sorts of birds and fowls may be done in this manner, and are very pretty dishes for a supper or cold collation.

Gilded Fish in Jelly.

FILL two large fish moulds with clear blanc mange, made as before directed; when cold, turn them out, and gild them, with leaf gold, or strew them over with gold and silver bran mixed. Then lay them on a soup dish, and fill it with thin clear calf's feet jelly, which must be so thin as to admit the fish to swim in it. Lisbon, ot any kind of pale made wine, will answer the purpose.

Black Currant Jelly.

GATHER the currants on a dry day, when they are ripe, strip them off the stalks, and put them into a large stewpot. Put a quart of water to every ten quarts of currants, tie a paper over them, and set them in a cool oven for two hours. Then squeeze them through a very fine cloth, and to every quart of juice add a pound and a half of loaf sugar broken into small pieces. Stir it gently till the sugar is melted, and when it boils, skim it well. Let it boil pretty quick for half an hour over a clear fire, then pour it into pots, and put brandypapers over them.

Red Currant Jelly.

GATHER the currants, and strip them off the stalks, as betore directed. Put them into a large stewpot, tie paper over them, and let them stand an hour in a cool oven. Then strain them through a cloth, and to every quart of juice add a pound and a half of loaf sugar, broken into small lumps. Stir it gently over a clear fire till the sugar is melted, skim it well, and let it boil pretty quick for twenty minutes. Then pour it hot into pots; for if suffered to cool, it will break the jelly, and will not set so well as when it is hot. Put brandypapers over them, and keep them in a dry place. In the same manner, a pretty jelly may be made of half white and half red currants.

JELLIES AND SYLLABUBS. 293

Ribband Jelly.

TAKE four calf's feet, take out the great bones, and put the feet into a pot with ten quarts of water, three ounces of hartshorn shavings, the same quantity of isinglass, a nutmegquartered, and four blades of mace: boil it till it comes to two quarts, then strain it through a flannel bag, and let it stand twenty-four *iours. Scrape off all the fat from the top very clean, slice the jelly, and put to it the whites of six eggs beaten to a froth. Boil it a little, and strain it through a flannel bag. Then run the jelly into little high glasses, and run every colour as thick as the finger; but observe, that one colour must be thoroughly cold before another is put on; and that which is put on must be but blood -warm, otherwise they will mix together. Colour red with cochineal, green with spinach, yellow with saffron, blue with syrup of violets, white with thick cream, and sometimes the jelly by itself.

Hen and Chickens in Jelly.

HAVING made some flummery with plenty of sweet almonds in it, colour part of it brown with chocolate, and put it into a mould of the shape of a hen. Then colour some more flummery with t'-'e yo.k of a hard egg beat as fine as possible, and leave some of the flummery white. Then fill the moulds of seven chickens, three with white flummery, three with yellow, and one of tiie colour of the hen. When cold, turn them into a deep dish, and put round them lemon peel boiled tender, and cut like straw. Then put a little clear calf's feet jelly under them, to keep them to their places. Let it stand till it is stiff, and then fill up the dish with more jelly.

Hartshorn Jelly.

TAKE half a pound of hartshorn shavings, and boil in three quarts of water over a gentle fire till it becomes a jelly: if a little is taken out to cool, and it hangs on the spoon, it is enough. Strain it while hot, and put it in a well-tinned saucepan: put to it a pint of Rhenish wine, and a quarter of a pound of loaf sugar; beat the whites of four eggs or more to a froth, stir it all together, that the whites may mix well with the jelly, and pour it in as if for cooling it. Let it boil two or three minutes, then put in the juice of three or four lemons, and let it boil a minute or two longer. When finely curdled, and of a pure white colour, pour the jelly into a swan-skin jelly-bag over a bowl or a bason. Strain it in this mannejr

594- JELLIES AND SYLLABUBS.

several times till it is as clear as rock water, and then fill the glasses with a spoon. Have ready the thin, rind of some lemons, and having half filled the glasses, throw the peel into the bason. When the jelly is all run out of the bag into the bason, fill the rest of the glasses with a clean spoon, and the lemon peel will give the jelly a fine amber colour. No rule is to be given for putting in the ingredients, as taste and fancy only can determine it; but most people like to have them sweet, and indeed they are insipid if they are not so.

Flummery.

TAKE an ounce of bitter, and the same quantity of sweet almonds, put them into a bason, and pour over them some boiling water to make the skins come off; strip off the skins, and throw the kernels into cold water; take them out, and beat them in a marble mortar, with a little rose water to keep them from oiling, and when beaten, put them into a pint of calf 's feet stock. Set it over the fire, and sweeten it to the taste with loaf sugar. As soon as it boils, strain it through a piece of muslin or gauze, and when it is a little cold, put it into a pint of thick cream, and keep stirring it often till it grows thick and cold. Wet the moulds in cold water, and pour in the flummery. Let them stand about six hours before turning them out; and if the flummery is stiff, wet^the moulds, and it will turn out without putting them into warm water, which will be a great advantage to the look of the figures, as warm water gives a dulness to the flummery.

French Flummery.

BEAT half an ounce of isinglass fine, put to it a quart of cream, and mix them well together; let it boil softly over a slow fire for a quarter of an hour, and stir it all the time: take it off, sweeten it to the taste, and put in a spoonful of rose water, and another of orange-flower water. Strain it, and pour it into a glass or bason, and when cold, turn it out.

Green Melon in Flummery.

PUT plenty of bitter almonds into a little stiff flummery, and add to it as much juice of spinach as will make it of a fine pale green. When it becomes as thick as good cream, wet the melon mould, and put it in. " Then put a pint of clear calf's feet jelly into a large bason, and let them stand till the next day. Then turn out the melon, and lay it down in the middle of the bason of jelly. Then fill up the bason with jelly that is beginning to set, and let it stand all night. The next day, turn it out the same way as fruit in jelly.

JELLIES AND SYLLABUBS. 295

Solomon's Temple in Flummery.

DIVIDE a quart of stiff-flummery into three parts, and make part a pretty pink colour with a little cochineal bruised fine, and steep it in French brandy. Scrape an ounce of chocolate very fine, dissolve it in a little strong coffee, and mix it with another part of the flummery, to make it a light stone colour. The last part must be white. Then wet the temple mould, and fit it in a pot to stand even. Fill the top of the temple with red flummery for the steps', and the four points with white. Then fill it up with chocolate flummery, and let it stand till the next day. Then loosen it round with a pin, and shake it loose very gently; but do not dip the mould in warm water, as that will take off the gloss, and spoil the colour. When it is turned out stick a small sprig of flowers, down from the top of every point, which will not only strengthen it, but also give it a pretty appearance. Lay round it rock candy sweetmeats.

Eggs and Bacon in Flummery.

MAKE part of a pint of stiff flummery of a pretty pink colour with cochineal. Then dip a potting pan in cold water, and pour in red flummery to the thickness of a crown-piece, then the same of white flummery, and another of red, and twice the thickness of white flummery at the top. Remember that one layer must be stiff and cold before another is added. Then take five tea-cups, and put a large spoonful of white flummery into each of them, and let them stand all night. Then turn the flummery out of the potting pots, on the back of a plate, with cold water. Cut the flummery into thin slices, and Jay it on a china dish. Then turn the flummery out of the cups on the dish, and take a bit out of the top of every one, and lay in half a preserved apricot, which will confine the syrup from discolouring the flummery, and make it look like the yolk of a poached egg.

A Hedge-Hog.

BEAT well in a mortar two pounds of blanched almonds, with a little canary and orange-flower water to keep them from oiling; having made them into a stiff paste, beat in the yolks of twelve eggs and seven whites. Put to it a pint of cream, sweeten it with sugar, and set it on a slow fire. Keep it constantly stirring till it is thick enough to make it into the form of a hedge-Yiog. Then stick it full of blanched almonds, slit and stuck up like the bristles of a hedge-hog, and

296 JELLIES AND SYLLABUBS.

then put it into a dish. Take a pint of cream, and the yolks of four eggs beat up, and sweeten them with sugar to the palate. Stir them together over a slow fire till it is quite hot, and then pour it into the dish round the hedge-hog, and let it stand till it is cold.

Savoury Jelly.

PUT into a stewpan some slices of lean veal and ham, with a carrot and turnip, or two or three onions. Cover it, and let it sweat on a slow fire, till it is of a deep brown: put to it a quart of very clear broth, some whole pepper, mace, a very little isinglass, and salt to the palate. Let it boil ten minutes, then strain it through a tamis, skim off all the fat, and put to it the whites of three eggs. Then run it several times through a jelly-bag till it is perfectly clear.

Solid Syllabubs.

PUT in a pint of white wine to a quart of rich cream, the juice of four lemons, and sugar it to the taste. Whip it up well, take off the froth as it rises, and put it upon a hair sieve. Let it stand till the next day in a cool place, then fill glasses better than half full with the thin, put on the froth, and heap it as high as possible. It will keep for several days, and the bottom look clear.

Syllabub under the Cow.

PUT into a punch bowl a pint of cider, and a bottle of strong beer. Grate in a small nutmeg, and sweeten it to the taste. Then milk from the cow as much milk as will make a strong froth. Then let it stand an hour, sirew over it a few currants well washed, picked, and plumped before the fire, and it will be fit for service.

Whipt Syllabubs.

RUB a lump of loaf sugar on the outside of a lemon, put it into a pint of thin cream, and sweeten it to the taste. Then put in the juice of a lemon, and a glass of Madeira wine or French brandy. Mill it to a froth with a chocolate mill, and take it off as it rises, and lay it into a hair sieve. Then fill one half of the glasses a little more than half full with white wine, and the other half of the glasses a little more than half full with red wine: lay on the froth as high as possible; but take care that it is well drained on a sieve, otherwise it will mix with the wine, and the syllabub will be thereby spoiled.

JELLIES AND SYLLABUBS. 297

Lemon Syllabubs.

RUB a quarter of a pound of loaf sugar upon the out-rind of two lemons, to get all the essence out of them, and then put the sugar into a pint of cream, and the same quantity of white wine; squeeze in the juice of both lemons, and let it stand for two hours: then mill it with a chocolate mill to raise the froth, and take it off -with a spoon as it rises, or it will make it heavy. Lay it upon a hair sieve to drain, then fill the glasses with the remainder, and lay on the froth as high as possible. Let them stand all night, and they will be clear at the bottom.

Everlasting Syllabubs.

TAKE half a pint of Rhenish wine, half a pint of sack, with the juice of two large Seville oranges, and put them into two pints and a half of thick cream. Grate in just the yellow rind of three lemons, and put in a pound of double-refined sugar well beaten and sifted; mix all together, with a spoonful of orange-flower water, and with a whisk beat it well together for half an hour. With a spoon take off the froth, and lay it on a sieve to drain, and then fill the glasses. These will keep better than a week, and should always be made the day before they are wanted. The best way to whip a syllabub, is, have a fine large chocolate mill, which must be kept on purpose, and a large deep bowl to mill them in, as this way they will be done the quicker, and the froth be the stronger. For the thin that is left at the bottom, have ready some calf's feet jelly boiled, and clarified, in which must be nothing but the calf's feet boiled to a hard jelly. When it is cold, take off the fat, clear it with the whites of eggs, run it through a flannel bag, and mix -it with the clear that was left of the syllabub. Sweeten it to the palate, and give it a boil; then pour it into basons, or glasses. When cold, turn it out, and it will be a fine flummery.

298 PRESERVING.

CHAPTER VII. PRESERVING.

PRELIMINARY HINTS AND OBSERVATIONS.

IN making syrfcps for preserves, take care to pound your sugar, and let it dissolve in the syrup before you set it on the fire, as it will make the scum rise well, and your syrup will be of a better colour. It is a great fault to boil any kind of syrups or jellies too high, as it makes them dark and cloudy. Never keep green sweetmeats longer in, the first, syrup than directed, as it will spoil their colour; md the same precaution will be necessary in the preserving oranges and lemons. When you preserve cherries, damsons, of any other sort of stoijefruits, put over them mutton suet rendered, to keep oat the air; for if any air gets to them, it will give them a sour taste, and spoil the whole. Wet sweetmeats must be kept in a dry and cool place; for a damp place will mould them, and a hot place will deprive them of their virtue. It is a good method to dip writing-paper into brandy, and lay it close to the sweetmeats. They should be tied well down with white paper, and two folds of cap-paper, to keep out the air, as nothing can be a greater fault than leaving the pots open, or tying them down carelessly.

Gooseberries preserved whole.

TAKE the largest gooseberries, and .pick off" the black eye, but not the stalk; set them over the fire in a pot of water to scald, but take care they do not boil, for that will break and spoil them: when tender, take them up and put them into cold water. Then rake a pound and a half of double-refined sugar to a pound qf gooseberries, and clarify the sugar with water, a pint to a pound. of sugar. When the syrup is cold, put the gooseberries singly into the preserving pan, put the syrup to them, and set them on a gentle Ji re. Let them boil, but not so fast as to break them; and when they have boiled, and the sugar has entered them, take them off, cover them with white paper, and set them by till the next day. Then take them out of the syrup, and boil the syrup till it begins to be ropy. Skim it, and put it to them again. Then set them on a gentle fire, and let them simmer gently till the syrup will

PRESERVING. 299

rope. Then take them off", set them by till they are cold, and cover them with brandy-paper, Then boil some gooseberries in water, and when the liquor is strong enough, strain it out. Let it stand to settle, and to every pint take a pound of doublerefined sugar, and make a jelly of it. When the gooseberries ar cold, put them in glasses, cover them with the jelly, and close them down properly.

Green Gooseberries, in Imitation of Hops.

TAKE the largest green walnut gooseberries, and cut them at the stalk-end in four quarters. Leave them whole at the blossom, end, take out all the seeds and put five or six one in another. Take a needleful of strong thread, with a large knot at the end; run the needle through the bunch of gooseberries, tie a knot to fasten them together, and they will resemble hops. Put cold spring-water into the pan, with a large handful of vine-leaves at the bottom j then three or four layers of gooseberries, with plenty of vine-leaves between every layer, and ov*er the top of the pan. Cover it so that no steam can get out, and set them on a slow fire. Then take them off as soon as they are scalding hot, and let them stand till cold. Then set them on again till they are of a good green; take them off, and let them stand till quite cold. Put them into a sieve to drain, and make a thin syrup thus: To every pint of water put in a pound of common loaf sugar; boil, and skim it well. When about half cold, put in the gooseberries, and let them stand till the next day. Then give them one boil a day for three days* Then make a syrup thus: To every pint of water put in a pound of fine sugar, a slice of ginger, and a lemon peel cut lengthways exceedingly fine. Boil rfhd skim it well, give the gooseberries a boil in it, and when cold, put them into glasses or pots, lay brandypaper over them, and tie them up close.

Red Gooseberries.

TAKE a pound of loaf sugar, put it into a preserving pan, with as much water as will dissolve it, and boil and skim it well; then put in a quart of rough red gooseberries, and let them boil a little. Set them by till the next day, then boil them till they Jook;clear, arid the syrup thick. Then put them into pots or glasses, and cover^hem with brandy-paper.

Red Raspberries. .

GATHER them on a dry day when just turning red, with the stalks on, about an inch long. Lay them singly on a disb,

300 PRESERVING,

beat and sift their weight of double-refined sugar, and strew it over them. To every quart of raspberries take a quart of red currant jelly-juice, and put to it its weight of doublerefined sugar. Boil and skim it well, then put in the rasp, berries, and give them a scald. Take them off, and let them stand for two hours. Set them on again, and make them a little hotter; proceed in this manner two or three times till they look clear; but do not let them boil, as that will make the stalks come off. When tolerably cool, put them into jelly glasses, with the stalks downwards.

White Raspberries

MAY be preserved in the same manner, only using white currant juice instead of red.

Red Currants.

STONE them, and tie six or seven bunches together with a thread to a piece of split deal, .about four inches long. \\cigh the currants, and put the weight of double-refined sugar into the preserving pan, with a little water. Boil it till the sugar flies; then put the currants in, just give them a boil up, and cover them till the next day. Then take them out, and either dry them or put them into glasses, with the syrup boiled up with a little of the juice of red currants. Put brandy-paper over them, then other paper over that, and tie them down close.

White Currants preserved in Bunches.

STONE and tie them in bunches, as above directed, put them into the preserving pan, with their v. eight of doublerehned sugar beaten and finel sifted, Let them stand all night. 1 hen take some pippins, pare, core, and boil them, and press them down with the back of a spoon, but do not stir them. When the water is strong of the apple, add to it the juice of a lemon, and strain it through a jelly-bag till it runs quite clear. To every pint of liquor put a pound of double-refined sugar, and boil it up to a strong jelly. Then put it t,o the currants, and boil them till they look clear. Cover them in the preserving-pan with paper till they are almost cold, and then put a bunch of currants into glasses, and fill them up with jelly. When cold, wet paper in brandy, and lay over them; then put over them another paper, and tie them' up close.

PRESERVING. 30 1

Currants preserved for Tarts.

To every pound and a quarter of picked currants take a pound of sugar. Put the sugar into a preserving-pan, with as much juice of currants as will dissolve it. As soon as it boils, skim it, and put in the currants, and boil them till they are clear. Put them into a jar, lay brandy-paper over them, and tie them down close.

Green Codlins.

GREEN codlins will keep all the year, if preserved in this manner: gather them when about the size of a walnut, with the stalks and a leaf or two on them. Put a handful of vineleaves into a pan of spring water; then put a layer of codlins, then of vine-leaves, and so on till the pan is full. Cover it close that no steam can get out, and set it on a slow fire. As soon as they are soft, take off the skins with a penknife, and then put them in the same water with the vine-leaves, which must be quite cold, or it will be apt to crack them. Put in a little alum, and set them over a very slow fire till they are green, which will be in three or four hours. Then take them out, and lay them on a sieve to drain. Make a good syrup, and give them a gentle boil once a day for three days. Then put them into small jars, with brandy-paper over them, and tie them up tight.

Golden Pippins.

HAVING boiled the rind of an orange very tender, let it lie in water two or three days. Take a quart of golden pippins, pare, core, quarter, and boil them to a strong jelly, and run it through a jelly-bag. Then take twelve pippins, pare them, and scrape out the cores. Put two pounds of loaf sugar into a stewpan with near a pint of water. When it boils, skim it, and put in the pippins, with the orange rind in thin slices. Let them boil fast till the sugar is very thick and will almost candy. Then put in a pint of the pippin jelly, and boil them fast till the jelly is clear. Then squeeze in the juice of a lemon, give it a boil, and put them into pots or glasses with the orange peel.

Grapes.

PUT into ajar some close bunches of grapes, but they must not be too ripe; it matters not whether they are black or white grapes. Put to them a quarter of a pound of sugar

302 PRESERVING.

candy, and fill the jar with common brandy. Tie them up close with a bladder, and set them in a dry place. Morello cherries may be preserved in the same manner.

Walnuts (white).

PARE them till the white appear, and nothing else; as fast as they are clone, throw them into salt and water, and let them lie there till the sugar is ready. Take three pounds of good loaf sugar, put it into the preserving-pan, set it over a charcoal fire, and put as much water as will just wet the sugar: let it boil, then have ready ten or a dozen whites of eggs strained and beat up to a froth. Cover the sugar with the froth as it boils, and skim it; then boil it, and skim it till it is quite clear, and throw in the walnuts. Just give them a boil till they are tender, then take them out, and lay them in a dish to cool. When cold, put them into the preserving-pot, and when the sugar is as warm as milk pour it over them; and when they are quite cold, tie them up.

Walnuts (black ).

TAKE those of the smaller kind; put them in salt and water, and change the water every day for nine days; thei put them on a sieve, and let them stand in the air till they begin to turn black. Put them into a jug, pour boiling water over them, and let them stand till the next day. Then put them into a sieve to drain, stick a clove in each end of the walnut, put them into a pan of boiling water, and let them boil five minutes. Take them up, make a thin syrup, and scald them in it three or four times a day, till the walnuts are black and bright. Then make a thick syrup with a few cloves and a little ginger cut in slices; skim it well, put in the watnuts, boil them five or six minutes, and then put them inco jars. Lay brandy-paper over them, and tie them down close with a bladder. They will eat better the second year of their keeping than in the first, as the bitterness goes off with time.

Walnuts (green).

WIPE them very dry, and lay them in salt and water twentyfour hours; take them out, and wipe them very clean; have ready a skillet of boiling water, throw them in, let them boil a minute, and then take them out. Lay them on a coarse cloth, and boil the sugar as directed for the white walnuts; then just give the walnuts a scald in the sugar, take them up, and' lay them to cool. Put them into the preserving-pot, and proceed as directed for white walnuts.

PRESERVING. 303

Cucumbers*

TAKE the greenest cucumbers, and the most free from seeds; some small to preserve whole, anil other large to cut into pieces. Put them into strong salt and water in a straitmouthed jar with a cabbage-leaf to keep them down. Set them in a warm place till they are yellow, then wash them out, and set them over the fire in fresh water, with a little salt, and a fresh cabbage-leaf over them: cover the pan very close, but take care they do not boil. If they are not of a fine green, change the water, as that will help them. Then cover them as before, and make them hot; when they become of a good green, take them off the fire, and let them stand till cold. Then cut the large ones in quarters, take out the seeds and soft part, put them into cold water, and let them stand two days; but change the water twice every day to take out the salt. Take a pound of single-refined sugar, and half a pint of water, set it over the fire, and when it is skimmed clean, put in the rind of a lemon, and an ounce of ginger, with the outside scraped off. When the syrup is pretty thick, take it off j and when cold, wipe the cucumbers dry, and put them in. Boil the syrup once in two or three days for three weeks, and strengthen the syrup, if required; for the greatest danger of spoiling them is at first. When the syrup is put to the cucumbers, be sure that it is quite cold.

Green Gage Plums.

PUT into a pan the finest plums just before they are ripe: put vine-leaves at the bottom of the pan, then a layer of plums, and thus plums and vine-leaves alternately till the pan is almost full: then fill it with water, set them over a slow fire, and when hot, and their skins begin to break, take them off, and take the skins off carefully. Put them on a sieve as they are done, then lay them in the same water, with a layer of leaves between, and cover them very close, so that no steam can get out. Hang them at a great distance from the fire till they are green, which will be five or six hours at least. Then take them carefully up, lay them on a hair sieve to drain, make a good syrup, and give them a gentle boil in it twice a day for two days. Take them out, and put them into a fine clear syrup; put brandy-paper over them, and tie them down close.

Damsons.

CUT the damsons into pieces, and put them in a skillet over the fire, with as much water as will cover then. When they

304 PRESERVING.

are boiled, and the liquor pretty strong, strain it out, and add to every pound of the damsons, wiped clean, a pound of singlerefined sugar. Put one third of the sugar in the liquor, set it over the fire, and when it simmers, put in the damsons. Let them have one good boil, and take them off for half an hour covered up close. Then set them on again, and let them simmer over the fire after turning them. Then take them out, put them in a bason, strew all the sugar that was left on them, and pour the hot liquor over them. Cover them up, let them stand till the next day, and then boil, them up again till they are enough. Then take them up, and put them in pots; boil the liquor till it jellies, and pour it on them when almost cold. Put paper over them, and tie them up close.

Mordlo Cherries.

HAVING gathered cherries when they are full ripe, take off the stalks, and prick them with ^a pin. To everv pound of cherries put a pound and a half of loaf sugar.' Beat part of the sugar, strew it over them, and let them stand all night. Dissolve the rest of the sugar in. half a pint of the iuice of currants, set it over a slow fire, and put in the cherries with the sugar, and give them a gentle scald. Then take them carefully out, boil the syrup till it is thick, and pour it upon the cherries.

Lemons.

FIRST pare the lemons very thin, then make a round hole on the top of the size of a shilling, and take out all the pulps and skins; rub them with salt, and put them into spring water, which will prevent them from turning black: let them lie in it five or six days, and then boil them in fresh salt and water fifteen minutes. Have ready made a thin syrup of a quart of water, and a pound of loaf sugar. Boil them in it for

' five minutes once a day, for four or five days, and then put them in a large jar. Let them stand for six or eight weeks, and it will make them look clear and plump. Then take them out of that syrup, or they will mould; make a syrup of fine sugar, put as much water to it as will dissolve it, boil and skim it, then put in the lemons, and boil them gently till they are clear. Put them into a jar with brandy-paper over them, and

. and tie them down close.

Oranges.

CUT a hole out of a Seville orange at the stalk-end as large as a sixpence, and scoop out the pulp quite clean; tie them

PRESERVING. 305

separately in muslin, and lay them two days in spring water. Change the water twice every day, and then boil them in the muslin on a slow fire till quite tender. As the water wastes, put more hot water into the pan, and keep them covered. Weigh the oranges before they are scooped, and to every pound put two pounds of double-refined sugar, and a pint of water: boil the sugar and water, with the juice of the oranges, to a syrup; skim it well, let it stand till cold, then put in the oranges, and let them boil half an hour. If not quite clear, boil them once a day for two or.three days. Then pare and core some green pippins, and boil them till the water is strong of the apple; but do not stir them, and only put them down with the back of a spoon. Strain the water through a jelly-bag till it is quite clear, and then, to every pint of water, put a pound of double-refined sugar, and the juice of a lemon strained fine. Boil it up to a strong jelly, drain the oranges out of the syrup, and put them into glass jars, or pots of the size of an orange, with the, -holes upwards. ^Po'ur the jelly over them, cover them with paper dipped in brandy, and t;e them close down with a bladder. Lemons may be done in this manner, if preferred to the method before directed.

Strawberries.

ON a dry day, gather the finest scarlet strawberries, with their stalks on, before they are too ripe; lay them separately on a china dish, beat and sift twice their weight of doublerefined sugar, and strew it over them. Then take a few ripe scarlet strawberries, crush them, and put them into a jar, with their weight of double-refined sugar beat small. Cover them close, and let them stand in a kettle of boiling water till they are soft, and the syrup come out of them. Then strain them through a muslin rag into a tossing-pan, boil and skim it well, and when cold, put in the whole strawberries, and set them over the fire till they are milk warm. Then take them off, and let them stand till quite cold. Then set them on again, and make them a little hotter, and do so several times till they look clear; but do not let them boil, as that will bring off their stalks. When the strawberries are cold, put them into jelly -glasses, with the stalks downwards, and fill up the' glasses with the syrup. Put over them paper dipped in brandy, and tie them down close.

Pine-apples.

TAKE pine-apples before they are ripe, and lay them five days in strong salt and water. . Then put into the bottom oi'u large saucepan a handful of vine-leaves, and put in the pine x

PRESERVING.

apples. Fill the pan with vine-leaves, and then pour on the salt and water they were laid in. Cover it up very close, and set them over a slow fire. Let them stand till of a fine light green. Have ready a thin syrup, made of a quart of water and a pound of double-refined sugar. When it is almost cold, put it into a deep jar, and put in the pine-apples with their tops on. Let them stand a week, and take care that they are well covered with the syrup. It is a great fault to put any kind of fruit that is to be preserved whole into thick syrup at first, as that makes it shrink, draws out the juice, and spoils it. When they have stood a week, boil the syrup again, and pour it carefully into the jar, for fear of breaking the tops of the pine-apples. Let it stand eight or ten weeks, and during that time give the syrup two or three boilings to keep it from moulding. Let the syrup stand till it is near cold before it is put on; and when the pine-apples look quite full and green, take them out of the syrup, and make a thick syrup of three pounds of double-refined sugar, with as much water as will dissolve it: boil and skim it well, put a few slices of white ginger into it, and when it is nearly cold, pour it upon the pine-apples. Tie them down close with a bladder, and they will keep many years without shrinking.

Barberries for Tarts.

HAVING picked the female branches clean from the stalks, take their weight in loaf sugar, and put them in a jar. Set them in a kettle of boiling water till the sugar is melted and the barberries quite soft. Then next dayput them into a preserving-pan, and boil them fifteen minutes. Then put them into jars, and tie them up close.

Barberries preserved in Bunches.

HAVING procured the finest female barberries, pick out all the largest bunches, and then pick the rest from the stalks; put them in as much water as will make a syrup for the bunches; boil them till they are soft, then strain them through a sieve, and to every pint of the juice put a pound and a half of loaf sugar. Boil and skim it well, and to every pint of syrup put half a pound of barberries in bunches. Boil them till they look very fine and clear, then put them carefully into pots or glasses, and tie them down close with brandypaper.

Quinces.

QUINCES may be preserved either whole, or in quarters, in this manner: Having pared them very thin and round (or cut

DRYJNG AND CANDYING. 307

U

into quarters), put them into a saucepan, fill it with hard water, and lay the parings over the quinces to keep them down. Cover the saucepan close, that no steam may get* out, and set them over a slow fire till they are soft, and of a fine pink colour. Then let them stand till they are cold. Make a good syrup of double-refined sugar, and boil and skim it well. Then put in the quinces, let them" boil ten minutes, take them off, and let them stand two or three hours. Boil them till the syrup looks thick, and the quinces clear. Put them into deep jars, and with brandy-paper and leather over them, tie them up close.

Peaches.

LET the peaches be the largest, but not too ripe: rub off the lint with a cloth, and then run them down the seam with a pin, skin deep, and cover them with French brandy: tie a bladder over them, and let them stand a week. Take them out, and make a strong syrup for them. Boil and skiui it well, then put in the peaches, and boil them till they look clear: take them out, and put them into pots or glasses; mix the syrup with the brandy, and when it is cold, pour it on the peaches. Tie them close down with a bladder, as they will turn black should the air get to them.

Apricots.

HAVING pared the apricots, thrust out the stones with a skewer, and to every pound of apricots put a pound- of loaf sugar; strew part of it over them, and let it stand till the next day; then give them a gentle boil three or four different times, and let them cool between each time: take them out of the syrup one by one, the last time they are boiled. Skim the syrup well, then pour it over the apricots, and tie them down close with brandy-paper and a bladder.

CHAPTER VIII.

DRYING AND CANDYING.

PRELIMINARY HINTS AND OBSERVATIONS.

iivERY kind of fruit, before you attempt to candy it, musfc be first preserved, and dried in a stqve or before the fire, that none of the syrup may remain in it. Then, having boiled

x y

308 DRYING AND CANDYING.

your sugar to the candy height, dip in your fruit, and lay them in dishes in your stove to dry. Then put them in boxes for use, and take care to keep them in places neither damp nor hot.

Candied Cassia.

TAKE as much of the powder of brown cassia as will lie upon two shillings, with as much musk and ambergris as is thought proper: the cassia and perfume must be powdered together. Then take a quarter of a pound of sugar, and boil it to a candy height, put in the powder and mix it well together. Pour it into saucers, which must be buttered very thin, and when it is cold it will slip out.

Orange Marmalade.

CUT in twothe clearest Seville oranges; take out all the pulp and juice into a bason, and pick all the skins and seeds out of it; boil the rinds in hard water till they are tender, and change the water two or three times while they are boiling. Then pound them in a marble mortar, and add to them the juice and pulp; put them into the preserving-pan with double their weight of loaf sugar, and set them over a slow fire. Boil it rather more than half an hour, put into pots, cover with brandy-paper, and tie close down.

Apricot Marmalade.

ALL those apricots that are not good enough for preserves, or are too ripe for keeping, will answer this purpose; boil them in syrup till they will mash, and then beat them in a marble mortar to a paste: take half their weight of loaf sugar, and put just water enough to it to dissolve it; boil and skim it till it looks clear, and the syrup thick like a fine jelly. Then put it into sweetmeat glasses, and tie it up close.

Transparent Marmalade.

CUT very pale Seville oranges into quarters, take out the pulp, put it into a bason, and pick out the skins and seeds. Put the peels into a little salt and water, and let them stand all night. Then boil them in a good quantity of spring water till they are tender, cut them in very thin slices, and put them to the pulp. To every pound of marmalade put a pound and a half of double-refined sugar finely beaten, and boil them together gently for twenty minutes; but if it is not clear and transparent in that time, boil it five or six minutes longer, keep fctirringik gently all the time, and take care not to break

DRYING AND CANDYING. 309

the slices. When cold, put it into jelly or sweetmeat glasses, and tie them down tight with brandy-paper, and a bladder over them.

Quince Marmalade.

QUINCES for this purpose must be full ripe; pare them and cut them into quarters; then take out the core, and put them into a saucepan. Cover them with the parings, fill the saucepan nearly full of spring water, cover it close, and let them stew over a slow fire till they are soft, and of a pink colour. Then pick out all the quinces from the parings, and beat them to a pulp in a marble mortar. Take their weight of fine loaf sugar, put as much water to it as will dissolve it, and boil and skim it well. Then put in the quinces, and boil them gently three quarters of an hour. Stir all the time, or it will stick to the pan and burn. When cold, put it into fiat pots, and tie it down close.

Damson Cheese.

HAVING picked the damsons free from stalks, put them into ajar, tie white paper over them, and bake in an oven till quite soft: rub through a cullender whilst hot, and to the pulp and juice add sugar to the palate: boil over a gentle fire till nearly quite stiff, stir all the time that it m t ^ not burn, and turn into moulds, or cups: tie brandy-paper over them, and keep in a dry but not hot place.

Plum Cheese, Is made like damson cheese.

Bullace Cheese, Is made like damson cheese.

Apple Cheese.

PARE, quarter, and core the apples; put them into a jar, tie them over with white paper, and bake in an oven till quite soft: pulp them through a sieve; put the pulp into a stewpan with sifted lump sugar to the palate, and a little thin rind of lemon, boil till quite stiff, and put into moulds.

Raspberry Paste.

TAKE a quart of raspberries, mash them, strain one half, and put the juice to the other half; boil them a quarter of an hour, put to them a pint of red currant juice^nd let them

310 DRYING AND CANDYING.

boil all together till the raspberries are enough. Then put a pound and a half of double-refined sugar into a clean pan, with as much water as will dissolve it, aud boil it to a sugar again. Then put in the raspberries and juice, give them a scald, and pour them into glasses or plates. Then put them into a stove to dry, and turn them when necessary.

Currant Paste.

CURRANT paste may be either red or white, according to the colour of the currants used. Strip the currants, put a little juice to them to keep them from burning, boil them well, and rub them through a hair sieve. Then boil it a quarter of an hour, and to a pint of juice put a pound and a half of double-refined sugar pounded and sifted. Shake in the sugar, and when it is melted, pour it on plates. Dry it in the same manner as the above paste, and turn it into any form most approved.

Gooseberry Paste.

WHEN red gooseberries are full grown and turned, but not ripe, cut them in halves, pick out all the seeds; then have ready a pint of currant juice, and boil the gooseberries in it till they are tender. Put a pound and a half of double-refined suga^into the pan, with as much water as will dissolve it, and boil it to a sugar again: then put all together, and make it scalding hot, but do not let it boil. Pour it into palates or glasses, and dry it as above directed.

Burnt Almonds.

PUT two pounds of almonds, the same quantity of loaf sugar, and a pint of water, into a stewpan. Set them over a clear coal fire, and let them boil till the almonds crack. Then take them off, and stir them about till they are quite dry. Put them in a wire sieve, and sift all the sugar from them. Put all in the pan again with a little water, and give it a boil: then put four spoonsful of scraped cochineal to the sugar to colour it; put the almonds into the pan, and keep stirring them over the fire till they are quite dry. Then put them nto a glass, and they will keep a year.

Orange Chips.

PARE some of the best Seville oranges a-slant, about a quarter of an inch broad, and if kept whole they will have a prettier effect: put them into salt and spring water for a day or two; then boil them in a large quantity of spring water

DRYING AND CANDYING. 311

till they are tender, and drain them on a sieve. Have ready a thin syrup, made of a quart of water, and a pound of fine sugar. Boil them, a few at a time, to keep them from breaking, till they look clear. Then put them into a syrup made of fine loaf sugar, with as much water as will dissolve it, and boil them to a candy height. When taken up, lay them on at sieve, and grate double-refined sugar over them. Then put them in a stove, or before the fire to dry.

Green Gage Plums dried.

HAVING made a thin syrup of half a pound of singlerefined sugar, and skimmed it well, slit a pound of plums down the seam, and put them in the syrup. Keep them scalding hot till they are tender, and take care they are well covered with syrup, or they Avill lose their colour. Let them stand all night, and then make a rich syrup. To a pound of double-refined sugar put two spoonsful of water, skim it well, and boil it almost to a candy. When cold, drain the plums out of the first syrup, and put them into the thick syrup; but be sure to let the syrup cover them. Set them on the fire to scald till they look clear, and then put them in a china bowl. When they have stood a week, take them out, and Jay them on china dishes. Then put them in a stove, and turn them once a day till they are dry.

Cherries dried.

STONE any quantity of morello cherries, and to every pound of cherries put a pound and a quarter of fine sugar: beat it and sift it over the cherries, and let them stand all night: take them out of the sugar, and to every pound of sugar put two spoonsful of water; boil and skim it well, and then put in the cherries. Let the sugar boil over them, the next morning strain them, and to every pound of the syrup put half a pound more sugar. Let it Doil a little thicker, then put in the cherries, and let them boil gently. The next day strain them, put them into a stove to dry, and mind every day to turn them.

Damsons dried.

DAMSONS for this purpose must be gathered when they are full ripe. Spread them on a coarse cloth, and set them in a very cool oven. Let them stand a day or two; and if they are not then properly dried, put them in for a day or two longer. Take them out, lay them in a dry place, and even in .the winter they will eat like fresh plums.

312 DRYING AND CANDYING.

Apricots dried.

PARE and stone a pound of apricots, and put them into a tossing-pan; pound and sift half a pound of double-refined sugar, strew a little amongst them, and lay the rest over them. Let them stand twenty-four hours, turn them three or four times in the syrup, and then boil them pretty quick till they look clear. When cold, take them out and lay them on glasses. Then put them into a stove, and turn them the first day every half hour, the second day every hour, and so on till they are dry.

Peaches dried.

GET the largest Newington peaches, and pare and stone them: put them into a saucepan of boiling water, let them boil till tender, and then lay them on a sieve to drain. Weigh them, and with their weight in sugar cover them in the pan they were boiled in. Let them lie two or three hours, then boil them till they are clear, and the syrup pretty thick. Cover them close, and let them stand all night; scald them well, and then take them off to cool. Then set them on again till the peaches are thoroughly hot, and do this for three days. Then lay them, on plates, and turn them every day till they are dry.

Ginger candied.

TAKE an ounce of race ginger grated fine, a pound of loaf sugar beat fine, and put into a tossing-pan with as much water as will dissolve it: stir them well together over a very slow fire till the sugar begins to boil. Then stir in another pound of sug.ir beat fine, and keep stirring till it grows thick. Then take it off the fire, and drop it in cakes upon earthen dishes. Set them in a warm place to dry, and they will be hard and brittle, and look white.

Lemon and Orange Peels candied.

TAKE either lemons or oranges, cut them long ways, take out the pulp, and put all the rinds into a pretty strong- salt and hard water for six days: then boil them in a large quantity of spring water till they are tender; take them out, and lay them on a hair sieve to drain: then make a thin syrup of fine loaf sugar, a pound to a quart of water; put in the peels, and boil them over a slow fire till the syrup and candy may be perceived about the pan and peels. Then take them out, and grate fine sugar all over them. Lay them on a hair sieve to drain, and.

ORNAMENTS. 313

set them in a stove, or before the fire, to dry. Remember when either lemons or oranges are boiled, not to cover the saucepan.

Angelica candied.

CUT the angelica in lengths when young, cover it close, and boil it till it is tender; then peel it, put it in again, and let it simmer, and boil it till it is green: take it up, and dry it with a cloth, and to every pound of stalks put a pound of sugar. Put the stalks into an earthen pan, beat the sugar, and strew it over them, and let them stand two days. Then boil it till it is clear and green, and put it in a cullender to drain. Beat another pound of sugar to powder, and strew it on the angelica. Lay it on plates to dry, and set them in the oven after the pies are drawn.

CHAPTER IX.

ELEGANT ORNAMENTS FOR A GRAND ENTER TAINMENT.

Floating Island.

1 AKE a soup-dish, of a size proportionate to what is intended to be made; but a deep glass, set on a china dish, will answer the purpose better. Take a quart of the thickest cream, and make it pretty sweet with fine sugar. Pour in a gill of sack, grate in the yellow rind of a lemon, and mill the cream till it is of a thick froth. Then carefully pour the thin from the froth into a dish. Cut a French roll, or as many as are wanted, as thin as possible, and put a layer of it as light as possible on the cream, then a layer of currant jelly, then a very thin layer of roll, then hartshorn jelly, then French roll, and over that whip the froth saved of the cream, well milled up, and lay it on the top as high as possible. The rim of the dish may be ornamented with figures, fruit, or sweetmeats.

Chinese Temple or Obelisk.

TAKE an ounce of fine sugar, half an ounce of butter, and four ounces of fine flour; boil the sugar and butter in a little water, and when cold, beat an egg, and put it to the water,

3 1 4 ORNAMENTS.

r, and butter: mix it with the flour, and make into a very stiff paste. Then roll it as thin as possible, have a set of tins the form of a temple, and put the paste upon them. Cut it in the form intended upon the separate parts of the tins, keeping them separate till baked; but take care to have the paste exactly the size of the tins. When all the parts are cut, bake them in a slow oven, and Avhen cold, take them out of the tins, and join the parts with strong isinglass and water with a camel's hair brush. Set them one upon the other, as the forms of the tin moulds will direct. If cut neatly, and the paste is rolled very thin, it will be a beautiful corner for a large table. Take care to make the pillars stronger than the top, that they may not be crushed by their weight.

Desert Island.

FORM a lump of paste into a rock three inches broad, at the top. Then colour it, and set it in the middle of a deep china dish. Set a cast figure on it with a crown on its head, and a knot of rock candy at its feet. Then make a roll of paste an inch thick, and stick it on the inner edge of the dish, two parts round. Cut eight pieces of eringo roots, about three inches long, and fix them upright to the roll of paste on the edge. Make gravel walks of shot comfits round the dish, and set small figures in them. Roll out some paste, and cut it open like Chitiese rails. Bake it, and fix it on either side of the gravel walks with gum, and form an entrance where the Chinese raHs are, with two pieces of eringo rook for pillars.

Moonshine.

HAVE a piece of tin in the shape of a half-moon, as deep as a half pint bason, and one in the shape of a large star, and two or three lesser ones: boil two calf's feet in a gallon of water till it comes to a quart, then strain it off, and when cold, skim off the fat. Take half the jelly, and sweeten it with sugar to the palate. Beat up the whites of four eggs, stir all together over a slow fire till it boils, and then run it through a flannel bag till clear. Put it in a clean saucepan, and take an ounce or sweet almonds blanched, and beat very fine in a marble mortar, with two spoonsful of rose-water, and two of orange-flower water. Then strain it through a coarse cloth, mix it with the jelly, stir in four spoonsful of thick cream, and stir it all together till it boils. Then have ready the dish intended for it, lay the tin in the shape of a half moon in the middle, and the stars round it. Lay little weights on the tins to keep them in their places; then pour in the above blanc

ORNAMENTS. 3 1 5

mange into the dish: and when 'it is quite cold, take out the tins. Fill up the vacancies with clear calf's feet jelly. Or, colour the blanc mange with cochineal and chocolate, to make it look like the sky, and the moon and stars will then shine the brighter. Put round it rock-candy sweetmeats for a garnish.

A Dish of Snow.

- PUT twelve large apples into cold water, set them over a slow fire, and when they are soft pour them upon a hair sieve, Take off the skins, and put the pulp into a bason. Then beat the whites of twelve eggs to a very strong froth, beat and sift half a pound of double-refined sugar, and strew it into the eggs. Then beat the pulp of the apples to a strong froth, and beat them all together till they are like a stiff snow, lay it upon a china dish, and heap it up as high as possible. Set round it green knots of paste in imitation of Chinese rails, and stick a sprig of myrtle in the middle of the dish.

Artificial Fruit.

AT a proper time of the year take care to save the stalks of the fruit with the stones to them. Then get some tins neatly made in the shape of the fruit intended to be made, leaving a hole at the top to put in the stone and stalk. They must be so contrived as to open in the middle, to take out the fruit, and there must also be made a frame of wood to fix them in. Great care must be taken to make the tins very smooth in the inside, otherwise their roughness will mark the fruit; and that they are made exactly the shape of the fruit they are intended to represent. A defect in either of these points will not only give deformity to the artificial fruit, but likewise rob the artist of that honour he might otherwise acquire. Being thus prepared with tins, take two cow-heels and a calf's foot; boil them in a gallon of soft water till they are all boiled to rags, and when reduced to a full quart of jelly, strain it through a sieve. Then put it into a saucepan, sweeten it, put in lemon peel perfumed, and colour it like the fruit intended to imitate. Stir all together, give it a boil, and fill the tins. Then put in the stones and the stalks just as the fruit grows; and when the jelly is quite cold, open the tins, and put on the bloom, which may be done by carefully dusting on powderblue. An ingenious person may make great improvement on these artificial fruits; but it requires great nicety and long practice to perfect them in it.

The hedge-hog, the hen and chickens in jelly, the Solomon's temple, and the eggs and bacon, &c. in flummery, already given, may, with propriety, be classed among the elegant ornaments for a grand entertainment.

INSTRUCTIONS FOR CARVING.

INSTRUCTIONS FOR CARVING.

Meat.

1 HE cook must take care that the butcher divides the joints of the bones of all carcase-joints of mutton, lamb, veal, and pork, which may then be easily and handsomely separated; but the art of carving neatly depends less upon strength than skill. The fleshy joints should be helped in thin slices, and neatly and smoothly cut.

Poultry.

IN carving turkey, goose, duck, or wild fowl, there will be more prime pieces, if slices are taken from the breast, instead of making wings.

Fish.

IN helping fish, make use of a fish-knife, which is less liable to break the flakes, and contributes to the* beauty of its appearance.

Beef Sirloin.

CUT ofY the outside slice quite down to the bone, in the direction-c d, and cut slices of a moderate thickness smoothly, and parallel with the first slice: or, cut thro' the middle, quite

down to the bone,

in the direction of a b; in either case, helping to a little fat. By some the inside is preferred, which must be cut across the inside of the bones.

INSTRUCTIONS FOR CARVING,

317

Beef- Edgebone.

WITH a properbeefknife, cut off the outside slice beginning at a and ending at b. The soft fat which lies on the back of the bone below d, very much resembles marrow; the firm fat must be cut in thin horizontal slices, at the edge of the meat c. The upper part is most full of gravy, enriched with fat, and most tender; but the under side is sometimes preferred, because more lean and dry.

Beef Brisket.

THE brisket is generally cut in neat slices, in the direction of a to b, quite down to the bone; but some like it cut in the direction of c to d. The fat of the upper side is most firm,

and somewhat gristly;,

but that on the under side is softer and more delicate.

Mutton Leg.

CUT down quite to the bone, in the line of a b, which goes through the kernel called the pope's eye; help in deep thin slices forward to e. The back of the leg also furnishes some very fine slices; and must be cut in the direction of b to g. The fat lies in the direction of e e, and must be cut from e to f. Tro take out the cramp bone, pass the knife from d to c.

318

INSTRUCTIONS FOR CARVING.

Mutton Sh oulder.

THE first cut is made in the hollow part, in the direction a to b, quite down to the bone: when the hollow part is allhelped away, some very delicate slices may be taken out of each side of the bladebone, in the direction d to c. The best fat lies on the outer ridge, and is cut in thin slices in the direction g to f. There are two parts in the under side very full of gravy, and by many preferred to the upper side. One is, by a deep cut in the line g h, accompanied with fat; and the other all lean, in a line from, /to/t.

Mutton Haun ch, Is carved like venison.

Venison Haunch.

CUT it across down to the bone, in the line a, b, c; and putting in the knife at b, cut in the line 6, d. The fat lies between d and a, and should be properly proportioned.

Veal Fillet.

MANY persons are fond of the outside slice of this joint, which should be cut thin and even from a to c; at the same time help to a little of the fat and situfnng, which lies under b: to i nake the fillet look handsome, a.11 the succeeding slices should be cut parallel with the first.

INSTRUCTIONS FOR CARVING.

319

Vtal Breast.

DIVIDE the brisket from the ribs, and help a little of the sweetbread to either.

Calf's Head. \

CUT slices from a to 6, letting the knife go close to the bone; the throat sweetbread lies in the fleshy part, at the neck end c, and slices should be helped from c to d with the other part. As the eye is reckoned a dainty, it should be neatly cut out with the point of the knife, and divided in two. On taking off the jawbone some fine lean will be found, and under the head is the palate, which is also highly liked.

Pork Leg,

Is carved exactly as the leg of mutton. Pork Sparerib.

CUT slices out of the thick part .at the bottom of the bones, and when the fleshy parts are all done, separate and help the bones.

Ham.

HAM may be cut three ways: having cut off the hock at e, take thin circular slices all round the bone to c, and afterwards carve it in the same manner as venison: or, cut down to the bone in the line a, b, and take thin slices each way: or, with the point of the knife cut a small round hole at c, and continue to cut it in thin circular slices.

SEPARATE the shoulder and leg in the line a, b, c t and divide the ribs, which are reckoned the finest part; although many

320

INSTRUCTIONS FOR CARVING.

prefer the neck end, and even the legs: the ear and jaw are counted delicacies, and should also be offered, with plenty of sauce, and a spoonful of the force or stuffing.

Lamb Fore-quarter.

SEPARATE the shoulder from the breast and ribs, in the line a, A, c y d, without cutting too much meat from the bones;, squeeze a little Seville orange or lemon, and sprinkle a little white pepper and salt: separate the gristly part of the ribs in the line e, c, and help from the part chosen.

Hare, or Rabbit.

PUT the point of the knife under the shoulder at a, and cut all the way down to the rump in the line a, b; do the same on the other side: cut the back into four, which, with the legs, are the parts most esteemed. Cat off the shoulder in the line c, d, a; and cut the head in two: help to the part approved, with a little stuffing and gravy to each.

Goose.

CUT off the apron in the line a, b, c, pour in the sauce (see Sauces}, and cut the breast in long slices in the line

d, e; this will make the

wings smaller, but more prime pieces may be thus taken: divide the wing b} 7 passing the knife through the joint at d, and the leg in the same manner at e: cut off the merry-thought at d,/, and having divided the pinions, cut off the neck bones, and separate the breast from the back: cut off the side-bits, or sidesmen, from the b;ck, and divide that into two parts. It requires much practice to carve a goose neatly, Help each person to a little of the seasoning and gravy

INSTRUCTIONS FOR CARVING.

321

Ducks, Teal, and Wild Fowl,

ARE, in general, very nearly carved in the same manner as goose.

Turkey.

TAKE slices from the breast in the line from a to b, and proceed exactly in the same manner as above directed for goose, observing, that the parts nearest the wings are most delicate, and help a little of the liver, if approved of, to each person. The gizzard is generally devilled; to do which, score it all over with the point of the knife, and having mixed up a spoonful of mustard, a little cayenne and salt, rub the composition over the whole, and send it out to be broiled.

Fowl

TAKE off the wing in the direction from to b; slip the knife between the body and leg, and turn it back with the fork: proceed afterwards as already directed for carving goose.

Pheasant.

SLICE down the breast in the line a, b, take off the leg in the direction of the line

b, d, and cut oft the wing in the line c d; separate the leg and wing on the other side, and cut off the slices of the breast; cut off the merry-thought in the \inef, g, and

proceed as above directed for goose. The prime parts are the breast, wings, and merry-thought, although the leg is of a higher flavour.

Partridge

Is carved in the same manner as a fowl; the wings must be taken off in the lines a, b, and the merry-thought in the line

c, b: the most esteemed parts are, the wings, breast, and merry-thought.

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INSTRUCTIONS FOR CARVING.

Pigeons

MAY be either cut in halves from top to bottom, or across: the most approved way is to cut from the neck to tf, rather than from c to b, by a.

Cod's Head.

WITH the fish-knife or trowel, take off a piece quite down to the bone, in the direction a, b; c, d; putting in the trowel at z, t 1; and with each slice of fish give a piece of the

sound, which lies underneath the back-bone and lines it. The parts about the back-bone on the shoulders are the best; and about the head are many delicate parts, and a great deal of the jelly kind.

Salmon.

WITH the point of a sharp carving-knife, take slices in the direction of the lines a, b, and c, d; and with a fish-trowel serve slices of each part; the back being more dry and firm than the belly, which is both fat and rich.

Turbot.

ENTER the fish-knife or trowel in the middle over the backbone, and take off a piece of the fish, as much as will lie on the trowel, on one side close to the bones. The thickest part of the fish is always the most esteemed.

Soles.

THESE may be either boiled or fried. Cut them right through the middle, bone and all, and give a piece of the fish, in proportion to the size of it, to each person.

INSTRUCTIONS FOR CARVING. 323

Mackerel.

SLIT this fish all along the back with a knife, and take off one whole side, not too near the head, because the meat about the gills is generally black and ill-flavoured.

Eels.

CUT these into pieces quite through the bone. The thickest part is the most esteemed.

Besides these, there are many other little articles brought to table; but as they are mostly simple in their nature, a little observation and practice will make complete proficients in the art of carving,

PART IV.

MADE WINES, CORDIAL WATERS, AND MALT LIQUORS.

CHAPTER I.

MADE WINES.

PRELIMINARY HINTS AND OBSERVATIONS.

(TREAT care and precaution are necessary in the making wine, as it is frequently spoiled by mismanagement. If you let your wine stand too long before you get it cold, and do not take great care to put your barin upon it in time, it will make it fret in the cask, and you will find it very difficult, if at all possible, to bring it to any degree of fineness. On the other hand, if you let your wine work too long in the tub, it will take off all the sweetness and flavour of the fruit or flowers your wine is made from. Be careful to have your vessels dry, and rinsed with brandy; and as soon as the wine is done fermenting, to close them up properly.

Blackberry Wine.

HAVING procured berries that are full ripe, put them into a large vessel of wood or stone, with a cock in it, and pour upon them as much boiling water as will cover them. As soon as the heat will permit the hand to be put into the vessel, bruise them well till all the berries are broken. Then let them stand covered till the berries begin to rise towards the top, which they usually do in three, or four days. Draw off the clear into another vessel, and add to every ten quarts of this liquor one pound of sugar. Stir it well in, and let it stand to work a week or ten days, in another vessel like the first. Then draw it off at the cock through a jelly-bag into a large vessel. Take four ounces of isinglass, and lay it to steep twelve hours in a pint of white wine. The next morning boil it up on a slow fire till it is all dissolved. Then take a gallon of blackberry juice, put in the dissolved isinglass, give them a boil together, and

MADE WINES. . 325

pour all into the vessel. Let it stand a few days to purge and settle, then draw it off, and keep it in a cool place.

Gooseberry Wine.

GOOSEBERRIES for this purpose must be gathered in dry weather, and when they are only half ripe. Pick and bruise a peck of them in a tub; then take a horse-hair cloth, and press them as much as possible without breaking the seeds. Having pressed out all the juice, to every gallon of gooseberries put three pounds of fine dry powdered sugar. Stir all together till the sugar is dissolved, and then put it into a vessel or cask, which must be quite filled. If it be ten or twelve gallons, let it stand a fortnight; but if a twenty gallon cask, it must stand three weeks. Set it in a cool place, then draw it off from the lees, and pour in the clear liquor again. If a ten gallon cask, let it stand three months; if a twenty gallon cask, four months, and then bottle it off.

Pearl Gooseberry Wine.

TAKE the best pearl gooseberries, bruise them, and let them stand all night; the next morning press or squeeze them out, and let the liquor stand to settle seven or eight hours: then pour off the clear from the settling, and measure it as it is put into the vessel, adding to every three pints of liquor a pound of double-refined sugar. Break the sugar in small lumps, and put it into the vessel, with a piece of isinglass. Stir it up, and at three months end bottle it, putting a lump of double-refined sugar into every bottle.

Damson Wine.

GATHER the damsons on a dry day, weigh them, and then bruise them; put them into a steen that has a cock in it, and to every eight pounds of fruit put a gallon of water. Boil the water, skim it, and put it scalding hot to the fruit. Let it stand two days, then draw it off, and put it into a vessel, and to every gallon of liquor put two pounds and a half of fine sugar: fill up the vessel, and stop it close, and the longer it stands the better. Keep it twelve months in the vessel, and then bottle it, putting a lump of sugar into every bottle. The small damson is the best for this purpose.

Orange Wine.

TAKE six gallons of spring water, and boil it three quarters of an hour, with twelve pounds of the best powder sugar, and the whites of eight or ten eggs well beaten. When it is

326 MADE WINES.

cold, put into it six spoonfuls of yeast. Take the juice of twelve lemons, which being pared, must stand with two pounds of white sugnr in a proper vessel, and in the morning skim off the top, and put it into the water. Then add the juice and rinds of fifty oranges, but not the white parts of the rinds, and then let them work all together for forty-eight hours. Then add two quarts of the Rhenish or white wine, and put it into the vessel.

Or, take thirty pounds of new Malaga raisins, picked clean; chop them small, and take twenty l.ir^e Seville oranges, ten of which pare as thin as for preserving. Boil about eight gallons of soft water till one third. of it is wasted, and let it cool a little. Then put five gallons of it hot upon the raisins and orange-peel, stir it well together, cover it up, and when it is cold, let it stand five days, stirring it once or twice a day. Then pass it through a hair sieve, and Avith a spoon press it as dry as possible. Put it in a rundlet fit for it, and put to it the rinds of the other ten oranges, cut as thin as the first. Then make a syrup of the juice of twenty oranges, with a pound of white sugar. It must be made the day before it is tunned up. Stir it well together, and stop it close; let it stand two months to clear, and then bottle it up. It will be better at the end of the third year than at the first.

Lemon Wine.

PARE off the rinds of six large lemons, cut them, and squeeze out the juice, steep the rinds in the juice, and put to it -a quart of brandy: let it stand three days in an earthen pot close stopped; then squeeze six more, and mix it with two quarts of spring water, and as much sugar as will sweeten the whole. Boil the water, lemons, and sugar together, and let it stand till it be cool. Then add a quart of white wine, and the other lemons and brandy, then mix them together, and run it through a flannel bag into some vessel. Let it stand three months, and then bottle it off. Cork the bottles well, keep it cool, and it will be fit to drink in a month or six weeks.

Or, pare five dozen of lemons very thin, put the peels into five quarts of French brandy, and let them stand fourteen days. Then make the juice into a syrup with three pounds of single-refined sugar, and when the peels are ready, boil fifteen gallons of water, with forty pounds of single-refined sugar, tor half an hour. Then put it into a tab, and when cool, add to it one spoonful of barm, and let it work two days. Then tun it, and put in the brandy, peels, and syrup. Stir them all together, and close up the cask. Let it stand three

MADE WINES. 321

months, then botile it, and it will be as pale and as fine as any citron water.

Currant Wine.

LET the currants be full I'ipe, and gathered on a dry day; strip them, put them into a large, pan, and bruise them with a wooden pestle; let them stand in a tub or pan twenty-four hours to ferment, then run it through a hair-sieve, and do not let the hand touch the liquor. To every gallon of this liquor put two pounds and a half of white sugar, stir it well together, and put it into the vessel. To e.very six gallons put in a quart of brandy, and let it stand six weeks. If it is then fine, bottle it; but if not, draw it off as clear as possible into another vessel or large bottles, and in a fortnight put it into smaller bottles.

Raisin Wine.

PUT two hundredweight of raisins, stalks and all, into a large hogshead, and fill it with water. Let them steep a fortnight, stirring them every clay; then pour off the liquor, and press the raisins. Put both liquors together into a nice clean vessel that will just hold it, for it must be full. Let it stand till it has done hissing, or making the least noise; then stop it close, and let it stand six months. Peg it, and if not quite clear, rack it off in another vessel. Stop it again close, and let it stand three months longer. Then bottle it, and when used, rack it off into a decanter.

Grape Wine.

To a gallon of grapes put a gallon of water. Bruise the grapes, let them stand a week without stirring, and then draw it off fine. Put to a gallon of the wine three pounds of sugar, and then put it into a vessel, but do not stop it till it has done hissing.

Cherry Wine.

When cherries are full ripe, pull them off the stalks, and press them through a hair-sieve. To every gallon of liquor put two pounds of lump sugar finely beaten, then stir it together, and put it into a vessel, which must be filled. When ft has done working, and ceases to make any noise, stop it close for three months, and bottle it off.

Raspberry Wine.

WITH the back of a spoon bruise the finest raspberries, strain them through a flannel bag into a stone jar. To

328 MADE WINES.

each quart of juice put a pound of double-refined sugar, then stir it well together, and cover it close. Let it stand three days, and pour it off clear. To a quart of juice put two quarts of white wine, and bottle it off. It will be fit for drinking in about a week.

Apricot Wine.

TAKE three pounds of sugar, and three quarts of water; let them boil together, and skim it well. Then put in six pounds of apricots pared and stoned, and let them boil till they are tender. Take them up, and when the liquor is cold bottle it up. Or, after the apricots are taken out, let the liquor have a boil with a sprig of flowered clary in it. The apricots will make marmalade, and be very good for present use.

Plum Wine.

TAKE twenty pounds of Malaga raisins, pick, rub, and shred them, and put them into a tub; then take four gallons of water, boil it an hour, and let it stand till milk-warm. Put in the raisins, and let it stand nine or ten days, stirring it once or twice each day. Strain out the liquor, and mix it with two quarts of damson juice. Put it into a vessel, and when it has done working, stop it up close. Let it stand four or five months, and then bottle it.

Mulberry Wine.

GATHER mulberries when they are just changed from their redness to a shining black, and be sure to gather them on a dry day, when the sun has taken off the dew. Spread them thinly on a fine cloth on a floor or table for twenty-four hours. Boil up a gallon of water to each gallon of juice gotten out of them; then skim the water well, and add a little cinnamon slightly bruised. Put to each gallon six ounces of white sugar-candy finely beaten; then skim and strain the water, when it has been taken off and has settled, and put it to the juice of some more mulberries. To every gallon of the liquor add a pint of white wine or Rhenish vrine. Let it stand in a cask to purge or settle for five or six days, and then draw off the wine and keep it cool.

Walnut Wine.

PUT two pounds of brown sugar and a pound of honey to every gallon, of water; boil them half an hour, and take off the scum. Put into the tub a handful of walnut leaves to

MADE WINES. 329

every gallon, and pour the liquor upon them. Let it stand all night, then take out the leaves, and put in half a pint of yeast. Let it work fourteen days, and beat it four or five times a day, which will take off the sweetness. Then stop up the cask, and let it stand six months.

Quince Wine.

TAKE twenty large quinces, gathered when they are dry and full ripe. Wipe them clean with a coarse cloth, and grate them with a large grater or rasp as near the cores as possible; but do not touch the cores. Boil a gallon of spring water, throw in the quinces, and let them boil softly about a quarter of an hour. Then strain them well into an earthen pan on two pounds of double-refined sugar. Pare the peel off two large lemons, throw them in, and squeeze the juice through a sieve. Stir it about till it is very cool, and then toast a thin bit of bread very brown, rub a little yeast on it, and let the whole stand close covered twenty-four hours. Take out the toast and lemon, put the wine in a cask, keep it three months and bottle it. If a twenty gallon cask, let it stand six months before bottling it; and remember, when straining the quinces, to wring them hard in a coarse cloth.

Clary Wine.

TAKE twenty-four pounds of Malaga raisins, pick them and chop them very small; put them into a tub, and to each pound put a quart of water: let them steep ten or eleven days, stirring it twice every day, and mind to keep it covered. Then strain it off, and put it into a vessel, with about half a peck of the tops of clary, when it is in blossom. Stop it close for six weeks, and then bottle it off. In two or three months it will be fit to drink. As it is apt to have a great sediment at bottom, it will be best to draw it off by plugs, or rap it pretty high.

Birch Wine.

THE beginning of March is the season for procuring the liquor from the birch trees, while the sap is rising, and before the leaves shoot out; for when the sap is come forward, and the leaves appear, the juice, by being long digested in the bark, grows thick and coloured, which before was thin and clear. The method of procuring the juice is, by boring holes in the body of the tree, and putting in fossets, which are usually made of the branches of elder, the pith being taken out. Yon may, without hurting the tree, if it be large, tap it in several places, four or five at a time, and by that mean*

330 MADE WINES.

save, from a good many trees, several gallons every day. If you do not get enough in one day, the bottles in which it drops must be corked clo.- e, and rosined or waxed; however, make use of it as soon as you can, Take the sap, and boil it as long as any scum will rise, skimming it all tiie time. To every gallon of liquor put four pounds of good sugar, and the thin peel of a lemon. Then boil it half an hour, and keep skimming it well. Pour it into a clean tub, and when it is almost cold, set it to work with yeast spread upon a toast. Let it stand five or six days, stirring it often. Then take a cask just large enough to hold all the liquor, fire a large match dipped in brimstone, and throw it into the cask. Stop it close till the match is extinguished, then tun the wine, lay the bung on lightly till it has done working, then stop it close, and after three months bottle it.

Or, to a hogshead of birch water take four hundred of Malaga raisins; pick them clean from the stalks, and cut them small. Then boil the birch liquor for one hour at least, skim it well, and let it stand till no warmer than milk. Then put in the raisins, and let it stand close covered, stirring it well four or five times every day. Boil all the stalks in a gallon or two of birch liquor, which, when added to the other when almost cold, will give it an agreeable roughness. Let it stand ten days, then put it in a cool cellar, and when it has done hissing in the vessel, stop it up close. It must stand at least nine months before it is bottled.

Cowslip Wine.

TAKE twelve pounds of sugar, the juice of six lemons, the whites of four eggs well beaten, and six gallons of water. Put all together in a kettle, and let it boil half an hour, taking care to skim it well. Take a peck -of cowslips, and put them into a tub, with the thin peeling of six lemons. Then pour on thfe'boiling liquor, and stir them about, and when it is almost cold, put in a thin toast, baked hard, and rubbed with yeast. Let it stand two or three days to work. Six ounces of syrup of citron or lemon, with a quart of Rhenish wine, added before tunning, will be a great improvement. The third day strain it off, and squeeze the cowslips through a coarse cloth. Then strain it through a flannel bag, and tun it up. Leave the bung loose for two or three days till it has done working, and then bung it down tight. Let it stand three months and bottle it.

Turnip Wine.

TAKE turnips, pare and slice them, put them into a cyder press, and press out all the juice; to every gallon of juice

MADE WINES. 331

put three pounds of lump sugar, put both into a vessel just big enough to hold them, and add to every gallon of juice half a pint of brandy. Lay some thing over the bung for a week, and when it has done working, bung it down close. When it has stood three months, draw it off into another vessel, and when fine, put it into bottles.

Elder Wine.

GATHER elder berries when ripe, put them into a stone jar, or set them in the oven, or in a kettle of boiling water, till the jar is hot enough. Then take them out, and strain' them through a hair cloth, wringing the berries, and put the juice into a clean kettle. To every quart of juice put a pound of fine Lisbon sugar, then let it boil, and skim it well. When it is clear and fine, pour it into a jar, and when cold, cover it close, and keep it till you make raisin wine. When you tun the raisin wine, to every gallon put half a pint of the elder syrup. This is more properly called elder raisin wine.

Or, take the flowers of elder, and take care not to let any stalks in; to every quart of flowers put one gallon of water, and three pounds of loaf sugar. Boil the water and sugar a quarter of an^hour, tlien pour it on the flowers, and let it work three days. Then strain the wine through a hair sieve, and put it into a cask. To every ten gallons of wine add an ounce of isinglass dissolved in cyder, and six whole eggs. Close it up, let it stand six months, and then bottle it.

Rose Wine.

TAKE a well-glazed earthen vessel, and put into it three gallons of rose water drawn with a cold still. Put into that a sufficient quantity of rose leaves, cover it close, and set it for an liour in a kettle or copper of hot water, to take out the whole strength and tincture of the roses; and when it. hs cold, press the rose leaves hard into the liquor; and steep fresh ones in it, repeating it till the liquor has got the full strength of the roses. To every gallon of liquor put three pounds of loaf sugar, and stir it well, that it may melt and disperse in every part. Then put it into a cask or other convenient vessel, to ferment, and put into it a piece of bread toasted hard and covered with yeast. Let it stand about thirty clays, when it will be ripe, and have a fine flavour, having the whole strength and scent of the roses in it; and may be greatly improved, by adding to it wine and spices. By this method of infusion, wine of carnations, clove gilliflower, violets, primroses, or any other flower, having a curious scent, may be made.

332 MADE WINES.

Barley Wine.

BOIL half a pound of French barley in three waters, and save three pints of the last water. Mix it with a quart of white wine, half a pint of borage water, as much clary water, a little red rose water, the juice of five or six lemons, three quarters of a pound of fine sugar, and the thin yellow rind of a lemon. Mix all these well together, run it through a strainer, and bottle it up. It is pleasant in hot weather, and is very good in fevers.

English Fig Wine.

TAKE the large blue figs, when pretty ripe, and steep them in white wine, having made some slits in them, that they may swell and gather in the substance of the wine: then slice some other figs, and let them simmer over a fire in water till reduced to a kind of pulp. Strain out the water, pressing the pulp hard, and pour it as hot as possible on the figs that are imbrued in the wine. Let the quantities be nearly equal, but the water somewhat more than the wine and figs. Let them stand twenty-four hours, mash them well together, and draw off what will run without squeezing. Then press the rest, and if not sweet enough, add a sufficient quantity of sugar, to make it so. Let it ferment, and add a little honey and sugarcandy to it; then fine it with whites of eggs and a little isinglass, and draw it off for use.

O '

Ginger Wine.

BOIL seven pounds of Lisbon sugar in four gallons of spring water for a quarter of an hour, and skim it well. When the liquor is cold, squeeze in the juice of two lemons, and then boil the peels, with two ounces of ginger, in three pints of water for an hour. When cold, put it all together into a barrel, with two spoonsful of yeast, a quarter of an ounce of isinglass beat very thin, and two pounds of jar raisins. Then close it up, let it stand seven weeks, and bottle it. The spring is the best season for making it.

Sycamore Wine.

BOIL two gallons of the sap half an hour, and then add to it four pounds of fine powdered sugar. Beat the whites of three eggs to a froth, and mix them with the liquor; but take care that it is not too hot, as that will poach the eggs. Skim it well, and boil it half an hour. Then strain it through a hair sieve, and let it stand till next day. Pour it clean from the

MADE WINES. 333

sediment, put half a pint of yeast to every twelve gallons, and cover it close up with blankets. Then put it into the barrel, and leave the bung hole open till it has done working. Close it up well, and after it has stood three months, bottle it. The fifth part of the sugar must be loaf: and raisins will be a great improvement to the wine.

Sack Mead (Vine.

To every gallon of water put four pounds of honey, and boil it three quarters of an hour, taking care properly to skim it. To each gallon add half an ounce of hops, then boil it half an hour, and let it stand till the next day. Put it into a cask, and to thirteen gallons of the above liquor add a quart of brandy or sack. Let it be lightly closed till the fermentation is done, and stop it up very close. If a large cask, do not bottle it till it has stood a year.

Walnut Mead.

To every gallon of water put three pounds and a half of honey, and boil them together three quarters of an hour. To every gallon of liquor put about two dozen of walnut leaves, pour the liquor boiling hot upon them, and let them stand all night: take out the leaves, put in a spoonful of yeast, and let it work two or three days. Then make it up, and after it has stood three months, bottle it.

Cowslip Mead.

To fifteen gallons of water put thirty pounds of honey, and boil it till one gallon is wasted. Skim it, take it off" the fire, and have ready sixteen lemons cut in halves. Take a gallon of the liquor, and put it to the lemons. Put the rest of the liquor into a tub, with seven pecks of cowslips, and let them stand all night. Put in the liquor with the lemons, eight spoonsful of new yeast, and a handful of sweetbriar; stir them all well together, and let it work three or four days. Then strain it, put it into a cask, and after k it has stood six months, bottle it.

Mead Wine.

To one hundred and twenty gallons of pure water, the softer the better, put fifteen gallons of clarified honey. When the honey is well mixed with the water, fill a copper, which holds only sixty gallons, and boil it till it is reduced about a fourth part. Draw it off, and boil the remainder of the liquor in the same manner. When this last is about a fourth part wasted,

$34- MADE WINES.

fill up the copper with some of that which was first boiled, and continue boiling it and filling it up, till the copper contains the whole of the liquor, by which time it will of course be half evaporated. In boiling, never take off the scum, but, on the contrary, have it well mixed with the liquor whilst boiling, by means of a jet. When this is done, draw it off into under backs, by a cock at the bottom of the copper, in which let it remain till only as warm as new milk. At this time tun it up, and suffer it to ferment in the vessel, where it will form a thick head. As soon as it is done working, stop it down very close, in order to keep the air from it as much as possible. Keep this in a cool cellar, so as not to be at all affected by the change of weather.

Or, take eighty pounds of purified honey to one hundred and twenty gallons of soft water, and manage in the making, in all respects, like the first above mentioned, it proves very pleasant, good, light drinking, and is by many preferred to the other, which is much richer, and has a fuller flavour, but at the same time it is more inebriating. Many like mead when it has an aromatic flavour, and for this purpose they mix elder, rosemary, and marjoram flowers with it; and also use cinnamon, cloves, ginger, and cardamums, in various proportions, according to their taste. Others put in a mixture of thyme, eglantine, marjoram, and rosemary, with various spices; but green herbs are apt to make mead drink flat; and too many cloves, besides being very predominant in the taste, make it of too high a colour. Never bottle mead before it is half a year old; and take care to have it well corked, and keep it in the same vault wherein it stood whilst in the cask.

Balm Wine.

TAKE forty pounds of sugar and nine gallons of water, boil it gently for two hours, skim it well, and put it into a tub to cool; take two pounds and a half of the tops of balm, bruise them, and put them into a barrel with a little new yeast; and when the liquor is cold, pour it on the balm. Stir it well together, and let it stand twenty-four hours, stirring it often. Then close it up, and let it stand six weeks. Rack it off, and put a lump of sugar into every bottle. Cork it well, and it will be better the second year than the first.

Mountain Wine.

PICK out the large stalk of Malaga raisins, chop them very small, and put five pounds of them to every gallon of cold spring water. Let them steep a fortnight or more, then

MADE WINES. 33

squeeze out the liquor, and put it into a small vessel that will just hold it; but first fume it with brimstone. Do not stop it up till the hissing is over.

Cyprus Wine.

To nine gallons of water, put nine quarts of the jiffce of the white elder berries, which have been pressed gently from the berries with the hand, and passed through a sieve without bruising the kernels of the berries. Add to every gallon of liquor three pounds of Lisbon sugar, and to the whole quantity put an ounce and a. half of ginger sliced, and three quarters of an ounce of cloves. Then boil all near an hour, taking off the scum as it rises, and pour the whole to cool in an open tub, and work it with ale yeast spread upon a toast of white bread for three days; then turn it into a vessel that will just hold it, adding about a pound and a half of raisins of the sun split, to lie in the liquor till drawn off, which should not be till the wine is fine.

Frontiniac Wine.

TAKE twelve pounds of white sugar, six pounds of raisins of the sun cut small, and six gallons of water, and let them boil an hour. Then take half a peck of the flowers of elder, when they are falling, and will shake off. Put them in the liquor when it is almost cold, and the next day put in six spoonsful of the syrup of lemons, and four spoonsful of ale yeast. Two days afterwards put it into a vessel that will just hold it, and when it has stood two months, bottle it off.

English Champaign,,

To three gallons of water put nine pounds of Lisbon Sugar, and boil the water and sugar half an hour, observing to skim it well. Then take a gallon of white currants picked, but not bruised, and pour the liquor boiling hot over them. When nearly cold, put into it some barm, keep working it for two days, and then strain it through a rlannel or sieve. Put it into a barrel that will just hold it, with half an ounce of isinglass well bruised. When it has done working, stop it close for a month, then bottle ic, and in every bottle put a very small lump of double-refined sugar.

Saragossa Wine, or English Sack.

PUT a sprit; of rue into every quart of water, and to every gallon put a handful of fennel roots. Boil these half an hour, then strain it, and to every gallon of liquor put three pounds

336 MADE WINES.

of hopey. Boil it two hours, and skim it well. When cold, pour it off, and turn it into a cask or vessel that will just hold it. Keep it a year in the vessel, and then bottle it.

Palermo Wine.

To every quart of water put a pound of Malaga raisins, rub and cut them small, and put them into the water; let them stand ten days, stirring them once or twice every day. Boil the water an hour before putting it to the raisins, and let it stand to cool. At (en days' end strain out the liquor, and put a little yeast to it. At the end of three days put it into the vessel, with a sprig of dried wormwood. Let it be stopped close, and at the end of three months, bottle it.

Vino Pontificate.

STEEP the zest rinds of six oranges and six lemons twentyfour hours in a gallon of good brandy, close stopped; boil a pound and a half of loaf sugar in two gallons of water a quarter of an hour, and clarify it with the whites of ten eggs. When cold, add the juice of twenty-four oranges and five lemons to the gallon of brandy. Then mix all together, and strain off the rinds. Put the liquor into a cask well stopped, and after six weeks draw it into bottles, when it will be fit for use; but will grow the better for keeping.

Raspberry Brandy.

TAKE a pint of water and two quarts of brandy, and put them into a pitcher large enough to hold them and four pints of raspberries. Put in half a pound of loaf sugar, and let it remain for a week close covered. Then take a piece of flannel, with a piece of Holland over it, and let it run through by degrees. It may be racked into other bottles a week after, and then it will be perfectly fine.

Black Cherry Brandy.

STONE eight pounds of black cherries, and put on them a gallon of the best brandy; bruise the stones in a mortar, and put them into the brandy; cover them up close, and let them stand a month or six weeks. Then pour it clear from the sediments, and bottle it. Morello cherries, managed in this manner, make a fine rich cordial.

Lemon Brandy.

PUT five quarts of'water to one gallon of brandy, take two dozen of lemons, two pounds of the best s\igar, and three

MADE WINES. 331

pints of milk; pare the lemons very thin, and lay the peel to steep in the brandy twelve hours. Squeeze the lemons upon the sugar, then put the water to it, and mix ail the ingredients together. Boil the milk, and pour it in boiling hot. Let it stand twenty-four hours, and strain it.

Orange Brandy.

PUT the chips of eighteen Seville oranges in three quarts of brandy, and let them steep a fortnight in a stone bottle close stopped: boil two quarts of spring water with a pound and a half of the finest sugar, near an hour very gently. Clarify the water and sugar with the white of an egg, then strain it through a jelly-bag, and boil it near half way. When it is cold, strain the brandy into the syrup.

White Currant Shrub.

HAVING stripped the fruit, prepare in ajar as for jelly: piu one gallon of rum, and two pounds of lump sugar to two quarts of the strained juice, and strain through a jelly-bag till clear: bottle for use.

Norfolk Punch.

HAVING pared six lemons and three Seville oranges very thin; squeeze the juice into an earthen pan, and add to it a quart of white wine, a pound and a quarter of sugar, two quarts of brandy, and one quart of milk: mix well together, and cover close for twenty-four hours; then strain through a jelly-bag till clear, and bottle.

Milk Punch.

TAKE two pounds of sugar, an.l rub it upon six oranges and six. lemons, in order to extract the essence; put the sugar into four quarts of water: pare the oranges and lemons very thin, putting the parings to steep in a bottle of rum or brandy for twenty-four hours: squeeze the fruit on the sugar and water, and add a quart of new milk boiling hot; mix well together, and add the parings and spirit: strain the whole through a jelly-bag till clear, and bottle for use.

Noyau English.

BLANCH and bruise a quarter of a pound of peach ajid apricot kernels; or, for want of these, a quarter of a pound of bitter almonds,; put them into a pint of cold water, and let dtiem stand tw"b hours; then add three pints of the juice ef

Z

338 MADE 'WINES.

white currants, three pounds of fine loaf sugar, the peels of three lemons grated, and a gallon of brandy: stir well together, letting all stand three days, then strain through a jellybag, and bottle. Take the residue left in the bag, and pour on it a quart of brandy, and let stand for three days; strain through a jelly-bag, and keep for flavouring custards, cakes 3 &c.

Liqueur au Citron.

HAVING pared eight large lemons, cut them and squeeze out the juice; steep the rinds in the juice, and add to it a quart of brandy, and let it stand in a stone jar closely covered for three days: squeeze eight more lemons, and mix with them five pints of spring water, and five pounds of sugar; boil these all together, skim clean, and let them stand till cool, and add a quart of white wine, and the other lemon juice and brandy, mix well together, run through a jelly -bag into a cask, and after standing three months, bottle off, and keep in a cool place.

Malt Spirits

MAY be freed from their nauseous flavour, and rendered fit for making liqueurs and other compounds, by the following mode: to every quart of English brandy add three ounces and a half of fresh-burnt charcoal reduced to powder, shake well together, and keep in a bottle closely stopped for two days: decant by means of a syphon, or strain through blotting paper.

Or, in Distillation, tie to the nose of the worm a flannel bag, containing two ounces of powdered charcoal for every quart of spirit intended to be distilled, and let the spirit run through the bag.

MAY be freed from its disagreeable flavour, and rendered fit to use instead of sugar, in many cases, by the following mode: take twenty-four pounds of treacle, twenty-four pounds of water, and six pounds of charcoal coarsely powdered; mix together in a kettle, and boil the whole over a slow wood fire: after boiling half an hour, pour it into a flat vessel, in order that the charcoal may subside to the bottom; draw off the liquid by a syphon, or pour it off without disturbing the charcoal: put it into a clean kettle, set over a slow fire, and evaporate till of the former consistence. Twenty -four pounds of treacle will thus produce an equal weight of pure syrup, fit for most domestic purposes where sugar is intended to be used.

CORDIAL WATERS 339

CHAPTER II, CORDIAL WATERS.

PRELIMINARY HINTS AND OBSERVATIONS.

WHEN your still is a limbec, fill the top with cold water when you set it on, make a little paste of flour and water, and close the bottom of the still well with it. Take great care that your fire be not so hot as to make it boil over, as that will weaken the strength of the water. You must frequently change your water on the top of your still, and never let it be scalding hot, for your still will drop gradually off. If you use a hot Still, when you put on the top, dip a cloth in white lead and oil, and lay it well over the edges of your still, and a coarse wet cloth over tHe top. It will require little fire under it; but you must be sure to keep it very clear. When your cloth is dry, dip it in cold water, and lay it on again; and if your still be very hot, wet another cloth, and lay it round the top. If you use a worm-still, keep the wnter in your tub full to the top, and change it often, to prevent its growing hot. All simple waters must stand two or three days before you work it, in order to take off the fiery taste which the still gives it.

Parfetto Amore.

, INFUSE in a gallon of best brandy the rind, pared thin, of six large fresh lemons cut in small pieces; five cloves, five coriander seeds, a handful of currants, a little cinnamon, and a little salt; let them remain in steep twelve hours; put together into the still, and draw off two quarts. Take two pounds of lump sugar, boiled and clarified in two quarts of water with three eggs; take also a little alum and cream of tartar, mix together with a little boiling water, and rub well down in a marble mortar; strain through a sieve, and add to the clarified syrup: mix the distilled spirit with the whole, and filter through blotting paper.

Pcrsico.

INFUSE in a gallon of the best brandy, six ounces of bitter almonds beaten in a mortar, two cloves, half an ounce of cinnamon, and a little salt; let them steep twenty-four hours 'z 2

34O CORDIAL WATERS.

put into a still, and draw off two quarts; boil two pounds of lump sugar in two quarts of water, skimming it, and when cool, add it to the spirit.

Cornelia.

INFUSE in a gallon of best brandy four ounces of best cinnamon, thirteen coriander seeds, thirty cloves, and a little salt, for eighteen hours: put into a still, and draw off till the faints rise. Take two pounds of lump sugar, boiled and clarified in five pints of water, with three whites of eggs well beaten: mix with the spirit, and filter through blotting paper.

Geroufle

Is made with cloves instead of cinnamon, adding one ounce of best cinnamon to it,

Anniseed Is made like cloves, adding cinnamon to the palate.

Coffee and Chocolate

ARE made by taking one pound of either, infusing in a gallon of best brandy, with four cloves, and half an ounce of cinnamon: draw off two quarts, and sweeten to the palate.

Cordial Water.

TAKE wormwood, horebound, feverfew, and lavender cotton, of each three handsful; rue, peppermint, and Seville orange peel, of each a handful. Steep them in red wine, or the bottoms of strong beer, all night. Then distil them pretty quick in a hot still, and it will be a fine cordial to take as bitters.

Angelica Water.

TAKE eight handfuls of the leaves of angelica, wash and cut them, and lay them on a table to dry. When dry put them into an earthen pot, and put to them four quarts of strong wine lees. Let it infuse twenty-four hours, but stir it twice in the time. Then put it into a warm still or an alembic, and draw it off. Cover the bottles with a paper, and prick holes in it, and let it stand two or three days. Then mix all together, sweeten it, and when it is settled, bottle it up, and stop it close.

CORDIAL WATERS. 341

Peppermint Water.

PEPPERMINT must be gathered when it is full grown, and be.fore it seeds. Cut it in short lengths, fill the still with it, and cover it with water. Then make a good fire under it, and when it is near boiling, and the still begins to drop, if the fire is too hot, draw a little from under it, to keep it from boiling over, or the water Avill be muddy. The slower the still drops, the clearer and stronger will be the water; but do not spend it too far. The next day bottle it, and let it stand three or four days, to take off the fiery taste of the still. Then cork it well, and it will keep a long time.

Milk Water.

TAKE the herbs agrimony, endive, fumitory, balm, elder flowers, white nettles, water cresses, bank cresses, and sage, of each three handsful; eyebright, brooklime, and celandine, of each two handsful; the roses of yellow dock, red madder, fennel, horse-radish, and liquorice, of each three ounces; stoned raisins one pound; nutmeg sliced, winter bark, turmeric, and galangal,of each two drachms; carroway and fennel seeds, of each three ounces, and one gallon of milk. Distil all with a gentle fire in one day.

Rose Water.

GATHER red roses when they are dry and full blown; pick off the leaves, and to every peck put a quart of water. Then put them into a cold still, and make a slow fire under it; for the slower it is distilled, the better it will be. Then bottle it, and in two or three days' time cork it.

Cordial Poppy Water.

TAKE a peck of poppies, and two gallons of very good brandy. Put them together in a wide-mouthed glass, let them stand forty-eight hours, and then strain them out. Stone a pound of raisins of the sun, and take an ounce of coriander seeds, an ounce of sweet fennel seeds, and an ounce of liquorice sliced. Bruise them all together, and put them into the brandy, with a pound of good powder sugar. Let them stand four or eight weeks, shaking them every day; then strain it off, and bottle it up close.

Penny-Royal Water.

GATHER penny-royal when it is full grown, and before it is in blossom. Then fill the cold still with it, and put it half

342 CORDIAL WATERS,

full of water. Make a moderate fire under it, and distil it oft' cold. Then put it into bottles, and, after two or three days, cork it up close.

Treacle Water.

TAKE four pounds of the juice of green walnuts; rue, carduus, marigolds, and balm, of each three pounds; roots of butter-bur, half a pound; roots of burdock, one pound; angelica and masterwort, of each half a pound; leaves of scordium, six handsful; Venice treacle, and rnithridate, of each half a pound; old Canary wine, two pounds; white-wine vinegar, six pounds, and the same quantity of the juice of lemons. Distil all these in an alembic. Lady Monmouth's Treacle Water.

TAKE three ounces of hartshorn, shaved, and boiled in borage water, or succory, wood -sorrel, or respice water, or three pints of any of these waters boiled to a jelly, and put the jelly and hartshorn both into the still. Aad a pint more of these waters when put into the still. Take the root of elecampane, gentian, cypress, tuninsil, of each an ounce; blessed thistle, called catduus, and angelica, of each an ounce; sorrel-roots, two ounces; balm, sweet marjoram, and burnet, of each half a handful; lily-convally flowers, borage, bugloss, rosemary, and marigold flowers, of each two ounces; citron rinds, carduus seeds, citron seeds, alkermes berries, and cochineal, each of these an ounce. Prepare all these simples thus: Gather the flowers as they come in season, and put them in glasses with a large mouth. Put with them as much good sack as will cover them, and tie up the glasses close with bladders wet in the sack, with a cork and leather upon that, adding more flowers and sack. Put cochineal into a pint bottle, with half a pint of sack, and tie it up close with a bladder under the cork, and another on the top, wet with sack. Then cover it up close with leather, and bury it, standing upright in a bed of hot horse dung, nine or ten days. Then look at it, and if it is dissolved, take it out of the dung, but do not open it till it is distilled. Slice all the roots, beat the seeds and berries, and put them into another glass. Put no more sack among them than necessary; and when intended to distil, take a pound of the best Venice treacle, and dissolve it in six pints of the best white wine, and three of red rose water. Put all the ingredients together, stir them, and Hstil them irj a glass still.

CORDIAL WATERS. 343

Lavender Water.

PUT a quart of water to every pound of lavender neps, put them into a cold still, and make a slow fire under it. Distil it off very slowly, and put it into a pot till all the water is distilled. Then clean the still well out, and put the lavender water into it, and distil it off as slowly as before. Put it into bottles, and cork it well.

Walnut Water.

BRUISE well in a large mortar a peck of fine green walnuts, put them into a pan, with a handful of balm bruised, and two quarts of good Frencb brandy. Cover them close, and let them lie three davs. Then distil them in a cold still; and from this quantity draw three quarts.

Aqua Mirabilis.

TAKE cubebs, cardamums, galingal, cloves, mace, nutmegs, and cinnamon, of each two drachms, and bruise them small. Then take a pint of the juice of celandine, half a pint of the juice of spearmint, and the same quantity of the juice of balm; flowers of melilot, cowslip, rosemary, borage, bugloss, and marigold, of each three drachms; seeds of fennel, coriander, and carraway, of each two drachms; two quarts of the best sack, and a quart of white wine; brandy, the strong 1 st angelica water, and rose water, of each a pint. Bruise the spices and seeds, and steep them, with the herbs and flowers, in the juices, waters, sack, white wine, and brandy, all night. In the morning, distil it in a common still pasted up, and from this quantity draw off a gallon at least. Sweeten it to the taste with sugarcandy, then bottle it up, and keep it in a cool place.

Blgck Cherry Water.

BRUISE six pounds of black cherries, and put to them the tops of rosemary, sweet marjoram, spearmint, angelica, balm, and marigold flowers, of each a handful; dried violets, an ounce; anise seeds, and sweet fennel seeds, of each half an ounce bruised. Cut the herbs small, mix all together, and distil them off in a cold still.

Surfeit Water.

TAKE scurvygrass, brooklime, water cresses, Roman wormwood, rue, mint, balm, sage, and clives, of each one handful; green merery, two handsful; poppies, if freib, half a peck;

844

CORDIAL WATERS.

but if dry, only half that quantity; cochineal and saffron, six pennyworth of each; anise seeds, carraway seeds, coriander seeds, and cardamum seeds, of each an ounce; two ounces of scraped liquorice, a pound of split figs, the same quantity of r.tisins- of the sun stoned, an ounce of juniper berries bruised, an ounce of beaten nutmeg, an ounce of mace bruised, and the same of sweet fennel seeds also bruised; a few flowers of rosemary, marigold, and sage. Put all these into a large stone jar, and put to them three gallons of French brandy. Cover it close, and let it stand near the fire for three weeks. Stir it three times a week, and be sure to keep it closely stopped, and then strain it off. Bottie the liquor, and pour on the ingredients a bottle more of French brandy. Let it stand a week, stirring it once a day, then distil it in a cold still. This is best made in summer, but it may be made at any time of the year in London, because the ingredients are always to be had either green or dry.

Hysterical Water.

TAKE betony roots, lovage, and seeds of wild parsnip, of each two ounces; four ounces of roots of single peony, three ounces of misletoe of the oak, a quarter of an ounce of myrrh, and half an ounce of castor. Beat all these together, and add to them a quarter of a pound of dry millepedes. Pour on these three quarts of mugwort water, and two quarts of brandy. Let them stand in a close vessel eight days, and then distil them in a cold still pasted up. Draw off nine pints of water, and sweeten it to the taste. Mix all together, and bottle it up.

Orange or Lemon Water.

PUT three gallons of brandy and two quarts of sack to the outer rinds of a hundred oranges or lemons, and let them steep in it one night. Tne next day distil them in a cold still. A gallon with the proportion of peels will be enough for one still, and from that draw off better than three quarts. Draw it off till it begins to taste sour. Sweeten it to the taste with double-refined sugar, and mix the first, second, and third runnings together. If lemon water, it should be perfumed with two grains of ambergris, and one of musk. Grind them fine, tie them in a rag, and let it hang five or six days iii each bottle; or put into them three or four drops of tincture of ambergris. Be sure to cotk it well.

MALT LIQUORS. 345

Imperial Water.

TAKE a large jar, and put into it two ounces of cream of tartar, with the juice and peels of two lemons. Pour on them seven quarts of boiling water, and when it is cold, clear it through a gauze sieve, sweeten it to the taste, and bottle it. The next day it will be fit for use.

Spirits of Wine.

PUT the bottoms of strong beer, and any kind of wines, into a cold still about three parts full. Then make a slow h're under it, and take care to keep it moderate, otherwise it will boil over, the body being so strong that it will rise to the top of the still; and the slower it is distilled, the stronger thu spirit will be. Put it into an earthen pot whilst distilling, and then clean the still well out. Put the spirit into it, and distil it slowly as before, till it is strong enough to burn in a lamp. Bottle it, and then cork it well.

Fever Water.

TAKE six ounces of Virginia sn.ike root, four ounces of carduus seeds and marigold Howers, and twenty green walnuts; carduus water, and poppy water, two quarts of each, and two ounces of hartshorn. Slice the walnuts, and steep all in the waters a fortnight. Then add to it an ounce of London treacle, and distil the whole in an alembic pasted up.

CHAPTER III.

MALT LIQUORS.

1 HE first thing to be considered, is, undoubtedly, the being provided with implements proper for the purpose, and of these the copper appears to be the first object.

The position of the copper, and the manner of setting it, must be duly considered, as much depends thereon. The manner proper to be adopted is, to divide the fire by a stop; and, if the door and draught be in a direct line, the stop should be erected from the middle of each outline of the jgrating,and parallel with the centre sides of the copper. By

346 MALT LIQUORS.

this method, the middle of the fire will be directly under the bottom of the copper. The stop is composed of a thin wall, in the centre of the right and left sides of the copper, which is to ascend half the height of the copper. On the top must be left a cavity from four to six inches, for a draught for the half part of the fire which is next the door of the copper; and then the building must close all round to the finishing at the top.

By this mode of erecting the copper, the heat will communicate from the outward part of the fire round the outward half of the copper, through the cavity, as does the furthest part of the flue, which also contracts a conjunction of the whole, and causes the flame gently and equally round the bottom cf the copper.

Many are the advantages derived from this manner of proceeding, and the fuel saved thereby is no small object of consideration. It has considerably the pre-eminence of wheeldraughts; for with them, if there be not particular attendance given to the hops, by stirring them down, they are apt to stick to the sides and scorch; and this will undoubtedly very much hurt the flavour of the liquor. The copper will also, by this method, last many years more than it would by the wheel draught; for that draws with so much violence, that should the liquor be beneath the communication of the fire, the copper will thereby be liable to be damaged: whereas, by the other contrivances, you may boil half a copper full without fear of injury. This must be allowed to be a great advantage, as in all brewing it is impossible to draw it clean off the mash.

In order to give greater expedition to the operation, you may sometimes wish to extend this advantage to a few pails full, which is done without prejudice to the other; for when the whole of the other is clean drawn off, the copper will accomplish the intended purpose next morning, which will prevent interfering with your natural rest; for by running the whole night, it will be ready to boil in the morning, and be fit to add to the working of the other small beer, in time to render the whole complete for tunning. By this method, also, you are not under the necessity of having the copper burned, which is a very troublesome and disagreeable business, to unfix and refix large cocks, which is likewise attended with great expense.

Another inconvenience too frequently found in coppers is, their being made too exact to their intended quantity; in consequence of which, room is not left sufficient to boil the liquor in with any degree of rapidity or safety, which must naturally be supposed to be essential points. To remedy this

MALT LIQUORS. 347

inconvenience, let your carpenter prepare good seasoned pieces of elm, or other proper wood, and shape it out like the felly of a stage waggon-wheel, but only half its thickness, and then join them round to compose the dimensions of the circle of the copper. The rim of the copper, which generally turns over as a bearing at the top, may be beat up, and that part nailed to the bottom part of the wood-work, brushing between the wood-work and the copper a cement composed of bullock's blood and whiting, mixed only to the thickness of common whitewash. This cement will prevent any leak, and last as long as the copper.

Though the wood-work may be done with great safety all round, yet it will be necessary to take this precaution, never to let the wood-work join nearer than eight inches on each side of the copper flue, or the communication of the heat. If there be any apprehension of its penetrating through in that direction, you must then nail either brass, copper, plateiron, or sheet-lead, whichever can be most conveniently gotten. Ir your neighbourhood cannot furnish you with these matters, there wilt probably be always a sufficient supply in your house of decayed pots, pans, or kettles, which may be beat out to suit your purpose: any smith, tinker, or carpenter, &c. can execute such a piece of work, observing the same cement, which will be as good and as firm as solder in other matters.

This work is of great support and ease to the copper; and by this mode you can also increase its dimensions from three to twelve or more inches in the wood-work, which will add considerably to your guage, especially in large coppers. This method, however, is recommended only where stopdraughts are made, use of, in which case the wood may be applied round with great safety; for the fires of those never burn so furiously that the least damage can ensue. For the raisinoof other coppers, built on different constructions, brick, stone, or tarris mortar may be used.

The next to be considered are the coolers, and these are things of no small consequence; for, if they are not properly taken care of, the liquor, Jby a seemingly secret and unaccountable cause, will attract a disagreeable twang. This often proceeds from \vet having been infused in the wood, as it is sometimes apt to lodge in the crevices of old coolers, and even infect them to such a degree, that it will not depart, though many washings and scaldings are applied. One cause incidental to this evil is permitting women to wash in a brewhouse, which ought by no means to be permitted, where any other convenience is to be had j for nothing can be more hurtful than the slops of soap-suds.

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Be careful, in preparing the coolers, never to let the water stand too long in them, as it will soak in, and soon turn putrid, when the stench will enter the wood, and render them almost incurable. To prevent such consequences, as well as to answer good purposes, it has by some been recommended, where all fixed brewhouses are intended, that all the coolers should be leaded. In the first place such are exceedingly cleanly; and, secondly, it expedites the cooling of part of the liquor worts, which is very necessary to forward it for working, as well as afterwards for cooling the whole; lor evaporation causes considerably more waste than proper boiling. Chymists tell us, that the more the steam, the more the strength of any fluid is exhausted; as is further proved by the still, where the steam being confined, the chief strength is kept in; but, being exposed to the air, it soon evaporates.

It will also be indispensably necessary, in the preparation of your utensils, that the coolers be well scoured with cold water two or three times; cold water being more proper than hot to effect a perfect cleansing, especially if they are in a bad condition from the undiscovered filth that may be in the crevices. The application of hot water will drive the infection further; or if your drink be let into the coolers, and if any remain in the crevices, as before mentioned, the heat will collect the foulness, and render the whole unwholesome.

Some pretended judges of this matter absurdly argue, that ropiness in beer proceeds from the want of a sufficient quantity of hops to dispel the glutinous richness arising from the superiority of malt, which is a manifest mistake, except when it is too much boiled, and receives bad management afterwards. Others say, that it is by applying the water too sharp, that is, too hot to mash with; but, if the water did not produce that fault, it has another equally as dangerous; and that is, when you mash with water so exceedingly hot, it is liable to set the malt; which is clogging it up to such a degree, that it is almost impossible to get it to run off; and when by art you have accomplished the difficulty, it never answers your wishes in point of goodness.

To show, by an experiment, the disagreements of heats and colds, which must be applicable in the case of brewing, proceed thus: Take a pail of cold water, and throw it on a quantity of grains, and it will almost immediately become ropy. There are, however, some brewers so curious as to put cold water on the mash, and vainly imagine that it gets out the whole of the strength; but this is a ridiculous notion, which cannot get a favourable reception, notwithstanding they say it makes excellent toplash, or rather rot-gut small beer.

It is very singular, that some families should have such an

MALT LIQUORS. 34*

aversion to the thoughts of brewing, which probably arises from the terrible apprehensions they conceive of the expense and incumbrance attending the fitting up of a brewhouse, which is an ill-founded conception, and ought to have no weight in a rational ruind. It is not from being sufficiently competent to know better, that people set their faces against brewing; but it is from pride, that bane of all good, that sets them above so inconsiderable a thought, as they deem it, and a total negligence of their own and their country's welfare. A whole set of coolers, properly made, may be removed from house to house with great facility and little expense, and with less injury than other furniture, provided they are made according to the following directions:

Let strong frames be constructed for each cooler, in such a manner, that they may be unwedged and taken asunder when occasion requires. The outside frame should turn up pretty high, that is, sufficiently thick and strong, to cut a proper inlet to receive wedges for the purposes hereafter mentioned. Form your coolers, which are to consist of only common planed deal boards, and lay them even to fit on this frame, which, from a projection and inlet, you can set the side to the bottom, and it will be necessary that the inlet should be a Jittie lower than where the bottom rests. By these means, the wedges will have full power to tighten the sides to as great an extremity as a hooped barrel; and these wedges should be in three regular directions on the sides, and at two places at each end, which will form perfect firmness. If the coolers are made in regular sizes under each other, you may set strong casters in mortices under the legs, by which means you can drive them under each other, so as the whole to go under the uppermost, which is a good method of setting them out of harm's way. By this method of construction, the chief of your brewing utensils, the copper excepted, may be unwedged, and with little trouble packed into a waggon, in the space of two hours, and set up in another brewhouse in the like proportionable time. If you should afterwards choose to dispose of the materials, that may be done without loss, as the boards will not be damaged by either pins, nails, or screws. When a small quantity, such as a hogshead only, is required, they may be made like drawers, pulling out in grooves, and resting on tressels, which may be very conveniently put out of danger in the jnanner before directed.

Be particularly careful that the mash-tub be kept perfectly clean: nor must the grains be left in the tub any longer than the day after browing, lest it should sour the tub; for if there be a sour smell in the brewhouse before your beer is tunned, it will be apt to infect your liquor and worts.

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To render your tub the more perfect and lasting you should have a circular piece of brass or copper, to inlay and line the hole where the penstaff enters, to let the wort run off into the under back. The penstaff should be also stoutly ferrelled with the same metal, and both well and taperly finished, so that you can place it properly. By this method you may have it run from the fineness of a thread to the fulness of an inch tube, &c. first dressing your muck-basket with straw, fern, or little bushy furze without stems, six or eight inches in from the bottom of your basket} and set quite perpendicularly over the whole, with the penstaff through the centre of the basket, and the middle of the furze or fern, and fastened into the hole of the tub. To steady it properly, you must have a piece of iron let into a staple fastened to the tub, at the nearest part opposite to the basket, and to reach nearly to it; and from that place another added on a jointed swivel, or any other contrivance, so as to be at liberty to let round the basket like a dog-collar, and to enter into the staple formed in the same to pin it fast, and by adding a half-circular turn in the collar, in which you have room to drive in a wedge, which will keep it safe down to the bottom, when there can be no danger of its being disturbed by stirring the mash, which will otherwise sometimes be the case. When you let go, you will raise the penstaff to your own degree of running, and then fasten the staff by the help of two wedges tightened between the staff and the basket.

The copper-work, in process of time, like every thing else, will become defective; and when this is the case, the following very simple remedy will make the parts as perfect as ever: work the penstaff in the brass socket with emery and water, or oil, which will make it perhaps more perfect than when new, and many instances have been seen of this method being used with cocks just purchased.

It would be no inconsiderable addition to the conveniency of the under back, to have a piece of copper to line the whole in the bottom, which may be stopped with a cloth put singly round a large cork; and when it is fastened down for the wort to run, it will be necessary to put a large weight on the cork, which will prevent its flying up by the heat. When the liquor is pumped clean out of the back, the cloth round the cork will enable you to take out the cork with ease; and there should be a drain below the under back to carry off the water, which will enable you to wash it perfectly clean with very little trouble. This drain should be made with a clear descent, so that no damp may remain under the back. With the convenience of water running into your copper, you may be enabled to work that water in a double quantity, your under

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back being filled by the means of letting it in at your leisure, out of your copper, through a shoot to the mash-tub, and so to the under back. Thus you will have a reserve against the time you wish to fill your copper, which may be completed in a few minutes, by pumping while the upper cock is running. Thus much for the principal utensils in brewing; but be careful to keep every thing perfectly clean.

As we have now properly explained the precautions necessary to be taken in the preparation of vessels, we shall enter into a concise detail of what is to be observed in the course of brewing.

Having your utensils scalded, your malt ground, your copper boiling, and your penstaff well set, you must then proceed to mash, by letting a sufficient quantity of boiling water into your tub, in which it must stand until the greater part of the steam is gone off, or until you can see your own shadow in it. It will then be necessary that one person should pour the malt gently in, while another is carefully stirring it; for it is as necessary that as much care should be observed when the mash is thin as when it is thick. This being effectually and well done, and having a sufficient reserve of malt to cover the mash, to prevent evaporation, you may cover your tub with sacks, &c. and leave your malt three hours to steep.

Previous to your letting the mash run, you should not fail to be prepared with a pail to catch the first flush, as that is generally thickish; and another pail being applied while you return the first on the mash, and so on for two or three times, or at least until it run fine. B} r this time your copper should be boiling, and a convenient tub placed close to your mashtub; let into it through your spout half the quantity of boiling water you mean to use for drawing off your best wort. After this, you must instantly turn your cock to fill up again, which will boil in due time with cinders or coal-ashes. During such time, you must stop the mash with this hot water out of the convenient tub, in moderate quantities, every eight or ten minutes, until the whole is consumed; then letting off the remaining quantity, which will be boiling hot, to the finishing purpose for strong beer.

You must then fill your copper quite full, so as to boil quickly for the second mash, whether you intend it for ale or small beer. Being thus far prepared, let off the remaining quantity of water into the tub, as you did for the strong beer, stopped up as before; but if you would have small beer besides, you must judge it accordingly, by boiling a proper quantity off in due time, and letting it into the tub as before. It is better to avoid the latter article, that you may entirely draw out the strength for the ale.

352 MALT LIQUORS.

Twenty-four bushels of malt will make two hogsheads of as good strong beer as any it) England, and also two hogsheads of very pretty ale, but the malt should consist of equal portions of brown, amber, and pale. This strong beer should be kept two or three years, and the ale never less than one, before tapped. If your mash be oniv for one hogshead, it should be two hours in running off; if for two hogsheads, two hours and a half; and for any greater quantity, three hours: for there is no good in letting it be too long, as the whole strength is extracted by the frequent stoppings.

You must be particular in the time of steeping your mashes. Strong beer must be allowed three hours; ale one hour; and, if you draw small beer after, half an hour. By this mode of proceeding, your boilings will regularly take place of each other, which will expedite the business, by preventing loss of time. Be particularly careful, in the course of each mashing, that it be thoroughly stirred from the bottom, and especially round the muck basket; for, being well shaken, it prevents a stagnation of the whole body of the mash; and were this last process omitted, it would certainly fox your beer, and give it an exceeding bad taste.

In preparing for boiling, be particularly careful to put the hops in with the first wort, or it will char in a few minutes. As soon as the copper is full enough, a good fire should be made under it; but be careful, in filling it, to leave room enough for boiling. Quick boiling is one of the most necessary things to be observed; though in this particular there are variety of opinions. However, there is perhaps but one good method, and that is quick boiling. Great caution should be observed when it begins to swell in waves in tiie copper; if you have no assistant, be particularly attentive to its motions; and being provided with an iron rod of a proper length, crooked at one end, and jagged at the other, then with the crook you are enabled to open the furnace, or copper door, and vith the other end push in the damper, without stirring from your station; but on the approach of the first swell, you will have sufficient time to proportionate your fire, as care should be taken that it be not too predominant. When the boil is properly got under, you may t'.ien add a fire that will boil briskly, and there may be a variation of a few minutes.

With respect to the time it should boil, experienced brewers proceed in this manner: They take a clean copper bowl dish, to dip out some of the liquor, and when they discover a working, and the hops sinking, they conclude it to be sufficiently boiled. This is sometimes completed in thirty-five or forty minutes j but this rule is often extended five or ten mi

MALT LIQUORS. 353

iiutes, according to the different qualities of malt. Long and slow boiling is very pernicious, as well as wasting the liquor; for the slower it boils, the lower it drops, and singes to your copper; whereas quick boiling has a contrary effect. Essence of malt is extracted by length of boiling,-by which you can make it to the thickness of honey or treacle, so that a small quantity will weigh pounds. In some parts of Yorkshire, they value their liquor for its great strength, by its affecting the brain for two or three days after intoxication. 'This is the effect of long boiling; for in that county they boil liquor for three hours; and what is still worse, when it sinks in the copper, from the waste in boiling, they every now and then add a little fresh wort, which, without doubt must tend to several stagnations, productive of several impurities.

lour liquor being properly boiled, be sure to traverse a small quantity quite over all the coolers, so as to get a proper quantity cold immediately to set to work; but if the airiness of your brewhouse is not sufficient to expedite a quantity soon, you must traverse a second quantity over the coolers, and then let it into shallow tubs. Put these into any passage where there is a thorough draught of air, but where no ram or other wet can get communication to it. Then let off the quantity of two baring tubsful from the first over the second and third coolers, which may be soon got cold, to be ready for a speedy working, and then the remaining part that is in your copper may be quite let out into the first cooler. In the meantime, mend the fire, and also attend to the hops, tor make a clear passage through the strainer. Having proceeded thus far, as soon as the liquor is done running, return to your business of pumping, but be sure to remember, that, when you have got four or five pailsful, you then return all the hops into the copper for the ale.

By this time, the small quantity of liquor traversed over your coolers being sufficiently cooled, you must now proceed to set your liquor to work. Take four quarts of barm, and divide half of it into small vessels, such as clean bowls, basons, or mugs, adding thereto an equal quantity of wort, which should be almost cold. As soon as it ferments tc the top of the vessel, put it into two pails, and when that works to the top, put one into a baring tub, and the other into ano^ ther. When you have half a baring tubful together, you may put the like quantity to each of them, and then cover them over, until it comes to a fine cauliflower head. This may be perfectly completed in three hours, and then put those two quantities into the working guile. You may now add as much wort as you have got ready, for you cannot work it too cold in open weather.

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If you brew in cold frosty weather, keep the brewhouse warm, but never add hot wort to keep the liquor to a blood heat, that being a bad maxim; for hot wort put to cold, as well as cold to hot, is so intemperate in its nature, that it stagnates the proper operation of the barm.

You must be careful that your barm be not from foxed beer, that is, beer heated by ill management in its working; for in that case it is likely to carry with it the contagion. If your barm be flat, and you cannot procure that which is new, the method of recovering its working is, by putting to it a pint of warm sweet wort of your first letting off, the heat to be of half the degree of milk warm. Then give your mug that contains it a shake, and it will soon gather strength and be fit for use. Haifa pound of good hops is sufficient for a bushel of malt for strong beer, to keep for four years, twelve bushels to the hogshead.

We come now to the last and most simple operation in the business of brewing, which is the tunning. The general methods of doing this are, either by having it carried down on men's shoulders, or conveying it into the cellar by the means of leathern pipes, commonly used for that purpose.

Your casks being perfectly clean, sweet, and dry, and set on the stand ready to receive the liquor, first skim off the top barm, then proceed to fill your casks quite full, and immediately bung and peg them close. Bore a hole with a tapborer near the summit of the stave, at the same distance from the top as the lower tap-hole is from the bottom, for working through that upper hole, which is a clean and more effectual method than working it over the cask; for, by the above method, being so closely confined, it soon sets itself into a convulsive motion of working, and forces itself fine, provided you attend to the filling of your casks five or six times a day: for by too long an omission it begins to settle, and afterwards being disturbed, it raises a sharp fermentation, which produces an incessant working of a spurious froth, that may continue for some weeks, and after all give your beer a crankish taste, which proper attention might have prevented.

Having thus gone through the principal matters in the practical part of brewing, we shall now proceed to instruct the housekeeper in the management of malt liquors, the proper time for brewing, and shall make some observations on the different qualities of water, malt and hops.

The month of March is generally considered as one of the principal seasons for brewing malt liquor for long keeping; and the reason is, because the air at that time of the year is temperate, and contributes to the good working and fermentation of the liquor, which principally promotes its pre

MALT LIQUORS. 355

servation, and good keeping. Very cold as well as very hot weather, prevents the free fermentation or Avorking of liquors; so that, if you brew in very cold weather, unless you use some means to warm the cellar while new drink is working, it will never clear itself in the manner you would wish; and the same misfortune will arise, if in very hot weather, the cellar be not put into a temperate state. The consequence of all which will be, that such drink will be muddy and sour, perhaps beyond all recovery. Such misfortunes often happen, even in the proper season for brewing, and that owing to the badness of a cellar, for when they are dug in springy grounds, or are subject to damps in winter, the liquor will chill, and grow flat and dead. Where cellars are of this nature, it will be advisable to make your brewings in March, rather than in October; for you may keep such cellars temperate in summer, but cannot warm them in winter. Thus your beer brewed in March will have due time to settle and adjust itself before the cold can materially injure it.

It is advisable to build your cellars for Keeping liquors after such a manner, that no external air can get into them; for the variation of the air abroad, were there free admission of it into the cellars, would cause as many altercations in the liquor, and would thereby keep them in so unsettled a state, as to render them unfit for drinking. Some people, curious in these matters, have double doors to their cellars with a view that none of the external air may find a way into them, and are amply repaid for their care and expense by the goodness of their liquor. The intent of the double door is, to keep one shut while the other is open, that the external air may be excluded. Such cellars, if they lie dry as they ought to do, are said to be cold in summer, and warm in winter; though, in reality, they are constantly the same in point of temperature. They seem, indeed, cold in hot weather, but that is only because we go into them from a hotter air abroad; and the same mode of reasoning will hold good, with respect to their appearing warmer in winter. Hence it is evident, that they are only cold or warm comparatively, as the air we come out of is colder or warmer. This should be the peculiar property of a cellar, if we expect to have good liquor out of it. As for the brewing part itself, we have already considered that matter; what we shall therefore further principally touch upon, besides speaking of cellaring, will relate to water, malt, hops, and the proper keeping of liquors.

To speak in general, the best water is river-water, such as is soft, and has partaken of the air and sun; for this easily insinuates itself into the malt, and extracts its virtues. On the contrary, hard waters astringe and bind the pores of th

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malt, so that its virtue is n6t freely communicated to the liquor. It is a rule with some, that all water that will mix with soap is fit for brewing, and they will by no means allow of any other; and it has been more than once experienced, that where the same quantity of malt has been used to a barrel of river-water, as to a barrel of spring-water, the river-water brewing has excelled the other in strength about five degrees in twelve months. It must be observed likewise, that the malt was not only the same in quantity for one barrel as for the other, but was the same quality, having been all measured from the same heap. The hops were also the same, both in quality and quantity, and the time and boiling equal to each. They were worked in the same manner, and tunned and kept in the same cellar. Here it was evident, that the only difference was in the water, and yet one barrel was worth two of the other.

One thing has long puzzled the ablest brewers, and that is, when several gentlemen in the same town have employed the same brewer, have had the same malt, the same hops, and the same water, and brewed it in the same month, and broached their drink at the same time, yet one has had beer extremely fine, strong, and well tasted, while the others have had hardly any worth drinking. There may be three reasons for this difference: One might be the difference of weather, which might happen at the several brewings in this month, and make an alteration in the working of the liquors. Secondly, that the yeast or barm might be of different sorts, or in different states, wherewith these liquors were worked; and thirdly, the cellars were not equally good. The goodness of such drink as is brewed for keeping, in a great measure depends on the goodness of the cellar in which it is kept.

The Dorchester beer, which is so much admired, is for the most part brewed of chalky water, which is almost every where in that county; and as the soil is generally chalk, the cellars, being dug in that dry soil, contribute to the good keeping of their drink, it being of a close texture, arid of a drying quality, so as to dissipate damps; for damp cellars, we find by experience, are injurious to the keeping of liquors, as well as destructive to the casks. A constant temperate air digests and softens malt liquors, so that they taste quite smooth on the palate; but in cellars which are unequal, by letting in heats and colds, the liquor is subject to grow stale and sharp. For this reason it is that liquor brewed for long voyages at sea. should be perfectly ripe and fine before it be exported; for when it has had sufficient time to digest in the cask., and is racked from the bottom, or lee, it will bear carriage without injury.

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It has been observed, that in proportion to the quantity of liquor which is enclosed in one cask, so will it be to a longer or shorter time in ripening. A vessel, containing two hogsheads of beer, will require twice as much time to perfect itself as one of a hogshead; and it is found by experience, that no vessel should be used for strong beer, which is intended to be kept, less than a hogshead, as one of that quantity, if it be fit to draw it in a year, has body enough to support it two, three or four years, if it have strength oif malt and hops in it, as the Dorchester beer has.

One great piece of economy is the good management of small beer; for if that be not good, the drinkers of it will be feeble in summer-time, incapable of strong work, and will be very subject to distempers. Besides, when the beer is not good, a great deal will be thrown away. The use of drink, as well as meat, is to nourish the body; and the more labour there is upon any one, the more substantial should be the diet. In harvest-time, the ill effects of bad beer among the workmen are visible; and in great families, where that article has not been attended to, the apothecaries bills have amounted to twice as much as the malt would have come to, that would have kept the servants in strength and good health. Besides, good wholesome drink is seldom thrown away by servants, and thus the sparing of a little malt ends in the loss of the master. Where there is good cellaring, therefore, it is advisable to brew a stock of small beer in March or October, or in both rnonths, to keep in hogsheads, if possible. The beer brewed in March should not be tapped till October, nor that brewed in October, till the March following; having this regard to the quantity, that a family, of the same number of working persons, will drink a third more in summer than in winter.

If water happen to be of a hard nature, it may be softened by exposing it to the air and sun, and putting into it some pieces of soft chalk to infuse; or, when the water is set on to boil, in order to be poured on the malt, put into it a quantity of bran, which will help a little to soften it.

One thing more is to be mentioned, respecting the preservation of strong beer, and that is, when once the vessel is broached, regard ought to be had to the time in which it will be expended; for, if there happen to be a quick draught for it, then it will last good to the very bottom; but, if there be likely to be but a slow draught, then do not draw off quit?, half before you bottle it, otherwise your beer will grow flat, dead, or sour. This is observed very much among the curious.

We shall now mention two or three particulars relative

358 MALT LIQUORS.

to malt, whjch may help those who are unacquainted with brewing. In the first place, the general distinction between one malt and another is, only that the one is high and the other low dried. That which we call high dried will, when brewed, produce a liquor of a deep brown colour; and the other which is the low dried, will produce a liquor of a pale colour. The first js dried in such a manner as may be said rather to be scorched than dried, and is far less wholesome than the pale malt. It has also been experienced that brown malt, although it be well brewed, will sooner turn sharp than the pale malt, if that be fairly brewed.

A gentleman of good experience in the brewery says, that the brown malt makes the best drink when it is brewed with a coarse river water, such as that of the Thames about London: and that likewise being brewed with such water, it makes very good ale; but that it will not keep above six months without turning stale, and a little sharp, even though he allows fourteen bushels to the hogshead. He adds, that he has tried the high-dried malt to brew beer with for keeping, and hopped it accordingly and yet he could never bren- it so as to drink soft and mellow, like that brewed with pale malt. There is an acid quality in the high-dried malt, which occasions that distemper commonly called the heart-burn in those that drink of the ale or beer made of it.

What we have here said of malt is meant that made of barley; for wheat-malt, pea-malt, or those mixed with barleymalt, though they produce a high-coloured liquor, will keep many years, and drink soft and smooth, yet they have the mum flavour.

Some people, who brew with high-dried barley-malt, put a bag, containing about three pints of wheat, into every hogshead of liquor, and that has fined it, and made it drink mellow. Others have put about three pints of wheat-malt into a hogshead, which has produced the same effect. But all maltliquors, however well they may be brewed, may be spoiled by bad cellaring, and be now and then subject to ferment in the cask, and consequently turn thick and sour. The best way to help this, and bring the liquor to itself, is to open the bung of the cask for two or three days, and, if that does not stop the fermentation, then put in two or three pounds of oyster-shells, washed, burned, and then beaten to fine powder. Stir it a little, and it will presently settle .the liquor, make it fine, and take off the sharp taste. As soon as that is done, draw it off into another vessel, and put a small bag of wheat or wheat-malt into it, as before directed, or in proportion to the size of the vessel. Sometimes such fermentations will Happen in liquor by change of weather, if it be in a bad

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cellar, and will, in a few months, fall fine of itself, and grow mellow.

High-dried malt should not be used in brewing, till it has been ground ten days, or a fortnight, as it then yields much stronger drink than" the same quantity of malt just ground; but if you design to keep malt ground some time before you use it, you must take care to keep it very dry, and the air at that time must also be dry. As for pale malt, which has not partaken so much of the fire it must not remain ground above a week before you use it. The best mode of using malt, is to take equal portions of brown, amber, and pale.

As for hops, the newest are much the best, though they will remain very good two years: but after that they begin to decay and loose their flavour, unless great quantities are kept together, in which case they will keep much longer good than in small quantities. These, for their better preservation, should be kept in a very dry place; though the dealers in. them rather choose such places as are moderately between moist and dry, that they may not lose any of their weight. Notice must here be taken of a method which has been used to stale and decayed hops, to make them recover their bitterness; and this is, to unbag them, and sprinkle them with aloes and water, which, when it has proved a bad hop year, has spoiled great quantities of malt liquor about London: for even where the water, the malt, the brewer, and the cellars, are each good, a bad hop will spoil all. Hence it is evident, that every one of these particulars should be well chosen before the brewing is set about, or else you must expect but a bad account of your labour. So likewise the yeast or barm which you work your liquor with, must be well considered, or a good brewing may be spoiled by that alone.

Remember always to be provided with every material before you begin your brewing, as the wort will not wait for any thing.

It is a practice in some places remote from town, to dip whisks into yeast, then beat it well, and so hang up the whisks with the yeast in them to dry: and if there be no brewing till two months afterwards, the beating and stirring one of these neu- whisks in new wort will raise a working or a fermentation in it. It is a rule, that all liquor should be worked well in the tun, or keel, before it be put into the vessel, otherwise it will not easily grow fine. Some follow the rule of beatingdown the yeast pretty often while it is in the tun, and keep it there working for two or three d;iys, observing to put it into the vessel just when the yeast begins to fall. This liquor is commonly very fine, whereas that which is put into the vessel quickly after it is brewed, will not be fine in many months.

360 MALT LIQUORS.

With respect to the season for brewing liquor to keep, it is to be observed, that if the cellars be subject to the heat of the sun, or warm summer air, it will be best to brew in October, that the liquor may have time to digest before the warm season comes on; and if cellars be inclinable to damps, and to receive water, the best time will be to brew in March. Some experienced brewers always choose to brew with the pale malt in March, and the brown in October; for they suppose, that the pale malt being made with a less degree of fire than the other, wants the summer sun to ripen it; and so, on the contrary, the brown having had a larger share of the fire to dry it, is more capable of defending itself against the cold of the winter season. But these are merely matters of opinion.

However careful you may have been in attending to all the preceding particulars, yet, if the casks be not in good order, still the brewing may be spoiled. New casks are apt to give liquor a bad taste, if they be not well scalded and seasoned several days successively before they are used. As to old casks, if they stand any time out of use, they are apt to grow musty.

There now remains little more to be said concerning the management of malt liquor, but that of bottling it. The bottles must first be well cleaned and dried; for wet bottles will make the liquor turn mouldy, or mothery, as they call it; and by wet bottles a great deal of good beer has been spoiled. Though the bottles be clean and diy, yet if the corks be not new and sound, the liquor will be still liable to be damaged; for, if the air can get into the bottles, the liquor will grow flat, and will never rise. Many who flattered themselves that they knew how to be saving, by using old corks on this occasion, have spoiled as much liquor as stood them in four or five pounds, only for want of laying out three or four shillings. If bottles are corked as they should be, it will be difficult to pull out the cork without a screw: and to be sure to draw the cork without breaking, the screw ought to go through the cork, and then the air must necessarily find a passage where the screw has passed, and therefore the cork must be good for nothing. If a cork has once been in a bottle, though it has not been drawn with a screw, yet that cork will turn musty as soon as it be exposed to the air, and will communicate its ill flavour to the bottle in which it is next put, and spoil the liquor that way In the choice of corks, take those that are soft and clear from specks.

You may also observe, in the bottling of liquor, that the top and middle of the hogshead are -the strongest, and will ooner rise in the bottles than the bottom. When once you

MALT LIQUORS. 361

begin to bottle a vessel of any liquor, be sure not to leave it till all is completed, otherwise it will have different tastes.

If you find that a vessel of liquor begins to grow flat whilst it is in common draught, bottle it, and into every bottle put a piece of loaf sugar about the size of a walnut, which will make it rise and come to itself; and to forward its ripening, you may set some bottles in hay in a warm place; but straw will not assist its ripening.

Where there are not good cellars, holes have been sunk in the ground, and large oil jars put into them, and the earth filled close about the sides. One of these jars may hold about a dozen quart bottles; and will keep the liquor very well; but the tops of the jars must be kept closely covered up. In winter-time, when the weather is frosty, shut up all the lights or windows of your cellars, and cover them close with horsedung, or horse-litter; but it is much better to have no lights or windows at all to any cellar, for the reasons before given.

Should you have an opportunity of brewing a good stock of small beer in March and October, some of it may be bottled at six months' end, putting into every bottle a lump of loaf sugar. This will be a very refreshing drink in the summer. Or, if you happen to brew in summer, and are desirous of brisk small beer, as soon as it is done working, bottle it as above directed.

APPENDIX.

SECTION I.

CONSIDERATIONS ON CULINARY POISONS.

1 HOUGH we have already, in different parts of this work, occasionally reminded the housekeeper and cook of the fatal consequences attending coppers and saucepans not being properly tinned, yet we shall here enter on a particular inquiry into the nature and property of culinary poisons, for the information and satisfaction of those who may wish to have a more perfect knowledge of such important matters.

By the use of copper vessels for dressing our food, we are daily exposed to the danger of poison; and even the very air of a kitchen, abounding with oleaginous and saline particles, disposes those vessels to solution before they are used. Copper, when handled, yields an offensive smell; and, if touched with the tongue, has a sharp pungent taste, and even excites a nausea. Verdigrise is nothing but a solution of this metal by vegetable acids, and it is well known, that a very small quantity of this solution will produce cholics, vomitings, intolerable thirst, universal convulsions, and other dangerous symptoms. If these effects, and the prodigious divisibility of this metal, be considered, there can be no doubt of its being a violent and subtle poison. Water, by standing some time in a copper vessel, becomes impregnated with verdigrise, as may be demonstrated by throwing into it a small quantity of any volatile alkali, which will immediately tinge it with a paler or deeper blue, in proportion to the rust contained in the water. Vinegar, apple-sauce, greens, oil, grease, butter, and almost every other kind of food, will extract the verdigrise in a great degree. Some people imagine, that the ill effects of copper are prevented by its being tinned, which indeed is the only prevemative in that case; but the tin, which adheres to the copper, is so extremely thin, that it is soon penetrated by the verdigrise, which insinuates itself through the pores of that metal, and appears green upon the surface.

-APPENDIX. 363

Verdigrise, is one of the most violent poisons in nature; and yet, rather than quit an old custom, the greater part of mankind are content to swallow some of this poison every day. Our food receives its quantity of poison in the kitchen, by the use of copper pans and dishes; the brewer mingles poison in your beer, by boiling it in copper; salt is distributed to the people from copper scales covered with verdigrise; our pickles are rendered green by infusion of copper; the pastry-cook bakes our tarts in copper patty-pans; but confections and syrups have greater powers of destruction, as they are set over a fire in copper vessels which have not been tinned, and the verdigrise is plentifully extracted by the acidity of the composition. After all, though we do not swallow death in a_ single dose, yet it is certain that a quantity of poison, however small, which is repeated with every meal, must produce more fatal effects than is generally believed.

Bell-metal kettles are frequently used in boiling cucumbers for pickling, in order to make them green; but this is a practice as absurd as it is dangerous. If the cucumbers acquire any additional greenness by the use of these kettles, they can only derive it from the copper, of which they are made; and this very reason ought to be sufficient to overturn so dangerous a practice.

According to some writers, bell-metal is a composition of tin and copper, or pewter and copper, in the proportion of twenty pounds of pewter, or twenty -three pounds of tin, to one hundred weight of copper. According to others, this metal is made in the proportion of one thousand pounds of copper to two or three hundred pounds of tin, and one hundred and fifty pounds of brass. Spoons, and other kitchen utensils are fre quently made of a mixed metal, called alchemy, or, as it is vulgarly pronounced, ochimy. The rust of this metal, as well as that of the former, is highly pernicious.

The author of a tract entitled, Serious Reflections attending the Use of Copper Vessels, published in London in 1755, asserts, that the great frequency of palsies, apoplexies, madness, and all the frightful train of nervous disorders which suddenly attack us, without our being able to account for the cause, or which gradually weaken our vital faculties, are the pernicious effects of this poisonous matter, taken into the body insensibly with our victuals, and thereby intermixed with our blood and juices.

However this may be, certain it is, that there have been innumerable instances of the pernicious consequences of eating food dressed in copper vessels, not sufficiently cleaned from this rust. On this account the senate of Sweden, about the year H53, prohibited copper ressels, and ordered that noves

364- APPENDIX.

sels, except such as were made of iron, should be used in their fleets and armies. But if copper vessels must be still continued, every cook and good housewife should be particularly careful in keeping them clean and well tinned, and should suffer nothing to remain in them longer than is absolutely necessary for the purposes of cookery.

Lead is a metal easily corroded, especially by the warm steams of acids, such as vinegar, cider, lemon-juice, Rhenish wine, &c. and this solution, or salt of lead, is a slow and insidious, though certain poison. The glazing of all our common brown pottery ware is either lead or lead ore; if black, it is a lead ore, with a small proportion of manganese, which is a species of iron ore; if yellow, the glazing is lead ore, and appears yellowish by having some pipe or white clay under it. The colour of the common pottery ware is red, as the vessels are made of the same clay as common bricks. These vessels are so porous, that they are penetrated by all salts acid or alkaline, and are unfit for retaining any saline substances. They are improper, though too often used, for preserving sour fruits or pickles. The glazing of such vessels is corroded by the vinegar: for, upon evaporating the liquor, a quantity of the salt of lead will be found at the bottom. A sure way of judging whether the vinegar or other acid, have dissolved part of the glazing, is by their becoming vapid, or losing their sharpness, and acquiring a sweetish taste by standing in them for some time, in which case the contents must be thrown away as pernicious.

The substance of the pottery ware, commonly called Delft, the best being made at Delft in Holland, is a whitish clay when baked, and soft, as not having endured a great heat in baking, The glazing is a composition of calcined lead, calcined tin, sand, some coarse alkaline salt, and sandiver; which fceing run into a white glass, the white colour being owing to the tin, is afterwards ground in a mill, then mixed with water, and the vessels, after oeing baked in the furnace, are dipped into it, and put again into the furnace; by which means, with a small degree of heat, the white glass runs upon the vessels. This glazing is exceedingly soft, and easily cracks. What effects acids will have upon it, the writer of these considerations cannot say; but they seem to be improper for inspissating the juice of lemons, oranges, or any other acid fruits.

The most proper vessels for these purposes are porcelain or China ware, the substances of them being of so close a texture, that no saline or other liquor can penetrate them. The glazing, which is likewise made of the substance of the china, is so firm and close, that no salt or saline substance can have the

APPENDIX. 365

least effect upon it. It must, however, be observed, that this remark is applicable only to the porcelain made in China; for some species of the European manufactory are certainly glazed with a fine glass of lead, &c.

The stone ware, commonly called Staffordshire ware, is the next to china. The substance of these vessels is a composition of black flint, and a strong clay, that bakes white. Their outsides are glazed, by throwing into the furnace, when well heated, common or sea salt decrepitated, the steam or acid of which flying up among the vessels, vitrifies the outsides of them, and gives them the glazing. This stone ware does not appear to be injured or affected by any kind of salts, either acid or alkaline, or by any liquors, hot or cold. These are therefore extremely proper for all common uses; but they require a careful management, as they are more apt to crack with any sudden heat, than china.

Having thus considered the nature of copper and earthen utensils for the use of the kitchen, we shall proceed to make tome few remarks on the poisonous qualities of mushrooms, hemlock, and laurel.

Mushrooms have been long used in sauces, in ketchup, and other forms of cookery; they were highly esteemed by the Romans, as they are at present by the French, Italians, and other nations. Pliny exclaims against the luxury of his countrymen in this article, wonders what extraordinary pleasure there can be in eating such dangerous food. The ancient writers on the Materia Medica seem to agree, that mushrooms are in general unwholesome; and the moderns, Lemery, Allen, Geoffroy, Boerhaave, Linnseus, and others, concur in the same opinion. There are numerous instances on record of their fatal effects, and almost all authors agree, that they are fraught with poison.

The common esculent kinds, if eaten too freely, frequently bring on heart-burns, sicknesses, vomitings, diarrhoeas, dysenteries, and other dangerous symptoms. It is therefore to be wished, that they were banished from the table; but, if the palate must be indulged in these treacherous gratifications, or, as Seneca calls them, this voluptuous poison, it is necessary that those, who are employed in collecting them, should be extremely cautious, lest they should collect such as are absolutely pernicious; which, considering to whose care this is generally committed, may, and undoubtedly frequently has happened. The eatable mushrooms at first appear of a roundish form, like a button; the upper part and the stalk are very thin; the under part is of a livid flesh colour; but the fleshy part, when broken, is very white. When these are suffered

366 APPENDIX.

to remain undisturbed, they will grow to a large size, and ex pand themselves almost to a flatness, and the red part underneath will change to a dark colour.

Small Hemlock, though it seems not to be of so virulent a nature as the larger hemlock, yet Boerhaave places it among the vegetable poisons, in his Institutes; and in his History of Plants, he produces an instance of its pernicious effects. It is therefore necessary to guard against it, in collecting herbs for sallads and other purposes. Attend therefore to the following description:

The first leaves are divided into numerous small parts, which are of a pale green, oval, pointed, and deeply indented. The stalk is slender, upright, round, striated, and about a yard high. The flowers are white, growing at the tops of the branches in little umbels. It is an annual plant, common in orchards and kitchen gardens, and flowers in June and July. This plant has been often mistaken for parsley, and from thence it has received the name of fool's parsley.

The water distilled from the leaves of the common laurel, has been frequently mixed with brandy, and other spirituous liquors, in order to give them the flavour of ratafia; and the leaves are often used in cookery, to communicate the same kind of taste to creams, custards, puddings, and some sorts of sweetmeats. But in the year 1728, an account of two women dying suddenly in Dublin, after drinking some of the common distilled laurel water, gave rise to several experiments, made upon dogs, with the distilled water, and with the infusion of the leaves of the common laurel, communicated by Dr. Madden, Physician at Dublin, to the Royal Society in London; and afterwards repeated, in the year 1T3 1, and confirmed by Dr. Mortimer, by which it appeared, that both the water and the infusion brought on convulsions, palsy, and death.

The laurel of the ancients, or the bay, is, on the contrary, of a salutary nature, and of use in several disorders; but the common laurel is a plant of a very destructive kind, and, taken in a large quantity, is a most formidable poison. However, if it be administered with proper caution, and in small proportion, the leaves of the plant are generally thought to be innocent; and therefore, for kitchen purposes, as the flavouring of custards, and such like, the use, in guarded and common moderation, may be continued in perfect safety. The bitter parts of the plants, in which all the noxious properties are supposed to reside, are determined to be the same in quality, and not sensibly different in degree, from the bitter almond, or from the kernels of any of the stoned fruits Lin

APPENDIX. 367

Maeus says, that in Holland, an infusion of this kind of laurel is used in the practice of the healing art. Miller also says, that laurel leaves are perfectly innocent. A nice attention, howver, is certainly necessary in the use of them.

SECTION II.

CONSIDERATIONS ON THE ADULTERATION OF BREAD AND FLOUR.

IN the adulteration of flour, mealmen and bakers have been known to use bean-meal, chalk, whiting, slacked lime, alum, and even ashes of bones. The first, bean-flour, is perfectly innocent, and affords a nourishment equal to that of wheat; but there is a roughness in bean-flour, and its colour is dusky. To remove these defects, chalk is added to whiten it; alum to give the whole compound that consistence which is necessary to make it knead well with the dough; and jalap to take off the astringency. Some people may suppose, that these horrid iniquities are only imaginary, or at least exaggerated, and that such mixtures must be discoverable even by the most ordinary taste; but, as some adulterations of this nature, have certainly been practised, the following experiments may serve to gratify curiosity, or discover frauds, where any such have been committed.

To detect the adulteration of flour with whiting or chalk, mix it with some juice of lemon or good vinegar. If the flour be pure, they will remain together at rest; but if there be a mixture of whiting or chalk, a fermentation, like the working of yeast, will ensue. The adulterated meal is whiter and heavier than the good; the quantity that an ordinary tea-dish will contain, has been found to weigh more than the same quantity of genuine flour, by four drachms and nineteen grains Troy.

The regular method of detecting these frauds in bread is thus: cut the crumb of a loaf into very thin slices; break them, but not into very small pieces, and put them into a glass cucurbit, with a large quantity of water. Set this, without shaking, in a sand furnace, and let it stand, with a moderate warmth, twenty-four hours. The crumb of the bread will, in this time, soften in all its parts, and the ingredients will separate from it. The alum will dissolve in the water, and may be

368 APPENDIX.

extracted from it in the usual way. The jalap, if any has been used, will swim upon the top in a coarse film; and the other ingredients, being heavy, will sink to the bottom. This is the best and most regular method of finding the deceit; but as cucurbites and sand furnaces are not at hand in private families, the following is a more familiar method: Slice the crumb of a loaf as before directed, and put it with a great deal of water into a large earthen pipkin. Set this over a gentle fire, and keep it a long time moderately hot. Then pour off the pap, and the bone ashes, or other ingredients, will be found at the bottom.

Having spoken thus much of the adulteration of wbeat and bread, and as the business of baking often falls under the inspection of the housekeeper, particularly in country residences, we shall here give instructions for that purpose,

To make White Bread in the London Manner.

PUT a bushel of the finest well-dressed flour in at one end of the kneading trough; then take a gallon of water, which bakers call liquor, and some yeast: stir it into the liquor till it looks of a good brown colour, and begins to curdle. Strain and mix it with the flour till it is about the thickness of a seed cake, then cover it with the lid of the trough, and let it stand three hours. As soon as it begins to fall, take a gallon more of liquor, weigh three quarters of a pound of salt, and with the hand mix it well with water. Strain it, and with this liquor make the dough of a moderate thickness, fit to make up into loaves. Then cover it again with the lid, and let it stand three hours more. In the mean time put the wood into the oven, which will require two hours heating. Then clear the oven, and begin to make the bread; put it in, close up the oven, and three hours will bake it. When once the bread is put in, the oven must not be opened till the bread is baked; and take care in summer that the water is milk warm, and in winter as hot as the finger will bear. All flour does not require the same quantity of water; but that experience will teach in two or three times making.

To make Leaven Bread.

BREAD made without barm, must be by the assistance of leaven. Take a lump of dough, about two pounds of the last making, which has been raised by barm. Keep it in a wooden vessel, cover it well with flour, and this will be the leaven. The night before baking, put the leaven to a peck of flour, and work them well together with warm water. Let it lie in a dry wooden vessel, well covered with a linen cloth

APPENDIX. 369

and blanket, and keep it in a warm place. This dough, kept warm, will rise again next morning, and will be sufficient to mix with two or three bushels of flour, being mixed up with warm water and a little salt. When it is well " orked up, and thoroughly mixed with the flour, let it be well covered with the linen and blanket, until it begins to rise. Then knead it well, and work it up into bricks or loaves, making the loaves broa.i, and not so thick and high as is frequently done, by which means the bread will be better baked. Always keep two or more pounds of the dough of the last baking, well covered with flour, to make leaven to serve from one baking day to another; and t! e more leaven put to the flour, the lighter the bread will be. The fresher the leaven, the less sour will be the bread.

To make French Bread.

PUT a pint of milk into three quarts of water; in winter, let it be scalding hot, but only little more than milk-warm in summer. Having put in salt sufficient to the taste, take a pint and a half of good ale yeast; but take care that it is not bitter. Lay it in a gallon of water the night before; pour it off the water, stir the yeast into the milk and water, and then with the hand break in a little more than a quarter of a pound of butter. Work it well till it is dissolved, then beat up two eggs in a bason, and stir them in. Take about a peck and a half of flour, and mix it with the liquor. In winter, the dough must be made pretty stiff, but more slack in summer; to use a little more or less flour, according to the stiffness of the dough; but mind to mix it well, and the less it is worked, the better. Stir the liquor into the flour as for pie crust; and after the dough is made, cover it with a cloth, and let it lie to rise while the oven is heating. When they have lain in a quick oven about a quarter of an hour, turn them on the other side, and let them lie about a quarter longer. Then take them out, and chip all the French bread with a knife, which will be better than rasping it, making it look spongy, and of a fine yellow; whereas the rasping takes off that fine colour, and makes it look too smooth.

To make Oat-Cakes and Muffins.

TAKE a pint and a half of good ale yeast from pale malt, because that is whitest. Let the yeast lie in water all night, the next day pour off the water clear, make two gallons of water just milk-warm, but not so hot as to scald the yeast, and two ounces of salt. Mix the water, yeast, and salt well together for a quarter of an hour. Then strain it, and with a bushel of Hertfordshire white flour mix up the dough as light

B E

370 APPENDIX.

as possible, and let it lie in the trough an hour to rise. Then roll it with the hand, and pull it into little pieces about as big as a large walnut. Roll them with the hand in the shape of a ball, lay them on a table, and as fast as they are done, lay a piece of flannel over them, and be sure to keep the dough covered with flannel. When all the dough is rolled out, begin to bake the first made, and by that time they will be spread out in a right form. Lay them on the iron, and as soon as one side is sufficiently coloured, turn them on the other; but take great care that they do not burn, or be too much discoloured. If the iron is too hot, as will sometimes be the case, put a brick-bat or two in the middle of the fire to slacken the heat. Here it is undoubtedly necessary to mention in what manner the thing baked on must be made. Build a place as if going to set a copper; but instead of a copper, place a piece of iron all over the top, in form just the same as the bottom of an iron pot, and make the fire underneath with coal, as in a copper. Observe, that muffins are made the same way, with this difference only, that, when pulled to pieces, roll them in a good deal of flour, and with a rolling pin roll them thin. Then cover them with a piece of flannel, and they will rise to a proper thickness; but, if too big or too little, roll the dough accordingly. Muffins must not be the least discoloured.

To "preserve Yeast.

TAKE a quantity of it, stir and work it well with a whisk until it becomes liquid and thin. Then get a large wooden platter, cooler, or tub, clean and dry, and with a soft brusli lay a thin layer of yeast on the tub, and turn the mouth downwards, that no dust may fall upon it, but so that the air may get under to dry it. When that coat is very dry, then lay on another, and so on till two or three inches thick, always taking care that the yeast is very dry in the tub before laying any more on, and this will keep good for several months. To use this yeast, cut a piece off, and lay it into warm water; stir it together, and it will be fit for use. If for brewing, take a large handful of birch tied together, dip it into the yeast, and hang it up to dry. In this manner do any number; but take care no dust comes to it. When the beer is fit to set to work, throw in one of these, and it will make it work as well as yeast.

To make Yeast.

Mix two quarts of soft water with wheat flour, to the consistence of thick gruel, or soft hasty pudding; boiled gently for half an hour, and when almost cold, stir it into half a pound of sugar, and four spoonsful of good yeast. Put it into a large

APPENDIX. 311

jug, or earthen vessel with a narrow top, and place it before the fire, so that it may by a moderate heat ferment. The fermentation will throw up a thin liquor, which pour off and throwaway; the remainder may be used instead of common yeast, and four spoonsful will make a fresh quantity as before: keep it in a bottle in a cool place.

SECTION III.

PROPER NOURISHMENT FOR THE SICK.

Mutton Broth.

\ AKE the fat off a pound of loin of mutton, and put the learr into a quart of water; skim it well as it boils, and put in a piece of the upper crust of bread, with a large blade of mace. Having covered it up close, let it boil slowly for half an hour, and then pour the broth clear off without stirring it: skim off the fat, season it with a little salt, and the meat will be in a proper state to be eaten. Some boil turnips with the meat: but this should not be done, as they ought to be boiled by themselves.

Beef or mutton broth for very weak people, who cannot digest much nourishment: Take a pound of beef or mutton, or both together, and put to each pound a quart of water. Skin the meat and take off the fat, cut it into little pieces, and let it boil till it comes to a quarter of a pint. Then season it with a very little salt, skim off all the fat, and give the sick person a spoonful of it at a time. If the sick person be very weak, even half a spoonful will be enough at once; while to others who are stronger, a tea-cupful may be given at a time; indeed the whole is, properly to observe what quantity the stomach of the sick person will bear.

Beef Broth.

TAKE off the fat and skin of a pound of lean beef, and cut it into pieces. Then put it into a gallon of water, with the under crust of a penny loaf, and a very little salt. Let it boil till it is reduced to two quarts, then strain it off, and it will be very nourishing.

Beef Tea.

TAKE a piece of lean beef, cut it cross and cross, and then

pour on it scalding water. Cover it up close, and let it stand

till it is cold. Then pour it off as wanted, season it mode fately, and give it to the sick person, having first warmed it.

Or, cut a pound of lean beef very fine, pour a pint of boil BB 2

372 APPENDIX.

ing water over it, and put it on the fire to raise the scum. Skim it clean, strain it off, and let it settle. Pour it clean from the settling, and then it will be fit for use.

Essence of eef, or Mutton.

TAKE two pounds of either, cut into very small pieces; put aside all fat and skin, and lay the meat in a jug without any water; put the jug into a deep saucepan, and pour round it a sufficient quantity of water to come up to the neck: let the jug boil in the water two hours; take it out, pour the essence into a basin; when cold, skim off the fat, and warm the remainder of the essence by plunging the basin into hot water: a single tea-spoonful at a time sufficient.

^ Veal Broth.

TAKE two pounds of scrag of veal, and put to it two quarts of water, a large piece of upper crust of bread, two blades of mace, and a little parsley tied with a thread. Cover it close, let it boil two hours very slowly, observing to skim it occasionally, when both meat arid broth will be ready.

To mince Veal or Chicken.

MINCE some veal or. a chicken very fine; but first take off the skin; just boil as much water as will moisten it, and no more, with a very little salt, and some nutmeg grated. Then throw a little flour over it, and when the water boils, put in the meat. Keep shaking it about for a minute over the fire; then have ready two or three thin sippets, toasted nice and brown, laid in the plate, and pour the mince-meat over it.

Pork Broth.

TAKE off the skin and fat from two pounds of young pork, boil it in a gallon of water, with a turnip and a very little salt, till it is reduced to two quarts: strain it off, and let it stand till cold. Take off the fat, leave the settling at the bottom of the pan, and drink half a pint warmed in the morning fasting, an hour before breakfast, and at noon, provided the stomach will bear it.

To pull a Chicken.

TAKE any quantity of cold chicken, take off the skin, and pull the meat into little bits as thick as a quill; then take the bones, boil them with a little salt till they are good, and strain. Then take a spoonful of the liquor, a spoonful of milk, a little bit of butter as big as a large nutmeg, rolled in flour, a little chopped parsley, as much as will lie upon a sixpence, and a little salt, if wanted. This will be enough for half a small chicken. Put all together into the saucepan, then keep shaking it till it is thick, and pour it into a hot plate.

APPENDIX. 313

Chicken Broth.

, FLAY an old cock or a large fowl, pick off all the fat, and break the bones to pieces with a rolling pin; put it into two quarts of water, with a large crust of bread and a blade of mace: let it boil softly till it is good, which will probably require five or six hours. Pour it off, then put to it a quart more of boiling water, and cover it close; let it boil softly till good, then strain it off, and season it with a very little salt.

Or, having boiled a chicken save the liquor, and when the meat is eaten, break the bones, and put them to the liquor in which the chicken was boiled, with a blade of mace, and a crust of bread. Let it boil till it is good, and then strain it off.

Or, let the saucepan be very clean and nice, and when the water boils, put in the chicken, which must be very nicely picke-i and cleaned, and laid in cold water a quarter of an, hour before boiling it. Then take it out of the boiling water and lay it in a dish. Save all the liquor that runs from it in the dish, cut up the chicken all in joints in the same dish, bruise the liver very fine, add a little boiled parsley finely chopped, a very little salt, and a little grated nutmeg. Mix all well together with two spoonsful or the liquor of the fowl, and pour it into the dish with the rest of the liquor. If there be not liquor enough, take two or three spoonsful of the liquor it was boiled in, and clap another dish over it. Then set it over a chafing-dish of hot coals for five or six minutes, and carry it to table hot with the cover on. If it is for a weak person, take off the skin of the chicken before setting it on the chafing-dish; and if roasted, make nothing but bread sauce, which is the lightest sauce for a sick person. In this manner dress a rabbit, excepting that only a piece of the liver must be bruised.

Chicken Water.

FLAY a large fowl or a cock, bruise the bones with a hammer, and put it into a gallon of water with a crust of bread. Let it boil half away, and then strain it off for use.

Bread Soup.

SET a quart of water on the fire in a clean saucepan, and as much dry crust of bread cut to pieces as the top of a penny loaf, the drier the better, with a bit of butter as big as a walnut. Let it boil, then beat it with a spoon, and keep boiling it, till the bread and water are well mixed. Then season it with a very little salt, and it will be very agreeable to a weak stomach.

Buttered Water.

BEAT up the yolk of an egg in a pint of water, put in a piece of butter as big as a small walnut, with two or three

374 APPENDIX.

knobs of sugar, and keep stirring it all the time it is on the fire. When it begins to boil, bruise it between the saucepan and a mug, till it is smooth, and has a great froth, when it will be fit to drink. It is ordered in a cold, and where eggs will agree with the stomach. This is called egg-soup by the Germans, who are very fond of it for supper.

Seed Water.

BRUISE half a spoonful of carraway seeds, and a spoonful of coriander seeds. Boil them in a pint of water, then strain them, and beat into them the yolk of an egg. Mix it up with some white wine, and sweeten it to the taste with doublerefined sugar.

Barley Water.

BOIL a quarter of a pound of pearl barley in two quarts of water, skim it very clean, and when it has boiled half away, strain it. Make it moderately sweet, and put in two spoonsful of white wine. It must be made a little warm before drink, ing it.

To boil Pigeons.

HAVING cleaned, washed, drawn, and skinned the pigeons, boil them in milk and water for ten minutes, and pour over them the following sauce: Parboil the livers, and bruise them fine, with an equal weight of parsley boiled and chopped tine. Melt some butter, first mix a little of it with the liver and parsley, them mix all together, and pour it over the pigeons.

To boil Partridges.

PUT the partridge into boiling water, and let it boil ten minutes; then take it up into a plate, and cut it into two, laying the inside next the plate. Take the crumb of a halfpenny roll, or thereabout, and with a blade of mace, boil it two or three minutes. Pour away most of the water, then beat it up with a small piece of good butter and a little salt, and pour it over the partridge. Put a cover over it, and set it over a chafing-dish of coals four or five minutes, and send it up hot, covered close. In this manner dress any sort of wild fowl, only boiling it more or less according to its size. Before pouring bread sauce over ducks, take off the skins; and if roasted, lay bread sauce under them, which is much lighter for weak stomachs than gravy.

To boil Plaice or Flounders.

THROW some salt into water, and when it boils, put in the fish; as soon as they are enough, take them out, and let them remain a little time on the slice to drain: take two spoonsful

APPENDIX. 375

of the liquor, with a little salt, and a little grated nutmeg; then beat up the yolk of an egg well with the liquor, and stir in the egg. Beat it well together. With a knife carefully slice away all the little bones round the fish, and pour the sauce over it. Then set it for a minute over a chafing-dish of coals, and send it up hot.

Brown Caudle.

PUT four spoonsful of oatmeal, a blade or two of mace, and a piece of lemon peel, into two quarts of water; boil it about a quarter of an hour, but take care that it does not boil over: then strain it, and add a quart of good ale that is not bitter. Sweeten it to the palate, arid add half a pint of white wine, or a glass of brandy. When you do not put in white wine or brandy, the caudle must be half of it ale.

White Caudle.

MAKE gruel as above, and strain it through a sieve, but put no ale to it; when used, sweeten it to the palate, grate in a little nutmeg, and put in what white wine you think proper. If it be not for a sick person, squeeze in the juice of a lemon.

Water Gruel.

PUT a large spoonful of oatmeal into a pint of water, stir it well together, and let it boil three or four times, stirring it often. Then strain it through a sieve, salt it to the palate, and put in a large piece of fresh butter. Brew it with a spoon till the butter is all melted, and it will be then fine and smooth.

Panada.

PUT a blade of mace, a large piece of the crumb of bread, and a quart of water, into a clean saucepan. Let it boil two minutes, then take out the bread, and bruise it very fine in a bason. Mix as much water as it will require, pour away the rest, and sweeten it to the palate. Put in a piece of butter as big as a walnut, but do not put in any wine, as that will spoil it. Grate in a little nutmeg.

Isinglass Jelly.

PUT an ounce of isinglass, and half an ounce of cloves, into a quart of water. Boil it to a pint, strain it upon a pound of loaf sugar, and when cold, sweeten your tea with it. You may add a little wine. Jellies made from calf's feet, and other things, have been already given.

Salop.

TAKE a large tea-spoonful of the powder of salop, and put it into a pint of boiling water. Stir it till it is a fine jelly, and then put in wine and sugar to the palate.

376 APPENDIX

Artificial Asses Milk.

TAKE two large spoonsful of hartshorn shavings, two ounces of pearl barley, an ounce of eringo root, the same quantity of China root, the same of preserved ginger, and eighteen snails bruised with the shells; boil them in three quarts of water tiil it comes to three pints: then boil a pint of new milk, mix it with the rest, and put in two ounces of balsam of Tolu. Take half a pint in the morning, and half a pint at night.

Or, take a quart of milk, set it in a pan over night, and the next morning take off all the cream; then boil it, and set it in the pan again till night: then boil it, set it in the pan again, and the next morning skim it. Make it blood warm, and drink it as asses milk.

Or, take a quart of milk, and a quart of water, with the topcrust of a penny loaf, and a blade of mace. Boil it a quarter of an hour ver/'softly, then pour it off, and drink it warm.

SECTION IV.

NECESSARY ARTICLES* FOR SEAFARING PERSONS.

As pickled mushrooms are very handy for captains of ships to take with them to sea, we shall here give directions for that particular purpose. Wash the mushrooms clean, with a piece of flannel dipped in salt and water, put them into a saucepan, and throw a little salt ovr them. Let them boil up tlnee times in their own liquor, then throw them into a sieve to drain, and spread them on a clean cloth. Let them lie till they are cold, then put them into wide-mouthed bottles, with a good deal of whole mace, a little nutmeg sliced, and a few cloves. Boil the vinegar, with a good deal of whole pepper, some races of ginger, and two or three bay leaves; let it boil a few minutes, then strain it, and when it is cold, put it, on, and fill the bottles with mutton fat fried. Cork them, tie a bladder, then a leather over them, and keep them down close, in as cool a place as possible.

Or, take large mushrooms, peel them, and scrape out the inside. Then put them into a saucepan, throw a little salt over them, and let them boil in their own liquor. Then throw

APPENDIX, Sf?

them into a sieve to drain, lay them on tin plates, and set theni in a cool oven. Repeat it often till they are perfectly dry, then put them into a clean stone jar, tie them down tight, and keep them in a dry place. They will keep a great while, and eat and look as well as truffles.

Ketchup to keep twenty years.

TAKE a gallon of strong stale beer, a pound of anchovies washed from the pickle, the same quantity of shalots peeled, half an ounce of mace, half an ounce of cloves, a quarter of an ounce of whole pepper, three or four large races of ginger, and two quarts of large mushroom flaps rubbed to pieces. Cover all this close, and let it simmer till it is half wasted. Then strain it through a flannel bag, let it stand till quite cold, and then bottle it. This may be carried to any part of the world; and a spoonful of it to a pound of fresh butter melted, will make a fine fish sauce, or will supply the place of gravy sauce. The stronger and staler the beer, the better will be the ketchup.

Fish Sauce.

THE following fish sauce, though it will not keep more than a year, may be very useful in short voyages: Chop twenty-four anchovies, having first boned them; put to them ten shalots cut small, and a handful of scraped horse-radish, a quarter of an ounce of mace, a quart of white wine, a pint of water, and the same quantity of red wine; a lemon cut into slices, half a pint of anchovy liquor, twelve cloves, and the same number of pepper corns. Boil them together till it comes to a quart, then strain it off, cover it close, and keep it in a cold dry place. Two spoonsful of it will be sufficient for a pound of butter. It is a pretty sauce for boiled fowls and many other things, or in the room of gravy, lower i no- it with hot water, and thickening it with a piece of butter rolled in flour.

Dripping.

DRIPPIN T G will be very useful at sea, to frv fish or meat, and for this purpose it must be thus potted: Take six pounds of good beef drijpping, boil it in some soft water, strain it into a pan, and let it stand till it is cold. Then take off the hard fat, and scrape off the gravy which sticks to the inside. Do this eight times, and when it is cold and hard, take it off clean from the water, and put it into a large saucepan, with six bay-leaves, twelve cloves, half a pound of salt, and a quarter of a pound of whole pepper. Let the fat be all melted

378 APPENDIX.

and just hot enough to strain through a sieve into the pot. Then let it stand till it is quite cold, and cover it up. The best way to keep any sort of dripping, is to turn the pot upside down, and then no rats can get at it. It will keep on shipboard, and make as fine puff paste crust as any butter whatever, for pies or puddings.

Directions for steeping dried Fish.

EVERY kind of fish, except stock-fish, are salted, or either dried in the sun, as the most common way, or in preparing kilns, and sometimes by the smoke of wood fires in chimneycorners, and, in either case, require being softened and freshened in proportion to their bulk, their nature, or dryness. The very dry sort, as bacalao, cod fish, or whiting, and such like, should oe steeped in luke-warm milk and water, and the steeping kept as nearly as possible to an equal degree of heat. The larger fish should be steeped twelve hours; the small, such as whitings, &c. about two hours. The cod are therefore laid to steep in the evening; the whitings, &c. in the morning before they are to be dressed. After the time of steeping they are to be taken out, and hung up by the tails until they are dressed. The reason of hanging them up is, that they soften equally as in the steeping, without extracting too much of the relish, which would make them insipid. When thus prepared, the small fish, as whitings, tusk, and such like, must be floured and lard on the gridiron, and when a little hardened on one side, must be turned and basted with oil upon a feather; and when basted on both sides, and heated through, take them up, always observing, that as sweet oil supples and supplies the fish with a kind of artificial juices, so the fire draws out these juices and hardens them. Therefore be careful not to let them broil too long; but no time can be prescribed, because of the difference of fires, and various sizes of the fish. A clear charcoal fire is much the best, and the fish kept at a good distance, to broil gradually. The best way to know when they are enough is, they will swell a little in the basting, and you must not let them fall again.

The sauces are the same as usual to salt fish; and the usual garnish, oysters fried in batter; but for a supper, for those that like sweet oil, the best sauce is oil, vinegar, and mustard, beat up to a consistence, and served up in a boat.

Should your fish be boiled, as those of a large sort usually are, it should be in milk and water, but not properly to say boiled, as it should only just simmer over an equal fire; in which way, half an hour will do the largest fish, and five minutes the smallest. Some people broil both sorts after simmering, and some pick them to pieces and then toss them up

APPENDIX. 373

in a pan .with fried onions and apples. They are either way very good, and the choice depends on the weak or strong stomach of the eaters.

Dried Salmon.

DRIED salmon must be managed in a different manner; for though a large fish, they do not require more steeping than a whiting; and should be moderately peppered when laid on the gridiron.

Dried Herrings.

DRIED herrings should he steeped the like time as the whiting, in small beer instead of milk and water; and to which, as to all kinds of broiled salt fish, sweet oil will always be found the best basting, and no ways effect even the delicacy of those who do not Jove it.

SECTION V.

GENERAL OBSERVATIONS ON

THE BREEDING OF POULTRY.

W HILE families remain in the country, it will sometimes be expected of the housekeeper, that she should know something of the management of poultry. We shall therefore appropriate a section to that purpose, in which we shall lay down some general rules for that business. These hints may likewise be equally useful to those small families, who retire from the noise and bustle of large towns and populous cities, to spend the evening of their lives amidst the tranquillity of rural scenes.

Fowls.

IN the first place, particular care must be taken that the hen-roost be kept clean. Do not choose too large a breed as they generally eat coarse; and six hens to a cock will be a good proportion. When fowls are near laying, o-ive them whole rice, or nettle seed mixed with bran and bread, worked into a paste. In order to make your fowls familiar, feed them at particular hours, and always in one place.

380 APPENDIX.

Great care must be taken to keep your storehouse free from vermin, and contrive your perches so as not to be over one another, nor over the nests, in which always take care to keep clean straw. Wherever poultry are kept, all sorts of vermin will naturally come; for which reason it would be proper to sow wormwood and rue about the places in which you keep them, and you may also l^pil wormwood, and sprinkle the floor with it, which will nobf; only contribute to keep away vermin, but also add much to tne health of your poultry. As to rats, mice, and weasels, the best method is to set traps for them.

If you feed your hens now and then with barley bruised, and with the toasts taken out of ale, they will lay often, and all the winter. To prevent your hens eating their own eggs, which they sometimes will, lay a piece of chalk cut like an egg, at which they will often be pecking, and thus finding themselves disappointed, they will not afterwards attempt it. When your hens are inclinable to sit, which you will know by their clucking, do not disappoint them, nor put more than ten under each. March is reckoned a good month to set hens in; but if the}' be properly fed, they will lay many eggs, and set at any time.

Ducks.

DUCKS usually begin to lay in February; and if your gar. dener be diligent in picking up snails, grubs, -caterpillars, worms, and other insects, and lay them in one place, it will make your ducks familiar, and is the best food, for change, you can give them. Parsley, sowed about the ponds or river they use, gives their flesh an agreeable taste j and be always sure to have one certain place for them constantly to retire to at night. Partition off their nests, and make them as near the water as possible. Always feed them there, as it makes them love home, ducks being of a rambling nature. Their eggs should be taken away till they are inclined to sit, and it is best for every duck, as well as every fowl, to sit upon her own eggs.

Geese.

THE keeping of geese is attended with little trouble; but they spoil a deal .of grass, no creature choosing to eat after them. When the goslings are hatched, let them be kept within doors, and lettuce leaves and peas boiled in milk are very good for them. When they are about to lay, drive them to their nests, and shut them up, and set every goose with its own eggs, always feeding them at one place, and at stated times. They will feed upon all sorts of grain and grass; and

APPENDIX. 381

you may gather acorns, parboil them in ale, and it will fatten them surprisingly.

Turkeys.

TURKEYS require more trouble to bring them up than common poultry. The hen will lay till she is five years old. Be sure always to feed them^near the place where you intend they should lay, and feed'-them four or five times each day, they being great devourers. While they are sitting they must have plenty of victuals before them, and also be kept warm. To fatten them, you must give them sodden barley and sodden oats, for the first fortnight, and then cram them as you do capons.

Pigeons,

IF you keep pigeons, which are generally hurtful to your neighbours, take care to feed them well, or you will lose them all. They are great devourers, and yield but little profit. Their nests should be made private and separate, or they will always disturb one another. Be sure to keep their house clean, and lay among their food some hempseed, of which they are great lovers.

Rabbits.

TAME rabbits are very fertile, bringing forth every month; and as soon as they have kindled, put them to the buck, or they will destroy their young. The best food for them is the sweetest hay, oats, and bran, marsh mallows, sowthistle, parsley, cabbage-leaves, clover-grass, &c. always fresh. If you do not keep them clean, they will poison both themselves and those that look after them.

Capons.

THE best way to cram a capon or a turkey is, to take barley meal properly sifted, and mix it with new milk. Make it into a good stiff dough paste; then make it into long crams or rolls, big in the middle, and small at both ends. Then wetting them in lukewarm milk, give the capon a full gorge three times a day, morning, noon, and night, and in two or three weeks it will be as fat as necessary. In Norfolk, they use ground buck wheat instead of barley meal.

Fowls are very liable to a disorder called the pip, which is a white thin scale growing on the tip of the tongue; and will prevent poultry from feeding. This is easily discerned, and generally proceeds from drinking puddle water, or want of water, or eating filthy meat. This, however, may be cured,

382 APPENDIX.

by pulling off the souJe with your nail, and then rubbing the tongue with salt.

The flux in poultry conies from their eating too much meat, and the cure is to give them peas and bran scalded. If your poultry be much troubled with lice (which is common, proceeding from corrupt food, and other causes), take pepper beaten small, mix it with warm water, wash your poultry with it, and it will kill all kinds of vermin.

Rats and Mice Bait for.

Mix flour of malt with tresh-butter, and add a few drops of oil of aniseed; make into balls, and with them bait the

traps. This bait has never been known to fail.

*

Rats To drive away.

LAY birdlime in their haunts, for though nasty in other respects, yet being very curious of their fur, if it be but daubed with birdlime, it will be so troublesome to them, that they will even scratch oft the skin to get it off, and will never stay in a place where they have suffered in such a manner.

Rats and Mice To destroy.

IN or near the place frequented by these vermin, place on a slate or tile one or two table spoonsful of dry oatmeal: lay it thin, and press it flat, more easily to ascertain what is taken away. As the rats, if not interrupted, will come regularly there to feed, continue to supply them with fresh oatmeal for two or three days; and then well mixing, in about six tablespoonsful of dry oatmeal, three drops only of oil of aniseed, ft-ed them with this for two or three days more: afterwards, for one day, give them only half the quantity of this scented oatmeal which they have before actually eaten; and next day place the following mixture: to four ounces of dry oatmeal, scented with six drops of oil of aniseed, add half an ounce of carbonated barytes, previously pounded very fine in a mortar, and sifted through a 4ittle fine muslin or cambric. Mix this intimately with the scented oatmeal; and laying it on the tile or slate, allow the rats to eat it, without the smallest interruption for twenty-four hours; and all those that have eaten any of it will inevitably be killed. The carbonated barytes may be purchased of Brown and Ma\v, Tavistock Street; Accum, Compton Street; and Allen and Howard, Plough Court, Lombard Street, London.

APPENDIX.

A CATALOGUE OF

GARDEN STUFFS, POULTRY, AND FISH,

IN SEASON IN THE DIFFERENT MONTHS OF THE YEAR.

J ANUARY. Pears, apples, nuts, almonds, medlars, services, and grapes.

February. Pears, apples, and grapes.

March. Pears, apples, and forced strawberries.

April. Apples, pears, forced cherries, and apricots for tarts.

May. Pears, apples, strawberries, melons, green apricots, cherries, gooseberries, and currants for tarts.

June. Currants, gooseberries, strawberries, cherries, peaches, pears, apples, apricots, melons, grapes, nectarines, and pine-apples.

July. Peaches, cherries, apples, pears, gooseberries, apricots, plums, nectarines, melons, raspberries, strawberries, and pine-apples.

August. Apples, cherries, plums, nectarines, peaches, mulberries, filberts, figs, grapes, pears, currants, gooseberries, strawberries, melons, and pine-apples.

September. Walnuts, grapes, pears, apples, plums, peaches, lazaroles, quinces, medlars, hazel-nuts, filberts, morello cherries, currants, melons, and pine-apples.

October. Services, medlars, figs, peaches, grapes, walnuts, black and white bullace, pears, quinces, filberts, hazel-nuts, and apples.

November. Pears, apples, bullace, walnuts, hazel-nuts, chesnuts, medlars, services, and grapes.

December. Pears, apples, medlars, walnuts, chesnuts, seryices, hazel-nuts, and grapes.

Roots and Vegetables.

January. -Spinach, purple and white brocoli sprouts, colevrorts, savoys, cabbages, celery, endive, chervil, sorrel, parsley, beets, cardoons, tarragon, turnips, radish, rape, mustard, cresses, lettuces, hyssop, pot-marjoram, savory, thyme, cucumbers from the hot-houses, mint, skirrets, scorzonora, potatoes, turnips, carrots, parsnips, sage, asparagus, Jerusalem artichokes, and mushrooms.

February, Coleworts, savoys, cabbages, cresses, lettuces.

384 APPENDIX.

chard-beets, celery, sorrel, endive, chervil, paisley, cardoons, purple and white brocoli, sprouts, marjoram, savory, thyme, tansey, burnet, mint, tarragon, turnips, radishes, rape and mustard. Also may be had, forced radishes, cucumbers, kidney-beans, and asparagus.

March. Spinach, savoys, cabbages, borecole, coleworts, shalots, garlick, onions, Jerusalem artichokes, parsnips, turnips, carrots, mustard, cresses, chives, lettuces, mushrooms, tansey, endive, celery, fennel, parsley, beets, cardoons, brocoli, kidney-beans, cucumbers, hyssop, pot-marjoram, winter savory, thyme, burnet, mint, tarragon, turnips, rape, and radishes.

April. Brocoli, sprouts, coleworts, chervil, parsley, fennel, spinach, radishes, tarragon, burnet, sorrel, endive, celery, young onions, lettuces, thyme, and all sorts of salads and potherbs.

May. Spinach, artichokes, cauliflowers, early cabbages, radishes, turnips, carrots, early potatoes, parsley, sorrel, thyme, mustard, cresses, lettuces, fennel, purslane, mint, balm, cucumbers, tarragon, asparagus, kidney-beans, beans, peas, and all sorts of small salads and savoury herbs.

June. Peas, beans, onions, radishes, parsnips, potatoes, turnips, cauliflowers, purslane, parsley, spinach, lettuces, cucumbers, artichokes, kidney-beans, asparagus, rape, cresses, thyme, and all sorts of small salads, and pot-herbs.

July. Cauliflowers, mushrooms, salsify, scorzonera, rocombole, garlick, onions, radishes, potatoes, turnips, carrots, cresses, lettuce, purslane, sorrel, chervii, finochia, endive, celery, artichokes, sprouts, cabbages, kidney-beans, beans, peas, mint, balm, thyme, and all sorts of small salads and pot herbs.

August. Radishes, potatoes, turnips, carrots, peas, salsify, scorzonera, shalots, garlick, onions, endive, celery, beets, sprouts, cauliflowers, cabbages, artichokes, mushrooms, beans, kidney-beans, lettuce, finochia, parsley, marjoram, savory, thyme, and all sorts of small salads and sweet herbs.

Septembtr. Beans, peas, salsify, scorzonera, garlick, leeks, onions, shalots, potatoes, turnips,, carrots, parsley, celery, endive, cardoons, cauliflowers, sprouts, cabbages, artichokes, mushrooms, kidney-beans, finochia, chervil, sorrel, beets, lettuces, and all sorts of small salads and soup-herbs.

October. Salsify, skirrets, potatoes, turnips, parsnips, car, rots, artichokes, cauliflowers, sprouts, cabbages, finochia, chervel, cardoons, endive, celery, rocombole, garlick, shalots, leeks, scorzonera, chard-beets, thyme, savory, lettuce, and all sorts of young salads and pot-herbs.

November. Rocombole, shalots, leeks, onions, scorzonera, salsify, skirrets, potatoes, parsnips, turnips, carrots, parsley,

APPENDIX. 385

cardoons, chard-beets, spinach, coleworts, sprouts, savoys, cauliflowers, cabbages, Jerusalem artichokes, cresses, endive, chervil, lettuces, a:id all sorts of srrfall salads and pot-herbs.

December. Turnips, parsnips, carrots, purple and white brocoli, savoys, cabbages, shalots, onions, leeks, salsify, scorzonera, skirrets, potatoes, parsley, spinach, beets, endive, celery, rocombole, garlic, forced asparagus, cardoons, cresses, lettuces, thyme, and all sorts of small salads and potherbs.

Poultry and Game.

JANUARY. Pullets, fowls, chickens, tame pigeons, capons, turkeys, snipes, woodcocks, rabbits, hares, partridges, and pheasants.

February. Fowls, pullets, capons, turkeys, chickens, pigeons, tame rabbits, hares, snipes, woodcocks, partridges, and pheasants.

March. Tame rabbits, pigeons, ducklings, chickens, fowls, capons, pullets, and turkeys.

April. Chickens, fowls, pullets, pigeons, ducklings, leverets, and rabbits.

May. Chickens, fowls, pullets, turkey poults, ducklings, green geese, leverets, and rabbits.

June. Green geese, chickens, pullets, fowls, plovers, turkey poults, ducklings, wheat-ears, leverets, and rabbits.

July. Green geese, pigeons, chickens, fowls, pullets, ducklings, ducks, turkey-poults, leverets, rabbits, plovers, wheatears.

August. Turkey-poults, green geese, chickens, fowls, pullets, pigeons, rabbits, leverets, ducklings, plovers, wheat-ears, and wild-ducks.

September. Ducks, chickens, fowls, pullets, turkeys, geese, larks, pigeons, teal, rabbits, hares, and partridges.

October. Chickens, fowls, pullets, pigeons, turkeys, geese, snipes, woodcocks, widgeoqs, teals, wild-ducks, rabbits,hares, larks, dotterels, partridges, and pheasants.

November. Pigeons, pullets, chickens, fowls, turkeys, geese, larks, snipes, woodcocks, teals, widgeons, wild-ducks, rabbits, hares, dotterels, partridges, and pheasants.

December. Fowls, capons, pigeons, pullets, turkeys, geese, larks, snipes, woodcocks, rabbits, hares, chickens, dotterels, widgeons, teals, wild-ducks, partridges, and pheasants.

Fish.

JANUARY. Cod, crawfish, eels, lampreys, perch, tench, carp, sturgeon, skate, thornback, turbot, plaice, flounders, soles, oysters, prawns, crabs, lobsters, smelts, and whitings.

386 APPENDIX.

February. Thornback, turbot, flounders, plaice, sturgeon!^ soles, cod, prawns, oysters, crabs, lobsters, smelts, whitings, skate, cra\\fish, lampreys, eels, carp, tencb, and perch.

March. Tench, carp, mullets, eels, whitings, soles, skate, thornback, turbot, lobsters, flounders, plaice, prawns, crawfish, and crabs.

April. Crawfish, trout, tench, chub, carp, mullets, skate, soles, turbot, salmon, prawns, lobsters, crabs, and smelts.

May. Chub, trout, eels, tench, carp, smelts, turbots, soles, salmon, prawns, crabs, crawfish, and lobsters.

June. Eels, pike, tench, carp, trout, mackarel, mullets, turbot, soles, salmon, smelts., lobsters, crawfish, and prawns.

July. Mackarel, mullets, haddocks, cod, flounders, plaice, soles, carp, salmon, skate, thornback, pike, tench, lobsters, eels, crawfish, and prawns.

August. Thornbacks, skate, plaice, flounders, haddocks, cod, carp, pike, mackarel, mullets, oysters-, prawns, crawfish, eels, and lobsters.

September. Thornbacks, plaice, flounders, haddocks, cod, carp, salmon, smelts, soles, skate, herrings, oysters, lobsters, pike, and tench.

October. Brills, smelts, bearbet, holoberts, dorees, perch, tencb^carp, pike, herrings, gudgeons^ oysters, muscles, cockles, lobsters, and salmon-trout.

Nffo&nber. Salmon, bearbet, holoberts, dorees, gurnets, tench, pike, carp, smelts, salmon, herrings, trout, muscles, cockles, gudgeons, lobsters, and oysters.

December. Bearbet, holoberts, dorees, sturgeon, gurnets, turbct, carp, soles, codlings, cod, smelts, oysters, muscles, cockles, eels, and gudgeons.

N. B. Beef, mutton, and veal, are in season, all the year; house-lamb, in January, February, March, November, and December; grass-lamb, in April, May, June, July, August, September, and October; pork, in January, February, March, September, October, November, and December; buck-venison, in June, July, August, and September; and doe-venison, in October, November, and December.

[ 387 ]

MARKETING TABLES, FROM THREEPENCE-FARTHING TO FOURPENCE-HALFPENNY PER POUND, Sfc. [Omitted]

INDEX [Omitted]





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