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The earliest cookbook in English, and one of the oldest in the world
TITLE: The Forme of Cury
AUTHOR: Written for the Master-Cooks of King Richard II, transcribed by Samual Pegge, 1780
DATE: about 1390
THIS VERSION: Adapted for Foods of England from the version transcribed by Tobin Richard, Charles Franks, Greg Lindahl, Cindy Renfrow and the Project Gutenberg Online Distributed Proofreading Team at: gutenberg.org. Images from the facsimile online at: John Ryland's Library
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Angry cook and waiters
From the The Luttrell Psalter, Lincolnshire, c.1330
The 'Forme of Cury' is the name given to the transcript prepared by the 18th Century antiquarian Samual Pegge of a collection of receipts from the Master Cooks of King Richard II. This is the oldest known complete cookbook in English, and one of the oldest extant in Europe. Three editions are known to exist, a complete book version at John Ryland's Library in Manchester, and two partial rolls at the British Library.
The texts are beautifully written on very fine vellum, and lack annotations, so are most unlikely to be the working cooks notes. They might possibly be instructions for approved dishes to be passed on to the aristocratic houses where the King and his retinue were to stay as he made his regular perambulations of the land.
Individual receipts included in the Foods of England Project include: Aquapatys - Bacon and Beans - Blank Maunger - Brasey or Brasill - Buckenade or Bucnade - Bursews - Cabbages in Potage - Chawdron - Chewitts - Chiches (Chick Peas) - Chireseye - Civey (or Cyueye or Cyne) Sauce - Cryspels or Cryspes - Drawen Beans - Farsure - Flaumpens - Fonnell - Frumenty or Furmety - Galandine Sauce - Goose in Hoggepot - Gourd - Gravy - Ground Rice Pudding - Gyngawdry - Gyngener - Hebolace or Herbelade - Herbolade or Erbolat - Honey Mustard - Jusshell or Iuschelle - Loseyns - Macaroni Cheese - Macrows or Maccherone - Mawmenny - Meat Rice - Milk Fritters - Morree or Murrey - Mortress or Mortrews - Moy or Moill - Mustard - Nesebek - Pea Soup - Poached Pears - Pochee - Pork and Egg Pie - Potato Crisps - Potwise or Potews - Rice Pottage - Rice Pudding - Salmon - Sambocade - Sops or Soppes - Soup Dorye - Spinee - Subtleties - Tartlettes - Yrchins
The Foods of England Project is currently preparing a new edition of 'The Forme of Cury' for publication in conjunction with the University of Manchester John Rylands Library. The text given here is the, older, Pegge edition.
A ROLL OF ANCIENT ENGLISH COOKERY.
Compiled, about A.D. 1390, by the Master-Cooks of King RICHARD II,
Presented afterwards to Queen ELIZABETH, by EDWARD Lord STAFFORD,
And now in the Possession of GUSTAVUS BRANDER, Esq.
A MANUSCRIPT of the EDITOR, of the same Age and Subject, with other congruous Matters, are subjoined.
"-ingeniosa gula est." MARTIAL.
TO GUSTAVUS BRANDER, Esq. F.R.S. F.S.A. and Cur. Brit. Mus.
I return your very curious Roll of Cookery, and I trust with some Interest, not full I confess nor legal, but the utmost which your Debtor, from the scantiness of his ability, can at present afford. Indeed, considering your respectable situation in life, and that diffusive sphere of knowledge and science in which you are acting, it must be exceedingly difficult for any one, how well furnished soever, completely to answer your just, or even most moderate demands. I intreat the favour of you, however, to accept for once this short payment in lieu of better,
or at least as a public testimony of that profound regard wherewith I am,
Your affectionate friend, and most obliged servant, St. George's day, 1780.
… fome  of cury  was compiled of the chef Maister Cokes of kyng Richard the Secunde kyng of .nglond  aftir the Conquest. the which was acounted þe  best and ryallest vyand  of alle csten .ynges  and it was compiled by assent and avysement of Maisters and  phisik  and of philosophie þat dwellid in his court. First it techiþ a man for to make commune potages and commune meetis for howshold as þey shold be made craftly and holsomly. Aftirward it techiþ for to make curious potages & meetes and sotiltees  for alle maner of States bothe hye and lowe. And the techyng of the forme of making of potages & of meetes bothe of flessh and of fissh. buth  y sette here by noumbre and by ordre. sso þis little table here sewyng  wole teche a man with oute taryyng: to fynde what meete þat hym lust for to have.
FOR TO MAKE GRONDEN BENES . I.
Take benes and dry hem in a nost  or in an Ovene and hulle hem wele and wyndewe  out þe hulk and wayshe hem clene an do hem to seeþ in gode broth  an ete hem with Bacon.
 Gronden Benes. Beans ground (y ground, as No. 27. 53. 105.) stript of their hulls. This was a dish of the poorer householder, as also is 4 and 5, and some others.  a nost. An ost, or kiln. Vide Gloss. voce Ost.  wyndewe. Winnow.  gode broth. Prepared beforehand.
FOR TO MAKE DRAWEN BENES. II.
Take benes and seeþ hem and grynde hem in a morter  and drawe hem up  with gode broth an do Oynouns in the broth grete mynced  an do þerto and colour it with Safroun and serve it forth.
 morter. Mortar.  Footnote f: drawen hem up. Mix them.  Footnote g: grete mynced. Grossly, not too small.
FOR TO MAKE GREWEL FORCED . III.
Take grewel and do to the fyre with gode flessh and seeþ it wel. take the lire  of Pork and grynd it smal  and drawe the grewel thurgh a Straynour  and colour it wiþ Safroun and serue  forth.
 forced, farced, enriched with flesh. Vide Gloss.  lire. Flesh.  grynd it smal. Bruise or beat in a mortar.  stryno'. Strainer.  serue. Serve. Vide Gloss.
CABOCHES  IN POTAGE. IIII.
Take Caboches and quarter hem and seeth hem in gode broth with Oynouns y mynced and the whyte of Lekes y slyt and corue smale  and do þer to safroun an salt and force it with powdour douce .
 Caboches. Probably cabbages.  corue smale. Cut small. V. i corue in Gloss.  powdour douce. Sweet aromatic powder. V. Pref.
RAPES  IN POTAGE. V.
Take rapus and make hem clene and waissh hem clene. quare hem . parboile hem. take hem up. cast hem in a gode broth and seeþ hem. mynce Oynouns and cast þerto Safroun and salt and messe it forth with powdour douce. the wise  make of Pasturnakes  and skyrwates. 
 Rapes, or rapus. Turneps.  quare hem. Cut them in squares, or small pieces. V. Gloss.  in the wise, i.e. in the same manner. Self or same, seems to be casually omitted. Vide No. 11 and 122.  Pasturnakes, for parsnips or carrots. V. Gloss.  skyrwates, for skirrits or skirwicks.
EOWTES  OF FLESSH. VI.
Take Borage, cool . langdebef . persel . betes. orage . auance . violet . saueray . and fenkel . and whane þey buth sode; presse hem wel smale. cast hem in gode broth an seeþ hem. and serue hem forth.
 Eowtes. Lowtes, No. 88, where, in the process, it is Rowtes. Quære the meaning, as Roots does not apply to the matter of the Recipe. In No. 73 it is written owtes.  Cole, or colewort.  Langdebef. Bugloss, buglossum sylvestre. These names all arise from a similitude to an ox's tongue. V. Ms. Ed. No. 43.  Persel. Parsley.  orage. Orach, Atriplex. Miller, Gard. Dict.  auance. Fortè Avens. V. Avens, in Gloss.  The leaves probably, and not the flower.  Savory.  Fenkel. Fennil.
HEBOLACE . VII.
Take Oynouns and erbes and hewe hem small and do þes to gode broth. and aray  it as þou didest caboches. If þey be in fyssh day. make  on the same maner  with water and oyle. and if it be not in Lent alye  it with zolkes of Eyren . and dresse it forth and cast þer to powdour douce.
 Hebolace. Contents, Hebolas; for Herbolas, from the herbs used; or, if the first letter be omitted (see the Contents), Chebolas, from the Chibols employed.  aray. Dress, set it out.  make. Dress. Vide Gloss.  maner. manner.  alye. Mix. V. Gloss.  Eyren. Eggs. V. Gloss.
GOURDES IN POTAGE. VIII.
Take young Gowrdes pare hem and kerue  hem on pecys. cast hem in gode broth, and do þer to a gode pertye  of Oynouns mynced. take Pork soden. grynd it and alye it þer with and wiþ zolkes of ayrenn. do þer to safroun and salt, and messe it forth with powdour douce.
 kerve. Cut.  partye. Party, i.e. quantity.
RYSE  OF FLESH. IX.
Take Ryse and waishe hem clene. and do hem in erthen pot with gode
broth and lat hem seeþ wel. afterward take Almaund mylke  and do þer to. and colour it wiþ safroun an salt, an messe forth.
 Ryse. Rice. V. Gloss.  Almand mylke. V. Gloss.
FUNGES . X.
Take Funges and pare hem clere and dyce hem . take leke and shred hym small and do hym to seeþ in gode broth. colour it with safron and do þer inne powdour fort .
 Funges. Mushrooms.  dyce hem. Cut them in squares. Vide quare in Gloss.  Powdour fort. Vide Preface.
BURSEN . XI.
Take the whyte of Lekes. slype hem and shrede hem small. take Noumbles  of swyne and boyle hem in broth and wyne. take hym up and dresse hem and do the Leke in the broth. seeþ and do the Noumbles þer to make a Lyour  of brode blode and vynegre and do þer to Powdour fort seeþ Oynouns mynce hem and do þer to. the self wise make of Pigges.
 Bursen. Qu. the etymon.  Noumbles. Entrails. V. Gloss.  Lyo', Lyour. A mixture. Vide alye in Gloss.
CORAT . XII.
Take the Noumbles of Calf. Swyne. or of Shepe. parboile hem and skerne hem to dyce  cast hem in gode broth and do þer to erbes. grynde chyballes . smale y hewe. seeþ it tendre and lye it with zolkes of eyrenn. do þer to verious  safroun powdour douce and salt, and serue it forth.
 Corat. Qu.  kerve hem to dyce. V. quare in Gloss.  Chyballes. Chibols, young onions. V. Gloss.  verious. Verjuice.
Take noumbles of Deer oþer  of oþer beest parboile hem kerf hem to dyce. take the self broth or better. take brede and grynde with the broth. and temper it  up with a gode quantite of vyneger and wyne. take the oynouns and parboyle hem. and mynce hem smale and do þer to. colour it with blode and do þer to powdour fort and salt and boyle it wele and serue it fort .
 oþer. Other, i.e. or.  temper it. Temper it, i. e. mix it.  fort. Miswritten for forth. So again No. 31. 127.
ROO  BROTH. XIIII.
Take the lire of the Deer oþer of the Roo parboile it on smale peces. seeþ it wel half in water and half in wyne. take brede and bray it wiþ the self broth and drawe blode þer to and lat it seeth to gedre with powdour fort of gynger oþer of canell . and macys . with a grete porcioun of vineger with Raysouns of Coraunte .
 Roo. Roe. The Recipe in Ms. Ed. No. 53. is very different.  Canell. Cinnamon.  macys. Mace. V. Preface and Gloss.  Raysouns of Coraunte. Currants. V. Gloss.
TREDURE . XV.
Take Brede and grate it. make a lyre  of rawe ayrenn and do þerto Safroun and powdour douce. and lye it up  with gode broth. and make it as a Cawdel. and do þerto a lytel verious.
 Tredure. A Cawdle; but quære the etymon. The French tres dure does not seem to answer.  lyre. Mixture.  lye it up. Mix it.
MONCHELET . XVI.
Take Veel oþer Moton and smite it to gobettes seeþ it in gode broth. cast þerto erbes yhewe  gode wyne. and a quantite of Oynouns mynced. Powdour fort and Safroun. and alye it with ayren and verious. but lat not seeþ after.
 Monchelet. Mounchelet, Contents.  y hewe. Shred.
BUKKENADE . XVII.
Take Hennes  oþer Conynges  oþer Veel oþer oþer Flessh an hewe hem to gobettes waische it and hit well . grynde Almandes unblaunched. and drawe hem up with þe broth cast þer inne raysons of Corance. sugur. Powdour gyngur erbes ystewed in grees . Oynouns and Salt. If it is to to  thynne. alye it up with flour of ryse oþer with oþer thyng and colour it with Safroun.
 Bukkenade. Vide No. 118. qu.  Hennes; including, I suppose, chicken and pullets.  Conynges. Coneys, Rabbits.  hit well. This makes no sense, unless hit signifies smite or beat.  Grees. Fat, lard, grece. No. 19.  to to. So again, No. 124. To is too, v. Gloss. And too is found doubled in this manner in Mirrour for Magistrates, p. 277. 371, and other authors.
CONNATES . XVIII.
Take Connes and pare hem. pyke out the best and do hem in a pot of erthe. do þerto whyte grece þat he stewe þer inne. and lye hem up with hony clarified and with rawe zolkes  and with a lytell almaund mylke and do þerinne powdour fort and Safron. and loke þat it be yleesshed ,
 Connat seems to be a kind of marmalade of connes, or quinces, from Fr. Coing. Chaucer, v. Coines. Written quinces No. 30.  Yolkes, i. e. of Eggs.  yleesshed. V. Gloss.
DREPEE . XIX.
Take blanched Almandes grynde hem and temper hem up with gode broth take Oynouns a grete quantite parboyle hem and frye hem and do þerto. take smale bryddes  parboyle hem and do þerto Pellydore  and salt. and a lytel grece.
 Drepee. Qu.  bryddes. Birds. Per metathesin; v. R. in Indice.  Pellydore. Perhaps pellitory. Peletour, 104.
Mawmenee . XX.
Take a pottel of wyne greke. and ii. pounde of sugur take and clarifye the sugur with a qantite of wyne an drawe it thurgh a straynour in to a pot of erthe take flour of Canell . and medle  with sum of the wyne an cast to gydre. take pynes  with Dates and frye hem a litell in grece oþer in oyle and cast hem to gydre. take clowes  an flour of canel hool  and cast þerto. take powdour gyngur. canel. clower, colour it with saundres a lytel yf hit be nede cast salt þerto. and lat it seeþ; warly  with a slowe fyre and not to thyk , take brawn  of Capouns yteysed . oþer of Fesauntes teysed small and cast þerto.
 Vide No. 194, where it is called Mawmenny.  Flour of Canell. Powder of Cinamon.  medle. Mix.  pynes. A nut, or fruit. Vide Gloss.  clowes. Cloves.  hool. Whole. How can it be the flour, or powder, if whole? Quære, flower of cand for mace.  warly. Warily, gently.  not to thyk. So as to be too thick; or perhaps, not to thicken.  brawn. Fleshy part. Few Capons are cut now except about Darking in Surry; they have been excluded by the turkey, a more magnificent, but perhaps not a better fowl.
 yteysed, or teysed, as afterwards. Pulled in pieces by the fingers, called teezing No. 36. This is done now with flesh of turkeys, and thought better than mincing. Vide Junius, voce Tease.
EGURDOUCE . XXI.
Take Conynges or Kydde and smyte hem on pecys rawe. and frye hem in white grece. take raysouns of Coraunce and fry hem take oynouns parboile hem and hewe hem small and fry hem. take rede wyne suger with powdour of peper. of gynger of canel. salt. and cast þerto. and lat it seeþ with a gode quantite of white grece an serue it forth.
 Egurdouce. The term expresses piccante dolce, a mixture of sour and sweet; but there is nothing of the former in the composition. Vide Gloss.
CAPOUNS IN COUNCYS . XXII.
Take Capons and rost hem right hoot þat þey be not half y nouhz and hewe hem to gobettes and cast hem in a pot, do þerto clene broth, seeþ hem þat þey be tendre. take brede and þe self broth and drawe it up yferer , take strong Powdour and Safroun and Salt and cast þer to. take ayrenn and seeþ hem harde. take out the zolkes and hewe the whyte þerinne, take the Pot fro þe fyre and cast the whyte þerinne. messe the disshes þerwith and lay the zolkes hool and flour it with clowes.
 Concys seems to be a kind of known sauce. V. Gloss.  yfere. Together.
HARES  IN TALBOTES . XXIII.
Take Hares and hewe hem to gobettes and seeþ hem with þe blode unwaisshed in broth. and whan þey buth y nowh: cast hem in colde water. pyke and waisshe hem clene. cole  the broth and drawe it thurgh a straynour. take oþer blode and cast in boylyng water seeþ it and drawe it thurgh a straynour. take Almaundes unblaunched. waisshe hem and grynde hem and temper it up with the self broth. cast al in a pot. tak oynouns and parboile hem smyte hem small and cast hem in to þis Pot. cast þerinne Powdour fort. vynegur an salt.
 Haares, Contents. So again, No. 24.  Talbotes. Ms. Ed. No. 9, Talbotays.  Cole. Cool.
HARES IN PAPDELE . XXIIII.
Take Hares parboile hem in gode broth. cole the broth and waisshe the fleyssh. cast azeyn  to gydre. take obleys  oþer wafrouns  in stede of lozeyns . and cowche  in dysshes. take powdour douce and lay on salt the broth and lay onoward  an messe forth.
 Papdele. Qu.  azeyn. Again.  obleys, called oblatæ; for which see Hearne ad Lib. Nig. I. p. 344. A kind of Wafer, otherwise called Nebulæ; and is the French oublie, oble. Leland, Collect. IV. p. 190. 327.  wafrouns. Wafers.  loseyns. Vide Gloss.  cowche. Lay.  onoward. Upon it.
CONNYNGES IN CYNEE . XXV.
Take Connynges and smyte hem on peces. and seeþ hem in gode broth, mynce Oynouns and seeþ hem in grece and in gode broth do þerto. drawe a lyre of brede. blode. vynegur and broth do þerto with powdour fort.
 Cynee. Vide Gloss.
CONNYNGES IN GRAUEY. XXVI.
Take Connynges smyte hem to pecys. parboile hem and drawe hem with a gode broth with almandes blanched and brayed. do þerinne sugur and powdour gynger and boyle it and the flessh þerwith. flour it with sugur and with powdour gynger an serue forth.
CHYKENS IN GRAVEY. XXVII.
Take Chykens and serue hem the same manere and serue forth.
FYLETTES  OF GALYNTYNE . XXVIII.
Take fylettes of Pork and rost hem half ynowh smyte hem on pecys. drawe a lyour of brede and blode. and broth and Vineger. and do þerinne. seeþ it wele. and do þerinne powdour an salt an messe it forth.
 Fylettes. Fillets.  of Galyntyne. In Galyntyne. Contents, rectlus. As for Galentine, see the Gloss.
PYGGES IN SAWSE SAWGE . XXIX.
Take Pigges yskaldid and quarter hem and seeþ hem in water and salt, take hem and lat hem kele . take persel sawge. and grynde it with brede and zolkes of ayrenn harde ysode. temper it up with vyneger sum what thyk. and, lay the Pygges in a vessell. and the sewe onoward and serue it forth.
 Sawge. Sage. As several of them are to be used, these pigs must have been small.  kele. Cool.
SAWSE MADAME. XXX.
Take sawge. persel. ysope. and saueray. quinces. and peeres , garlek and Grapes. and fylle the gees þerwith. and sowe the hole þat no grece come out. and roost hem wel. and kepe the grece þat fallith þerof. take galytyne and grece and do in a possynet, whan the gees buth rosted ynowh; take an smyte hem on pecys. and þat tat  is withinne and do it in a possynet and put þerinne wyne if it be to thyk. do þerto powdour of galyngale. powdour douce and salt and boyle the sawse and dresse þe Gees in disshes and lay þe sowe onoward.
 Peares. Pears.  that tat, i.e. that that. Vide Gloss.
GEES IN HOGGEPOT . XXXI.
Take Gees and smyte hem on pecys. cast hem in a Pot do þerto half wyne and half water. and do þerto a gode quantite of Oynouns and erbest. Set it ouere the fyre and couere  it fast. make a layour of brede and blode an lay it þerwith. do þerto powdour fort and serue it fort.
 Hoggepot. Hodge-podge. Ochepot. Ms. Ed. No. 22. French, Hochepot. Cotgrave. See Junii Enym. v. Hotch-potch.  couere. Cover.
CARNEL  OF PORK. XXXII.
Take the brawnn of Swyne. parboile it and grynde it smale and alay it up with zolkes of ayren. set it ouere  the fyre with white Grece and lat it not seeþ to fast. do þerinne Safroun an powdour fort and messe it forth. and cast þerinne powdour douce, and serue it forth.
 Carnel, perhaps Charnel, from Fr. Chaire.  ouere. Over. So again, No. 33.
CHYKENNS  IN CAWDEL. XXXIII.
Take Chikenns and boile hem in gode broth and ramme  hem up. þenne take zolkes of ayrenn an þe broth and alye it togedre. do þerto powdour of gynger and sugur ynowh safroun and salt. and set it ouere the fyre withoute boyllyng. and serue the Chykenns hole  oþer ybroke and lay þe sowe onoward.
 Chikens. Contents. So again in the next Recipe.  ramme. Qu. press them close together.  hole. Whole.
CHYKENS IN HOCCHEE . XXXIIII.
Take Chykenns and scald hem. take parsel and sawge withoute eny oþere erbes. take garlec an grapes and stoppe the Chikenns ful and seeþ hem in gode broth. so þat þey may esely be boyled þerinne. messe hem an cast þerto powdour dowce.
 Hochee. This does not at all answer to the French Hachis, or our Hash; therefore qu.
FOR TO BOILE FESAUNTES. PARTRUCHES. CAPONS AND CURLEWES. XXXV.
Take gode broth and do þerto the Fowle. and do þerto hool peper and flour of canel a gode quantite and lat hem seeþ þwith. and messe it forth. and þer cast þeron Podour dowce.
BLANK MAUNGER . XXXVI.
Take Capouns and seeþ hem, þenne take hem up. take Almandes blaunched. grynd hem and alay hem up with the same broth. cast the mylk in a pot. waisshe rys and do þerto and lat it seeþ. þanne take brawn of Capouns teere it small and do þerto. take white grece sugur and salt and cast þerinne. lat it seeþ. þenne messe it forth and florissh it with aneys in confyt rede oþer whyt. and with Almaundes fryed in oyle. and serue it forth.
 Blank Maunger. Very different from ours. Vide Gloss.
BLANK DESSORRE . XXXVII.
Take Almandes blaunched, grynde hem and temper hem up with whyte wyne, on fleissh day with broth. and cast þerinne flour of Rys. oþer amydoun , and lye it þerwith. take brawn of Capouns yground. take sugur and salt and cast þerto and florissh it with aneys whyte. take a vessel yholes  and put in safroun. and serue it forth.
 Blank Dessorre. V. Gloss.  Amydoun. "Fine wheat flour steeped in water, strained and let stand to settle, then drained and dried in the sun; used for bread or in broths." Cotgrave. Used in No. 68 for colouring white.  yholes. Quære.
MORREE . XXXVIII.
Take Almandes blaunched, waisshe hem. grynde hem. and temper hem up with rede wyne, and alye hem with flour of Rys. do þerto Pynes yfryed. and colour it with saundres. do þerto powdour fort and powdour douce
and salt, messe it forth and flour it  with aneys confyt whyte.
 Morree. Ms. Ed. 37. murrey. Ibid. II. 26. morrey; probably from the mulberries used therein.  flour it. Flourish it.
CHARLET . XXXIX.
Take Pork and seeþ it wel. hewe it smale. cast it in a panne. breke ayrenn and do þerto and swyng  it wel togyder. do þerto Cowe mylke and Safroun and boile it togyder. salt it & messe it forth.
 Charlet; probably from the French, chair. Qu. Minced Meat, and the next article, Forced Meat.  swyng. Shake, mix.
CHARLET YFORCED. XX.II.
Take mylke and seeþ it, and swyng þerwith zolkes of Ayrenn and do þerto. and powdour of gynger suger. and Safroun and cast þerto. take the Charlet out of the broth and messe it in dysshes, lay the sewe onoward. flour it with powdour douce. and serue it forth.
CAWDEL FERRY . XX.II. I.
Take flour of Payndemayn  and gode wyne. and drawe it togydre. do þerto a grete quantite of Sugur cypre. or hony clarified, and do þerto safroun. boile it. and whan it is boiled, alye it up with zolkes of ayrenn. and do þerto salt and messe it forth. and lay þeron sugur and powdour gyngur.
 ferry. Quære. We have Carpe in Ferry, Lel. Coll. VI. p. 21.  Payndemayn. White bread. Chaucer.
JUSSHELL . XX.II. III.
Take brede ygrated and ayrenn and swyng it togydre. do þerto safroun, sawge. and salt. & cast broth. þerto. boile it & messe it forth.
 Jusshell. See also next number. Jussell, Ms. Ed. 21, where the Recipe is much the same. Lat. Juscellam, which occurs in the old scholiast on Juvenal iv. 23; and in Apicius, v. 3. Vide Du Fresne, v. Jusselium and Juscellum, where the composition consists of vinum, ova, and sagmea, very different from this. Faber in Thesauro cites Juscellum Gallinæ from Theod. Priscianus.
N.B. No. XX.II. II. is omitted both here and in the Contents.
JUSSHELL ENFORCED . XX.II. IIII.
Take and do þerto as to charlet yforced. and serue it forth.
 Jusshell enforced. As the Charlet yforced here referred to was made of pork, compare No. 40 with No. 39. So in Theod. Priscian we have Jussetlum Gallinæ.
MORTREWS . XX.II. V.
Take hennes and Pork and seeþ hem togyder. take the lyre of Hennes and of the Pork, and hewe it small and grinde it all to doust . take brede ygrated and do þerto, and temper it with the self broth and alye it with zolkes of ayrenn, and cast þeron powdour fort, boile it and do þerin powdour of gyngur sugur. safroun and salt. and loke þer it be stondyng , and flour it with powdour gynger.
 Mortrews. Vide Gloss.  doust. Dust, powder.  stondyng. Stiff, thick.
MORTREWS BLANK. XX.II. VI.
Take Pork and Hennes and seeþ hem as to fore. bray almandes blaunched, and temper hem up with the self broth. and alye the fleissh with the mylke and white flour of Rys. and boile it. & do þerin powdour of gyngur sugar and look þat it be stondyng.
BREWET OF ALMONY . XX.II. VII.
Take Conynges or kiddes and hewe hem small on moscels  oþer on pecys. parboile hem with the same broth, drawe an almaunde mylke and do the fleissh þerwith, cast þerto powdour galyngale & of gynger with flour of Rys. and colour it wiþ alkenet. boile it, salt it. & messe it forth with sugur and powdour douce.
 Almony. Almaine, or Germany. Almany. Fox, part I. p. 239. Alamanie. Chron. Sax. p. 242. V. ad No. 71.  moscels. Morsels.
PEIOUNS  YSTEWED. XX.II. VIII.
Take peions and stop hem with garlec ypylled and with gode erbes ihewe. and do hem in an erthen pot. cast þerto gode broth and whyte grece. Powdour fort. safroun verious & salt.
 Peiouns, Pejons, i. e. Pigeons, j is never written here in the middle of a word.
LOSEYNS . XX.II. IX.
Take gode broth and do in an erthen pot, take flour of payndemayn and make þerof past with water. and make þerof thynne foyles as paper  with a roller, drye it harde and seeþ it in broth take Chese ruayn  grated and lay it in disshes with powdour douce. and lay þeron loseyns isode as hoole as þou mizt . and above powdour and chese, and so twyse or thryse, & serue it forth.
 Loseyns. Vide in Gloss.  foyles as paper. Leaves of paste as thin as paper.  Chese ruyan. 166. Vide Gloss.  mizt. Might, i.e. can.
TARTLETTES . XX.II. X.
Take pork ysode and grynde it small with safroun, medle it with ayrenn and raisons of coraunce and powdour fort and salt, and make a foile of dowhz  and close the fars  þerinne. cast þe Tartletes in a Panne with faire water boillyng and salt, take of the clene Flessh withoute ayren & bolle it in gode broth. cast þerto powdour douce and salt, and messe the tartletes in disshes & helde  the sewe þeronne.
 Tarlettes. Tartletes in the process.  foile of dowhz, or dowght. A leaf of paste.  fars. Forced-meat.  helde. Cast.
PYNNONADE . XX.II. XI.
Take Almandes iblaunched and drawe hem sumdell thicke  with gode broth oþer with water and set on the fire and seeþ it, cast þerto zolkes of ayrenn ydrawe. take Pynes yfryed in oyle oþer in grece and þerto white Powdour douce, sugur and salt. & colour it wiþ alkenet a lytel.
 Pynnonade. So named from the Pynes therein used.  sumdell thicke. Somewhat thick, thickish.
ROSEE . XX.II. XII.
Take thyk mylke as to fore welled . cast þerto sugur a gode porcioun pynes. Dates ymynced. canel. & powdour gynger and seeþ it, and alye it with flores of white Rosis, and flour of rys, cole it, salt it & messe it forth. If þou wilt in stede of Almaunde mylke, take swete cremes of kyne.
 Rosee. From the white roles therein mentioned. See No. 41. in Mi. Ed. but No. 47 there is totally different.  welled, f. willed; directed.
CORMARYE . XX.II. XIII.
Take Colyandre , Caraway smale grounden, Powdour of Peper and garlec ygrounde in rede wyne, medle alle þise  togyder and salt it, take loynes of Pork rawe and fle of the skyn, and pryk it wel with a knyf and lay it in the sawse, roost þerof what þou wilt, & kepe þat þat fallith þerfro in the rosting and seeþ it in a possynet with faire broth, & serue it forth witþ þe roost anoon .
 Cormarye. Quære.  Golyandre. Coriander.  þise. These.  anoon. Immediately.
NEWE NOUMBLES OF DEER. XX.II. XIIII.
Take noumbles and waisshe hem clene with water and salt and perboile hem in water. take hem up an dyce hem. do with hem as with ooþer noumbles.
NOTA. XX.II. XV.
The Loyne of the Pork, is fro the hippe boon to the hede.
NOTA. XX.II. XVI.
The fyletes buth two, that buth take oute of the Pestels .
 Pestels. Legs.
SPYNEE . XX.II.XVII.
Take and make gode thik Almaund mylke as tofore. and do þerin of flour of hawthorn . and make it as a rose. & serue it forth.
 Spynee. As made of Haws, the berries of Spines, or Hawthorns.  Hawthern. Hawthorn.
CHYRYSE  XX.II. XVIII.
Take Almandes unblanched, waisshe hem, grynde hem, drawe hem up with gode broth. do þerto thridde part of chiryse. þe stones. take oute and grynde hem smale, make a layour of gode brede an powdour and salt and do þerto. colour it with sandres so that it may be stondyng, and florish it with aneys and with cheweryes, and strawe þeruppon and serue it forth.
 Chyryse. Chiryse in the process. Cheriseye. Ms. Ed. II. 18. Chiryes there are cherries. And this dish is evidently made of Cherries, which probably were chiefly imported at this time from Flanders, though they have a Saxon name, [Anglo-Saxon: cyrre].
PAYN FONDEW . XX.II. XIX.
Take brede and frye it in grece oþer in oyle, take it and lay it in rede wyne. grynde it with raisouns take hony and do it in a pot and cast þerinne gleyres  of ayrenn wiþ a litel water and bete it wele togider with a sklyse . set it ouer the fires and boile it. and whan the hatte  arisith to goon  ouer, take it adoun and kele it, and whan it is þer clarified; do it to the oþere with sugur and spices. salt it and loke it be stondyng, florish it with white coliaundre in confyt.
 foundewe. Contents. It seems to mean dissolved. V. found in Gloss.  gleyres. Whites.  Sklyse. Slice.  hatte. Seems to mean bubling or wallop.  goon. Go.
CROTOUN . XX.III.
Take the offal of Capouns oþer of oþere briddes. make hem clene and parboile hem. take hem up and dyce hem. take swete cowe mylke and cast þerinne. and lat it boile. take Payndemayn  and of þe self mylke and drawe thurgh a cloth and cast it in a pot and lat it seeþ, take ayren ysode. hewe the white and cast þerto, and alye the sewe with zolkes of ayren rawe. colour it with safron. take the zolkes and fry hem and florish hem þerwith and with powdour douce.
 Crotoun. Ms. Ed. 24. has Craytoun, but a different dish.  Payndemayn. Whitebread. V. ad No. 41.
VYNE GRACE . XX.III. I.
Take smale fylettes of Pork and rost hem half and smyte hem to gobettes and do hem in wyne an Vynegur and Oynouns ymynced and stewe it yfere do þerto gode poudours an salt, an serue it forth.
 Vyne Grace. Named probably from grees, wild swine, and the mode of dressing in wine. V. Gloss. voce Vyne grace.
FONNELL . XX.III. II.
Take Almandes unblaunched. grynde hem and drawe hem up with gode broth, take a lombe  or a kidde and half rost hym. or the þridde  part, smyte hym in gobetes and cast hym to the mylke. take smale briddes yfasted and ystyned . and do þerto sugur, powdour of canell and salt, take zolkes of ayrenn harde ysode and cleeue  a two and ypaunced  with flour of canell and florish þe sewe above. take alkenet fryed and yfoundred  and droppe above with a feþur  and messe it forth.
 Fonnell. Nothing in the recipe leads to the etymon of this multifarious dish.  Lombe. Lamb.  thridde. Third, per metathesin.  yfasted and ystyned.  cleeue. cloven.  ypaunced. pounced.  yfoundred. melted, dissolved.  feþ'. feather.
DOUCE AME . XX.III. III.
Take gode Cowe mylke and do it in a pot. take parsel. sawge. ysope. saueray and ooþer gode herbes. hewe hem and do hem in the mylke and seeþ hem. take capouns half yrosted and smyte hem on pecys and do þerto pynes and hony clarified. salt it and colour it with safroun an serue it forth.
 Douce Ame. Quasi, a delicious dish. V. Blank Desire in Gloss. Titles of this tissue occur in Apicius. See Humelberg. p. 2.
CONNYNGES IN CYRIP . XX.III. IIII.
Take Connynges and seeþ hem wel in good broth. take wyne greke and do þerto with a porcioun of vyneger and flour of canel, hoole clowes quybibes hoole, and ooþer gode spices with raisouns coraunce and gyngyner ypared and ymynced. take up the conynges and smyte hem on pecys and cast hem into the Siryppe and seeþ hem a litel on the fyre and sue it forth.
 Cyrip. In the process Siryppe. Cirypp, Contents. Sirop or Sirup, as 133. Syryp, 132.
LECHE LUMBARD . XX.III. V.
Take rawe Pork and pulle of the skyn. and pyke out þe skyn synewes and bray the Pork in a morter with ayrenn rawe do þerto suger, salt, raysouns coraunce, dates mynced, and powdour of Peper powdour gylofre. an do it in a bladder, and lat it seeþ til it be ynowhz. and whan it is ynowh, kerf if leshe it  in likenesse of a peskodde , and take grete raysouns and grynde hem in a morter, drawe hem Up wiþ rede wyne, do þerto mylke of almaundes colour it with saunders an safroun.
and do þerto powdour of peper an of gilofre and boile it. and whan it is iboiled; take powdour of canel and gynger, and temper it up with wyne. and do alle þise thynges togyder. and loke þat it be rennyns , and lat it not seeþ after that it is cast togyder, an serue it forth.
 Leche Lumbard. So called from the country. Randle Home says, Leach is "a kind of jelly made of cream, ising-glass, sugar and almonds, with other compounds."  Leshe it. Vide Gloss.  Peskodde. Hull or pod of a pea.  rennyns. Perhaps thin, from the old renne, to run. Vide Gloss.
CONNYNGES IN CLERE BROTH. XX.III. VI.
Take Connynges and smyte hem in gobetes and waissh hem and do hem in feyre water and wyne, and seeþ hem and skym hem. and whan þey buth isode pyke hem clene, and drawe the broth thurgh a straynour and do the flessh þerwith in a Possynet and styne it . and do þerto vynegur and powdour or gynger and a grete quantite and salt after the last boillyng and serue it forth.
 styne it. Close it. V. Gloss.
PAYN RAGOUN . XX.III. VII.
Take hony suger and clarifie it togydre. and boile it with esy fyre, and kepe it wel fro brennyng and whan it hath yboiled a while; take up a drope  þerof wiþ þy fyngur and do it in a litel water and loke if it hong  togydre. and take it fro the fyre and do þerto the thriddendele  an powdour gyngener and stere  it togyder til it bigynne to thik and cast it on a wete  table. lesh it and serue it forth with fryed mete on flessh dayes or on fysshe dayes.
 Payn ragoun. It is not at all explained in the Recipe.  Drope. Drop.  hong. Hing, or hang.  thriddendele. Third part, perhaps, of brede, i. e. of bread, may be casually omitted here. V. Gloss.  stere. stir.  wete. wet.
LETE LARDES . XX.III. VIII.
Take parsel and grynde with a Cowe mylk, medle it with ayrenn and
lard ydyced take mylke after þat þou hast to done  and myng  þerwith. and make þerof dyuerse colours. If þou wolt have zelow, do þerto safroun and no parsel. If þou wolt have it white; nonþer parsel ne safroun but do þerto amydoun. If þou wilt have rede do þerto sandres. If þou wilt have pownas  do þerto turnesole . If þou wilt have blak do þerto blode ysode and fryed. and set on the fyre in as many vessels as þou hast colours þerto and seeþ it wel and lay þise colours in a cloth first oon. and sithen anoþer upon him. and sithen the þridde and the ferthe. and presse it harde til it be all out clene. And whan it is al colde, lesh it thynne, put it in a panne and fry it wel. and serue it forth.
 Lete Lardes. Lards in form of Dice are noticed in the process.
See Lel. Coll. VI. p. 5. Lete is the Fr. Lait, milk. V. No. 81.
or Brit. Llaeth. Hence, perhaps, Lethe Cpyrus and Lethe Rube.
Lel. Coll. IV. p. 227. But VI. p. 5, it is Leche.
 to done, i. e. done.
 myng. mix.
 pownas. Qu.
 turnesole. Not the flower Heliotrope, but a drug. Northumb. Book, p. 3. 19. I suppose it to be Turmeric. V. Brooke's Nat. Hist. of Vegetables, p. 9. where it is used both in victuals and for dying.
FURMENTE WITH PORPAYS . XX.III. IX.
Take Almandes blanched. bray hem and drawe hem up with faire water, make furmente as before  and cast þer furmente þerto. & messe it with Porpays.
 Porpays. Porpeys, Contents, and so No. 116. Porpus.  as before. This is the first mention of it.
PERREY OF PESOUN . XX.III. X.
Take pesoun and seeþ hem fast and covere hem til þei berst. þenne take up hem and cole hem thurgh a cloth. take oynouns and mynce hem and seeþ hem in the same sewe and oile þerwith, cast þerto sugur, salt and safroun, and seeþ hem wel þeratt þerafter and serue hem forth.
 Perrey of Pesoun, i.e. Peas. Perrey seems to mean pulp: vide No. 73. Mr. Ozell in Rabelais, IV. c. 60. renders Puree de pois by Peas soup.
PESON OF ALMAYNE . XX.III. XI
Take white pesoun, waisshe hem seeþ hem a grete while, take hem and cole hem thurgh a cloth, waisshe hem in colde water til the hulles go off, cast hem in a pot and couere þat no breth  go out. and boile hem right wel. and cast þerinne gode mylke of allmandes and a pertye of flour of Rys wiþ powdour gynger safroun. and salt.
 Almayne. Germany; called Almony No. 47.  breth. Breath, air, steam. Ms. Ed. No. 2.
CHYCHES . XX.III. XII.
Take chiches and wry hem  in ashes all nyzt, oþer lay hem in hoot aymers , at morrowe , waisshe hem in clene water and do hem ouer the fire with clene water. seeþ hem up and do þerto oyle, garlec, hole safroun. powdour fort and salt, seeþ it and messe it forth.
 Chyches. Viciæ, vetches. In Fr. Chiches.  Wry hem. Dry hem, or cover hem. Chaucer, v. wrey.  Aymers. Embers; of which it is evidently a corruption.  at morrowe. Next Morning.
FRENCHE . XX.III. XIII.
Take and seeþ white peson and take oute þe perrey  & parboile erbis & hewe hem grete & caft hem in a pot with the perrey pulle oynouns & seeþ hem hole wel in water & do hem to þe Perrey with oile & salt, colour it with safroun & messe it and cast þeron powdour douce.
 Frenche. Contents have it more fully, Frenche Owtes. V. ad No. 6.  Perrey. Pulp. V. ad No. 70.
MAKKE . XX.III. XIIII.
Take drawen benes and seeþ hem wel. take hem up of the water and cast hem in a morter grynde hem al to doust til þei be white as eny mylk, chawf  a litell rede wyne, cast þeramong in þe gryndyng, do þerto salt, leshe it in disshes. þanne take Oynouns and mynce hem smale and seeþ hem in oile til þey be al broun . and florissh the disshes therwith. and serue it forth.
 Makke. Ignotum.  Chawf. Warm.  broun. Brown.
AQUAPATYS . XX.III. XV.
Pill garlec and cast it in a pot with water and oile. and seeþ it, do þerto safroun, salt, and powdour fort and dresse it forth hool.
 Aquapatys. Aquapates, Contents. Perhaps named from the water used in it.
SALAT. XX.III. XVI.
Take persel, sawge, garlec, chibolles, oynouns, leek, borage, myntes, porrectes , fenel and ton tressis , rew, rosemarye, purslarye , laue and waische hem clene, pike hem, pluk hem small wiþ þyn  honde and myng hem wel with rawe oile. lay on vynegur and salt, and serue it forth.
 Porrectes. Fr. Porrette.  Ton tressis. Cresses. V. Gloss.  Purslarye. Purslain.  þyn. thine.
FENKEL IN SOPPES. XX.III. XVII.
Take blades of Fenkel. shrede hem not to smale, do hem to seeþ in water and oile and oynouns mynced þerwith. do þerto safroun and salt and powdour douce, serue it forth, take brede ytosted and lay the sewe onoward.
CLAT . XX.III. XVIII.
Take elena campana and seeþ it water . take it up and grynde it wel in a morter. temper it up with ayrenn safroun and salt and do it ouer the fire and lat it not boile. cast above powdour douce and serue it forth.
 Clat. Qu.  water; r. in water, as in No. 79.
APPULMOY . XX.III. XIX.
Take Apples and seeþ hem in water, drawe hem thurgh a straynour. take almaunde mylke & hony and flour of Rys, safroun and powdour fort and salt. and seeþ it stondyng .
 Appulmoy. Appulmos. Ms. Ed. No. 17. named from the apples employed. V. No. 149.  stondyng. thick.
SLETE  SOPPES. XX.IIII.
Take white of Lekes and slyt hem, and do hem to seeþ in wyne, oile and salt, rost brede and lay in dysshes and the sewe above and serue it forth.
 Slete. slit.
LETELORYE . XX.IIII. I.
Take Ayrenn and wryng hem thurgh a styunour and do þerto cowe mylke with butter and safroun and salt and seeþ it wel. leshe it. and loke þat it be stondyng. and serue it forth.
 Letelorye. The latter part of the compound is unknown, the first is Fr. Lait, milk. Vide No. 68.
SOWPES DORRY . XX.IIII. II.
Take Almaundes brayed, drawe hem up with wyne. ooile it, cast þeruppon safroun and salt, take brede itosted in wyne. lay þerof a leyne  and anoþer of þe sewe and alle togydre. florish it with sugur powdour gyngur and serue it forth.
 Sowpes Dorry. Sops endorsed. V. Dorry in Gloss.  A leyne. a layer.
RAPE . XX.IIII. III.
Take half fyges and half raisouns pike hem and waisshe
hem in water skalde hem in wyne. bray hem in a morter, and drawe hem thurgh a straynour. cast hem in a pot and þerwiþ powdour of peper and ooþer good powdours. alay it up with flour of Rys. and colour it with saundres. salt it. & messe it forth.
 Rape. A dissyllable, as appears from Rapey in the Contents. Rapy, Ms. Ed. No. 49. Rapee, ibid. II. 28.
SAWSE SARZYNE . XX.IIII. IIII.
Take heppes and make hem clene. take Almaundes blaunched, frye hem in oile and bray hem in a morter with heppes. drawe it up with rede wyne, and do þerin sugur ynowhz with Powdour sort, lat it be stondyng, and alay it with flour of Rys. and colour it with alkenet and messe it forth. and florish it with Pomme garnet. If þou wilt in flesshe day. seeþ Capouns and take the brawnn and tese hem smal and do þerto. and make the lico  of þis broth.
 Sawse Sarzyne. Sause. Contents. Saracen, we prefume, from the
nation or people. There is a Recipe in Ms. Ed. No. 54 for a Bruet of
Sarcynesse, but there are no pomgranates concerned.
 lico. liquor.
CRèME OF ALMAUNDES. XX.IIII. V.
Take Almaundes blaunched, grynde hem and drawe hem up thykke, set hem ouer the fyre & boile hem. set hem adoun and spryng  hem wicii Vyneger, cast hem abrode uppon a cloth and cast uppon hem sugur. whan it is colde gadre it togydre and leshe it in dysshes.
 spryng. sprinkle.
GREWEL OF ALMAUNDES. XX.IIII. VI.
Take Almaundes blaunched, bray hem with oot meel . and draw hem up with water. cast þeron Safroun & salt &c.
 oot meel. oat-meal.
CAWDEL OF ALMAUND MYLK. XX.IIII. VII.
Take Almaundes blaunched and drawe hem up with wyne, do þerto powdour of gyngur and sugur and colour it with Safroun. boile it and serue it forth.
JOWTES  OF ALMAUND MYLKE. XX.IIII. VIII.
Take erbes, boile hem, hewe hem and grynde hem smale. and drawe hem up with water. set hem on the fire and seeþ the rowtes with the mylke. and cast þeron sugur & salt. & serue it forth.
 Jowtes. V. ad No. 60.
FYGEY . XX.IIII. IX.
Take Almaundes blanched, grynde hem and drawe hem up with water and wyne: quarter fygur hole raisouns. cast þerto powdour gyngur and hony clarified. seeþ it wel & salt it, and serue forth.
 Fygey. So named from the figs therein used. A different Recipe, Ms. Ed. No. 3, has no figs.
POCHEE . XX.IIII. X.
Take Ayrenn and breke hem in scaldyng hoot water. and whan þei bene sode ynowh. take hem up and take zolkes of ayren and rawe mylke and swyng hem togydre, and do þerto powdour gyngur safroun and salt, set it ouere the fire, and lat it not boile, and take ayrenn isode & cast þe sew onoward. & serue it forth.
 Pochee. Poached eggs. Very different from the present way.
BREWET OF AYRENN. XX.IIII. XI.
Take ayrenn, water and butter, and seeþ hem yfere with safroun and gobettes of chese. wryng ayrenn thurgh a straynour. whan the water hath soden awhile: take þenne the ayrenn and swyng hem with verious. and cast þerto. set it ouere the fire and lat it not boile. and serue it forth.
MACROWS . XX.IIII. XII.
Take and make a thynne foyle of dowh. and kerve it on peces, and cast hem on boillyng water & seeþ it wele. take chese and grate it and butter cast bynethen and above as losyns. and serue forth.
 Macrows. Maccherone, according to the Recipe in Altieri, corresponds nearly enough with our process; so that this title seems to want mending, and yet I know not how to do it to satisfaction.
TOSTEE . XX.IIII. XIII.
Take wyne and hony and found it  togyder and skym it clene. and seeþ it long, do þerto powdour of gyngur. peper and salt, tost brede and lay the sew þerto. kerue pecys of gyngur and flour it þerwith and messe it forth.
 Tostee. So called from the toasted bread.  found it. mix it.
GYNGAWDRY . XX.IIII. XIIII.
Take the Powche  and the Lyuour  of haddok, codlyng and hake  and of ooþer fisshe, parboile hem, take hem and dyce hem small, take of the self broth and wyne, a layour of brede of galyntyne with gode powdours and salt, cast þat fysshe þerinne and boile it. & do þerto amydoun. & colour it grene.
 Gyngawdry. Qu.  Powche. Crop or stomach.  Lyuour. Liver. V. No. 137.  Hake. "Asellus alter, sive Merlucius, Aldrov." So Mr. Ray. See Pennant, III. p. 156.
ERBOWLE . XX.IIII. XV.
Take bolas and scald hem with wyne and drawe hem with  a straynour do hem in a pot, clarify hony and do þerto with powdour fort. and flour of Rys. Salt it & florish it with whyte aneys. & serue it forth.
 Erbowle. Perhaps from the Belas, or Bullace employed.  with, i.e. thurgh or thorough.
RESMOLLE . XX.IIII. XVI.
Take Almaundes blaunched and drawe hem up with water and alye it with flour of Rys and do þerto powdour of gyngur sugur and salt, and loke it be not stondyng , messe it and serue it forth.
 Resmolle. From the Rice there used; for Ms. Ed. II. No. 5. has
Rysmoyle, where moyle seems to be Fr. moile, as written also in
the Roll. Rice molens potage. Lel. Coll. VI. p. 26.
 Not stondyng. Thin, diluted. V. No. 98. Not to [too] stondyng,
VYAUNDE CYPRE . XX.IIII. XVII.
Take oot mele and pike out the stones and grynde hem smal, and drawe hem thurgh a straynour. take mede oþer wyne ifonded in sugur and do þise þerinne. do þerto powdour and salt, and alay it with flour of Rys and do þat it be stondyng. if thou wilt on flesh day; take hennes and pork ysode & grynde hem smale and do þerto. & messe it forth.
 Cypre. Cipre, Contents here and No. 98.
VYANDE CYPRE OF SAMOUN . XX.IIII. XVIII.
Take Almandes and bray hem unblaunched. take calwar  Samoun and seeþ it in lewe water  drawe up þyn Almandes with the broth. pyke out the bones out of the fyssh clene & grynde it small & cast þy mylk & þat togyder & alye it with flour of Rys, do þerto powdour fort, sugur & salt & colour it with alkenet & loke þat hit be not stondyng and messe it forth.
 Samoun. Salmon.
 calwar. Salwar, No. 167. R. Holme says, "Calver is a term used to a Flounder when to be boiled in oil, vinegar, and spices and to be kept in it." But in Lancashire Salmon newly taken and immediately
dressed is called Calver Salmon: and in Littleton Salar is a young salmon.
 lewe water. warm. V. Gloss.
VYANND RYAL. XX.IIII. XIX.
Take wyne greke, oþer rynysshe wyne and hony clarified þerwith. take flour of rys powdour of Gyngur oþ of peper & canel. oþer flour of canel. powdour of clowes, safroun. sugur cypre. mylberyes, oþer saundres. & medle alle þise togider. boile it and salt it. and loke þat it be stondyng.
COMPOST . C.
Take rote of parsel. pasternak of rasenns . scrape hem waisthe hem clene. take rapes & caboches ypared and icorne . take an erthen panne with clene water & set it on the fire. cast all þise þerinne. whan þey buth boiled cast þerto peeres & parboile hem wel. take þise thynges up & lat it kele on a fair cloth, do þerto salt whan it is colde in a vessel take vineger & powdour & safroun & do þerto. & lat alle þise thinges lye þerin al nyzt oþer al day, take wyne greke and hony clarified togider lumbarde mustard & raisouns corance al hool. & grynde powdour of canel powdour douce. & aneys hole. & fenell seed. take alle þise thynges & cast togyder in a pot of erthe. and take þerof whan þou wilt & serue forth.
 Compost. A composition to be always ready at hand. Holme, III. p. 78. Lel. Coll. VI. p. 5.  Pasternak of rasenns. Qu.  ypared and icorne. The first relates to the Rapes, the second to the Caboches, and means carved or cut in pieces.
GELE  OF FYSSH. C. I.
Take Tenches, pykes , eelys, turbut and plays , kerue hem to pecys. scalde hem & waische hem clene. drye hem with a cloth do hem in a panne do þerto half vyneger & half wyne & seeþ it wel. & take the Fysshe and pike it clene, cole the broth thurgh a cloth into a erthen panne. do þerto powdour of pep and safroun ynowh. lat it seeþ and skym it wel whan it is ysode dof  grees clene, cowche fisshes on chargeours & cole the sewe thorow a cloth onoward & serue it forth.
 Gele. Jelly. Gelee, Contents here and in the next Recipe.
Gely, Ms. Ed. No. 55, which presents us with much the same
 It is commonly thought this fish was not extant in England till
the reign of H. VIII.; but see No. 107. 109. 114. So Lucys, or Tenchis,
Ms. Ed. II 1. 3. Pygus or Tenchis, II. 2. Pikys, 33 Chaucer, v. Luce;
and Lel. Coll. IV. p. 226. VI. p. 1. 5. Luce salt. Ibid. p. 6. Mr.
Topham's Ms. written about 1230, mentions Lupos aquaticos five
Luceas amongst the fish which the fishmonger was to have in his shop.
They were the arms of the Lucy family so early as Edw. I. See also
Pennant's Zool. III. p. 280, 410.
 Plays. Plaise, the fish.
 Dof, i. e. do of.
GELE OF FLESSH. C. II.
Take swyner feet & snowter and the eerys . capouns. connynges calues fete. & wiasche hem clene. & do hem to seeþ in the þriddel  of wyne & vyneger and water and make forth as bifore.
 Eerys. Ears.  Thriddel. V. ad No. 67.
CHYSANNE . C. III.
Take Roches. hole Tenches and plays & sinyte hem to gobettes. fry hem in oyle blaunche almaundes. fry hem & cast wyne & of vyneger þer pridde part þerwith fyges drawen & do þerto powdour fort and salt. boile it. lay the Fisshe in an erthen panne cast the sewe þerto. seeþ oynouns ymynced & cast þerinne. kepe hit and ete it colde.
 Chysanne. Qu.
CONGUR  IN SAWSE. C. IIII.
Take the Conger and scald hym. and smyte hym in pecys & seeþ hym. take parsel. mynt. peleter. rosmarye. & a litul sawge. brede and salt, powdour fort and a litel garlec, clower a lite, take and grynd it wel, drawe it up with vyneger thurgh a clot. cast the fyssh in a vessel and do þe sewe onoward & serue it forth.
 Congur. The Eel called Congre. Sawce, Contents here, and No. 105, 106.
RYGH  IN SAWSE. C. V.
Take Ryghzes and make hem clene and do hem to seeþ, pyke hem clene and frye hem in oile. take Almandes and grynde hem in water or wyne, do þerto almandes blaunched hole fryed in oile. & coraunce seeþ the lyour grynde it smale & do þerto garlec ygronde & litel salt & verious powdour fort & safroun & boile it yfere, lay the Fysshe in a vessel and cast the fewe þerto. and messe it forth colde.
 Rygh. A Fish, and probably the Ruffe.
MAKEREL IN SAWSE. C. VI.
Take Makerels and smyte hem on pecys. cast hem on water and various. seeþ hem with mynter and wiþ oother erbes, colour it grene or zelow, and messe it forth.
PYKES IN BRASEY . C. VII.
Take Pykes and undo hem on þe wombes  and waisshe hem clene and lay hem on a roost Irne  þenne take gode wyne and powdour gynger & sugur good wone  & salt, and boile it in an erthen panne & messe forth þe pyke & lay the sewe onoward.
 Brasey. Qu.  Wombs. bellies.  roost Irene. a roasting iron.  good wone. a good deal. V. Gloss.
PORPEYS IN BROTH. C. VIII.
Make as þou madest Noumbles of Flesh with oynouns.
BALLOC  BROTH. C. IX.
Take Eelys and hilde  hem and kerue hem to pecys and do hem to seeþ in water and wyne so þat it be a litel ouer stepid . do þerto sawge and ooþer erbis with few  oynouns ymynced, whan the Eelis buth soden ynowz do hem in a vessel, take a pyke and kerue it to gobettes and seeþ hym in the same broth do þerto powdour gynger galyngale canel and peper, salt it and cast the Eelys þerto & messe it forth.
 Balloc. Ballok, Contents.  hilde. skin.  on stepid. steeped therein. V. No. 110.  few, i.e. a few.
ELES IN BREWET. C. X.
Take Crustes of brede and wyne and make a lyour, do þerto oynouns ymynced, powdour. & canel. & a litel water and wyne. loke þat it be stepid, do þerto salt, kerue þin Eelis & seeþ hem wel and serue hem forth.
CAWDEL OF SAMOUN C.XI.
Take the guttes of Samoun and make hem clene. perboile hem a lytell. take hem up and dyce hem. slyt the white of Lekes and kerue hem smale. cole the broth and do the lekes þerinne with oile and lat it boile togyd yfere . do the Samoun icorne þerin, make a lyour of Almaundes mylke & of brede & cast þerto spices, safroun and salt,
seeþ it wel. and loke þat it be not stondyng.
 togyd yfere. One of these should be struck out.
PLAYS IN CYEE. C.XII.
Take Plays and smyte hem  to pecys and fry hem in oyle. drawe a lyour of brede & gode broth & vyneger. and do þerto powdour gynger. canel. peper and salt and loke þat it be not stondyng.
 Vide No. 104. Qu.
FOR TO MAKE FLAUMPEYNS. C. XIII.
Take clene pork and boile it tendre. þenne hewe it small and bray it smal in a morter. take fyges and boile hem tendre in smale ale. and bray hem and tendre chese þerwith. þenne waisthe hem in water & þene lyes  hem alle togider wit Ayrenn, þenne take powdour of pepper. or els powdour marchannt & ayrenn and a porcioun of safroun and salt. þenne take blank sugur. eyrenn & flour & make a past wit a roller, þene make þerof smale pelettes . & fry hem broun in clene grece & set hem asyde. þenne make of þat ooþer deel  of þat past long coffyns  & do þat comade  þerin. and close hem faire with a countoer , & pynche hem smale about. þanne kyt aboue foure oþer sex wayes, þanne take euy  of þat kuttyng up, & þenne colour it wit zolkes of Ayrenn, and plannt hem thick, into the flaumpeyns above þat þou kuttest hem & set hem in an ovene and lat hem bake eselich . and þanne serue hem forth.
 lyer. mix.  Pelettes. Pelotys Ms. Ed. No. 16. Balls, pellets, from Fr. pelote.  deel. deal, i.e. part, half.  Coffyns. Pies without lids.  comade. Qu.  coutour. coverture, a lid.  euy. every.  eselich. easily, gently.
FOR TO MAKE NOUMBLES IN LENT. C. XIIII.
Take the blode of pykes oþer of conger and nyme  the paunches of pykes. of conger and of grete code lyng , & boile hem tendre & mynce hem smale & do hem in þat blode. take crustes of white brede & strayne it thurgh a cloth. þenne take oynouns iboiled and mynced. take peper and safroun. wyne. vynegur aysell  oþer alegur & do þerto & serue forth.
 nyme. take. Perpetually used in Ms. Ed. from Sax. niman.  code lyng. If a Codling be a small cod, as we now understand it, great codling seems a contradiction in terms.  Aysell. Eisel, vinegar. Littleton.
FOR TO MAKE CHAWDON  FOR LENT. C. XV.
Take blode of gurnardes and congur & þe paunch of gurnardes and boile hem tendre & mynce hem smale, and make a lyre of white Crustes and oynouns ymynced, bray it in a morter & þanne boile it togyder til it be stondyng. þenne take vynegur oþ aysell & safroun & put it þerto and serue it forth.
 Chawdoun. V. Gloss.
FURMENTE WITH PORPEYS. C. XVI.
Take clene whete and bete it small in a morter and fanne out clene the doust, þenne waisthe it clene and boile it tyl it be tendre and broun. þanne take the secunde mylk of Almaundes & do þerto. boile hem togidur til it be stondyng, and take þe first mylke & alye it up wiþ a penne . take up the porpays out of the Furmente & leshe hem in a dishe with hoot water. & do safroun to þe furmente. and if the porpays be salt. seeþ it by hym self, and serue it forth.
 Penne. Feather, or pin. Ms. Ed. 28.
FYLETTES IN GALYTYNE. C. XVII.
Take Pork, and rost it tyl the blode be tryed out & þe broth . take crustes of brede and bray hem in a morter, an drawe hem thurgh a cloth with þe broth, þenne take oynouns an leshe hem on brede an do to the broth. þanne take pork, and leshe it clene with a dressyng knyf and cast it into þe pot broth, & lat it boile til it be more tendre. þanne take þat lyour þerto. þanne take a porcion of peper and saundres & do þerto. þanne take parsel & ysope & mynce it smale & do þerto. þanne take rede wyne oþer white grece & raysouns & do þerto. & lat it boile a lytel.
 the broth. Supposed to be prepared beforehand.
VEEL IN BUKNADE . C. XVIII.
Take fayr Veel and kyt it in smale pecys and boile it tendre in fyne broth oþer in water. þanne take white brede oþer wastel , and drawe þerof a white … lyour wiþ fyne broth, and do þe lyour to the Veel, & do safroun þerto, þanne take parsel & bray it in a morter & the Juys  þerof do þerto, and þanne is þis half zelow & half grene. þanne take a porcioun of wyne & powdour marchant & do þerto and lat it boile wele, and do þerto a litel of  vynegur. & serue forth.
 Buknade. V. No. 17.  Wastel. V. Gloss.  Juys. Juice.  litel of vynegur. We say, a little vinegar, omitting of. So 152, a lytull of lard.
SOOLES IN CYNEE . C. XIX.
Take Sooles and hylde hem, seeþ hem in water, smyte hem on pecys and
take away the fynnes. take oynouns iboiled & grynde the fynnes þerwith and brede. drawe it up with the self broth. do þerto powdour fort, safroun & hony clarified with salt, seeþ it alle yfere. broile the sooles & messe it in dysshes & lay the sewe above. & serue forth.
 Cynee. Cyney, Contents, both here and No. 120. 123. See before, No. 25.
TENCHES IN CYNEE. XX.VI.
Take Tenches and smyte hem to pecys, fry hem, drawe a lyour of Raysouns coraunce witþ wyne and water, do þerto hool raisouns & powdour of gyngur of clowes of canel of peper do the Tenches þerto & seeþ hem with sugur cypre & salt. & messe forth.
OYSTERS IN GRAVEY. XX.VI. I.
Schyl  Oysters and seeþ hem in wyne and in hare  own broth. cole the broth thurgh a cloth. take almandes blaunched, grynde hem and drawe hem up with the self broth. & alye it wiþ flour of Rys. and do the oysters þerinne, cast in powdour of gyngur, sugur, macys. seeþ it not to stondyng and serue forth.
 shell, take of the shells.  hare. their. her. No. 123. Chaucer.
MUSKELS  IN BREWET. XX.VI. II.
Take muskels, pyke hem, seeþ hem with the owne broth, make a lyour of crustes  & vynegur do in oynouns mynced. & cast the muskels þerto & seeþ it. & do þerto powdour with a lytel salt & safron the samewise make of oysters.
 Muskles. muskels below, and the Contents. Muscles.  crustes. i.e. of bread.
OYSTERS IN CYNEE. XX.VI. III.
Take Oysters parboile hem in her owne broth, make a lyour of crustes
of brede & drawe it up wiþ the broth and vynegur mynce oynouns & do þerto with erbes. & cast the oysters þerinne. boile it. & do þerto powdour fort & salt. & messe it forth.
CAWDEL OF MUSKELS. XX.VI. IIII.
Take and seeþ muskels, pyke hem clene, and waisshe hem clene in wyne. take almandes & bray hem. take somme of the muskels and grynde hem. & some hewe smale, drawe the muskels yground with the self broth. wryng the almaundes with faire water. do alle þise togider. do þerto verious and vyneger. take whyte of lekes & parboile hem wel. wryng oute the water and hewe hem smale. cast oile þerto with oynouns parboiled & mynced smale do þerto powdour fort, safroun and salt. a lytel seeþ it not to to  stondyng & messe it forth.
 to to, i. e. too too. Vide No. 17.
MORTREWS OF FYSSH. XX.VI. V.
Take codlyng, haddok, oþ hake and lynours with the rawnes  and seeþ it wel in water. pyke out þe bones, grynde smale the Fysshe, drawe a lyour of almaundes & brede with the self broth. and do the Fysshe grounden þerto. and seeþ it and do þerto powdour fort, safroun and salt, and make it stondyng.
 rawnes. roes.
LAUMPREYS IN GALYNTYNE. XX.VI. VI.
Take Laumpreys and sle  hem with vynegur oþer with white wyne & salt, scalde hem in water. slyt hem a litel at þer nauel…. & rest a litel at the nauel. take out the guttes at the ende. kepe wele the blode. put the Laumprey on a spyt. roost hym & kepe wel the grece. grynde raysouns of coraunce. hym up  with vyneger. wyne. and crustes of brede. do þerto powdour of gyngur. of galyngale . flour of canel. powdour of clowes, and do þerto raisouns of coraunce hoole. with þe blode & þe grece. seeþ it & salt it, boile it not to stondyng, take up the Laumprey do hym in a chargeour , & lay þe sewe onoward, & serue hym forth.
 sle. slay, kill.  hym up. A word seems omitted; drawe or lye.  of galyngale, i. e. powder. V. No. 101.  Chargeour. charger or dish. V. No. 127.
LAUMPROUNS IN GALYNTYNE. XX.VI. VII.
Take Lamprouns and scalde hem. seeþ hem, meng powdour galyngale and some of the broth togyder & boile it & do þerto powdour of gyngur & salt. take the Laumprouns & boile hem & lay hem in dysshes. & lay the sewe above. & serue fort.
LOSEYNS  IN FYSSH DAY. XX.VI. VIII.
Take Almandes unblaunched and waisthe hem clene, drawe hem up with water. seeþ þe mylke & alye it up with loseyns. cast þerto safroun. sugur. & salt & messe it forth with colyandre in confyt rede, & serue it forth.
 Loseyns. Losyns, Contents.
SOWPER OF GALYNTYNE . XX.VI. IX.
Take powdour of galyngale with sugur and salt and boile it yfere. take brede ytosted. and lay the sewe onoward. and serue it forth.
 Sowpes of Galyntyne. Contents has in, recte. Sowpes means
SOBRE SAWSE. XX.VI. X.
Take Raysouns, grynde hem with crustes of brede; and drawe it up with wyne. do þerto gode powdours and salt. and seeþ it. fry roches, looches, sool, oþer ooþer gode Fyssh, cast þe sewe above, & serue it forth.
COLD BREWET. XX.VI. XI.
Take crome  of almaundes. dry it in a cloth. and whan it is dryed do it in a vessel, do þerto salt, sugur, and white powdour of gyngur and Juys of Fenel and wyne. and lat it wel stonde. lay full & messe & dresse it forth.
 crome. crumb, pulp.
PEERES  IN CONFYT. XX.VI. XII.
Take peeres and pare hem clene. take gode rede wyne & mulberes  oþer saundres and seeþ þe peeres þerin & whan þei buth ysode, take hem up, make a syryp of wyne greke. oþer vernage  with blaunche powdour oþer white sugur and powdour gyngur & do the peres þerin. seeþ it a lytel & messe it forth.
 Peeres. pears.  mulberes. mulberries, for colouring.  Vernage. Vernaccia, a sort of Italian white wine. V. Gloss.
EGURDOUCE  OF FYSSHE. XX.VI. XIII.
Take Loches oþer Tenches oþer Solys smyte hem on pecys. fry hem in oyle. take half wyne half vynegur and sugur & make a siryp. do þerto oynouns icorue  raisouns coraunce. and grete raysouns. do þerto hole spices. gode powdours and salt. messe þe fyssh & lay þe sewe aboue and serue forth.
 Egurdouce. Vide Gloss.  icorue, icorven. cut. V. Gloss.
COLDE BREWET. XX.VI. XIIII.
Take Almaundes and grynde hem. take the tweydel  of wyne oþer the þriddell of vynegur. drawe up the Almaundes þerwith. take anys sugur & branches of fenel grene a fewe. & drawe hem up togyder with þer mylke take poudour of canell. of gyngur. clowes. & maces hoole. take kydde oþer chikenns oþer flessh. & choppe hem small and seeþ hem. take all þis flessh whan it is sodenn & lay it in a clene vessel & boile þer sewe & cast þerto salt. þenne cast al þis in þe pot with flesh. &ter. 
 Tweydel. Two parts.  &ter. i. e. serue forth.
PEVORAT  FOR VEEL AND VENYSOUN. XX.VI. XV.
Take Brede & fry it in grece. drawe it up with broth and vynegur, take þerto powdour of peper & salt and sette it on the fyre. boile it and messe it forth.
 Pevorat. Peverade, from the pepper of which it is principally composed.
SAWSE  BLAUNCHE FOR CAPOUNS YSODE. XX.VI. XVI.
Take Almandes blaunched and grynd hem al to doust. temper it up with verions and powdour or gyngyner and messe it forth.
 Sawse. Sawce, Contents. As No. 137.
SAWSE NOYRE FOR CAPOUNS YROSTED. XX.VI. XVII.
Take the lyuer of Capons and roost it wel. take anyse and greynes de Parys . gyngur. canel. & a lytill crust of brede and grinde it smale. and grynde it up with verions. and witþ grece of Capouns. boyle it and serue it forth.
 de Parys. Of Paradise. V. Pref.
GALYNTYNE . XX.VI. XVIII.
Take crustes of Brede and grynde hem smale, do þerto powdour of galyngale, of canel, of gyngyner and salt it, tempre it with vynegur and drawe it up þurgh a straynour & messe it forth.
 Galyntyne. Galentyne, Contents.
GYNGENER . XX.VI. XIX.
Take payndemayn and pare it clene and funde it in Vinegur, grynde it and temper it wiþ Vynegur, and with powdour gyngur and salt, drawe it thurgh a straynour. and serue forth.
 Gyngener. From the powder of Ginger therein used.
VERDE  SAWSE. XX.VII.
Take parsel. mynt. garlek. a litul serpell  and sawge, a litul canel. gyngur. piper. wyne. brede. vynegur & salt grynde it smal with
safroun & messe it forth.
 Verde. It has the sound of Green-sauce, but as there is no Sorel in it, it is so named from the other herbs.  a litul serpell. Wild thyme.
SAWSE NOYRE FOR MALARD. XX.VII. I.
Take brede and blode iboiled. and grynde it and drawe it thurgh a cloth with Vynegur, do þerto powdour of gyngur ad of peper. & þe grece of the Maulard. salt it. boile it wel and serue it forth.
CAWDEL FOR GEES. XX.VII. II.
Take garlec and grynde it smale. Safroun and flour þerwith & salt. and temper it up with Cowe Mylke. and seeþ it wel and serue it forth.
CHAWDOUN  FOR SWANNES XX.VII. III.
Take þe lyuer and þe offall  of the Swannes & do it to seeþ in gode broth. take it up. take out þe bonys. take & hewe the flessh smale. make a Lyour of crustes of brede & of þe blode of þe Swan ysoden. & do þerto powdour of clowes & of piper & of wyne & salt, & seeþ it & cast þe flessh þerto ihewed. and messe it forth with þe Swan.
 Chawdoun. V. Gloss.  offall. Exta, Gibles.
SAWSE CAMELYNE . XX.VII. IIII.
Take Raysouns of Coraunce. & kyrnels of notys. & crustes of brede & powdour of gyngur clowes flour of canel. bray it  wel togyder and do it þerto. salt it, temper it up with vynegur. and serue it forth.
 Camelyne. Qu. if Canelyne from the Fluor of Canel?  bray. bray.
LUMBARD MUSTARD. XX.VII. V.
Take Mustard seed and waishe it & drye it in an ovene, grynde it drye. farse it thurgh a farse. clarifie hony with wyne & vynegur & stere it wel togedrer and make it thikke ynowz. & whan þou wilt spende þerof make it tnynne with wyne.
NOTA. XX.VII. VI.
Cranes  and Herouns shul be armed  with lardes of Swyne. and eten with gyngur.
 Cranes. A dish frequent formerly at great tables. Archæologia,
II. p. 171. mentioned with Herons, as here, Ms. Ed. 3. where the same
Recipe occurs. et v. Lel. Coll. IV. p. 226. VI. p. 38. Rabelais, IV.
c. 59. E. of Devon's Feast.
 armed. Ms. Ed. No. 3. has enarmed, as may be read there.
Enarmed, however, in Lel. Collect. IV. p. 225. means, decorated
with coate of arms. Sheldes of Brawn are there in armor, p. 226.
However, there is such a word as enorned. Leland, p. 280. 285. 297.
which approaches nearer.
NOTA. XX.VII. VII.
Pokok and Partruch shul be parboiled. lardid and rosted. and eten with gyngeuer.
FRY BLAUNCHED. XX.VII. VIII.
Take Almandes blaunched and grynde hem al to doust, do þise in a thynne foile. close it þerinnne fast. and fry it in Oile. clarifie hony with Wyne. & bake it þerwith.
FRYTOUR OF PASTERNAKES OF APPLES . XX.VII. IX.
Take skyrwater and pasternakes and apples, & parboile hem, make a batour of flour and ayrenn, cast þerto ale. safroun & salt. wete hem in þe batour and frye hem in oile or in grece. do þerto Almaund Mylk. & serue it forth.
 Frytour, &c. Contents has only, Frytours of Pasternakes. N. B. Frytour is Fritter.
FRYTOUR OF MYLKE. XX.VII. X.
Take of cruddes  and presse out þe wheyze . do þerto sum whyte of ayrenn. fry hem. do þerto. & lay on sugur and messe forth.
 Cruddes. Curds, per metathesin.  wheyze. whey.
FRYTOUR OF ERBES. XX.VII. XI.
Take gode erbys. grynde hem and medle  hem with flour and water & a lytel zest and salt, and frye hem in oyle. and ete hem with clere hony.
 medle. mix.
RASYOLS . XX.VII. XII.
Take swyne lyuoers and seeþ hem wel. take brede & grate it. and take zolkes of ayrenn. & make hit sowple  and do þerto a lytull of lard carnoun lyche a dee . chese gratyd  & whyte grece. powdour douce & of gyngur & wynde it to balles  as grete as apples. take þe calle of þe swyne & cast euere  by hym self þerin. Make a Crust in a trape . and lay þe ball þerin & bake it. and whan þey buth ynowz: put þerin a layour of ayrenn with powdour fort and Safroun. and serue it forth.
 Rasyols. Rasiowls, Contents. Qu. the etymen.  sowple. supple.  carnoun lyche a dee. Cut like dice, diced. Fr. De; singular of Dice.  gratyd. grated. igrated, No. 153.  wynde it to balles, make it into Balls.  euere. each.  trape. pan, or dish. French.
WHYTE MYLATES . XX.VII. XIII.
Take Ayrenn and wryng hem thurgh a cloth. take powdour fort, brede igrated, & safroun, & cast þerto a gode quantite of vynegur with a litull salt, medle all yfere. make a foile in a trape & bake it wel þerinne. and serue it forth.
 Mylates. Contents, Milates; but 155 as here. Qu.
CRUSTARDES  OF FLESSH. XX.VII. XIIII.
Take peiouns , chykens, and smale briddes smyte hem in gobettes. & seeþ hem alle ifere in god broþ wiþ veriaws  do þerto safroun, make a crust in a trape. and pynche it. & cowche þe flessh þerinne. & cast þerinne Raisouns coraunce. powdour douce and salt. breke ayrenn and wryng hem thurgh a cloth & swyng þe sewe of þe stewe þerwith and helde it  uppon the flessh. couere it & bake it wel. and serue it forth.
 Crustards. Pies.  peiouns. pigeons. V. ad No. 48.  veriaws. Verjuice.  helde it. pour, cast.
MYLATES OF PORK. XX.VII. XV.
Hewe Pork al to pecys and medle it with ayrenn & chese igrated. do þerto powdour fort safroun & pyneres  with salt, make a crust in a trape, bake it wel þerinne, and serue it forth.
 pyneres. Vide Pref.
CRUSTARDES OF FYSSHE. XX.VII. XVI.
Take loches, laumprouns, and Eelis. smyte hem on pecys, and stewe hem wiþ Almaund Mylke and verions, frye the loches in oile as tofore. and lay þe fissh þerinne. cast þeron powdour fort powdour douce. with raysons coraunce & prunes damysyns. take galyntyn and þe sewe þerinne, and swyng it togyder and cast in the trape. & bake it and serue it forth.
CRUSTARDES OF EERBIS  ON FYSSH DAY. XX.VII. XVII.
Take gode Eerbys and grynde hem smale with wallenotes pyked clene. a grete portioun. lye it up almost wiþ as myche verions as water. seeþ it wel with powdour and Safroun withoute Salt. make a crust in a trape and do þe fyssh þerinne unstewed wiþ a litel oile & gode Powdour. whan it is half ybake do þe sewe þerto & bake it up. If þou wilt make it clere of Fyssh seeþ ayrenn harde. & take out þe zolkes & grinde hem with gode powdours. and alye it up with gode stewes  and serue it forth.
 Erbis. Rather Erbis and Fissh.  stewes. V. No. 170.
LESSHES  FRYED IN LENTON . XX.VII. XVIII.
Drawe a thick almaunde Mylke wiþ water. take dates and pyke hem clene with apples and peeres & mynce hem with prunes damysyns. take out þe stones out of þe prunes. & kerue the prunes a two. do þerto Raisouns sugur. flour of canel. hoole macys and clowes. gode powdours & salt. colour hem up with saundres. meng þise with oile, make a coffyn as þou didest bifore & do þis Fars  þerin. and bake it wel and serue it forth.
 Leshes. V. Leche Lumbard in Gloss.  lenton. Lentoun, Contents, i. e. Lent.  Fars. Vide Gloss.
WASTELS YFARCED. XX.VII. XIX.
Take a Wastel and hewe out þe crummes. take ayrenn & shepis talow & þe crummes of þe same Wastell powdour fort & salt with Safroun and Raisouns coraunce. & medle alle þise yfere & do it in þe Wastel. close it & bynde it fast togidre. and seeþ it wel.
SAWGE YFARCED. XX.VIII.
Take sawge. grynde it and temper it up with ayrenn. a saweyster  & kerf hym to gobettes and cast it in a possynet. and do þerwiþ grece & frye it. Whan it is fryed ynowz cast þerto sawge with ayren make it not to harde. cast þerto powdour douce, messe it forth. If it be in Ymber day; take sauge butter & ayrenn. and lat it stonde wel by þe sause , & serue it forth.
 saweyster. Qu.  stonde wel by the sause. Become thick with the sawce.
SAWGEAT . XX.VIII. I.
Take Pork and seeþ it wel and grinde it smale and medle it wiþ ayren & brede. ygrated. do þerto powdour fort and safroun with pyner & salt. take & close litull Balles in foiles  of sawge. wete it with a batour of ayren & fry it. & serue it forth.
 Sawgeat. So named from the Sage, or Sawge  foiles. leaves.
CRYSPES . XX.VIII. II.
Take flour of pandemayn and medle it with white grece ouer the fyrer in a chawfour  and do the batour þerto queyntlich  þurgh þy fyngours. or thurgh a skymour. and lat it a litul  quayle  a litell so þe þer be hool þerinne. And if þer wilt colour it wiþ alkenet yfoundyt. take hem up & cast þerinne sugur, and serue hem forth.
 Cryspes. Ms. Ed. No. 26. Cryppys, meaning Crisps, Chaucer having crips, by transposition, for crisp. In Kent p is commonly put before the s, as haps is hasp, waps is wasp. V. Junius. V. Happs, and Haspe, and Wasp.  chawfour. chaffing dish.  quentlich'. nicely.  a litul. Dele.  quayle. an cool?
CRYSPELS. XX.VIII. III.
Take and make a foile of gode Past as thynne as Paper. kerue it out & fry it in oile. oþer in þe  grece and þe remnaunt , take hony clarified and flaunne  þerwith, alye hem up and serue hem forth.
 þe grece. Dele the.  þe remnant, i. e. as for the remnant.  flaunne. French flau, custard.
TARTEE. XX.VIII. IIII.
Take pork ysode. hewe it & bray it. do þerto ayrenn. Raisouns sugur and powdour of gyngur. powdour douce. and smale briddes þeramong & white grece. take prunes, safroun. & salt, and make a crust in a trape & do þer Fars  þerin. & bake it wel & serue it forth.
 þer Fars, r. þe Fars.
TART IN YMBRE  DAY. XX.VIII. V.
Take and parboile Oynouns presse out þe water & hewe hem smale. take brede & bray it in a morter. and temper it up with Ayren. do þerto butter, safroun and salt. & raisouns corauns. & a litel sugur with powdour douce. and bake it in a trape. & serue it forth.
 Ymbre. Ember.
TART DE BRY . XX.VIII. VI.
Take a Crust ynche depe in a trape. take zolkes of Ayren rawe & chese ruayn . & medle it & þe zolkes togyder. and do þerto powdour gyngur. sugur. safroun. and salt. do it in a trape, bake it and serue it forth.
 de Bry. Qu. Brie, the country.  Chese ruayn. Qu. of Roisen. V. ad 49.
TART DE BRYMLENT . XX.VIII. VII.
Take Fyges & Raysouns. & waisshe hem in Wyne. and grinde hem smale with apples & peres clene ypiked. take hem up and cast hem in a pot wiþ wyne and sugur. take salwar Salmoun  ysode. oþer codlyng, oþer haddok, & bray hem smal. & do þerto white powdours & hool spices. & salt. and seeþ it. and whanne it is sode ynowz. take it up and do it in a vessel and lat it kele. make a Coffyn an ynche depe & do þe fars þerin. Plaunt it boue  with prunes and damysyns. take þe stones out, and wiþ dates quarte rede  dand piked clene. and couere the coffyn, and bake it wel, and serue it forth.
 Brymlent. Perhaps Midlent or High Lent. Bryme, in Cotgrave, is
the midst of Winter. The fare is certainly lenten. A.S. [Anglo-
Saxon: bryme]. Solennis, or beginning of Lent, from A.S. [Anglo-Saxon:
brymm], ora, margo. Yet, after all, it may be a mistake for
 salwar Samoun. V. ad No. 98.
 plaunt it above. Stick it above, or on the top.
 quarte red. quartered.
TARTES OF FLESH . XX.VIII. VIII.
Take Pork ysode and grynde it smale. tarde  harde eyrenn isode & ygrounde and do þerto with Chese ygronde. take gode powdour and hool spices, sugur, safroun, and salt & do þerto. make a coffyn as to feel sayde  & do þis þerinne, & plaunt it with smale briddes istyned & counyng. & hewe hem to smale gobettes & bake it as tofore. & serue it forth.
 Tartes of Flesh. So we have Tarte Poleyn, Lel. Coll. IV. p. 226. i.e. of Pullen, or Poultry.  tarde, r. take. For see No. 169.  to feel sayde. perhaps, to hold the same.
TARTLETES. XX.VIII. IX.
Take Veel ysode and grinde it smale. take harde Eyrenn isode and yground & do þerto with prunes hoole . dates. icorue. pynes and Raisouns coraunce. hool spices & powdour. sugur. salt, and make a litell coffyn and do þis fars þerinne. & bake it & serue it forth.
 hoole, whole.
TARTES OF FYSSHE. XX.VIII. X.
Take Eelys and Samoun and smyte hem on pecys. & stewe it  in almaund mylke and verious. drawe up on almaund mylk wiþ þe stewe. Pyke out the bones clene of þe fyssh. and save þe myddell pece hoole of þe Eelys & grinde þat ooþer fissh smale. and do þerto powdour, sugur, & salt and grated brede. & fors þe Eelys þerwith þerer as  þe bonys were medle þe ooþer dele of the fars & þe mylk togider. and colour it with saundres. make a crust in a trape as before. and bake it þerin and serue it forth.
 it. rather hem, i.e. them.  þereras. where. V. No. 177.
SAMBOCADE . XX.VIII. XI.
Take and make a Crust in a trape. & take a cruddes and wryng out þe wheyze. and drawe hem þurgh a straynour and put in þe straynour crustes. do þerto sugur the þridde part & somdel  whyte of Ayrenn. & shake þerin blomes of elren . & bake it up with curose  & messe it forth.
 Sambucade. As made of the Sambucus, or Elder.  Somdel. Some.  Blom of Elren. Elder flowers.  curose.
ERBOLATES . XX.VIII. XII.
Take parsel, myntes , sauerey, & sauge, tansey, veruayn, clarry, rewe, ditayn, fenel, southrenwode, hewe hem & grinde hem smale, medle hem up with Ayrenn. do butter in a trape. & do þe fars þerto. & bake it & messe it forth.
 Erbolat, i.e. Herbolade, a confection of herbs.  myntes, mint.
NYSEBEK . XX.VIII. XIII.
Take þere þridde part of sowre Dokkes and flour þerto. & bete it togeder tyl it be as towh as eny lyme. cast þerto salt. & do it in a disshe holke  in þe bothom, and let it out wiþ þy finger queynchche  in a chowfer  wiþ oile. & frye it wel. and whan it is ynowhz: take it out and cast þerto suger &c.
 Nysebek. Qu.  holke. Qu. hollow.  queynchche. an queyntlich', as No. 162.  Chowfer. chaffing dish, as No. 162.
FOR TO MAKE POMME DORRYLE  AND OþER þNGES. XX.VIII. XIIII.
Take þe lire of Pork rawe. and grynde it smale. medle it up wiþ powdre fort, safroun, and salt, and do þerto Raisouns of Coraunce, make balles þerof. and wete it wele in white of ayrenn. & do it to seeþ in boillyng water. take hem up and put hem on a spyt. rost hem wel and take parsel ygronde and wryng it up with ayren & a party of flour. and lat erne  aboute þe spyt. And if þou wilt, take for parsel safroun, and serue it forth.
 Pomme dorryle. Contents, pom dorryes, rectè, for MS. Ed. 42, has Pommedorry; and see No. 177. So named from the balls and the gilding. "Pommes dorees, golden apples." Cotgrave. Poundorroye. MS. Ed. 58; but vide Dorry in Gloss.
 erne. Qu.
COTAGRES . XX.VIII. XV.
Take and make þe self fars . but do þerto pynes and sugur. take an hole rowsted cok, pulle hym  & hylde  hym al togyder saue þe legges. take a pigg and hilde  hym fro þe myddes dounward, fylle him ful of þe fars & sowe hym fast togider. do hym in a panne & seeþ hym wel. and whan þei bene isode: do hem on a spyt & rost it wele. colour it with zolkes of ayren and safroun, lay þeron foyles  of gold and of siluer. and serue hit forth.
 Cotagres. This is a sumptuous dish. Perhaps we should read Cokagres, from the cock and grees, or wild pig, therein used. V. vyne grace in Gloss.  self fars. Same as preceding Recipe.  pulle hym, i.e. in pieces.  hylde. cast.  hilde. skin.  foyles. leaves; of Laurel or Bay, suppose; gilt and silvered for ornament.
HERT ROWEE . XX.VIII. XVI.
Take þer mawe of þe grete Swyne. and fyfe oþer sex of pigges mawe. fyll hem full of þe self fars. & sowe hem fast, perboile hem. take hem up & make smale prews  of gode past and frye hem. take þese prews yfryed & seeþ  hem þicke in þe mawes on þe fars made after  an urchoun withoute legges. put hem on a spyt & roost hem & colour hem with safroun & messe hem forth.
 Hert rowee. Contents, Hart rows; perhaps from heart.  prews. Qu. V. in Gloss.  seeþ. There is a fault here; it means stick.  after, i. e. like.
POTEWS . XX.VIII. XVII.
Take Pottes of Erþe lytell of half a quart and fyll hem full of fars of pomme dorryes . oþer make with þyn honde. oþer in a moolde pottes of þe self fars. put hem in water & seeþ hem up wel. and whan þey buth ynowz. breke þe pottes of erþe & do þe fars on þe spyt & rost hem wel. and whan þei buth yrosted. colour hem as pomme dorryes. make of litull prewes  gode past, frye hem oþer rost hem wel in grece. & make þerof Eerys  to pottes & colour it. and make rosys  of gode past, & frye hem, & put þe steles  in þe hole þer  þe spyt was. & colour it with whyte. oþer rede. & serue it forth.
 Potews. probably from the pots employed.  pomme dorryes. Vide ad No. 174.  prewes. V. ad 176.  eerys. Ears for the pots. V. 185.  rosys. roses.  sleles. stalks.  þer. there, i.e. where. V. 170.
SACHUS . XX.VIII. XVIII.
Take smale Sachellis of canuas and fille hem full of þe same fars  & seeþ hem. and whan þey buth ynowz take of the canvas, rost hem & colour hem &c.
 Sachus. I suppose sacks.  same fars. viz. as 174.
BURSEWS . XX.VIII. XIX.
Take Pork, seeþ it and grynde it smale wiþ sodden ayren. do þerto gode powdours and hole spices and salt with sugur. make þerof smale balles, and cast hem in a batour  of ayren. & wete hem in flour. and frye hem in grece as frytours . and serue hem forth.
 Bursews. Different from Bursen in No. 11; therefore qu. etymon.  Batour. batter.  frytours. fritters.
SPYNOCHES  YFRYED. XX.IX.
Take Spynoches. perboile hem in seþyng water. take hem up and presse . . . out of þe water  and hem  in two. frye hem in oile clene. & do þerro powdour. & serue forth.
 Spynoches. Spinage, which we use in the singular.  out of the water. dele of; or it may mean, when out of the water.  hem r. hewe.
BENES YFRYED. XX.IX. I.
Take benes and seeþ hem almost til þey bersten. take and wryng out þer water clene. do þerto Oynouns ysode and ymynced. and garlec þerwith. frye hem in oile. oþer in grece. & do þerto powdour douce. & serue it forth.
RYSSHEWS  OF FRUYT. XX.IX. II.
Take Fyges and raisouns. pyke hem and waisshe hem in Wyne. grynde hem wiþ apples and peeres. ypared and ypiked clene. do þerto gode powdours. and hole spices. make bailes þerof. fryen in oile and serue hem forth.
 Rysshews. russhewses, Contents. Qu.
DARYOLS . XX.IX. III.
Take Creme of Cowe mylke. oþer of Almandes. do þerto ayren with sugur, safroun, and salt, medle it yfere. do it in a coffyn. of II. ynche depe. bake it wel and serue it forth,
 Daryols. Qu.
FLAUMPENS . XX.IX. IIII.
Take fat Pork ysode. pyke it clene. grynde it smale. grynde Chese & do þerto. wiþ sugur and gode powdours. make a coffyn of an ynche depe. and do þis fars þerin. make a thynne foile of gode past & kerue out þeroff smale poyntes . frye hem in fars . & bake it up &c.
 Flaumpeyns. Flaumpens, Contents. V. No. 113.  Points, seems the same as Prews, No. 176.  in fars, f. in the fars; and yet the Fars is disposed of before; ergo quære.
CHEWETES  ON FLESSHE DAY. XX.IX. V.
Take þer lire of Pork and kerue it al to pecys. and hennes þerwith and do it in a panne and frye it & make a Coffyn as to  a pye smale & do þerinne. & do þeruppon zolkes of ayrenn. harde. powdour of gyngur and salt, couere it & fry it in grece. oþer bake it wel and serue it forth.
 Chewets. V. 186.  as to, as for. V. No. 177.
CHEWETES ON FYSSH DAY. XX.IX. VI.
Take Turbut. haddok. Codlyng. and hake. and seeþ it. grynde it smale. and do þerto Dates. ygrounden. raysouns pynes. gode powdoer and salt. make a Coffyn as tofore saide. close þis þerin. and frye it in oile. oþer stue it in gyngur. sugur. oþer in wyne. oþer bake it. & serue forth.
HASTLETES  OF FRUYT. XX.IX. VII.
Take Fyges iquarterid . Raysouns hool dates and Almandes hoole. and ryne  hem on a spyt and roost hem. and endore  hem as pomme dorryes & serue hem forth.
 Hastletes. Hasteletes, Contents.  iquarterid. iquartered.  ryne. run.  endore. endorse, MS. Ed. 42. II. 6. v. ad 147.
COMADORE . XX.IX. VII.
Take Fyges and Raisouns. pyke hem and waisshe hem clene, skalde hem in wyne. grynde hem right smale, cast sugur in þe self wyne. and founde it togyder. drawe it up thurgh a straynour. & alye up þe fruyt þerwith. take gode peerys and Apples. pare hem and take þe best, grynde hem smale and cast þerto. set a pot on þe fuyrer  wiþ oyle and cast alle þise þynges þerinne. and stere it warliche, and kepe it wel fro brennyng. and whan it is fyned cast þerto powdours of gynger of canel. of galyngale. hool clowes flour of canel. & macys hoole. cast þerto pynes a litel fryed in oile & salt, and whan it is ynowz fyned: take it up and do it in a vessel & lat it kele. and whan it is colde: kerue out with a knyf smale pecys of þe gretnesse & of þe length of a litel fyngur. & close it fast in gode past. & frye hen in oile. & serue forth.
 Comadore. Qu.  Fuyr. fire.
CHASTLETES , XX.IX. IX.
Take and make a foyle of gode past with a roller of a foot brode. & lyngur by cumpas. make iiii Coffyns of þe self past uppon þe rolleres þe gretnesse of þe smale of þyn Arme. of vi ynche depnesse. make þe gretust  in þe myddell. fasten þe foile in þe mouth upwarde. & fasten þee  oþere foure in euery syde. kerue out keyntlich kyrnels  above in þe manere of bataiwyng  and drye hem harde in an Ovene. oþer in þe Sunne. In þe myddel Coffyn do a fars of Pork with gode Pork & ayrenn rawe wiþ salt. & colour it wiþ safroun and do in anoþer Creme of Almandes. and helde  it in anoþer  creme of Cowe mylke with ayrenn. colour it with saundres.
anoþur manur. Fars of Fygur. of raysouns. of Apples. of Peeres. & holde it in broun .
anoþer manere. do fars as to frytours blanched. and colour it with grene. put þis to þe ovene & bake it wel. & serue it forth with ew ardaunt .
 Chastelets. Litlle castles, as is evident from the kernelling and the battlements mentioned. Castles of jelly templewise made. Lel. Coll. IV. p. 227.  lynger. longer.  gretust. greatest.  þee, i. e. thou.  kyrnels. Battlements. V. Gloss. Keyntlich, quaintly, curiously. V. Gloss.  bataiwyng. embatteling.  helde. put, cast.  another. As the middle one and only two more are provided for, the two remaining were to be filled, I presume, in the same manner alternately.  holde it broun. make it brown.  ew ardaunt. hot water. Eau, water; anciently written eue.
FOR TO MAKE II.  PECYS OF FLESSH TO FASTEN TOGYDER. XX.IX. X.
Take a pece of fressh Flesh and do it in a pot for to seeþ. or take a pece of fressh Flessh and kerue it al to gobetes. do it in a pot to seeþ. & take þe wose  of comfery & put it in þe pot to þe flessh & it shal fasten anon, & so serue it forth.
 II. Twey, Contents.
 wose. Roots of comfrey are of a very glutinous nature. Quincy.
Dispens. p. 100. Wose is A.S. [Anglo-Saxon: paer], humour,
juice. See Junius. v. Wos, and Mr. Strype's Life of Stow, p. VIII.
PUR FAIT YPOCRAS . XX.IX. XI. Treys Unces de canett. & iii unces
de gyngeuer. spykenard de Spayn le pays dun denerer , garyngale . clowes, gylofre. poeurer long , noiez mugadez . maziozame  cardemonij  de chescun i. quart' douce  grayne &  de paradys stour de queynel  de chescun dim  unce de toutes, soit fait powdour &c.
 Pur fait Ypocras. Id est, Pour faire Ypocras; a whole pipe of which was provided for archbishop Nevill's feast about A.D. 1466, So that it was in vast request formerly.  le pays d'un denerer, i.e. le pays d'un Denier.  garyngale, i.e. galyngale.  poeurer long, r. poiurer long, i.e. poivre long.  mugadez, r. muscadez; but q. as the French is muguette. Nutmegs.  maziozame, r. marjorame.  Cardemonij, r. Cardamones.  quartdouce, r. d'once.. Five penny weights.  &. dele.  queynel. Perhaps Canell; but qu. as that is named before.  dim. dimid.
FOR TO MAKE BLANK MAUNGER . XX.IX. XII.
Put Rys in water al a nyzt and at morowe waisshe hem clene, afterward put hem to þe fyre fort  þey berst & not to myche. ssithen  take brawn of Capouns, or of hennes. soden & drawe  it smale. after take mylke of Almandes. and put in to þe Ryys & boile it. and whan it is yboiled put in þe brawn & alye it þerwith. þat it be wel chargeaunt  and mung it fynelich'  wel þat it sit not  to þe pot. and whan it is ynowz & chargeaunt. do þerto sugur gode part, put þerin almandes. fryed in white grece. & dresse it forth.
 blank maunger. Very different from that we make now. V. 36.  fyre fort. strong fire.  ssithen. then.  drawe. make.  chargeaunt. stiff. So below, ynowhz & chargeaunt. V.193, 194. V. Gloss.  mung it fynelich' wel. stir it very well.  sit not. adheres not, and thereby burns not. Used now in the North.
FOR TO MAKE BLANK DESNE . XX.IX. XIII.
Take Brawn of Hennes or of Capouns ysoden withoute þe skyn. & hewe hem as smale as þou may. & grinde hem in a morter. after take gode mylke of Almandes & put þe brawn þerin. & stere it wel togyder & do hem to seeþ. & take flour of Rys & amydoun & alay it. so þat it be chargeant. & do þerto sugur a gode party. & a party of white grece. and when it is put in disshes strewe uppon it blaunche powdour, and þenne put in blank desire and mawmenye  in disshes togider. And serue forth.
 blank Desne. Desire, Contents; rectè. V. Gloss. The Recipe in MS. Ed. 29 is much the same with this.  Mawmenye. See No. 194.
FOR TO MAKE MAWMENNY . XX.IX. XIIII. Take þe chese and of Flessh of Capouns or of Hennes. & hakke smale in a morter. take mylke of Almandes with þe broth of freissh Beef, oþer freissh flessh. & put the flessh in þe mylke oþer in the broth and set hem to þe frye . & alye hem up with flour of Ryse. or gastbon . or amydoun. as chargeant as with blanke desire. & with zolkes of ayren and safroun for to make it zelow. and when it is dressit in disshes with blank desire styk above clowes de gilofre. & strewe Powdour of galyngale above. and serue it forth.
 Mawmenny. Mawmoune, Contents. Maumene MS. Ed. 29. 30. vide No. 193. See Preface for a fac-simile of this Recipe.  þe frye. an fyre?  gastbon. Qu.
THE PETY PERUAUNT . XX.IX. XV. Take male Marow . hole parade  and kerue it rawe. powdour of Gynger. zolkes of Ayrenn, dates mynced. raisouns of coraunce. salt a lytel. & loke þat þou make þy past with zolkes of Ayren. & þat no water come þerto. and forme þy coffyn. and make up þy past.
 pety peruaunt. a paste; therefore, perhaps, paty; but qu. the latter word.  male Marow. Qu.  parade. Qu.
PAYN PUFF . XX.IX. XVI. Eodem modo fait payn puff. but make it more tendre þe past. and loke þe past be rounde of þe payn puf as a coffyn & a pye.
 Payn puff. Contents has, And the pete puant.
 A blank was left in the original for a large E.
THE FOLLOWING MEMORANDUM AT THE END OF THE ROLL.
"Antiquum hoc monumentum oblatum et missum est majestati vestræ vicesimo septimo die mensis Julij, anno regno vestri fælicissimi vicesimo viij ab humilimo vestro subdito, vestræque, majestati fidelissimo
EDWARD STAFFORD, Hæres domus subversæ Buckinghamiens."
N.B. He was Lord Stafford and called Edward.
Edw. D. of Bucks beheaded 1521. 13 H. VIII.
Henry, restored in blood by H. VIII.; and again
[1 Ed. VI.
Edw. aged 21, 1592; born 1592. 21. ob. 1525.
21 [f. 1625.
Edw. b. 1600. --
ANCIENT COOKERY. A.D. 1381.
Hic incipiunt universa servicia tam de carnibus quam de pissibus .
I. FOR TO MAKE FURMENTY .
Nym clene Wete and bray it in a morter wel that the holys  gon al of and seyt  yt til it breste and nym yt up. and lat it kele  and nym fayre fresch broth and swete mylk of Almandys or swete mylk of kyne and temper yt al. and nym the yolkys of eyryn . boyle it a lityl and set yt adoun and messe yt forthe wyth fat venyson and fresh moton.
 See again, No. I. of the second part of this treatise.  Hulls.  Miswritten for seyth or sethe, i.e. seeth.  cool.  eggs.
II. FOR TO MAKE PISE of ALMAYNE.
Nym wyte Pisyn and wasch hem and seth hem a good wyle sithsyn wasch hem in golde  watyr unto the holys gon of alle in a pot and kever it wel that no breth passe owt and boyle hem ryzt wel and do therto god mylk of Almandys and a party of flowr of ris and salt and safron and messe yt forthe.
Cranys and Herons schulle be euarund  wyth Lardons of swyne and rostyd and etyn wyth gyngynyr.
 Perhaps enarmed, or enorned. See Mr. Brander's Roll, No. 146.
Pecokys and Partrigchis schul ben yparboyld and lardyd and etyn wyth gyngenyr.
V. MORTERELYS .
Nym hennyn and porke and seth hem togedere nym the lyre  of the hennyn and the porke and hakkyth finale and grynd hit al to dust and wyte bred therwyth and temper it wyth the selve broth and wyth heyryn and colure it with safroun and boyle it and disch it and cast theron powder of peper and of gyngynyr and serve it forthe.
 V. Mortrews in Gloss.  Flesh.
VI. CAPONYS INC ONEYS.
Schal be sodyn. Nym the lyre and brek it smal In a morter and peper and wyte bred therwyth and temper it wyth ale and ley it wyth the capoun. Nym hard sodyn eyryn and hewe the wyte smal and kaste thereto and nym the zolkys al hole and do hem in a dysch and boyle the capoun and colowre it wyth safroun and salt it and messe it forthe.
VII. HENNYS  IN BRUET.
Schullyn be scaldyd and sodyn wyth porke and grynd pepyr and comyn bred and ale and temper it wyth the selve broth and boyle and colowre it wyth safroun and salt it and messe it forthe.
VIII. HARYS  IN CMEE .
Schul be parboylyd and lardyd and rostid and nym onyons and myce hem rizt smal and fry hem in wyte gres and grynd peper bred and ale and the onions therto and coloure it wyth safroun and salt it and serve it forth.
 Hares.  Perhaps Cinee; for see No. 51.
IX. HARIS IN TALBOTAYS.
Schul be hewe in gobbettys and sodyn with al the blod Nym bred piper and ale and grynd togedere and temper it with the selve broth and boyle it and salt it and serve it forthe.
X. CONYNGGYS  IN GRAVEY.
Schul be sodyn and hakkyd in gobbettys and grynd gyngynyr galyngale and canel. and temper it up with god almand mylk and boyle it and nym macys and clowys and kest  therin and the conynggis also and salt hym  and serve it forthe.
 Rabbits.  Cast.  it, or perhaps hem.
XI. FOR TO MAKE A COLYS .
Nym hennys and schald hem wel. and seth hem after and nym the lyre and hak yt smal and bray it with otyn grotys in a morter and with wyte bred and temper it up wyth the broth Nym the grete bonys and grynd hem al to dust and kest hem al in the broth and mak it thorw a clothe and boyle it and serve it forthe.
 Cullis. V. Preface.
XII. FOR TO MAKE NOMBLES .
Nym the nomblys of the venysoun and wasch hem clene in water and salt hem and seth hem in tweye waterys grynd pepyr bred and ale and temper it wyth the secunde brothe and boyle it and hak the nomblys and do theryn and serve it forthe.
XIII. FOR TO MAKE BLANCHE BREWET DE ALYNGYN.
Nym kedys  and chekenys and hew hem in morsellys and seth hem in almand mylk or in kyne mylke grynd gyngyner galingale and cast therto and boyle it and serve it forthe.
XIV. FOR TO MAKE BLOMANGER .
Nym rys and lese hem and wasch hem clene and do thereto god almande mylk and seth hem tyl they al to brest and than lat hem kele and nym the lyre of the hennyn or of capouns and grynd hem smal kest therto wite grese and boyle it Nym blanchyd almandys and safroun and set hem above in the dysche and serve yt forthe.
 Blanc-manger. See again, No. 33, 34. II. No. 7. Chaucer writes it Blankmanger.
XV. FOR TO MAKE AFRONCHEMOYLE .
Nym eyren wyth al the wyte and myse bred and schepys  talwe as gret as dyses  grynd peper and safroun and cast therto and do hit in the schepis wombe seth it wel and dresse it forthe of brode leches thynne.
 Frenchemulle d'un mouton. A sheeps call, or kell. Cotgrave. Junius, v. Moil, says, "a French moile Chaucero est cibus delicatior, a dish made of marrow and grated bread."  Sheep's fat.  dice; square bits, or bits as big as dice.
XVI. FOR TO MAKE BRYMEUS.
Nym the tharmys  of a pygge and wasch hem clene in water and salt and seth hem wel and than hak hem smale and grynd pepyr and safroun bred and ale and boyle togedere Nym wytys of eyrynn and knede it wyth flour and mak smal pelotys  and fry hem with wyte grees and do hem in disches above that othere mete and serve it forthe.
 Rops, guts, puddings  Balls, pellets, from the French pelote.
XVII. FOR TO MAKE APPULMOS .
Nym appelyn and seth hem and lat hem kele and make hem thorw a clothe and on flesch dayes kast therto god fat breyt  of Bef and god wyte grees and sugar and safroun and almande mylk on fysch dayes oyle de olyve and gode powdres  and serve it forthe.
 See No. 35.  Breth, i. e. broth. See No. 58.  Spices ground small. See No. 27, 28. 35. 58. II. No. 4. 17. or perhaps of Galingale. II. 20. 24.
XVIII. FOR TO MAKE A FROYS .
Nym Veel and seth it wel and hak it smal and grynd bred peper and safroun and do thereto and frye yt and presse it wel upon a bord and dresse yt forthe.
 a Fraise
XIX. FOR TO MAKE FRUTURS .
Nym flowre and eyryn and grynd peper and safroun and mak therto a batour and par aplyn and kyt hem to brode penys  and kest hem theryn and fry hem in the batour wyth fresch grees and serve it forthe.
 Fritters.  Pieces as broad as pennies, or perhaps pecys.
XX. FOR TO MAKE CHANKE .
Nym Porke and seth it wel and hak yt smal nym eyryn wyth al the wytys and swyng hem wel al togedere and kast god swete mylke thereto and boyle yt and messe it forthe.
XXI. FOR TO MAKE JUSSEL.
Nym eyryn wyth al the wytys and mice bred grynd pepyr and safroun and do therto and temper yt wyth god fresch broth of porke and boyle it wel and messe yt forthe.
XXII. FOR TO MAKE GEES  IN OCHEPOT .
Nym and schald hem wel and hew hem wel in gobettys al rawe and seth hem in her owyn grees and cast therto wyn or ale a cuppe ful and myce onyons smal and do therto and boyle yt and salt yt and messe yt forthe.
 Gese.  Hochepot. Vide Gloss.
XXIII. FOR TO MAKE EYRYN IN BRUET.
Nym water and welle  yt and brek eyryn and kast theryn and grynd peper and safroun and temper up wyth swete mylk and boyle it and hakke chese smal and cast theryn and messe yt forthe.
 Quære the meaning.
XXIV. FOR TO MAKE CRAYTOUN .
Tak checonys and schald hem and seth hem and grvnd gyngen' other pepyr and comyn and temper it up wyth god mylk and do the checonys theryn and boyle hem and serve yt forthe.
 Vide ad No. 60 of the Roll.
XXV. FOR TO MAKE MYLK ROST.
Nym swete mylk and do yt in a panne nyn  eyryn wyth al the wyte and swyng hem wel and cast therto and colowre yt wyth safroun and boyl it tyl yt wexe thikke and thanne seth  yt thorw a culdore  and nym that, leyyth  and presse yt up on a bord and wan yt ys cold larde it and scher yt on schyverys and roste yt on a grydern and serve yt forthe.
 Read nym.  strain. See No. 27.  Cuilinder.  That which is left in the cullinder.
XXVI. FOR TO MAKE CRYPPYS .
Nym flour and wytys of eyryn sugur other hony and sweyng togedere and mak a batour nym wyte grees and do yt in a posnet and cast the batur thereyn and stury to thou have many  and tak hem up and messe hem wyth the frutours and serve forthe.
 Meaning, crisps. V. Gloss.  It will run into lumps, I suppose.
XXVII. FOR TO MAKE BERANDYLES .
Nym Hennys and seth hem wyth god Buf and wan hi ben sodyn nym the Hennyn and do awey the bonys and bray smal yn a mortar and temper yt wyth the broth and seth yt thorw a culdore and cast therto powder of gyngenyr and sugur and graynys of powmis gernatys  and boyle yt and dresse yt in dysches and cast above clowys gylofres  and maces and god powder  serve yt forthe.
 Quære the meaning.  Pomegranates. V. No. 39.  Not clove-gilliflowers, but cloves. See No. 30, 31, 40.  See No. 17, note .
XXVIII. FOR TO MAKE CAPONS IN CASSELYS.
Nym caponys and schald hem nym a penne and opyn the skyn at the hevyd  and blowe hem tyl the skyn ryse from the flesshe and do of the skyn al hole and seth the lyre of Hennyn and zolkys of heyryn and god powder and make a Farsure  and fil ful the skyn and parboyle yt and do yt on a spete and rost yt and droppe  yt wyth zolkys of eyryn and god powder rostyng and nym the caponys body and larde yt and roste it and nym almaunde mylk and amydoun  and mak a batur and droppe the body rostyng and serve yt forthe.
 Head. Sax. [Anglo-Saxon: heofod] and [Anglo-Saxon: hevod], hence our Head.  stuffing.  baste.  Vide Gloss.
XXIX. FOR TO MAKE THE BLANK SURRY .
Tak brann  of caponys other of hennys and the thyes  wythowte the skyn and kerf hem smal als thou mayst and grynd hem smal in a morter and tak mylk of Almaundys and do yn the branne and grynd hem thanne togedere and and seth hem togeder' and tak flour of rys other amydoun and lye it that yt be charchant and do therto sugur a god parti and a party of wyt grees and boyle yt and wan yt ys don in dyschis straw upon blank poudere and do togedere blank de sury and manmene  in a dysch and serve it forthe.
 Vide Blank Desire in Gloss.  Perhaps brawn, the brawny part. See No. 33, and the Gloss.  Thighs.  See the next number. Quære Mawmeny.
XXX. FOR TO MAKE MANMENE .
Tak the thyys  other the flesch of the caponys fede  hem and kerf hem smal into a morter and tak mylk of Almandys wyth broth of fresch Buf and do the flesch in the mylk or in the broth and do yt to the fyre and myng yt togedere wyth flour of Rys othere of wastelys als charchaut als the blank de sure and wyth the zolkys of eyryn for to make it zelow and safroun and wan yt ys dressyd in dysches wyth blank de sure straw upon clowys of gelofre  and straw upon powdre of galentyn and serve yt forthe.
 Vide Number 29, and the Gloss.  Thighs.  Quære.  See No. 27, note .
XXXI. FOR TO MAKE BRUET OF ALMAYNE.
Tak Partrichys rostyd and checonys and qualys rostyd and larkys ywol and demembre the other and mak a god cawdel and dresse the flesch in a dysch and strawe powder of galentyn therupon. styk upon clowys of gelofre and serve yt forthe.
XXXII. FOR TO MAKE BRUET OF LOMBARDYE.
Tak chekenys or hennys or othere flesch and mak the colowre als red as any blod and tak peper and kanel and gyngyner bred  and grynd hem in a morter and a porcion of bred and mak that bruer thenne and do that flesch in that broth and mak hem boyle togedere and stury it wel and tak eggys and temper hem wyth Jus of Parcyle and wryng hem thorwe a cloth and wan that bruet is boylyd do that therto and meng tham togedere wyth fayr grees so that yt be fat ynow and serve yt forthe.
 This is still in use, and, it seems, is an old compound.
XXXIII. FOR TO MAKE BLOMANGER .
Do Ris in water al nyzt and upon the morwe wasch hem wel and do hem upon the fyre for to  they breke and nozt for to muche and tak Brann  of Caponis sodyn and wel ydraw  and smal and tak almaund mylk and boyle it wel wyth ris and wan it is yboylyd do the flesch therin so that it be charghaunt and do therto a god party of sugure and wan it ys dressyd forth in dischis straw theron blaunche Pouder and strik  theron Almaundys fryed wyt wyte grece  and serve yt forthe.
 See No. 14.  till. for, however, abounds.  See No. 29. note d.  Perhaps, strained. See No. 49; and Part II. No. 33.  Perhaps, stik, i.e. stick; but see 34.  Grese. Fat, or lard.
XXXIV. FOR TO MAKE SANDALE THAT PARTY TO BLOMANGER.
Tak Flesch of Caponys and of Pork sodyn kerf yt smal into a morter togedere and bray that wel. and temper it up wyth broth of Caponys and of Pork that yt be wel charchaunt also the crem of Almaundys and grynd egges and safroun or sandres togedere that it be coloured and straw upon Powder of Galentyn and strik thereon clowys and maces and serve it forthe.
XXXV. FOR TO MAKE APULMOS .
Tak Applys and seth hem and let hem kele and after mak hem thorwe a cloth and do hem im a pot and kast to that mylk of Almaundys wyth god broth of Buf in Flesch dayes do bred ymyed  therto. And the fisch dayes do therto oyle of olyve and do therto sugur and colour it wyth safroun and strew theron Powder and serve it forthe.
 See No. 17.  ymyced, i.e. minced.
XXXVI. FOR TO MAKE METE GELEE  THAT IT BE WEL CHARIAUNT.
Tak wyte wyn and a party of water and safroun and gode spicis and flesch of Piggys or of Hennys or fresch Fisch and boyle them togedere and after wan yt ys boylyd and cold dres yt in dischis and serve yt forthe.
 meat jelly.
XXXVII. FOR TO MAKE MURREY .
Tak mulbery  and bray hem in a morter and wryng  hem thorth a cloth and do hem in a pot over the fyre and do thereto fat bred and wyte gresse and let it nazt boyle no ofter than onys and do thereto a god party of sugur and zif yt be nozt ynowe colowrd brey mulburus and serve yt forthe.
 Morrey. Part II. No. 26.  This is to be understood pluraly, quasi mulberries.  Read wryng. For see part II. No. 17. 2B. Chaucer, v. wronge and ywrong.
XXXVIII. FOR TO MAKE A PENCHE OF EGGES.
Tak water and do it in a panne to the fyre and lat yt sethe and after tak eggs and brek hem and cast hem in the water and after tak a chese and kerf yt on fowr partins and cast in the water and wanne the chese and the eggys ben wel sodyn tak hem owt of the water and wasch hem in clene water and tak wastel breed and temper yt wyth mylk of a kow. and after do yt over the fyre and after forsy yt wyth gyngener and wyth cornyn and colowr yt wyth safroun and lye yt wyth eggys and oyle the sewe wyth Boter and kep wel the chese owt and dresse the sewe and dymo  eggys thereon al ful and kerf thy chese in lytyl schyms and do hem in the sewe wyth eggys and serve yt forthe.
 Perhaps, do mo, i.e. put more.
XXXIX. FOR TO MAKE COMYN.
Tak god Almaunde mylk and lat yt boyle and do ther'in amydoun wyth flowr of Rys and colowr yt wyth safroun and after dresse yt wyth graynis of Poungarnetts  other wyth reysens zyf thow hast non other and tak sugur and do theryn and serve it forthe.
 Vide No. 27.
XIV. For to make Fruturs .
Tak crommys  of wyte bred and the flowris of the swete Appyltre and zolkys of Eggys and bray hem togedere in a morter and temper yt up wyth wyte wyn and mak yt to sethe and wan yt is thykke do thereto god spicis of gyngener galyngale canel and clowys gelosre and serve yt forth;
 Fritters.  Crumbs.
XLI. For to make Rosee .
Tak the flowris of Rosys and wasch hem wel in water and after bray hem wel in a morter and than tak Almondys and temper hem and seth hem and after tak flesch of capons or of hennys and hac yt smale and than bray hem wel in a morter and than do yt in the Rose  so that the flesch acorde wyth the mylk and so that the mete be charchaunt and after do yt to the fyre to boyle and do thereto sugur and safroun that yt be wel ycolowrd and rosy of levys and of the forseyde flowrys and serve yt forth.
 Vide No. 47.  i.e. Rosee.
XLII. FOR TO MAKE POMMEDORRY .
Tak Buff and hewe yt smal al raw and cast yt in a morter and grynd yt nozt to smal tak safroun and grynd therewyth wan yt ys grounde tak the wyte of the eyryn zyf yt be nozt styf. Cast into the Buf pouder of Pepyr olde resyns and of coronse set over a panne wyth fayr water and mak pelotys of the Buf and wan the water and the pelots ys wel yboylyd and  set yt adoun and kele yt and put yt on a broche and rost yt and endorre yt wyth zolkys of eyryn and serve yt forthe.
 Vide No. 58.  dele and.
XLIII. FOR TO MAKE LONGE DE BUF .
Nym the tonge of the rether  and schalde and schawe  yt wel and rizt clene and seth yt and sethe nym a broche  and larde yt wyth lardons and wyth clowys and gelofre and do it rostyng and drop yt wel yt rostyd  wyth zolkys of eyrin and dresse it forthe.
 Neat's Tongue. Make signifies to dress, as II. 12.  The ox or cow. Lye in Jun. Etymolog. v. Rother.  Shave, scrape.  A larding-pin.  Pehaps, wyle it rostyth.
XLIV. FOR TO MAKE REW DE RUMSY.
Nym swynys fet and eyr  and make hem clene and seth hem alf wyth wyn and half wyth water cast mycyd onyons thereto and god spicis and wan they be ysodyn nym and rosty hem in a grydere wan it is yrostyd kest thereto of the selve broth hy lyed wyth amydoun and anyeyd onyons  and serve yt forth.
 To be understood plurally, Ears.  Miswritten for mycyd, i. e. minced onyons.
XLV. FOR TO MAKE BUKKENADE .
Nym god fresch flesch wat maner so yt be and hew yt in smale morselys and seth yt wyth gode fresch buf and cast thereto gode mynced onyons and gode spicerye and alyth  wyth eyryn and boyle and dresse yt forth.
 Vide No. 52.  Stiffen, thicken it. See No. 44. where lyed has that sense. See also 46.
XLVI. FOR TO MAKE SPINE .
Nym the flowrys of the haw thorn clene gaderyd and bray hem al to dust and temper hem wyth Almaunde mylk and aly yt wyth amydoun and wyth eyryn wel rykke  and boyle it and messe yt forth and flowrys and levys abovyn on .
 This dish, no doubt, takes its name from Spina, of which it is made.  Read, þykke, thykke.  It means laid upon it.
XLVII. FOR TO MAKE ROSEE  AND FRESEE AND SWAN SCHAL BE YMAD IN THE SELVE MANER.
Nym pyggus and hennys and other maner fresch flesch and hew yt in morselys and seth yt in wyth wyn and  gyngyner and galyngale and gelofre and canel  and bray yt wel and kest thereto and alye yt wyth amydoun other wyth flowr of rys.
 Vide No. 41.  Perhaps, in wyn with.  Cinamon. Vide Gloss.
XLVIII. FOR TO MAKE AN AMENDEMENT FORMETE THAT YS TO  SALT AND OVER MYCHYL.
Nym etemele and bynd yt in a fayr lynnen clowt and lat yt honge in the pot so that yt thowche nozt the bottym and lat it hongy thereynne a god wyle and seþh  set yt fro the fyre and let yt kele and yt schal be fresch ynow wythoute any other maner licowr ydo thereto.
 id est, too.  Read, seth, i.e. then.
XLIX. FOR TO MAKE RAPY .
Tak Fygys and reysyns and wyn and grynd hem togeder tak and draw hem thorw a cloth and do thereto powder of Alkenet other of rys and do thereto a god quantite of pepir and vyneger and boyle it togeder and messe yt and serve yt forth.
 Vide Part II. No. 1. 28.
L. FOR TO MAKE AN EGGE DOWS .
Tak Almaundys and mak god mylk and temper wyth god wyneger clene tak reysynys and boyle hem in clene water and tak the reysynis and tak hem owt of the water and boyle hem wyth mylk and zyf thow wyl colowr yt wyth safron and serve yt forth.
 Vide ad Part II. No. 21. There are no eggs concerned, so no doubt it should be Eger Dows. Vide Gloss.
LI. FOR TO MAKE A MALLARD IN CYNEY .
Tak a mallard and pul hym drye and swyng over the fyre draw hym but lat hym touche no water and hew hym in gobettys and do hym in a pot of clene water boyle hem wel and tak onyons and boyle and bred and pepyr and grynd togedere and draw thorw a cloth temper wyth wyn and boyle yt and serve yt forth.
 See No. 8.
LII. FOR TO MAKE A BUKKENADE .
Tak veel and boyle it tak zolkys of eggys and mak hem thykke tak macis and powdre of gyngyner and powder of peper and boyle yt togeder and messe yt forth.
 Vide No. 45.
LIII. FOR TO MAKE A ROO BROTH .
Tak Parsile and Ysop and Sauge and hak yt smal boil it in wyn and in
water and a lytyl powdre of peper and messe yt forth.
 Deer or Roes are not mentioned, as in Mr. Brander's Roll, No. 14, ergo quære. It is a meager business. Can it mean Rue-Broth for penitents?
LIV. FOR TO MAK A BRUET OF SARCYNESSE.
Tak the lyre of the fresch Buf and bet it al in pecis and bred and fry yt in fresch gres tak it up and and drye it and do yt in a vessel wyth wyn and sugur and powdre of clowys boyle yt togedere tyl the flesch have drong the liycoure and take the almande mylk and quibibz macis and clowys and boyle hem togedere tak the flesch and do thereto and messe it forth.
LV. FOR TO MAKE A GELY .
Tak hoggys fet other pyggys other erys other partrichys other chiconys and do hem togedere and serh  hem in a pot and do hem in flowre of canel and clowys other or grounde  do thereto vineger and tak and do the broth in a clene vessel of al thys and tak the Flesch and kerf yt in smal morselys and do yt therein tak powder of galyngale and cast above and lat yt kels tak bronches of the lorer tre and styk over it and kep yt al so longe as thou wilt and serve yt forth.
 Jelly.  seþ, i. e. seeth.  Not clearly expressed. It means either Cinamon or Cloves, and either in flour or ground.
LVI. FOR TO KEPE VENISON FRO RESTYNG.
Tak venisoun wan yt ys newe and cuver it hastely wyth Fern that no wynd may come thereto and wan thou hast ycuver yt wel led yt hom and do yt in a soler that fonne ne wynd may come thereto and dimembre it and do yt in a clene water and lef yt there half a day and after do yt up on herdeles for to drie and wan yt ys drye tak salt and do after thy venisoun axit  and do yt boyle in water that yt be other  so salt als water of the see and moche more and after lat the water be cold that it be thynne and thanne do thy Venisoun in the water and lat yt be therein thre daies and thre nyzt  and after tak yt owt of the water and salt it wyth drie salt ryzt wel in a barel and wan thy barel ys ful cuver it hastely that sunne ne wynd come thereto.
 as thy venison requires. See Gloss. to Chaucer for axe.  Dele.  A plural, as in No. 57.
LVII. FOR TO DO AWAY RESTYN  OF VENISOUN.
Tak the Venisoun that ys rest and do yt in cold water and after mak an hole in the herthe and lat yt be thereyn thre dayes and thre nyzt and after tak yt up and spot yt wel wyth gret salt of peite  there were the restyng ys and after lat yt hange in reyn water al nyzt or more.
 Restiness. It should be rather restyng. See below.  Pierre, or Petre.
LVIII. FOR TO MAKE POUNDORROGE .
Tak Partrichis wit  longe filettis of Pork al raw and hak hem wel smale and bray hem in a morter and wan they be wel brayed do thereto god plente of pouder and zolkys of eyryn and after mak thereof a Farsure formed of the gretnesse of a onyoun and after do it boyle in god breth of Buf other of Pork after lat yt kele and after do it on a broche of Hasel and do them to the fere to roste and after mak god bature of floure and egge on bature wyt and another zelow and do thereto god plente of sugur and tak a fethere or a styk and tak of the bature and peynte thereon above the applyn so that on be wyt and that other zelow wel colourd.
 Vide No. 42.  with.
EXPLICIT SERVICIUM DE CARNIBUS.
Hic incipit Servicium de Pissibus_ .
 See p. 1
I. FOR TO MAKE EGARDUSE .
Tak Lucys  or Tenchis and hak hem smal in gobette and fry hem in oyle de olive and syth nym vineger and the thredde party of sugur and myncyd onyons smal and boyle al togedere and cast thereyn clowys macys and quibibz and serve yt forthe.
 See No. 21 below, and part I. No. 50.  Lucy, I presume, means the Pike; so that this fish was known here long before the reign of H. VIII. though it is commonly thought otherwise. V. Gloss.
II. FOR TO MAKE RAPY .
Tak pyg' or Tenchis or other maner fresch fysch and fry yt wyth oyle de olive and syth nym the crustys of wyt bred and canel and bray yt al wel in a mortere and temper yt up wyth god wyn and cole  yt thorw an hersyve and that yt be al cole  of canel and boyle yt and cast therein hole clowys and macys and quibibz and do the fysch in dischis and rape  abovyn and dresse yt forthe.
 Vide No. 49.  Strain, from Lat. colo.  Strained, or cleared.  This Rape is what the dish takes its name from. Perhaps means grape from the French raper. Vide No. 28.
III. FOR TO MAKE FYGEY.
Nym Lucys or tenchis and hak hem in morsell' and fry hem tak vyneger and the thredde party of sugur myncy onyons smal and boyle al togedyr cast ther'yn macis clowys quibibz and serve yt forth.
IIII. FOR TO MAKE POMMYS MORLES.
Nym Rys and bray hem  wel and temper hem up wyth almaunde mylk and boyle yt nym applyn and par' hem and sher hem smal als dicis and cast hem ther'yn after the boylyng and cast sugur wyth al and colowr yt wyth safroun and cast ther'to pouder and serve yt forthe.
 Rice, as it consists of grains, is here considered as a plural. See also No. 5. 7, 8.
V. FOR TO MAKE RYS MOYLE .
Nym rys and bray hem ryzt wel in a morter and cast ther'to god
Almaunde mylk and sugur and salt boyle yt and serve yt forth.
 Vide Gloss.
VI. FOR TO MAKE SOWPYS DORRY.
Nym onyons and mynce hem smale and fry hem in oyl dolyf Nym wyn and boyle yt wyth the onyouns roste wyte bred and do yt in dischis and god Almande mylk also and do ther'above and serve yt forthe.
VII. FOR TO MAKE BLOMANGER  OF FYSCH.
Tak a pound of rys les hem wel and wasch and seth tyl they breste and lat hem kele and do ther'to mylk of to pound of Almandys nym the
Perche or the Lopuster and boyle yt and kest sugur and salt also ther'to and serve yt forth.
 See note on No. 14. of Part I.
VIII. FOR TO MAKE A POTAGE OF RYS.
Tak Rys and les hem and wasch hem clene and seth hem tyl they breste and than lat hem kele and seth cast ther'to Almand mylk and colour it wyth safroun and boyle it and messe yt forth.
IX. FOR TO MAKE LAMPREY FRESCH IN GALENTYNE .
Schal be latyn blod atte Navel and schald yt and rost yt and ley yt al hole up on a Plater and zyf hym forth wyth Galentyn that be mad of Galyngale gyngener and canel and dresse yt forth.
 This is a made or compounded thing. See both here, and in the next Number, and v. Gloss.
X. FOR TO MAKE SALT LAMPREY IN GALENTYNE .
Yt schal be stoppit  over nyzt in lews water and in braan and flowe and sodyn and pyl onyons and seth hem and ley hem al hol by the Lomprey and zif hem forthe wyth galentyne makyth  wyth strong vyneger and wyth paryng of wyt bred and boyle it al togeder' and serve yt forthe.
 See note  on the last Number.  Perhaps, steppit, i. e. steeped. See No. 12.  Perhaps, makyd, i.e. made.
XI. FOR TO MAKE LAMPREYS IN BRUET.
They schulle be schaldyd and ysode and ybrulyd upon a gredern and grynd peper and safroun and do ther'to and boyle it and do the Lomprey ther'yn and serve yt forth.
XII. FOR TO MAKE A STORCHOUN.
He schal be shorn in besys  and stepyd  over nyzt and sodyn longe as Flesch and he schal be etyn in venegar.
 Perhaps, pesys, i.e. pieces.  Qu. steppit, i.e. steeped.
XIII. FOR TO MAKE SOLYS IN BRUET.
They schal be fleyn and sodyn and rostyd upon a gredern and grynd Peper and Safroun and ale boyle it wel and do the sole in a plater and the bruet above serve it forth.
XIV. FOR TO MAKE OYSTRYN IN BRUET.
They schul be schallyd  and ysod in clene water grynd peper safroun bred and ale and temper it wyth Broth do the Oystryn ther'ynne and boyle it and salt it and serve it forth.
 Have shells taken off.
XV. FOR TO MAKE ELYS IN BRUET.
They schul be flayn and ket in gobett' and sodyn and grynd peper and safroun other myntys and persele and bred and ale and temper it wyth the broth and boyle it and serve it forth.
XVI. FOR TO MAKE A LOPISTER.
He schal be rostyd in his scalys in a ovyn other by the Feer under a panne and etyn wyth Veneger.
XVII. FOR TO MAKE PORREYNE.
Tak Prunys fayrist wasch hem wel and clene and frot hem wel in syve for the Jus be wel ywronge and do it in a pot and do ther'to wyt gres and a party of sugur other hony and mak hem to boyle togeder' and mak yt thykke with flowr of rys other of wastel bred and wan it is sodyn dresse it into dischis and strew ther'on powder and serve it forth.
XVIII. FOR TO MAKE CHIRESEYE.
Tak Chiryes at the Fest of Seynt John the Baptist and do away the stonys grynd hem in a morter and after frot hem wel in a seve so that the Jus be wel comyn owt and do than in a pot and do ther'in feyr gres or Boter and bred of wastrel ymyid  and of sugur a god party and a porcioun of wyn and wan it is wel ysodyn and ydressyd in Dyschis stik ther'in clowis of Gilofr' and strew ther'on sugur.
 Perhaps, ymycid, i.e. minced; or mycd, as in No. 19.
XIX. FOR TO MAKE BLANK DE SUR' .
Tak the zolkys of Eggs sodyn and temper it wyth mylk of a kow and do ther'to Comyn and Safroun and flowr' of ris or wastel bred mycd and grynd in a morter and temper it up wyth the milk and mak it boyle and do ther'to wit  of Egg' corvyn smale and tak fat chese and kerf ther'to wan the licour is boylyd and serve it forth.
 Vide Note  on No. 29. of Part I.  white. So wyt is white in No. 21. below.
XX. FOR TO MAKE GRAVE ENFORSE.
Tak tryd  gyngener and Safroun and grynd hem in a morter and temper hem up wyth Almandys and do hem to the fir' and wan it boylyth wel do ther'to zolkys of Egg' sodyn and fat chese corvyn in gobettis and wan it is dressid in dischis strawe up on Powder of Galyngale and serve it forth.
 It appears to me to be tryd. Can it be fryd?
XXI. FOR TO MAKE HONY DOUSE .
Tak god mylk of Almandys and rys and wasch hem wel in a feyr' vessel and in fayr' hoth water and after do hem in a feyr towayl for to drie and wan that they be drye bray hem wel in a morter al to flowr' and afterward tak two partyis and do the half in a pot and that other half in another pot and colowr that on wyth the safroun and lat that other be wyt and lat yt boyle tyl it be thykke and do ther'to a god party of sugur and after dresse yt in twe dischis and loke that thou have Almandys boylid in water and in safroun and in wyn and after frie hem and set hem upon the fyre sethith mete  and strew ther'on sugur that yt be wel ycolouryt  and serve yt forth.
 See Part II. No. I; and Part I. No. 50.  Seth it mete, i.e. seeth it properly.  Coloured. See No. 28. below.
XXII. FOR TO MAKE A POTAGE FENEBOILES.
Tak wite benes and seth hem in water and bray the benys in a morter al to nozt and lat them sethe in almande mylk and do ther'in wyn and hony and seth  reysons in wyn and do ther'to and after dresse yt forth.
 i.e. Seeth.
XXIII. FOR TO MAKE TARTYS IN APPLIS.
Tak gode Applys and gode Spycis and Figys and reysons and Perys and wan they are wel ybrayed colourd  wyth Safroun wel and do yt in a cofyn and do yt forth to bake wel.
 Perhaps, coloure.
XXIV. FOR TO MAKE RYS ALKER'.
Tak Figys and Reysons and do awey the Kernelis and a god party of Applys and do awey the paryng of the Applis and the Kernelis and bray hem wel in a morter and temper hem up with Almande mylk and menge hem wyth flowr of Rys that yt be wel chariaunt and strew ther'upon powder of Galyngale and serve yt forth.
XXV. FOR TO MAKE TARTYS OF FYSCH OWT OF LENTE.
Mak the Cowche of fat chese and gyngener and Canel and pur' crym of mylk of a Kow and of Helys ysodyn and grynd hem wel wyth Safroun and mak the chowche of Canel and of Clowys and of Rys and of gode Spycys as other Tartys fallyth to be.
XXVI. FOR TO MAKE MORREY .
Requir' de Carnibus ut supra .
 Vide Part I. No. 37.  Part I. No. 37.
XXVII. FOR TO MAKE FLOWNYS  IN LENTE.
Tak god Flowr and mak a Past and tak god mylk of Almandys and flowr of rys other amydoun and boyle hem togeder' that they be wel chariaud wan yt is boylid thykke take yt up and ley yt on a feyr' bord so that yt be cold and wan the Cofyns ben makyd tak a party of and do upon the coffyns and kerf hem in Schiveris and do hem in god mylk of Almandys and Figys and Datys and kerf yt in fowr partyis and do yt to bake and serve yt forth.
 Perhaps, Flawnes, or Custards. Chaucer, vide Slaunis. Fr. Flans.
XXVIII. FOR TO MAKE RAPEE .
Tak the Crustys of wyt bred and reysons and bray hem wel in a morter and after temper hem up wyth wyn and wryng hem thorw a cloth and do ther'to Canel that yt be al colouryt of canel and do ther'to hole clowys macys and quibibz the fysch schal be Lucys other Tenchis fryid or other maner Fysch so that yt be fresch and wel yfryed and do yt in Dischis and that rape up on and serve yt forth.
 Vide Part I. No. 49.
XXIX. FOR TO MAKE A PORREY CHAPELEYN.
Tak an hundred onyons other an half and tak oyle de Olyf and boyle togeder' in a Pot and tak Almande mylk and boyle yt and do ther'to. Tak and make a thynne Paast of Dow and make therof as it were ryngis tak and fry hem in oyle de Olyve or in wyte grees and boil al togedere.
XXX. FOR TO MAKE FORMENTY ON A FICHSSDAY .
Tak the mylk of the Hasel Notis boyl the wete  wyth the aftermelk til it be dryyd and tak and coloured  yt wyth Safroun and the ferst mylk cast ther'to and boyle wel and serve yt forth.
 Fishday.  white.  Perhaps, colour.
XXXI. FOR TO MAKE BLANK DE SYRY .
Tak Almande mylk and Flowre of Rys. Tak thereto sugur and boyle thys togedere and dische yt and tak Almandys and wet hem in water of Sugur and drye hem in a panne and plante hem in the mete and serve yt forth.
 Vide ad No. 29. of Part I.
XXXII. FOR TO MAKE A PYNADE OR PYVADE.
Take Hony and Rotys of Radich and grynd yt smal in a morter and do yt thereto that hony a quantite of broun sugur and do thereto. Tak Powder of Peper and Safroun and Almandys and do al togedere boyl hem long and hold  yt in a wet bord and let yt kele and messe yt and do yt forth .
 i.e. keep, as in next Number.  This Recipe is ill expressed.
XXXIII. FOR TO MAKE A BALOURGLY  BROTH.
Tak Pikys and spred hem abord and Helys zif thou hast fle hem and ket hem in gobettys and seth hem in alf wyn  and half in water. Tak up the Pykys and Elys and hold hem hote and draw the Broth thorwe a Clothe do Powder of Gyngener Peper and Galyngale and Canel into the Broth and boyle yt and do yt on the Pykys and on the Elys and serve yt forth.
 This is so uncertain in the original, that I can only guess at it.  Perhaps, alf in wyn, or dele in before water.
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