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The English Huswife, 1615

A Foods of England online text. For more see Cookbooks

TITLE: Countrey Contentments, or, The English Huswife
AUTHOR: Gervase Markham
PUBLISHER: Hannah Sawbridge, London
DATE: First published in 1615. (Frontispiece shown from 1623)
THIS VERSION: Adapted for Foods of England from the version transcribed by katherine@elizabethangeek.com

The English Huswife
Containing the inward and outward Vertues which ought to be in a Compleat Woman...
A Work generally approved, and now the Ninth time much Augmented, Purged, and made most profitable and necessary for all men, and the general good of this NATION.
By G. Markham.
LONDON, Printed for Hannah Sawbridge, at the Sign of the Bible on Ludgate Hill, 1683

I am currently only transcribing the cooking section of this book, and omitting the sections on physick, dying, animal husbandry, etc.
Note that this is the 9th edition of a book originally published in 1615, and claims to have been augmented, purged, etc., but apart from a couple of recipes listing potatoes and turkey as ingredients, appears to be very close in style to pre-1600 English recipe books. Recipes which use ingredients not commonly found before 1600 are footnoted.
In transcribing this text, I have translated long S's to short ones, and have standardised the spacing around punctuation. Otherwise, I have attempted to leave all punctuation and spelling as in the original.
This text is thoroughly out of copyright; feel free to copy and redistribute it as you see fit. However, I would appreciate hearing if you use it, and I'm particularly keen to see other peoples' redactions of these recipes. I can be contacted at katherine@elizabethangeek.com.

Of Cookery and the part thereof

It resteth now that I proceed unto Cookery it self, which is the dressing and ordering of meat, in good and wholesome manner; to which when our House-wife shall address her self, she shall well understand that these qualities must ever accompany it; First, she must be cleanly both in body and garments, she must have a quick eye, a curious nose, a perfect taste, and ready ear; (she must not be butter-fingred, sweet toothed, nor faint-hearted) for the first will let every thing fall, the seconde will consume what it should encrease; and the last will lose time with too much niceness.

Now for the substance of the Art it self, I will divide it into five parts; The first; Sallets; the second, boyled Meats and Broths the third, Roast meats and Carbonadoes; the fourth, bak't meats and Pyes , and the fifth, banquetting and made dishes, with other conceits and secrets.


Fricases and Quelquechoses
Puddings and sausages
Boiled meats
Roast meats and carbonadoes
Additional, for dressing fish
Baked meats and pies
Banquetting and made dishes


Of Sallets, simple and plain

First then to speak of Sallets, there be some simple, some compounded, some only to furnish out the Table, and some both for use and adornation: your simple Sallets are Chibols pilled, washt clean, and half of the green tops cut clean away, and so served on a fruit dish, or Chives, Scallions, Rhaddish roots, boyled Carrets, Skirrets and Turnips, with such like served up simply: Also, all young Lettuce, Cabbage-Lettuce, Purslane, and divers other herbs which may be served simply without any thing but a little Vinegar, Sallet Oyl and Sugar; Onions boyled; and stript from their rind, and served up with Vinegar, Oyl and Pepper, is a good simple Sallet; so is Camphire, Bean-cods, Sparagus, and Cucumbers, served in likewise with Oyl, Venegar and Pepper, with a world of others, too tedious to nominate.

Of compound Sallet

Your compound Sallets, are first the young buds and Knots of all manner of wholesome Herbs at their first springing; as red Sage, Mint, Lettuce, Violets, Marigold, Spinage, and many other mixed together and then served up to the Table with Vinegar, Sallet-Oyl, and Sugar.

Another compound Sallet

To compound an Excellent Sallet, and which indeed is usual at great Feasts, and upon Princes Tables: Take a good quantity of blancht Almonds, and with your shredding knife cut them grosly; then take as many Raisons of the Sun clean washt, and the stones pickt out, as many Figs shred like the Almonds, as many Capers, twice so may Olives, and as many Currants as all the rest, clean washt, a good handful of the small tender leaves of red Sage and Spinage: mix all these well together with a good store of Sugar, and lay them in the bottom of a great dish; then put unto them Vinegar and Oyl, and scrape more sugar over all: then take Oranges and Lemons, and paring away the outward pills, cut them into thin slices, then with those slices cover the Sallet all over; which done, take the find thing leave of the red Cole-flower, and with them cover the Oranges and Lemmons all over; then over those Red leaves lay another course of old Olives, and the slices of well pickled Cucumers, together with the very inward heart of Cabbage-Lettuce cut into slices, then adorn the sides of the dish, and the top of the Sallet, with more slices of Lemmons and Oranges, and so serve it up.

An excellent boyled Sallet

To make an excellent compound boyl'd Sallet; take of Spinage well washt, two or three handfuls, nd put it in fair water, and boyl it til it be exceeding soft and tender as pap; then put it into a Cullender, and drain water from it, which done with the back side of your Chopping-knife chop it, and bruise it as small as may be; then put it into a Pipkin with a good lump of sweet butter, and boyl it over again; then take a good handful of Currants clean washt, and put to it, and stir them well together, then put to as much Vinegar as will make it reasonable tart, and then with Sugar season it according to the taste of the Master of the house, and so serve it upon sippets.

Of preserving of Sallets.

Your preserved Sallets are of two kinds, either pickled, as are cucumers, Sampire, Purslane, Broom, and such like, or preserved with Vinegar, as Violets, Primroses, Cowslips, Gillyflowers of all kinds, Broom-flowers, and for the most part any wholesome flower whatsoever. Now for the pickling of Sallets, they are only boyled and then drained from the water, spread upon a TGable, and good store of salt thrown over them; then when they are thorow cold, make a pickle with water, salt and a little Vinegar, and with the same pot them up in close earthen pots, and serve them forth as occasion shall serve. Now for preserving of Sallets, you shall take any of the flowers before said, after they have been pickt clean from their stalks, and the white ends (of them which have any) clean cut away, and washt and dryed, and taking a glass pot, like a Gally-oot, or for want thereof a Gally-pot it self, and first strew a little Sugar in the bottom, then lay a layer of the Flowers, then cover that layer over with Sugar, then lay another larger of the Flowers, and another of Sugar; and thus do one above another till the pot be filled, ever and anon pressing them hard down with your hand: This done you shall take of the best and sharpest Vinegar you can get, (and if the Vinegar be distill'd Vinegar, the flowers will keep their colours the better) and with it fill up your pot till the Vinegar swim aloft, and no more can be received, then stop up the pot close, and set them in a dry temperate place, and use them at pleasure, for they will last all the year.

The making of strange Sallets

Now for the compounding of Sallets, of these pickled and preserved things, though they may be served up simply of themselves, and are both good and dainty; yet for better curiosity, and the finer adorning of the Table, you shall thus use them; First, if you would set forth any Red flower, that you know or have seen, you shall take your pots of preserved Gilly-flowers, and suting the colours answerable to the flower, you shall proportion it forth, and lay the shape of the Flower in a Fruit dish; then with your Purslane leaves make the green Coffin of the flower, and with the Purslane stalks make the stalk of the flower, & the divisions of the leaves and branches; then with the thin slices of Cucumers, make their leaves in true proportions, jagged or otherwise: and thus you may let forth some full blown, some half blown, and some in the bud, which will be pretty and curious. And if you will let forth yellow flowers, take the pots of Primroses and Cowslips; if blew flowers, then the pots of Violets or Bugloss flowers; and these Sallets are both for shew and use, for they are more excellent for taste, then for to look on.

Sallets for shew only

Now for Sallets for shew only, and the adorning and setting out of a Table with number of dishes, they be those which are made of Carret roots of sundry colours well boyled, and cut into many shapes and proportions, as some into Knots, some in the manner of Scutchions, and Arms, some like Birds, and some like Wild beasts, according to the Art and cunning of the Workman, and these for the most part are seasoned with Vinegar, Oyl, and a little Pepper. A World of other Sallets there are, which time and experience may bring to our House-wifes eye, but the composition of them, and the serving of them, differeth nothing from these already rehearsed.

Of Fricases and Quelquechoses

Now to proceed to your Fricases, or Quelquechoses, which are dishes of many compositions, and ingredients, as Flesh, Fish, Eggs, Herbs, and many other things, all being prepared and made ready in a Frying-pan, they are likewise of two sorts, simple and compound.

Of simple Fricases

Your simple Fricases are Eggs and Collops fryed, whether the Collops be of Bacon, Ling, Beef or young Pork, the frying whereof is so ordinary, that it needeth not any relation, or the frying of any Flesh, or Fish simple of it self, with Butter or sweet Oyl.

Best Collops and Eggs

To have the best Collops and Eggs, you shall take the whitest and youngest Bacon, and cutting away the sword, cut the Collops into thin slices, lay them in a dish, and put hot water unto them, and so let them stand an hour or two, for that will take away the extream saltness, then drain away the water clean, and put them in a dry Pewter dish, and lay them one by one, and set them before the heat of the fire so as they may toast; and turn them so, as they may toast sufficiently thorow & thorow, which done, take your Eggs and break them into a dish, and put a spoonful of Venegar unto them: then set a clean Skillet with fair water on the fire, and as soon as the water boyleth, put in the Eggs, and let them take a boyl or two; then with a spoon try if they be hard enough, and then take them up and trim them, and dry them, and then dishup up the Collops, lay the Eggs upon them, and so serve them up: and in this sort you may poach Eggs when you please, for it is the best and most wholesome.

Of the compound Fricases

Now the compound Fricases are those which consist of many things, as Tansies, Fritters, Pancakes, and any Quelquechose whatsoever, being things of great Request and Estimation in France, Spain and Italy, and the most curious Nations.

To make the best Tansey

First, then for the making of the best Tansie, you shall take a certain number of Eggs, according to the bigness of your Frying-pan, and break them into a dish, abating ever the white of every third Egge: then with a spoon, you shall cleanse away the little white Chicken knots, which stick unto the yelks; then with a little Cream beat them exceedingly together: then take of green Wheat blades, Violet leaves, Strawberry leaves, Spinage, and Succory, of each a like quantity, and a few Walnut Tree buds; chop and beat all these very well, and then strain out the juyce, and mixing it with a little more Cream, put it to the Eggs, and stir all well together; then put in a few Crums of bread, fine grated bread, Cinnamon, Nutmeg, and Salt; and put some sweet Butter into the Frying-pan, and so soon as it is dissolved or melted, put in the Tansey, and fry it brown without burning and with a dish turn it in the pan as occasion shall serve; then serve it up, having strewed good store of Sugar upon it, for to put in Sugar before, will make it heavy: Some use to put of the herb Tansey into it, but the Walnut-Tree buds do give the better taste of rellish, and therefore when you please for to use the one, do not use the other.

The best Fritters

To make the best Fritters, take a pint of Cream and warm it; then take eight Eggs, only abate four of the Whites, and beat them well in a dish, and so mix them with the Cream; then put in a little Cloves, Mace, Nutmeg and Saffron, and stir them well together: then put in two spoonfuls of the best Ale barm, and a little Salt, and stir it again, then make it thick according unto your pleasure with Wheat flower; which done, set it within the air of the fire, that it may rise and swell; which when it doth, you shall beat it in once or twice, then put it into a penny pot of Sack: All this being done, you shall take a pound or two of very sweet seam, and put it into a pan, and set it over the fire, and when it is moulten, and begins to bubble, you shall take the Fritters-batter, and setting it by you, put thick slices of well pared Apples into the Batter, and then taking the Apples and Batter out together with a spoon, put it into the boyling seam, and boyl your Fritters crisp and brown: And when you find the strength of your seam consume or decay, you shall renew it with more seam: and of all sorts of seam, that which is made of the Beef-suet is the best and strongest: when your Fritters are made, strow good store of Sugar and Cinnamon upon them, being fair disht, and serve them up.

The best Pancakes

To make the best Pancakes, take two or three Eggs, and break them into a dish, and beat them well; then add unto them a pretty quantity of fair running Water, and beat all well together: then put in Cloves, Mace, Cinnamon and Nutmeg, and season it with Salt; which done, make it as thick as you think good with fine Wheat-flower, then fry the Cakes as thin as may be with sweet butter, or sweet seam, and make them brown, and so serve them up with Sugar, strewed upon them. There be some which mix Pancakes with new Milk or Cream, but that makes them tough, cloying, and not so crisp, pleasant and savory as running water.

Veal Tosts

To make the best Veal Toasts, take the Kidney, fat and all, of a loyn of Veal fosted, and shred it as small as is possible; Then take a couple of Eggs and heat them very well, which done, take Spinage, Succory, Violet-leaves, and Marigold-leaves, and beat them, and strain out the juyce, and mix it with the Eggs: then put it to your Veal, and stir it exceedingly well in a dish, then put to good store of Currants clean washt and pickt, Cloves, Mace, Cinnamon, Nutmeg, Sugar, and Salt, and mix them all perfectly well together: then take a manchet and cut it into Toasts, and toast them well before the fire; then with a spoon lay upon the Toast in a good thickness, the Veal, prepared as before-said; which done, put into your Frying-pan good store of sweet butter, and when it is well melted and very hot put your Toasts into the same with the bread side upward, and the flesh side down-ward; and as soon as you see they are fried brown, lay upon the upper side of the Toasts which are bare, more of the flesh meat, and then turn them, and fry that side brown also, then take them out of the pan, and dish them up, and strew Sugar uon them, and so serve them forth. There be some Cooks which will do this but upon one side of the Tosts, but to do it on both is much better; if you add cream it is not amiss.

To make the best pamperdy

To make the best Pamperdy, Take a dozen Eggs, and break them, and beat them very well; then put unto them Cloves, Mace, Cinnamon, Nutmeg and good store of Sugar, with as much Salt as shall season it: then take a Manchet, and cut it into thick slices like Toasts; which done, take your Frying-pan, and put into it good store of sweet butter, and being mlted, lay in your slices of bread, then pour upon them one half of your Eggs, then when it is fryed, with a dish turn your slices of bread upward, and then pour on them the other half of your Eggs, and so turn them till both sides be brown; then dish it up, and serve it with Sugar strewed upon it.

To make any Quelquechose

To make a Quelquechose, which is a mixture of many things together; take the Eggs and break them, and do away one half of the Whites, and after they are beaten, put them to a good quantity of sweet Cream, Currants, Cinnamon, Cloves, Mace, Salt, and a little Ginger, Spinage, Endive, and Mary-gold flowers grosly chopt, and beat them all very well together; then take Pigs Petitoes slic'd and grosly chopt, mixt them with the Eggs, and with your hand stir them exceeding well together; then put in sweet Butter in your Frying-pan, and being melted, put in all the rest, and fry it brown without burning, ever and anon turning it, till it be Fryed enough; then dish it upon a flat plate, and so serve it forth. Onely here is to be observed, that your Pettitoes must be very well boyled before you put them into the Fry-case.

Additions to the House-wife

And in this manner as you make this Quelquechose, so you may make any other, whether it be of flesh, small Birds, sweet Roots, Oysters, Muscles, Cockles, Giblets, Lemmons, Oranges, or any Fruit, Pulse, or other Sallet herb whatsoever; of which to speak severally, were a Labour infinite, because they vary with mens opinion. Onely the composition and work is no other than this before prescribed: and who can do these need no further instruction for the rest. And thus much for Sallets and Fricases.

Cookery, to make Fritters

To make Fritters another way; Take Flower, Milk, Barm, grated bread, small Raisins, Cinnamon, Sugar, Cloves, Mace, Pepper, Saffron, and Salt; stir all these together very well with a strong spoon or small ladle, then let it stand more then a quarter of an hour, that it may rise, then beat it in again, and thus let it rise, and be beat in twice or thrice at least; then take it and bake them in sweet and strong seame, as hath been before shewed and when they are served up to the Table, see you strew upon them good store of Sugar, Cinnamon and Ginger.

To make the best white Puddings

Take a pint of the best, thickest and sweetest Cream, and boyl it, then whilst it is hot, put thereunto a good quantity of breat sweet Oatmeal Grots very sweet, and clean pickt, and formerly steept in milk twelve hours at least, and let it soak in this Cream another night; then put thereto at least eight yelks of Eggs, a little Pepper, Cloves, Mace, Saffron, Currants, Dates, Sugar, Salt, and great store of Swines Suet, or for want thereof great store of Beef Suet, and then fill it up in the farmes according unto the order of good House-wifery; and then boyl them on a soft and gentle fire, and as they swell, prick them with a great Pin, or small Awl, to keep them that they burst not, and when you serve them to the Table, (which must not be untill they be a day old) first boyl them a little, then take them out, and roast them brown before the fire, and so serve them, trimming the edge of the dish either with Salt or Sugar.

Puddings of a Hogs Liver

Take the Liver of a fat Hogg, and parboyl it; then shred it small, and after beat it in a Mortar very fine; then mix it with the thickest and sweetest Cream, and strain it very wel through an ordinary strainer: then put thereto six yelks of Eggs and two Whites, and the gated crumbs of (near hand) a penny Whiteloaf with good store of Currants, Dates, Cloves, Mace, Sugar, Saffron, Salt, and the best Swines-suet, or Beef-suet, but Beef-suet is the more wholesome, and less loosning; then after it hath stood a while, fill it into the Farms, and boyl them as before shewed: and when you serve them unto the Table, first boyl them a little, then lay them on a Gridiron over the coals, and broyl them gently, but scorch them not, nor in any wise break their skins, which is to be prevented by oft turning and tossing them on the Gridiron, and keeping a slow fire.

To make bread Puddings

Take the Yelks and Whites of a dozen or fourteen Eggs, and having beat them very well, put unto them the fine powder of Cloves, Mace, Nutmegs, Sugar, Cinnamon, Saffron, and Salt; then take the quantity of two loaves of white grated Bread, Dates very small shred, and great store of Currants, with good plenty either of Sheeps, Hogs or Beef suet beaten and cut small: then when all is mixt, and stirred well together, and hath stood a while to settle, then fill it into the Farms, as hath been before shewed, and in like manner boyl them, cook them, and serve them to the Table.

Rice Puddings

Take half a pound of Rice, and sttep it in new milk a whole night, and in the morning drain it, and let the milk drop away, and take a quart of the best sweetest, and thickest Cream, and put the Rice into it and boyl it a little; then set it to cool an hour or two, and after put in the Yelks of half a dozen Eggs, a little Pepper, Cloves, Mace, Currants, Dates, Sugar and Salt; and having mixt them well together, put in great store of Beef suet well beaten, and small shred, and so put it into the farms, and boyl them as before shewed, and serve them after a day old.

Another of liver

Take the best Hogs Liver you can get, and boyls it extreamly, till it be as hard as a stone, then lay it to cool, and being cold, upon a bread-grater grate it all to powder; then lift it through a fine meal sieve, and put to it the crums of (at least) two penny loaves of white bread, and boyl all in the thickest and sweetest Cream you have, til it be very thick; then let it cool, and put to it the yelks of half a dozen Eggs, a little Pepper, Cloves, Mace, Currants, Dates small shred, Cinnamon, Ginger a little Nutmeg, good store of Sugar, a little Saffron, Salt, and of Beef and Swines suet great plenty, then fill it into the Farms, and boyl them as before shewed.

Puddings of a Calves Mugget

Take Calves Mugget, clean and sweet drest, and boyl it well; then shred it as small as is possible; then take of Strawberry leaves, of Endive, Spinage, Succory, and Sarnel, of each a pretty quantity, and chop them as small as is possible, and then mix them with the Mugget, then take the yolks of half a dozen Eggs and three whites, and beat them into it also; and if you find it is too stiff, then make it thinner with a little Cream warmed on the fire, then put in a little Pepper, Cloves, Mace, Cinnamon, Ginger, Sugar, Currants, Dates, and Salt, and work all together, with casting in little pieces of sweet Butter one after another, till it have received good store of Butter, then put it up in the Calves-bag, Sheeps-bag, or Hogs-bag, and then boyl it well, and so serve it up.

A Pudding

Take the Blood of a Hogg whist it is warm, and steep it in a quart or more of great Oat-meal grotes, and at the end of three daies with your hands take the Grotes out of the blood, and drain them clean, then put to those Grotes more then a quart of the best Cream warm'd on the fire, then take mother of Thyme, Parsley, Spinage, Succory, Endive, Sorrel and Strawberry elaves, of each a few chopt exceeding small, and mix them with the Grotes, and also a little Fennel-seed finely beaten, then adde a little Pepper, Cloves and Mace, Salt, and great store of suet finely shred, and well beaten; then threwith fill your Forms, and boyl them, as hath been before described.


Take the largest of your Chines of Pork, and that which is called a Lift, and first with your Knife cut the lean thereof unto thin slices, and then shred small those slices, and then spread it over the bottom of a dish or woodden platter: then take the fat of the Chine and the lift, and cut it in the very self-same manner, and spread it upon the lean, and then cut more lean, and spread it upon the fat, and thus do one lean upon another, till all the Pork be shred, observing to begin and end with the lean: then with your sharp Knife scoth it through and through divers waies, and mix it all well together: then take good store of Sage, and shred it exceeding small, and mix it with th eflesh: then give it a good season of Pepper and Salt, then take the forms made as long as is possible, and not cut in pieces as for puddings, and first blow them well to make the meat slip, and then fill them: which done, with threds divide them into several links as you please; then hang them up in the corner of some Chimny clean kept, where they make take air of the fire, and let them dry there at least four daies before any be eaten; and when they are served up, let them be either fryed or broyled on the Gridiron, or else roasted about a Capon.

The English Housewife: Boiled Meat and Broths

Of boyled meats ordinary

It resteth now that we speak of boyled meats and broth, which forasmuch as our House-Wife is intended to be general, one that can as well feed the poor as the rich, we first begin with those ordinary wholsome boyl'd meats which are of use in every good mans house; therefore to make the best ordinary Pottage, you shall take a rack of mutton cut into pieces, or a leg of mutton cut into pieces; for this meat, and these joynts are the best, although any other joynt or any fresh Beef will likewise make god Pottage; and having washt your meat well, put it into a clean pot with fair water, and set it on the fire, then take Violet leaves, Succory, Strawberry leaves, Spinage, Langedebeef, Marygold flowers, Scallions, and a little Parsley, and chop them very small together; then take half so much Oat-meal well beaten as there is herbs, and mix it with the herbs, and chop all very well together, then when the pot is ready to boyl, scum it very well, and then put in your Herbs, and so let it boyl with a quick fire stirring the meat oft in the pot, til the meat be boyl'd enough, and that the herbs and water are mixt together without any separation, which will be after the consumption of more than a third part: Then season them with salt, and serve them up with the meat, either with sippets or without.

Pottage without sight of herbs

Some desire to have their Pottage green, yet no herbs to be seen, in this case you must take your Herbs and Oatmeal, and after it is chopt put it in to a stone mortar or bowl, and with a wooden pestel beat it exceedingly, then with some of the warm liquor in the pot strain it as hard as may be, and so put it in and boyl it.

Pottage without herbs

Others desire to have pottage without any herbs at all, and then you must only take Oat-meal beaten, and good store of Onions, and put them in and boyl them together; and thus doing you must take a greater quantity of Oat-meal then before.

Pottage with herbs

If you will make Pottage of the best and daintiest kind, you shall take Mutton, Veal or Kid, and having broken the bones, but not cut the flesh in pieces, and wash it, put it into a pot with fair water; after it is ready to boyl, and thoroughly scum'd, you shall put in a good handful or two of small Oat-meal: and then take whole Lettuce of the best and most inward leaves, whole Spinage, Endive, Succory, and whole leaves of Cole flowers, or the inward part of white Cabbage, with two or three slic't Onions, and put all into the pot, and boyl them well together till the meat be enough, and the Herbs so soft as may be, and stir them oft well together, and then season it with salt, and as much Verjuyce as will onely turn the taste of the Pottage, and to serve them up, covering the meat with the whole Herbs, and adorning the dish with sippets.

To make ordinary stew'd broth

To make ordinary stew'd broth, you shall take a neck of Veal, or a legg, or marrow-bone of Beef, or a Pullet, or Mutton, and after the meat is washt, put it into a pot with fair water, and being ready to boyl, scum it well; then you shall take a couple of Manchets, and pairing away the crust, cut it into thick slices, and lay them in a dish and cover them with hot broth out of the pot; when they are steept, put them and some of the broth into a strainer and strain it, and then put it into a pot: then take half a pound of Prunes, half a pound of Raisins, and a quarter of a pound of Currants clean pickt and washt, with a little whole Mace ,and two or three bruised cloves, and put them into the pot, and stir all well together, and so let them boyl till the meat be enough, then if you will alter the colour of the broth, put in a little Turnfoyl or red Sanders, and so serve it upon sippets, and the fruit uppermost.

A fine boyled meat

To make an excellent boyled meat, take four pieces of a rack of mutton, and wash them clean, and put them into a pot well scoured with fair water; then take a good quantity of Wine and Verjuyce, and put it into it; then slice a handful of Onions, and put them in also, and so let them boyl a good while, then take a piece of sweet Butter white Ginger and Salt, and put it to also, and then make the broth thick with grated bread and so serve it forth with sippets.

To boyl a Mallard

To boyl a Mallard curiously, take the Mallard when it is fair dressed, washed and trust, and put it on a spit and roast it till you get the gravy out of it; then take it from the spit and boyl it, then take the best of the broth into a pipkin, and the gravy which you saved, with a piece of sweet Butter, and Currants, Vinegar, Pepper, and grated bread: Thus boyl all these together and when the Mallard is boyled sufficiently, lay it on a dish with sippets and the broth upon it, and so serve it forth.

To make an excellent Olepotride

To make an excellent Olepotride, which is the only principle dish of boyled meat which is esteemed in all Spain; you shall take a very large vessel Pot or Kettle, and filling it with water you shall set it on the fire, and first put in good thick gobbets of well fed Beef, and being ready to boyl, scum your pot; when the Beef is half boyled, you shall put in Potato-roots, Turneps and Carrets; also like gobbets of the best Mutton, and the best Pork: after they ahve boyled a while, you shall put in the like gobbets of Veal, Kid, and Lamb; a little space after these, the fore-parts of a fat Pigge, and a cramb'd Pullet; then put in Spinage, Endive, Succory, Marygold leaves and flowers, Lettuce, Violet leaves, Strawberry leaves, Bugloss and Scaillions all whole and unchopt, then when they have boyled a while, put in a Partridge and a Chicken chopt in pieces, with Quails, Rayls, Black Birds, Larks, Sparrows, and other small Birds; all being well and tenderly boyled, season up the broth with good store of Sugar, Cloves, Mace, Cinnamon, Ginger and Nutmeg, mixt together in a good quantity of Verjuyce and Salt, and so stir up the pot well from the bottom: then dish it up upon great Chargers or long Spanish dishes, laying store, of sippets in the bottom: then cover the meat all over with Prunes, Raisins, Currants, and blancht Almonds, boyled in a thing by themselves; then cover the fruit and the whole boyled herbs, and the herbs with slices of Oranges and Lemmons, and lay the roots round about the sides of the dish, and strew good store of Sugar all over, and so serve it forth.

To make the best white broth

To make the best white broth, whether it be with Veal, Capon, Chickens, or any other Fowl or Fish; First boyl the flesh or fish by is self, then take the value of a quart of strong Mutton broth, or sad Kid broth, and put it into a pipkin by itself, and put into a bunch of Thyme, Marjerom, Spinage and Endive bound together; then when it seethes, put in a pretty quantity of Beef marrow, and the marrow of Mutton, with some whole Mace, and a few bruised Cloves: then put in a pint of White Wine, with a few whole slices of Ginger: after hey have boyled a while together, take blancht Almonds and having beaten them together in a morter with some of the broth, strain them and put it in also: then in another Pipkin boyl Currants, Prunes, Raisins and whole Cinnamon in Verjuyce and Sugar with a few sliced Dates, and boyl them till the Verjuyce be most part consumed, or at least come to syrup; then drain the fruit from the syrup, and if you see it be high coloured, make it white with sweet Cream warmed, and so mix it with your Wine broth; then take out the Capon or the other flesh or fish, and dish it up dry, in a dish; then pour the broth upon it, and lay the fruit on the top of the meat, and adorn the side of the dish with very dainty sippets, First Oranges, Lemons and Sugar, and so serve it forth to the Table.

To boyl any wild Fowl

To boyl any wild Fowl, Mallard, Teal, Widgeon, or such like: First boyl the Fowl by it self, then take a quart of strong Mutton broth, and put it into a Pipkin and boyl it; then put unto it good store of sliced Onions, a bunch of sweet pot herbs, and a lump of sweet butter, after it hath boyled well, season it with Verjuyce, Salt and Sugar, and a little whole Pepper; which done, take up your fowl, and break it according to the fashion of Carbing, and stick a few Cloves about it; then put it into the broth with Onions, and there let it take a boyl or two, and so serve it and the broth forth upon sippets: Some use to thicken it wth toasts of bread steept and strained; but that is as pleases the Cook.

To boyl a leg of Mutton

To boyl a leg of Mutton, or any other Joynt of meat whatsoever, first after you have washt it clean, parboyl it a little, then spit it and give it half a dozen turns before the fire, then draw it whn it begins to drop, and press it between two dishes, and save the gravy; then slash it with your knife, and give it half a dozen turns more, and then presse it again: and thus do as often as you can force any moisture to come from it; then mixing Mutton Broth, White Wine, and Verjuyce together, boyl the Mutton therein till it be tener, and that most part of the liquor is clean consumed; then having all that while kept the gravy that you took from the Mutton, stewing gently upon a Chafing-dish and coals, you shall adde unto it good store of Salt, Sugar, Cinnamon and Ginger, with some Lemon slices, and a little of an Orange peel, with a few fine white bread crums; then taking up the Mutton, put the remainder of the broth in and put in likewise the gravy, and then serve it up with sippets, lay the Lemmon slices uppermost, and trimming the dish about with Sugar. If you will boyl Chickens, young Turkeys, Pea-hens, or House fowl daintily; you shall, after you have trimmed them, drawn them, trust them, and washt them, fill their bellies full of parsley as they can hold; then boyl them with salt and water only till they be enough: then take a dish and put into it Verjuyce and Butter, and Salt, then and when the butter is melted, take the Parsley out of the Chickens belly and mince it very small, and then put to it the Verjuyce and Butter, and stirre it well together; then lay in the Chickens, and drim the dish with sippets and so serve it forth.

A broth for any fresh Fish

If you will make broth with any fresh Fish whatsoever, whethere it be Pike Bream, Carp, Eel, Barbel, or such like, you shall boyl water, Verjuce and Salt together with a handful of sliced Onions, then you shall thicken it with two or three spoonfuls of Ale barm, then put in a good quantity of whole Barberies, both branches and other, as also pretty store of Currants then when it is boyled enough, Dish up your Fish and pour your broth unto it, laying your fruit and Onions uppermost. Some to this broth will put Prunes and Dates sliced, but it is according to the fancy of the Cook, or the Will of the Householder.

Additions to boyl meat

Thus I have from these few Presidents shewed you the true Art and making of all sorts of boyled meats & broths and though men may coyn strange names, and feign strange Arts, yet be assured she that can do these, may make any other whatsoever, altering the taste by the alteration of the compounds as she shall see occasion: And when a broth is too sweet, to sharppen it with verjuyce; when too tart, to sweeten it with Sugar; when flat and wallowish, to wuicken it with Oranges and Lemmons, and when to bitter, to make it pleasant with Herbs and Spices.

A Mallard smoared, or a Hare, or old Cony

Take a Mallard when it is clean dressed, washed and trust, and parboyl it in water, till it be scumm'd and purified; then take it up, and put it into a Pipkin with the neck downward, and the tayl upward, standing as it were upright, then fill the Pipkin half full with that water in which the Mallard was parboyled, and fill up the other half with white Wine; then peel and slice thin a good quantity of Onions, and put them in with whole fine herbs, according to the time of the year, ae Lettuce, Strawberry leaves, Violet leaves, Vine leaves, Spinage, Endive, Succory, and such like, which have no bitter or hard taste, and a pretty quantity of Currants and Dates sliced; then cover it close, and set it on a gentle fire, and let it stew, and smoar till the Herbs and Onions be soft, and the Mallard enough, then take out the Mallard, and Carve it as if it where to go to the Table: then to the Broth put a good lump of Butter, Sugar, Cinnamon; and if it be in Summer, so many Gooseberries as well give it a sharp taste; but in the Winter, as much Wine Vinegar; then heat it on the fire, and stir all well together: then lay the Mallard in a Dish with sippets, and pour all this broth upon it, then trim the edge of the dish with Sugar, and so serve it up. And in this manner you may also smoar the hinder parts of a Hare, or a whole old Cony, being trust up close together.

To stew a Pike

After your Pike is drest and opened in the bakc, and laid flat, as if it were to fry, then lay it in a large dish for the purpose, able to receive it; then put as much White Wine to it as will cover it all over; then set it on a chafing-dish and Coals to boyl very gently, and if any scum arise, take it away; then put to it Currants, Sugar, Cinnamon, Barberies, and as much Prunes as will serve to garnish the dish, then cover it close with another dish, and let it stew till the fruit be soft, and the Pike enough; then put to it a good lump of sweet Butter; then with a fine Scumer take up the fish, and lay it in a clean dish with sippets, then take a couple of yelks of eggs, the film taken away, and beat them well together with a spoonful or two of Cream, and as soon as the Pike is taken out put it into the broth and stir it exceedingly to keep it from curding; then pour the broth upon the Pike and trim the sides of the dish with Sugar, Prunes, and Barberies, slices of Oranges or Lemmons, and so serve it up. And thus may you also stew Roches, Gurnets, or almost any Sea fish or fresh fish.

To stew a Lambs head and Purtenance

Take a Lambs head and Purtenance, clean washt and pickt, and put it into Pipkin with fair water, and let it boyl, and scum it clean then put Currants and a few sliced Dates, and a bunch of the best farcing herbs tyed up together, and so let it boyl well till the meat be enough, then take up the Lambs head and Purtenance, and put it into a clean dish with sippets; then put in a good lump of Butter, and beat the yelks of two eggs with a little Cream, and put it to the broth with Sugar, Cinnamon, and a spoonfull or two of Verjuyce and whole Mace, and as many Prunes as will garnish a dish, which should be put in when it is but half boyled, and so pour it upon the Lambs head and Purtenance, and adorn the sides of the dish with Sugar, Prunes, Barberries, Oranges and Lemmons, and in no case forget to season it well with Salt, and so serve it up.

A Breast of Mutton stewed

Take a very good brest of Mutton chopt into sundry large pieces, and when it is clean washt, put it into a pipkin with fair water, and set it on the fire to boyl; then scum it very well, then put in of the finest Parsnips cut into large pieces as long as ones hand, and clean washt and scrap't; then good store of the best Onions, and all manner of sweet pleasant Pot-herbs and Lettuce, all grossly chopt, and good store of Pepper and Salt, and then conver it, and let it stew till the mutton be enough, then take up the Mutton, and lay it in a clean dish with sippets, and to the broth put a little wine vinegar, and so pour it on the Mutton with the Parsnips whole, and adorn the sies of the dish with Sugar, and so serve it up. And as you do with the brest, so you may do with any other Joynt of Mutton.

To stew a Neats foot

Take a Neats foot that is very well boyl'd (for the tenderer it is, the better it is) and cleave it in two, and with a clean cloth dry it well from the Souse-drink, then lay it in a deep earthen platter and cover it with Verjuyce, than set it on a Chaffing-dish and coals, and put to it a few Currants, and as many Prunes and will garnish the dish, then cover it and let it boyl well, many times stirring it up with your Knife, for fear it stick to the bottom of the dish; then when it is sufficiently stewed; which will appear by the tenderness of the meat and softness of the fruit; then put in a good lump of Butter, great store of Sugar and Cinnamon, and let it boyl a little after: then put it all together ther into a clean dish with sippets, and adorn the sides of the dish with Sugar and Prunes, and so serve it up.

Roast Meats and Carbonadoes

Of Roasting meats Observations in roast meats Spitting of roast meats

To proceed them to Roast meat, it is to be understood, that in the general knowledge thereof are to be observed these few Rules: First the clean keeping and scouring of the spits and cob-irons; Next, the neat picking and washing of meat, before it be spitted, then the spitting and broaching of meat, which must be done so strongly and firmly, that the meat may by no means either shrink from the spit, or else turn about the spit; and yet ever to obsere, that the spit do not go through any principall part of the meat, but such as is of least account and estimation, and if it be birds or fowl which you spit, then to let the spit go through the hollow of the body of the fowl, and so fasten it with pricks or skewers under the wings about the thigh of the fowl, and at the feet or Rump, according to your manner of trussing and dressing them.

Temperature of fires

Then to know the Temperatures of fires for every meat, and which have a slow fire, and yet a good one, taking leisure in roasting, as Chines of Beef, Swans, Turkies, Peacocks, Bustards, and generally any great large Fowl, or any other joynts of Mutton, Veal, Duck, Kid, Lamb, or such like whether it be Venison red or Fallow; which indeed would lye long at the fire, and soak well in the roasting, and which would have a quick and sharp fire without scorching: as Pigs Pullets, Pheasants, Partridges, Quails and all sorts of middle sized, or less fowl, and all small birds, or compound roast meats, as Olives of Veal, Harslets; a pound of butter roasted, or puddings simple of themselves, and many other such like, which indeed would be suddenly and quickly dispatcht, because it is intended in Cookery, that one of these dishes may be made ready whilst the other is in eating.

The complexions of meat

Then to know the complexions of meats, as which must be palce and white roasted, and yet throughly roasted, as Mutton, Lamb, Kid, Capon, Pullet, Pheasant, Partridge, Veal, Quail, and all sorts of middle and small land or water-fowl, and all small Birds; which must be so brown roasted, as Beef, Venison, Pork, Swan, Geese, Piggs, Crane, Bustards, or any other large Fowl, or other things whose flesh is black.

The best bastings of Meats

Then to know the best bastings for meat, which is sweet Butter, sweet Oyl, Barrel Butter, or fine redred up seam, with Cinnamon, Cloves and Mace. There be some that will baste onely with Water and Salt, and nothing else: yet it is but opinion, and that must be the Worlds Master alwayes.

The best dredging

Then the best dredging, which is either fine white bread crums well grated, or else a little very white meal, and the crums very well mixt together.

To know when meat is enough

Lastly to know when meat is rosted enough; for as too much rawness is unwholsom, so too much dryness is not nourishing. Therefore to know when it is in the perfect height, and is neither too moist nor too dry, you shall observe these signs: First, in your large Joynts of meat, when the steam or smoak of the meat ascendeth either upright, or else goeth from the fire, when it beginneth a little to shrink from the spit, or when the gravy which droppeth from it is clear without bloodiness, then is the meat enough. If it be a Pigge, when the eyes are fallen out, and the body leaveth Piping: for the first is when it is half roasted, nd would be sindged, to make the coat rise, and crackle, and the later when it is full enough, and would be drawn; or if it be any kind of Fowl you roast, when the thighs are tender, or the hinder parts of the pinions at the setting on of the wings, are without blood, then be sure that your meat is fully enough roasted: yet for a better and more certain assuredness, you may thrust your Knife into the thickest parts of the meat, and draw it out again, and if it bring out white gravy without any bloodiness, then assuredly it is enough, and may be drawn with all speed convenient, after it hath been well basted with butter not formerly melted, then dredging as a foresaid, then basted over the dredging and so suffered to take two or three turns, to make crispe the dredging: Then dish it in a fair dish with salt sprinkled over it, and so serve it forth. Thus you see the general form of roasting al lkind of meats: Therefore now I will return to some particular dishes, together with their several Sauces.

Roasting Mutton with Oysters

If you will roast Mutton with Oysters, take a shoulder alone or a legg, and after it is washt, parboyl it a little; then take the great Oysters and having opened them into a dish drain the gravy clean from them twice or thrice, then parboyl them a little, then take Spinage, Endive, Succory, Straberry leaves, Violet leaves and a little Parsley, with some Scallions; chop them very small together, then take your Oysters very dry drain'd and mix them with an half part of these herbs; then take your meat, and with these Oysters and herbs farce or stop it, leaving no place empty, then spit it and roast it, and whilst it is in roasting, take good store of Verjuyce and Butter, and Salt, and set it in a dish on a chafing dish and coals, and when it begins to boyl, put in the remainder of your herbs without, Oysters, and a good quantity of Currants, with Cinnamon, and the yelks of a couple of eggs. And after they are well boyled and stirred together, season, it up according to your taste with Sugar; then put in a few Lemon slices; the meat being enough draw it, and lay upon this sawce removed into a clean dish, the edge thereof being trimmed about with Sugar, and so serve it forth.

To roast a leg of Mutton otherwise

To roast a Leg of Mutton after an Outlandish fashion, you shall take it after it is wash'd, and cut off all the flesh from the bone, leaving only the outmost skin intirely whole and fast to the bone; then take thick Cream and the yelks of eggs, and beat them exceedingly well together, then put to Cinnamon, Mace, and a little Nutmeg with Salt; then take bread crums finely trated and searst with good store of Currants, and as you mix them with the Cream, put in Sugar and so make it into a good stiffness. Now if you would have it look green, put in the juyce of sweet herbs, as Spinage, Violet leaves, Endive &c. If you would have it yellow, then put in a little Saffron strained, and with this fill up the skin of your legg of Mutton in the same shape and form that it was before, and stick the out-side of the skin, thick with Cloves, and so roast it throughly, and baste it very well, then after it is dredg'd, serve it up as a legg of Mutton with this Pudding; for indeed it is no other: you may stop any other Joynt of meat, as brest or loyn or the belly of any fowl boyled or roast, or Rabbet or any meat else which hath skin or emptiness. If into this Pudding also you beat the inward pith of an Oxes bck, it is both good in taste, and excellent soveraign for any disease, ach, or flux in the reins whatsoever.

To roast a Jigget of Mutton

To roast a Jigget of Mutton, which is the legg splatted and half part of the loyn together, you shall after it is washt stop it with Cloves, so spit it and lay it to the fire and tend it well with basting; then you shall take Vinegar, Butter and Currants, and set them on a fire in a dish or pipkin; then when it boyles you shall put in sweet herbs finely chopt, with the yelks of a couple of eggs, and so let them boyl together: then the meat being half rosted, you shall pare off some part of the leanest and brown, then shred it very small, and put it into the pipkin also; then season it up with Sugar, Cinnamon, Gingar and Salt, and so put it into a clean dish, then draw the Jigget or Mutton and lay it on the sawce, and throw salt on the top and so serve it up.

To roast Olaves of Veal

You shall take a leg of Veal, and cut the flesh from the bones, and cut it out into thin long slices; then take sweet herbs and the white part of Scallions, and chop them well together with the yelks of eggs, then role it up within the slices of Veal, and so spit thm and roast them; then boyl Verjuyce, Butter, Sugar, Cinnamon, Currants, and sweet herbs together, and being seasoned with a little salt, serve the Olives up upon the sawce with salt cast over them.

To roast a Pig

To roast a Pig curiously, you shall not scall'd it, but draw it with the hair on, then having washt it, spit it and lay it t othe fire, so as it may not scorch, thn being a quarter roasted, and the skin blistered from the flesh, with your hand pull away the hair and skin, and leave all the fat and flesh perfectly bare; then with your Knife scotch all the flesh down to the bones, then baste it exceedingly with butter and Cream, being no more but warm: then dredge it with fine bread crums, Currants, Sugar, and Salt mixt together, and thus apply dredging upon basting, and basting upon dredging, till you have covered all the flesh a full inch deep; Then the meat being fully roasted, draw it, and serve it up whole.

To roast a pound of Butter well

To roast a pound of Butter curiously and well, you shall take a pound of sweet Butter and beat it stiff with Sugar and the yelks of Eggs, then chap it round-wise about a spit, and lay it before a soft fire, and presently dredg it with the dredging before appointed for the Pig; then as it warmeth or melteth, so apply it with dredging till the Butter be overcomed, and no more will melt to fall from it; then roast it brown, and so draw it, and serve it out, the dish being as neatly trim'd with Sugar as may be.

To roast a pudding upon a spit

To roast a pudding upon a spit, you shall mixe the Pudding before spoken of in the leg of Mutton, neither omitting herbs or saffron, and put to a little sweet butter and mix it very stiff, then fold it about the spit, and have ready in another dish some of the same mixture well seasoned, but a great deal thinner, and no butter at all in it; and when the pudding doth begin to rost, and that the butter appears, then with a spoon cover it all over with the thinner mixture, and so let it roast: then if you see no more butter appear, then baste it as you did the Pig, and lay more of the mixture on, and so continue till all be spent; and then roast it brown and so serve it up.

To roast a Chine of Beef, Loyn of Mutton, Lark and Capon at one fire and at one instant

If you will Roast a Chine of Beef, a Loyn of Mutton, a Capon, and a Lark, all at one instant, and at one fire, and have all ready together, and none burnt, you shall first take your Chine of Beef and parboyl it more than half through: Then first take your Capon, being large and fat, and spit it next the hand of the turner, with the legs from the fire, then spit the Chine of Beef, then the Lark, and lastly the loyn of Mutton, and place the Lark so as it may be covered over with the Beef and the fat part of the Loyn of Mutton, without any part disclosed, then baste your Capon and your loyn of Mutton with cold water and salt, the Chine of Beef with boyling Lard, then when you see the beef is almost enough, which you shall hasten by scotching and opening of it, then with a clean cloath you shall wipe the Mutton and Capon all over, and then baste it with sweet butter till all be enough rosted: then with your knife lay the Lark open, which by this time will be stewed between the beef and Mutton, & and basting it also with dredge altogether, draw them and serve them up.

To roast Venison

If you will Roast any Venison, after you hae washt it, & clensed all the blood from it, you shall stick it with Cloves all over on the outside; & if it be lean, you shall lard it either with Mutton lard, or pork lard: but Mutton is the best: then spit it and rost it by a soaking fire, then take vinegar, bread crums, and some of the gravy which omes from the venison, and boyl them well in a dish: then season it with sugar, cinamon, ginger and salt, and serve the venison forth upon the sawce when it is rosted enough. If you will Roast a piece of fresh Sturgeon, which is a dainty dish, you shall stop it with Cloves, then spit it, and let it Roast at great leasure, plying it continually with basting, which will take away the hardness: then when it is enough you shall draw it and serve it upon Venison sauce, with Salt only thrown upon it. The rosting of all sorts of meats differeth nothing but in the fire, speed and leasure as is aforesaid, except these compound dishes, of which I have given you sufficient presidents, and by them you may perform any work whatsoever: but for the ordering, preparing, and trussing your meat for the spit or Table, in that there is much difference: for in all oynts of meat except a shoulder of Mutton, you shall crush and break the joynts well; from Pigs and Rabbets you shall cut off the feet before you spit them, and the heads when you serve them to Table; and the Pig you shall chine and diide in two parts: Capons, Pheasants, Chickens and Turkeys you shall roast with the Pininions folded up, and the legs extended: Hens, Stockdoves, and Housedoves, you shall roast with the Pinions folded, and the elgs cut off by the knees and thrust into the bodies: Quails, Partridges, and all sorts of small Birds shall have their Pinions cut away, and the legs extended: all sorts of Water fowl shall have their Pinions cut away, and their legs turned backwards: Wood-cocks, snips and Stint shall be Roasted with their Heads and Necks on, and their legs thrust into their bodies, and shoulders, and Bitterns shall have no necks but their heads only.

To roast a Cows Udder

Take a Cows Udder, and first boyl it well: then stick it thick all over with Cloves: then when it is cold spit it, and lay it on the fire, and and apply it very well with basting of sweet Butter, and when it is sufficiently roasted and brown, then dredg it, and draw it from the fire, take Venegar and Butter, and put it on a chafing dish and coals; and boyl it with white bread crum, till it be thick: then put to it good store Sugar and of Cinnamon, and putting it into a clean dish, lay the Cows Udder therein, and trim the sides of the dish with Sugar, and so serve it up.

To roast a Fillet of Veal

Take an excellent good leg of Veal, and cut the thick part thereof, a handful and more from the Knuckle: then take the thick part which is the fillet) and farce it in every part all over with Strawberry-leaves, Sorrel, Spinage, Endive, and Succory grosely chopt together, and good store of Onions, then lay it to the fire and roast it very sufficiently and brown, casting good store of Salt upon it, and basting it well with sweet butter: then take of the former herbs much finer chopt then they were for farcing, and put them into a pipkin with Vinegar and clean washt Currants, and boyl them well together, then when the herbs are sufficiently boyled and soft, take the yelks of four very hard boyled Eggs, and shred them very small, and put them into the Pipkin also with Sugar and Cinnamon and some of the gravy which drops from the Veal, and boyl it over again, and then put it into a clean dish, and the fillet being dredged and drawn, lay upon it and trim the side of the dish with Sugar, and so serve it up. To make an excellent sauce for a rost Capon, you shall take Onions, and having sliced and peeled them, boyl them in fair water with Pepper, Salt, and few bread crums; then put unto it a spoonful or two of Clarret Wine, the juyce of an Orange, and three or four slices of Lemmon peel: all these shred together, and so pour it upon the Capon being broke up. To make a sauce for an old Hen or Pullet, take a good quantity of Beer and Salt, and mix them well together with a few fine bread crums, and boyl them on a chafing-dish and coals; then take the yelks of three or four hard Eggs, and being shred small put it to the Beer, and boyl it also; then the Hen being almost enough, take three or four spoonfulls of the gravy which comes from her, and put it in also, and boyl all together to an indifferent thickness: which done, suffer it to boyl no more, but only to keep it warm on the fire, and put into it the juyce of two or three Oranges and the slices of Lemmon-peels shred small, and the slices of Oranges, having also the upper rind taken away: then the Hen being broke up, take the brains thereof, and shredding them small, put it into the sawce also, and stirring all well together, put it hot into a clean warm dish and lay the Hen (broke up) in the same. The Sawce for Chickens is divers, according to mens tastes: for some will onely have Butter, Verjuyce, and a little Parsley rosted in their bellies mixt to gether; others will have butter, verjuyce, and Sugar boyl'd together with toasts of bread, and other will have thick sippets with the juyce of sorrel and sugar mixt together. The best sawce for a Pheasant is water and Onions slic't, Pepper and a little Salt mixt together, and but stewed upon the coals, and then poured upon the Phesant or Partridge, being broken up, and some will put thereto the juyce or slices of an Orange or Lemon, or both: but it is according to taste, and indeed more proper for Phesant then Partridge. Sauce for a Quail, Raile or any fat big bird, is Claret wine and salt mixt together with the gravy of the bird, and a few fine bread crums well boyled together, and either a Sage leaf, or Bay leaf crusht amongst it, according to mens tastes.

Sauces for Piggeons

The best sauce for Piggeons, Stockdoves, or such like, is Vinegar and Butter melted together, and Parsley rosted in the bellies; or Vine leaves rosted and mixed well together.

A general sauce for wild fowl

The most general sauce for ordinary wild fowl rosted, as Ducks, Mallard, Widgeon, Teal, Snipe, Sheldrake, Plovers, Puets, Guls, and such like, is only Mustard and Vinegar, or Mustard and Verjuice mixt together; or else an Onion, Water, and Pepper, and some (especially in the Court) use only Butter melted, and not with any thing else.

Sauce for green Geese

The best sauce for green Geese is the juyce of Sorrel and Sugar mixt together with a few scalted Feberries, and served upon sippets; or else the belly of the Green Goose fill'd with Feberries and so rosted; and then the same mixt with Verjuyce, Butter, Sugar and Cinnamon, and so served upon sippets.

Sauce for stubble Geese

The Sauce for a stubble Goose is divers, according to mens minds, for some will take the pap of rosted Apples, and mixint it with Vinegar, boyl them together on the fire wih some of the gravy of the Goose, and a few Barberries and bread crums, and when it is boyled to a good thickness, season it with Sugar and a little Cinnamon, and so serve it up: some will add a Little Mustard and Onions unto it, and some will not rost the Apples, but pare them and slice them, and that is the nearer way, but not the better. Others will fill the belly of the Goose full of Onions shred, and Oatmeal grotes, and being roasted enough, mix it with the gravy of the Goose, and sweet herbs well boyled together, and seasoned with a little Verjuyce.

A Gallantine, Sauce for a Swan

To make a Gallantine, or sauce for a Swan, Bittern, Hern, Crane, or any large Fowl, take the blood of the same Fowl, and being stirred well, boyl it on the fire, then when it comes to be thick, put unto it Vinegar a good quantity, with a few fine white bread crums, and so boyl it over again; then being come to a good thickness, season it with Sugar and Cinnamon, so as it may taste pretty and sharp upon the Cinnamon, and then serve it up in saucers as you do Mustard, for this is called a Cauder or Gallantine, and is a sauce almost for any Fowl whatsoever.

A sauce for a Pig

To make sauce for a Pig, some take Sage and rost it in the belly of the Pig; then boyling Verjuyce, Butter, and Currants together, take and chop the Sae small and mixing the brains of the Pig with it, put all together and so serve it up.

A sauce for Veal

To make Sauce for a loyn of Veal, take all kind of sweet Pot-herbs, and chopping them very small with the yelks of two or three Eggs boyl them in Venegar and Butter, with a few bread crums, and good store of Sugar; then season it with Sugar and Cinnamon, and a Clove or two crusht, and so pour it upon the Veal, with the slices of Oranges and Lemons about the Dish.

Additions unto Sauces

Take Oranges and slice them thin, and put unto them White wine and Rose-water, the Powder of Mace, Ginger, and Sugar and set the same upon a Chafing-dish of coals, and when it is half boyled, put to it a good lump of Butter, and then lay good store of sippets of fine white bread therein, and so serve your Chickens upon them, and trim the sides of the dish with Sugar.

Sauce for a Turkey

Take fair water, and set it over the fire, then slice good store of Onions, and put into it, and also Pepper and Salt and good store of Gravy that comes from the Turkey, and boyl them very well together: then put to it a few fine crums of grated bread to thicken it, a very little Sugar, and some Venegar, and so serve it up with the Turkey: or otherwise, take greated White bread and boyl it in White wine till it be as thick as a Gallantine; in boyling put in good store of Sugar, and Cinnamon, and then with a little Turnsole make it of a high murrey colour, and so serve it in saucers with the Turkey, in manner of Gallantine.

The best Gallantine

Take the blood of a Swan, or any other great fowl, and put it into a dish, then take stewed Prunes, and put them into a strainer, and strain them into the blood; then set it on a chafing-dish, and coals, and let it boyl; then stir it till it come to be thick, and season it very well with Sugar and Cinnamon, and so serve it in Saucers with the fowl: but this sauce must served cold.

Sauce for a Mallard

Take good store of Onoins, peel them and slice them, and put them into Vinegar and boyl them very well till they be tender; then put into it a good lump of sweet butter, and season it well with Sugar and Cinnamon, and so serve it up with the fowl.

On Carbonadoes

Charbonadoes, or carbonadoes, which is meat broyled upon the coals (and the invention thereof was first brought out of France as appears by the name) are of divers kinds according to mens pleasures; for there is no meat either boyled or raosted whatsoever, but may afterards be broyled if the master thereof be disposed, yet the general dishes which for the most part are to be carbonadoed, are a breast of Mutton half boyled; a shoulder of Mutton half rosted, the legs, wings, and carkasses of Capon, Turkey, Goose or any other fowl whatsoever, especially Land fowl.

What is to be carbonadoed

ANd lasty, the uttermost thick skin which covereth the ribbs of beef, and is called (being boyled,) the Inns of Court Goose, and is indeed a dish used most for wantonness, sometimes to please the appetite, to which may also be added the broyling of Pigs heads, or the brains of any fowl whatsoever after it is rosted and drest.

The manner of Carbonadoing

Now for the manner of Carbonadoing, it is in this sort; you shall first take the meat you must Carbonado, and scotch it both above and below; then sprinkle good store of salt upon it, and baste it all over with sweet butter melted; which done, take your Broyling-iron, I do not mean a Grid-iron (though it be much used for those purpose) because of the smoak of the coals, occasioned by the dropping of the meat, will ascend about it, and make it stink: but a Plate iron made with hoks and pricks, on which you may hang the meat; and set it close before the fire, and so the Plate heating the meat behind, as the fire doth before, it will both the sooner and with more neatness be ready: then, having turned it, and basted it till it be very brown, dredg it, and serve it up with Vinegar and Butter.

Of the toasting of Mutton

Touching the toasting of Mutton, Venison, or any joynt of Meat, which is the most excellentest of all Carbanadoes, you shall take the fattest and the largest that can possibly be got (for lean meat is less of flavour, and little meat not worth your time :) and having scotcht it and cast Salt upon it, you shall set it on a strong fork, with a dripping pan underneath it, before the face of a quick fire, yet so far off that it may be no means scorch, but toast at leasure; then with that which falls from it, and wiht no other basting, see that you baste it continually, turning it ever and anon many times and so oft that it may soak and brown at great leasure, and as oft as you baste it, to oft sprinkle Salt upon it, and as you see it toast, scotch it deeper and deeper, epecially in the thickest and most fleshy parts where the blood most resteth, and when you see that no more blood droppeth from it, but the gravy is clear and white, then you shall serve it up either with Venison sauce, with Vinegar, Pepper, and Sugar Cinnamon, and the juyce of an Orange mixt together, and warmed with some of the gravy.

Additions unto carbonadoes A Rasher of Mutton or Lamb

Take Mutton or Lamb that hath been either roasted or but parboy'ld, and with your knife scotch it many wayes, then lay it in a deep dish, and put to it a pint of White wine, and a little whole Mace, a little slic't Nutmeg and some Sugar, with a lump of sweet butter, and stew it so till it be very tender, then take it forth, and brown it on the Grid-iron, and then laying sippets in the former broth, serve it up.

How to Carbonado Tongues

Take any Tongue, whether of Beef, Mutton, Calves, Red Deer or Fallow, and being well boyled peel them, cleave them, and scotch them many wayes; then take three of four Eggs broken, some Sugar, Cinnamon, and Nutmeg, and having beaten it well together, put to it a Lemmon cut in thinne slices, and another clean peel'd, and cut into little four square bits, and then take the Tongue, and lay it in: and then haing melted good store of Butter in a Frying pan, put the tongue and the rest therein, and so fry it brown, and then dish it, and scrape Sugar upon it, and serve it up.

Additional, for dressing fish

Additions. For dressing Fish. How to souse any fresh fish.

Take any fresh fish what soever (as Pike, Bream, Carp, Barbel, Cheam, and such like) and draw it, but scale it not; then take out the Liver and the refuse, and having opened it, wash it: then take a pottle of fair water, a pretty quantity of white Wine, good store of Salt and some Vinegar with a little bunch of sweet herbs, and set it on the fire: as soon as it begins to boyl, put in your fish, and having boyled a little, take it up into a fair vessel, then put into the liquor some gross Pepper and Ginger, and when it is boyled well together with more salt, set it by to cool, and then put your Fish into it, and when you serve it up, lay Fennel thereupon.

How to boyl small Fish

To boyl small Fish, as Roches, Dace, Gudgeons, or Flounders, boyl White wine and water together with a bunch of choice Herbs, and a little whole Mace, when all is boyl'd well together, put in your fish and scum it well: then put it in the soal of a Manchet, a good quantity of sweet butter, and season it with Pepper and Verjuyce, and serve it upon sippets, and adorn the sides of the dish with Sugar.

To boyl a Gurnet or Roch

First draw your Fish, and either spint it open in the back, or joynt it in the back, and trusse it round; then wash it clean and boyl it in water and Salt, with a bunch of sweet Herbs then take it up into a large dish, and pour unto it Verjuice, Nutmeg, Butter and Pepper, and letting it stew a little, thicken it with the yelks of Eggs: then hot remove it into another dish, and garnish it with slices of Oranges and Lemons, Barberries, Prunes, and Sugar and so serve it up. After you have drawn, washt and scaled a fair large Carp, season it with Pepper, Salt, and Nutmeg, and then put it into a Coffinwith good store of Sweet Butter, and then cast on Faisins of the Sun and the juyce of Lemons, and some slices of Orange-pils, and then sprinkling on a little Venegar, close it up and bake it. First let your Tench blood in the tayl, then scoure it, wash it, and call'd it, then having dryed it, take the fine crums of Bread, sweet Cream, the yelks of Eggs, Currants clean wash'd, a few sweet herbs chopt small, season it with Nutmeg and Pepper, and make it into a stiff paste, and put it into the belly of the Tench, then season the fish on the out-side with Pepper, Salt and Nutmeg, and so put it into a deep Coffin with sweet butter, and so close up the Pye and bake it; then when it is enough draw it, and open it, and put into it a good piece of preserved Orange minc'd: Then take Vinegar, Nutmeg, Butter, Sugar, and the yelk of a new laid Egg, and boyl it on a Chafing-dish of Coals, always stirring it to keep it from curding; then pour it into the Pye, shake it well, and so serve it up.

How to stew a Trout

Take a large Trout fair trimm'd, and wash it, and put it into a deep pewter dish, then take half a pint of sweet Wine, with a lump of butter, & a little whole Mace, Parsley, Savory, & Thyme, mince them all small, and put them into the Trouts belly, and so let it stew a quarter of an hour, then mince the yelk of a hard Egg, and strew it on the Trout, and laying the herbs about it, and scraping on Sugar, serve it up.

How to bake Eeles

After you have drawn your Eeles, chop them into small pieces of three or four inches and season them with Pepper, Salt and Gingar, and so put them into the coffin a good lump of Butter; great Raisins, Onions small chopt, and so close it, bake and serve it

Pastry and Baked Meats

The Pastry & baked meats

Next to these already rehearsed, our English House-wife must be skilful in Pastry, and know how and in what manner to bake all sorts of meat, and what paste is fit for every meat, and how to handle and compound such pasts. As for example, Red Deer, Venison, wild Boar, Gammons of Bacon, Swans, Elkes, Porpus, and such like standing dishes, which must be kept long, would be mak'd in a moist, thick, tough, course, and long lasting crust, and therefore of all other, your Rye-paste is best for that purpose; your Turkey, Capon, Pheasant, Partridg, Veal, Peacocks, Lamb, and all sorts of Water-fowl, which are to come to the Table more than once, (yet not many dayes) would be bak'd in a good white crust, somewhat thick; therefore your wheat is fit ... [ pages missing, apparently from the original book ] ... which the Wardens were boyl'd, and taste it, and if it be not sweet enough, then put in more Sugar, and some Rose-water, and boyl it again a little: then pour it in at the Vent-hole, and shake the Pye well: then take sweet Butter and Rosewater melted, and with it annoint the Pye-lid all over, and then strew on it store of Sugar, and so set it into the Oven again a little Space, and then serve it up: and in this manner you may also bake Quinces.

To preserve Quinches to bake all the year

Take the best and sweetest Wort, and put to it good store of Sugar: then pare and cover the Quinces clean, and pat them therein, and boyl them till they grow tender: then take out the Quinces and let them cool, then let the Pickle in which they were boyled stand to cool also. Then strain it through a raunge or sieve, then put the Quinces into a sweet earthen pot: then pour the Pickle or Syrup into them, so as all the Quinces may be quite covered all over: then stop up the pot close, and set it it in a dry place, and once in six or seven weeks look upon it; and if you see it shrink, or do begin to hoar or mould, then pour out the pickle or Syrup, and renewing it boyl it over again, and as before put in the Quinces being cold, and thus you may preserve them or the use of baking, or otherwise, all the year.

A Pippin Tart

Take Pippins of the fairest, and pare them, and then divide them just in halfes, and take out the Cores clean: then having rould the Coffin flat, and raised up a small Verbe of an Inch, or more high, lay in the Pippins with the hollow side downward, as close thone to another as may be: then lay here and there a Clove, and here and there a whole stick of Cinnamon, and a little bit of Butter. Then cover all clean over with Sugar, and so cover the Coffin, and bake it according to the manner of Tarts, and when it is bak'd, then draw it out, and having boyled Butter and Rose-water together, anoint all the lid over therewith, and scrape or strew on it good store of Sugar, and so set it in the Oven again, and after serve it up.

A Colin tart

Take green Apples from the Tree, and coddle them in scalding water without breaking; then peel the skin from them, and so divide them in half, and cut out the Cores, and so lay them into the Coffin; and do in every thing, as you did in the Pippin tart; and before you cover it, when the Sugar is cast in see you sprinkle upon it good store of Rose-water and then close it, and do as before shewed.

A Codlin Pye

Take Codlins as before said, and pill them and divide them in halfes, and core them, and lay a lear thereof in the bottom of the Pye: then scatter here and there a Clove, & here and there a piece of whole Cinamon, then cover them all over with Sugar, then lay another lear of Codlins, and do as before said, and so another, till the Coffin be all filled; then cover all with Sugar, and here and there a Clove and a Cinamon stick, and if you will a slic'd Orange-peel, and a Date, then cover it and bake it as the Pies of that nature. When it is bak'd, draw it out of the Oven, and take of the thickest and best Cream, with good store of Sugar give it one boyl or two on the fire, then open the Pye, and put the Cream therein, and mash the Codlins all about then cover it, and having trimm'd the lid (as was before shewed in the like Pies and Tarts) set it into the Oven again for half an hour, and so serve it forth.

Cherry tart

Take the fairest Cherries you can get, and pick them clean from the leaves and stalks: spread out your Coffin as for your Pippin-Tart and cover the bottom with Sugar, then cover the Sugar all over with Cherries, then cover those Cherries with Sugar, some sticks of Cinamon, and here and there a Clove; then lay in more Cherries, and so more Sugar, Cinnamon and Cloves, till the coffin be filled up: then cover it, and bake it in all points, as the Codlin and Pippin Tart, and so serve it: and in the same manner you may make Tarts of Gooseberries, Strawberries, Rasberries, Bilberries, or any Berry whatsoever.

A Rice tart

Take Rice that is clean picked, and boyl it in sweet Cream, till it be very soft; then let it stand and cool, and put into it good store of Cinamon and Sugar, and the yelks of a couple of Eggs, and some Currants, stir and beat all well together, then having made the coffin in the manner before said for other Tarts, put the Rice therein, and spred it all over the Coffin: then braek many little bits of sweet butter upon it all over, and scrape some Sugar over it also; then cover then Tart and bake it, and trim it in all points as hath been before shewed, and so serve it up.

A Florentine

Take Kidneys of Veal after it hath been well roasted, and is cold: then shred it as fine as is possible: then take all sorts of sweet Pot-herbs, or farcing herbs, wich have no bitter or strong tast, and chop them as small as may be, and putting the Veal into a large dish, put the herbs unto it, and good store of clean washt Currants, Sugar Cinamon, the yelks of four Eggs, a little sweet Cream warm'd, and the fine grated Crums of a half-peny loaf and salt, and mix all exceedingly together: then take a deep pewter dish, and in it lay your paste very thin rouled out, which paste you must mingle thus: Take of the finest Wheat-flower a quart, and a quarter so much Sugar, and a little Cinnamon, then break into it a couple of Eggs, then take sweet cream and buttr melted on the fire, and with it knead the paste, and as was before said, having spread butter all about the dishes sides, then put in the Veal, and break peices of sweet butter upon it, and scrape sugar over it; then rowl out another paste reasonable thick, and with it cover the dish all over, closing the old pastes with the beaten whites of Eggs very fast together, then with your knife cut the lid into divers pretty works, according to your fancy, then set it in the Oven and bake it with Pies and Tarts of like nature: when it is bak'd, draw it and trim the lid with Sugar, as hath been shewed in Tarts, and so serve it up with your second course.

A Prune Tart

Take of the fairest Damask Prunes you can get, and put them in a clean Pipkin, with fair water, Sugar unbruised Cinnamon, and a branch or two of Rosemary, and if you have bread to bake, stew them in the Oven with ytour bread: ifotherwise, stew them on the fire. When they are stewed, then bruise them all to mash in their syrup, and strain them into a clean dish; then boyl it over again with Sugar, Cinamon and Rose-water, till it be as thick as Marmelad: then set it to cool, then make a reasonable tough paste with fine flower, Water, and a little butter, and rowl it out very thin: then having patterns of paper cut into divers proportions, as Beasts, Birds, Arms, Knots, Flowers, and such like. Lay the patterns on the paste, and so cut them accordingly: then with your fingers pinch up the edges of the paste, and set the work in good proportion: then prick it well all over for rising, and set it on a clean sheet of large Paper, and so set it into the Oven, and bake it hard: then draw it, and set it by to cool: and thus you may do by a whole Oven full at one time, as your occasion of expence is: then against the time of Service come, take of the Confections of Prunes before rehearsed, and with your Knife or a spoon fill the Coffin according to the thickness of the Verge, then strew it over with Carraway Comfets, and prick long Comfets upright in it, and so taking the Paper from the bottom, serve it on a Plate or in a Dish or Charger according to the bigness of the Tart, and at the second course; and this Tart carrieth the colour black.

Apple Tart

Take Apples and pare them, and slice them thin from the Core into a Pipkin with white-wine, good store of Sugar, Cinamon, a few Saunders and Rose-water, and so boyl it till it be thick: then cool it and strain it, and beat it very well together with a Spoon, then put it into the Coffin as you did the Prune Tart, and adorn it also in the same manner, and this Tart, you may fill thicker or thinner, as you please to raise the edge of the Coffin, and it carrieth the colour red.

A Spinage Tart

Take good store of Spinage, and boyl it in a Pipkin with White wine till it be very soft as Pap: then take it and strain it well into a Pewter dish, not leaving any part unstrained: and put to it Rose-water, great store of Sugar and Cinamon, and boyl it till it be as thick as Marmalad, then let it cool, and after fill your Coffin and adorn it, and serve it in all points as you did your Prune Tarts and this carrieth the colour green.

A yellow Tart

Take the yelks of Eggs, and break away the films, and beat them well with a little Cream, then take of the sweetest and thickest Cream that can be got, and set it on the fire in a clean skillet, and put into it Sugar, Cinamon, Rose-water and then boyl it well: when it is boyl'd, and still boyling, stir it well, and as you stir it put in Eggs, and so boyl it till it curdle: then take it from the fire, and put it into a Strainer, and first let the thin Whey run away into a By-dish, then strain the rest very well, and beat it well with a spoon, and so put it into the Tart Coffin, and adorn it as you do your Prune-Tart, and so serve it, and this carryeth the colour yellow.

A white Tart

Take the whites of Eggs and beat them with Rose-water, and a little sweet cream, then set on the fire good thick sweet cream, and put into it Sugar, cinnamon, rose water and boyl it well, and as it boyls stir it exceedingly, and in the stirring put in the whites of Eggs, and boyl it till it curd, and after do in all things as you did to the yellow Tart; and this carrieth the colour white, and it is a very pure white, & therefore would be unadorned with red Caraway Comfets, and as this, so with blaunched Almonds like white Tarts, and full as pure. Now you may if you please put all these in several colours, and several stuffs into one Tart, as thus: if the Tart be in proportions of a beast, the body may be of one colour, the eyes of another, the teeth of another, the tallons of another: and of birds, the body of one colour, the eyes of another, the legs of another, and every feather in the wings of a several colour, according to fancy: and so likewise in Arms, the Field one colour, the Charge of another, according to the form of the Coat-armour, as for Mantles, Trails, and devices about Arms, they may be set out with several colours of Preserves, Conserves, Marmalade, and good in cakes, and as you shall find occasion or invention; and so likewise of knots, one tail of one colour, and another of another, and so of as many as you please.

An Herb-Tart

Take Sorrel, Spinage, Parsly, and boyl them in water till they be very soft as Pap, then take them up and press the water clean from them, then take good store of yelks of Eggs boyl'd ery hard, and chopping them with the herbs exceeding small, then put in good store of Currants, Sugar, and Cinnamon and stir all well together; then put them into a deep Tart-Coffin with good store of sweet butter, and cover it, and bake it like a Pippin-Tart, and adorn the Lid after the baking in that manner also, and so serve it up.

To bake a Pudding-pye

Take a quart of the best Cream, and set it on the fire, and slice a loaf of the lightest white bread into thin slices, and put into it, and let it stand on the fire till the Milk begins to rise, then take it off and put it into a bason, and let it stand till it be cold, then put in the yelks of four Eggs and two Whites, good store of Currants, Sugar, Cinnamon, Cloves, Mace, and plenty of Sheeps-suet finely shred, and a good season of of Salt, then trim your Pot well round about with Butter, nd so put in your Pudding and bake it sufficiently, then when you serve it strew Sugar upon it.

A white-pot.

Take the best and sweetest Cream and boyl it with good store of Sugar and Cinnamon, & a little Rose water, then take it from the fire, and put it into clean pick'd Rice , but not so much as to make it thick, and let it steep therein till it be cold, then put in the yelks of six Eggs, and two Whites, Currants, Cinnamon Sugar, and Rose-wate, and Salt, then put it into a pan or pot as thin as it were a Custard, and so bake it, and serve it in the pot it is baked in, triming the top with Sugar or Comfeits.

Banquetting and Made Dishes

Banquetting fruit and conceited dishes

There are a world of other bak'd Meats and Pyes, but for as much as whosoever can do these, may do all therest, because herein is contained all the art of Seasonings, I will trouble you with no further repetitions, but proceed to the manner of making Banqueting stuff, and coinceited dishes, with other pretty and curious secrets, necessary for the understanding of our English House-wife: for albeit, they are not of general use, yet in their due times, they are so needful for adornation, that whosoever is ignorant therein, is lame, and but the half part of a House-wife.

To make paste of Quinces

To make past of Quinces, first boyl your Quinces whole, and when they are soft pare them, and cut the Quince from the Core; then take the finest Sugar you can get, finely beaten or searsed, and put in a little Rose-water, and boyl it together till it be stiff enough to mould, and when it is cold, then role it, and print it. A pound of Quinces will take a pound of Sugar, or near thereabouts.

To make thin Quince cakes

To make thin Quince-cakes, take your Quince when it is boyled soft as beforesaid, and dry it upon a Pewter plate, with a soft heat, and be ever stirring of it with a slice till it be hard, then take searsed Sugar quantity for quantity, and strew it into the Quince, as you beat it in a wooden or stone mortar, and so roul them thin and print them.

To preserve Quinces

To preserve quinces, first pare your quinces, and take out the cores, and boyl the cores and parings altogether in fair water, and when they begin to be soft, take them out and strain your Liquor, and put the weight of your Quinces in Sugar, and boyl the Quinces in the Syrup till they be tender: then take them up, and boyl the Syrup till it be thick. If you will have your Quinces red, cover them in the boyling; and if you will have them white, do not cover them.

To make Ipocras

To make Ipocras, take a pottle of Wine: two Ounces of good Cinamon, half an ounce of Ginger, nine Cloves, and six Pepper corns, and a Nutmeg, and bruise them and put them into the wine with some Rosmary flowers, and so let them steep all night, and then put in Sugar a pound at least, and when it is well setled, let it run through a woollen bag made for that purpose: thus if your Wine be Claret, the Ipocras will be red; if white, then of that colour also.

To make Jelly

To make the best Jelly, take Calves feet and wash them, and scald off the hair as clean as you can get it: then split them and take out the fat, and lay them in water and shift them, then bruise them in fair water untill it will jelly, which you shall know by now and then cooling a Spoonful of the Broth: when it will jelly, then strain it, and when it is cold, then put in a pint of Sack, and whole Cinamon, and Sugar, and a little Rosewater, and boyl it all well together again. Then beat the white of an Egg and put into it, and let it have one boyl more: then put in a branch of Rosemary into the bottom of your Jelly bag, and let it run through once or twice, and if you will have it coloured, then put in a little Townsal. Also if you want Calves-feet, you may make as good Jelly if you take the like quantity of Ising-glass, and so use no Calves-feet at all.

To make Leech

To make the best Leech, take Ising-glass, and lay it two hours in water, and shift it and boyl it in fair water, and let it cool, then take Almonds, and lay them in cold water till they will blaunch,; and then stamp them and put to new milk, and strain them, and put in whole Mace and Ginger slic'd, and boyl them till it tast well of the spice; then put in your Ising-glass and Sugar and a little Rose-water, and let them all run through a Stainer.

To make Ginger-bread

Take Claret-wine, and colour it with Townsall, and put in Sugar, and set it to the fire; then take wheat bread finely grated and sifted, and Licoras, Anniseeds, Ginger and Cinamon beaten very small and searsed; and put your bread and your spice together, and put them into the wine and boyl it, and stir it till it be thick, then mould it and print it at your pleasure, and let it stand neither too moist nor too warm.

Marmalade of Quinces, red

To make red Marmalade of Quinces, take a pound of Quinces and cut them in half, and take out the cores, and pare them; then take a pound of Sugar, and a quart of fair water, and put them all into a pan, and let them boyl with a soft fire, and sometimes turn and keep them covered with a pewter dish, so that the steam or air may come a little out: the longer they are in boyling, the better colour they will have: and when they be soft take a Knife, and cut them cross upon the top, it will make the syrup go through that they may be all of the like colour: then set a little of your syrup to cool, and when it beginneth to be thick, then break your Quinces with a slice or spoon, so small as you can in the pan, and then strew a little fine Sugar in your boxes bottom, and so put it up.

Marmalade white

To make white Marmalade, you must in all points use your Quinces as before said; only you must take but a pint of water to a pound of Quinces, and a pound of Sugar, and boyl them as fast as you can, and cover them not at all.

To make Jumbals

To make the best Jumbals, take the whites of three Eggs, and beat them well, and take off the froth; then take a little milk and a pound of fine wheat flowre and Sugar together finely sifted, and a few Anniseeds well rub'd and dryed, and then work all together as stiff as you can work it, and so make them in what forms you please, & bake them in a soft oven upon white papers.

To make Bisket-bread

To make Bisket-bread, take a pound of fine flower, and a pound of Sugar finely beaten and searsed, and mix them together, then take eight eggs, & put four yelks, & beat them very wel together; then strew in your flower and sugar as you are beating of it, by a little at once, it will take very near an hours beating, then take half an ounce of Anniseeds and Coriander seeds: and let them be dryed and rub'd very lean, and put them in; then rub your Bisket-pans with cold sweet Butter as thin as you can, and so put it in, and bake it in an Oven: but if you would have thin Cakes, then take fruit dishes, and rub them in like sort with Butter, and so bake your Cakes on them, & when they are almost baked, turn them, and thrust them down close with your hand. Some to this Bisket-bread will add a little Cream, and it is not amiss, but excellent good also.

To make finer Jumbals

To make Jumbals more fine and curious than the former, and nearer to the taste of the Macaroon, take a pound of Sugar, beat it fine, then take as much fine wheat flower, and mix them together, then take two whites and one yelk of an Egg, half a quarter of a pound of blanched Almonds: then beat them very fine altogether, with half a dish of sweet Butter, and a good spoonful of Rose water, and so work it with a little Cream till it come to a very stiff paste, then roul them forth as you please: and hereto you shall also if you please, add a few dryed Anniseeds finely rubbed, and strewed into the paste, and also Coriander seeds.

To make dry Sugar leach

To make dry Sugar leach, blaunch your ALmonds, and beat them with a little Rose-water, and the white of one Egg, and you must beat it with a great deal of Sugar, and work it as you would work a piece of paste: then roul it, and print it as you did other things, only be sure to strew Sugar in the print for fear of cleaving too.

To make Leach Lombard

To make Leach Lombard, take a half pound of blanched Almonds, two ounces of Cinamon beaten and searsed, half a pound of Sugar, then beat your Almonds, and strew in your Sugar and Cinamon till it come to a paste, and print it as afore-said.

To make fresh Cheese

To make an excellent fresh Cheese, take a pottle of Milk as it comes from the Cow, and a pint of Cream: then take a spoonful of Runnet or Earning, and put it unto it, and let it stand two hours; then stir it up, and put it into a fine cloth, and let they Whey drain from it: then put it into a bowl, and take the yelk of an Egg, a spoonful of Rose-ater, and bray them together with a very little Salt, with Sugar and Nutmegs, and when all these are brayed together, and searst, mix it with the curd, and then put it in the Cheese-fat with a very fine cloth.

How to make course Ginger-bread.

To make course Ginger-bread, take a quart of Honey, and set it on the coals and refine it: then take a penny-worth of Ginger, as much Pepper, as much Licoras, and quarter of a pound of Aniseeds, and a penny-worth of Saunders: all these must be beaten and searsed, and so put into the Hony; then put in a quarter of a pint of Claret wine, or old Ale: then take three penny manchets finely grated, and strew it amongst the rest, and stir it till it come to a stiff paste, and then make into Cakes, and dry them gently.

How to make Quince-cakes ordinary

To make ordinary Quince-cakes, take a good piece of preserved Quince, and beat it in a mortar, and work it up into a very stiff paste with fine searst Sugar; then print it, and dry them gently.

How to make Cinamon sticks

To make most artificial Cinamon sticks, take an ounce of Cinamon and pound it, and half a pound of Sugar: then take some gum Dragon, and put it in steep in Rose-water: then take thereof to the quantity of a Hazel-nut, and work it out and print it, and roul it in form of a Cinamon-stick.

To make Wormwood water

To make Wormwood-water, take two gallons of good Ale, a pound of Anniseeds, half a pound of Licoras, and beat them very fine; and then take two good handfuls of the crops of Wormwood and put them into Ale, and let them stand all night, and then distill them in a Limbeck with moderate fire.

To make sweet water

To make sweet water of the best kind, take a thousand Damask Roses, two good handfuls of Lavender tops, a three-penny weight of Mace, two ounces of Cloves bruised, a quart of running water: put a little water into the bottom of an earthen pot, and then put in your Roses and Lavender, with the spices by little and little, and in the putting in, alwaies knead them down with your fist, and so continue it untill you have wrought up all your Roses and Lavender, and in the working between put in always a little of your water; then stop your pot close and let it stand in four dayes, in which time every morning and evening put in your hand, and pull from the bottom of your pot the said Roses, working it for a time, and then distill it, and hang in the glass of water a grain or two of Muske wrapt up in a Piece of Sarcenet or fine cloth.

Another way

Others to make sweet water, take of Ireos two ounces, of Calamus half an ounce, of Cypress roots half an ounce, of yellow Saunders nine drams, of Cloves bruised one ounce, of Storax and Calamint one ounce, and of Musk twelve grains, and infusing all these in Rose-water and distill it.

To make Date-Leach.

To make an excellent Date-Leach, take Dates, and take out the stones, and the white rind, and beat them with Sugar, Cinamon and Ginger, very finely; then work it as you would work a piece of paste, and then print them as you please.

To make Sugar plate

To make a kind of Sugar plate, take Gum Dragon, and lay it in Rose-water two days: then take the powder of fair Heppes and Sugar, and the juice of an Orange, beat all these together in a mortar, then take it out, and work it with your hand and print it at your pleasure.

To make spice Cakes

To make excellent spice Cakes, take half a peck of very fine Wheat flowre, take almost one pound of sweet Butter, and some good Milk and cream mixt together, set it on the fire, and put in you Butter, and a good deal of Sugar, and let it melt together: then strain Saffron into your Milk a good quantity: then take seven or eight spoonfuls of good Ale barm, and eight eggs with two yelks, and mix them together, then put your Milk to it when it is somewhat cold, and into your flowre put Salt, Anniseeds bruised, Cloves, and Mace, and a good deal of Cinamon; then work all thgether good and stiff, that you need not work in any flower after, then put in a little Rose water cold, then rubbe it well in the thing you knead it in and work it throughly: if it be not sweet enough, scrape in a little more Sugar, and pull it all in pieces, and hurle in a good quantity of Currants, and so work all together again, and bake your Cakes as you see cause, in a gentle warm Oven.

To make Banbury Cakes

To make a very good Banbury Cake, take four pounds of Currants and wash and pick them very clean, and dry them in a cloth: then take three Eggs, and put away one yelk, and beat them and strain them with the Barm, putting thereto Cloves, Mace, Cinamon, and Nutmegs, then take a pint of Cream, and as much mornings Milk, and set it on the fire till the cold be taken awy; then take flowre, and put in good store of cold butter and sugar, then put in your eggs, barm and meal, and work them all together an hour or more; then save a part of the past, & the rest break in pieces, and work in your Currants, which done, mould your Cakes of what quantity you please, and then with that paste which hath not any Currants, cover it very thin, both underneath and aloft. And so bake it according to the bigness.

To make the best Marchpane

To make the best March-pane, take the bset Jordan Almonds and blanch them in warm water, then put them into a stone mortar, and with a wooden pestel beat them to pap, then take of the finest refined Sugar well searst, and with it Damask-Rose-water beat it to a good stiff paste, allowing almost to every Jordan Almond, three spoonfulls of sugar, then when it is brought thus to a paste, lay it upon a fair Table, and strewing searst sugar under it, mould it like leven, then with a rowling-pin rowl it forth, and lay it upon wafers wash'd with Rose-water; then pinch it about the sides, and put it into what form you please; then strew searst sugar all over it, which done, wash it over with Rose-water and sugar mixt together, for that will make the Ice; then adorn it with Comfets, guilding, or whatsoever devices you please, and so set it into a hot stove, and there bake it crispy, and serve it forth. Some use to mix with the paste Cinamon and Ginger finely searst, but I refer that to your particular taste.

To make paste of Genoa, or any other paste

To make paste of Genoa, you shall take Quinces after they have been boyled soft, and beat them in a mortar with refined sugar, Cinamon and Ginger finely searst, and Damask-Rose-water till it come to a stiff paste; and rowl it forth, and print it, and so bake it in a stove; and in this sort you may make paste of Pears, Apples, Wardens, Plums of all kinds, Cherries, Barberries, or what other fruits you please.

To make any Conserve

To make conserve of any fruit you please, you shall take the fruit you intend to make conserve of, and if it be stone-fruit, you shall take out the stones: if other fruit, take away the paring and core, and then boyl them in fair running water to a reasonable height: then drain them from thence, and put them into a fresh Vessel with Claret-wine or White-wine, according to the colour of the fruit: and so boyl them to a thick pap, all to mashing, breaking, and stirring them together: and then to every pound of pap, put to a pound of Sugar, and so stirre them all well togther, and being very hot, straine them through faire strainers, and so pot it up.

To make a conserve of flowers

To make a conserve of Flowers, as Roses, Violets, Gilliflowers, and such like; you shall take the flowers from the stalks, and with a pair of sheers cut away the white ends at the roots thereof, and then put them into a stone mortar, or wooden brake, and there crush, or beat them, till they become to a soft substance: and then to every pound thereof, take a pound of fine refined Sugar, well searst, and beat it all together, till it come to one intire body, and then pot it up, and use it as occasion shall serve.

To make Wafers

To make the best Wafers, take the finest wheat-flowers you can get, and mix it with Cream, the yelks of Eggs, Rose-water, Sugar, and Cinamon, till it be a little thicker than Pancake-batter, and then warming your Wafter Irons on a charcoal-fire, anoint them first with sweet Butter, and than lay on your batter, and press it, and bake it white or brown at your pleasure.

To make Marmalade of Oranges

To make an excellent Marmalade of Oranges, take the Oranges, and with a Knife pare off as thin as is possible the uppermost rind of the Orange; yet in such sort, as by no means you alter the colour of the Orange: then steep them in fair water, changing the water twice a day, till you find no bitterness of taste therein; then take them forth, and first boyl them in fair running water, and when they are soft, remove them in to Rose-water, and boyl them therein till they break: then to every pound of the pulp, put a pound of refined Sugar, and so having masht, and stirring them all well together, strain it through very fair strainers into boxes, and so use it as you shall see occasion.

Additions to Banqueting-stuff
To make fine Cakes

Take a pottle of fine flower, and a pound of Sugar, a little Mace, and good store of water to mingle the flowers into a stiff paste, and a good season of Salt, and so knead it, and roul out the Cakes thin, and bake them on papers.

Fine bread

Take a quarter of a pound of fine Sugar well beaten, and as much flowre finely bolted, with a quantity of Anniseeds a little bruised, and mingle all together; then take two Eggs, and beat them very well, whites and all; then put in the mingled stuff aforesaid, and beat all together a good while, then put it into a mould, whiping the bottom ever first with Butter, to make it come out easily, and in the baking, turn it once or twice as you shall have occasion, and so serve it whole or in slices at your pleasure.

To preserve Quinces for Kitchin service

Take sweet Apples, and stamp them as you do for Cider, then press them through a bag as you do Verjuyce, then put it into a firkin wherein you will keep your quinces, and then gather your quinces, and wipe them clean, and neither core them nor pare them, but only take the blacks from the tops, and so put them into the firkin of Cider, and therein you may keep them all the year very fair, and take them not out of the liquor, but as you are ready to use them, whether it be for pyes, or any other purpose, and then pare them, and core them as you think good.

To make Ipocras

Take a gallon of Claret or White Wine, and put therein four ounces of Ginger, and ounce and a half of Nutmegs, of Cloves one quarter, of Sugar four pound; let all this stand together in a pot at least twelve hours, then take it, and put it into a clean bag made for the purpose, so that the Wine may come with good leisure from the spices.

To preserve Quinces

Take quinces and wipe them very clean, and then core them, and as you core them, put the cores strait into fair water; and let the cores and the water boyl, when the water boyleth, put in the quinces unpared, and let them boyl till they be tender, and then take them out, and pare them, and ever as you pare them, put them strait into Sugar finely beaten: then take the water they were sodden in, and strain it through a fine cloth, and take as much of the same water as you think will make syrup enough for the Quinces, and put in some of your Sugar and let it boyl a while, and then put in your Quinces, and let them boyl a while, and turn them, and cast a good deal of Sugar upon them; they must seeth apace, and ever as you turn them, cover them still with Sugar, till you have bestowed all your Sugar; and when you think that your Quinces are tender enough, take them forth, and if your syrup be not stiff enough, you may seeth it again after the quinces are forth. To every pound of Quinces you must take more than a pound of sugar, for the more sugar you take, the fairer your Quinces will be, and the better and longer they will be preserved.

Conserve of Quinces

Take two gallons of fair water, and set it on the fire, and when it is luke-warm, beat the whites of five or six eggs, and put them into the water, and stir it well, and let the water seeth, and when it riseth up all on a curd, then scum it off. Take Quinces and pare them, and quarter them, and cut out the core: Then take as many pounds of your Quinces as of you Sugar, and put them into your Liquor, and let it boyl till your liquor be as high coloured as French-wine; and when they be very tender, then ake a fair new Canvas cloth fair wash'd and strain your Quinces through it with some of your liquor; if they will not go through easily: then if you will make it very pleasant, take a little Musk, and lay it in Rose-water, and put it thereto, then take and seeth it until it be of such substance, that when it is cold it will cut with a knife, and then put it in to a fair box, and if you please lay leaf-gold thereon.

To keep Quinces all the year

Take all the parings of your Quinces that you make your conserve withall, and three or four other Quinces, and cut them in pieces and boyl the same parings and the other pieces in two or three gallons of water, and so let them boyl till all the strength be sodden out of the same Quinces and parings, and if any scum arise whilest it boyls, take it away; then let the said water run through a strainer into a fair Vessel, and set it on the fire again, and take your Quinces that you will kepe, and wipe them clean, and cut off the uttermost part of teh said Quinces, and pick out the kernels and cores as clean as you can, and put them into the said liquor, and so let them boyl till they be a little soft, and then take them from the fire, and let them stand till theybe cold then take a little Barrel, and put into the said Barrel the water that your Quinces be sodden in; then take up your Quinces with a Ladle, and put them into your Barrel, and stop the Barrel close that no air come into them, till you have fit occasion to use them; and be sure to take such Quinces as are neither bruised nor rotten.

Fine Ginger Cakes

Take of the best sugar, and when it is beaten, searse it very fine and of teh best Gingar, and Cinnamon; then take a little Gum-dragon, and lay it in Rose-water all night, then pour the water from it, and put the same with a little white of an egg well beaten into a brass mortar, the sugar, gingar, cinnamon, and all together, and beat them together till you may work it like paste; then take it and drive it forth into cakes, and print them, and lay them before the fire, or in a very warm stove to bake. Or otherwise, take Sugar and Gingar, (as is before said) cinnamon and gum-dragon excepted, instead whereof, take only whites of Eggs, and so do as was before shewn you.

To make Suckets

Take curds, the paring of Lemons, of Oranges, or Pome-citrons or indeed any half ripe green fruit, and boyl them till they be tender in sweet wort; then make a sirrup in this sort, take three pounds of Sugar, and the whites of four eggs, and a gallon of water, then swing and beat the water and eggs together, and then put in your Sugar, and set it on the fire, and let it have an easie fire, and so let it boyl six or seven walmes, and then strain it through a cloth, and set it on again till it fall from the spoon, and then put it into the rinds or fruits.

Course Ginger bread

Take a quart of Honey clarified, and seeth it till it be brown and if it be thick, put to it a dish of water: then take fine crums of white bread grated, and put to it, and stirre it well, and when it is almost cold, put to it the powder of Ginger, Cloves, Cinnamon, and a little Licoras and Anniseeds: then knead it, and put it into a mould and print it; some use to put to it also a little Pepper, but that is according unto taste and pleasure.

To candy any root, fruits, or flowers
Dissolve sugar, or sugar-candy in Rose-water, boyl it to an height, put in your roots, fruits or flowers, the syrup being cold, then rest a little; after take them out, and boyl the sirrup again, then put in more roots, &c. then boyl the syrup a third time to an hardness, putting in more Sugar, but not Rose-water put in the roots &c the syrup being cold, and let them stand till they candy.

Ordering of Banquets

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